WorldWideScience

Sample records for effective judicial protection

  1. The Court of Justice and Effective Judicial Protection: What Has the Charter Changed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prechal, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the coming into force of the Charter as primary law of the EU, Article 47 CFR is ‘the reference standard’ when the Court deals with issues of ffective judicial protection. However, the general principle of effective judicial protection existed already for some 25 years, developed in the case

  2. The oral trial and the effective judicial protection: Mismatches of the model established in the Law of Civil Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Vélez Toro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conciliation, mediation and arbitration are traditional means for the resolution of legal conflicts, which are shaped and promoted as alternatives to the judicial process. Nevertheless, the judicial process, which is the only mean for the resolution of legal conflicts expressly recognized in the Spanish Constitution to exercise the right to an effective judicial protection, is not only the last option to solve the conflict but also the ultimate guarantee of defense against possible breaches occurred within the alternative process chosen. The Spanish juicio verbal (mainly oral and simplified civil procedure in court is the most frequently used procedure in the Spanish Civil and Commercial areas. This is why we intend to approach it from the perspective of the Spanish Constitutional Jurisprudence in order to establish the cases where there is or there has been an impossibility or rejection to exercise the right to an effective judicial protection.

  3. JUDICIAL PROTECTION EFFECTIVENESS AND THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO PROOF IN THE NEW BRAZILIAN CIVIL PROCEDURE RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Reichelt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to reflect about the effectiveness of the fundamental right of proof considering the Civil Procedure Rules, taking as a measure the ideas of truth discovery through the process and of the rational persuasion. In this sense, it is examined the testimonial evidence with the introduction of the possibility of cross-examination and also the expert witness in the context of the procedural negotiation.

  4. Judicial protection of pension rights: problems of theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Sedelnikova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article is devoted to analysis of pension disputes resolution in courts.The purpose of the article is to reveal trends of pension disputes resolution and identify the ways of increasing the efficiency of judicial protection of citizens’ pension rights.The methodology. Both general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, description and special scientific methods (formal-legal methods method of legal interpretation were used.Results, scope of application. Pension legislation still does not contain a legal definition of the term “pension dispute” despite currently the prevalence of this category of cases; the legal science still has not developed a uniform approach to definition of the essence of the pension dispute.Special attention is paid to the issues of definition of the facts in proof, that is complicated because of instability of the pension legislation and a large amount of normative array. Special rules relating to the admissibility of evidence are divided from legally significant circumstances. The attention is focused on the most problematic points that arise in the process of proving: the procedure for confirmation of experience, employment in certain types of work quotas.Recommendations aimed at improving the effectiveness of judicial protection of the pension rights of citizens are formulated on the basis on the analysis of the identified problems that arise during consideration of pension disputes by law enforcement authorities. Recommendations include the need to improve the quality of normative legal acts, systematization of the pension legislation, increasing demands for training of judges, the creation of conditions conducive to the judges’ specialization. The necessity of increase activities of the Supreme Court in the process of issuing clarifications on issues arising in the application of the pension legislation is also considered.Conclusions. The existence of a number of features of the substantive

  5. Evaluation of prescriptions authorized between 2010 and 2011 through judicial protection in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Portilla-Pinzón

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Therapeutic rationality issues are evident in prescription drugs ordered by judicial protection, which may involve greater risks to the health of patients. A more rigorous scientific advice is recommended in order to avoid possible interactions and therapeutic duplications.

  6. Judicial Protection of Private Property Rights in Ethiopia: Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hailu_Elias_&_Muradu

    “Property Rights Protection and Private Sector Development in Ethiopia” which was .... Even if land has come under public ownership in Ethiopia since 1975, these ... may be capital contributions and in effect, the ownership of the use right over ..... Ethiopian Intellectual Property Office (EIPO) did not hesitate to register this.

  7. The Principle of Judicial Cooperation New Code of Civil Procedure: An Analysis Protection from the Worker Front of the Institute of Judicial Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernandes Bega

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is subject to study the Principle of Judicial Cooperation. The problem of research focuses on the conflict between the institution of bankruptcy and labor laws. The initial hypothesis is that the principle of protection to workers and the Judicial Recovery Institute reveal clash, contradiction and non-cooperation. In this way, the work seeks to demonstrate that the procedural rule of judicial cooperation brought about by the new CPC is an instrument of dialogue between material contradictions. The objective is to analyze the new civil procedure code and the difficulty to cooperate the irreconcilable. The method used was deductive.

  8. Constitutional and Judicial Language Protection in Multilingual States: A Brief Overview of South Africa and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Bambust (Isabelle); A. Kruger (Albert); T. Kruger (Thalia)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The purpose of this contribution is to provide a very modest comparison of judicial language protection in South Africa and in Belgium. First of all, the authors sketch briefly the historical context and the constitutional status of languages in both countries. It is

  9. Judicialization of Health: A Perspective of Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mota Estabel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is scoped to synthesize the legalization of the right to health, and offer a perspective for shaping effectiveness. Using the inductive method and based on research literature and case law, at first a brief history of the right to health will be presented as well as some of the principles relating to fundamental precept. Per second, from a normative and jurisprudential approach, the right will be presented to health in the judiciary perspective, focused on the instruments already used (court decisions, the number of demands that concern the health issue, and public policies adopted by the judiciary both in its own sphere as administratively. Finally, emphasis shall be the various issues in the legal health procedure regarding the joint responsibility of federal entities and guidelines for proper conformation of the right to health, the effect of promoting citizenship and social justice.

  10. Fetal protection and potential liability: judicial application of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act and the disparate impact theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelis, L S

    1985-01-01

    "Fetal vulnerability programs," which are employer attempts to protect employees' unborn fetuses from harm caused by the mothers' exposure to hazardous material in the workplace, have been challenged as a form of employment discrimination. This Note analyzes the recent judicial application of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) and the disparate impact theory to fetal vulnerability cases. The Note also examines the business necessity defense's accommodation of legitimate employer interests. The Note concludes that a more potent business necessity defense, a stricter standard for evaluating alternative protective measures, and a judicial interpretation of the PDA which is more consistent with congressional intent are necessary for fair and reasonable resolution of these cases.

  11. Medical negligence liability under the consumer protection act: A review of judicial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joga Rao, S V

    2009-07-01

    It is important to know what constitutes medical negligence. A doctor owes certain duties to the patient who consults him for illness. A deficiency in this duty results in negligence. A basic knowledge of how medical negligence is adjudicated in the various judicial courts of India will help a doctor to practice his profession without undue worry about facing litigation for alleged medical negligence.

  12. Selected Regional Judicial Officer Cases, 2005 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains selected cases involving EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) from 2005 to present. EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) perform...

  13. Medical negligence liability under the consumer protection act: A review of judicial perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Joga Rao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to know what constitutes medical negligence. A doctor owes certain duties to the patient who consults him for illness. A deficiency in this duty results in negligence. A basic knowledge of how medical negligence is adjudicated in the various judicial courts of India will help a doctor to practice his profession without undue worry about facing litigation for alleged medical negligence.

  14. Shifts in Competences between Member States and the EU in the New Supervisory System for Credit Institutions and their Consequences for Judicial Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Wissink

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM is a striking example of the tendency within the EU to transfer decisive, regulatory and enforcement powers to the EU level. The SSM involves a complex system of mixed administration in order to ensure effective banking supervision within the Eurozone. Whereas such mixed administration might be necessary in order to achieve effective cross-border supervision, it also creates legal uncertainties due to the different legal orders involved. In this paper, the effect of the mixed administration on formal and substantive judicial protection is discussed.The paper analyses the right of access to the courts in the case of common procedures and certain ECB decisions. Furthermore, it is examined whether the ECB and national competent authorities have adequate powers to carry out supervision within the SSM. Lastly, the paper pursues the issues with regard to substantive judicial protection in greater depth, in particular the right of respect for the home and the rights of defence.

  15. The Effectiveness of Discipline/Judicial Processes on Catholic Campuses as Measured by the Rate of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Evans, Roberta D.

    2007-01-01

    University and college campuses in the United States utilize disciplinary/judicial processes to help address student behavioral problems. These include administrative, majority-peer, and minority-peer processes. This descriptive research was undertaken to find which of these three discipline/judicial processes were the most effective. The…

  16. PRINCIPIOS DE COMPETENCIA JUDICIAL INTERNACIONAL Y DE PROTECCIÓN DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE Principles of international jurisdiction and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pía Moscoso Restovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Como se resuelve el problema de la objetivación del vínculo de conexión cuando intervienen daños civiles y daños ambientales? Es decir, ¿podemos sostener que el fuero "lugar del hecho dañoso" puede determinarse con independencia de los sujetos que intervienen? ¿Es relevante el principio favor laesi en los casos de daño ambiental? Proponemos abordar estos problemas desde la relación que existe entre los principios de Competencia Judicial Civil Internacional y los principios de protección del medioambiente. Así, advertiremos que la mayor o menor extensión del fuero "lugar del hecho dañoso", adquiere connotaciones especiales si interpretamos armónicamente los principios de competencia judicial internacional y los principios de protección internacional del medio ambiente. En efecto, la política de protección ambiental, constituye un "valor superior del ordenamiento", y por tanto incide directamente en el juicio razonabilidad que el juez debe realizar sobre el vínculo de conexión. Si bien abordamos el problema desde la experiencia europea, las conclusiones tendrán validez universal.How to solve the problem of objectivity in the link between the court and the action, when engaging civil damages and environmental damages? In other words ¿ can we argue that the place of the harmful event can be determined independently of the persons involved? ¿Is favor Iaesi principle relevant in cases of environmental damage? We propose analyze those problems through the connections between International Civil Jurisdiction principles and environmental protection principles. In fact, environmental protection policy constitutes a "superior value". Therefore it affects directly the judge opinion about the connection link. Our approach is European, but the findings have universal validity.

  17. The gendered effects of family migration law: contextual interpretation as a possible judicial remedy

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    Fulvia Staiano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At all normative levels, family migration law can disproportionally and negatively affect immigrant women’s rights in this field, producing gendered effects. In some cases, such effects are related to the normative and judicial imposition of unviable family-related models (e.g., the ʻgood mother ̕ the one-breadwinner family, or a rigid distinction between productive and reproductive work. In other cases, they are due to family migration law’s overlooking of the specific needs and difficulties of immigrant women, within their families and in the broader context of their host countries’ social and normative framework.To effectively expose and correct this gender bias, in this article I propose an alternative view of immigrant women’s right to family life, as a cluster of rights and entitlements rather than as a mono-dimensional right. As a theoretical approach, this construction is better equipped to capture the complex experiences of immigrant women in the European legal space, and to shed light on the gendered effects generated not by individual norms but by the interaction of norms that are traditionally assigned to separated legal domains (e.g., immigration law and criminal law. As a judicial strategy, this understanding is capable of prompting a consideration by domestic and supranational courts of immigrant women not as isolated individuals, but as ‘individuals in context’. I shall define this type of approach as ‘contextual interpretation’, understood as the consideration of immigrant women in the broader contexts of their families, their host societies and the normative frameworks applicable to them. Performed in a gendersensitive manner, a contextual judicial interpretation has the potential to neutralize the gendered effects of certain family migration norms. To illustrate these points, I will discuss selected judicial examples offered by the European Court on Human Rights, as well as from domestic jurisdictions of

  18. 40 CFR 179.125 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 179.125 Section 179... EVIDENTIARY PUBLIC HEARING Judicial Review § 179.125 Judicial review. (a) The Administrator's final decision... judicial review within the period ending on the 60th day after the date of the publication of the order...

  19. 40 CFR 178.65 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 178.65 Section 178.65... REQUESTS FOR HEARINGS Judicial Review § 178.65 Judicial review. An order issued under § 178.37 is final... of the order in the Federal Register. The failure to file a petition for judicial review within the...

  20. Judicial facts on licensing and supervisory procedures concerning radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenhaum, O.

    1976-01-01

    Some statistical studies on the present licensing and supervision procedures are discussed, viz. on 1) owner of a licence accord. to sect. 3 and 4 of the 1st Radiation Protection Ordinance; 2) special licences according to section 1 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance for the release of radioactive materials in air and water (required in a very few cases only); 3) violations of the regulations were not of a severe nature (mostly from industry). The author condludes that the present regulations proved to be satisfactory. Minor corrections relating to licence-free handling, restriction of the requirements for a licence as well as to prohibition of illegal use of the radiation warning sign are desired. (HP) [de

  1. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rrustem Qehaja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.

  2. 40 CFR 180.30 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 180.30 Section 180.30... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations § 180.30 Judicial review. (a) Under FFDCA section 408(h), judicial review is available in the United States Courts of Appeal as to the...

  3. 20 CFR 405.420 - Effect of Decision Review Board action on the right to seek judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 405.420 Effect of Decision Review Board action on the right to seek judicial review. (a)(1) Subject to... must wait for the Board to take action. The appeal rights, if any, that will be available at that time... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of Decision Review Board action on the...

  4. Risk assessment by the executive power versus efficiency of control by the courts - effects on administrative procedures and judicial proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.

    1991-01-01

    In conclusion it is stated that any cutbacks in the current system of judicial control have to be earned by appropriate improvements in the administrative procedure. One has to keep in mind the overall situation, which means to examine and assess any reduction of judicial control, the relevance of procedural defects, and the requirements to be met by administrative procedures, in their complete context. Since the acknowledgement of administrative regulations as instruments for putting into practice the legislative intent, and of the executive's scope for examination and assessment, has effects not only in regard to a reduction of judicial control, but also assigns to the administrative procedure an irreplaceable function that cannot be corrected by legal proceedings, there is reason enough to exercise restraint in this matter. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Judicial Review and Political Partisanship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garoupaa, Nuno; Grembi, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Due to the collapse of the party system during the mid-nineties, Italy represents an interesting case study to test the effects of a transition from a consensual to a majoritarian model of democracy on judicial behavior at the level of the Constitutional Court. Using a dataset of 972 cases...... of substantive judicial review (ricorsi in via principale) from 1985 to 2005, and proposing new measures of political alignment within constitutional review, we analyze the effect of a change in the political party system on judicial behavior. Our results show that political alignment is a stronger predictor...... of judicial decision making under majoritarian than consensual model of democracy....

  6. On Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comtois, Suzanne; de Graaf, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    'Principles of judicial and quasi-judicial independence are fundamental to all democracies and yet, the notion of independence is still elusive. What is judicial and quasi-judicial independence and why is it important? From whom and what are the judiciary and other adjudicators to be independent? Is

  7. 40 CFR 173.9 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 173.9 Section 173.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES GOVERNING... Judicial review. The State may appeal an order rescinding, in whole or in part, its primary enforcement...

  8. Warranties of Albanian criminal law for children protection from “indecency offences” and the Albanian judicial practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Menkshi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on criminal acts of child sexual abuse (sexual offenses. In particular, will be analyzed the category of obscenity as a crime (lat. luksuri. This work will be analyzed under the perspective of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, to reflect the alignment of Albanian criminal law with the Convention, as a minimum guarantee to be provided by the States. Special attention will be paid to the analysis of the criminal legislation, particularly to the offense luksuri, to see its adaptation in the Albanian transition period. There will be special attention to Albanian judicial practice in relation to sexual harassment/obscenity. These will be used to identify the needs of the Albanian legislation, because legislation must not only be written, but must above all be applied.

  9. Judicial review of administrative silence

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    Radošević Ratko S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative silence is a situation in which the competent authority, within the statutory deadline, has not issued an administrative act at the request of the party. In the case of administrative silence, given the fact that the citizens are unable to protect their rights and legal interests without an administrative act, they are provided with legal protection. In this case, the same legal relationship is created, directly on the basis of the statute, as in the situation in which the party's request is rejected. This means that the party may, under the conditions prescribed by the statute, initiate the procedure of judicial review of administrative silence. In the paper, the author explains the conditions under which the judicial review of administrative silence can be initiated and the role of the court in this judicial procedure.

  10. THE POTENTIAL AND LIMITATIONS OF TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSIONS IN GENERATING JUDICIAL AND NON-JUDICIAL EFFECTS. THE PRESIDENTIAL COMMISSION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE COMMUNIST DICTATORSHIP IN ROMANIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Elena RADU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The transition periods that succeed totalitarian regimes are characterized by the efforts of new governments to recognize the violations of human rights that were committed in the past, to implement legitimate mechanisms to clarify the causes but also the consequences of the violation of human rights by the previous regimes, both at the individual and community level. The truth commissions represent one of these mechanisms, concentrating on the testimonies of the victims and on the recognition of their suffering. Depending on the case, the recommendations of the truth commissions have the role of generating judicial and non-judicial effects, of contributing and completing the bringing into effect of the penal justice, of facilitating the processes of restoration, of preventing the re-iteration of new abuses. The present paper proposes to analyse the limitations and the transformative potential of the recommendations included in the report done by the Presidential Commission for the analysis of the communist dictatorship in Romania. We will analyse whether the information contained in this report has been useful in the judicial procedures (prosecutorial indictment and judges’ motivation which resulted in the conviction of Ioan Ficior and Alexandru Vișinescu, but also on other two civil sentences. The research approach imposes the use of a content analysis of the official and public documents, a comparative analysis and a historic analysis.

  11. Public Politics of Health and Aspects of its Judicialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fernando dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article was elaborated in order to analyze issues relating to the judicialization of cases involving health, understanding health as a public policy aimed at to guarantee the fundamental right to it linked, that is, the concept of health that the authos intended to work is not far from that contained in the combined reading of Articles 6 and 196 of the Constitution, consecrators to be the health, universal right and duty of the state, guaranteed through social and economic policies aimed at to reduce the risk of disease and other becomes, ensuring also the universal and equal access to actions and services for its promotion, protection and recovery. With this approach it is intended to analyze the feasibility and consequences of judicial control of social and economic policies of promotion, protection and recovery, access, anyway, the effective flow to the fundamental right. Relating to the methodological aspects employed in the analysis of the issue concerning to the health, it was searched in the interpretation of constitutional provisions that secure the subjective right the starting point of the analysis as well as the unwavering appreciation of inseparability of judicial control in the context of public policy, assessing possible limits of the judicial branch, and then to realize a brief analysis of previous trial in the Supreme Court and extract from this jurisprudencial context the minimum goals for aspects of health judicialization.

  12. Judicial Decision-Making and Juvenile Offenders: Effects of Medical Evidence and Victim Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falligant, John Michael; Fix, Rebecca L; Alexander, Apryl A

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that jurors place greater weight on DNA or other types of forensic evidence than non-forensic evidence (Cole & Dioso-Villa, 2009). For cases involving child sexual abuse, certain types of evidence, including forensic medical evidence, may be viewed as more important or indicative of abuse than other types of evidence, such as victim statements or disclosure. The present study evaluated perceptions of juvenile offenders and victim credibility across four vignettes that systematically manipulated variables related to victim age and physical indicators of abuse. A sample of 636 participants read vignettes and answered questions pertaining to the vignette. Participants also provided demographic information and responded to a series of items assessing participants' judicial decision-making strategies and outcomes. Broadly, the presence of medical evidence significantly influenced participants' decision-making across a variety of variables, including verdict outcome, verdict confidence, confidence that the victim was truthful, and determinations involving sex offender registration and notification requirements. The influence of medical evidence and victim age on perceptions and sentencing of juvenile sex offenders across these and additional outcome variables will be discussed.

  13. A judicial review of political questions under Islamic law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai O. Sambo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary Arab world has witnessed uprisings and turmoil as a result of alleged power-overreaching by political elites. Consequently, people call for democracy with emphasis on constitutionalism, accountability and protection of human rights. Yet, the voice of the judiciary seems not to be heard in championing these values in many Muslim nations despite the clear roles Islam places on the judiciary regarding political matters. This paper therefore analyses the power of judicial review on political questions from the perspective of Islamic jurisprudence. It finds that the power of judicial review and its main institution existed in early Islamic periods after the demise of the Prophet (SAW. The paper concludes that failure to observe judicial review in many contemporary Muslim countries results in the absence of effective checks on the powers of the rulers by the judiciary.

  14. Constitutionalization of judicial independence: In comparative law and in Serbian legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Irena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out that the guarantees of judicial independence have to be regulated by the Constitution as they create de iure framework for the independence of the judiciary in the rule of law system. The author is aware that the constitutional guarantees are per se insufficient and that their primary features may yield different effects depending on the political environment and cultural matrix in which they take effect. The judicial system operates in the circumstances of the separation of powers, where the independent judiciary is corroborated a guarantee of the rule of law. Hence, it is important to concurrently elaborate on the institutional and personal guarantees of judicial independence, focusing on the responsibility of the political authorities to create a relevant social environment for the operation of the independent judiciary as well as on the responsibility of the judiciary to independently exercise their judicial function. The author's intention in this paper is to provides a comparative analysis on the guarantees of independent judiciary and the minimum rules that constitute the cohesive core which serves as the common meeting grounds not only for the EU member states but also for all countries of the European-Continental legal system in their efforts to ensure the judicial independence as the primary condition for exercising the rule of law. The corpus of constitutional guarantees on independent judiciary includes the following elements: the judicial appointments and termination of a judicial office; the permanence of the judicial office and impartiality in decision-making processes; the professional responsibility and judicial immunity; as well as the recently established judicial councils, which have been given the constitutional authority to protect the independence of the judiciary.

  15. The constitutional court review of judicial decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Dragan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In principle, the constitutional precepts envisage that judicial decisions are not subject to extrajudicial control. However, in the course of deciding on constitutional complaints, the Constitutional Court reviews the compliance of individual legal acts and actions of state authorities with the Constitution, including court decisions on cases involving the constitutionally guaranteed rights. Hence, in order to eliminate tension or even contradiction between the constitutional precepts, the constitutional review of judicial decisions should be considered as a special form of judicial control, regardless of the fact that the Constitutional Court is not part of the judicial structure in the strict organizational sense. Thus, unlike the cases where the Court is involved in the normative control of the applicable law, in the process of reviewing judicial decision of lower courts the constitutional judiciary acts in the capacity of a specific judicial authority. According to another possible interpretation of the aforementioned constitutional norms, the direct constitutional protection of the constitutionally guaranteed rights may only be pursued in the process of reviewing individual legal acts and actions of state authorities, but not by pursuing a judicial review of court decisions which the Constitutional Court has no jurisdiction to decide upon. Thus, the dogma of judicial independence would prevail over the dogma of direct protection of fundamental rights. The third interpretation of this relationship maintains that that judicial decisions may be subject to control but, in this specific case, the Constitutional Court may only issue an opinion (a statement rather than a binding decision which would cancel the lower court judgment. Then, it is up to the judicial authorities of the lower instance to adjust their judicial decision, which in the opinion of the Constitutional Court constitutes a violation of the constitutionally guaranteed rights

  16. Regional Courts as Judicial Brakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalf Katrin Nyman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how regional integration courts can act as judicial brakes, at a time when “constitutional coups” – leaders staying in power past constitutional time limits or other forms of actions against the spirit if not always the letter of the constitution – are alarmingly common. The article discusses how regional courts can be used to modify or protect national rule of law and the constitutional order from the outside (i.e. from the regional integration aspect and the extent to which this can be valid particularly to promote a uniform interpretation and application of human rights. Although this trend is visible in Europe, it is more striking, because less expected, on other continents, in particular Africa and the Americas, where the developments take place in less than perfect democratic environments. The article contains evidence from cases dealt with in the various regional courts, supporting that a system of political and judicial oversight, especially in regions with weak or fragile democratic systems, can be a useful addition to national judicial or other mechanisms of protection of rule of law and control of the executive. Action by regional courts helps defeat perceptions of majoritarian politics, which in many countries allow for the winner to take all. Under a system of regional oversight, states become aware of the limits they themselves have set and citizens become aware of their possibilities to challenge political power.

  17. From Judicial Activism to Judicial Protagonism: For a Transforming Actuation in the Environmental Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasna Chaves Viana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The judge’s action setting became modern ágora, preferential space of the relevant public deliberations. Today there is an invasion of the public choices’ usual spaces by the legalization of politics, result of Brazil's institutional design. The concepts of judicial activism and judicial protagonism oppose this scenario. At present it must be judicial action protagonist, transforming reality, understood that which is back to lend maximum effect to the Constitutional text. Especially relevant when it comes to environmental issues, given the enormous complexity of today's society. Case studies aim to show the evolution of the Brazilian Judicial understanding in this regard.

  18. 12 CFR 509.41 - Stays pending judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stays pending judicial review. 509.41 Section... pending judicial review. The commencement of proceedings for judicial review of a final decision and order... finds just, stay the effectiveness of all or any part of its order pending a final decision on a...

  19. Salience Theory of Judicial Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Bordalo; Nicola Gennaioli; Andrei Shleifer

    2015-01-01

    We present a model of judicial decision making in which the judge overweights the salient facts of the case. The context of the judicial decision, which is comparative by nature, shapes which aspects of the case stand out and draw the judge’s attention. By focusing judicial attention on such salient aspects of the case, legally irrelevant information can affect judicial decisions. Our model accounts for a range of recent experimental evidence that bears on the psychology of judicial decisions...

  20. Procedural primacy and effective judicial protection: A trilogue / Dominik Düsterhaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Düsterhaus, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Menetluse ülimuslikkusest ja efektiivsest kohtulikust kaitsest. Määrusest nr. 44/2001, kohtu poolt määratud esindajast, siseriikliku õiguse ühilduvusest hartaga. Kohtulahendi nr: C-112/13 analüüs

  1. “Deference” in Judicial Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    The Constitutional Court subscribes to a standard of "deference" in judicial review.1. The principle of deference concerns the function of the judge in mediating between the law and legislative and executive politics. The principle recognises the need to protect the institutional character of each of the three arms of ...

  2. Terrorist Threats and Judicial Deference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the extent to which judicial restraint in cases concerning national security is justified. It is argued that the extent of restraint must depend on the normative issue/aspect which is subject to judicial review.......The article analyses the extent to which judicial restraint in cases concerning national security is justified. It is argued that the extent of restraint must depend on the normative issue/aspect which is subject to judicial review....

  3. The Inconstitucional Res Judicata: The Effects Of Judicial Review In The New Cpc And The Legal Certainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abdalla Pires Leal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the art. 525, §§ 12 and 15 of the 2015 Code of Civil Procedure, which introduced new hypothesis of the suitability of rescission action founded on unconstitutionality declarated by the Supreme Court that has addressed the legislative foundation that formed the basis for the decision who seeks to terminate, opening new deadline for the filing of this exceptional measure from the statement of the Supreme Court. The analysis takes place in collating this standard with the principles of legal certainty, through the discussion of theory of judicial review to, at the end, assess its constitutionality.

  4. 40 CFR 123.30 - Judicial review of approval or denial of permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permitting process. A State will meet this standard if State law allows an opportunity for judicial review... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review of approval or denial... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.30 Judicial review of...

  5. La transmission des savoirs professionnels à la Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse On the transmission of professional know-how at the Judicial Protection of Youth. Temporalities in conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Malochet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available L’analyse de la prise de fonction des directeurs de service de la Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse permet de repérer deux instances majeures de transmission, auxquelles correspondent des ordres de légitimité concurrentiels : le groupe professionnel au sens large (légitimité professionnelle et l’institution (légitimité politique. Là où ces modes de transmission étaient encore entremêlés il y a peu, ils coexistent désormais sans se reconnaître. L’enjeu apparaît bien, pour les professionnels de la PJJ – et singulièrement pour les directeurs –, de négocier une posture adéquate aux contraintes de la situation. Cela ne va bien sûr pas sans difficultés. Pour l’essentiel, celles-ci résident dans la pluralité des temporalités auxquelles doivent faire face les directeurs. Vis-à-vis de leurs équipes et de leurs pairs, la situation est celle d’un processus de socialisation professionnelle classique. En revanche, la crise institutionnelle que traverse la PJJ confronte les directeurs à une temporalité politique qui s’impose à eux sans qu’ils aient la moindre prise sur elle (montée des discours sécuritaires et des mesures répressives. Enfin, le renouvellement générationnel au sein des services de la Pjj pèse sur les modalités de transmission des savoirs professionnels. La culture professionnelle autrefois homogène se fissure, le désarroi des nouvelles recrues s’accroît et le référent éducatif perd de sa dimension mobilisatrice. Ces temporalités (professionnelle, institutionnelle, générationnelle ne sont certes pas nouvelles. Ce qui pose question, c’est plutôt leur absence de recouvrementet les conséquences de cette situation sur la prise en charge des mineurs délinquants ou en danger.Analyzing the moment when Directors at the Judicial Protection of Youth (PJJ take up their post allows us to track down two major sources of transmission, to which competing orders of legitimacy correspond

  6. Judicial action and technical risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiren, S. van; Ballerstedt, E.; Grimm, D.

    1981-05-01

    In this study it is examined how the judiciary deals with those sections that are crucial for the use of nuclear energy. The authors get down to the pre-dominant problem of the law relating to technical safety. In the process they encounter the central dilemma of modern democracy, i.e. the strained relations which exist between judicial control and democratic responsibility. Since nuclear energy entered the market place, it has been the administrative courts which - in practice - have decided whether and to what extent nuclear energy may be used. On the one hand, this is a result of the fast growth of, and rapid change in, science and technology. On the other hand, it is a result of administrative law standards which have developed in the Federal Republic of Germany after World War II. The former requires the normative structure of the atomic law, the latter postulates how to deal with it. Legal protection against an act of public authority is guaranteed by the Basic Law and usually with some justification considered a splendid achievement of our state which is based on the rule of law. It has lead to developments in the atomic law and in many parts of the law relating to technical safety on which opinions are divided. In a dogmatic manner it has been legally examined to what extent an extensive review competence of the judiciary is a must, and whether there are any possibilities of judicial control of acts of public authorities without having to interfere with the original competence of administrations. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Data driven information system for supervision of judicial open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming LI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the four outstanding problems of informationized supervision for judicial publicity, the judicial public data is classified based on data driven to form the finally valuable data. Then, the functional structure, technical structure and business structure of the data processing system are put forward, including data collection module, data reduction module, data analysis module, data application module and data security module, etc. The development of the data processing system based on these structures can effectively reduce work intensity of judicial open iformation management, summarize the work state, find the problems, and promote the level of judicial publicity.

  8. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to override unwanted jurisprudence. In this debate, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has become famous for its central and occasionally controversial role in European integration. This article examines to what extent and under which conditions judicial decisions influence European Union (EU......) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  9. Judicial fiats and contemporary enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayyil Naveen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the problematic processes in a case that has had few parallels in Indian judicial history. The apex court in T. N. Godavarman took upon the responsibility of deciding how forest resources in the country should be accessed and who is (or is not to have such access. Purportedly done to protect the environment, through the ′clarification and fine-tuning′ of national forest-laws, the case has seriously affected the life, livelihood, and habitat of millions of marginal groups. Recent trends demonstrate the wider trend of constitutional courts assuming the roles of adjudication, administration and legislation, all rolled into one, whereby they become problematic sites for creating a hierarchy of conflicting public interests, which claim constitutional validity from different vantage points. Thus, constitutional values of ′protection of environment′ and ′justice - social, political and economic′ ′are pitted against each other′ where unelected courts take it upon themselves to define the legitimate precincts of the theoretical discourse of sustainable use / development; and importantly also implement it into ′everyday′ ′reality, in the way it feels fit′. The article seeks to make sense of this contemporary process of forest governance.

  10. The Judicial Process as a Form of Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsberry, James

    1980-01-01

    Maintaining that the judicial process is particularly effective as a form of program evaluation, this article details organizational procedures and lists the following advantages for use of the judicial process: issues are investigated in an open forum, the community can participate, and exciting opportunities for teaching and learning are…

  11. 12 CFR 308.41 - Stays pending judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stays pending judicial review. 308.41 Section... OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.41 Stays pending judicial... finds just, stay the effectiveness of all or any part of its order pending a final decision on a...

  12. 12 CFR 19.41 - Stays pending judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stays pending judicial review. 19.41 Section 19... PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 19.41 Stays pending judicial review. The commencement of... effectiveness of all or any part of an order pending a final decision on a petition for review of that order. ...

  13. Judicial Performance Review in Arizona: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca White Berch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicial performance evaluations are a relatively new tool for assessing judges and providing information to voters to help them determine whether to retain judges in contested or retention elections. Arizona implemented its judicial evaluation program about 20 years ago, and since that time, the state has continually strived to improve its process. The result is that today Arizona has one of the most progressive and comprehensive judicial performance evaluation programs in the United States. This article takes a critical look at the strengths and weaknesses of Arizona’s program, keeping in mind two key values that the system seeks to protect: judicial accountability and judicial independence. Las evaluaciones del rendimiento judicial son una herramienta relativamente nueva para evaluar a los jueces y ofrecer información a los votantes, que les ayude a decidir si quieren reelegir a los jueces en las elecciones. Arizona implementó su programa de evaluación judicial hace unos 20 años, y desde ese momento, el Estado se ha esforzado continuamente en mejorar el proceso. El resultado es que hoy en día, Arizona tiene uno de los programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial más progresistas e integrales de los Estados Unidos. Este artículo ofrece una mirada crítica a las fortalezas y debilidades del programa de Arizona, teniendo en cuenta dos valores clave que el sistema trata de proteger: la responsabilidad judicial y la independencia judicial. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2533868

  14. Judicial Functions in the Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Tănase

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The separation of judicial functions falls, indisputably, in the news gallery of the Romanian criminal trial current rules. The previous Criminal Procedure Code, namely that of 1968, as well as the older ones, hadn‟t enrolled in their content such a principle. However, the doctrine identified, under mentioned legal regulations, the existence of distinct procedural functions and their need to separate, in the idea of genuine criminal justice accomplishment. These procedural functions were: the indictment function (or charges, the defense function the trial function. In the new code, this principle proclaims the existence of four judicial functions that aim the efficiency and speed of the criminal trial, but also guarantee the presumption of innocence, equal opportunity of parties, protection of rights and fundamental freedoms. This research try to explain this principle and its connections with other institutions of the criminal trial.

  15. POLITIK HUKUM JUDICIAL REVIEW DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartono Kartono

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Indonesia judicial review system is not opens the possibility of regulations review under the act against the constitution, das sollen pracitically these conditions may still occur. From political of law the legal authority of constitutional court should be able to put the interests of citizens rights that are based on the principles of recognition, guarantees, protection and legal certainty of a fair and equal treatment before the law. Given that changes in the constitution can not be done easily, then the judicial review in UUD 1945 should not be formulated too limitedly that restricting the organic law to complete and explore the authority that is adaptable to any concrete problem. Keywords: politics of law, constitutional court, UUD 1945, limitedly.

  16. Arbitration and Judicialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Stone Sweet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The arbitral world is at a crucial point in its historical development, poised between two conflicting conceptions of its nature, purpose, and political legitimacy. Formally, the arbitrator is an agent of the contracting parties in dispute, a creature of a discrete contract gone wrong. Yet, increasingly, arbitrators are treated as agents of a larger global community, and arbitration houses concern themselves with the general and prospective impact of important awards. In this paper, I address these questions, first, from the standpoint of delegation theory. In Part I, I introduce the basic “Principal-Agent” framework [P-A] used by social scientists to explain why actors create new institutions, and then briefly discuss how P-A has been applied to the study of courts. Part II uses delegation theory to frame discussion of arbitration as a mode of governance for transnational business and investment. In Part III, I argue that the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID is presently in the throes of judicialization, indicators of which include the enhanced use of precedent-based argumentation and justification, the acceptance of third-party briefs, and a flirtation with proportionality balancing. Part IV focuses on the first wave of awards rendered by ICSID tribunals pursuant to Argentina’s response to the crushing economic crisis of 2000-02, wherein proportionality emerged, adapted from the jurisprudence of the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization.

  17. ESSAY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COLLECTIVE PROTECTION IN PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Picoli Gagno

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to examine certain aspects concerning collective judicial process by the light of some Portuguese cases, having as base the collective judicial protection understood as a fundamental right. With regard to the employed research method, the approach is the qualitative one, while the method is the deductive and the technique is the bibliographic e jurisprudential research. The theoretical framework is based on the doctrine and theory of some of the cited authors during the research. Among them are Robert Alexy, Mauro Cappelletti and Bryant Garth. In addition, this paper is divided into three sections: the first one is a brief study on access to justice clarified as a fundamental right of the citizen. In the second section a parallel is made with the first one, but the collective judicial protection is therefore seen as a fundamental right. In the third and last section we have the analysis of four cases of two superior courts of Portugal, being them the Supreme Court of Justice (STJ and the Supreme Administrative Court (STA, in order to understand the collective process in Portugal and to see which points that can offer a contribution for the brazilian collective procedural technic. As a result, it is found that collective judicial protection is inevitable and immanent for a substantial vision of the fundamental right of access to justice, understood like a orders of optimization, that may his realization in the biggest measure is possible

  18. Lunar electrostatic effects and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

    2013-01-01

    The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

  19. Shifts in Competences between Member States and EU in the New Supervisory System for Credit Institutions and their Consequences for Judicial Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, L.; Duijkersloot, Ton; Widdershoven, Rob

    2014-01-01

    well as powers concerning enforcement – investigations, measures and penalties – to the EU level. One striking example of such a transfer is the new supervisory system for credit institutions that has recently been put into effect, the so-called Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM).1 Under the new

  20. 42 CFR 423.1976 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 423.1976 Section 423.1976 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.1976 Judicial review. (a) Review of ALJ's decision. The enrollee may request judicial...

  1. 28 CFR 71.42 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 71.42 Section 71.42....42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an... assessments under this part and specifies the procedures for such review. ...

  2. 50 CFR 296.15 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 296.15 Section 296.15..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.15 Judicial review. Any claimant... determination, seek judicial review of the determination in the United States District Court for such judicial...

  3. 44 CFR 62.22 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of process for all judicial proceedings where a claimant is suing the Administrator of FEMA pursuant... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 62.22... ADJUSTMENT OF CLAIMS Claims Adjustment, Claims Appeals, and Judicial Review § 62.22 Judicial review. (a) Upon...

  4. Judicial Protection in the Field of Public Procurement: The Transposition into Dutch Law of Directive 2007/66/EC Amending the Remedies Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter-Jan Berends

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement procedures in the EU are coordinated by Directives 2004/17/EC and 2004/18/EC. The acquis communautaire provides minimum requirements for review procedures against public procurement decisions in order to ensure access to effective remedies for economic operators. These minimum requirements are established in Directives 89/665/ EEC and 92/13/EEC and recently amended by Directive 2007/66/EC. The Helby report identified several substantive concerns over the Dutch proposal on the implementation the of the Remedies Directive; Wet implementatie rechtsbeschermingsrichtlijnen. Although the transposition target date has not been met, the Dutch legislature has succeeded to transpose Directive 2007/66/EC into Dutch law while addressing the concerns of the Helby report.

  5. Juizados Especiais e Ativismo Judicial à Luz de Luis Alberto Warat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenildo Bodnar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses, in a punctual way, some reflections on the judicial activism in the Special Courts camp. It seeks to evaluate the existence of a place for the conciliator in the stir that permeates the procedural and substantial models of legal proceedings. For this, as theoretical references, the postulates of Luis Alberto Warat are used, in order to overcome such dyad in favor of an effective judicial protection, without following the ways of the Free Movement of Law and Instrumentality of Process. For the development of this research, it has been used the inductive method, operated by the operational concepts and techniques of literature.Resumo: O presente artigo aborda de forma pontual algumas reflexões sobre o ativismo judicial na seara dos Juizados Especiais. Procura-se avaliar a existência de um lugar para o conciliador na celeuma que permeia os modelos procedimentalistas e substancialistas de processo jurisdicional. Para tanto, como referencial teórico utiliza-se os postulados de Luis Alberto Warat no intuito de superar a referida díade em favor de uma tutela judicial efetiva, sem que se trilhe os caminhos do Movimento do Direito Livre e da Instrumentalidade do Processo. Utilizou-se, para o desenvolvimento desta pesquisa, o método indutivo, operacionalizado pelas técnicas de conceitos operacionais e da pesquisa bibliográfica.

  6. 28 CFR 50.9 - Policy with regard to open judicial proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government attorney has a compelling duty to protect the societal interest in open proceedings. (c) A... closure of part of a judicial proceeding where necessary to protect national security information or...

  7. Legal process, litigation, and judicial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, H Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethically salient issues in neurologic care may have important legal overtones. This chapter considers some of these, emphasizing how law may influence the outcome of controversies over how best to promote autonomy, beneficence, and justice in the care of individuals with neurologic disorders. Constitutional, statutory, and judicial dimensions are addressed. With respect to autonomy, discussion emphasizes legal dimensions of the doctrine of informed consent and the obligations of medical professionals to protect the privacy and confidentiality of their patients. The discussion of beneficence focuses on issues relating to actual or potential conflicts of interest in the care of patients and on the conduct of research involving human subjects. The section on justice considers how law aims to define protectable rights and interests of individuals and to provide a fair and efficient process for resolving disputes. Applications of legal principles and doctrines are illustrated primarily through the examples afforded by judicial decisions. These cases demonstrate how law both promotes ethical decision-making and protects the rights and interests of those affected. The cases also highlight some of the ethical quandaries that evoke resort to litigation and the limits of law in advancing ethically appropriate outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Welfare Effects of Employment Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belot, M.V.K.; Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Employment protection is often related to costs incurred by the firms when they hire a worker.The stability of the employment relationship, enhanced by employment protection, is also favorable to the productivity of the job.We analyze employment protection focusing on this trade-off between

  9. Review of Judicial Reforms in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Dubgyur, Lungten

    2004-01-01

    This essay highlights the anomalies of judicial reforms in Bhutan. It presents a historical perspective of Bhutanese judicial reforms and addresses recent developments. It discusses court performance and experiences and approaches adopted in making the courts efficient. Much of the reform initiatives emanate from the throne. His Majesty the King has always advocated an efficient judicial system for the Kingdom. In obedience to the Royal Commands, the judicial system and judicial process in Bh...

  10. Explaining the judicial independence of international courts: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    What factors allow some international courts (ICs) to rule against the express preferences of powerful member states, whereas others routinely defer to governments? While judicial independence is not the only factor explaining the strength of a given international institution, it is a necessary...... condition. The paper first develops three sets of competing explanatory variables that potentially can explain variations in the judicial independence of ICs. The causal effects of these explanatory variables upon variance in judicial independence are investigated in a comparative analysis of the ACJ, ECJ...

  11. SMEs: Trust and judicial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Lorizio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian SMEs share capabilities and routines that permit them to reach high level of competition. But in a global system that is affected by structural deficiencies and negative performance of judicial system, it is very hard to maintain high performances. In this work, starting from the resilience capacity of a group of SMEs of surviving to the crisis, we try to analyse the quality of the expectations of a sample of resilient firms. Our study leads to the hypothesis that the economic crisis is in line with a crisis of confidence in the judicial system. This is all the more serious when considering that this distrust is rooted in those firms located in Southern Italy, where the inefficiency of the judicial system is particularly pronounced.

  12. Gonad protective effect of radiation protective apron in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Masatoshi; Kato, Hideyuki; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Ochi, Shigehiro; Morita, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    Depending on the facility, a radiation protective apron (protector) is used to protect the gonad from radiation exposure in chest radiography. To determine the necessity of using a protector during chest radiography, we measured the effect of the protector on the gonad in this study. First, using a human body phantom, we measured the absorbed dose of the female gonad with and without the protector, using a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), and confirmed its protective effect. Using the protector, the absorbed dose was reduced to 28±2% and 39±4% for field sizes of 14 x 17 inch and 14 x 14 inch, respectively. Next, we used Monte Carlo simulation and confirmed, not only the validity of the actual measurement values, but also the fact that the influence of radiation on the absorbed dose of the gonad was mostly from scattered radiation from inside the body for the 14 x 17 inch field size, and also from the X-ray tube for the 14 x 14 inch field size. Although a certain protective effect is achieved by using the protector, the radiation dose to the gonad is only a few μGy even without a protector. Thus, the risk of a genetic effect would be as small as 10 -8 . Given that acceptable risk is below 10 -6 , we conclude the use of a radiation protective apron is not necessary for diagnostic chest radiography. (author)

  13. [Gonad protective effect of radiation protective apron in chest radiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masatoshi; Kato, Hideyuki; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Ochi, Shigehiro; Morita, Fuminori

    2004-12-01

    Depending on the facility, a radiation protective apron (protector) is used to protect the gonad from radiation exposure in chest radiography. To determine the necessity of using a protector during chest radiography, we measured the effect of the protector on the gonad in this study. First, using a human body phantom, we measured the absorbed dose of the female gonad with and without the protector, using a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), and confirmed its protective effect. Using the protector, the absorbed dose was reduced to 28+/-2% and 39+/-4% for field sizes of 14 x 17 inch and 14 x 14 inch, respectively. Next, we used Monte Carlo simulation and confirmed, not only the validity of the actual measurement values, but also the fact that the influence of radiation on the absorbed dose of the gonad was mostly from scattered radiation from inside the body for the 14 x 17 inch field size, and also from the X-ray tube for the 14 x 14 inch field size. Although a certain protective effect is achieved by using the protector, the radiation dose to the gonad is only a few microGy even without a protector. Thus, the risk of a genetic effect would be as small as 10(-8). Given that acceptable risk is below 10(-6), we conclude the use of a radiation protective apron is not necessary for diagnostic chest radiography.

  14. Eye on the Judicial Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    A growing number of college students report that campus judicial systems are more concerned with political correctness than with fairness, or that the systems are unfair regardless of the discipline issue, and complain about the secrecy of proceedings. Shift from a paternalistic discipline policy to a legalistic one is seen. (MSE)

  15. Legislative and Judicial Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Louise Giovane

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer applications in judicial, legal, and legislative information activities being used to support litigation and court administration, assist in searching for legislation and laws, aid criminal justice information systems, and provide appropriate bibliographic and reference assistance. Management issues in automating systems are…

  16. Property Rights and Functioning of Judicial System in Kosovo as a Preconditions for Economic Development of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haxhi Gashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The issues related to property rights and their protections are deeply complex ones that affect the life of all citizens of Republic of Kosovo. Even though, improvements on the functioning of judicial system in Kosovo are evident in recent years, continuous challenges regarding judicial affectivity and efficiency as well as independence, continue to impact negatively upon the rule of law and access to justice in Kosovo. Therefore this has direct impact on implementation of some of basic international human rights standards in the field of property rights. Furthermore, these challenges in the field of property rights and rule of law have direct impact on the foreign investments and economic development of the country. This paper will try to address some of main challenges that Kosovo judicial system is facing, in particular related to protection of property rights as well as challenges on functioning of civil judicial system in Kosovo. These challenges have other effects on investments and welfare of society, creating barriers for a proper economic development of the country and therefore producing uncertainty among population and creating the idea of migration in order to seek new opportunities.

  17. Public Policy Environment: legalization and judicial activism for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira da Cunha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, it sought to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development. The methodology used was a literature review and secondary data collection. It was noticed a different activism in the face of environmental issues.

  18. 31 CFR 16.42 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 16.42 Section 16.42... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an appropriate United States District Court of a final decision of the...

  19. 14 CFR 1250.110 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 1250.110 Section 1250.110... PROGRAMS OF NASA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1250.110 Judicial review. Action taken pursuant to section 602 of the Act is subject to judicial review as provided in section 603...

  20. 47 CFR 1.1529 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 1.1529 Section 1.1529 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Implementation of the Equal... Judicial review. Judicial review of final agency decisions on awards may be sought as provided in 5 U.S.C...

  1. 42 CFR 414.920 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 414.920 Section 414.920 Public... Under Part B § 414.920 Judicial review. The following areas under the CAP are not subject to administrative or judicial review: (a) The establishment of payment amounts. (b) The awarding of vendor contracts...

  2. 14 CFR 1262.309 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 1262.309 Section 1262.309... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 1262.309 Judicial review. Judicial review of final... the determination to the court of the United States having jurisdiction to review the merits of the...

  3. 31 CFR 27.8 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 27.8 Section 27.8... OF DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NAMES, SYMBOLS, ETC. § 27.8 Judicial review. A final Notice of Assessment issued under this party may be subject to judicial review pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 701 et seq. ...

  4. 17 CFR 201.58 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judicial review. 201.58 Section 201.58 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.58 Judicial review. Judicial review of final...

  5. 43 CFR 17.10 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 17.10 Section 17.10... Origin § 17.10 Judicial review. Action taken pursuant to section 602 of the act is subject to judicial review as provided in section 603 of the act. [29 FR 16293, Dec. 4, 1964] ...

  6. 43 CFR 35.42 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 35.42 Section 35.42... CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, U.S. Code, authorizes judicial review by an appropriate U.S. District Court of a final decision of the Secretary imposing penalties or...

  7. 14 CFR 1264.141 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 1264.141 Section 1264.141... PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.141 Judicial review. Section 3805 of Title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an appropriate United States District Court of a final decision of the authority head...

  8. 31 CFR 28.630 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 28.630 Section 28.630 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS... Judicial review. Action taken pursuant to 20 U.S.C. 1682 is subject to judicial review as provided in 20 U...

  9. 43 CFR 27.12 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 27.12 Section 27.12... UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.12 Judicial review. Action taken pursuant to this part is subject to judicial review. ...

  10. 31 CFR 6.16 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 6.16 Section 6.16... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.16 Judicial review. Judicial review of final agency decisions on awards may be sought as provided in 5 U.S.C. 504(c)(2). ...

  11. 42 CFR 423.2136 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 423.2136 Section 423.2136 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2136 Judicial review. (a) General rule. To the extent authorized by sections 1876(c...

  12. 42 CFR 422.612 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 422.612 Section 422.612 Public... Judicial review. (a) Review of ALJ's decision. Any party, including the MA organization, may request judicial review (upon notifying the other parties) of an ALJ's decision if— (1) The Board denied the party...

  13. 45 CFR 1703.601 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 1703.601 Section 1703.601 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Judicial Review § 1703.601 Judicial review. Any person may...

  14. 49 CFR 1016.310 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 1016.310 Section 1016.310 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Judicial review. Judicial review of final Board decisions on awards may be sought as provided in 5 U.S.C...

  15. 31 CFR 92.18 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 92.18 Section 92.18... States Mint § 92.18 Judicial review. A Final Notice of Assessment issued under the procedures in this subpart may be subject to judicial review pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 701 et seq. ...

  16. 20 CFR 405.501 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judicial review. 405.501 Section 405.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Judicial Review § 405.501 Judicial review. You may file an action in a Federal district...

  17. 45 CFR 1203.11 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 1203.11 Section 1203.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... Judicial review. Action taken pursuant to section 602 of title VI is subject to judicial review as provided...

  18. 6 CFR 13.42 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 13.42 Section 13.42 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an appropriate...

  19. Judicial aspects in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.

    1977-01-01

    Decisions of administrative authorities concerning the permission to use fissile material contain a prognosis about the probability of damage which may be caused by using this material. The judicial criteria used in order to determine the probability of such a damage occurring can be improved by risk analysis. This will not, of course, reduce administrative decisions to simple 'yes-or-no decisions', but the calculation of probabilities will gain more exactness. (orig.) [de

  20. Kewenangan Judicial Review Mahkamah Konstitusi

    OpenAIRE

    Qamar, Nurul

    2012-01-01

    The Doctrine of Judicial Review as a legal order to perform the reviewand or re-testing of the laws and regulations within the meaning of the WetGrondwet (testing constitutionalism), the constitution or the constitution bythe Constitutional Court even though relatively new in the state system, buthas grown and developed rapidly both in countries of the Common Law Systemas well as adherents of the countries adherents Civil Law System, even in countries adherents Law Mixed System that claims hi...

  1. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT TIME MANAGEMENT IN JUDICIAL ORGANISATIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULPUŞ IOANA ALEXANDRA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of justice is closely linked to the time factor as a key resource to be severely, judiciously used, saved. Because of the importance of this issue - of the preserved values - providing justice, the righteousness and not least the citizen himself, protecting its rights and interests, values that exceed privat sector priorities-the profit, time problem in judiciary management is more valuable. Time is a component of efficiency, performance, timeliness of trials being enshrined as a guiding principle and one of the most important procedural safeguards of the litigant. The study emphasizes an important aspect in terms of time management, the perspective of judiciary leader, who has to abide the law and its limitations and always having to balance between requirements, resources and optimum workload. In this context he should identify methods and work techniques that resonates with the legal provisions to manage time more efficiently.

  2. International judicial cooperation by means of direct aid in the fight against international abduction of children in Brazil and Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuta, Alessandra; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Hendges, Carla Evelise Justino; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of international judicial cooperation by the direct assistance. It reflects on the impact of globalization on the state, the law and the legal systems. Contextualize the reduction of the effectiveness of the rights and the crisis of the process. Adresses the international judicial cooperation as a tool to promote integration of various judicial systems, necessary in a complex and interconnected world in judicial cooperation, there is the direct assistance as a m...

  3. Judicial autopsy of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses issues regarding the judicial autopsy of radiation accidents. In the litigation which follows a radiation accident, a claimant calls on the legal system to adjudicate a dispute. Scientific questions are thrust upon the court. The legal system (through attorneys for the parties) then invites scientists to assist the court in resolving such questions. The invitation, however, does not allow the scientist to bring along his full kit. Experimentation, such as repeating the accident with dosimeters to gather more accurate data, is generally not allowed. Also, the scientist must give up his practice of choosing which questions he will pursue

  4. NEOCONSTITUCIONALISMO: O ALICERCE DO ATIVISMO JUDICIAL BRASILEIRO / NEOCONSTITUTIONALISM: THE FOUNDATION OF THE BRAZILIAN JUDICIAL ACTIVISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Têmis Limberger

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study is based on the jurisdictional action of the Courts when adopting positions that go against the current legislation and even the Constitutional text, making use of premises of the neoconstitutional doctrine, which deals with the concrete application of the Federal Constitution, in order to demonstrate the use of these parameters as basis or foundation for judicial decisions of activist nature, and specifically to point out the effects of the judgments of this nature. The insecurity caused by the res judicata that adopt the practices worked in this doctrine, denying what is in the Law and in the Constitution, justify the relevance of the research, which faces these problems in the light of Contemporary Juridical Hermeneutics. The research method was the bibliographic survey and the study of judicial decisions, with emphasis on TSE and STF. Thus, in general, the objective is to make it clear that in these cases there is a misconception of the Judiciary in the form of interpreting and deciding, and it specifically points out that the decisions of the Electoral Courts reach out as an instrument of judicial activism, which is strengthened by the Neoconstitutional doctrine.

  5. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  6. The Impact of Judicial Reform on Crime Victimization and Trust in Institutions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the impact of judicial reform in Mexico. It does so using a survey about crime victimization and perceptions of insecurity (Encuesta Nacional Sobre la Inseguridad [ENSI]) collected in 2005, 2008, and 2009 in 11 Mexican cities, 3 of which implemented the reform in 2007 and 2008. This analysis shows that judicial reform not only reduces victimization but also lowers perceptions of security. Although we find that judicial reform has a negative effect on trust in the local and federal police, judicial reform reduces the probability of being asked by the transit police for a bribe.

  7. FEDERAL PENSIONS: Judicial Survivors Annuities System Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) specifying that we review certain aspects of the Judicial Survivors' Annuities System (JSAS), which is one of several survivor benefit plans applicable to particular groups of federal employees...

  8. How Many Cases? Assessing the Comparability of EU Judicial Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Ontanu (Elena); M Velicogna (Marco); F. Contini (Francesco)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractEfficiency is often considered a key component of any effective justice system, and a crucial drive for economic growth. A growing body of comparative studies explores how judicial reforms leading to a greater efficiency or effectiveness are positively correlated with economic growth

  9. A judicial review of political questions under Islamic law

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulfatai O. Sambo; Hunud Abia Kadouf

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary Arab world has witnessed uprisings and turmoil as a result of alleged power-overreaching by political elites. Consequently, people call for democracy with emphasis on constitutionalism, accountability and protection of human rights. Yet, the voice of the judiciary seems not to be heard in championing these values in many Muslim nations despite the clear roles Islam places on the judiciary regarding political matters. This paper therefore analyses the power of judicial review ...

  10. The Role of the Judicial Branch in the Effectiveness of Health Public Policies in the State of Espírito Santo: (NON Existence of Dialogue Between the Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Aguiar Junquilho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental right to health, especially from the 1988 Constitution on, is inserted in the list of social rights that have been going through the process of judicialization. In this context, the present study had as its goal to analyze the (nonexistence of dialogue between the parties involved in the judicialization of health in the state of Espirito Santo. The research was made by the evaluation of the mechanisms currently available to the fulfillment of health public policies set by the constitution. After that, the participation of the Center of Technical Support with the judges in the State of Espirito Santo was also evaluated. A case analysis was  also  conducted  on  the  entered  decision  on  the  Court Injunction  nº  0025675-15.2013.8.08.0000 (100130043811, looking to evaluate how the process of granting the medication took place. Lastly, some instruments that could effectively help in the concretion of the fundamental right to health were suggested. Through these analysis, it was perceived that with the lack of Technical Support and especially in sight of the disability of communication between the Public and the Judicial Branches, many times premature and onerous judgments are made to one of the parties. However, the mechanisms on the New Code of Civil Procedures and the Center of Technical Support for Judges are important instruments that seek to promote cooperation between social actors and that must be used to materialize the fundamental dialogue between the parties.

  11. Environmental Public Policies: Legalization and Judicial Activism for Sustainable De-velopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, we intend to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development.

  12. 49 CFR 397.225 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 397.225 Section 397.225... MATERIALS; DRIVING AND PARKING RULES Preemption Procedures § 397.225 Judicial review. A party to a proceeding under § 397.205(a), § 397.213(a), or § 397.223(a) may seek review by the appropriate district...

  13. 49 CFR 386.67 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 386.67 Section 386.67... Decision § 386.67 Judicial review. (a) Any party to the underlying proceeding, who, after an administrative... service of the Final Agency Order, petition for review of the order in the United States Court of Appeals...

  14. 17 CFR 200.64 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judicial review. 200.64... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.64 Judicial review. The Congress has provided for review by the courts of the decisions and orders by this Commission. Members should recognize...

  15. 31 CFR 29.406 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 29.406 Section 29.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER CERTAIN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA RETIREMENT PROGRAMS Claims and Appeals Procedures § 29.406 Judicial review...

  16. 31 CFR 29.515 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 29.515 Section 29.515 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER... Overpayments § 29.515 Judicial review. An individual whose request for reconsideration has been denied (in...

  17. 36 CFR 218.14 - Judicial proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial proceedings. 218.14... ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESSES Predecisional Administrative Review Process for Hazardous Fuel Reduction Projects Authorized by the Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003 § 218.14 Judicial proceedings. The objection...

  18. 29 CFR 1978.110 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor, shall not be subject to judicial review in any criminal or other civil proceedings (49 U.S.C... law judge, shall be transmitted by the Administrative Review Board, United States Department of Labor... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 1978.110 Section 1978.110 Labor...

  19. 29 CFR 785.7 - Judicial construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial construction. 785.7 Section 785.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Hours Worked § 785.7 Judicial construction. The United States Supreme Court originally stated that...

  20. 37 CFR 204.9 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 204.9 Section 204.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 204.9 Judicial review. Within two years of the...

  1. 12 CFR 263.41 - Stays pending judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stays pending judicial review. 263.41 Section... SYSTEM RULES OF PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 263.41 Stays pending... the effectiveness of all or any part of its order pending a final decision on a petition for review of...

  2. 17 CFR 10.106 - Reconsideration; stay pending judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reconsideration; stay pending... COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Appeals to the Commission; Settlements § 10.106 Reconsideration; stay pending... operate to stay the effective date of the Commission's order. (b) Stay pending judicial appeal—(1...

  3. Radio protective effects of selenium on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, A.; Alya, G

    2005-11-01

    Potential radio-protective effects of different selenium supplement concentrations of 4, 8, 15 and 30 ppm were evaluated in rats. Four groups of rats were administered different concentrations of selenium in drinking water for 30 days before irradiation starting from the ablactation which considered as day 0. The results showed that the sodium selenite of 4 ppm and 8 ppm enhance the 30-day survival of irradiated rats at 7 Gy ( sup 6 sup 0 Co source, whole body irradiation dose rate of 1 Gy x min sup - sup 1) compared to the control group. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 69%+-6 (mean+-S.E.) and 77%+-6 in 4 and 8 ppm groups, respectively, versus 42%+-9 for control group (P<0.001). It was also indicated that sodium selenite with concentrations of 15 and 30 ppm had no significant reduction in mortality. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 50%+-12 (P=0.39) and 49%+-14 (P=0.04), respectively. The toxic effects of selenium were observed at 15 ppm and 30 ppm, survivals after 30 days of selenium intake were 76% and 46%, respectively. It was concluded that 4 and 8 ppm sodium selenite have a radio-protective effect. 15 and 30 ppm sodium selenite had no radio-protective effects in rats, this may be due to a synergism of toxicity and radiation effects. (author)

  4. Nudging Domestic Judicial Reforms from Strasbourg: How the European Court of Human Rights shapes domestic judicial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kosař

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses to what extent and how the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR has initiated and engaged in domestic judicial reforms. It shows that the judgments of the Strasbourg Court, rather than having effects only with respect to the individual whose rights have been violated, have much deeper structural effects in the design and operation of domestic judicial systems. This article argues that this phenomenon goes rather unnoticed, but it has deep implications for both the developing and developed European democracies. To demonstrate this phenomenon, this article assesses the impact of the ECtHR on three judicial design issues. First, it illustrates how the ECtHR has challenged the role of the advocates general. Second, it explains how the ECtHR has gradually curbed the jurisdiction of military courts both over civilians and over military officers, which has brought these courts to the brink of their abolition. Finally, it outlines how the ECtHR in its judgments regarding the disciplining of judges empowers the judiciary at the expense of other political institutions within the State. Based on the analysis of these three judicial design issues, we conclude that the Strasbourg Court is affecting the internal architecture of domestic judiciaries as it gradually endorses the unification of court administration and changes the power structures within the judiciary.

  5. Radio protective effects of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barupal, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Many plants are known to have beneficial therapeutic effects as noted in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda and used since time immemorial for curing diseases. Even today, nearly 70% of the world's population is dependent on plants for handling their health related problems and plants have been utilized successfully for the treatment of free radical-mediated diseases in human such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, aging and several other conditions including inflammatory diseases. Plant extracts eliciting radio protective efficacy contain a plethora of compounds including antioxidants, immunostimulants, cell proliferation stimulators, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent, some of which may act in isolation as well as in combination with other constituents from the same plants. Glycyrrhiza glabra, Allium sepa, Allium sativum, Aloe arborescens, Amaranthus paniculatus, Curcuma longa, Moringa olefera and Syzygium cumini are some important radio protective plants. Alium sativum has been reported to possess antioxidant antimicrobial, antitumor, antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Aloe arborescens acts as a cell proliferate, healer and allergy reducer. Amaranthus paniculatus is used for purifying blood and treating scrofulous sores. Curcuma longa is widely used in antitumor and antibacterial activities. Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera is significantly used in nervous debility and healing of wound. Chlorella is well known nutrient dense superfood that contains 60% protein, 18 amino acids (including all the essential amino acids), more than 20 vitamins and minerals. Chlorell has been used to treat cancer and also protect the body from the effects of cancer radiation treatment due to its chlorophyll in abundance level. However they have little attention for their radio protective as well as antioxidant. There is an urgent need to develop newer, more efficient and reliable bioassays

  6. 16 CFR 5.68 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.68 Judicial review. A respondent against whom the Commission has issued an order imposing disciplinary action under this part may...

  7. 10 CFR 207.8 - Judicial actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Coordination Act of 1974 § 207.8 Judicial actions. (a) Enforcement of subpoenas; contempt. Any United States... such an order of the court may be punished by the court as contempt. (b) Injunctions. Whenever it...

  8. Judicial Capacity in a Transforming Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Corder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the perennial problem of lack of access to justice; the fact that there was no shortage of superior court judges until 1994; the demands on court process which flow directly from transition to the constitutional democratic system; and the urgent and justified necessity for the demographic transformation of judicial personnel, two challenges to the capacity of the judicial system present themselves in South Africa: Enlarging the number of suitable candidates for judicial appointment to redress the former demographic imbalance; and developing the kind of skills among those appointed as judges to be able to respond with confidence across a wide range of often complex legal issues; and developing a theory of judicial deference which observes the separation of powers and preserves judicial independence. This paper explores these challenges, after setting out the socio-political context, as it impacts directly on their nature and scope, and the prospects of meeting them.Debido al constante problema de la falta de acceso a la justicia, al hecho de que no hubo escasez de jueces de tribunales superiores hasta 1994, las demandas del proceso judicial que surgen directamente de la transición al sistema democrático constitucional, y la necesidad urgente y justificada de la transformación demográfica del personal judicial, el rendimiento judicial en Sudáfrica se encuentra con dos desafíos: Aumentar el número de candidatos aptos al nombramiento judicial para compensar el anterior desequilibrio demográfico y desarrollar en los jueces nombrados aquellas habilidades que les permitan responder con confianza a asuntos jurídicos a menudo complejos; y desarrollar una teoría de deferencia judicial que respete la separación de poderes y preserve la independencia judicial. Este artículo explora estos desafíos tras explicar el contexto sociopolítico, ya que éste afecta directamente a su naturaleza y alcance, y las probabilidades de que se superen

  9. Italian Microhistory, anthropology and judicial archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Hernández Ciro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the interceptions between the Italian microhistory and anthropology, this article aims to provide a central debate of contemporary historiography account of popular culture and subaltern classes from the intensive and exhaustive judicial proceedings. To do this, some of the impacts of anthropology will be addressed in the historical work, as the appearance and questioning notion of popular culture, the ethnographic value of court files and finally, some possibilities in the case of Judicial Historical Archive of Medellin.

  10. Judicial Performance and Experiences of Judicial Work: Findings from Socio-legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn Roach Anleu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicial performance evaluation processes and programs tend to imply an abstract, normative model of the proper judge. The focus is on the individual judicial officer, identifying how judges ought to perform their judicial work and assessing any departures from the model. However, there is considerable diversity in judging which abstract models of JPE may not anticipate. Importantly, judicial performance occurs within a context – the practical and natural settings in which every day judicial work is undertaken. This entails time constraints, workload patterns, and dependence on the activities of others, factors over which the judicial officer may have little control, but which in turn may affect his/her behaviour. Often, judicial performance is taken to refer to in-court work only. Judicial work also occurs outside court and outside regular court hours and so may be less visible for judicial performance evaluation. Although there is considerable variety in judicial experiences of judging, JPE only sometimes includes self-perceptions or judges’ own reflections on their work. Social science and socio-legal research, including original empirical data from Australia, investigates judging in various contexts and explores judicial officers’ experiences of their work. Such empirical research can widen understandings of judicial performance and evaluation. Los procesos y programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial tienden a implicar un modelo normativo abstracto del juez competente. La atención se centra en el funcionario judicial individual, identificando cómo deben realizar su labor los jueces y determinando cualquier desviación respecto al modelo. Sin embargo, a la hora de juzgar, existe una gran diversidad que los modelos abstractos de evaluación del rendimiento judicial no pueden anticipar. Es importante destacar que el desempeño judicial se produce en un contexto – el marco práctico y natural en el que se desarrolla cada d

  11. Effects of ventilation tunnel protection on stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strizhiboroda, S K; Kuritsyn, B I; Anosov, O S

    1983-09-01

    Analyzed are effects of strata control on a ventilation gate road situated at a depth of 860 m in a coal seam 0.65 m thick with dip angle of 48 degrees. The direct roof and floor consisted of limestone and the main roof of shales. The ventilation gate road with a cross section of 8.2 m/Sup 2/ was supported by the AP-9.2 arched steel supports. The following methods for gate road protection were used: timber cribbings, reinforced cribbings, strips of pneumatic stowing (using waste rocks), and coal support pillars. Effects of gate road protection on roof subsidence, subsidence rate and on support deformation in the gate road were analyzed considering strata control method and the distance to the advancing longwall face. The results of comparative evaluations, given in 4 diagrams, showed that timber cribbings guaranteed the most regular stress distribution and regular roof subsidence. Use of coal support pillars negatively influenced stress distribution. Irrespective of strata control method from 60 to 80% of roof subsidence occurred at a distance from 0 to 40 m behind a working face. Roof subsidence ranged from 17.3 to 38.3 mm/d when support pillars were used, was 27 mm/d when reinforced cribbings were used and ranged from 9.6 to 16.5 mm/d when pneumatic stowing was used. Use of blocks of reinforced concrete for protecting ventilation gate roads in inclined strata is recommended.

  12. Effects of eprosartan on target organ protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro de la Sierra

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Alejandro de la SierraHypertension Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Hypertension is the most important cardiovascular risk factor for stroke. Blood pressure reduction by antihypertensive treatment is clearly efficacious in the prevention of stroke (both primary and secondary, although no clear differences have yet been observed between antihypertensive drug classes. However, a recent study reported the clear superiority of the angiotensin-receptor blocker eprosartan over the calcium channel blocker nitrendipine in cardiovascular protection of hypertensive patients with a previous stroke. Comparative studies using angiotensin-receptor blockers have also suggested the superiority of this class of drugs on primary stroke prevention. This effect may be linked to their beneficial actions on left ventricular hypertrophy, atrial enlargement, and supraventricular arrhythmias, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and remodelling, as well as a direct neuroprotective effect mediated through the stimulation of the angiotensin II type-2 receptor. In addition, a sympathoinhibition observed with the renin–angiotensin system blockers and particularly demonstrated with eprosartan, may help to explain the better cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection in comparison with the calcium antagonist nitrendipine.Keywords: eprosartan, angiotensin-receptor blockers, hypertension, stroke, organ protection

  13. Reassessing Judicial Independence and Impartiality against the Backdrop of Judicial Appointments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koos Malan

    2014-12-01

    and they fear, without foundation, for the political risks the courts might be posing to the ruling elite. This fear is based on an exaggerated vision of the far-reaching consequences that they ascribe to judicial independence and impartiality, believing it to render the judiciary a formidable political force on a par with the political branches. The transformationists would therefore go to extreme lengths to secure an amenable judiciary. This is exemplified by their rather improper insistence that the best candidates need not be appointed, thus compromising even the (limited independence and impartiality which courts, on a realistic assessment, should have. In doing this the transformationists show a serious lack of appreciation of the distinctive professional nature of the judiciary, whose independence, impartiality and effectiveness are rooted not in political might but in the exceptional professional competence of the incumbents on the bench, who should be drawn from the best candidates the legal professional can produce.

  14. APPLICATION OF THE WTO AGREEMENTS IN NATIONAL COURTS: COMPARATIVE ASPECTS OF WORLDWIDE AND LITHUANIAN JUDICIAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Katuoka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the main World Trade Organization (WTO agreements: the 1994 GATT agreement and the agreements on the determination of the customs value and customs origin of goods. It also describes the problems involved in granting the direct effect of this external legislation in the Republic of Lithuania from the time of its accession to the WTO in 2001 and entry into the European Union (EU in 2004. The article seeks to answer the question of whether the external WTO legislation should be recognised as legal acts in the national legal system, with the capability for direct application in judicial proceedings. The article also considers whether individual persons can invoke the WTO agreements at a national level (in national courts to protect their legitimate rights and interests in international trade operations. In addition, it includes an analysis of practices followed by judicial authorities in the EU and countries in other regions, including the individual EU member states. The analysis leads to the conclusion that, unlike the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, the practices and experience of the Republic of Lithuania are essentially based on the provision that these sources of law could be directly applied at a national level in judicial cases related to the taxation of international trade operations. Analysis of the relevant issues is based on both theoretical (analysis and synthesis, systematic analysis and empirical methods (the statistical analysis of data, the evaluation and textual analysis of documents – in particular, decisions of national courts and the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU.

  15. Protective effect by EDTA in radiation inactivation of enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakura, M; Kaetsu, I

    1985-11-05

    Protective effect by EDTA in radiation inactivation of enzymes such as glucoamylase, cellulase, and urease was studied. A remarkable protective effect by EDTA was observed and had a maximum at certain EDTA concentration. The protective effect was compared with other protective agents in the irradiation of urease, in which the protective ability of EDTA was greater than those of sulfhydryl compounds such as cysteine. (author).

  16. Protective Effects of Ginseng on Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yi eOng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (Order: Apiales, Family: Araliaceae, Genus: Panax has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for over 2000 years, and is recorded to have antianxiety, antidepressant and cognition enhancing properties. The protective effect of ginseng on neurological disorders is discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides, and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are briefly introduced. This is followed by molecular mechanisms of effects of ginseng on the brain, including glutamatergic transmission, monoamine transmission, estrogen signaling, nitric oxide production, the Keap1/Nrf2 adaptive cellular stress pathway, neuronal survival, apoptosis, neural stem cells and neuroregeneration, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and cerebral microvessels. The molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of ginseng in Alzheimer’s disease including Aβ formation, tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress, major depression, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis / experimental allergic encephalitis are then presented. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate more studies on the use of ginseng in these disorders.

  17. Is judicial integrity a norm? An inquiry into the concept of judicial integrity in England and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeharno, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Much effort is being made to safeguard judicial integrity – but what is it? In this article, two discourses on judicial integrity will be outlined: one in which judicial integrity is said to be at stake and one in which the emphasis lies on safeguarding judicial integrity. These discourses are by no

  18. Protective effects of ischemic postconditioning on intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Jun-tao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To explore the protective effects of two types of ischemic postconditioning (IP on intestinal mucosa barrier in rabbits with crush injury of the hind limb. Methods: This study was conducted between August and December 2008 in the Department of Trauma Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. The model of crush injury to the hind limb of rabbits was firstly developed by a 25 kg object with the right hind limbs fixed by wooden splints, and then two types of IP were established, including occluding/opening the common iliac artery and vein alternatively (traditional IP, IP A and binding/loosening the proximum of the injured hind limb alternatively (modified IP, IP B. Thirty-six male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: IP A group, IP B group and control group, with 12 rabbits in each group. The serum levels of diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP were detected at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after injury. Pathological changes of ileum were examined at 24 hours after injury. Results: The serum levels of I-FABP at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after injury in both IP A and IP B groups had a significant decrease, compared with control group. DAO levels also showed the same change trend at 2 and 6 hours after injury, but showed no significant difference between two IP groups. No difference in pathological changes of ileum was found among the three groups. Conclusions: IP can protect intestinal mucosa barrier function on the model of hind limb crush injury in rabbits. Meanwhile the modified IP B shows the same protection as the traditional IP A, and is worth applying in clinic. Key words: Ischemic postconditioning; Crush syndrome; Intestinal mucosa

  19. Corrosion and protection in reinforced concrete : Pulse cathodic protection: an improved cost-effective alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion and protection in reinforced concrete. Pulse cathodic protection: an improved cost-effective alternative. The aim of the research project was to study the possibilities for establishing a new or improved electrochemical method for corrosion prevention/protection for reinforced concrete.

  20. Does Judge Turnover Affect Judicial Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Tagliapietra, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    office to another after three years of mandate, and the law prescribes their transfer after ten years to guarantee their independence. Flaws in the process managing the backlog of outbound judges and the existence of asynchrony between outbound and inbound transfers produce a chain of delays...... to the disposition of court cases. Using a novel dataset on Court of Appeal Districts in Italy (2008–2012), we provide evidence of a strong negative relation between high turnover rates and judicial performance. We find that marginal increases in judge turnover rates lead to a statistically significant decrease...... in judicial performance over two years of time...

  1. Accounting for biological effectiveness in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) presents a practical problem to radiological protection when attempts are made to ensure that the assessed risks from different types of radiation and different modes of exposure to radiation are commensurate with one another. Unfortunately, the theoretical understanding of RBE is still in the stage of competing explanations and hypotheses. Furthermore, the division of the concept of dose equivalent into a set of concepts for risk assessment and another set for measurement and control has introduced conflicting requirements of a practical nature that are difficult to resolve. Many of those working in radiobiology and radiation protection have perceived the need to increase the quality factors for photon and neutron radiations. It may be more reasonable to change the quality factors for neutrons than for other radiations. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods for accommodating such changes within the dose-equivalent concepts are to be examined. The method of accommodating such a change that has the least practical disadvantages is to increase the quality factors for all secondary particles produced in tissue by neutron radiations by a constant factor. The only disadvantage would be the perception that the quality factors for these secondary particles were not treated in a consistent fashion for all types of ionising radiation. (author)

  2. The decline of judicial deference to medical opinion in medical negligence litigation in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie J

    2008-06-01

    The decision of the Federal Court of Malaysia in abandoning the Bolam principle in relation to doctor's duty to disclose risks has clearly marked the decline of judicial deference to medical opinion in medical negligence litigation in Malaysia. It is undeniable that the Bolam principle has acted as a gatekeeper to the number of claims against medical practitioners. This has always been seen as necessary to protect the society from unwanted effects of defensive medicine. However, will these changes contribute significantly to the growth of medical negligence cases in Malaysia? This article will trace the development of the Bolam principle in medical negligence litigation in Malaysia since 1965 and analyse the influence of selected Commonwealth cases on the development. The implications of the Federal Court ruling will also be discussed.

  3. Confrontation Between Judicial Activism and State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pedro Moura D’Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The judiciary has excelled in the international and national scene, reaching role of great importance, thus creating opposition to the legislative and executive powers. The center of gravity of the sovereign power of the state moves toward the judiciary, that happens to have a more active role and controlling of the others powers, but also appears as a great defender of social and fundamental rights causes, seeking to make an effective constitution. Its great public notoriety has attracted great distrust of various sectors of society, especially by the two powers that have an increasing interference. Arises, therefore, a speech that the judiciary would be reversing into a big and uncontrollable power, increasing the suspicion that now it would be living in a real dictatorship of the judiciary through judicial activism. There is a growing concern with the expansion of activism and the role of the judiciary. The purpose of this work is to conceptualize and approach the judicial activism and the state of exception to search and reveal if there is any similarity, to then draw up a possible answer to the concern of forming a dictatorship of the judiciary. The state of exception is one of the rule of law paradoxes, while activism is a political manifestation of the judiciary. The similarity between the institutes appears as appalling in a dynamic expansion of political power of a state institution exercising judicial function, putting in check who would be the sovereign in a rule of law and democratic state.

  4. Constitutional and administrative paradigms in judicial control over EU high and low politics

    OpenAIRE

    Cebulak Pola

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the particular tensions surrounding judicial review in EU external relations. The tensions are classified using a two-dimensional framework. Firstly, a distinction based on policy domains of high and low politics, which is derived from constitutional theory, and external to the CJEU; and secondly a distinction based on legitimizing paradigms of administrative (EU as effective global actor) or constitutional (judicial review as guarantee of fundamental rights) in characte...

  5. Harmful Effects of Formaldehyde and Possible Protective Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... the ocular and respiratory system, but it also affects the nervous and genital system. ... possible protective effect of Nigella sativa on the trachea of rats. Niger ..... Vitamin A deficiency in the tracheal epithelium of rats has been ...

  6. 5 CFR 1201.127 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Procedures for Original Jurisdiction Cases Special Counsel Disciplinary Actions § 1201.127 Judicial review. (a) An employee subject to a final Board decision imposing disciplinary action under 5 U.S... appropriate United States district court. 5 U.S.C. 1508. Special Counsel Corrective Actions ...

  7. Trial Courts in the Judicial Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, R. Neal

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course which examines the organizational and behavioral characteristics of trial courts in the American judicial process. A major course objective is to help students understand the trial court process as a political process by showing how trial court organizations are involved in the allocation of social values. (RM)

  8. 15 CFR 325.11 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 325.11 Section 325.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS EXPORT TRADE CERTIFICATES OF...

  9. 37 CFR 251.58 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determination on appeal, from depositing statements of account and royalty fees by those sections. [59 FR 23981... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.58 Judicial review. (a) Any order of determination...

  10. 30 CFR 775.13 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS... to judicial review by a court of competent jurisdiction, as provided for in the State program, but...

  11. 13 CFR 117.18 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 117.18 Section 117.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY... reasonable attorney's fees, but that the complainant must demand these costs in the complaint; (iii) That...

  12. 44 CFR 6.57 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 6.57 Section 6.57 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... District Court in which the requestor resides or has his or her principal place of business or in which the...

  13. Sun protection counseling by pediatricians has little effect on parent and child sun protection behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Liza; Brown, Judith; Haukness, Heather; Walsh, Lori; Robinson, June K

    2013-02-01

    To compare counseling concerning sun protection and outdoor exercise with the parent's report of the behavior of a child aged 9-16 years old. Structured interviews of medical personnel in 3 Chicago area practices elicited information about counseling methods and recommendations. In each practice, a convenience sample of parents completed a self-reported survey of their and their child's behavior. Sun protection counseling occurred more frequently than exercise counseling in all practices (P = .014). Sun protection counseling was associated with parental prompting (P = .004), performing a summer camp physical (P = .002), and the child having a sunburn (P = .003). After controlling for the child's age, sex, and skin tone, sun protection counseling was not associated with the child's use of sun protection. In multivariate analysis of the child's sun protection behavior, parental sunburns, indoor tanning in the last 12 months, perception of skin cancer risk, and sun protection self-efficacy were significant (P = .02). Children who pursued outdoor sports were twice as likely to use inadequate sun protection and sustain sunburns (CI 1.3-1.7). The child's sun protection behavior was influenced by parental sun protection, parental perception of skin cancer risk, and parental sun protection self-efficacy; therefore, sun protection for children needs to be aimed at parents as well as children. Communication with parents in a way that incorporates the principles of motivational interviewing may be more effective in promoting behavioral change than admonitions to use sunscreen. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs

  15. 46 CFR 1.01-30 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 1.01-30 Section 1.01-30 Shipping COAST... Judicial review. (a) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prohibit any party from seeking judicial review of any Commandant's decision or action taken pursuant to the regulations in this part or part 5 of...

  16. 12 CFR 1780.57 - Stays pending judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stays pending judicial review. 1780.57 Section... Posthearing Proceedings § 1780.57 Stays pending judicial review. The commencement of proceedings for judicial... Director pending a final decision on a petition for review of that order. ...

  17. The Judicial Domain in View: figures, trends and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Loth (Marc); E. Mak (Elaine)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWhere will the Dutch judicial system be in 2015? One of us answered a similar type of question elsewhere with a sketch of two frightening scenarios.* In the first scenario the judicial system will have insufficiently adapted itself to its surroundings. The judicial system will become

  18. STEP TO CIVIL SOCIETY (ON HISTORICAL ROLE OF JUDICIAL REFORM OF 1864

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Дмитриевна Попова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the importance of the judicial reform of 1864 for the course of Alexander's modernization and analyzes the role of the judicial reforms for various aspects of life in the post-reform Russia. There is used a wide range of sources - archival materials, memoirs of contemporaries of that period, publications of periodicals. The author concludes that the judicial reform of 1864 should be considered as a significant step towards civil society. The analysis of the sources shows that the judicial reform of 1864 contributed to the increase in the protection of human rights and freedoms. The activities of new courts changed the public consciousness - in the society there was growing representation of rule of law, necessity to respect the rights and freedoms of others, to meet obligations. The judicial reform played a major role in the process of merging classes, the development of market relations. Thus, the introduction of the controversial independent public trial not only improved the justice, but was also an important step in the formation of civil society in Russia.

  19. Effective construction of environmental protection agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, H.F.

    1995-01-01

    By now 170 international agreements are designed to protect air, ground, water and organisms from man-made hazards. Nevertheless are innovative approaches required for global conventions to make the Earth a sanctuary of life for good. (orig.) [de

  20. Criteria for Copyrightability in Russian Copyright Doctrine and Judicial Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kashanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the current state of the debate on the minimum level of creativity needed for works to be copyrightable, including dominant principles in Russian jurisprudence and judicial practice, principal trends and contradictions that arise in the course of the application of various criteria for copyrightability. An analysis of the judicial practice of recent years warrants the conclusion that standards of creativity as a criterion for copyrightability have dropped drastically. Today’s standards are similar to those of the former American ‘sweat of the brow’ doctrine. But, unlike foreign legal systems that set comparatively low standards of protectability, the Russian judiciary has not yet evolved mechanisms of compensation for risks of monopolization of public domain content. First of all, there is no practice of granting exclusive rights to a work that is similar to an earlier work but has been created independently. Secondly, the practice of refusing protection to non-unique, standard, generally known, and generally available content is dying out. Thirdly, there is currently a trend for giving a large scope of protection to works of low authorship. As a result, exclusive rights are granted to standard or generally accessible content – content that must belong to the public domain – which puts unjustified restrictions on the creative activities of other authors. Moreover, it makes their legal status unpredictable as it establishes a basis for unintended copyright violations being penalized. This amounts to a classical case of overprotection.

  1. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Kwaw S; Ferraro, Paul J; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Robalino, Juan A

    2008-10-21

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services.

  2. Judicial Reforms in Russia: 1864 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Reshetnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 we celebrate the 150th anniversary of the Judicial Reform in Russia. The 1860s are known as a time of major reforms in various spheres of life, one of them being the Judicial Reform adopted in 1864. Before 1864 civil procedure was considered to be the classical form of inquisitorial justice1 with active judges and passive parties. Inquisitorial procedure was a written process conducted in secret with no legal representatives in court, and with formal evaluation of evidence (otsenka dokazatel’stv. Instead of an inquisitorial procedure the Judicial Reform introduced an adversarial system with active parties and more or less passive judges, an open, oral (public process, legal representatives, and free evaluation of evidence. So, for Russian procedure it was a revolution as it happened in other countries of Europe, which turned away from an inquisitorial to an adversarial system of justice.

  3. From the Green Room to the Court Room (And Back: Judicial Clarification of Ambiguity in WTO Law and the Effects on Subsequent Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Flett

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The WTO provides an opportunity to observe the recent creation, development and operation of a "hard law" adjudicative legal system, with legal subjects of greatly varying degrees of power, embedded within an intensely political environment. Between these parallel political and legal communities there are numerous points of contact. At each point of contact one finds played out (or to be played out and resolved, re-iteratively, the basic drama between power-based and rules-based approaches to disputes. An examination of the Dispute Settlement Understanding and of subsequent developments - from the particular perspective of a participant within the WTO legal system - suggests that the rules-based approach was initiated in a somewhat low profile manner. Once the process had been quietly booted-up, ambiguity and discretion embedded in the rules has been systematically crystallizing, under the influence of lawyers and adjudicators acting both in and out of the court room, so as to substantially further develop and consolidate a more complete rules-based operating system. This is something to which the Members themselves do not appear to have objected. In the long term, the fundamental driving motor for this process, which ultimately outweighs all other considerations, is a necessity recognised by all participants and their constituents – that is, legal security and predictability for firms engaged in international trade. However, the legitimacy of particular outcomes will ultimately continue to rest upon the rationality, reasonableness and openness of adjudicators and their judgments. This repetitive process of shared experience and palliative outcome is progressively binding the political and legal communities together in a shared fate. The process is proving remarkably successful, and may both serve as a model for (and have spill-over effects in other areas of international law. Ultimately, the system's continued success depends upon jealously

  4. Reflection on the Judicial Activism or Constructivism: In Perspective of Being an Instrument of Cooperation in Judicial Facing Issues of Social Security and Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gomes de Vasconcelos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a present thinking as the possibility of reaching solutions to some social security and labor issues in democratic rule of law using judicial cooperation in the search for effective social law of social security. The current legal constructivism, also called judicial activism in its manifestation of legal instrument to weigh yourself to get and verify the approach of social dialogue for more proactive attitude of the court, in which the actors involved in the conflict are called to have a more active participation on problem situations, requiring them more than mere legal interpretation in philosophical hermeneutics.

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies on radiation protective effect of a lighter non-lead protective apron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Yoshihisa; Ono, Koji; Okazaki, Keiichiro

    2005-01-01

    Non-lead aprons using composite materials are often used for radiation protective aprons instead of heavy lead aprons. However, the protective effect of the lighter, non-lead aprons has not been well evaluated, and it is not yet clear how they compare with lead aprons. Therefore, we investigated the protective performance of non-lead aprons theoretically and experimentally by comparing them with lead aprons under clinical conditions. We measured the energy spectra for direct and scattered-rays passing through protective aprons or not, and measured doses with glass dosimeters for validation of theoretical calculations based on the energy spectra. We found that the protective effect of non-lead aprons was higher than that of lead aprons at X-ray of tube voltages of 70-100 kV, which are often used for radiography and fluorography. This demonstrated that the non-lead aprons are more useful in many situations than heavy lead aprons. (author)

  6. Protective effect of edaravone against tobramycin-induced ototoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asplund, Monika Stenkvist; Lidian, Adnan; Linder, Birgitta; Takumida, Masaya; Anniko, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion. It is suggested that simultaneous treatment with the radical scavenger edaravone has an effective protective effect against tobramycin ototoxicity in rat. Even if the edaravone treatment is postponed for 7 days, it can still prevent hearing loss, but a 14 day delay cannot protect from

  7. Methodology For Evaluation Of Regulatory Effectiveness In Physical Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmaylov, Alexander; Valente, John; Griggs, James R.; Rexroth, Paul; Piskarev, Alexander; Babkin, Vladimir; Sokolov, Egor; Melton, Ronald B.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Baker, Kathryn A.; Brothers, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    Material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) regulatory documents play an important role in securing and protecting nuclear material by regulating a variety of activities at different hierarchical levels. The development, implementation, and practical application of these regulatory documents requires a significant investment of financial and material resources. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of the regulatory development process and the extent to which regulations improve the effectiveness of MPC and A at nuclear sites. The joint Russian and U.S. Regulatory Development Project has a goal of evaluating the effectiveness of regulatory documents developed for MPC and A. As part of this joint Project, a methodology for evaluating effectiveness has been developed. This methodology was developed around physical protection objectives. The developed methodology specifies physical protection objectives to be accomplished through the implementation of a regulatory system based on the physical protection goals at the nuclear sites. It includes approaches to assessing regulatory effectiveness, the hierarchical structure of physical protection objectives to be accomplished through implementing regulations, a 'mapping' of the physical protection objectives to the regulatory framework, a list of criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of physical protection regulations and effectiveness indicators, as well as means and methods for gathering information and implementation of this evaluation.

  8. On Inuit and Judicial protection in a shared legal order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    A recent decision of the General Court of the European Union (Case T-18/10 Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami and Others v EP and Council, Order of 6 September 2011) illustrates once again the limited options available to NGOs wishing to contest a decision of the European institutions before the courts. This

  9. Can selection explain the protective effects of farming on asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijnand Eduard

    2015-09-01

    No healthy worker selection into farming was observed and changes in asthma prevalence due to early retirement were small. Selection effects are therefore unlikely to explain the protective effects of farming on asthma.

  10. Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress induced by ... The present study aims at exploring the effects of flavonoids from corn silk (FCS) on oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise in mice. ... from 32 Countries:.

  11. Formula over Function? From Algorithms to Values in Judicial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Contini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the forms and effects of the ‘invasion’ of the ‘temples of the law’ by new economic and managerial forms of performance evaluation. While traditional judicial evaluation focused on how to select and promote individual judges and on the legal quality of the single case, new quantitative methods and formulas are being introduced to assess efficiency, productivity and timeliness of judges and courts. Building on two case studies, from Spain and the Netherlands, the paper illustrates two contrasting approaches to judicial performance evaluation. On the one hand individual judges' productivity is evaluated through quantitative data and mathematical algorithms: in the extreme case considered here, judge's remuneration was adjusted accordingly. On the other hand quantitative and qualitative data, collected by a variety of methods and theoretical frameworks, are used as the basis of a multi-layered negotiation process designed to find a synthesis between competing economic, legal and social values aimed at improving overall organizational performance. Considering the flaws of unidimensional measurement and evaluation systems and considering the incommensurability of the results of the multiple evaluative frameworks (economic, legal, sociological required to overcome such flaws, the authors argue there is a need for political dialogue between relevant players in order to allocate the values appropriate to judicial evaluation. Este artículo analiza las formas y efectos de la “invasión” de los “templos de la ley” por nuevas formas económicas y de gestión como la evaluación del rendimiento. Mientras que la evaluación judicial tradicional se ha centrado en la forma de seleccionar y promocionar a jueces individuales, y en la calidad jurídica de un caso individual, hoy en día se están introduciendo nuevos métodos cuantitativos y fórmulas para determinar la eficiencia, productividad y oportunidad de jueces y

  12. Protective effect of building against nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Lovranich, E.; Steger, F.

    1995-02-01

    In order to adopt appropriate countermeasures to protect the public in case of a wide-spread contamination after a severe reactor accident, a profound knowledge of the dose to be expected and of the dose reduction to be expected if a specific countermeasure is adopted is required. Since external radiation contributes a major fraction of up to 80 % to the total dose, the interest is focused on the reduction of external dose by staying indoors. For this purpose measurements of the dose reduction by external radiation were performed in 40 residential rooms in Vienna which were chosen according to their fraction of the Viennese building structure. They were performed by measurement of the reduction of the gamma-flux in the interior of buildings compared to the gamma-flux outside. Measurements were carried out by a HPGe-detector which was positioned 1 m above ground. The observed dose reduction factors amounted to 0.013 on the average (protection factor 78.7 ± 49.7), with the protection factors of the investigated building types ranging from 6.5 (single house in garden) to 122.9 (edicifices of the turn of the century). The observed protection factors do not include the dose reduction by dense arrangement of buildings in urban areas which has to be considered separately. The dose reduction due to different radionuclide mixtures after severe reactor accidents was also investigated. Factors similar to that observed for Cs-137 were found. The maximum deviations amounted only 12 % and therefore may be neglected in the consideration of protective measures. Additional measurements were performed with the same detector shielded by lead on all sides to determine the contribution of the interior contamination. A contribution of between < 10 % to 50 % to the external dose in the interior of buildings was observed. Measures to reduce the inner contamination in rooms (closing of windows and doors, cleaning upon entering the building interior) in case of an event are therefore

  13. Evaluating Judicial Performance and Addressing Gender Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Melville

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Elek and Rottman argue that judicial evaluation is often biased against women and minority judges. The need to address bias is important, however often the desire for diversity seems so self-evident as to belie deeper analysis. This paper examines the two main rationales for gender equality on the bench. First, female judges are often considered necessary in order to bring a gendered perspective to judging, however it is argued that this rationale is flawed. Second, an alternative rationale based on equality and legitimacy is offered which avoids gender essentialism. While debates typically focus on these two rationales, a third rationale embraces both difference and equality/legitimacy. The presence of female judges has an important symbolic value which destabilises existing fraternal legal norms. Finally, increasing the number of female judges may not necessarily change judging, and this paper also analyses how the transformative potential offered by judicial diversity can work in practice. Elek y Rottman defienden que la evaluación judicial suele estar sesgada en contra de las mujeres y los jueces pertenecientes a minorías. La necesidad de abordar el sesgo es importante, sin embargo a menudo el deseo de diversidad parece tan evidente como para contradecir un análisis más profundo. Este artículo examina los dos motivos principales para la igualdad de género en el banquillo. En primer lugar, las mujeres jueces a menudo se consideran necesarias para aportar una perspectiva de género al hecho de juzgar, sin embargo, se defiende que este razonamiento es erróneo. En segundo lugar, se ofrece una alternativa lógica basada en la igualdad y la legitimidad que evita el esencialismo de género. Mientras que los debates suelen centrarse en estas dos razones, una tercera justificación abarca tanto la diferencia como la igualdad/legitimidad. La presencia de mujeres en la judicatura tiene un importante valor simbólico que desestabiliza las normas

  14. Evaluating heterogeneous conservation effects of forest protection in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Shah

    Full Text Available Establishing legal protection for forest areas is the most common policy used to limit forest loss. This article evaluates the effectiveness of seven Indonesian forest protected areas introduced between 1999 and 2012. Specifically, we explore how the effectiveness of these parks varies over space. Protected areas have mixed success in preserving forest, and it is important for conservationists to understand where they work and where they do not. Observed differences in the estimated treatment effect of protection may be driven by several factors. Indonesia is particularly diverse, with the landscape, forest and forest threats varying greatly from region to region, and this diversity may drive differences in the effectiveness of protected areas in conserving forest. However, the observed variation may also be spurious and arise from differing degrees of bias in the estimated treatment effect over space. In this paper, we use a difference-in-differences approach comparing treated observations and matched controls to estimate the effect of each protected area. We then distinguish the true variation in protected area effectiveness from spurious variation driven by several sources of estimation bias. Based on our most flexible method that allows the data generating process to vary across space, we find that the national average effect of protection preserves an additional 1.1% of forest cover; however the effect of individual parks range from a decrease of 3.4% to an increase of 5.3% and the effect of most parks differ from the national average. Potential biases may affect estimates in two parks, but results consistently show Sebangau National Park is more effective while two parks are substantially less able to protect forest cover than the national average.

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaura, Chiyo; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we describes the evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology based on the measurement of organ and the effective doses with and without lead clothing to gonads. We devised in-phantom dosimetry system and measured organ and effective doses in x-ray radiography and CT examinations with the new dosimetry system. From the data of organ and the effective doses we assessed the effectiveness of radiological protection by the use of lead clothing to gonads. Although in chest radiography and chest CT examinations, the effectiveness of radiological protection was not found, in the case of hip joint radiography (AP), gonad doses decreased remarkably by using lead clothing. The effectiveness of radiological protection, i.e. the ratio of the decreased dose to the dose value without protection, in testis and ovary were found to be 91.4% and 68.0%, respectively. It was also found that gonad doses observed with and without gonad protection were extremely lower than those of threshold for sterility recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 (ICRP Publ. 60). (author)

  16. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Chiyo; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we describe the evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology based on the measurement of organ and the effective doses with and without lead clothing to gonads. We devised in-phantom dosimetry system and measured organ and effective doses in x-ray radiography and CT examinations with the new dosimetry system. From the data of organ and the effective doses we assessed the effectiveness of radiological protection by the use of lead clothing to gonads. Although in chest radiography and chest CT examinations, the effectiveness of radiological protection was not found, in the case of hip joint radiography (AP), gonad doses decreased remarkably by using lead clothing. The effectiveness of radiological protection, i.e. the ratio of the decreased dose to the dose value without protection, in testis and ovary were found to be 91.4% and 68.0%, respectively. It was also found that gonad doses observed with and without gonad protection were extremely lower than those of threshold for sterility recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 (ICRP Publ. 60).

  17. Sexual Diversity in the Judiciary in England and Wales; Research on Barriers to Judicial Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J. Moran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Debates about the diversity of the judiciary in the UK have been dominated by gender, race and ethnicity. Sexuality is notable by its absence and is perceived to pose particular challenges. It is usually missing from the list of diversity categories. When present, its appearance is nominal. One effect of this has been a total lack of official data on the sexual composition of the judiciary. Another is the gap in research on the barriers to the goal of a more sexually diverse judiciary. In 2008 the Judicial Appointment Commission (JAC for England and Wales undertook research to better understand the challenges limiting progress towards judicial diversity. A central gaol of the project was to investigate barriers to application for judicial appointment across different groups defined by “sex, ethnicity and employment status”. Sexual orientation was again noticeable by its absence. Its absence was yet another missed opportunity to recognise and take seriously this strand of diversity. This study is based on a response to that absence. A stakeholder organisation, InterLaw Diversity Forum for lesbian gay bisexual and transgender networks in the legal services sector, with the JAC’s approval, used their questionnaire and for the first time asked lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender lawyers about the perceptions and experiences of barriers to judicial appointment. This paper examines the findings of that unique research and considers them in the light of the initial research on barriers to judicial appointment and subsequent developments.

  18. Democracia e controle jurídico da constitucionalidade Democracy and judicial review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Freeman

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo enfrenta a objeção à "revisão judicial" (isto é a autoridade judicial para julgar a constitucionalidade dos atos dos poderes da República que a considera uma instituição antidemocrática. A revisão judicial pode ser democraticamente justificada. Para isso teremos que pensá-la como um compromisso coletivo prévio assumido pelos cidadãos na situação de escolha constitucional, no sentido de que não exercerão seus direitos políticos iguais de formas que coloquem em risco sua própria condição de portadores dos direitos da cidadania igual.Objections to the institution of judicial review as being incompatible with democracy are examined and refuted. Judicial review can be democratically justified, it is argued. This is possible if we conceive it as a previous collective compromise assumed by the citizens in the constitutional choice situation, to the effect that they would not exercise their equal political rights in ways that could put in danger their own condition of bearers of equal citizenship rights.

  19. The effect of moisture content within multilayer protective clothing on protection from radiation and steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun; Li, Jun; Song, Guowen

    2018-06-01

    The moisture from skin sweat and atmospheric water affects the thermal protective performance provided by multilayer protective clothing. Four levels of moisture content were selected to evaluate the impact of moisture on thermal protection under dry (thermal radiation) and wet (thermal radiation and low-pressure steam) heat exposure. Also, the role of moisture and its relationship with exposure time were analyzed based on skin heat flux and Henriques integral value. The addition of moisture to a fabric system was found to result in differences in second-degree and third-degree skin burn times. When moisture is added to a fabric system, it both acts as a thermal conductor to present a negative effect and provides a positive effect owing to thermal storage of water and evaporative heat loss. The positive or negative effects of moisture are mainly dependent on the thermal exposure time, the moisture content and the presence of hot steam.

  20. The protective effect of plasma antioxidants during ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... In this study we investigated the possible protective effects of the plasma antioxidant defense system during O3-AHT. Venous blood from six ..... immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and a rationale for ozone therapy and other ...

  1. Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive Toxicity in ... The health implications of cigarette smoking and ..... toxic byproducts of many metabolic processes in ... Male infertility, clinical ... rats: A possible role of cessation.

  2. Protective effect of Ziziphus mauritiana leaf extract on carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2005-09-13

    Sep 13, 2005 ... Short Communication. Protective effect of Ziziphus ... INTRODUCTION. Medicinal plants play a key role in the human health care. About 80% of the world .... McGraw Hill International Edition, London. Gregus Z, Kiwassen C ...

  3. Protective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on ultraviolet b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) on ultraviolet B (UV-B)-induced skin damages in hairless mice in order to develop a natural sunscreen ... hydrophilic cream has also showed high.

  4. Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on acetaminophen - induced liver toxicity in albino rats. Samy Abdelfatah Abdel Azim, Mohamed Taha Abdelrahem, Mostafa Mohamed Said, Alshaimaa Khattab ...

  5. Protective effect of Parthenium hysterophorus against carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Results: Pre-treatment of rabbits with Ph.Cr reduced ALT, ALP and TB levels (p ... treatment of liver disorders. Because of more effectiveness, less consequences of side effects and low cost, natural remedies are now .... showed hepatocyte necrosis, vacuolization of ..... myocardium, cardiac pacemakers and vascular smooth.

  6. Protective effect of onion extract against experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The wrong use of drugs results in disturbances in the immunity that affect human health. These drugs have side effects that may lead to death because of lake of immunity. Human beings need to use natural products to strength the immune system and avoid such side effects. Of these products is the onion that ...

  7. Constitutional and administrative paradigms in judicial control over EU high and low politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebulak Pola

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the particular tensions surrounding judicial review in EU external relations. The tensions are classified using a two-dimensional framework. Firstly, a distinction based on policy domains of high and low politics, which is derived from constitutional theory, and external to the CJEU; and secondly a distinction based on legitimizing paradigms of administrative (EU as effective global actor or constitutional (judicial review as guarantee of fundamental rights in character and determined by the Court itself. Even though one would expect a dominance of the administrative paradigm in the domain of high politics, the Court uses both the administrative and the constitutional paradigm in its external relations case-law. The decision on which of these becomes the guiding frame seems to depend more on the policy domain, and be made case by case, which suggests politically sensitive adjudication, rather than a coherent approach to legitimizing the nascent judicial review in EU external relations.

  8. Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    PM collections from both urban and industrial sites caused 50% oxidative degradation of DNA in vitro at concentrations as low ... chemical analysis in order that progress can be made in ... One popular hypothesis is that PM exerts toxic effects.

  9. Co-Plaintigff in Judicial Reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Gonçalves Matos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study it was to analyze the possibility of the economic group file a single request for judicial reorganization. Concerning the methodology, the study is a descriptive - analytic research, analyzing the legal doctrines and jurisprudence about the subject. It has been shown that the reorganization of groups, instead of separated companies may result benefits, as a company of the group can help to recover the others that are facing difficulties, but there is the possibility to create a negative incentive for the development of global business activity. It was concluded that the active joinder in bankruptcy is feasible, but it would be more prudent for each group company present its own reorganization  plan.

  10. Imaginaries of Judicial Practices in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Buchely

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the emotions of users and functionaries involved in the justice system and the administration of justice in Cali, Colombia. The analysis presented argues that the state not only employs a bureaucratic rational language but also invokes emotions and feelings. In this sense, it is not only the central imaginaries of the state justice system and judicial processes but also the idea of justice itself that is marked by tediousness, delay and chaos, imaginaries of the system that were identified by the users and the officials involved in the administration of the system. There is no justice if it is not a process that is tedious, marked by ritual, mysticism, disorder and difficulties. These findings demonstrate that, against liberal discourses that emphasize the order, unity and rationality of public actions, that the power of the state actually operates through the disaggregated, the irrational and the emotional, a much wider and inexplicable framework.

  11. Dose dependent sun protective effect of topical melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by sunlight results in an increasing number of skin conditions. Earlier studies have suggested a protective effect of topical treatment with the pineal hormone melatonin. However, this protective effect has never been evaluated in natural sunlight......-blind study in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy volunteers, 8 male and 15 female, were enrolled. The protective effect of three different doses of melatonin cream (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) against erythema induced by natural sunlight was tested. All participants had their backs exposed to sun from 1:22 PM.......5% concentrations. CONCLUSION: Application of melatonin cream 12.5% protects against natural sunlight induced erythema....

  12. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  13. Protective Effects of Tetrahydrocurcumin and Curcumin against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the cytoprotective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin, (THC) and curcumin (CUR) on cytotoxicity induced by doxorubicin and cadmium in Chang liver cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. The expression of nuclear factorerythroid- 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) Nrf2 regulated ...

  14. Pinoresinol diglucoside exhibits protective effect on dexamethasone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) on dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis in rats. Methods: Sixty Wistar rats were randomly and equally divided into normal, control, alendronate and PDG (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) groups. Bone tissue parameters, including length, transverse diameter, weight, ...

  15. Skin Protective Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is a catechin and an abundant polyphenol in green tea. Although several papers have evaluated EGCG as a cosmetic constituent, the skin hydration effect of EGCG is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the mechanism by which EGCG promotes skin hydration by measuring hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS and hyaluronidase (HYAL gene expression and antioxidant and anti-pigmentation properties using cell proliferation assay, Western blotting analysis, luciferase assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis. RT-PCR showed that EGCG increased the expression of natural moisturizing factor-related genes filaggrin (FLG, transglutaminase-1, HAS-1, and HAS-2. Under UVB irradiation conditions, the expression level of HYAL was decreased in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, we confirmed the antioxidant activity of EGCG and also showed a preventive effect against radical-evoked apoptosis by downregulation of caspase-8 and -3 in HaCaT cells. EGCG reduced melanin secretion and production in melanoma cells. Together, these results suggest that EGCG might be used as a cosmetic ingredient with positive effects on skin hydration, moisture retention, and wrinkle formation, in addition to radical scavenging activity and reduction of melanin generation.

  16. The judicial process: an overview from the TDA Council on Ethics and Judicial Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Roy N

    2011-08-01

    From time to time, the Council on Ethics and Judicial Affairs must investigate and act on the alleged unethical behavior of Texas Dental Association members. Because the alleged behavior is directed at a colleague and TDA member, the work of the council is neither comfortable nor inviting. Nonetheless, council decisions are made taking into account its mission to investigate the allegation between the parties and to improve dental ethics in the state.

  17. 31 CFR 357.23 - Judicial proceedings-sovereign immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial proceedings-sovereign immunity. 357.23 Section 357.23 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.23 Judicial proceedings—sovereign immunity. (a) Department...

  18. Semantic Storyboard of Judicial Debates: A Novel Multimedia Summarization Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersini, E.; Sartori, F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The need of tools for content analysis, information extraction and retrieval of multimedia objects in their native form is strongly emphasized into the judicial domain: digital videos represent a fundamental informative source of events occurring during judicial proceedings that should be stored, organized and retrieved in short time and…

  19. Political Science, The Judicial Process, and A Legal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Application of the behavioral approach to the study of the judicial process is examined including methodological approaches used, typical findings, and "behavioralists'" rejection of the case method of studying law. The author concludes that the behavioral approach to the study of judicial politics has not been substantially productive. (JT)

  20. Judicial Process, Grade Eight. Resource Unit (Unit V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This resource unit, developed by the University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies, introduces eighth graders to the judicial process. The unit was designed with two major purposes in mind. First, it helps pupils understand judicial decision-making, and second, it provides for the study of the rights guaranteed by the federal Constitution. Both…

  1. 12 CFR 747.41 - Stays pending judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stays pending judicial review. 747.41 Section... of Practice and Procedure § 747.41 Stays pending judicial review. The commencement of proceedings for... part of its order pending a final decision on a petition for review of that order. ...

  2. [The judicialization of health in the Federal District of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Machado, Teresa Robichez de Carvalho; Penalva, Janaina

    2014-02-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the Judiciary's approach with respect to demands for the judicialization of the right to health by means of a case study of civil lawsuits for access to health care in Brazil's Federal District. Judicialization of the right to health signifies the judicialization of various of the health services provided. This is a descriptive and exploratory case study that covers the Federal District and uses mixed techniques to gather and analyze data. This study analyzed 385 lawsuits (87% of the total number of cases of judicialization of health for the period from 2005 to 2010 that reached the Appellate court). The results indicate that the most judicialized service is access to intensive care unit, followed by drugs and health care. Almost all lawsuits are filed by public defenders, with medical prescriptions and recommendations from the public health service. The results of this study challenge some dominant themes in the national debate, particularly the claim that judicialization is a phenomenon of the elites and that the services judicialized are drugs. The study does not seek to make generalizations, but highlights the fact that the phenomenon of judicialization of health has different aspects encompassed under the same concept.

  3. Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Medicinal Plant Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Shin, Dong O; Hong, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts against oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 48 medicinal plants, which were reported to have antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effect were prepared and screened for their protective activity against chemically-induced and radiation-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Thirty three samples showed protective activity against chemically-induced oxidative stress in various extent. Among those samples, extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis revealed the strongest activity (25.9% at 100 μg/ml) with relatively lower cytotoxicity. Seven other samples showed higher than 20% protection at 100 μg/ml. These samples were tested for protection activity against radiation-induced oxidative stress. Methanol extract of Alpina officinarum showed the highest activity (17.8% at 20 μg/ml). Five fractions were prepared from the each 10 methanol extracts which showed high protective activity against oxidative stress. Among those fraction samples butanol fractions of Areca catechu var. dulcissima and Spirodela polyrrhiza showed the highest protective activities (78.8% and 77.2%, respectively, at 20 μg/ml)

  4. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Ito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs. We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm2, and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation.

  5. The judicialization of territorial politics in Brazil, Colombia and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Ferreira do Vale

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explains how judicial review influences intergovernmental political dynamics in Brazil, Colombia and Spain. The argument is developed in light of two questions: how supreme courts have established themselves as pivotal institutions for settling vertical intergovernmental disputes, and how national and subnational politicians use judicial review in order to enhance their own interests. A comparison between the judicial review processes in federal Brazil, quasi-federal Spain, and unitary Colombia provides an answer to these questions. Accounting for the differences in the territorial organization and systems of government among these countries, the article assesses the patterns of judicial review originating from the subnational level. Findings suggest that courts affect the interaction between national and subnational politicians in the three country-cases, but through different patterns of judicialization of territorial politics.

  6. Could caffeine have some vaso protective effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago, Lorena; Barrera, Gladys; Zuniga, Carolina and others

    2004-01-01

    Coffee is the most consumed hot drink in the world. it is part of the current and cultural diet of our society. There is a myth around coffee, considering it injurious based on clinical studies, whose results have been contradictory and without a solid scientific support. Nevertheless, in the last few years, there have been studies that describe the kindness of the coffee upon convecting, digestive and cardiovascular system. We want to present the vasodilator effect of caffeine in a experimental model that used aorta rings of normal and hipercholesterolemic rabbits, mounted in a organ bath system (Kent scientific corporation, Litchfield CT containing krebs, solution. The solution was kept at 37 Celsius degrade and aerated continuously with a 95% o 2 5% CO 2 gas mixture. The rings were pre contracted with norepinephrine (-5.5 log m) and relaxed with nitroglycerin (endothelium independent relaxation), acetylcholine (endothelium dependant relaxation) and caffeine

  7. In the shadow of the judge : The involvement of judicial assistants in Dutch district courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holvast, N.L.

    2017-01-01

    While judicial assistants occupy a central position in all types of court systems, the contribution of these staff members to the process of adjudication remains largely unknown, even though their involvement can have significant effects on the perceived quality and credibility of adjudication. This

  8. Soft law in EU Competition Law and its judicial reception in member states : A theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Z.R.

    2015-01-01

    This work draws from accounts on the nature and legal effects of soft law instruments in EU and international law with the ultimate aim to construct a theoretical framework for recognition of EU competition soft law—guidelines, communications, notices, and the like—in the judicial discourse of

  9. 12 CFR 908.67 - Stay of final decision and order pending judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stay of final decision and order pending... Hearing and Post-hearing Proceedings § 908.67 Stay of final decision and order pending judicial review... the effectiveness of all or any part of an order of the Board of Directors pending a final decision on...

  10. Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki

    2007-01-01

    Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

  11. The ecological effectiveness of protected areas: the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaston, K.J.; Charman, K.; Jackson, S.F.; Armsworth, P.R.; Bonn, A.; Briers, R.A.; Callaghan, C.S.Q.; Catchpole, R.; Hopkins, J.; Kunin, W.E.; Latham, J.; Opdam, P.F.M.; Stoneman, R.; Stroud, D.A.; Tratt, R.

    2006-01-01

    Given the importance placed on protected areas, determining their effectiveness in representing and maintaining biodiversity is a core issue in conservation biology. Nonetheless, frameworks identifying the breadth of issues associated with this effectiveness, and case studies of how well these are

  12. The protective effect of plasma antioxidants during ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozone (O3) therapy forms part of a group of complementary and alternative medical therapies and is gaining more and more interest worldwide. There is, however, some concern regarding O3-toxicity and uncertainty about the effectiveness of O3-therapy. In this study we investigated the possible protective effects of the ...

  13. Protective effect of Carica papaya fruit extract against gamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation side effects have been reported to induce oxidative stress by free radical generation. The protective effect of Carica papaya (CP) fruit extract, vitamins C and E against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage on postnatal developing rat cerebellum was studied. Forty-two female Wistar rats were mated and ...

  14. RESTRICTION OF RIGHTS OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN RUSSIA AS A SUBJECT OF JUDICIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vinogradova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the issue of the regulation of the Russian state’s control over the activities of non-governmental organizations and the limits to that control. Important changes made in 2014–2016 in the regulation of the organization and activity of judicial power show that the tasks of transformation of the judicial power structure, establishment of effective control mechanisms and strengthening of the requirements on substantiation of court judgments have become more topical. Addressing this issue and taking it as the subject of study are motivated by the small number of works dealing with this issue. The task of enhancing the effectiveness of the exercise of their powers by public authorities necessitates consideration of special features of judicial control over disputes related to restriction of rights. The adoption of the Administrative Procedure Code of the Russian Federation and the statutory formalization of special features of judicial control with respect to certain non-commercial organizations imply changes in judicial practice related to challenging the decisions made by public authorities. In addition to special procedural features such changes also facilitate the spread in law enforcement practice of legal arrangements like the ‘proportionality test’ and determining the balance between competing constitutional values and conditions of public order observance. The analysis carried out by the author reveals tendencies of improvement in legislative action and allows identification of future lines of improvement in judicial practice.

  15. O protagonismo judicial e as políticas públicas / The judicial leadership and public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Amorim

    2016-07-01

                                     Abstract: This study aims to analyze the judicial control of public policies. Thus, the doctrinal concept of these policies will be explained, and the delimitation of political harvest and develops. A brief overview of the division of powers is necessary, in order to better define what can be considered as judicial activism. About this same theme of activism, will be shown that there is no consensus on their classification, but it depends on the time and place to be analyzed. A relevant discussion on the possible Reserve Theory is demonstrated, as well as whether or not their use when analyzing the legitimacy of judicial intervention in the sphere of activities of the other two branches of government. Finally, the subject of judicial intervention at the present time will be studied, and their possible consequences for democracy. Keywords: Public policy; Judicial activism; Possible reserve theory.

  16. Is judicial integrity a norm?
    An inquiry into the concept of judicial integrity in England and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Soeharno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort is being made to safeguard judicial integrity – but what is it? In this article, two discourses on judicial integrity will be outlined: one in which judicial integrity is said to be at stake and one in which the emphasis lies on safeguarding judicial integrity. These discourses are by no means homogeneous. Not only are there considerable differences between the English and the Dutch discourses, there are also differences within each discourse regarding the use and meaning of integrity. In order to gain a better understanding of the concept, normative theory is consulted. From a rule of law perspective, integrity as the proper professional character of an official appears to be a presupposed norm. From the perspective of democracy, integrity appears as the norm that correlates with public trust. Expounding on these norms – integrity as professional character and integrity as external accountability – enables a better understanding of the discourses on judicial integrity.

  17. Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Fausto; Rosado, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Protected areas are home to biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem as well as a critical component of human well-being and a generator of leisure-related revenues. However, management is sometimes unsatisfactory and requires new ways of evaluation. Management effectiveness of 36 protected areas in southern Ecuador have been assessed. The protected areas belong to three categories: Heritage of Natural Areas of the Ecuadorian State (PANE), created and funded by the State, Areas of Forest and Protective Vegetation (ABVP), created but no funded by the State, and private reserves, declared and funded by private entities. Management effectiveness was evaluated by answers of managers of the protected areas to questionnaires adapted to the socio-economic and environmental characteristics of the region. Questions were classified into six elements of evaluation: context, planning, inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes as recommended by IUCN. Results were classified into four levels: unsatisfactory, slightly satisfactory, satisfactory and very satisfactory. The PANE areas and private reserves showed higher management effectiveness levels (satisfactory and very satisfactory) than ABVP areas, where slightly satisfactory and unsatisfactory levels prevailed. Resources availability was found as the main reason behind this difference. The extension, age and province of location were found irrelevant. Outputs, inputs and processes require main efforts to improve management effectiveness. Improving planning and input in the PANE areas and inputs and outcomes on ABVP areas is necessary to obtain a similar result in all areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Methods of gonad protection against effects of chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, A

    1994-05-01

    Together with increasing therapeutic effectiveness neoplastic diseases, the interest in late consequences of adverse effects of chemotherapy is increasing. Such problems include disturbances of gonad function. Treatment of neoplastic diseases leads frequently to infertility and hormonal disturbances resulting from damages to the gonads. Many attempts have been undertaken at protection of the gonads against unfavourable action of drugs. They are based mainly on the "interruption" of the hypothalamo-hypophyseo-gonadal axis in order to make the gonads quiescent. Other direction includes the influence on the metabolism of oncological drugs aimed at inhibition of the development of gonadotoxic derivatives. Another method includes appropriate choice of cytostatics: antimetabolites exert weaker unfavourable action on the gonads than alkylating drugs. The problem of gonad protection remains open. Searching is necessary for drugs without gonadotoxic action and effective methods of protection.

  19. Public Litigation and the Concept of “Deference” in Judicial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Klaasen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitutional Court is the highest court in all constitutional matters and thus decides appeals from other courts in disputes involving natural and juristic persons and the state, including criminal matters, if the matter is a constitutional matter or an issue connected with a decision on a constitutional matter. The Court may hear any matter, if the Constitutional Court grants leave to appeal because the matter raises an arguable point of law of general public importance that ought to be considered by that court. The Constitution makes it clear that courts are independent and subject only to the Constitution and the law. All persons to whom and organs of state to which a court order or decision applies are bound by it. It is important that the courts employ a standard of judicial review that is compatible with constitutional principles and values. The Constitutional Court subscribes to a standard of “deference” in judicial review. This principle recognises the need to protect the institutional character of each of the three arms of government in a manner that will prevent their ability to discharge their constitutional role being undermined. The principle of deference concerns the function of the judge in mediating between the law and legislative and executive politics. Around the world, litigation or judicial review has become immensely popular as a treatment for the pains of modern governance. South Africa is no exception to this phenomenon. This activism by litigation consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental change, or stasis. Organisations and individuals often disregard or distrust the political process and approach the courts to advance their own interest and to protect their own rights. Litigants seek to enforce constitutional principles and values that affect others as directly as them and that are valued for moral or political reasons and are independent of economic

  20. ATIVISMO JUDICIAL E ESTADO DE DIREITO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Dieder Reverbel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho insere-se na Teoria do Estado e no Direito Constitucional. Parte da natural sociabilidade do humano para demonstrar que o Estado de Direito nasce para servir a pessoa, e esta abdica parte de sua liberdade em prol de um convívio harmônico e pacífico dentro da sociedade. Delimita, mesmo que não desenvolva, o que entende ser os princípios de Estado de Direito. Após, insere o estudo dentro das duas principais famílias de direito: common law e romano-germânica; apresentando o princípío prevalente em cada uma delas: legalidade e processualidade. Desenvolve distinção de McILWIAN entre  jurisdictio y gubernaculum, pois o Estado de Direito só pode ser aquele que delimite e proteja uma área restrita à  Política, e uma área restrita ao  Direito. Por fim, antes da conclusão e da bibliografia, mostramos  os  entraves que o  ativismo judicial  – inclusive colacionando jurisprudências – tem gerado para o florescimento de um Estado de Direito racional.

  1. Evaluation on effects of isradipine on renal protection by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fengpo; Dong Shenan; Zhang Wei; Wu Xinghong; Lu Guoyuan

    1999-01-01

    The protective effects of isradipine on renal function were evaluated in a study on 40 patients with mild-moderate essential hypertension. Isradipine was administered at ado-sage of 2.5 mg twice daily for 4 weeks after receiving placebo for one week. SPECT were used for detecting renal function. The results of these evaluation indicated that there was significantly increasing in ERPF and GFR (P<0.01) and significant decreasing in resistance of renal vessel (P<0.01), and FF remained unchanged. It suggests that isradipine has a protective effect on renal function and it is beneficial for the long-term therapy

  2. [Mistakes and omissions in judicial reports prepared in emergency services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turla, Ahmet; Aydin, Berna; Sataloğlu, Neva

    2009-03-01

    We aimed in this study to determine any mistakes or omissions made while preparing judicial reports, which contribute to the judicial process. In this study, we evaluated as samples 351 judicial reports of victims who applied to the Emergency Service of Ondokuz Mayis University between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2005 with respect to the judicial facts, and we recorded any mistakes or omissions of data in these reports. We determined that there was no record of age in 6% of the judicial reports, of examination time in 71.8%, of traumatic lesion or not in 30.5%, of the state of consciousness in 58.7%, and of the presence or not of life-threatening risks in 2.6%. The name of the physician who prepared the report was not provided in 8.0% of the reports. The most important omission is that none of the reports had the name, surname or signature of the person who had taken the prepared report. We concluded that, after graduation, it is necessary for physicians, who are responsible for both treating the patients and writing judicial reports, to attend in-service training programs. They must also be properly advised regarding their responsibilities in judicial cases.

  3. Protective effect of Adeturone on E.coli survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldzhijska, M.; Minkova, M.; Pantev, T.

    1980-01-01

    Antiradiation potencies of AET, ATP, and the preparation Adeturone (AET salt of ATP) were studied in terms of E.coli survival following exposure to gamma-ray doses ranging from 1.29 K/kg to 20.64 K/kg AET was found to provide protection only in the case of the highest of three concentrations used, 625 micrograms per milliliter. ATP concentrations of 587 mcg/ml proved ineffective whether used solely or in a mixture with 262.5 mcg/ml of AET. These ineffective AET and ATP concentrations are equimolar with the amounts of AET and ATP contained in Adeturone. The latter showed a protective effect when applied at 625 mcg/ml, but failed to protect at a lower (312 mcg/ml) or at higher (1250 mcg/ml and 1500 mcg/ml) concentrations. Confirmative evidence was thus obtained that chemical binding of the two protectors raises the effectiveness of the combination

  4. In the Name of Effective Consumer Protection and Public Policy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2016-01-01

    I. The CJEU has established that under certain circumstances national courts have an obligation, ex officio, to apply specific consumer protection provisions. This article presents a model derived from the argumentation for this obligation in CJEU case law. The model consists of four steps...... that include the specific ideas behind consumer protection provisions as well as the interaction between the principle of effectiveness and principle of equivalence. It is found that the principle of effectiveness is stretched very long and is often not set aside by the “rule of reason”. It is also found...... that the CJEU is open to the idea of regarding consumer protection provisions as (EU) public policy rules which seems to challenge the traditional principle of equivalence. Based on the findings, the author elaborates on the concept of an European public policy doctrine....

  5. Protective effect of Adeturone on E. coli survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldzhijska, M; Minkova, M; Pantev, T [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya

    1980-01-01

    Antiradiation potencies of AET, ATP, and the preparation Adeturone (AET salt of ATP) were studied in terms of E.coli survival following exposure to gamma-ray doses ranging from 1.29 K/kg to 20.64 K/kg AET was found to provide protection only in the case of the highest of three concentrations used, 625 micrograms per milliliter. ATP concentrations of 587 mcg/ml proved ineffective whether used solely or in a mixture with 262.5 mcg/ml of AET. These ineffective AET and ATP concentrations are equimolar with the amounts of AET and ATP contained in Adeturone. The latter showed a protective effect when applied at 625 mcg/ml, but failed to protect at a lower (312 mcg/ml) or at higher (1250 mcg/ml and 1500 mcg/ml) concentrations. Confirmative evidence was thus obtained that chemical binding of the two protectors raises the effectiveness of the combination.

  6. Protective effect of lead aprons in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an ongoing study regarding the protective effect that lead aprons, as used in medical radiology, have on the resulting effective dose for medical personnel. By means of model calculations we have analyzed the protection efficacy of lead aprons for various lead thicknesses, in function of tube potential and of variations in exposure geometry as they occur in practice. The degree of efficacy appears to be highly dependent on the fit of aprons because of the dominating influence of the equivalent dose of partially unshielded organs on the resulting effective dose. Also by model calculations we investigated the ratio between the effective dose and the operational quantify for personal dose monitoring. Our study enables the choice of appropriate correction factors for convering personal dosimetry measurements into effective dose, for typical exposure situations in medical radiology. (orig.) [de

  7. Swazi men's perception of the protective effect of male circumcision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    about the protective effect of circumcision against STIs including HIV, and its implication to the mass MC strategy. .... In addition, permission to conduct the study was also granted by the FLAS Research and Evaluation Unit. ..... Willingness to be circumcised for preventing HIV among Chinese men who have sex with men.

  8. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, Convolvulaceae) extract (IBE) in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its anti-oxidant properties. Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

  9. Effects of rumen-protected tryptophan on performance, nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... sources high in rumen-protected Trp (RPT) can be fed to complement the ... collected into plastic containers containing 50 ml of 50% HCl to prevent NH3 .... growth, higher Trp availability could have exerted an effect also on ...

  10. Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Sempervivum tectorum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Sempervivum tectorum L ( Crassulaceae ) on Aluminium-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Blood. ... Results: Aluminium (Al) exposure increased, compared to control group, the level of blood Al (293.64 %, p 0.05), glutathione ...

  11. Safety and protective effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protective effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei, isolated from fresh cow milk, was studied in vivo. Toxicological data of rat serum revealed that the Lactobacillus isolates had liver improvement functions. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities of the rats dosed with Lactobacillus isolates ...

  12. Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study assessed the protective role of vitamin E in alleviating the detrimental effect of nicotine on reproductive functions in male rats. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four groups of six rats. Control group was treated orally with 1.1 ml/kg body weight normal saline, nicotine treated group received 1.0 ...

  13. Protective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on ultraviolet b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... EGCg shows dose-dependent protective effect against UV-B-induced damage on hairless mouse skin. Thus, the plant compound can potentially be used as an alternative agent for photoprotection against UV-B exposure. Keywords: UV-B, Green tea EGCg, Photoprotection, Stratum corneum, Mitochondrion, Melanosome ...

  14. Protective effect of vanillic acid on ovariectomy-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The need for an anti-osteoporotic agent is in high demand since osteoporosis contributes to high rates of disability or impairment (high osteoporotic fracture), morbidity and mortality. Hence, the present study is designed to evaluate the protective effects of vanillic acid (VA) against bilateral ovariectomy-induced ...

  15. The reno-protective effects of dietary caloric restriction against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that dietary caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition can increase longevity. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of CR on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory cytokines in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty 12-week old male Wistar rats, weighing ...

  16. The protective effects of good parenting on adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Elise R; Ginsburg, Kenneth R

    2005-08-01

    To explore recent developments in the literature regarding parenting practices and adolescent development, with a focus on parenting style, parental monitoring, communication, and supervision. There have been significant recent advances in the study of the relationship between parenting and adolescent development. Several recent intervention studies with a parenting component demonstrated immediate and long-term protective effects on adolescent risk behavior. Parent-child connectedness and authoritative parenting style are protective for teens. Parental monitoring has a protective effect on many adolescent risk behaviors in both middle-class populations and poor urban environments and has been shown both to moderate the effect of peer influence and to persist into late adolescence. Whereas unsupervised time, exposure to sexual possibility situations, and out-of-home care increase sexual behavior, improved parent-child communication reduces sexual risk behaviors. Recent scholarship demonstrates the significant, enduring, and protective influence of positive parenting practices on adolescent development. In particular, parental monitoring, open parent-child communication, supervision, and high quality of the parent-child relationship deter involvement in high-risk behavior. Authoritative parenting generally leads to the best outcomes for teens. Clinicians should find opportunities to discuss evidence-based parenting practices with families. Future research should focus on the development and long-term evaluation of effective parenting interventions.

  17. Protective Effect of Bombyx mori L Cocoon (Abresham) and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Protective Effect of Bombyx mori L Cocoon (Abresham) and its ... agonist, at high doses, has been reported to produce ... 12:12 h. Standard pellet diet and tap water were ... induction of myocardial injury on the scheduled ... Total protein in of B. mori cocoon (Abresham) ..... The authors thank Professor SK Maulik, Head,.

  18. Protective effect of plant polysaccharides against radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bingji; Huang Shafei; Cheng Lurong

    1989-01-01

    A series of polysaccharides have been isolated from Chinese traditional medicinal herbs and tested in mice subjected to ionizing radiation for their protective action. The polysaccharides from different origins showed various degrees of radioprotection. Those isolated from Hericium erinaceus and Armillaria mellea showed a higher radioprotective effect than some other polysaccharides. They could increase the survival rate of irradiated mice to 60%. But the polysaccheride separated from Apocynum venetum has negligible effect. In general, most of these polysaccharides are effective only on administration before irradiation. No apparent protection was observed when given post irradiation. The polysaccharide isolated from Armillaria venetum could raise the survival rate of mice irradiated by lethal dose of γ-rays to 58%. It is effective even when administered after irradiation. Some work has been carried out to clarify the mechanism of radioprotective action of polysaccharides. Protection of hemapoietic organs, regulation of immunological system, induction of release of some endogeneous bioactive substances in the organism and reduction of oxygen tension in some vital tissues may be correlated with the protection of organism against radiation injury

  19. 28 CFR 541.23 - Protection cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection cases. 541.23 Section 541.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE... present documentary evidence, to request witnesses, to be present throughout the hearing, and advance...

  20. Judicialization of International Relations: Do International Courts Matter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíř, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 208-224 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : judicialization * international relations * legal and extralegal factors Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  1. Judicial Review of Antitrust Decisions: Q&A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giovagnoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The RIA/IAR asked several experts to give their opinion on the Italian system of judicial review of antitrust decisions and its compatibility with art. 6 of the ECHR following a set of common questions.

  2. Page JUDICIAL PRECEDENT IN THE NIGERIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Judicial precedent is a basic principle of the administration of justice in .... precedent assume a natural position that is not different from any other ... L. Alexander, Precedent in a Companion to Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory 503-513,.

  3. Judicial Decisions in the Field of Labour Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Review, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes recent judicial decisions in various countries concerning application of general legal principles to labor law, access to employment, conditions of employment, occupational safety and health, social security, and labor relations. (Author/SK)

  4. Canadian Cases before the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council

    OpenAIRE

    MacMillan, Catharine

    2015-01-01

    A paper by Professor Catharine MacMillan (Professor of Law and Legal History, University of Reading) exploring the enduring legacy of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council on the development of Canadian law.

  5. Review of the effects of protection in marine protected areas: current knowledge and gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojeda–Martínez, C.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs and the conservation of marine environments must be based on reliable information on the quality of the marine environment that can be obtained in a reasonable timeframe. We reviewed studies that evaluated all aspects related to the effectiveness of MPAs in order to describe how the studies were conducted and to detect fields in which research is lacking. Existing parameters used to evaluate the effectiveness of MPAs are summarised. Two-hundred and twenty-two publications were reviewed. We identified the most commonly used study subjects and methodological approaches. Most of the studies concentrated on biological parameters. Peer reviewed studies were based on control vs. impact design. BACI and mBACI designs were used in very few studies. Through this review, we have identified gaps in the objectives assigned to MPAs and the way in which they have been evaluated. We suggest some guidelines aimedat improving the assessment of the effects of protection in MPAs.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of the protective effect of respirators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio

    1983-01-01

    The present status and related problems of the quantitative evaluation method for respirator efficiency are generally reviewed. As the introduction, the special features of various types of respirators are summarized, and the basic concept of leakage and the protection factor are explained. As for the quantitative measurement of the protective efficiency, the features of various existing man-test methods such as NaCl aerosol man-test, DOP (dioctyl phthalate) man-test, and SF 6 gas man-test are reviewed and discussed. As the important problems associated with those man-tests, the following aspects are discussed. The measurement of the aerosol concentration within masks; the calculation method for the protection factor; the effect of beards. The examples of measuring the protection factor are also explained for the following respirator systems: half mask respirator with a high efficiency filter; full face mask respirator with a high efficiency filter; demand mode and pressure-demand mode respirators; and mound suit with suspenders. Finally, the outline of the manual of respiratory protection published by NRC in 1976 is briefly reviewed. (Aoki, K.)

  7. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Michael D

    2017-05-19

    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  8. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun; Dong, Kyung Rae; Han, Seung Moo

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment

  9. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  10. Legislation and judicial practice on illegitimate children in 19th century Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal position of non-marital children according to 19th century Serbian legislature and judicial practice is examined in this paper. Provisions and court decisions on personal rights, property rights and rights of succession of illegitimate children are presented and critically analyzed. Children born out of wedlock were not equal to children born in lawful marriage. Therefore, significance of legalization of illegitimate children regarding improvement of their legal status is accentuated. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Serbian 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, legislative and judicial attempts to protect their interests and improve their legal position are emphasized in this paper. Beside legalization, adoption was also the way to better position of illegitimate children in great extent, as adopted child was granted the status of a child born in lawful marriage. That is a reason why judicial practice concerning adoption, widespread in 19th century Serbia, is scrutinized and critically analyzed in the article.

  11. The effect of crop protection strategy on pest and beneficials incidence in protected crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, I; Rodrigues, S; Figueiredo, E; Godinho, M C; Marques, C; Amaro, F; Mexia, A

    2002-01-01

    This study took place in the Oeste region from 1996-1999 and it intended to analyse if the crop protection strategy followed by the farmer influenced the arthropod incidence and the natural control in protected vegetable crops under Mediterranean conditions. The observations were made fortnightly (Autumn/Winter) or weekly (Spring/Summer) in 30-60 plants/parcel (1 plant/35 m2) in order to evaluate incidences. Samples of pests and natural enemies were collected for systematic identification in two greenhouses for each protection strategy (traditional chemical control (TCC), integrated pest management (IPM) and pest control allowed in organic farming (OF)) in lettuce, tomato, green beans and cucumber. Data on incidence of mites, aphids, caterpillars, leafminers, whiteflies, thrips and respective natural enemies were registered as well as phytosanitary treatments performed (farmers' information and/or in loco traces). The leafminers were the pest whose incidence more often presented significant statistical differences between the studied protection strategies. In relation to this pest, the main results obtained were: a higher feeding punctures incidence in TCC than in IPM; higher incidence of adults, mines and feeding punctures in TCC than in OF; and a higher mines' incidence in IPM than in OF. Both in TCC and IPM high percentages of plants with mines were found although without an adult proportional presence. In the first case this was due to the repeatedly phytosanitary treatments applied; in the second case it was due to the natural control, since in IPM and OF greenhouses the collected larvae were mostly parasitized or dead. In spite of the fact these two strategies have as final result a similar mines and adults incidence, their production and environmental costs are quite different. Significant differences at the beneficials' population level between TCC greenhouses and IPM or OF greenhouses were found. As the farmers did no biological treatments these

  12. Radiation protection in the age of accountability - measuring our effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Effectiveness and accountability were catch-words of the 1980s for public and private enterprises. This mood has persisted into the current decade and radiation protection authorities have not escaped the organisational microscope. But whereas simple models and measures of effectiveness can be applied to most private companies and government agencies, organisations in the regulatory and preventative health areas cannot be assessed by the same criteria. These organisations are fundamentally different because their primary objective is one of minimisation. This paper looks at options for measuring and reporting the effectiveness of radiation protection organisations. Some performance indicators are proposed and evaluated. The intention is not, however, to present a 'solution' to this apparently vexing problem. Indeed, the answer may be that there is none. 11 refs., 4 figs

  13. Energy evaluation of protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Tomasz; Dobry, Marian Witalis

    2017-09-01

    This article describes an energy method of assessing protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves on the human dynamic structure. The study uses dynamic models of the human and the glove specified in Standard No. ISO 10068:2012. The physical models of human-tool systems were developed by combining human physical models with a power tool model. The combined human-tool models were then transformed into mathematical models from which energy models were finally derived. Comparative energy analysis was conducted in the domain of rms powers. The energy models of the human-tool systems were solved using numerical simulation implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation procedure demonstrated the effectiveness of the anti-vibration glove as a method of protecting human operators of hand-held power tools against vibration. The desirable effect is achieved by lowering the flow of energy in the human-tool system when the anti-vibration glove is employed.

  14. Effectiveness of eye drops protective against ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxer, A; Blumthaler, M; Schreder, J; Ettl, A

    1998-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of commercially available ultraviolet (UV)-protective eye drops (8-hydroxy-1-methylchinolinium methylsulphate) which are recommended for protection against both solar and artificial UV radiation. The spectral transmission in the wavelength range from 250 to 500 nm was investigated in 1-nm steps using a high-resolution double monochromator with holographic gratings of 2,400 lines/mm and a 1,000-watt halogen lamp as light source. The transmission spectrum was measured for different values of the layer thickness. The transmission of a liquid layer of about 10 microns, which corresponds to the thickness of the human tear film, shows a cut-off at 290 nm with a transmission of about 25-50% at shorter wavelengths. For wavelengths longer than 290 nm the transmission is higher than 90%. The threshold time ratio for keratitis formation with and without eye drops is above 0.93 considering solar radiation on the earth's surface and above 0.65 considering radiation from arc-welding, respectively. The transmission spectrum of the eye drops under realistic conditions does not show a protective effect against solar UV radiation. However, there exists reduction of UVC radiation in the spectral range typical of artificial UV sources such as arc-welding. We cannot recommend the application of these eye drops as an UV-protective aid against eye damage by solar UV radiation.

  15. Effect of Remote Back-Up Protection System Failure on the Optimum Routine Test Time Interval of Power System Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Damchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate operation of protection system is one of the effective factors to have a desirable reliability in power systems, which vitally needs routine test of protection system. Precise determination of optimum routine test time interval (ORTTI plays a vital role in predicting the maintenance costs of protection system. In the most previous studies, ORTTI has been determined while remote back-up protection system was considered fully reliable. This assumption is not exactly correct since remote back-up protection system may operate incorrectly or fail to operate, the same as the primary protection system. Therefore, in order to determine the ORTTI, an extended Markov model is proposed in this paper considering failure probability for remote back-up protection system. In the proposed Markov model of the protection systems, monitoring facility is taken into account. Moreover, it is assumed that the primary and back-up protection systems are maintained simultaneously. Results show that the effect of remote back-up protection system failures on the reliability indices and optimum routine test intervals of protection system is considerable.

  16. Variation in the Protective Effect of Higher Education Against Depression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies document that higher education is associated with a reduced likelihood of depression. The protective effects of higher education, however, are known to vary across population subgroups. This study tests competing theories for who is likely to obtain a greater protective benefit from a college degree against depression through an analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and recently developed methods for analyzing heterogeneous treatment effects involving the use of propensity scores. The analysis examines how the effects of two “treatments” (at least some college education and attaining at least a four-year college degree) on latent depressive symptomology vary by background disadvantage, as indicated by having a low propensity for completing some college or attaining a four-year college degree. Results indicate that people from disadvantaged backgrounds realize a greater protective effect of higher education, either completing some college or attaining a four-year degree, against depressive symptomology than people from advantaged backgrounds. This pattern is more pronounced for people who attain at least a four-year degree than for people who complete at least some college education. PMID:27840772

  17. Kári á Rógvi, West-Nordic Constitutional Judicial Review: A Comparative Study of Scandinavian Judicial Review and Judicial Reasoning (Copenhagen: Djøf Publishing, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Johnstone

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of the following book: Kári á Rógvi, West-Nordic Constitutional Judicial Review: A Comparative Study of Scandinavian Judicial Review and Judicial Reasoning (Copenhagen: Djøf Publishing, 2013. pp. 364, 45.00 GBP (paperback. ISBN: 8757429154

  18. Effective Hamiltonian for protected edge states in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Deshpande, H.

    2017-01-01

    Edge states in topological insulators (TIs) disperse symmetrically about one of the time-reversal invariant momenta Λ in the Brillouin zone (BZ) with protected degeneracies at Λ. Commonly TIs are distinguished from trivial insulators by the values of one or multiple topological invariants that require an analysis of the bulk band structure across the BZ. We propose an effective two-band Hamiltonian for the electronic states in graphene based on a Taylor expansion of the tight-binding Hamiltonian about the time-reversal invariant M point at the edge of the BZ. This Hamiltonian provides a faithful description of the protected edge states for both zigzag and armchair ribbons, though the concept of a BZ is not part of such an effective model. In conclusion, we show that the edge states are determined by a band inversion in both reciprocal and real space, which allows one to select Λ for the edge states without affecting the bulk spectrum.

  19. Considering the consequences of increased reliance on judicial assistants: A study on Dutch courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holvast, N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all judicial systems employ judicial staff members to assist judges in their work. However, except for US Supreme Court law clerks the role of these judicial assistants in judicial decision-making is minimally understood. This observation also holds true for the Netherlands, where an

  20. An Effective Method for Protecting the Integrity of Mobile Agent

    OpenAIRE

    YARAHMADI, H.; KAMANKESH, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A mobile agent is software which performs an action autonomously and independently as a person or organizations assistance. Mobile agents are used for searching information, retrieval information, filtering, intruder recognition in networks, and so on. One of the important issues of mobile agent is their security. It must consider different security issues in effective and secured usage of mobile agent. One of those issues is the integrity’s protection of mobile agents.In this paper...

  1. Protective effect of corticosteroids on radiation pneumonitis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, N.J.; Narine, K.R.; Wade, R.

    1988-01-01

    We explored the protective effect of corticosteroids on the mortality of mice that received thoracic irradiation. Methylprednisolone, 100 mg/kg/week, given from 11 weeks after gamma irradiation of the thorax resulted in an increase in the LD50 (11-26 weeks) from 14.3 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SE) Gy to 17.6 +/- 0.4 Gy, P less than 0.001, a protection factor of 1.2. Withdrawal of steroids at various times during the period of radiation pneumonitis resulted in accelerated mortality in the next 2-4 weeks, so that the cumulative mortality caught up with that of control animals by 4 weeks after steroid withdrawal. However, after the end of the usual period of pneumonitis withdrawal of steroids did not result in accelerated mortality, suggesting that the time when steroids are protective corresponds to the duration of pneumonitis. A smaller dose of steroids, 25 mg/kg/week, was found to be as protective as the larger dose used in the above experiments. The possibility that corticosteroids reduce mortality, even when given many weeks after radiation, may have important practical and theoretical implications

  2. Protecting the fast breeders: Problem formulation and effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Recent debates on protection of the environment from ionising radiation have reached reasonable agreement over the ethical and philosophical basis of environmental protection and a recognition that a practical system of protection will need to support (at a minimum) the principles of sustainable development, biodiversity, and conservation. However, there is still some controversy over the use of dose assessment tools within risk evaluation and management. The paper uses the case of the Dounreay 'radioactive rabbits' to discuss the advantages and limitations of proposed systems, focusing primarily on the interaction between ecological risk assessment (ERA) and the reference flora and fauna approach. It concludes that the reference approach is a valuable tool for the analysis of environmental effects, but that there is a problem if it becomes the driving force of the protection framework. In particular, there is a need for a clearer focus on non-technical issues within the problem formulation stage of ERA, particularly the social, ethical, political and economic issues, and there should be a strong commitment to stakeholder involvement at this stage. The problem formulation stage should identify the relevant assessment tools; the assessment tool should dictate neither the problem formulation nor the risk management. (author)

  3. Protective Effect of HSP25 on Radiation Induced Tissue Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-01-01

    Control of cancer by irradiation therapy alone or in conjunction with combination chemotherapy is often limited by organ specific toxicity. Ionizing irradiation toxicity is initiated by damage to normal tissue near the tumor target and within the transit volume of radiotherapy beams. Irradiation-induced cellular, tissue, and organ damage is mediated by acute effects, which can be dose limiting. A latent period follows recovery from the acute reaction, then chronic irradiation fibrosis (late effects) pose a second cause of organ failure. HSP25/27 has been suggested to protect cells against apoptotic cell death triggered by hyperthermia, ionizing radiation, oxidative stress, Fas ligand, and cytotoxic drugs. And several mechanisms have been proposed to account for HSP27-mediated apoptotic protection. However radioprotective effect of HSP25/27 in vivo system has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of exogenous HSP25 expression, as delivered by adenoviral vectors, to protect animal from radiation induced tissue damage

  4. Protective Effects of Cilastatin against Vancomycin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Humanes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a very effective antibiotic for treatment of severe infections. However, its use in clinical practice is limited by nephrotoxicity. Cilastatin is a dehydropeptidase I inhibitor that acts on the brush border membrane of the proximal tubule to prevent accumulation of imipenem and toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of cilastatin on vancomycin-induced apoptosis and toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs. Porcine RPTECs were cultured in the presence of vancomycin with and without cilastatin. Vancomycin induced dose-dependent apoptosis in cultured RPTECs, with DNA fragmentation, cell detachment, and a significant decrease in mitochondrial activity. Cilastatin prevented apoptotic events and diminished the antiproliferative effect and severe morphological changes induced by vancomycin. Cilastatin also improved the long-term recovery and survival of RPTECs exposed to vancomycin and partially attenuated vancomycin uptake by RPTECs. On the other hand, cilastatin had no effects on vancomycin-induced necrosis or the bactericidal effect of the antibiotic. This study indicates that cilastatin protects against vancomycin-induced proximal tubule apoptosis and increases cell viability, without compromising the antimicrobial effect of vancomycin. The beneficial effect could be attributed, at least in part, to decreased accumulation of vancomycin in RPTECs.

  5. Dysfunctions of the contemporary family from the perspective of judicial statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANUTA KOWALCZYK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems connected with the dysfunctions of the contemporary family are the subject of the study. Judicial statistics related mostly to the proceedings of family courts have been employed in the analysis. Emphasis has been placed on the problems related to the marital bond and parental responsibility. Statistical data suggests that there are some negative phenomena in both of these realms. Divorce and separation still constitute the cause of the incompleteness of family environments. Th e level of court interference in how parental responsibility is exercised which serves to protect children from the hazards of the lack of proper care is still not decreased.

  6. Does cannabidiol protect against adverse psychological effects of THC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J.M. eNiesink

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The recreational use of cannabis can have persistent adverse effects on mental health. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, and most, if not all, of the effects associated with the use of cannabis are caused by THC. Recent studies have suggested a possible protective effect of another cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD. A literature search was performed in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science using the keyword ‘cannabidiol.’ After removing duplicate entries, 1295 unique titles remained. Based on the titles and abstracts, an initial selection was made. The reference lists of the publications identified in this manner were examined for additional references. Cannabis is not a safe drug. Depending on how often someone uses, the age of onset, the potency of the cannabis that is used and someone's individual sensitivity, the recreational use of cannabis may cause permanent psychological disorders. Most recreational users will never be faced with such persistent mental illness, but in some individuals cannabis use leads to undesirable effects: cognitive impairment, anxiety, paranoia and increased risks of developing chronic psychosis or drug addiction. Studies examining the protective effects of CBD have shown that CBD can counteract the negative effects of THC. However, the question remains of how the laboratory results translate to the types of cannabis that are encountered by real-world recreational users.

  7. Composite symmetry-protected topological order and effective models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietner, A.; Krumnow, C.; Bergholtz, E. J.; Eisert, J.

    2017-12-01

    Strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at low dimension exhibit a wealth of phenomena, ranging from features of geometric frustration to signatures of symmetry-protected topological order. In suitable descriptions of such systems, it can be helpful to resort to effective models, which focus on the essential degrees of freedom of the given model. In this work, we analyze how to determine the validity of an effective model by demanding it to be in the same phase as the original model. We focus our study on one-dimensional spin-1 /2 systems and explain how nontrivial symmetry-protected topologically ordered (SPT) phases of an effective spin-1 model can arise depending on the couplings in the original Hamiltonian. In this analysis, tensor network methods feature in two ways: on the one hand, we make use of recent techniques for the classification of SPT phases using matrix product states in order to identify the phases in the effective model with those in the underlying physical system, employing Künneth's theorem for cohomology. As an intuitive paradigmatic model we exemplify the developed methodology by investigating the bilayered Δ chain. For strong ferromagnetic interlayer couplings, we find the system to transit into exactly the same phase as an effective spin-1 model. However, for weak but finite coupling strength, we identify a symmetry broken phase differing from this effective spin-1 description. On the other hand, we underpin our argument with a numerical analysis making use of matrix product states.

  8. The usage of phase change materials in fire fighter protective clothing: its effect on thermal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengmeng

    2017-12-01

    The thermal protective performance of the fire fighter protective clothing is of vital importance for fire fighters. In the study fabrics treated by phase change materials (PCMs) were applied in the multi-layered fabrics of the fire fighter protective clothing ensemble. The PCM fabrics were placed at the different layers of the clothing and their thermal protective performance were measured by a TPP tester. Results show that with the application of the PCM fabrics the thermal protection of the multi-layered fabrics was greatly increased. The time to reach a second degree burn was largely reduced. The location of the PCM fabrics at the different layers did not affect much on the thermal protective performance. The higher amount of the PCM adds on, the higher thermal protection was brought. The fabrics with PCMs of a higher melting temperature could contribute to higher thermal protection.

  9. Training for effective environmental protection in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.; Brake, J.; Hickman, C.; Tamm, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the role of environmental training in the delivery of effective environmental protection programs for construction projects in the nuclear industry. The paper uses a case study approach, based on Point Lepreau Generating Station's Refurbishment Project, to demonstrate how the underpinning principles of 'training, awareness and competence' can be delivered within a structured environmental management framework, to achieve sustained excellence in environmental management and performance. Key issues addressed by the paper include the early identification of different target audiences, making effective use of communication themes, and the importance of reinforcement and follow-up in support of training goals. (author)

  10. UV dose-effect relationships and current protection exposure standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.S.; Campbell, G.W.

    1982-04-01

    In this paper we have attempted to quantify the health effects in man of uv-radiation exposure of wavelengths from 240 nm to 320 nm. Exposure to uv in this region could result in the formation of skin cancer or premature aging in man. The induction of cancer by uv radiation results from changes in genetic material. We have used the DNA action spectrum coupled with the uv skin cancer data available in the literature to derive the dose-effect relationships. The results are compared against the current uv protection standards

  11. Judicial System Restructuring and Modernization in Abu Dhabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Groo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a practical overview of the recently initiated modernization of Abu Dhabi’s judicial system. Beginning in 2007, Abu Dhabi’s Government launched a comprehensive effort to transform the Emirate’s judicial system. While the implementation of these reforms is ongoing, with the adoption of the law in May 2007 establishing the new judicial architecture the initial phase of the modernization program is already complete. The restructuring process encompasses court management and administration reform, a new judicial training regime, a redesigned organizational structure for the Emirate’s Judicial Department and courts, and the establishment of a system-wide strategic planning and budgeting process. Many of these initiatives are supported by applying advanced IT-based applications. Given the early achievements and ambitious broader aims of the restructuring process, Abu Dhabi’s example is relevant not only to the other Emirates within the Federal UAE system, but also within the context of the wider Middle East region.

  12. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fissore MariaF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  13. Psidium guajava Linn confers gastro protective effects on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston Raja, N R; Sundar, K

    2012-02-01

    The best alternatives to synthetic medicines, available, for the treatment of gastric ulcer disorders, are the natural products found in plants. They are known to exhibit a variety of activities. The present study is aimed at the screening of Psidium (P.) guajava Linn for its gastro protective effect. The methanol extracts of the leaves of P. guajava were tested in three different ulcer models viz. aspirin (ASP), pyloric ligation (PL) and ethanol (EtoH) induced ulcer models in rats. The treatment of P. guajava at varying doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) significantly (p guajava may be responsible for the anti-ulcer property exhibited. The results further suggest that P. guajava possess gastro protective as well as ulcer healing properties which might also be due to its anti-secretory properties.

  14. Effectiveness of Human Research Protection Program Performance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed human research protection program performance metric data of all Department of Veterans Affairs research facilities obtained from 2010 to 2016. Among a total of 25 performance metrics, 21 (84%) showed improvement, four (16%) remained unchanged, and none deteriorated during the study period. The overall improvement from these 21 performance metrics was 81.1% ± 18.7% (mean ± SD), with a range of 30% to 100%. The four performance metrics that did not show improvement all had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance metrics that showed improvement ranged from 0.05% to 60%. However, of the 21 performance metrics that showed improvement, 10 had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance measurement is an effective tool in improving the performance of human research protection programs.

  15. Protected area effectiveness against land development in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, David; Martínez-Vega, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Land use-land cover (LULC) changes towards artificial covers are one of the main global threats to biodiversity conservation. In this comprehensive study, we tested a number of methodological and research hypotheses, and a new covariate control technique in order to address common protected area (PA) assessment issues and accurately assess whether different PA networks have had an effect at preventing development of artificial LULCs in Spain, a highly biodiverse country that has experienced massive socioeconomic transformations in the past two decades. We used digital census data for four PA networks designated between 1990 and 2000: Nature Reserves (NRs), Nature Parks (NPs), Sites of Community Importance (SCIs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs). We analysed the effect of explanatory variables on the ecological effectiveness of protected polygons (PPs): Legislation stringency, cummulative legal designations, management, size, age and bio-physical characteristics. A multiple Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) semi-experimental research design was used whereby artificial land cover increase (ALCI) and proportional artificial land cover increase (PALCI) results were compared inside and outside PAs, using 1 km and 5 km buffer areas surrounding PAs as controls. LULC data were retrieved from Corine Land Cover (CLC) 1990 and 2006 data. Results from three spatial-statistical models using progressively restrictive criteria to select control areas increasingly more accurate and similar to the assessed PPs were compared. PAs were a generally effective territorial policy to prevent land development in Spain. NRs were the most effective PA category, with no new artificial land covers in the assessed period, although exact causality could not be attributed due to legal overlaps. SPAs were the least effective category, with worse ALCI data than their control areas. Legal protection was effective against land development, which was influenced by most bio-physical variables

  16. Treatnebt if Addiction - Clinical and Judicial Perspectives: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Fonseca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sporadic or chronic use of drugs and alcohol is directly related to conduct disorders and to the triggering of psychopathological states of sub-acute or chronic course. The excessive consumption of alcohol and excessive traffic/consumption of illicit drugs by individuals without mental illness or disability are actions of free will; they are therefore criminally responsible for their behaviour, even if they commit a crime during the state of intoxication, which the individual chose voluntarily to experience. In clinical practice, it is widely accepted that the treatment of these disorders is only effective when the patient accepts it voluntarily and that involuntary commitment (compulsive treatment is only carried out when the psychopathological state associated justifies the presuppositions of Article 12 of the Mental Health Law. However, if the compulsive treatment is of a penal character, mandated by a judge, the individual is obligated to accept treatment, independent of whether or not he suffers from mental illness. The authors present two case studies, one of drug addiction, the other of alcoholism, and discuss the clinical and judicial perspectives on the treatment of these clinical entities.

  17. The Recent Judicial Activism in Brazil: Desaposentação From the Perspective of Discursive Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica da Silva Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The desaposentação is a topic that for some time has raised heated debate in the Brazilian legal field. Decisions related to it constitute itself as judicial activism, in that are given by the interference of the courts in the effectiveness of this right. This article aims to analyze some discursive movements that are established in discussions on the concept of judicial activism, taking as an example the desaposentação in Brazil. It analyzes initially discursive aspects of the historical constitution of the concept of judicial activism. Then it talks about the struggles that are established around the senses built on the concept of desaposentação considering that all knowledge is made from games of speeches taken as a set of strategies that are part of social practices born in the plots history. The theoretical framework is guided in Foucault's principles speech about the concepts, wording and your order (Foucault, 1996; 2008. Methodologically assess up concepts of judicial activism, judicial and parliamentary speeches. At last, it turns out that the activist discourse in enforcing rights is permeated by strategy games, action and reaction, of domination and avoidance, as well as struggles.

  18. The Motivation of Judicial Judgments in Demands of Medications in the Context of the Crisis of Bourgeois Legality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadi Sandrini Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The provision of free medicines to the population for the treatment of diseases is regulated by Decree No. 7,508/2011, which created the National List of Essential Medicines. A problem occurs when it is asked how judges should proceed in demands of medication when the drugs desired are not in the list. It is necessary to confront the dogma that law is the law and, therefore, to demonstrate the requirements that the contemporary legal phenomenon requires for the foundations of judicial decisions when them talk about social rights. It is depicted the rise of the idea of legality within the bourgeois state. Three problems that led to the crisis of this political model of law are exposed. It is shown the process of constitucionalization of the social rights with the reform of the liberal state and, therefore, the consolidation of the desire to control the legislative political power and the legality. It is exposed how the judicial activity can consolidate the reform initiated by the constitutionalization of social rights when obstacles imposed against its effectiveness are exceeded by the judge. It will be shown the anachronism of merely loyalist decisions which deny provisionses in judicial demands of medications based on dogmas of nineteenth-century liberal state. It will be exposed the needs of serious judicial decisions which wonder about the role of the welfare state and judicial activity in the contemporary context.

  19. THE PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION OF JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa BARBU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental principles of the criminal procedure are general rules applicable throughout the criminal procedure in order to achieve its purpose. The fundamental principles are covered by art. 2-12 C.C.P. and are: the legality of criminal procedure, separating the functions of the judiciary, the presumption of innocence, finding out the truth, ne bis in idem, a requirement for moving and exercising penal action, is fair and reasonable term of the criminal trial, the right to liberty and security, the right to defence, respect for human dignity and privacy, the official language and the right to an interpreter. The European Court of Human Rights is conscious that by protecting the fundamental principles it does not only aim at the protection of super eminence of the inextricably right tied to the state of law. These principles represent a set of obligations imposed on the State that has as the sole purpose the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms.

  20. The protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciralik Harun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that brief episodes of sublethal ischemia-reperfusion, so-called ischemic preconditioning, provide powerful tissue protection in different tissues such as heart, brain, skeletal muscle, lung, liver, intestine, kidney, retina, and endothelial cells. Although a recent study has claimed that there are no protective effects of ischemic preconditioning in rat testis, the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on testicular tissue have not been investigated adequately. The present study was thus planned to investigate whether ischemic preconditioning has a protective effect on testicular tissue. Methods Rats were divided into seven groups that each contained seven rats. In group 1 (control group, only unilateral testicular ischemia was performed by creating a testicular torsion by a 720 degree clockwise rotation for 180 min. In group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5, group 6, and group 7, unilateral testicular ischemia was performed for 180 min following different periods of ischemic preconditioning. The ischemic preconditioning periods were as follows: 10 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 2; 20 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 3; 30 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 4; multiple preconditioning periods were used (3 × 10 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 5; multiple preconditioning periods were used (5, 10, and 15 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 6; and, multiple preconditioning periods were used (10, 20, and 30 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 7. After the ischemic protocols were carried out, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and testicular tissue samples were taken for biochemical measurements (protein, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and histological examination

  1. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several epidemiologi......Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several...... of their content. In addition, variation in individual metabolic genotype and microflora may greatly affect the actual flavonoid exposure. The preventive effects of flavonoids on CHD are mainly ascribed to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant...... effective absorption of hesperetin and naringenin from the small intestine when consumed as glucosides compared to absorption in the colon VII after microbial degradation of the rhamnoglucosides. In addition it was shown that the conjugate profile was neither affected by the absorption site nor by a 3-fold...

  2. Protective Effect of ECQ on Rat Reflux Esophagitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyeon-Soon; Han, Jeong Hoon; Jeong, Jun Yeong; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the protective effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba extracts containing quercetin-3-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (ECQ) on experimental reflux esophagitis. Reflux esophagitis was induced by surgical procedure. The rats were divided into seven groups, namely normal group, control group, ECQ (1, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg) group and omeprazole (30 mg/kg) group. ECQ and omeprazole groups received intraduodenal administration. The Rats were starved for 24 hours before the experiments, but were freely allowed to drink water. ECQ group attenuated the gross esophagitis significantly compared to that treated with omeprazole in a dose-dependent manner. ECQ decreased the volume of gastric juice and increased the gastric pH, which are similar to those of omeprazole group. In addition, ECQ inhibited the acid output effectively in reflux esophagitis. Significantly increased amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the mucosal depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) were observed in the reflux esophagitis. ECQ administration attenuated the decrement of the GSH levels and affected the MDA levels and MPO activity. These results suggest that the ECQ has a protective effect which may be attributed to its multiple effects including anti-secretory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions on reflux esophagitis in rats.

  3. Modernization experience of judicial policy post soviet countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Antoniuc

    2014-12-01

    The findings indicate that analysis of the accumulated Georgia and Kazakhstan, as well as other post­Soviet states, the experience of modernization policy of national judicial systems is very useful for the improvement of the domestic judicial system in the context of the proclaimed judicial reform. First it must ensure the restoration of the unity of the judiciary in the possibility of the existence of certain specialized vessels. Regarding the latter, it is interesting Kazakhstan practice, when the specialized courts are formed with the status of the regional or district court, without disrupting the unity of the judiciary, which is headed by the Supreme Court. Considerable interest may also be the creation of the courts of public councils to assess the ethical qualities of the candidates for judges, the introduction of the model­speakers of judges, the development of pre­trial (mediation and alternative (arbitration courts forms of dispute resolution.

  4. Constitutional and administrative paradigms in judicial control over EU high and low politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cebulak, Pola

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the particular tensions surrounding judicial review in EU external relations. The tensions are classified using a two-dimensional framework. Firstly, a distinction based on policy domains of high and low politics, which is derived from constitutional theory, and external...... to the CJEU; and secondly a distinction based on legitimizing paradigms of administrative (EU as effective global actor) or constitutional (judicial review as guarantee of fundamental rights) in character and determined by the Court itself. Even though one would expect a dominance of the administrative...... paradigm in the domain of high politics, the Court uses both the administrative and the constitutional paradigm in its external relations case-law. The decision on which of these becomes the guiding frame seems to depend more on the policy domain, and be made case by case, which suggests politically...

  5. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed.

  6. Research on effectiveness assessment programs for physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik; Ham, Taekyu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    PPS (Physical Protection System) is an integrated set of procedures, installation and human resources to protect valuable assets from physical attack of potential adversaries. Since nuclear facilities or radioactive materials can be attractive targets for terrorists, PPS should be installed and maintained throughout the entire lifecycle of nuclear energy systems. One of key ingredients for effective protection is a reliable assessment procedure of the PPS capability. Due to complexity of possible threat categories and pathways, several pathway analysis programs have been developed to ease analysis or visualization. ASSESS using ASD approach runs fast and adopts a relatively simple modeling process for facility elements. But uncertainty due to assumptions used in modeling might complicate the interpretation of results. On the other hand, 2D pathway program such as TESS can utilize more self-consistent detection probability and delay time since actual pathway on 2D map is available. Also, this pathway visualization helps users understand analysis result more intuitively. But, in general, 2D pathway programs require strong computational power and careful optimization. Another possible difference between two approaches is response force deployment and RFT.

  7. Protective effects of incensole acetate on cerebral ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaieff, Arieh; Yu, Jin; Zhu, Hong; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Shohami, Esther; Kindy, Mark S

    2012-03-14

    The resin of Boswellia species is a major anti-inflammatory agent that has been used for centuries to treat various conditions including injuries and inflammatory conditions. Incensole acetate (IA), a major constituent of this resin, has been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation and concomitant inflammation, as well as the neurological deficit following head trauma. Here, we show that IA protects against ischemic neuronal damage and reperfusion injury in mice, attenuating the inflammatory nature of ischemic damage. IA given post-ischemia, reduced infarct volumes and improved neurological activities in the mouse model of ischemic injury in a dose dependent fashion. The protection from damage was accompanied by inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β and TGF-β expression, as well as NF-κB activation following injury. In addition, IA is shown to have a therapeutic window of treatment up to 6h after ischemic injury. Finally, the protective effects of IA were partially mediated by TRPV3 channels as determined by the TRPV3 deficient mice and channel blocker studies. This study suggests that the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities of IA may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for ischemic and reperfusion injury, and as a tool in the ongoing research of mechanisms for neurological damage. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Research on effectiveness assessment programs for physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik; Ham, Taekyu

    2015-01-01

    PPS (Physical Protection System) is an integrated set of procedures, installation and human resources to protect valuable assets from physical attack of potential adversaries. Since nuclear facilities or radioactive materials can be attractive targets for terrorists, PPS should be installed and maintained throughout the entire lifecycle of nuclear energy systems. One of key ingredients for effective protection is a reliable assessment procedure of the PPS capability. Due to complexity of possible threat categories and pathways, several pathway analysis programs have been developed to ease analysis or visualization. ASSESS using ASD approach runs fast and adopts a relatively simple modeling process for facility elements. But uncertainty due to assumptions used in modeling might complicate the interpretation of results. On the other hand, 2D pathway program such as TESS can utilize more self-consistent detection probability and delay time since actual pathway on 2D map is available. Also, this pathway visualization helps users understand analysis result more intuitively. But, in general, 2D pathway programs require strong computational power and careful optimization. Another possible difference between two approaches is response force deployment and RFT

  9. Judicial police, functions and its development in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asllan Dogjani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at a consistent search of the opinions about the judicial police as one of the subjects, contained in the Albanian criminal procedural law. In article 30 of the Albanian Criminal Procedure Code, are sanctioned the functions, division, addiction and judicial police duties. In the initial phase, the preliminary investigations are the basis of criminal proceedings. This phase includes evidences that cannot be replicated, the security measures are set, it is performed the notice of suit and necessary datas are collected. Searching, tracking, capture and bringing before trial of the perpetrators is considered as one of the oldest activities of human being. The need to ensure these regulations and the aim to prevent the consequences of any criminal activity has forced societies and different states to establish special investigative bodies (investigation and to determine by time their rights and obligations. So judicial police organs were provided and charged with competences and legal responsibility for the detection, crime preventions and research, capturing and bringing before the court, individuals or groups who commit criminal activities. From a comparative overview of legislation of the judicial police in several countries around the world, it is shown that there is no extreme change in structures and organizational patterns of these bodies, missions, powers and responsibilities they exercise (Elezi, 1997, 13. Judicial police in Albania has also been and is one of the important subjects of the criminal proceedings. In the historical perspective these bodies have had mixed origins and nature, and in different times they were military or civilian institutions. In this context, main purpose of this paper is the analysis of judicial police in

  10. Reference to Foreign Law in the Supreme Courts of Britain and the Netherlands: Explaining the Development of Judicial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Mak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available How do judges decide cases in a globalised legal context, characterised by the increased interconnections between legal systems and between actors in these legal systems? In this article, firstly, four types of variables (constitutional, institutional, organisational, and personal which influence judicial practices are described, and it is shown how these variables shape the judicial decision-making of the highest courts in liberal-democratic legal systems. Secondly, the specific development of the use of foreign law in the Supreme Courts of the UK and the Netherlands is analysed in light of the identified variables. In this way, some general insights are provided into the development of judicial decision-making under the effects of globalisation, and it is made clear what the national highest courts can and may do in the specific context in which they are functioning.

  11. Unique natural exopolysaccharides for biomimetic protective effect against urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Magali; Lamarque, Elisabeth; Loing, Estelle

    Through natural selection, living organisms have evolved well-adapted survival strategies over time. The shallow salt waters of Moorea lagoon are the site of accumulation of microbial mats called "Kopara," in the native Polynesian language. This unique ecosystem is rich in film-forming exopolysaccharides (EPSs) secreted by microorganisms within the biofilm, as a mean to protect themselves from environmental stress (strong ultraviolet [UV], pH, salinity … ). Using blue biotechnology, a manufacturing process was developed to obtain an EPS with skin benefits. The active ingredient (EPS-229) protects against urban pollution, including free radicals, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, and PM 2.5 (particulate matter with a size lower than 2.5 μm). The anti-lipid peroxidation action of EPS-229 was studied in an in vitro UVB-irradiated keratinocyte culture model, using lipophilic fluorescent probe. The chelating properties of EPS-229 were evaluated in tubo in the presence of cadmium and lead. The protective effect of EPS-229 on pollution-exposed skin explants was investigated through quantification of released malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological observation of skin morphology using optical microscopy. Clinical evaluation of the protective and cleansing efficacy of a water solution containing EPS-229 (0.02% and 0.01% w/v, respectively) was performed, against placebo, on a panel of 18 volunteers. For these studies, the forearms of volunteers were treated with EPS-229 before (anti-adhesion affect) or after (cleansing effect) application of PM 2.5 (iron particles of 1 μm). The presence of skin-adherent particles was observed and quantified by image analysis, using specific digital masks. In vitro , EPS-229 significantly protected keratinocyte cell membranes from lipid peroxidation. A decrease of 28% was achieved when a concentration of 0.001% w/v EPS-229 was applied to the cell culture. In tubo , EPS-229 also presented strong chelating properties. Maximal adsorption was

  12. Democracy and judicial activism: some considerations about causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ladeira de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the conflicting relationship between the “judicial activism” and representative democratic procedures. First, I discuss some definitions that enhance aspects “normative/prescriptive” of “activists” judicial positions and the functioning of “real existing” democratic institutions. Second, we discuss patterns of arguments that are used by courts to decide politically controversial issues as well as political and institutional factors that stimulate the occurrence of “activists” positions.

  13. Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provisions, full compensation, material and integral; challenge administrative acts, judicial unit.

  14. Protective effects of metformin on neointima formation in insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Pankratova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи Lu J, Ji J, Meng H, Wang D, Jiang B, Liu L, Randell E, Adeli K, Meng QH. The protective effect and underlying mechanism of metformin on neointima formation in fructose-induced insulin resistant rats. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013 Apr 5;12:58. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-58.

  15. El uso de la información judicial (The use of judicial information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmar Gessner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Los datos empíricos de juzgados y sistemas judiciales se analizan con mucha frecuencia tanto en estudios comparativos, como en estudios económicos y sociológicos, sin embargo, los agentes implicados en proyectos de reformas judiciales como jueces, profesores de derecho, funcionarios o políticos no hacen un uso adecuado de los mismos. Este artículo sugiere que esto tiene un origen estructural, que asigna roles sociales diferentes a estos actores. Una solución puede ser la creación de centros de investigación especializados. Una aproximación más amplia, plural y democrática es buscar la transparencia en internet, dando acceso al público general a todo tipo de documentos, incluyendo estadísticas judiciales y estudios empíricos. Se han visitado y categorizado en función de su contenido gran número de páginas web de juzgados, para conocer el nivel de transparencia judicial. Las primeras posiciones en cuanto al nivel de transparencia lo han obtenido algunas páginas anglosajonas, que ofrecían información legal, económica, organizacional y empírica, y que además ofrecían ayuda para utilizar estos datos. Sin embargo, este esfuerzo no alcanza su objetivo si la información no se utiliza. Si se quiere medir el uso real de los contenidos de las páginas judiciales no es suficiente con contar su número de visitas, sino que es necesario conocer más sobre las motivaciones que generan esas visitas. Afortunadamente, se ha encontrado un sitio web (mexicano que ofrece información sobre los visitantes: sus preocupaciones, su “historia” e incluso sus nombres y (en ocasiones su lugar de residencia. Estas peticiones se han evaluado cuidadosamente, y se analizan en este artículo. Se ha descubierto que hay una gran demanda de información empírica sobre los juzgados y las prácticas judiciales. La transparencia en internet parece ser una solución, aunque todavía se deben explorar las mejores formas de ofrecer la información judicial

  16. Radiation protection and antitumor effects in Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes sing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukawa, Yuuichi; Gu, Yeunhwa; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Park, Sangrae; Hasegawa, Takeo; Tsukada, Sekihito; Terai, Kaoru; Tawaraya, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    The effect on an anti-tumor is admitted in the lyophyllum decastes sing extraction thing, and it has the action mechanism cleared to depend on the immunity action. The existence of the synergistic effect in effect on an anti-tumor radiation irradiation, an individual with the medication of lyophyllum decastes sing and effect on combination and the effect on protection of the leukocyte decrease by the radiation was examined by this research. After about 2x10 6 inoculated sarcoma 180 on the ICR mice, a lyophyllum decastes sing extraction thing gave 100mg/kg for 2 weeks in endoceliac at the every other day. After that, the radiation irradiation of 2 Gy was done three times, and it went to the sutra time target the number of the leukocytes, the lymph node ball some prizes of measurement. And, weight and tumor size were measured after the cancer cell inoculation two weeks. The decrease of the clear tumor size was recognized by the group that only a cancer cell was inoculated by the radiation independent irradiation group, lyophyllum decastes sing and the radiation combination group though tumor size increased as it passed. It faced by the group that only a cancer cell was inoculated after the irradiation 15 days though it died the precedent, and a half existed by lyophyllum decastes sing and the radiation combination group. And, the numbers of the leukocytes, the number of the lymphocyte were on the increase regardless of the existence of the radiation irradiation by the medication of lyophyllum decastes sing. It thinks with the thing that the effect is shown for the effect on immunity recovery in the radiotherapy and the prevention of a side effect of the radiation from this result. Showing the effect for not only effect on prevention of the cancer and effect on healing but also the effect on immunity recovery in the radiotherapy, the prevention of a side effect by taking lyophyllum decastes sing is considered

  17. Radiation-protective effect with screens of fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Chaya, K.; Furui, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In a fluoroscopic situation supposing heartworm removal using flexible alligator forceps, the radiationprotective effect of lead-containing screens was examined. Regarding measurements using a gamma-survey meter, X-ray exposure to the operator was reduced from 24.6±7.5 micro-Sievert (μSv)/hr to 0.47±0.08μSv/hr by using protective screens at position A, which corresponds to the operator's face level. At position B, which corresponds to the position of operator's left-hand fingers, the exposure level decreased from 33.1±1.37μSv/hr to 3.01±1.23μSv/hr when screens were used, and decreased more to 0.44±0.16μSv/ hr with the use of protective gloves. At position C, which was at the operator's foot, the exposure level decreased from 0.65±0.27μSv/hr to 0.24±0.10μSv/hr. Regarding measurements using a film badge for 20 experimental dogs, in which each dog was fluoroscopied for 20 sec×15 times, the operator would be totally exposed to 0.1 mSv in H 3mm , dose equivalent value against the eye lens and H 70μm , dose equivalent value against the skin at position B, but below the minimal limit for detection of X-ray (0.1 mSv) in H 1cm , effective dose-equivalent value. Exposure levels were below the minimal limit at positions A and C and at all positions which were protected with screens. Also, dogs were exposed to X-ray 2.20±0.96 mSv on fluoroscopy for 20 sec x 15 times. (author)

  18. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover <70% and tree plus shrub cover ≥40%). By 2010, 480,203 km(2) of forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover. © 2015 The Authors

  19. Method of forming latent image to protect documents based on the effect moire

    OpenAIRE

    Troyan, О.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of modern methods of information protection based on printed documents. It is shown that methods of protection from moiré effect provide reliable and effective protection by gaining new protection technology that is displayed in the optical acceleration motion layers and causes moire in fraud. Latent images can securely protect paper documents. Introduce a system of equations to calculate curvilinear patterns, where the optical formula of acceleration and periods moire stored in i...

  20. Protective effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Relationship between cocoa consumption and cardiovascular disease, particularly focusing on clinical implications resulting from the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption on endothelial function and insulin resistance. This could be of clinical relevance and may suggest the mechanistic explanation for the reduced risk of cardiovascular events reported in the different studies after cocoa intake. Increasing evidence supports a protective effect of cocoa consumption against cardiovascular disease. Cocoa and flavonoids from cocoa have been described to improve endothelial function and insulin resistance. A proposed mechanism could be considered in the improvement of the endothelium-derived vasodilator nitric oxide by enhancing nitric oxide synthesis or by decreasing nitric oxide breakdown. The endothelium plays a pivotal role in the arterial homeostasis, and insulin resistance is the most important pathophysiological feature in various prediabetic and diabetic states. Reduced nitric oxide bioavailability with endothelial dysfunction is considered the earliest step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Further, insulin resistance could account, at least in part, for the endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction has been considered an important and independent predictor of future development of cardiovascular risk and events. Cocoa and flavonoids from cocoa might positively modulate these mechanisms with a putative role in cardiovascular protection.

  1. The King's Return: The Mutation In Classical Division Of Powers By Judicialization Of Social Relations And Judicial Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Souza Barbosa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Separation of powers is one of strongest aspects of contemporary constitutionalism, mostly to rationalize the exercise of state power. In Brazil, the 1988 Constitution provides as entrenchment clause to tripartition of powers. However, there is a change in paradigms, especially at the level of constitutional jurisdiction, through the phenomena of judicialization and judicial activism because the intervention of the Judiciary in the primary functions of other powers. Using deductive and descriptive method, bibliographical and documentary research, we tried to point out the harms that the invasive action of the Judiciary causes to the functional balance between the powers and democracy.

  2. Prioritization of strategies to approach the judicialization of health in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pinzón-Flórez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe strategies that contribute to the comprehensive approach to the judicialization of health in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS A search was structured to identify articles presenting strategies to approach the judicialization of health. A survey was designed, which included actors of the health system and judiciary sector. We prioritized the strategies qualified by more than the 50.0% of the participants as “very relevant”. Strategies were categorized according to: governance, provision of services, human resources, information systems, financing, and medical products. RESULTS We included 64 studies, which identified 50 strategies, related to the sub-functions and components of health systems. Of the 165 people who answered the survey, 80.0% were aged 35-64 years. The distribution of men and women was homogeneous. Half of the respondents were from Colombia (20.0%, Uruguay (16.9%, and Argentina (12.7%. We prioritized strategies that addressed aspects of generation of useful scientific evidence for decision making according to the health needs of the population, empowerment for the society, and creating spaces for discussion of measures of inclusion or exclusion of health technologies. The executive and judiciary decision makers prioritized questions that dealt with strategies that would ensure accountability. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study contribute to the identification of effective strategies to approach the phenomenon of judicialization of health, guaranteeing the right to health.

  3. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several...... epidemiological studies but the evidence is inconclusive. One major obstacle for epidemiological studies investigating associations between flavonoid intake and risk of CHD is the estimation of flavonoid intake. There is a vast variety of flavonoids in commonly eaten food products but only limited knowledge...... of their content. In addition, variation in individual metabolic genotype and microflora may greatly affect the actual flavonoid exposure. The preventive effects of flavonoids on CHD are mainly ascribed to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant...

  4. Protective Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Influenza A Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sun Young; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide) and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases. PMID:24392148

  5. Protective effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Young Yin

    Full Text Available Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1. We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases.

  6. Judicial Decisions in the Field of Labour Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents a selection of summaries of recent judicial decisions in a number of countries concerninq the application of general legal principles to contracts of employment, acquired rights, liability of employers and workers, access to employment, nature of the employment relationship, and more. (Editor/CT)

  7. Iberian (South American) Model of Judicial Review: Toward Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishas, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores Latin American countries legislation with the view to identify specific features of South American model of judicial review. The research methodology rests on comparative approach to analyzing national constitutions' provisions and experts' interpretations thereof. The constitutional provisions of Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and…

  8. THE FREE MOVEMENT OF JUDGMENTS AND JUDICIAL DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BOCSAN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available EU substantive law is based on a system of circulation freedoms which encompasses the idea that the Union, its internal market or other areas of legal rule, such as the area of freedom, security and justice are, above all, spaces of liberty, which rejects the limits represented before by internal borders. So, the essential EU integrative concepts could be formulated as free circulation principles or instruments aiming to such freedoms. The free movement of judgments and judicial decisions represents concomitantly the consequence and the expression formulated through freedom of circulation, which is specific to EU law, of the principle of mutual recognition of judgments and judicial decisions between member states in both civil and criminal matters. This principle is based upon the mutual trust that member states owes to each other. Finally, the study analyses the principle of mutual recognition in EU law as a transplant from the internal market in the judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which produces numerous application instruments, among them the first and most productive is the European Arrest Warrant. This paper studies also the common standard and paradigm that all instruments based upon the free movement of judgments and judicial decision have, amongst others: the warrant/order typology, direct communication between the competent authorities of Member States, elimination of the recognition procedure, the express mentioning of the mandatory and optional grounds of refusal, the partial removal of double criminality requirement etc.

  9. Quality of Judicial Organisation and checks and balances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, G.Y.

    2007-01-01

    This PhD project explores the possibility of creating a normative way of assessing quality of the judicial organisation by arguing that legitimacy is related to the functioning of the organisation. This further leads to the idea that the judiciary can be held constitutionally accountable for its

  10. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  11. A Call for Restorative Justice in Higher Education Judicial Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to provide support for post-secondary institutions' exploring and implementing restorative justice in their judicial practices. Although restorative principles have been employed successfully across the globe in criminal proceedings and K-12 education, most colleges and universities have not yet embraced this practice. By exploring…

  12. Judicial Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulona Haxhiraj

    2013-07-01

    In every society there is violation which implies its citizen not get proper social right, economical right and cultural right. Proper implementation and adoption of judicial enforcement can reduce this violation rate and established social peace. Step mentioned in the above might not perfect but it might be small starting and ensure social, culture & economical right for the people living in the society.

  13. Judicial review of Shaik's medical parole a viable option

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Loammi Wolf

    The normative quality of pre-conviction equality is therefore much ..... not signal a relationship of subordination typical of an internal executive hierarchy. .... The Judicial Service Commission in South Africa usually consists of ...... he was sighted at an upmarket French restaurant where a lunch party was held to celebrate his.

  14. Matching Judicial Supervision to Clients' Risk Status in Drug Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Lee, Patricia A.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports outcomes from a program of experimental research evaluating the risk principle in drug courts. Prior studies revealed that participants who were high risk and had (a) antisocial personality disorder or (b) a prior history of drug abuse treatment performed better in drug court when scheduled to attend biweekly judicial status…

  15. 41 CFR 128-1.8010 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the Department of Justice, its Seismic Safety Coordinators... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 128-1... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8010...

  16. Judicial Reform Pursuits in Ethiopia, 2002-2015:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EN_Stebek

    research on specific themes related with judicial reform. 1 Report and ... focused on legal education and law reform; the second, on basic needs legal aid; the third ... realities that brought about the challenges in achievement because the most .... (a) when the judiciary's public reputation for political impartiality and rectitude.

  17. Protective effect of EDTA preadministration on renal ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belloni Daniela

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chelation therapy with sodium edetate (EDTA improved renal function and slowed the progression of renal insufficiency in patients subjected to lead intoxication. This study was performed to identify the underlying mechanism of the ability of EDTA treatment to protect kidneys from damage. Methods The effects of EDTA administration were studied in a rat model of acute renal failure induced by 60 minutes ischemia followed or not by 60 minutes reperfusion. Renal ischemic damage was evaluated by histological studies and by functional studies, namely serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. Treatment with EDTA was performed 30 minutes before the induction of ischemia. Polymorphonuclear cell (PMN adhesion capability, plasmatic nitric oxide (NO levels and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS renal expression were studied as well as the EDTA protection from the TNFα-induced vascular leakage in the kidneys. Data was compared by two-way analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Results EDTA administration resulted in the preservation of both functional and histological parameters of rat kidneys. PMN obtained from peripheral blood of EDTA-treated ischemized rats, displayed a significant reduction in the expression of the adhesion molecule Mac-1 with respect to controls. NO was significantly increased by EDTA administration and eNOS expression was higher and more diffuse in kidneys of rats treated with EDTA than in the controls. Finally, EDTA administration was able to prevent in vivo the TNFα-induced vascular leakage in the kidneys. Conclusion This data provides evidence that EDTA treatment is able to protect rat kidneys from ischemic damage possibly through the stimulation of NO production.

  18. Methodologies for Measuring Judicial Performance: The Problem of Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Elek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about gender and racial bias in the survey-based evaluations of judicial performance common in the United States have persisted for decades. Consistent with a large body of basic research in the psychological sciences, recent studies confirm that the results from these JPE surveys are systematically biased against women and minority judges. In this paper, we explain the insidious manner in which performance evaluations may be biased, describe some techniques that may help to reduce expressions of bias in judicial performance evaluation surveys, and discuss the potential problem such biases may pose in other common methods of performance evaluation used in the United States and elsewhere. We conclude by highlighting the potential adverse consequences of judicial performance evaluation programs that rely on biased measurements. Durante décadas ha habido una preocupación por la discriminación por género y racial en las evaluaciones del rendimiento judicial basadas en encuestas, comunes en Estados Unidos. De acuerdo con un gran corpus de investigación básica en las ciencias psicológicas, estudios recientes confirman que los resultados de estas encuestas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial están sistemáticamente sesgados contra las mujeres y los jueces de minorías. En este artículo se explica la manera insidiosa en que las evaluaciones de rendimiento pueden estar sesgadas, se describen algunas técnicas que pueden ayudar a reducir las expresiones de sesgo en los estudios de evaluación del rendimiento judicial, y se debate el problema potencial que estos sesgos pueden plantear en otros métodos comunes de evaluación del rendimiento utilizados en Estados Unidos y otros países. Se concluye destacando las posibles consecuencias adversas de los programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial que se basan en mediciones sesgadas. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2533937

  19. Political and judicial checks on corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of checks and balances on corruption. Within a presidential system, effective separation of powers is achieved under a divided government, with the executive and legislative branches being controlled by different political parties. When government is unified...

  20. The Power Of The Judicial Assistant/Law Clerk: Looking Behind The Scenes At Courts In The United States, England And Wales, And The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Holvast

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although largely invisible to the public, behind the scenes, judicial assistants/law clerks frequently play a vital role in the process of adjudication. Yet, especially outside of the U.S., little is known about their role and duties in the judicial decision-making process. This article provides insight into the organization of the employment and the duties of judicial assistants in three different jurisdictions: the U.S., England and Wales, and the Netherlands. In particular, this article aims to gain an understanding of the effects different organizational structures have on the potential influence of assistants on the judicial process and to observe what restrictions are employed to prevent assistants from wielding too much influence

  1. Melatonin Protective Effects against Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Khonakdar-Tarsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R is a common phenomenon during liver surgery, transplantation, infection and trauma which results in damage and necrosis of the hepatic tissue through different pathways. Mechanisms involved in I/R damage are very intricate and cover several aspects. Several factors are involved in I/R-induced damages; briefly, decrease in sinusoidal perfusion and ATP generation because of low or no O2 supply, increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammatory factors and destruction of parenchymal cells resulted by these molecules are of the main causes of liver tissue injury during reperfusion. Melatonin’s antioxidant effect, and regulatory roles in the expression of different genes in the I/R insulted liver have been investigated by several studies. Melatonin and its metabolites are of the powerful direct scavengers of free radicals and ROS, so it can directly protect liver cell impairment from oxidative stress following I/R. In addition, this bioactive molecule up-regulates anti-oxidant enzyme genes like superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT. Tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α and interleukin-1 (IL-1, as potent pro-inflammatory factors, are generated in huge amounts during reperfusion. Melatonin is able to alleviate TNF-α generation and has hepatoprotective effect during I/R. It reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via reducing the binding of NF-κB to DNA. Imbalance between vasodilators (nitric oxide, NO and vasoconstrictors (endothelin, ET during I/R was shown to be the primary cause of liver microcirculation disturbance. Melatonin helps maintaining the stability of liver circulation and reduces hepatic injury during I/R through preventing alteration of the normal balance between ET and NO. The aim of this review was to explore the mechanisms of liver I/R injuries and the protective effects of melatonin against them.

  2. Protective effect of agmatine in acute chlorpromazine hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratislav Dejanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on potentially beneficial effects of agmatine on oxidative stress development in the liver during chlorpromazine treatment in rats. We wanted to examine the role of reactive oxygen species and efficiency of antioxidant protection through the determination of malondylaldehyde and total glutathione concentrations in rat liver homogenate, as well as plasma concentrations of malonylaldehyde and sulfhydryl groups after the treatment. Also, liver tissue sections were examined to follow histological changes. Chlorpromazine was applied intraperitoneally at a single dose of 38.7 mg/kg b.w. The second group was treated with both chlorpromazine (at a single dose of 38.7 mg/kg b.w. and agmatine (at a single dose of 75 mg/kg b.w.. Agmatine was applied immediately after the chlorpromazine. The control group was treated with 0.9% saline solution in the same manner. Rats were sacrificed by decapitation 24 h after the treatment and biochemical and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Analysis of data showed that treatment with agmatine significantly attenuated the oxidative stress indicators as evidenced by lowering malonylaldehyde concentrations in the liver and in plasma while not affecting liver concentrations of total glutathione and plasma concentration of sulfhydryl groups. Additionally, histological evaluation revealed the improvement of liver damage in this respect. The presented data indicated that intraperitoneally administered agmatine protects against chlorpromazine-induced liver disease in rats.

  3. The protective effect of ebselen on radiocontrast-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Tumay; Tutanc, Murat; Zararsiz, Ismail; Motor, Sedat; Ozturk, Oktay Hasan; Yaldiz, Mehmet; Kurtgoz, Ozgur Yildirim

    2012-01-01

    Radiocontrast-induced nephropathy has become one of the most important causes of renal acute failure. The most effective management of reducing the incidence of contrast nephropathy is to understand and prevent its causes. We aimed to investigate the protective role of ebselen against radiocontrast-induced nephrotoxicity in terms of tissue oxidant/antioxidant parameters and light microscopy in rats. Albino Wistar rats were randomly separated into four groups. The Group 1 rats were treated with sodium chloride as the control group, Group 2 with radiocontrast, Group 3 with radiocontrast plus ebselen, and Group 4 with ebselen alone. After 24 h, the animals over the experimental period were euthanized and blood samples were analyzed for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr) levels. Kidney sections were analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, as well as histopathological changes. In the radiocontrast group, BUN, MDA, and GSH-Px levels increased while SOD activity decreased compared with the control group. These decays were improved by ebselen administration in the radiocontrast group. Significant histological deteriorations were observed in the radiocontrast group. We noted improvement in the histologic findings with ebselen administration. These results indicate that ebselen might produce a protective mechanism against radiocontrast-induced nephrotoxicity.

  4. Protective effect of melatonin on thrombocytopoiesis in irratiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aiguo; Hu Qun; Yang Mo; Li Zhiguang; Huang Weizhe; Pang Yaxuan; Li Guixia; Wu Baixiang; Huo Taihui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effect of melatonin on thrombocytopoiesis (T) and its mechanism in total-bodily irradiated mice. Methods: Altogether 18 female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups (6 each): Group 1(normal control, N) received neither irradiation nor melatonin; Group 2 (model control, C); received total body-irradiation for 4 Gy gamma-rays and Group 3 (melatonin, M), received melatonin after irradiation at the dosage of 10 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 via i. p. injection in consecutive 21 days. In Group C normal saline instead of melatonin was administered in the same way as above. Peripheral blood platelets and white blood cells (WBC) were analyzed for the three groups on day 0, day 7, day 14, and day 21. All the mice were sacrificed to collect bone marrow cells for the assays of colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-MK) and of colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F). The effects of melatonin of different concentrations (0-500 nmol/L) on CFU-MK formation were observed in vitro. Results: The results showed that melatonin enhanced the recovery of T. Moreover, melatonin also promoted the increase of CFU-F (28 ± 10.4 vs 14.6 ± 2.8) and CFU-MK (19.63 ± 3.28 vs 11 ± 2.24) in vivo. The amount of CFU-MK in vitro was dependent on the concentration of melatonin. Compared with the control group, the size of CFU-MK in Group M was much larger and MK cells were more mature, especially when the melatonin concentration was 200 nmol/L. Conclusion: Melatonin provides protective effect on T in irradiated mice. It enhances T in vivo and promotes the growth of bone marrow stromal cells as well as megakaryocytes in vitro. Therefore, we speculate that the T-protective activity of melatonin may be mediated via promoting growth of the progenitors of platelet, megakaryocytes, and bone marrow stromal cells. (authors)

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment Law in China's courts: A study of 107 judicial decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zining, Jin, E-mail: jinzn@pkusz.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    The article explores the practices of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Law in China's courts by examining 107 judicial decisions. Each of the 107 judicial decisions has been analyzed to determine the time/location of the decision, what type of EIA document was referred to, what specific claim was made by the plaintiffs, and what the court's ruling was on the case. The results indicate that: unlike in Germany or Japan, all kinds of EIA decisions made by environment protect bureaus (EPBs) in China were widely taken as justiciable, and China's courts generally allowed local residents to have standing and thus challenge the EPBs' decisions made during the EIA process. On the other hand, the research also shows the EPBs overwhelmingly prevailed in those EIA lawsuits. It is also found that China's reviewing judges were highly self-restrained, giving obvious deference to the technocrat with the substantial contents of EIA documents. Also, the concept of “flaw” was created when it came to procedural issues. These two factors, among others, were both helping the EPBs' prevailing successes. - Highlights: • 107 judicial decisions referring to China's EIA law are examined. • The justiciability of EPB's EIA decisions were taken for granted. • The defenders overwhelmingly prevailed in those EIA lawsuits. • The reviewing judges were highly self-restrained, defering to the technocrat with the EIA documents. • A functional concept, “flaw”, was created by reviewing judges when it came to procedural issues.

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment Law in China's courts: A study of 107 judicial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zining, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the practices of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Law in China's courts by examining 107 judicial decisions. Each of the 107 judicial decisions has been analyzed to determine the time/location of the decision, what type of EIA document was referred to, what specific claim was made by the plaintiffs, and what the court's ruling was on the case. The results indicate that: unlike in Germany or Japan, all kinds of EIA decisions made by environment protect bureaus (EPBs) in China were widely taken as justiciable, and China's courts generally allowed local residents to have standing and thus challenge the EPBs' decisions made during the EIA process. On the other hand, the research also shows the EPBs overwhelmingly prevailed in those EIA lawsuits. It is also found that China's reviewing judges were highly self-restrained, giving obvious deference to the technocrat with the substantial contents of EIA documents. Also, the concept of “flaw” was created when it came to procedural issues. These two factors, among others, were both helping the EPBs' prevailing successes. - Highlights: • 107 judicial decisions referring to China's EIA law are examined. • The justiciability of EPB's EIA decisions were taken for granted. • The defenders overwhelmingly prevailed in those EIA lawsuits. • The reviewing judges were highly self-restrained, defering to the technocrat with the EIA documents. • A functional concept, “flaw”, was created by reviewing judges when it came to procedural issues

  7. The World Bank Inspection Panel and Quasi-Judicial Oversight: In Search of the 'Judicial Spirit' in Public International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Naudé Fourie (Andria)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD dissertation conceptualizes the World Bank Inspection Panel as a mechanism of quasi-judicial review or oversight, aimed at enhancing the accountability and legitimacy of the World Bank – which is conceived as an international institution exercising public power. The author

  8. Investigating the Protective Effects of Vitamin D on Diabete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    makan Cheraghpour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D directly (due to receptor activation by vitamin D or indirectly (through regulation of calcium homeostasis effects on the pathogenic mechanisms associated with both types of diabetes, such as pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction, impaired insulin action and systemic inflammation. It has been shown that using Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and infancy has relation with a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. In non-obese diabetic mice studies, pharmacological doses of vitamin D can delay the onset of diabetes. Any direct link between vitamin D and risk of type 2 diabetes has not been established yet, however many questions such as the concentration of vitamin D for optimal glucose homeostasis and how long pursuit to understand the effect of vitamin D on insulin secretion and sensitivity is essential have not been fully answered. The use of 1, 25 (OH 2D3 for preventing or treating diabetes through its hypercalcemic effects and bone turnover is limited. On the other hand however, the protective effects only observed in response to doses higher than the physiological levels. In any case, a better understanding of the role of vitamin D can lead to the development of preventive strategies for both types of diabetes..

  9. Protective Effect of Laminaria japonica with Probiotics on Murine Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jae Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40, IL-12 (P70, IL-17, and TNF-α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 (P40 but not IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-12 (P70. In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.

  10. Ultima Ratio and the Judicial Application of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Ultima Ratio as a principle, its relationship to other principles in the criminal law is the first subject of this paper. After discarding approaches that deny any role to the ultima ratio principle like the criminal law of the enemy, the major readings of the justification of the ius puniendi – deontological and utilitarian – are related to the idea of a restrained resort to criminalisation and penal sanction. The role of the main protagonists in relation to punishment is next considered: transgressor, community and victim. The issues of impunity and overpunity are also considered in this part. The second part of the paper analyses the possible effects of ultima ratio, a general politico-moral principle mainly addressed to the legislator, on the application of the law by the judges. It is then turned into something closer to a general legal principle. The impact of ultima ratio on the different sub-decisions of the judicial application of the criminal law is spelt out in the decisions on qualification, evidence (inferences, interpretation and consequences in sentencing. Next, the role of ultima ratio on decisions in appeal and in cassation is analysed. The third part and conclusion deals with the main ideologies of ultima ratio and the wider issue of its role in securing a guarantee oriented criminal law in Europe. En este artículo se aborda, en primer lugar, el carácter de ultima ratio como principio, su relación con otros principios en el derecho penal. Después de descartar los enfoques que rechazan cualquier papel del principio de ultima ratio como el derecho penal del enemigo, las lecturas principales de la justificación del ius puniendi, deontológico y utilitarista, están relacionadas con la idea de un recurso restringido a la criminalización y sanción penal. A continuación, se analiza el papel de los protagonistas principales relacionados con el castigo: transgresor, comunidad y víctima. En esta parte tambi

  11. Effectively protecting cyber infrastructure and assessing security needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, J.; Starman, R. [EWA Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation addressed some of the requirements for effectively protecting cyber infrastructure and assessing security needs. The paper discussed the hype regarding cyber attacks, and presented the Canadian reality (as viewed by CanCERT). An assessment of security concerns was also presented. Recent cyber attacks on computer networks have raised fears of unsafe energy networks. Some experts claim the attacks are linked to terrorism, others blame industrial spying and mischief. Others dismiss the notion that somebody could bring down a power grid with a laptop as being far-fetched. It was noted that the cyber security threat is real, and that attacks are becoming more sophisticated as we live in a target rich environment. The issue of assessing vulnerabilities was discussed along with the selection of safeguards such as improving SCADA systems and the latest encryption methods to prevent hackers from bringing down computer networks. 3 tabs., 23 figs.

  12. Meniscal repair following meniscectomy: Mechanism and protective effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berjon, J.J.; Munuera, L.; Calvo, M.

    1990-01-01

    Meniscal repair was studied to evaluate the mechanism and its potential protective effects on the articular cartilage in an experimental model consisting of 68 knees of adult dogs on which five different types of medial meniscectomy were performed. The results were assessed by macroscopic, microangiographic, and histological methods, after a sequential follow-up period of 10-450 days. Two different mechanisms of meniscal repair were observed, depending on whether meniscal section had been performed in vascular (total meniscectomy) or avascular (subtotal or partial meniscectomy) zones. It was also observed that the repaired meniscal tissue does not prevent articular cartilage degeneration. This is more closely related to the size of the meniscal fragment preserved at meniscetomy. Due to the biomechanical importance of the meniscus and the lack of functional relevance of the repaired meniscal tissue, the most conservative approach possible to meniscectomy is recommended. (orig.)

  13. The effect of radiological protection standards on the uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Y.; Pradel, J.; Zettwoog, P.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of concrete results obtained in the CEA's uranium mines over a period of 15 years, the authors determine to what extent the costs of radiological protection affect the price of uranium. The principles on which radiological protection is organized in the CEA mines are mentioned. Emphasis is placed on the precautions which have to be taken in order to ensure that radioactivity measurements are representative despite the extreme complexity and the variability of conditions in the workings. A description is given of the way in which the operation of the ventilation system is varied on the basis of radioactivity measurements as the workings are extended. The authors conclude that in the CEA mines, where the uranium content in the ores frequently exceeds one per cent, it is possible to ensure that the current standard is actually adhered to and that nevertheless the cost of radiological protection remains marginal. In the second part of the paper the possible effects of increasing the stringency of the standards are examined. The considerations are based on several thousands of measurements carried out in various workings and galleries. It is shown that the correlation between radon concentration and ore content is weak. It is pointed out that the state of equilibrium of radon daughters in the workings is of the order of 0.2 rather than the 0.5 assumed in the standard. On this basis the mean level of actual exposure, in total alpha energy, is of the order of 20% of the value 1.3 x 10 5 MeV α/litre, the level of the most highly exposed worker being 80% of that value. In addition, it is shown that with simple improvements to the design of the ventilation circuits and elementary precautions it is often possible to ''rejuvenate'' the radon in the workings and influence still further the state of equilibrium of the daughters. Finally, preliminary results obtained in the experimental mine at La Crouzille indicate that the radon concentration can be further

  14. Judicial Performance and Experiences of Judicial Work: Findings from socio-legal research by Sharyn Roach Anleu & Kathy Mack: Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gar Yein Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary examines the contribution in this edition by Roach Anleu & Mack, based on arguments that reducing judicial performance evaluation (ergo any professional performance to that which is easily measurable removes the human aspect of that performance, and is therefore less accurate. Here, “measurable” is meant as focusing only on the “outward performance”, “interaction with stakeholders” and how judges perform in relation to numbers of cases. Compared to such organisational standards, judicial codes of ethics or other written codes reflect the more traditional values of the judiciary, such as independence and impartiality. This can be seen e.g. in the experiences of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe in supporting the use of judicial performance standards. The argument in the paper, supported by this commentator, is that such exercises are superficial and more depth is needed to capture the entirety of the judicial experience using the model presented. Este comentario analiza el artículo de Roach Anleu y Mack en este número, en base a los argumentos de que limitar la evaluación del rendimiento judicial (ergo cualquier rendimiento profesional a lo que es fácilmente medible elimina el aspecto humano de ese rendimiento, y es por lo tanto menos preciso. Aquí, por “medible” se entiende lo que está centrado únicamente en el “rendimiento exterior”, la “interacción con los interesados” y el rendimiento de los jueces en relación con el número de casos. En comparación con estas normas de organización, los códigos judiciales de ética u otros códigos escritos reflejan los valores más tradicionales de la judicatura, como la independencia o imparcialidad. Esto puede verse, por ejemplo, en las experiencias de la Organización para la Seguridad y la Cooperación en Europa en apoyar el uso de las normas de rendimiento judicial. El argumento del artículo, apoyado por esta autora, es que estos

  15. Nuclear low and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vencato, A.C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The imperceptible character of nuclear radiation on the human senses and their harmful effects on living beings and the environment is emphasised. This is based on a review of published works about the concepts of energy and ecology. The potential hazards of a possible nuclear accident and the damage it would cause to a community as well as the problem of radioactive waste disposal are raised. The conclusions and recommendations of the Brazilian Physics Society's Report on Nuclear Pollution are endorsed. The general guidelines of Brazilian Legislation are presented. The legal aspects of nuclear reactor licensing in West Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Brazil are shown from the point of view of the applicable legal system, the licensing bodies, the general frame and scope, public participation, technical safety bodies, as well as the inspection procedures. The concepts of absolute and objective civil responsibility for nuclear damage are reviewed. The judicial principle of equity is considered in view of the exceptional character of the nuclear risk. The main aspects of the international Conventions of Paris, Brussels and Viena on civil ability of nuclear damage are presented. Some philosphical and judicial questions are discussed emphasising the instrumentality of the law control and effective protection. The final suggestion is the exchange of ideas with a view to obtain the maximum safety in the operation of nuclear installations. (author) [pt

  16. Corrupción en la Rama Judicial: una reflexión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Escobar Luque

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los más dañinos flagelos que azotan nuestrassociedades es la corrupción vista desde diversos ángulosy acciones. Vargas ( solo ve al Poder Judicial como objetode la corrupción, como ente corruptible, mas no comouna institución encargada precisamente de controlar lacorrupción. La única forma eficaz de superar los problemasendémicos de corrupción en nuestros sistemas judicialeses afrontar derechamente las profundas disfuncionesque estos manifiestan que constituyen las reales causasde los serios problemas de corrupción que los aquejan.Klitgaard ( formaliza el fenómeno de la corrupción dela siguiente manera: Corrupción = poder monopólico +arbitrio – responsabilidad. Villoria ( manifiesta que haycasos en que la judicatura no es un obstáculo contra la corrupción,sino un elemento esencial en su reproducción ydesarrollo, siendo un ejemplo de corrupción que contribuyea la deslegitimación del sistema político y corroe loscimientos de la gobernabilidad. Si se analizan, entonces,los problemas de los sistemas judiciales, con el objetivode buscar soluciones a sus altos niveles de corrupción administrativa,nos encontraríamos con: una organizaciónineficaz, la precariedad del empleo, desprecio de la ley,amiguismo, delegaciones, abogados corruptores, silencioy jerarquía judicial cooptada.Palabras clave: Corrupción, Rama Judicial, Monopolio,Amiguismo. AbstractOne of the most damaging scourges afflicting oursocieties corruption is viewed from different angles andactions. Vargas ( only sees the judiciary as an object ofcorruption as corruptible body, not as an institution toprecisely control corruption. The only effective way toovercome the endemic problems of corruption in ourjudicial system is straight addressing the root dysfunctionsthey say they are the real causes of serious corruptionproblems that afflict them. Klitgaard ( formalizesthe phenomenon of corruption as follows: Corruption =monopoly power + discretion

  17. Teaching effective problem solving skills to radiation protection students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Problem solving skills are essential for all radiation protection personnel. Although some students have more natural problem solving skills than others, all students require practice to become comfortable using these skills. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), a unique one-semester course was developed as part of the core curriculum to teach students problem solving skills and elements of modelling and simulation. The underlying emphasis of the course was to allow students to develop their own problem solving strategies, both individually and in groups. Direction was provided on how to examine problems from different perspectives, and how to determine the proper root problem statement. A five-point problem solving strategy was presented as: 1) Problem definition; 2) Solution generation; 3) Decision; 4) Implementation; 5) Evaluation. Within the strategy, problem solving techniques were integrated from diverse areas such as: De Bono 's six thinking hats, Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, Covey's seven habits of highly effective people, Reason's swiss cheese theory of complex failure, and Howlett's common failure modes. As part of the evaluation step, students critically explore areas such as ethics and environmental responsibility. In addition to exploring problem solving methods, students learn the usefulness of simulation methods, and how to model and simulate complex phenomena of relevance to radiation protection. Computational aspects of problem solving are explored using the commercially available MATLAB computer code. A number of case studies are presented as both examples and problems to the students. Emphasis was placed on solutions to problems of interest to radiation protection, health physics and nuclear engineering. A group project, pertaining to an accident or event related to the nuclear industry is a course requirement. Students learn to utilize common time and project management tools such as flowcharting, Pareto

  18. Judicialization of the Right to Health: The Individual V the Collective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Amaral Gomes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of social rights in Brazil is a problem that endangers the whole constitutional project which aims at the common good of the entire Brazilian society. The judicialization of the right to health has as primarily negative effects the violation of the separation of powers and the strengthening of social inequality that benefits only those who move the Judiciary. From the handling of the bibliographic research method, this article aims to review the main highlights of the phenomenon, with emphasis in the conflict between individual interests and the interest of the community.

  19. Protecting effect on gamma-ray damage of DNA by tea catechin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, H.; Akai, G.; Yoshinaga, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Yoshioka, H.

    1995-01-01

    The protecting effect of the tea catechin on the radiation induced scission of DNA in vitro. was examined. In addition, ESR spin-trapping method was used to make clear the mechanism of the protection. (author)

  20. 44 CFR 5.8 - Records involved in litigation or other judicial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... litigation or other judicial process. 5.8 Section 5.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... Provisions § 5.8 Records involved in litigation or other judicial process. Where there is reason to believe that any records requested may be involved in litigation or other judicial process in which the United...

  1. 25 CFR 11.438 - Flight to avoid prosecution or judicial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flight to avoid prosecution or judicial process. 11.438... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.438 Flight to avoid prosecution or judicial process... Offenses exercises jurisdiction for the purpose of avoiding arrest, prosecution or other judicial process...

  2. Los delitos sexuales: la ley y la práctica judicial en la Provincia de Buenos Aires durante el período de codifcación del derecho penal argentino (1877-1892.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Sedeillan.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available After the passage of the frst penal code in the Province of Buenos Aires in 1877, judges interpreted it in such a way so that the victims of rape and statutory rape had to press charges rather than the state directly seeking justice. This regulation of judicial procedure led to profound transformations in legal practice, operating more as an obstacle than a beneft to the protection of victim’s right by limiting their ability to take part in the legal proceedings as plaintiffs, which made it impossible to punish the accused. The reigning norm in the national Penal Code was reformed in order to reconcile the law with the social reality of the victims and make it possible to effectively protect the rights of those who fled the lawsuit with the state. We confine this work to the period from 1877-1892 in order to analyze the application and interpretation of the provincial penal code and the changes introduced with the sanction of the national Penal Code in the judicial branch.

  3. [Protective effects of compound shenhua tablet on diabetic nephropathy rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wen-Jia; Wei, Ri-Bao; Mao, Wei

    2012-03-01

    To observe the renal protection effects of Compound Shenhua Tablet (CST) on diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats. DN rats were given a normal diet for 9 months after they were induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ at the dose of 65 mg/kg after uninephrectomized. They were randomly divided into 4 groups, i. e., the normal control group, the model control group, the CST group, and the Irbesartan group. The intervention was given by gastrogavage for 6 weeks. The general state, 24 h urine protein, urine micro-albumin (mAlb), serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose (GLU), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), total protein (TP), and albumin (ALB) levels were observed before and after intervention. Renal pathological changes were observed by PAS staining and transmission electron microscope. After 6 weeks of drug intervention, when compared with the model control group, the general state was improved in the CST group and the Irbesartan group. The levels of 24 h urine protein, urine mAlb, SCr, BUN, GLU, TG, and TC were obviously lower in the CST group and the Irbesartan group than in the model group as well as in the same group before treatment (P0.05). The renal pathological changes and the renal ultrastructure were improved to some degree in the two groups when compared with those in the model control group. CST could attenuate the renal damage of diabetes and delay renal deterioration process. Its effectiveness was equivalent to that of Irbesartan.

  4. Can selection explain the protective effects of farming on asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijnand Eduard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [i][/i]Introduction and objective. Reduced asthma and allergy risks in farmers have been ascribed to microbial exposures. However, selection may also play a role and this was assessed in two Scandinavian farming populations. Materials and methods. Asthma prevalence in 739 Danish farming students was compared to that of 1,105 siblings. 8,482 Norwegian farmers were also compared with 349 early retired farmers. Results. The prevalence of ever-asthma was 5.4% in farming students and 5.2% in siblings (OR 1.1; 95%CI 0.73–1.7. Current asthma in farmers was 3.0% compared to 6.3% in farmers who had retired early (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.1–2.9. Adjustments for early retirement increased the asthma prevalence by 0.3–0.6%. Farmers who had changed production were more likely to have asthma (OR 9.8, 95% CI 6.0–16. Conclusions. No healthy worker selection into farming was observed and changes in asthma prevalence due to early retirement were small. Selection effects are therefore unlikely to explain the protective effects of farming on asthma.

  5. Protective Effects of Selected Botanical Agents on Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jam Jolly

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a serious health problem affecting more than 200 million elderly people worldwide. The early symptoms of this disease are hardly detectable. It causes progressive bone loss, which ultimately renders the patients susceptible to fractures. Osteoporosis must be prevented because the associated fragility fractures result in high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Many plants used in herbal medicine contain bioactive compounds possessing skeletal protective effects. This paper explores the anti-osteoporotic properties of selected herbal plants, including their actions on osteoblasts (bone forming cells, osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells, and bone remodelling. Some of the herbal plant families included in this review are Berberidaceae, Fabaceae, Arecaceae, Labiatae, Simaroubaceaea, and Myrsinaceae. Their active constituents, mechanisms of action, and pharmaceutical applications were discussed. The literature shows that very few herbal plants have undergone human clinical trials to evaluate their pharmacological effects on bone to date. Therefore, more intensive research should be performed on these plants to validate their anti-osteoporotic properties so that they can complement the currently available conventional drugs in the battle against osteoporosis.

  6. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Ageing Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Cui-Lan; Wang, Ming-Jie; Sun, Chen; Huang, Yong; Jin, Sheng; Mu, Xue-Pan; Chen, Ying; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Aims . The study aimed to examine whether hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) generation changed in the kidney of the ageing mouse and its relationship with impaired kidney function. Results . H 2 S levels in the plasma, urine, and kidney decreased significantly in ageing mice. The expression of two known H 2 S-producing enzymes in kidney, cystathionine γ -lyase (CSE) and cystathionine- β -synthase (CBS), decreased significantly during ageing. Chronic H 2 S donor (NaHS, 50  μ mol/kg/day, 10 weeks) treatment could alleviate oxidative stress levels and renal tubular interstitial collagen deposition. These protective effects may relate to transcription factor Nrf2 activation and antioxidant proteins such as HO-1, SIRT1, SOD1, and SOD2 expression upregulation in the ageing kidney after NaHS treatment. Furthermore, the expression of H 2 S-producing enzymes changed with exogenous H 2 S administration and contributed to elevated H 2 S levels in the ageing kidney. Conclusions . Endogenous hydrogen sulfide production in the ageing kidney is insufficient. Exogenous H 2 S can partially rescue ageing-related kidney dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress, decreasing collagen deposition, and enhancing Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Recovery of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production may also contribute to the beneficial effects of NaHS treatment.

  7. Protective effects of dietary chamomile tea on diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Atsushi; Minoshima, Yuka; Yamamoto, Jo; Adachi, Isao; Watson, Alison A; Nash, Robert J

    2008-09-10

    Matricaria chamomilla L., known as "chamomile", has been used as an herbal tea or supplementary food all over the world. We investigated the effects of chamomile hot water extract and its major components on the prevention of hyperglycemia and the protection or improvement of diabetic complications in diabetes mellitus. Hot water extract, esculetin (3) and quercetin (7) have been found to show moderate inhibition of sucrase with IC50 values of 0.9 mg/mL and 72 and 71 microM, respectively. In a sucrose-loading test, the administration of esculetin (50 mg/kg body weight) fully suppressed hyperglycemia after 15 and 30 min, but the extract (500 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight) were less effective. On the other hand, a long-term feed test (21 days) using a streptozotocin-induced rat diabetes model revealed that the same doses of extract and quercetin showed significant suppression of blood glucose levels. It was also found that these samples increased the liver glycogen levels. Moreover, chamomile extract showed potent inhibition against aldose reductase (ALR2), with an IC50 value of 16.9 microg/mL, and its components, umbelliferone (1), esculetin (3), luteolin (6), and quercetin (7), could significantly inhibit the accumulation of sorbitol in human erythrocytes. These results clearly suggested that daily consumption of chamomile tea with meals could contribute to the prevention of the progress of hyperglycemia and diabetic complications.

  8. Ebola virus disease: Effects of respiratory protection on healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Mohammed Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa sends an alarming message to all countries in the world, to increase the level of coordination and application of preventive measures globally to avoid a disastrous epidemic in the World, as the current situation in West Africa is critical especially after the World Health Organization increased the alarming level to an emergency in public health all over the world. Viral hemorrhagic fevers are important because they can readily spread within a hospital or mortuary setting, there is no effective cure or vaccine, they have a high mortality rate and they are difficult to recognize and diagnose rapidly. WHO has recommended respiratory protection for HCWs performing certain tasks such as aerosol-generating procedures, laboratory procedures, and autopsies. Particulate respirators are designed to help reduce the wearer’s exposure to certain airborne particles. The most effective way to block aerosolized particles is to use either a half-face or a full-face respirator. HCWs still need shoe covers, a full face respirator and latex or nitrile gloves to decrease the risk of Ebola virus contamination.

  9. Potential protective effect of honey against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Reem M; Zaki, Hala F; Seif El-Nasr, Mona M; Agha, Azza M

    2012-11-01

    Paracetamol overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity that leads to liver failure in both humans and experimental animals. The present study investigates the protective effect of honey against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. We have used silymarin as a standard reference hepatoprotective drug. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed by measuring biochemical parameters such as the liver function enzymes, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Equally, comparative effects of honey on oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondialdyhyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also evaluated in the rat liver homogenates.  We estimated the effect of honey on serum levels and hepatic content of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) because the initial event in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity has been shown to be a toxic-metabolic injury that leads to hepatocyte death, activation of the innate immune response and upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Paracetamol caused marked liver damage as noted by significant increased activities of serum AST and ALT as well as the level of Il-1β. Paracetamol also resulted in a significant decrease in liver GSH content and GPx activity which paralleled an increase in Il-1β and MDA levels. Pretreatment with honey and silymarin prior to the administration of paracetamol significantly prevented the increase in the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers, and reduced both oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Histopathological evaluation of the livers also revealed that honey reduced the incidence of paracetamol-induced liver lesions. Honey can be used as an effective hepatoprotective agent against paracetamol-induced liver damage.

  10. The proceduralisation of data protection remedies under EU data protection law : Towards a more effective and data subject-oriented remedial system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetta, Antonella; de Hert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The proceduralisation of data protection remedies under EU data protection law: towards a more effective and data subject-oriented remedial system?
The right to remedy breaches of data protection is laid down in both Directive 95/46/EC (Art. 22) and the Council of Europe Data Protection Convention

  11. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hilary M

    2010-06-01

    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory.

  12. Minimalismo judicial ¿Cass Sunstein en la Corte Constitucional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cajas Sarria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cass Sustein Unstein es hoy en día uno de los principales expositores de la tesis del minimalismo judicial, metodología de adjudicación que puede ser utilizada por el máximo órgano de control constitucional cuando interpreta la Constitución. En este artículo se exponen las principales características y ventajas de esta metodología, así como una comparación con las otras formas de adjudicación presentes actualmente en el derecho estadounidense. Posteriormente, se analiza el uso dado al minimalismo judicial por la Corte Constitucional de Colombia en el control que ésta realiza a la legislación, prestando especial atención a los argumentos presentados por la Corte para declarar inconstitucional el estatuto antiterrorista del año 2003.

  13. The Judicial Regime of Danube Navigation between 1856- 1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Tănase

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The basics of the judicial regime of Danube navigation, in the moern sens of the term, were inserted in the Peace Treaty in Paris, March 30, 1856, concluded at the end of Crimeea War. This judicial act of international law ended a situation in the area of the large European river where the rules were imposed by the big empires of Austria, Turkey and Russia, according to their interests. The rights and interests of the riverains such as the Romanian states, Serbia, Bulgari etc. were ignored and brutally violated. Until 1919, the European Danube Commission, institution created by the Paris Treaty, has contributed to the modernization of the lower Danube and development of navigation in this sector. This paper aims at clarifying to a certain extent the circumstances of the regulation of navigation during the reference period of time in this naval sector.

  14. Responsible Communication between the Judicial and Deontological Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aurelia Popa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Confronting with numerous problems related to moral judgment, the responsibility and irresponsibility in what concerns the vast domain of communication, we are interested in forming a correct and complete vision that crosses the judicial and deontological domain of the profession. The deontological norms are meant to guarantee, by their freely consented acceptance, the good fulfillment of the mission of the journalists, recognized as being indispensable for the god functioning of any human society. The laws do not expressly refer to the deontological norms, but these norms exist according to the law order and are necessary for its guarantee in this social context, which is chaotic from the point of view of the legislation in communication. The aspects analyzed here aremeant to indicate the manner in which passing from deontological norm to the judicial norm creates an external constraint for the communicator which brings more responsibility in view of avoiding the journalistic conflicts.

  15. Constitutional provisions on judicial independence and EU standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolaković-Bojović Milica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the 'Checks and balances' principle as one of the milestones in modern democracies, demonstrates its full complexity when it comes to balancing guaranties of judicial independence and the need to prevent misinterpretation or abuse of the rights. Additional issue in that process is determination of the border line between constitutional and guaranties of judicial independence prescribed by law. Raising that issue opens various questions which go beyond the legal framework itself. It actually tackles the historical, political and cultural country background. Furthermore, if analyzed from the prospective of the requirements defined in the accession negotiation process with the EU, constitutional guaranties of (nonapplication of the EU standards might demotivate candidate countries in their efforts to achieve substantial reform results.

  16. Disability inquiries shorn from Chicago's judicial review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-07

    The Chicago Bar Association changed the wording of the questions it routinely asks judicial candidates for election and appointment to the bench. Prior to the change, the request for information was so broad that the bar association could learn the candidate's HIV status through a questionnaire that gave the result of the candidate's last physical examination. The new wording better reflects the spirit and intent of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  17. THE CLUSTER- AN ENTITY WITH OR WITHOUT JUDICIAL PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anca Artene

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the integration within the European Union, in the economical and social life of Romania, new judicial entities have been developed. The cluster is amongst the most recent advent in the judicial spectre. The cluster represents a group of people both individuals and legal persons which is considered to act on the basis of an association contract conceptualized under the existent agreements of the organizations found within the spectrum of science and accredited innovation and/or accredited higher education institutions ,as well as, other noncommercial institutions. At the same time, economic agents, local public administrative authorities, employers` or professionals associations, non-judicial individuals, financial institutions, international organizations, local and foreign investors are relevant for the emergence of the scientific and educational research activities, as well as for the technological transfer of the scientific and innovative results and their valorisation through economical activities. 2 Therefore, it can be argued that the cluster has appeared as a result of the necessity to create a proper environment that would reunite the business partners in order to develop common resources and competences. These are based on similar marketing strategies, the participation to similar projects and initiatives, the opportunity to create a brand, etc. An additional circumstance that has determined the development of this entity in its more recent form, is represented by the possibility of ensuring (at least in a pageant manner the independence for every partner on the basis of the dualism between competition- cooperation. The cluster can be organized as an entity with or without judicial personality. The definition of the cluster makes us reflect upon the ways in which it can be constituted: legal person with lucrative purpose, legal person without lucrative purpose, association without legal personality (simple association of

  18. The Role of Communication in the French Judicial System

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Jeuland; Anastasia Sotiropoulou

    2012-01-01

    Communication has recently acquired a central role in the French judicial system. Being an integral part of the management of courts, it is crucial in building the image of justice, as it can affect procedural principles, in particular, the principles of impartiality and of reasonable time. A good image of justice promotes the appearance of efficiency and impartiality. Justice has not only to be fair, but also to be seen as such, according to the well-known proverb.

  19. The Role of Communication in the French Judicial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Jeuland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has recently acquired a central role in the French judicial system. Being an integral part of the management of courts, it is crucial in building the image of justice, as it can affect procedural principles, in particular, the principles of impartiality and of reasonable time. A good image of justice promotes the appearance of efficiency and impartiality. Justice has not only to be fair, but also to be seen as such, according to the well-known proverb.

  20. Public Politics of Health and Aspects of its Judicialization

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Fernando dos Santos; Angelina Cortelazzi Bolzam

    2015-01-01

    This article was elaborated in order to analyze issues relating to the judicialization of cases involving health, understanding health as a public policy aimed at to guarantee the fundamental right to it linked, that is, the concept of health that the authos intended to work is not far from that contained in the combined reading of Articles 6 and 196 of the Constitution, consecrators to be the health, universal right and duty of the state, guaranteed through social and economic policies aimed...

  1. ¿Puede demandarse el Divorcio, cuando ya se ha debatido y resuelto judicialmente la Separación Judicial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Baraona González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se plantea el efecto que tiene una sentencia que se ha pronunciado sobre una separación judicial en la nueva Ley de Matrimonio Civil, de cara a la posibilidad de iniciar, fundado en los mismos hechos, un juicio de divorcio. El autor concluye que la sentencia judicial que decreta la separación tiene un efecto preclusivo sobre la futura acción de divorcio intentada por los mismos hechos. En el artículo se revisa la historia de la de aprobación de las normas y se analiza el panorama en derecho comparado, en países en que existe tanto separación como.This paper examines the effect of a judicial resolution that has accepted the separation, according to the new Ley de Matrimonio Civil, in relation with the possibility to begin a divorce trial in the future, pleading the same facts. The author concludes that the judicial resolution has precluded the divorce action supported in the same facts. The paper offers the approving history of the Act and a comparative law survey, in the countries that have in their marriage law, separation and divorce.

  2. Ativismo judicial: nos limites entre racionalidade jurídica e decisão política Judicial activism: in the limits between legal rationality and political decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Vichinkeski Teixeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo encontrar parâmetros para que se possa determinar quando o ativismo judicial deixa o âmbito da argumentação jurídica e se torna instrumento de decisão política. Para tanto tentamos definir um possível conceito de ativismo judicial e as suas origens na tradição jurídica estadunidense. Nesse primeiro momento utilizamos o método histórico analítico para contextualizar historicamente as categorias conceituais em estudo e o momento de surgimento do fenômeno nos Estados Unidos. Em seguida, passamos a estudar, com base no método crítico-comparativo, os elementos fundamentais que caracterizam a racionalidade política e a racionalidade jurídica. Ao final, discutimos as perspectivas para um juiz ativista no Brasil, especialmente quando atue na proteção dos direitos fundamentais e na garantia da supremacia da Constituição. Em termos gerais, nossas conclusões apontam critérios que permitam a definição do que seria um ativismo judicial positivo, em detrimento da sua espécie nociva à saúde da ordem constitucional.This article has as general goal to find parameters in order to determine when the judicial activism leaves the field of legal argumentation and becomes an instrument of political decision. To this end, we started trying to define a possible concept of judicial activism and its origins in the United States juridical tradition. In this first moment, we use the historical analytical method to try to contextualize historically the conceptual categories under study and the conditions of emergence of this phenomenon in the United States. Following, on the basis of the critical comparative method, we began to study the fundamental elements that characterize political rationality and legal rationality. At the end, we discuss the prospects for an activist judge in Brazil, especially when acting in the protection of fundamental rights and ensuring the supremacy of the constitution. In general

  3. Explaining judicial corruption in the courts of Chile, Peru and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Basabe-Serrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the main variables that explain judicial corruption in Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. Improving the current methodological strategies used to measure judicial corruption and incorporating endogenous and exogenous variables in the model, this article argues that legal training of the judges, respect for the judicial career, and the fragmentation of political power explain different degrees of judicial corruption. Through a comparative diachronic and synchronic research design of Chile, Peru and Ecuador, the article shows institutional designs with more legal steps will be more inclined to illegal payments or other types of judicial corruption.

  4. The carrying capacity and the effects of protection level in three marine protected areas in the Balearic Islands (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Coll

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of fisheries target species in three marine protected areas (MPAs located in the NW Mediterranean provided important conclusions on management effects. The abundance, occurrence and biomass of large fish showed consistent and growing trends inside the MPAs. Fish diversity was also favoured by protection. Nevertheless, spatial variance of these indicators at a medium scale was often of the same order as that caused by time between different protection levels. The carrying capacity was determined for the first time in western Mediterranean MPAs in five out of six sites studied, and in all cases it was achieved within the first five years of protection. The observed values indicate that the system of the studied MPAs is representative of the general coastal environment of the Balearic Islands, but is far from the potential of other MPAs which are considered as hot spots in other localities. Likewise, this study shows that partially protected areas can also be fairly effective if their habitats fit with those required by target species and fishing modalities are suitably regulated or banned.

  5. [Protective effect of tanshinol on the hepatopulmonary syndrome in rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Hui-Ying; Lai, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Jiong; Tian, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li; Lv, Min-Li; Zhao, Zhong-Fu; Han, De-Wu; Cheng, Ji

    2014-05-01

    To explore the mechanism of tanshinol on alleviate the inflammatory injury of lung tissue in rat hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n = 8), hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) group (n = 11) and tanshinol intervention group (n = 9). HE staining was used to observe the histopathology changes of pulmonary and hepatic tissues, and to count the number of macrophages in lung tissues. The activity of alanine transferase (ALT) and concentrations of endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-alpha) and homocystein (Hcy) in plasma were detected. The concentrations of TNF-alpha, nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissues were measured, respectively. Thickened alveolar septum and increased macrophages were observed in lungs in HPS rat. After administered with tanshinol, the pulmonary pathological changes were alleviated and the number of macrophages in lung tissue was decreased compared with HPS group. The activity of ALT and the concentrations of endotoxin, TNF-alpha and Hcy in plasma ,and TNF-alpha, iNOS, NO and MDA in lung tissue in HPS group were higher than those of normal control group; meanwhile, those tanshinol group were less those that of HPS group. Tanshinol may play an important role in delaying the development of HPS through protecting liver or directly antagonizing the effect of intestinal endotoxemia so as to alleviate the inflammatory reaction in lung tissue.

  6. Religiousness and Rape Myth Acceptance: Risk and Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Samantha; Jankowski, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States. As hypothesized, dimensions of religiousness exhibited differential associations with rape myth acceptance. Religious motivation characterized by openness and exploration (i.e., quest religiousness) was a significant negative predictor of rape myth acceptance, directly, and indirectly through right-wing authoritarianism. In contrast, rigid adherence to religious beliefs, assumed to be "right" and absolutely true (i.e., religious fundamentalism), and extrinsically motivated religiousness each exhibited a positive association with rape myth acceptance through right-wing authoritarianism. In addition, internally motivated religiousness and religious fundamentalism each moderated the nonlinear effect for quest predicting rape myth acceptance. Findings suggest that uncritical religious and secular submission to external authorities or uncommitted and nonexploring religiousness may have increased the extent to which persons adhered to rape myths, whereas religious exploration was protective. Practical implications center on the need for socioculturally relevant prevention and intervention efforts with religious identifying college students.

  7. Protective Effects of Flavonoid Pomiferin on Heart Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nečas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present 15-day study was to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of flavonoid pomiferin isolated from the infructences of Maclura pomifera, Moraceae, against ischemia-reperfusion induced injury in rat hearts as a model of antioxidant-based composite therapy. Studies were performed with isolated, modifi ed Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and ischemia of heart was initiated by stopping the coronary flow for 30 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion (14 ml min-1. Wistar rats were divided into three groups. The treated group received pomiferin (5 mg/kg/day in 0.5% Avicel; the placebo group received only 0.5% Avicel; the intact group was left without any applications. Biochemical indicators of oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant activity in serum and myocardium has been evaluated. We also examined the effect of pomiferin on cardiac function (left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, left ventricular pressure, peak positive +dP/dt (rate of pressure development after ischemia and reperfusion. Our results demonstrate that pomiferin attenuates the myocardial dysfunction provoked by ischemiareperfusion. This was confirmed by the increase in both the antioxidant enzyme values and the total antioxidant activity. The cardio-protection provided by pomiferin treatment results from the suppression of oxidative stress and correlates with the improved ventricular function.

  8. Current knowledge in Polypodium leucotomos effect on skin protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Olga María

    2015-04-01

    This article provides an overview of pharmacology, toxicity, pharmacokinetics and clinical data of Polypodium leucotomos L. (PL). PL aerial part has proven to exert antioxidant, photoprotective and immunomodulatory activities; its mechanism of action is complex and includes several activities: (1) PL diminishes the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS); (2) PL inhibits the photoisomerization of trans-urocanic acid (t-UCA); (3) PL inhibits apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation; (4) PL prevents damage to genetic material and (5) PL enhances DNA repair. PL is not mutagenic and does not induce acute or chronic toxicity. Its biological effects have been proved in cell cultures, animal models, murine models and in human beings. Photoprotective activity has been assessed in healthy volunteers as well as in patients suffering from several cutaneous diseases such as vitiligo, psoriasis, idiopathic photodermatosis or melasma. PL results to be an efficient treatment especially for sensitive cutaneous phototypes and adds extra protection when ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure cannot be avoided, such as wide or narrow band UVB phototherapy or treatment with psoralens plus UVA exposure radiation.

  9. Protective Effects of Edaravone against Methamphetamine-Induced cardiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahareh Koohsari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Methamphetamine (METH is widely abused in worldwide. METH use could damage the dopaminergic system and induce cardiotoxicity via oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Edaravone, a sedative-hypnotic agent, is known for it's antioxidant properties. In this study we used edaravone for attenuating of METH-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. The groups (six rats in each group were as follows: control, METH (5 mg/kg IP and edaravone (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, IP was administered 30 min before METH. After 24 hours, animals were killed, heart tissue was separated and mitochondrial fraction was isolated and oxidative stress markers were measured. Edaravone significantly (p<0.05 protected the heart against lipid peroxidation by inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS formation. Edaravone also significantly (p<0.05 increased the levels of heart glutathione (GSH. METH administration significantly (p<0.05 disrupted mitochondrial function that edaravone pre-treatment significantly (p<0.05 inhibited METH-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Protein carbonyl level also increased after METH exposure, but was significantly (p<0.05 decreased with edaravone pre-treatment. These results suggested that edaravone is able to inhibition of METH-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequently METH-induced cardiotoxicity. Therefore, the effectiveness of this antioxidant should be evaluated for the treatment of METH toxicity and cardio degenerative disease.

  10. Radiation protection standards: a summary of the biological effects of ionising radiation and principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This leaflet in the NRPB At-a-Glance-Series briefly summarises the biological effects of radiation, harm and sensitivity to radiation, radiation protection principles, acceptability of risk and the control of doses to workers, the public and in medical procedures in the UK. (UK)

  11. O Judicial Review e o ativismo judicial da Suprema Corte americana na proteção de direitos fundamentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefania Maria de Queiroz Barboza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: No presente artigo examinaram-se as origens históricas do judicial review nos Estados Unidos da América desde o caso Marbury v. Madison até a Corte Burger, bem como os reflexos de sua concepção no chamado “ativismo judicial” norte-americano, o qual acabou por priorizar o papel da jurisdição constitucional na proteção dos direitos fundamentais garantidos na Constituição, mesmo que isso implicasse enfrentar questões tipicamente políticas. Ou seja, apresentaram-se casos nos quais a Suprema Corte atuou de forma ativista especialmente na proteção de direitos fundamentais, embora em outros momentos tenha atuado justamente no sentido contrário, como na Era Lochner, numa postura conservadora em relação à proteção de direitos. Palavras-chave: Ativismo judicial. Suprema Corte. Estados Unidos. Judicial Review.

  12. [Optimizing staff radiation protection in radiology by minimizing the effective dose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Boetticher, H; Lachmund, J; Hoffmann, W; Luska, G

    2006-03-01

    In the present study the optimization of radiation protection devices is achieved by minimizing the effective dose of the staff members since the stochastic radiation effects correlate to the effective dose. Radiation exposure dosimetry was performed with TLD measurements using one Alderson Phantom in the patient position and a second phantom in the typical position of the personnel. Various types of protective clothing as well as fixed shields were considered in the calculations. It was shown that the doses of the unshielded organs (thyroid, parts of the active bone marrow) contribute significantly to the effective dose of the staff. Therefore, there is no linear relationship between the shielding factors for protective garments and the effective dose. An additional thyroid protection collar reduces the effective dose by a factor of 1.7 - 3.0. X-ray protective clothing with a 0.35 mm lead equivalent and an additional thyroid protection collar provides better protection against radiation than an apron with a 0.5 mm lead equivalent but no collar. The use of thyroid protection collars is an effective preventive measure against exceeding occupational organ dose limits, and a thyroid shield also considerably reduces the effective dose. Therefore, thyroid protection collars should be a required component of anti-X protection.

  13. Threats to repair injury caused by judicial errors and criminal damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntean Vasilisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The grounds for the occurrence of punitive damages are related to the illicit actions of the persons with responsibilities in the courts and the criminal prosecution bodies. In order to provide protection against such unfair situations, there are a number of legal guarantees. The legislator has highlighted both the specific circle of reasons (illegal detention, unlawful criminal prosecution, unlawful sentencing, etc. necessary to ensure that the damage caused to the person can be repaired, as well as the circle of conditions for the right to reparation (the acquittal, the order for termination of the criminal proceedings or for the prosecution, etc.. The reparation of the damage caused by judicial and criminal prosecution errors arises at the time when the act whereby the person was convicted or illegally arrested, ie at the time when the rehabilitation act became irrevocable, was found to be illegal.

  14. Determining localized anode condition to maintain effective corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Thermal sprayed zinc anodes used for impressed current cathodic protection of reinforced concrete deteriorate over time. : Two different technologies, ultrasound and electrical circuit resistance combined with water permeability, were : investigated ...

  15. Effectiveness of ultraviolet light personal protective equipment used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... (UV) light personal protective equipment (PPE) used by arc welders in the informal sector. ... all had formal education: 31.1% had primary school level as the highest attained education level, ...

  16. Oxide layers for silicon detector protection against enviroment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'tsazh, E.; Brylovska, I.; Valerian, M.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that for protection of silicon detectors of nuclear radiations oxide layers could be used. The layers are produced by electrochemical oxidation of silicon surface with the following low-temperature annealing. These layers have characteristics similar to those for oxide layers produced by treatment of silicon samples at elevated temperature in oxygen flow. To determine properties of oxide layers produced by electrochemical oxidation the α-particle back-scattering method and the method of volt-farad characteristics were used. Protection properties of such layers were checked on the surface-barrier detectors. It was shown that protection properties of such detectors were conserved during long storage at room temperature and during their storage under wet-bulb temperature. Detectors without protection layer have worsened their characteristics

  17. Lactational Vitamin E Protects Against the Histotoxic Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: The work investigated the protective role of lactational vitamin E administration on vanadium-induced histotoxicity. ... includes vitamin C, glutathione, selenium, and .... Int. J. Cancer: 120: 13-23. ... Vanadium (IV) mediated free radical.

  18. Protective effect of WR-2823 in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovanovicj, A.; Tanasijevicj, D.; Cvetkovicj, M.; Cjosicj, M.; Chizmicj, Z.

    1987-01-01

    A chemical compound named WR-2823 has been synthetised. The acute toxicity after IP application has been investigated and LD 50 estimated. The protective ability of the radioprotector has been investigated in mice with gamma rays of 60 Co, or at the origin of 252 Cf. High protective potency in mice, treated with lethal doses of gamma rays and neutrons have been estimated. (author) 8 refs.; 1 tab

  19. Effective protection of biological membranes against photo-oxidative damage: Polymeric antioxidant forming a protecting shield over the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertins, Omar; Mathews, Patrick D; Gomide, Andreza B; Baptista, Mauricio S; Itri, Rosangela

    2015-10-01

    We have prepared a chitosan polymer modified with gallic acid in order to develop an efficient protection strategy biological membranes against photodamage. Lipid bilayers were challenged with photoinduced damage by photosensitization with methylene blue, which usually causes formation of hydroperoxides, increasing area per lipid, and afterwards allowing leakage of internal materials. The damage was delayed by a solution of gallic acid in a concentration dependent manner, but further suppressed by the polymer at very low concentrations. The membrane of giant unilamellar vesicles was covered with this modified macromolecule leading to a powerful shield against singlet oxygen and thus effectively protecting the lipid membrane from oxidative stress. The results have proven the discovery of a promising strategy for photo protection of biological membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures against it's harmful effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hhalel, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book intrduces a good knowledge in specifications of ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures againest harmful effectes. The book is devided in to five main sections, the first one introduces the hostorical bachground of the contributions of a number of scietists in the basic knolwledge of radiation and its biological effects. The second section deals with the physical and chemical principles of radiation the third one talks about radiation detection. While the fourth section talks (via seven chapter) about the effectes of ionizing radiation on living organisms molecules cells, tissues organs systems and the living organism the fifth section talks about the uses of radiation sources, the probability of radiation accidents, protective measures, international recommendations related to doses and safe use of ionizing radiation. (Abed Al-wali Al-ajlouni). 53 refs., 107 figs., 13 tabs

  1. The forms of protection civil rights parties of the bank deposit contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Миколайович Моісеєнко

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to analyze the forms of protection civil rights parties of the bank deposit contract considering the statistical data in regard to banks which allow violations of these rights and necessity to restore these rights by competent bodies. Fixing in civil legislation a number of opportunities to protect these rights with the existing economic crisis, especially in banking field, have practical importance that based on the efficiency of any form. Therewith, research the peculiarities of protection violated civil rights of the bank deposit contract in judicial, administrative and other forms. Attention is drawn on the peculiarities of some forms of protection. So, emphasizing the certain duration of judicial protection, alternatives opportunities of protection and restoration the violated rights of parties of the bank deposit contract is analyzed by the author. However, due to lack of effective mechanisms for protection the rights of parties of mentioned contract, the author proposed some ways for improving protection the violated rights of parties of the bank deposit contract.

  2. Illustration of distributed generation effects on protection system coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawami, Hussain Adnan

    Environmental concerns, market forces, and emergence of new technologies have recently resulted in restructuring electric utility from vertically integrated networks to competitive deregulated entities. Distributed generation (DG) is playing a major role in such deregulated markets. When they are installed in small amounts and small sizes, their impacts on the system may be negligible. When their penetration levels increase as well as their sizes, however, they may start affecting the system performance from more than one aspect. Power system protection needs to be re-assessed after the emergence of DG. This thesis attempts to illustrate the impact of DG on the power system protection coordination. It will study the operation of the impedance relays, fuses, reclosers and overcurrent relays when a DG is added to the distribution network. Different DG sizes, distances from the network and locations within the distribution system will be considered. Power system protection coordination is very sensitive to the DG size where it is not for the DG distance. DG location has direct impact on the operation of the protective devices especially when it is inserted in the middle point of the distribution system. Key Words, Distributed Generation, Impedance relay, fuses, reclosers, overcurrent relays, power system protection coordination.

  3. Multilayer graphene as an effective corrosion protection coating for copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Vasumathy; Ramaprabhu, S.; Jaiswal, Manu

    2018-04-01

    Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been studied as a protective layer against corrosion of copper. The layer number dependence on the protective nature of graphene has been investigated using techniques such as Tafel analysis and Electroimpedance Spectroscopy. Multiple layers of graphene were achieved by wet transfer above CVD grown graphene. Though this might cause grain boundaries, the sites where corrosion is initiated, to be staggered, wet transfer inherently carries the disadvantage of tearing of graphene, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy measurements. However, Electroimpedance Spectroscopy (EIS) reflects that graphene protected copper has a layer dependent resistance to corrosion. Decrease in corrosion current (Icorr) for graphene protected copper is presented. There is only small dependence of corrosion current on the layer number, Tafel plots clearly indicate passivation in the presence of graphene, whether it be single layer or multiple layers. Notwithstanding the crystallite size, defect free layers of graphene with staggered grain boundaries combined with passivation could offer good corrosion protection for metals.

  4. Use and effect of X-ray protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, W.

    1976-01-01

    The use of X-ray protective clothing in direct handling the patient was studied in 76 X-ray departments. Mainly two types of lead rubber aprons are used, older ones with a lead equivalent of 0.2 mm and aprons according to TGL 200-1606 with a lead equivalent of 0.25 mm. Aprons are not yet worn in all surgical departments. Their replacement by protective skirts is to be refused. If at all, lead rubber gloves are only used in standardized fluoroscopic examinations, especially in examining the gastrointestinal tract. It is emphasized that only the protected fore-part is to be directed to the main radiation source, especially in seating or leaning forward positions. (author)

  5. Trajetória da revisão judicial no desenho constitucional brasileiro: tutela, autonomia e judicialização The trajectory of judicial review in the brazilian constitutional design: tutelage, autonomy and judicialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As instituições judiciárias ficaram por muito tempo na sombra dos fenômenos e da teoria política estudadas na América Latina. Neste texto trago algumas reflexões em torno de uma dessas instituições, a revisão judicial. A ideia central é demonstrar a trajetória deste instrumento jurídico que se tornou uma peça chave no entendimento da judicialização da política no Brasil. Neste sentido, tentaremos mapear os fatores que potencializam a judicialização da política tomando como pano de fundo a evolução das instituições judiciais brasileiras no período republicano, especificamente as instituições responsáveis pela revisão judicial.The judicial institutions remained for a long time in the shadow of the political phenomena and theory in Latin America. This article presents some thoughts on one of these institutions, the judicial review. The main idea is to demonstrate the trajectory of this legal instrument that has become a key piece to understand the judicialization of politics in Brazil. In this sense, the paper tries to identify the factors that lead to the judicialization of politics, considering as background the evolution of the judicial institutions in Brazil during the republican period, and in particular the institutions responsible for the judicial review.

  6. The Political Context of Judicial Review in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Edward Siregar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia Constitutional Court will celebrate 12th birthday this August 2015, and it cannot be denied that the Court play significant role in securing democracy in Indonesia. In exercising their authorities, including the election result dispute and judicial review, the Court continue to affirm institutional judicial legitimacy and pursue their role to guard 1945 Constitution and continue to do so. The first Chief Justice Jimly showed how within five years of the Court’s creation, he could strategically maximise its momentum and build up the Court as a respectful institution. The Chief Justice Mahfud MD was then elected to reduce the judicial activism started by Jimly’s bench. However, against promises and expectations, Mahfud MD brought the Court to a level far beyond the imagination of the Constitution drafters. Parliament and President tried to limit Court’s authority, not ones, and the Court able to overcome those constrain. Current various available studies observed only how the Court issued their decision and solely focus to the impact of the decision. Scholars slightly ignore that study about the Court, by reducing other constitutional actor in Indonesia, produce study about the Court itself isn’t complete. In fact, political environment in which the Court operated at that time is one of utmost importance the strengthen of the Court institutional legitimacy. This paper is trying to discover the rise of the Indonesia Constitutional Court, not from what the Court did, but from political environment outside the court. Political parties realize that the Court is the only institution that act as political dispute resolution among them. Political parties maturity and political constraint are the key factor that support the development of the Court’s institutional power.

  7. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  8. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F González-Maya

    Full Text Available Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26% of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5% in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection.

  9. Herd protection effect of N95 respirators in healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina

    2017-12-01

    Objective To determine if there was herd protection conferred to unprotected healthcare workers (HCWs) by N95 respirators worn by colleagues. Methods Data were analysed from a prospective cluster randomized clinical trial conducted in Beijing, China between 1 December 2008 and 15 January 2009. A minimum compliance level (MCL) of N95 respirators for prevention of clinical respiratory illness (CRI) was set based on various compliance cut-offs. The CRI rates were compared between compliant (≥MCL) and non-compliant (protection from use of N95 respirators by colleagues within a hospital ward.

  10. Effects of the communities that care prevention system on youth reports of protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B K Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M; Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David

    2015-07-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across seven states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from grade 5 through grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain-specific results. This is consistent with CTC's theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems.

  11. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  12. A Democratic Ideal? From Judicial Activism to Constitutionalization of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda García López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The constitutionalization of law in Colombia is due to an active participation of the judge, in particular, of the constitutional judge. The judicial precedent source of law is an example of the inclusion of the judge on the constitutional stage as guarantor of democracy and law. The democratic ideal irreversibly includes the constitutional judge and his interpretations. The overinterpretation of law answers to a broad interpretation of the Constitution and to a building of norms that contribute something to fill the gaps in the law. Thus eoconstitutionalism is constitutionalizing the juridical order.

  13. Procedural Justice Elements of Judicial Legitimacy and their Contemporary Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Persak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low trust in courts has been recorded in many EU countries. According to the procedural justice paradigm, this phenomenon has negative repercussions for judicial legitimacy, since people who (or when they distrust an authority tend also not to perceive this authority as legitimate (which, in turn, has consequences for their compliance and cooperation with this authority and its decisions. Legitimacy of judiciary, objectively conceived, has several elements, some of which are connected to procedural justice concerns. This article focuses on the latter. In the second part, moreover, the article addresses some of the possible challenges to the judicial procedural justice, drawing on sociological and socio-legal observations regarding legal institutions in the late modern world, where, for example, efficiency-oriented goals mix with justice- and other public good-oriented ones, often creating internal pressures that may impact on the legitimacy of the institution in question. Numerosos países de la UE han registrado una baja confianza en los tribunales. Según el paradigma de la justicia procesal, este fenómeno tiene repercusiones negativas para la legitimidad judicial, ya que las personas que (o cuando desconfían de una autoridad, también tienden a no percibir esta autoridad como legítima (lo que, a su vez, tiene consecuencias para su conformidad y cooperación con esta autoridad y sus decisiones. La legitimidad del poder judicial, concebida de forma objetiva, tiene diversos elementos, algunos de los cuales están relacionados con las preocupaciones de la justicia procesual. Este artículo se centra en estos elementos. En la segunda parte, además, el artículo aborda algunos de los posibles desafíos de la justicia de procesal, basándose en observaciones sociológicas y sociojurídicas relacionadas con las instituciones legales en el mundo moderno reciente, donde, por ejemplo, los objetivos orientados a la eficiencia se mezclan con objetivos

  14. Science and judicial proceedings--seventy-six years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Robert

    2009-10-01

    The intersection of law and science, particularly in relation to causality and the legal concept of causation, were of considerable interest to Sir Owen Dixon. In this article, revisiting Dixon's 1933 lecture "Science and Judicial Proceedings", the Chief Justice refers to Dixon's deep interest in science and the issues to which it can give rise in legal proceedings. The 1933 lecture followed shortly after the judgment of the High Court in Australian Knitting Mills Ltd v Grant (1933) 50 CLR 387 which involved consideration of expert testimony and causal connections between product characteristics and personal injury to the consumer.

  15. TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHLOROPICRIN AND IMPACT OF SORBED WATER STEAM ON PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Nikolić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloropicrin is a chemical substance that has a very toxic effect. Exerts its effect on the respiratory system. Causes pulmonary edema and difficult breathing and suffocating effect. Respiratory protection may be carried into execution respiratory filters. On the protective power filter based on active coal affects adsorbed water vapor. This paper presents the results of the adsorption of water vapor on activated carbon from 5% to 25%. Was used for the experiment apparatus for dynamic adsorption, the results showed that the humidity of 5% coal provides most power protection, while humidity of 25% minimum protective power.

  16. Developing effective rockfall protection barriers for low energy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentani, Alessio; Giacomini, Anna; Buzzi, Olivier; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido; Fityus, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Recently, important progresses have been made towards the development of high capacity rockfall barriers (100 kJ - 8000 kJ). The interest of researchers and practitioners is now turning to the development of fences of minor capacity, whose use becomes essential in areas where rockfall events generally have low intensity and the use of high capacity barriers would be accompanied by excessive costs and high environmental impact. Low energy barriers can also provide a cost-effective solution even in areas where high energies events are expected. Results of full-scale tests are vital to any investigation on the behaviour of these structures. An experimental set-up has been developed at The University of Newcastle (AUS), to investigate the response of low energy rockfall barrier prototypes to low energy impacts. The Australian territory, and in particular New South Wales, is in fact characterised by rockfall events of low-to-medium intensity (50 kJ - 500 kJ) and the need of protection structures working within such energy range, is particularly felt [1]. The experiments involved the impact of a test block onto three spans, low energy barrier prototypes, made of steel structural posts, fully fixed at the base, side cables and a steel meshwork constituted by a double twist hexagonal wire net [2]. Test data enabled the development, calibration and assessment of FE models [3], on which non-linear and dynamic analyses have been performed addressing the effect of the block size. Results have shown that the response of the structure is strongly governed by the net. Data from tests conducted on the sole net and on the entire barrier showed in fact a similar trend, different to what typically observed for high capacity barriers, whose behaviour is also led by the presence of uphill cables and brakes. In particular, the numerical analyses have demonstrated a dependence of the net performance on the block size. In particular, a loss of capacity in the order of 50% occurred as the

  17. Protective effects of cistanches herba aqueous extract on cisplatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chemotherapeutic treatment of premenopausal women has been linked to premature ovarian failure (POF). Cistanches Herba (CH) is a commonly used male impotence and female infertility treatment in China; however, whether CH protects ovaries from chemotherapeutic drug-induced POF remains unclear.

  18. Effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the protection of Uapaca kirkiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations carried out on the use of ectomycorhhizal fungi in the management of Uapaca kirkiana root diseases caused by three pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica and Pseudomonas solani) revealed that different mycorrhizal fungi vary in their ability to protect roots against these respective ...

  19. Ship Inspection Strategies: Effects on Maritime Safety and Environmental Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGlobal trade depends for a large part on maritime transport, and safe ships are needed not only to protect precious cargo but also to prevent environmental damage. Flag state and port state authorities spend much effort in ship safety inspections to ensure a minimum safety level and to

  20. Ship inspection strategies: effects on maritime safety and environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, C.; Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Global trade largely depends on maritime transport, and appropriate ships are needed to protect cargo but to minimize environmental damage and to this end, flag and port state authorities expend considerable effort in ship safety inspections. This paper investigates the safety gains of current

  1. Assessment of the protective effect of male circumcision from HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Journal of Public Health ... A cross-sectional comparative study based on secondary data of 18 Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) carried out in Sub-Saharan Africa starting from 2003 was conducted to assess the protective ... Adjustment was made for sexual history and basic socio-demographic variables.

  2. Protective Effects of Dimedone Pyrone on Podocytes in Rats with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    improvements while nephrin and podocin protein expression levels were significantly higher in the nephridial tissue. Decrease in relative kidney ... therapeutic importance in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Keywords: Dimedone pyrone ..... Brown WV. Microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus: renal protection ...

  3. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercury intoxication in rodents causes damage to various organs including the brain via oxidative stress. Aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (TOAE) may be a preventive agent by virtue of its reported antioxidant property. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible protective role of TOAE against ...

  4. Protective effect of salvianolic acid B against intestinal ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that SAB may protect the intestine by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory response and hence, may be potentially for treating IIRI. Keywords: Salvianolic acid B, Intestinal Ischemia-reperfusion, Antioxidants, Inflammation, Intestinal permeability ...

  5. Early stage beneficial effects of cathodic protection in concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Stoop, B.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, cathodic protection (CP) of reinforced concrete structures suffering from chloride induced reinforcement corrosion has shown to be successful and durable. CP current causes steel polarisation, electrochemical reactions and ion transport in the concrete. CP systems are

  6. Protective effects of Punica granatum seeds extract against aging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Punica granatum extract also significantly lowered lipid peroxidation level and increased antioxidant glutathione level in brain tissues. Punica granatum preparations could be protective in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Key words: Punica granatum, Cognitive deficits, Vitamin ...

  7. Radiation Effects on PP/PS Blends as a Model of Protection Effects by Aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluszewski, W.

    2006-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is the most popular polymer for the application in construction of medical devices, due to the hardness and temperature resistance. Unfortunately, the virgin PP is of low resistance towards ionizing radiation, already to sterilization doses and cannot be applied without additives. Another option is a blend with a second polymer, especially aromatic, and therefore polystyrene (PS) was applied. The classic case of protection in the aliphatic/aromatic system (benzene/cyclohexane in liquid or solid state) shows that the surface area and structure of the interphase is crucial for the effectiveness of energy transfer. Our blends of PP (virgin, F401 from Orlen-Olefins) with PS were prepared in a variety of ways, from mechanical blending, to radiation induced grafting. Two linac accelerators (10 MeV, 6-9 kW) were applied, with different shapes of electron beam, formed according to particular methods used for the investigation of effects; doses were 10-600 kGy. As in the classic case, the protection effect was quantisized from the curve of the effect vs 0-100% PP, 100-0 % PS. Main recognition of the protection effect has been done by the diffused reflection spectroscopy (DRS) developed in our Laboratory for the application to irradiated polymers. The dependence of intensity of bands in the DRS spectrum, attributed to keton groups, which are final products of oxidation, shows clearly the protection effect of PP, executed by PS. The second method of observation of radiation effects is gas chromatography (GC), applied for irradiation products analysis. The maximum sensitivity has been achieved using the instrument type GC 2014 by Shimadzu, with thermal conductivity detector, column packed with molecular sieves 5A. Radiation induced formation of gaseous produced at ambient and lower temperatures is unique in the field of chemistry of polymers. There is no form of energy, except ionizing radiation, to cause chemical reactions to produce a wide spectrum of low

  8. Linking management effectiveness indicators to observed effects of protected areas on fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun

    2013-02-01

    Management-effectiveness scores are used widely by donors and implementers of conservation projects to prioritize, track, and evaluate investments in protected areas. However, there is little evidence that these scores actually reflect the capacity of protected areas to deliver conservation outcomes. We examined the relation between indicators of management effectiveness in protected areas and the effectiveness of protected areas in reducing fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest. We used data collected with the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) scorecard, adopted by some of the world's largest conservation organizations to track management characteristics believed to be crucial for protected-area effectiveness. We used the occurrence of forest fires from 2000 through 2010 as a measure of the effect of protected areas on undesired land-cover change in the Amazon basin. We used matching to compare the estimated effect of protected areas with low versus high METT scores on fire occurrence. We also estimated effects of individual protected areas on fire occurrence and explored the relation between these effects and METT scores. The relations between METT scores and effects of protected areas on fire occurrence were weak. Protected areas with higher METT scores in 2005 did not seem to have performed better than protected areas with lower METT scores at reducing fire occurrence over the last 10 years. Further research into the relations between management-effectiveness indicators and conservation outcomes in protected areas seems necessary, and our results show that the careful application of matching methods can be a suitable method for that purpose. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The third African IRPA 2010 conference on Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks. IAEA's role in radiation protection with focus in Africa. The controlling of exposure to indoor Radon. And Measure of activities and calculation of effective dose of indoor 222 Rn in some dwelling and enclosed areas in Africa - capacity building for radiation protection. It had also address Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy, challenges for advancing medical physic globally, Heath effects and medical applications of non-ionizing radiation, nuclear safety and radiation protection consideration in the design of research and development. The International radiation protection association (IRPA) 2010-2011 strategic plan that address among other issues educations and training activities (2000-2020) and the current UNSCLEAR activities

  10. Judicialização da saúde, acesso à justiça e a efetividade do direito à saúde Judicialization of the right to health, access to justice and the effectiveness of the right to health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ventura

    2010-01-01

    June 2007 to July 2008, entered at Rio de Janeiro State Court of Appeals. It appears that the medical drug prescription, the economic conditions of the applicants and the urgency of access to medicines are the main factual basis of judicial sentences examined, which determine the supply of medicines as required by the authors. Finally, it concludes that the effectiveness of the right to health requires a set of policy and broader government actions, and not merely formal and restrictive court orders. The individual's claims cannot be considered as the main deliberative instrument in the management of pharmaceutical care in the Brazilian Health System, but accepted as an important element in the decision making of managers and, often, in the improvement of the access to medicines under National Health System. In the Brazilian democratic context, the judicialization can express demands and modes of action of citizens and legitimate institutions. Thus, the main challenge is to make policy and social strategies orchestrated with other mechanisms and instruments of democratic security, to improve health and justice systems in order to give effectiveness to the right to health.

  11. Ultraviolet-B-effects on plants: Spectra of harmful effects, primary damage and UV protective mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellmann, E.; Beggs, C.; Moehle, B.; Schneider-Ziebert, U.; Steinmetz, V.; Koch, U.

    1986-01-01

    In two model systems of higher plants, damage caused by ultraviolet-B-radiation was analysed as to its mechanism of action and the spectral quantum efficiency. These investigations were to provide information on the relevance of such UV effects in cases of increased ultraviolet-B-irradiation owing to the destruction of ozone. The results indicate the very high tolerance of the plants to ultraviolet-B-radiation which obviously is the result of very effective protective mechanisms, and show at the same time that potential damage must already be reckoned with, given the current share of ultraviolet-B-radiation in solar radiation. Should ultraviolet-B-radiation be increased, then indirect damage to the plant from the destruction of ultraviolet protective mechanisms through UV-B-radiation will probably constitute a particular risk. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Internacionalização e ativismo judicial: as causas coletivas Internationalization and judicial activism: the collective causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Engelmann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende fornecer elementos para a análise da relação entre o fenômeno de internacionalização do direito e a emergência de modalidades de advogados engajados na representação judicial de causas coletivas. São analisadas duas dimensões: uma primeira expõe um panorama exploratório das causas coletivas no cenário nacional e internacional, pela catalogação das decisões judiciais na Corte Interamericana de Direitos Humanos e em tribunais brasileiros. Uma segunda dimensão de análise aborda, com base em entrevistas, casos representativos de promoção de causas coletivas nas décadas de 1990 e 2000. Essas duas dimensões permitem avançar a hipótese de que a redemocratização política nacional e a constituição de redes internacionais de circulação de causas políticas e jurídicas contribuem para a definição dos perfis de ativismo judicial legitimados no espaço jurídico em diferentes períodos.The article intends the analysis of the relation between the phenomenon of internationalization of Law and the emergency of modalities of lawyers engaged in the judicial representation of collective causes. Two dimensions are analyzed: the first one displays an exploratory panorama of the collective causes in the national and international scene, out of a survey of the profile of demands of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and Brazilian courts. The second dimension approaches, from interviews, representative cases of promotion of collective causes in the decades of 1990 and 2000. These two dimensions allow to advance the hypothesis that the national political redemocratization and the constitution of international networks of circulation of political and legal causes contribute for the definition of the profiles of judicial activism legitimated in the legal space in different periods.

  13. Juristocracy in Brazil Ran Hirschl's Perspective About Judicial Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the classical view of separation of powers, the judiciary originally occupied the weaker position. What is observed today, however, is a displacement of power from representative institutions to the judiciary, erecting a new kind of political regime that the Canadian political scientist Ran Hirschl called juristocracy. This paper intends to discuss this movement basing on the idea of hegemonic preservation, presented by Hirschl in his work Towards Juristocracy whose central hypothesis is that the political, economic and social elites voluntarily transfer power to the judiciary, when threatened of losing their hegemony in the political sphere. In Brazil, the 1988 Constitution turned the Supreme Court into one of the world's most powerful courts, which works at the same time as constitutional court, court of appeals and criminal court, responsible for deciding the most fundamental issues for brazilian society. We present at first, the examples used by Hirschl to illustrate his thesis about the judicial empowerment through constitutionalization, analyzing the political and economic changes in recent history of Israel, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, followed by an analysis of the phenomenon in Brazil. We conclude that it is not possible to determine, in principle, the occurrence of hegemonic preservation in Brazil, but that Hirschl's analysis that offers an answer that challenges the traditional view on the judicialization of politics, contributes to the discussion and analysis of the phenomenon in Brazil.

  14. ['Judicialization' of public health policy for distribution of medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffi, Ana Luiza; Barata, Rita Barradas

    2009-08-01

    The supply of medicines in response to court orders or injunctions has become a common practice in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This 'judicialization' of the health system clashes with basic principles of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), such as equal opportunity to access health services. The aim of this paper is to analyze the legal action used to obtain medicines through the São Paulo State Health Department, from two main angles: judicialization of public policies and breach of the equity principle. This is a descriptive study of legal action taken to obtain medicines through the São State Health Department, as listed in the Electronic Court Docket System for the year 2006. Most cases were filed through private attorneys; 47% of the patients had obtained their prescriptions through private care; and 73% of the cases involved patients from the three wealthiest areas in the city of São Paulo. The data demonstrate that such legal action violates key principles of the SUS such as equity, thereby privileging individuals with higher purchasing power and more access to information.

  15. Protection of WWER type primary loops against extreme effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podrouzek, J.; Rejent, B.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic analyses of the WWER-440 primary loops for the Mochovce nuclear power plant showed that the unprotected primary loop is very soft with a first eigenfrequency of 0.38 Hz. Protection with amortisseurs and viscous shock absorbers was compared and the viscous shock absorber in all cases proved to be more suitable. GERB viscous absorbers will be installed at the Mochovce nuclear power plant. First calculations of the dynamic resistance of the WWER-1000 primary loops for the Temelin nuclear power plant to extreme events were also made. It was shown that the unprotected primary loop is rather soft with a first eigenfrequency of 0.9 Hz, or 0.6 Hz at the pressurizer branch. It will therefore be necessary to protect the primary loops with viscous shock absorbers. (Z.M.)

  16. Systemic interpretation and the judicial recovery of the possibility for companies in common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Hinterlang dos Santos Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Company in common was introduced by Brazilian law from the Civil Code of 2002 in its articles 986 to 990. In the previous period it was analyzed from the irregular company name or company and fact. The first was characterized by having written contract, but this was not brought to registration with the competent body and the second when there was no social contract. This study aims to analyze the figure of the Company in common, in the current legal system, from the majority interpretation that does not recognize the right to judicial recovery. It points out that this interpretation ignores: i principles governing the legal system and the economic subsystem; and ii that the current legislation allows their accountability before legal duties in labor spheres, tax, competitive and consumer. Under these main arguments is that they have highlighted the systematic interpretation to defend the right to judicial or extrajudicial recovery. So effective is legal certainty material.    Arraste e solte o arquivo ou link aqui para traduzir o documento ou a página da Web.Arraste e solte o link aqui para traduzir a página da Web.O tipo de arquivo que você soltou não é suportado. Tente outros tipos de arquivo.O tipo de link que você soltou não é suportado. Tente outros tipos de link. 

  17. Effective legal protection in the licensing of technical installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehler, L.

    1987-01-01

    Undeterminate concepts of law shall match the dynamism of technical progress in licensing technical installations (e.g. section 7, para. 2 no. 3 Atomic Energy Act). The administration and the courts have the duty to equalize normative deficits of regulation. Decrees and administrative provisions have an important impact. Administrative courts shall exercise legal protection more efficiently what e.g. can be possible after a shortening of stages of appeal. (CW) [de

  18. Effective construction of environmental protection agreements; Wirksame Gestaltung von Umweltschutzabkommen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, H.F. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    By now 170 international agreements are designed to protect air, ground, water and organisms from man-made hazards. Nevertheless are innovative approaches required for global conventions to make the Earth a sanctuary of life for good. (orig.) [Deutsch] Schon mehr als 170 internationale Vertraege sollen Luft, Boden, Wasser und die Organismen vor Gefaehrdungen durch den Menschen bewahren. Gleichwohl sind innovative Ansaetze fuer globale Vereinbarungen erforderlich, damit die Erde auf Dauer ein sicherer Hort des Lebens ist. (orig.)

  19. The polarising processes by cathodic protection and their effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu¾cha Ján

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of appropriate protection against the corrosion of metal materials it is necessary to understand in details the principle of the corrosion. The corrosion is the oxidation of metal material which results in the change of its chemical composition. This chemical change is greatly influenced by the electrical current flowing in metal depending on electrical current flowing direction and intensity.

  20. E.S.R. studies of mechanisms of radiation protection effect by cysteine and cystine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue-Peng, L.; Tie-Cheng, T.; Nian-Yun, L.

    1981-01-01

    By means of E.S.R. the repair mechanism of radiation induced spin transfer from dTMP to cysteine in binary system dTMP-cysteine has been confirmed. Furthermore, a new marked radiation protection effect, exerted by cysteine or cystine on thymine irradiated and observed at low temperature, has been detected. Another sort of fast protection mechanism, including electron transfer and excitation transfer, has been proposed, based on recent advances of primary radiation process of pyrimidine bases and analysed by molecular orbital theory. This fast radiation protection mechanism provides the possibility to utilize electrophilic sulfhydryl protectors for realizing excellent protection effect. (author)

  1. Pre-Ratification Judicial Review of International Agreements to be Concluded by the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2018-01-01

    incrementally shaping the law of EU external relations, and determining the manner in which the Union may enter into formal international relations. Understanding the Court’s importance in this field has been done time and again, but yet, consideration of the pre-ratification judicial review option, available...... for how ex ante judicial review can work in developing the Union into an even more enhanced global actor, through its own unique judicial order....

  2. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D; Hockings, Marc

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Impact of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses of childhood vaccinations. A quantitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubar, Marisa; Stavroulakis, Maria Christina; Maldonado, Yvonne; Ioannidis, John P A; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) can impact the CEAs-conclusions. However, empirical epidemiologic data on the size of herd-protection effects from original studies are limited. We performed a quantitative comparative analysis of the impact of herd-protection effects in CEAs for four childhood vaccinations (pneumococcal, meningococcal, rotavirus and influenza). We considered CEAs reporting incremental-cost-effectiveness-ratios (ICERs) (per quality-adjusted-life-years [QALY] gained; per life-years [LY] gained or per disability-adjusted-life-years [DALY] avoided), both with and without herd protection, while keeping all other model parameters stable. We calculated the size of the ICER-differences without vs with-herd-protection and estimated how often inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of the cost-effectiveness threshold (of an assumed societal-willingness-to-pay) of $50,000 for more-developed countries or X3GDP/capita (WHO-threshold) for less-developed countries. We identified 35 CEA studies (20 pneumococcal, 4 meningococcal, 8 rotavirus and 3 influenza vaccines) with 99 ICER-analyses (55 per-QALY, 27 per-LY and 17 per-DALY). The median ICER-absolute differences per QALY, LY and DALY (without minus with herd-protection) were $15,620 (IQR: $877 to $48,376); $54,871 (IQR: $787 to $115,026) and $49 (IQR: $15 to $1,636) respectively. When the target-vaccination strategy was not cost-saving without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection always resulted in more favorable results. In CEAs that had ICERs above the cost-effectiveness threshold without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of that threshold in 45% of the cases. This impacted only CEAs for more developed countries, as all but one CEAs for less developed countries had ICERs below the WHO-cost-effectiveness threshold even without herd-protection. In several analyses, recommendation for the adoption of the target

  4. Ethical considerations in protecting the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is based on providing for the protection of humans. The current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) include the statement that t he standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk... . In the light of the new focus of concern for the environment, this statement is being critically reviewed in several international fora. The IAEA has, over many years, sponsored studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on species other than humans. Most recently it published a discussion report as IAEA-TECDOC-1091 (1999) in which the need for developing a system for protecting the environment against the effects of ionizing radiation was elaborated and in which various related technical and philosophical issues for resolution were discussed. The current report explores the ethical principles that could underlie a system of environmental protection. It is intended as one step in the development of a framework for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, and is being published in order to promote awareness of the current developments in this field as well as to encourage discussion amongst those involved

  5. From to the Liberal State into the Social and Democratic State of Law: Analysis of the Emergence of Judicial Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luna da Cunha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will examine the relationship between the judiciary and the effectiveness of social rights and, consequently, the vaunted judicial activism. More specifically, the article will answer the following question: the role of the judiciary has changed with the development of state models? Article develop their problem by analyzing the function of the judiciary in each of these rule of law models: the Liberal, Social (in spite of that State have not been fully implemented in Brazil and the Democratic. To do so, take into account the relationship between the established powers republish, social movement for the conquest of rights and assertiveness of a new generation of rights. The "Judicial activism" is analyzed as the practical consequence of a new constitutionalism, more guided in the realization of social rights outlined in the constitutions of democratic character.

  6. Effect of protective atmosphere on color of goose meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkusz, A; Woloszyn, J; Haraf, G; Okruszek, A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the work was to characterize the color of the of the goose breast meat packaged in protective atmosphere and stored in the refrigerated conditions. The aim was realized by determination of total heme pigment concentration; relative concentration of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and metmyoglobin; parameters of color L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness); and sensory evaluation of the surface color. The experimental material was White Kołuda goose boneless breast meat with the skin from industrial slaughter. The following 2 protective atmospheres were used in the study: vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) consisting of 80% O2 and 20% CO2. The muscles packed in protective atmosphere were examined on d 4, 7, 11, and 14 of storage. A control sample was goose breast meat stored in air and tested after 24 h after slaughter. The total pigment concentration decreased gradually within 14 d of storage for samples packed in 2 types of atmospheres. The increase in relative concentration of metmyoglobin and the decrease in oxymyoglobin relative concentration in total heme pigments in the meat stored in MA was noticed. However, in all times of storage, the relative concentration of the 3 samples of myoglobin forms stored in vacuum was unchanged. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*) did not change for 14 d of storage in the muscles packed in vacuum. One can state a decrease of the value of the color parameter a* as well as an increase of the value of the color parameter b* in the samples packed in MA. From d 11 to 14 of storage, goose meat packed under MA had lower sensory evaluation intensity of color than muscles under vacuum. The obtained data indicated that the surface color of goose breast meat packed in MA (consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2) or vacuum packed was maintained for 11 and 14 d, respectively.

  7. The Effect of Operating Lamps on the Protected Area of a Unidirectional Down Flow (UDF) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversari, A A L; Bottenheft, C; Louman, R; van Heumen, S P M; Böggemann, J

    2017-04-01

    Operating lamps are often seen as the most disruptive factors within the protective area in the operating theater (OT). The effect of the operation lamps (with different shapes) should be demonstrated in an OT by trial, since research on the effects of the lamps is still limited. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a skirt, different lamps, and the position of the lamp on the protected area. The concentration of airborne particles was measured under different circumstances, in order to determine the size and quality of the protected area. This entrainment/segregation test is based on the deliberate and controlled emission of particles outside the zone that is protected. The degree of protection (DP) at the center of the protected area was higher for the case with the skirt. This skirt stimulates more down flow and prevents the early entry of particles into the protected area. It can also be concluded that Lamp Y, due to its open shape, has the most positive effect on the DP at the center. It has also been shown that the position of the lamp has an effect on the protected area.

  8. Educating Jurors about Forensic Evidence: Using an Expert Witness and Judicial Instructions to Mitigate the Impact of Invalid Forensic Science Testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Joseph; Caldwell, Jiana

    2015-11-01

    Invalid expert witness testimony that overstated the precision and accuracy of forensic science procedures has been highlighted as a common factor in many wrongful conviction cases. This study assessed the ability of an opposing expert witness and judicial instructions to mitigate the impact of invalid forensic science testimony. Participants (N = 155) acted as mock jurors in a sexual assault trial that contained both invalid forensic testimony regarding hair comparison evidence, and countering testimony from either a defense expert witness or judicial instructions. Results showed that the defense expert witness was successful in educating jurors regarding limitations in the initial expert's conclusions, leading to a greater number of not-guilty verdicts. The judicial instructions were shown to have no impact on verdict decisions. These findings suggest that providing opposing expert witnesses may be an effective safeguard against invalid forensic testimony in criminal trials. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Nuclear industry and legal security - some remarks on the restrictive effects on legal protection and participation of the public in the nuclear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, W.

    1989-01-01

    The state is on dangerous ground with the development that can be observed in the legal field, allowing legal protection against large-scale technology and projects, particularly in the nuclear sector, to be gradually cut back. This impression is shown to be true first of all in relation to legislation which reduced legal protection through the instrument of judicial review, for protection of life and health from technological hazards, to the functions of a trial court, and this for reasons of opportunistic and short-term political interests. Decisions of the Federal Administrative Court in nuclear law matters have been neglecting the principle of legal protection to an extent that the legitimation quality of decisions in this field of law has been diminishing more than can be expected at first sight, looking at the restrictions. The public has come to realise that the courts content themselves with reviewing only a small part of the case and close their eyes to the concerns of the public, which in turn loses trust in the sincerity of judicial proceedings and the correctness of court decisions. The citizen will turn to other ways and means in order to come into his own. This is a dangerous development in a constitutional state, and must be prevented. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. The Supply of Judicial Labour: Optimising a Scarce Resource in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Opeskin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed societies generate a multitude of controversies between their members, which need to be resolved fairly if society is to function well. Judicial officers play a central role in that process by hearing and determining disputes according to law, but they are costly and their long tenure entrenches labour market rigidities. This is an inconvenience for modern governments, as they attempt to keep the wheels of justice turning, while facing budgetary constraints that drive them to seek ever greater cost-efficiencies. This article surveys the ways in which governments in Australia have sought to optimise the judicial labour force by creating a more flexible and cost-effective supply. The system of justice that has evolved in response to these developments is a complex one, with many complementary parts. There is no unique solution to the question of how many judicial officers society needs to quell disputes because this goal can be achieved in different ways. But great care needs to be taken to ensure that government action to find flexible sources of labour to meet the demand for judicial dispute resolution does not come at too high a price in terms of respect for the rule of law. Las sociedades desarrolladas generan multitud de polémicas entre sus miembros, y éstas deben ser solucionadas de forma justa para que la sociedad funcione bien. Los agentes judiciales desempeñan un papel esencial en ese proceso, dado que atienden y solucionan disputas de acuerdo con el derecho, pero son agentes costosos y sus largas permanencias en el puesto perpetúan la rigidez del mercado laboral. Ello es un inconveniente para los gobernantes actuales, que intentan asegurar que el ejercicio de la justicia siga su curso, al tiempo que se enfrentan a limitaciones presupuestarias que los empujan a buscar una eficiencia en relación a los costes cada vez mayor. Este artículo estudia las maneras en las que los gobiernos de Australia han procurado optimizar la

  11. Prioritization of strategies to approach the judicialization of health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Chapman, Evelina; Cubillos, Leonardo; Reveiz, Ludovic

    2016-09-01

    To describe strategies that contribute to the comprehensive approach to the judicialization of health in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. A search was structured to identify articles presenting strategies to approach the judicialization of health. A survey was designed, which included actors of the health system and judiciary sector. We prioritized the strategies qualified by more than the 50.0% of the participants as "very relevant". Strategies were categorized according to: governance, provision of services, human resources, information systems, financing, and medical products. We included 64 studies, which identified 50 strategies, related to the sub-functions and components of health systems. Of the 165 people who answered the survey, 80.0% were aged 35-64 years. The distribution of men and women was homogeneous. Half of the respondents were from Colombia (20.0%), Uruguay (16.9%), and Argentina (12.7%). We prioritized strategies that addressed aspects of generation of useful scientific evidence for decision making according to the health needs of the population, empowerment for the society, and creating spaces for discussion of measures of inclusion or exclusion of health technologies. The executive and judiciary decision makers prioritized questions that dealt with strategies that would ensure accountability. The results of this study contribute to the identification of effective strategies to approach the phenomenon of judicialization of health, guaranteeing the right to health. Describir estrategias que contribuyan al abordaje integral de la judicialización de la salud en países de América Latina y El Caribe. Se estructuró una búsqueda para identificar artículos que presentaran estrategias para el abordaje de la judicialización en salud. Se diseñó una encuesta, en donde se incluyeron actores del sistema de salud y del sector judicial. Se priorizaron las estrategias calificadas por más del 50,0% de los participantes como "muy relevantes

  12. Plenary panel 1: The scientific bases of radiation protection. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    2006-01-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (L.N.T.) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (authors)

  13. Plenary panel 1: The scientific bases of radiation protection. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomaa, S. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (L.N.T.) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (authors)

  14. DNA protective effect of ginseng and the antagonistic effect of Chinese turnip: A supplementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Kam Shing; Han, Andrea; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart. About 2 mL of fasting blood sample for baseline measurement was taken on arrival. They were requested to ingest the content of 5 ginseng capsules in 200 mL water. The subject remained fasting for 2 h until the second blood sample taken. In the other occasion, the experiment was repeated except a piece of cooked turnip (10 g) was taken with the ginseng extract. The two occasions could be interchanged. Comet assay was performed on two specimens on the same day for the evaluation of lymphocytic DNA damage with or without oxidative stress. For the group with ginseng supplementation, there was a significant decrease in comet score for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) treatment over the 2-h period while no change in DNA damage for unstressed sample. For the group with ginseng together with turnip supplementation, there was no significant difference in comet score for both H 2 O 2 treatment and phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Ginseng extract could reduce DNA damage mediated by H 2 O 2 effectively, but this protection effect was antagonized by the ingestion of cooked turnip at the same time. In the current study, commercial ginseng extract was used for supplementing volunteers. Ginseng extract could protect DNA from oxidative stress in vivo while turnip diminished the protection.

  15. Older Adults' Perceptions of Nutrition as Protective against Detrimental Effects of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina; Gaetke, Lisa; Stephenson, Tammy; Brewer, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    The aging process makes older adults vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of environmental contaminants. Our study assessed older adults' perceptions regarding diet as protective against environmental contaminants, levels of concern about exposure to environmental contaminants, and interest in learning about protective food-related…

  16. Labour Market Effects of Employment Protection. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwei, Ulrich

    The labor market effects of employment protection were examined in a study of Germany's employment protection regulations and their impact on employment practices and patterns. The following topics were considered: (1) the question of whether Germany's labor market problems are a result of regulations; (2) employment security as a subject of labor…

  17. Matching Judicial Supervision to Clients’ Risk Status in Drug Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Lee, Patricia A.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports outcomes from a program of experimental research evaluating the risk principle in drug courts. Prior studies revealed that participants who were high risk and had (a) antisocial personality disorder or (b) a prior history of drug abuse treatment performed better in drug court when scheduled to attend biweekly judicial status hearings in court. In contrast, participants who were low risk performed equivalently regardless of the court hearings schedule. This study prospectively matches drug court clients to the optimal schedule of court hearings based on an assessment of their risk status and compares outcomes to clients randomly assigned to the standard hearings schedule. Results confirmed that participants who were high risk and matched to biweekly hearings had better during-treatment outcomes than participants assigned to status hearings as usual. These findings provide confirmation of the risk principle in drug courts and yield practical information for enhancing the efficacy and cost-efficiency of drug courts. PMID:18174915

  18. THE IMPACT OF COURTROOM CAMERAS ON THE JUDICIAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Campbell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensational trial of Richard Bruno Hauptmann for the kidnapping and murder of Charles Lindberg’s young son in 1935 marked the starting point of the debate regarding the propriety of allowing cameras in courtrooms during judicial proceedings. This debate intensified during and following the 1994-1997 trial of O.J. Simpson. At issue is how a court must weigh the Sixth Amendment right of the accused to a public trial and the First Amendment right to a free press, as well as its own interest in preserving the dignity and decorum of the courtroom. This paper examines the history, Federal rules, seminal court cases, and California rules concerning cameras in the courtroom in the context of these important Constitutional issues. This research provides qualitative data from 208 California judges that help explain some of the thinking by those who are empowered to accept or reject requests to record court proceedings.

  19. Separating Judicial from Legislative Reasoning in Moral Dilemma Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Peter E

    1997-12-01

    Unlike previous studies of the development of reasoning about moral dilemmas, the 2 studies reported separated judicial reasoning (the application of rules) from legislative reasoning (the justification of rules), as well as attending to other aspects of context, using a modification of the weakly interpretive scoring method of Langford and D'Cruz. This assigns justifications to relatively simple conceptually defined categories. Findings were in accord with substantially modified versions of the views of Piaget and Kohlberg, according to which legislative reasoning can be divided into 3 main types of stages in the period 7-21 years: heteronomy (Piaget) or egocentrism (Kohlberg); local groups (attention to group interests, harmony, and reciprocity in local groups), wider groups (attention to these thing in wider groups). Findings contradicted Gibbs's theory.

  20. Proposals for software analysis of cost effectiveness and cost-benefit for optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Lombard, J.; Lefaure, C.

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this report is to present the principles of decision making software for radiation protection option, applying ALARA principle. The choice of optimum options is performed by applying the models of cost effectiveness and cost-benefit. Options of radiation protection are described by two indicators: a simple economic indicator: cost of radiation protection; and dosimetry indicator: collective dose related to protection. For both analyses the software enables sensitivity analysis. It would be possible to complete the software by integrating a module which would take into account combinations of two options since they are not independent

  1. Promoting Justices: Media Coverage of Judicial Nominations in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryna Bogoch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the framing of the coverage of judicial appointments in Israel in 2008 in two newspapers with nomination news from preceding years and to the patterns of press coverage in the U.S. A content analysis of 101 Supreme Court nomination articles indicated that unlike the political frame of American coverage, the press in Israel preserves its ostensible commitment to the professionalism of judges while linking the Supreme Court to political maneuvering in the selection of candidates. These findings are discussed within the context of the media's role in constructing judicial nominations as a debate about the role of the Supreme Court in Israeli society. Este artículo compara el marco de la cobertura de los nombramientos judiciales en Israel en 2008 en dos periódicos, con noticias de nombramientos de años anteriores y en los Estados Unidos, con los patrones de cobertura de prensa en los EE.UU. Un análisis de contenido de 101 artículos de nombramientos de la Corte Suprema indicó que, a diferencia del marco político de la cobertura de América, la prensa en Israel consierva su aparente compromiso con la profesionalidad de los jueces, a pesar de que relaciona la Corte Suprema con maniobras políticas en la selección de candidatos. Estos resultados se discuten en el contexto del papel de los medios de comunicación en la construcción de los nombramientos judiciales como un debate sobre el papel de la Corte Suprema en la sociedad israelí. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2478756

  2. Protecting power equipment against magnetohydrodynamic effects (MHD of electromagnetic pulses (EMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurevich Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the effects of geomagnetic-induced currents (GIC on electrical equipment of power systems and analyzes technical measures for protection against such effects. It is noted that the difference between highaltitude nuclear detonation and solar storm GICs forces applying different methods of electrical equipment protection. It also illustrates that enhancement of transformer immunity to GICs without saturation prevention is not an effective measure to protect the power system. The article offers a special relay designed for fast disconnection of the transformer under GICs.

  3. Does radiation exposure produce a protective effect among radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.; Sternberg, A.; Elliott, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The mortality experience of radiologists compared to that of other physician specialists demonstrates an increased risk of cancer deaths as well as deaths from all causes among physicians practicing in the early years of this century. However, for the radiologists who joined specialty societies after 1940, the age pattern of deaths has changed. Whereas among early entrants, young radiologists had higher mortality rates than those of other specialists; among later entrants, the young radiologists have lower mortality. However, as these later-entrant radiologists age, their rates appear to exceed those of other specialists. Although the level of radiation exposure is unknown, physicians in more recent years usually have lower cumulative doses. Lower radiation exposure may be one of a number of possible explanatory factors for the cross-over from protected to higher risk status as these physicians age

  4. Judicial Review: State Supreme Judicial Views on Balancing Civil Liberties and Public Safety/Security Measures during the Global War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    provided to preserving individual rights by “. . . narrowing the range of rights- violative options available to the government in the next emergency...relationship with the government as agent )142 who sounds a “fire alarm,” by bringing a complaint before the...Judicial Review,” 24-30. 142 Ibid., “Judicial Review Supports Popular Sovereignty by Mitigating the Principal- Agent Problem that Lies at the Heart of

  5. Protective effects of ether, oxygen and their mixture for radiation in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megumi, Tsuneo; Tsujii, Yukio; Gamo, Sumiko

    1992-01-01

    Protective effects of ether mixed with air or oxygen against ionizing radiation damages were demonstrated in adult flies of Drosophila melanogaster. The protective effects against knock-down on the second day and lethality on the eighth day after irradiation were not affected by the radiation sensitivity and DNA repair capacity of the strains. Ether (4.2%) in oxygen was more effective than ether in air for both endpoints. The protective effects may be due to damages not involving cell division, since no mitotic cells are observed in adult flies except in gonadal glands. A change in the orderliness of the cell membrane by ether is suggested to be the cause of the protective effects. (author). 16 refs.; 3 tabs

  6. 'Adventurous' judgments
    A comparative exploration into human rights as a moral-political force in judicial law development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas de Gaay Fortman

    2006-12-01

    may function as a moral-political force in judicial law development. Apparently, notions underlying human rights protection such as inalienability and universality play a part as modern regulae iuris, while interests that relate closely to basic human dignity tend to exert a rather strong appeal in terms of providing judicial protection.

  7. Risperidone-Induced Renal Damage and Metabolic Side Effects: The Protective Effect of Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Bilgiç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective qualities of resveratrol (RSV against the side effects of risperidone (RIS in an experimental model in rat kidneys with histologic and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods. Experimental procedures were performed on 35 female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, untreated rats (n=7 were in group 1; group 2 was given 2 mg/kg/day RIS (n=7; group 3 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 20 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7; group 4 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 40 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7; and group 5 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 80 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7. All treatments were administered for two weeks by gavage. On treatment day 15, kidney tissues were removed for analysis. Results. The results showed that RSV treatment reduced weight gain induced by RIS. In addition, RSV increased the total antioxidant status (TAS and decreased serum creatinine (Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, oxidative stress index (OSI, and total oxidant status (TOS levels significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study revealed that treatment with RSV might protect kidney tissues against the side effects of RIS. RSV could be an effective course of therapy to enhance therapeutic efficacy.

  8. Collective legal protection: The European approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic goals of the EU justice policy is to ensure an efficient and effective legal protection, particularly in cross-border disputes and cases concerning the violation of rights guaranteed under the EU legislation. In order to accomplish this goal, the EU embarked on a horizontal harmonization of civil procedure in some sectors and reinforced the institutional cooperation of Member States in the field of civil justice. Concurrently, there were some legal interventions in the field of civil procedure, which contributed to establishing a number of European procedural mechanisms, such as: the European Small Claims Procedure (2007, the European Payment Order Procedure (2006, etc. Many studies and analyses show that procedural mechanisms of collective legal protection are essential for ensuring an efficient and effective legal protection of rights guaranteed by the EU law. The idea of introducing the collective legal protection instruments into the EU law has been present for more than two decades. It has been endorsed by the European Economic and Social Committee, which has played the key role in its promotion. In June 2013, after extensive consultations, the European Commission adopted the Recommendation on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in the Members States concerning violations of rights guaranteed under the EU law. This document has provided a coherent horizontal framework for the collective legal protection at the EU level by establishing the common European principles for collective redress mechanisms which the Member States should incorporate into their national systems. Analysis of the common principles governing the collective legal protection shows that the European approach to shaping the collective redress claims is significantly different from the American class action model, which is considered to be incompatible with the European legal tradition and deemed to provide a wide

  9. Effects of ionizing radiation on plants and animals at levels implied by current radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1977 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection stated that the commission believes that if man is adequately protected from radiation, other organisms are also likely to be sufficiently protected. The present report examines this statement by considering the effects of ionizing radiation on animals and plants in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The conclusions are that chronic dose rates of IMGy.d -1 or less are unlikely to cause measurable deleterious effects in terrestrial populations, and that in the aquatic environment limiting chronic dose rates to 10MGy.d -1 to the maximally exposed individuals would provide adequate protection for the population. Thus specific radiation protection standards for non-human organisms are not needed. 193 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  10. The judicial reception of competition soft law in the Netherlands and the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Zlatina

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current work is to delineate national judicial responses to Commission-issued competition soft law within two EU jurisdictions – the UK and the Netherlands. For this purpose, a comparative methodology is adopted and – in terms of theory – several hypotheses of possible judicial

  11. Judicial Review: Issues of State Court Involvement in School Finance Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, William Bradley

    1998-01-01

    Due to state legislatures' reluctance to initiate school-funding reform, judicial bodies are asked to provide relief from alleged inequities. Before providing judicial review, the judiciary must decide whether an issue is justiciable (does not violate separation of powers) and warrants court intervention. Children's education has not substantially…

  12. 32 CFR 270.13 - No right to judicial review or legal cause of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM Payment § 270.13 No right to judicial review or legal cause of action. Subject... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false No right to judicial review or legal cause of..., and such review is specifically precluded. This part does not create or acknowledge any legal right or...

  13. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector. 4.5 Section 4.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE... Counsel, a Judicial Officer, a Chief Postal Inspector, and such number of officers, described in 39 U.S.C...

  14. The judicial reception of competition soft law in the Netherlands and the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Zlatina

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current work is to delineate national judicial responses to Commission-issued competition soft law within two EU jurisdictions – the UK and the Netherlands. A comparative methodology is adopted and – in terms of theory – several hypotheses of possible judicial attitudes to soft law

  15. 16 CFR 1502.11 - Judicial review after waiver of hearing on a regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review after waiver of hearing on a regulation. 1502.11 Section 1502.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... petition for judicial review in a U.S. court of appeals under the appropriate statute. (1) The record for...

  16. 9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section 329.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.6 Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any carcass...

  17. 9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure... Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition. Any poultry or other article subject to seizure and condemnation under this...

  18. Natural antioxidants for protection and radiation effects treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafi, Y.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since many degenerative human diseases have been recognized as being a consequence of free radical damage, there have been many studies undertaken on how to delay or prevent the onset of these diseases. The most likely and practical way to fight against degenerative diseases is to improve body antioxidant status which could be achieved by higher consumption of vegetables and fruits. Foods from plant origin usually contain natural antioxidants that can scavenge free radicals. It is clear that vitamin C and antioxidant capacity are not directly related and thus that vitamin C is not the only antioxidant in juices with high content of vitamin C. Antioxidant capacity may also arise from phenolics / flavonoids found in plants. Three major antioxidant nutrients are vitamin C, vitamin E and beta carotene. Intake of these nutrients has an inverse relationship with degenerative disease risk. In an elderly study, it was found that high consumption of flavonoids correlated with low risk of coronary heart disease. Some evidence showed that flavonoids could protect membrane lipid from oxidation. A major source of flavonoids are vegetables and fruits. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the Protective Effects of Bitter Leaf (Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Haematological Indices of Rats Fed with Crude Oil Treated Diet ... This study indicates that intake of bitter leaf reduced the toxic effect of crude ... effects of petroleum hydrocarbon include decreased ... Cell Indices: After thirty days blood samples were .... Comparative study of ... ingestion of crude oil (Nigerian Bonny Light),.

  20. Investigation of the protective effects of Vitamin C, iron and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Vitamin C (Vit. C), iron, the iron chelating agent desferrioxamine (DF) and their most effective dose combinations on thermotolerance of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Due to the fact that studies on aging and lifespan take long time, thermotolerance was used as a ...

  1. Effective evaluation of privacy protection techniques in visible and thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Tahir; Berg, Amanda; Ferryman, James; Ahlberg, Jörgen; Felsberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Privacy protection may be defined as replacing the original content in an image region with a (less intrusive) content having modified target appearance information to make it less recognizable by applying a privacy protection technique. Indeed, the development of privacy protection techniques also needs to be complemented with an established objective evaluation method to facilitate their assessment and comparison. Generally, existing evaluation methods rely on the use of subjective judgments or assume a specific target type in image data and use target detection and recognition accuracies to assess privacy protection. An annotation-free evaluation method that is neither subjective nor assumes a specific target type is proposed. It assesses two key aspects of privacy protection: "protection" and "utility." Protection is quantified as an appearance similarity, and utility is measured as a structural similarity between original and privacy-protected image regions. We performed an extensive experimentation using six challenging datasets (having 12 video sequences), including a new dataset (having six sequences) that contains visible and thermal imagery. The new dataset is made available online for the community. We demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method by evaluating six image-based privacy protection techniques and also show comparisons of the proposed method over existing methods.

  2. Multiple effects of self-protection on the spreading of epidemics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Aside from the commonly considered strategies: vaccination or risk, in this work another basic policy self-protection strategy is incorporated into research of epidemics spreading. Then within the network-theoretical framework, we mainly explore the impact of self-protection strategy on the epidemic size and the eradication of infection. Interestingly, we find that the self-protection influence is multiple: given that the effectiveness of the self-protective strategy is negligible, nobody is willing to take up this act, both vaccination and risk traits dominate the whole system; On the contrary, when the effectiveness of self-protective policy is elevated, it becomes a popular strategy and the size of epidemic can be controlled at a relatively low level. However, one worse situation is present as well: when the effectiveness of self-protection is moderate, the infection probability and epidemic size can reach the maximal level. This is because that, under such a case, the emergence of the self-protective strategy neither inspires the enthusiasm of vaccination nor provides ideal effect

  3. The hepato-protective effects of Portulaca oleracea L. extract: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Hozeifi, Soroush

    2018-03-30

    Portulaca oleracea L. (Purslane) has been used in traditional medicine against hepatic injury, alt-hough its actual efficacy has not been fully understood. In addition, few studies have indicated that Portulaca oleracea L. possess protective effects against hepatotoxic agents. However, due to lack of information in human, more studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of Portulaca oleracea L. as a hepato-protective agent. The present study aimed to critically review the recent literature data from 1990 to 2017 regarding the hepato-protective effects of Portulaca oleracea L. and its underlying mechanisms. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Long-Term Protective Effects of Methamphetamine Preconditioning Against Single-Day Methamphetamine Toxic Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, A.B; Ladenheim, B; McCoy, M.T; Beauvais, G; Cai, N; Krasnova, I.N; Cadet, J.L

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) use is associated with neurotoxic effects which include decreased levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in the brain. We have shown that escalating METH dosing can protect against METH induced neurotoxicity in rats sacrificed within 24 hours after a toxic METH challenge. The purpose of the current study was to investigate if the protective effects of METH persisted for a long period of time. We also tested if a second challenge with a toxic dos...

  5. Study of the Effective Parameters on the Making Use of Protective Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Tabaraie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and objectives

    Noise threats health of many groups of industrial workers and causes hearing loss. Use of personal protective device is the best control method to protect against hazardous conditions. Hence, this investigation was carried out to determine situation of using of protective devices and effective parameters on it, in Qom province workers community in 2006.

     

    Methods

    This research is descriptive-sectional study. Sample volume was designed 378 persons working in factories in Qom. First of all, list of Qom factories with noise pollution problems, were collected and 30 important factories among them were selected randomly. In the second stage, 378 persons were selected randomly from workers. The interest information was obtained by questionnaire and collected data were analyzed by SPSS software.

     

    Results

    The obtained results showed that, 83.6% of workers have been using ear protective devices. 296 of them, which were using ear protective devices, had an occupational hygienist in their workplaces. This research also showed that, 109 workers that used ear protective devices, had moderate knowledge level. Moreover, 82.5% of trained workers have used ear protective devices. The statistical analysis of the results showed that there were no significant relationship between use of ear protective devices and existence of occupational hygienist in workplace, knowledge and age of workers, worker’s antecedent, physical health of workers and kind of ear protective devices (p> 0.05. 

     

    Conclusion

    These results showed that among all considered parameters; only four parameters were effective in using ear protective devices; education of workers before employment, head workman and employer’s knowledge level, factories facilitation and kind of ear protective devices.

     

  6. Non controlled effect of ionizing radiations : involvement for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that damage to DNA is the critical event on irradiated cells, and that double strand breaks are the primary DNA lesions responsible for the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This has lead to the long standing paradigm that these effects, be they cytotoxicity, mutagenesis or malignant transformation, occur in irradiated cells as a consequences of the DNA damage they incur. Evidence has been accumulating over the past decade, however, to indicate that radiation may induce effects that ar not targeted to the irradiated cells itself. Two non-targeted effects will be described in this review. The first, radiation-induced genomic instability, is a phenomenon whereby signals are transmitted to the progeny of the irradiated cell over many generations, leading to the occurrence of genetic effects such as mutations and chromosomal aberrations arising in the distant descendants of the irradiated cell. Second, the bystander effect, is a phenomenon whereby irradiated cells transmit damage signals to non-irradiated cells in a mixed population, leading to genetic effects arising in these bystander cells that received no radiation exposure. the model system described in this review involves dense monolayer cultures exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles. The potential implications of these two phenomena for the analysis of the risk to the human population of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation is discussed. (Author) 111 refs

  7. Studies on the protection effects of functional foods for skin immune system from radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Shin, Seong Hae; Kim, Do Sun; Heo, Ji Yun; Kang, Hye In

    2007-07-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of pilot products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) on the UV-induced skin immune damages as the following. · Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic against UV using contact hypersensitivity model - Protection against depression of contact hypersensitivity by administration and skin application of HemoHIM and HemoTonic - Induction of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment - Improvement of antigen-presenting activity of dedritic cells by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment · Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic on skin immune system against UV-irradiation - Protection of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells under UV-irradiation - In vivo protection of antigen-presenting activity of Langerhans cells in UV-irradiated mice · Protective effects of HemoHIM on UV-induced apoptosis of dendritic cells - Inhibition of cell membrane change, mitochondrial potential change, SubG1 cell population, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation in UV-irradiated dendritic cells · Anti-allergic effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic in human adipocyte HMC-1 cells - Inhibition of allergic histamine release from adipocytes - Inhibition of secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, GM-CSF) - Inhibition of c-kit, tryptase, FcεRI mRNA expression From these results, the developed functional food products (HemoHIM, HemoTonic) showed the protection and recovery of the immune functions in the UV-irradiated skin. It is suggested that these products may be used as a new functional food or cosmetic material for the protection of skin damage and the promotion of recovery

  8. Studies on the protection effects of functional foods for skin immune system from radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Shin, Seong Hae; Kim, Do Sun; Heo, Ji Yun; Kang, Hye In [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    We evaluated the protective effects of pilot products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) on the UV-induced skin immune damages as the following. centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic against UV using contact hypersensitivity model - Protection against depression of contact hypersensitivity by administration and skin application of HemoHIM and HemoTonic - Induction of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment - Improvement of antigen-presenting activity of dedritic cells by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic on skin immune system against UV-irradiation - Protection of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells under UV-irradiation - In vivo protection of antigen-presenting activity of Langerhans cells in UV-irradiated mice centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM on UV-induced apoptosis of dendritic cells - Inhibition of cell membrane change, mitochondrial potential change, SubG1 cell population, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation in UV-irradiated dendritic cells centre dot Anti-allergic effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic in human adipocyte HMC-1 cells - Inhibition of allergic histamine release from adipocytes - Inhibition of secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF) - Inhibition of c-kit, tryptase, FcepsilonRI mRNA expression From these results, the developed functional food products (HemoHIM, HemoTonic) showed the protection and recovery of the immune functions in the UV-irradiated skin. It is suggested that these products may be used as a new functional food or cosmetic material for the protection of skin damage and the promotion of recovery

  9. HISTORIOGRAPHY GENERAL, REGIONAL AND SPECIAL STUDIES OF JUDICIAL REFORM IN RUSSIA 1864

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Evgenievich Strakhov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, a crucial role is played by the judiciary. In the period lasting judicial reform, it is important to explore this institution not only at the present stage, but also to trace the history of its development, including - through analysis and synthesis of existing studies of the judiciary and judicial reforms.The purpose of this study - to explore the historiography of general, special and regional studies of judicial reform of1864 inRussia, to classify research on history and on the subject of the study.Scientific, theoretical and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the study of this topic will summarize the significant weight of the studies of the judicial reform of 1864 and classified by facilitating orientation interested in individuals in the study subjects.The author uses historical, comparative, hermeneutical, mathematical methods, as well as general methods of scientific research.The author analyzes the historiography of general, special and regional studies of the judicial reform of1864 inRussia, introducing a classification of such studies in chronological order (pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern stages and subject matter (common - affecting all aspects of judicial reform, special - dedicated to a particular aspect (legal agencies, prosecutors, legal, etc. and regional - dedicated to judicial reform, or some aspects of it in some regions of Russia.The results of this study are scientific and practical value, because they can be useful for teaching students - in industry disciplines "judiciary", "advocacy", "notary public", "public prosecutor's supervision" and general theoretical "History of State and Law," "History of the fatherland" ; in science - by picking up information about the historiography of the judicial reform, and in practice - said work can serve as a guide to research judicial reform, which may be useful to practitioners of judicial and investigative bodies, as well as - prosecutors

  10. Protective effect of catalpol on isoproterenol-induced myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... Nevertheless, little work was done to investigate the cardioprotective effects of catalpol. ..... may be a promising agent for the treatment of cardio- vascular disease. ... model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Neurosci. Lett.

  11. Analysis of the relation of copyright and work content in judicial verdicts of USA, UK and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Sadeghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to copyright system, the normal standard for protecting literary and artistic works is originality hence the international copyright treaties such as Berne convention, while emphasizing on originality are avoiding imposing other mandatory standards for protecting such works. However, these works are different forms of expression of various ideas and accordingly, comprise different contents. In some cases, the works contents are inconsistent with religious and national values and norms or society custom and laws. There are conflicts between protecting copyright as an intellectual property right and other moral, religious and legal priorities in the society. For resolving this conflict and answering the question whether work content will affect copyright protection, countries have adopted different approaches. From the perspective of the work content, this article through a comparative study of approaches and judicial verdicts of the USA, the UK and Canada, infers two general views: the work content does not have any impacts on copyright protection and the work content have impacts on copyright protection. In addition, some supporters of second view believe in content impact on existence of copyright in a work and other supporters believe that content has impacts on some enforcements of copyright.

  12. Studies on Radiation Protection Effect of the Beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jong Gi; Ha, Tae Young; Hwang, Chul; Hyan; Lee, Young Hwa

    2007-01-01

    In this study, it was investigated whether commercially produced beer is able to prevent a lymphocyte from radiation induced apoptosis. Whole blood samples were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers (male, 26-38 years old) and the lymphocyte were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte were investigated by 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy irradiation. In some experiments, the donor drunk beer and then blood samples were collected. In other experiments, melatonin or glycine betain was added to lymphocyte culture medium. Treated or untreated lymphocytes were cultured for 60 hours and radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte was analyzed by annexin-V staining through flow cytometery. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the untreated lymphocytes is 1.22±1.1, 1.22±1.1, 1.38±1.0, 1.47±1.1, 1.50±1.2 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes is isolated from beer drunken donors is 0.971.0, 0.991.0, 1.11±0.9, 1.29±1.1, 1.15±1.1 by radiation doses respectively which are reduced 21.5% compared with untreated lymphocyte. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the lymphocytes is isolated from non-alcohol beer drunken donors is 1.22±1.1, 1.17±1.1, 1.13±1.3, 1.38±1.2, 1.32±1.1 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively which are reduced 10.8% compared with the untreated lymphocyte. As a result, it is suggested that beer may protect the lymphocyte from radiation damage and inhibit apoptosis.

  13. Studies on Radiation Protection Effect of the Beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jong Gi; Ha, Tae Young; Hwang, Chul; Hyan; Lee, Young Hwa [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Busan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    In this study, it was investigated whether commercially produced beer is able to prevent a lymphocyte from radiation induced apoptosis. Whole blood samples were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers (male, 26-38 years old) and the lymphocyte were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte were investigated by 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy irradiation. In some experiments, the donor drunk beer and then blood samples were collected. In other experiments, melatonin or glycine betain was added to lymphocyte culture medium. Treated or untreated lymphocytes were cultured for 60 hours and radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte was analyzed by annexin-V staining through flow cytometery. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the untreated lymphocytes is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.38{+-}1.0, 1.47{+-}1.1, 1.50{+-}1.2 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes is isolated from beer drunken donors is 0.971.0, 0.991.0, 1.11{+-}0.9, 1.29{+-}1.1, 1.15{+-}1.1 by radiation doses respectively which are reduced 21.5% compared with untreated lymphocyte. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the lymphocytes is isolated from non-alcohol beer drunken donors is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.17{+-}1.1, 1.13{+-}1.3, 1.38{+-}1.2, 1.32{+-}1.1 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively which are reduced 10.8% compared with the untreated lymphocyte. As a result, it is suggested that beer may protect the lymphocyte from radiation damage and inhibit apoptosis.

  14. Effectiveness of Africa's tropical protected areas for maintaining forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, J N; De Vos, A; Ament, J M; Cumming, G S

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forests. Tropical forests house a substantial portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are heavily affected by anthropogenic activity. We analyzed park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control sites. Although significant geographical variation existed among parks, the majority of African parks had significantly less forest loss within their boundaries (e.g., Mahale Park had 34 times less forest loss within its boundary) than control sites. Accessibility was a significant driver of forest loss. Relatively inaccessible areas had a higher probability (odds ratio >1, p < 0.001) of forest loss but only in ineffective parks, and relatively accessible areas had a higher probability of forest loss but only in effective parks. Smaller parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than larger parks (T = -2.32, p < 0.05), and older parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than younger parks (F 2,154 = -4.11, p < 0.001). Our analyses, the first individual and national assessment of park effectiveness across Africa, demonstrated the complexity of factors (such as geographical variation, accessibility, and park size and age) influencing the ability of a park to curb forest loss within its boundaries. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Protective effect of zinc against lethality of the irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, J.; Inada, T.; Machida, K.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of adding 1000 ppm Zn in the drinking water 10 days before gamma irradiation (562 - 1000 rad) of mice were studied. The mice which had received zinc had a lower mortality rate and a longer survival time compared to the controls. The LD 50 of gamma radiation was 690 rad in the control group and 770 rad in the zinc group. Zinc added to the culture medium of human melanoma cells did not shown any change in radiosensitivity; thus the radioprotective effect of zinc appears to work at the whole body level. (U.K.)

  16. Ethical considerations in protecting the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is based on providing for the protection of humans. The current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) include the statement that {sup t}he standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk... {sup .} In the light of the new focus of concern for the environment, this statement is being critically reviewed in several international fora. The IAEA has, over many years, sponsored studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on species other than humans. Most recently it published a discussion report as IAEA-TECDOC-1091 (1999) in which the need for developing a system for protecting the environment against the effects of ionizing radiation was elaborated and in which various related technical and philosophical issues for resolution were discussed. The current report explores the ethical principles that could underlie a system of environmental protection. It is intended as one step in the development of a framework for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, and is being published in order to promote awareness of the current developments in this field as well as to encourage discussion amongst those involved.

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining biodiversity, securing habitats, and reducing threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmann, Jonas

    of this thesis has been to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of protected area in securing biodiversity, by evaluating their ability to either improve conservation responses, the state of biodiversity, or alternatively to reduce the human pressures responsible for the loss of biodiversity. The scope......Protected areas are amongst the most important conservation responses to halt the loss of biodiversity and cover more than 12.7% of the terrestrial surface of earth. Likewise, protected areas are an important political instrument and a key component of the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD......); seeking to protect at least 17% of the terrestrial surface and 10% of the coastal and marine areas by 2020. Protected areas are expected to deliver on many different objectives covering biodiversity, climate change mitigation, local livelihood, and cultural & esthetic values. Within each...

  18. Protective effect of the leaves of Vitex negundo against ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the effect of the various fractions of hydromethanolic extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) against ethanol-induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats. Cerebral oxidative stress was induced by the administration of 20% ethanol (5 ml/100g bw) for a period of 28 days.

  19. Protective effect of nitric oxide against arsenic-induced oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NO on alleviating arsenic-induced oxidative damage in tall fescue leaves were investigated. Arsenic (25 M) treatment induced significantly accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and led to serious lipid peroxidation in tall fescue leaves and the application of 100 M SNP before arsenic stress resulted ...

  20. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae) is traditionally used in Cameroon in the treatment of diabetes. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of the leaves of this plant was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Diabetes was induced in mice by a ...

  1. Protective effect of quercetin on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... bupivacaine, possibly through inhibition of T-type calcium channel. This finding implies a novel mechanism for neuroprotective effect of quercetin, and its potential for treating toxicity arising from the use of local anesthetic agents. Keywords: Quercetin, Bupivacaine, Local anaesthetic, Neuroprotection, Neurotoxicity, T-type ...

  2. Protective effect of quercetin on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    certain side effects, especially neurotoxicity. It has been shown that neurotoxicity caused by local anesthetics such as lidocaine and bupivacaine are related to changes in calcium homeostasis, resulting in intracellular calcium overload [1]. Calcium homeostasis is regulated by many different kinds of calcium channels such.

  3. Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZINO

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... fetuses were used to isolate a total RNA for quantification of Msx1, Cx43, Bcl2 and Bax genes. The results show the toxic effect ... caspase-mitochondria pathways (Li et al., 2000), indicating that apoptosis could .... RNA isolation and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA was ...

  4. Layer of protection analysis: Selecting cost effective safety measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M.N.; Gort, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, in process industry risks are reduced by applying technical solutions and taking organisational measures. The performance of both types of 'solutions' depends on many factors and can not easily be compared. Especially the effectiveness of organisational measures such as the use of

  5. Protective effect of Rhizoma drynariae extract on osteoporosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has been a popular therapeutic strategy designed for postmenopausal osteoporosis [8,9]. However, the long-term application of HRT has potential malignant effects on reproductive tissues [10-13]. Other medicines that stimulate bone formation (e.g., growth hormone, sodium uoride, and parathyroid hormone) or inhibit bone.

  6. Protective effect of topical antibiotics in breast augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Philip; Jørgensen, Signe; Kristiansen, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that antibacterial lavage and/or use of topical antibiotics may reduce infection in breast implant surgery and perhaps also reduce occurrence of capsular contracture. A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate this effect. METHODS: The study participa...

  7. A study of the effectiveness of hand protection when handling UO2 fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, R.R.; Sullivan, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Simple tests were performed to estimate the effectiveness of various forms of hand protection in reducing skin doses when handling UO 2 fuel pellets. Household rubber gloves (rubberized cotton) appeared to be the most effective of the varieties tested. Nylon gloves and latex finger cots were least effective. (author)

  8. Aspectos Relevantes de la Organización del Poder Judicial Español: Selección y Formación de Jueces, la Reforma de la Secretaria Judicial y la Figura del Secretario Judicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Polignano Godoy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, a fin de contribuir a los estudios sobre la política judicial, la gestión y la administración de la justicia en Brasil, ofrece una visión general de algunos aspectos relevantes de la organización del Poder Judicial español a saber, la selección y formación de los magistrados, la reforma de la secretaria judicial y la figura del secretario judicial, que son temas de interés actual en vista de las similitudes socio-culturales y jurídicas, y la coincidencia entre los problemas que enfrentan los poderes judiciales de Brasil y España. Aunque no contenga una sugestión de "importación" de soluciones acríticas extranjeras, propone una profundización del estudio de estos puntos, con el fin de evaluar los posibles impactos positivos que tuvieron en el caso español y verificar si no serían medidas interesantes a aplicarse en el escenario brasileño, especialmente en el caso de la secretaria judicial, cuya función consiste en aliviar el juez de la gestión de la unidad administrativa y de trabajos "burocráticos", para centrarse en la función judicial, al mismo tiempo en que permitiría la centralización y la especialización de la gestión y del trabajo administrativo.

  9. Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness Offered by Different Types of Personal Protective Clothing Against Nanoaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domat, M.; Pla, J.; Cadavid-Rodríguez, M. C.; Fito, C.

    2017-06-01

    The rapid expansion of nanotechnology is outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. Thus, there is a lack of information about the effects that nanomaterials can induce in the human health. Nevertheless, workers in nanotechnology-related industries are potentially at risk of being exposed to nanomaterials. Therefore, there is a need of characterize the behaviour of personal protective equipment against penetration nanoparticles, in order to provide an adequate protection to the workers. In this study, the efficiency of several protective dermal equipment against water-based NaCl aerosol was evaluated. For this purpose, different protective clothing and gloves were selected to carry out the assays, simulating typical use conditions of protective equipment under occupational settings. Results obtained exposed that the level of protection offered by the distinct types of personal protective coveralls depended not only on the fabric, but also on their fitting to the body of the subject. On the other hand, the efficiency of the protective gloves was set in the range from 95% to 99%, depending on the thickness and the type of material.

  10. How curcumin affords effective protection against amyloid fibrillation in insulin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabiee, Atefeh; Ebrahim Habibi, Azadeh; Ghasemi, Atiyeh Ghasemi

    2013-01-01

    Since the formation of amyloid structures from proteins was recognized in numerous diseases, many efforts have been devoted to the task of finding effective anti-amyloidogenic compounds. In a number of these investigations, the existence of “generic” compounds is implicitly acknowledged. Curcumin...... been shown effectively influenced by micro molar concentrations of curcumin. Under amyloidogenic conditions (pH 2.5 and 37°C), the compound was observed to inhibit fibril formation of insulin in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, addition of curcumin to the protein incubated in such conditions...... at different time points resulted in reduced amounts of final fibrils. Disaggregation of pre-formed fibrils was also observed upon addition of curcumin, as well as reduction in final fibril amounts after seeding. Overall, this compound appears to be able to interact with native, intermediate and fibrillar...

  11. Protective effect of mild endoplasmic reticulum stress on radiation-induced bystander effects in hepatocyte cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuexia; Ye, Shuang; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Tu, Wenzhi; Liu, Peifeng; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the defense and self-protective mechanisms of bystander normal cells are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia, where the ratio of the yield of bystander MN induction to the yield of radiation-induced MN formation under hypoxia was much higher than that of normoxia. Nonetheless, thapsigargin induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and dramatically suppressed this bystander response manifested as the decrease of MN and apoptosis inductions. Meanwhile, the interference of BiP gene, a major ER chaperone, amplified the detrimental RIBE. More precisely, thapsigargin provoked ER sensor of PERK to initiate an instantaneous and moderate ER stress thus defensed the hazard form RIBE, while BiP depletion lead to persistently destroyed homeostasis of ER and exacerbated cell injury. These findings provide new insights that the mild ER stress through BiP-PERK-p-eIF2α signaling pathway has a profound role in protecting cellular damage from RIBE and hence may decrease the potential secondary cancer risk after cancer radiotherapy. PMID:27958308

  12. Ecological effects of full and partial protection in the crowded Mediterranean Sea: a regional meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Scianna, Claudia; Plass-Johnson, Jeremiah Grahm

    2017-01-01

    the relationships between the level of protection and MPA size, age, and enforcement. Results revealed significant positive effects of protection for fisheries target species and negative effects for urchins as their predators benefited from protection. Full protection provided stronger effects than partial...... to inform decisions. In the human-dominated Mediterranean Sea, fully protected areas occupy only 0.04% of its surface. We evaluated the impacts of full and partial protection on biomass and density of fish assemblages, some commercially important fishes, and sea urchins in 24 Mediterranean MPAs. We explored...

  13. Protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage due to UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhicheng; Zhao Hongguang; Du Xiang; Li Yanbo; Guo Wei; Gong Shouliang; Xiao Jian; Yao Chongshun; Li Xiaokun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage exposed to UVB and its mechanism, and to provide the experimental basis for the protection of skin damage exposed to UVB. Methods: The skin of guinea pigs was exposed to UVB (28.38 J/cm 2 · 30 d) to establish the oxidative damage model. The skin erythema and the rough were observed during the experiment; the thickness of epiderm and the number of fibroblast were observed under light microscope after the experiment. The activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC and the contain of MDA in the supernate of skin homogenate were detected with biochemical methods. Results: The epiderm in UVB exposure group and blank group thickened, but that in protective group weren't observed; the number of fibroblast in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, while that in protective group increased, but that in control group didn't. The content of MDA in the supemate of skin homogenate in UVB exposure group and blank group increased, but that in protective group deceased, and the activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, but those in protective group increased, and control group had no change. Conclusions: Oleum curcumae wenchowensis has the protective effects on skin damage exposed to UVB, which may be mediated by increasing the contain of antioxidases and eliminating the flee radical. (authors)

  14. The protective effect of Shenfu injection against elderly severe pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, S J; Lai, D P; Wei, X; Yan, Q; Xia, J M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Shenfu injection (SFI) on the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) of elderly patients who suffered from severe pneumonia. From June 2012 to September 2014, we performed in our department 89 cases of elderly patients with severe pneumonia. These patients were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group (45 cases) and the control group (44 cases). The control group was given the treatment of anti-infection, reducing sputum, and support therapy, while the treatment group was fed by SFI intravenously based on the control group. The TNF-α and the interleukin were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Meanwhile, the changes in the inflammatory response indicators, the blood gas analysis, and the parameters of vital signs were measured and compared before and after therapy. Prior to treatment, there is no significant difference between the treatment group and the control group (p > 0.05); after the treatment for 7 days, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly decreased, while the level of IL-10 was obviously increased. The APACHE II score was significantly decreased in comparison to that before the treatment (p < 0.05), and the time of mechanical ventilation, the duration of time in ICU, and the application time of vasoactive drugs were notably shortened. The application of Shenfu injection exhibited a positive and effective effect on removing the inflammation media during the treatment of elderly severe pneumonia.

  15. Judicial review and transitional justice: Reflective Judgment in three contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca examinar las vías a través de las cuales las cortes de revisión constitucional han intentado discernir con sentimientos públicos dentro de sociedades emergentes de una situación de opresión y conflicto de alta escala. Un análisis comparativo de decisiones de revisión judicial de la Hungría post-comunista, de la Sudáfrica post-Apartheid y de la Argentina post- dictadura como casos que muestran como los jueces han, con mayor o menor éxito, reconocido y engranado pedagógicamente sentimientos sociales negativos de resentimiento e indignación hacia antiguos víctimarios y beneficiarios de violencia. Así, el artículo espera cimentar el camino para investigaciones de mayor envergadura sobre uno de las dimensiones más descuidadas de sociedades post-confictuales: la influencia pública.

  16. Legal argumentation and judicial decision making: Empirical evidence from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Castro-Montero

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Legal scholars often analyze argumentation from a formal perspective, mostly applied to judicial decision making. This article presents an alternative approach, as it empirically evaluates the quality of petitioners’ legal argumentation within the context of abstract constitutional review proceedings. The quality of legal argumentation is herein defined as the ability of the petitioner to (i identify the challenged norm and the potentially infringed constitutional norm, (ii present clear and coherent arguments, and (iii justify its arguments upon legal sources, such as jurisprudential precedents or legal doctrine. Original data on forty lawsuits presented before the Ecuadorian Constitutional Court between 2008 and 2016 is used to test whether legal argumentation determines the outcome of a decision. A novel measure of the overall quality of argumentation and strength of cases brought before the Ecuadorian Constitutional Court by both public and private parties is also developed in the form of an expert survey. The main findings suggest that plaintiffs’ legal argumentation quality does not determine the outcome of the final decision of the Ecuadorian Constitutional Court, but rather the type of plaintiff (public or private does.

  17. ELECTRONIC EVIDENCE IN THE JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS AND COMPUTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Boban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s perspective of the information society is characterized by the terminology of modern dictionaries of globalization including the terms such as convergence, digitization (media, technology and/or telecommunications and mobility of people or technology. Each word with progress, development, a positive sign of the rise of the information society. On the other hand in a virtual environment traditional evidence in judicial proceedings with the document on paper substrate, are becoming electronic evidence, and their management processes and criteria for admissibility are changing over traditional evidence. The rapid growth of computer data created new opportunities and the growth of new forms of computing, and cyber crime, but also the new ways of proof in court cases, which were unavailable just a few decades. The authors of this paper describe new trends in the development of the information society and the emergence of electronic evidence, with emphasis on the impact of the development of computer crime on electronic evidence; the concept, legal regulation and probative value of electronic evidence, and in particular of electronic documents; and the issue of electronic evidence expertise and electronic documents in court proceedings.

  18. Effect of new ICRP guidelines on radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new limits proposed by ICRP and under consideration (at the time of writing) by AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada) reduce the maximum exposure of atomic radiation workers from 50 to 20 mSv per year, and that of the general public from 5 to 1 mSv. The new guidelines will have three main effects: first, some licensees may have difficulty in complying; secondly, many workers may have to be reclassified as atomic radiation workers; thirdly, extensive retraining will be needed. Activities affected include reactor retubing and underground uranium mining

  19. E.M.I Effects of Cathodic Protection on Electromagnetic Flowmeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Sahin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic flowmeters are used to measure the speed of water flow in water distribution systems. Corrosion problem in metal pipelines can be solved by cathodic protection methods. This paper presents a research on corruptive effects of the cathodic protection system on electromagnetic flowmeter depending on its measuring principle. Experimental measurements are realized on the water distribution pipelines of the Izmir Municipality, Department of Water and Drainage Administration (IZSU in Turkey and measurement results are given. Experimental results proved that the values measured by the electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF are affected by cathodic protection system current. Comments on the measurement results are made and precautions to be taken are proposed.

  20. Protective effect of melatonin in the diabetic rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrzadi, Saeed; Motevalian, Manijeh; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Fatemi, Iman; Ghaznavi, Habib; Shahriari, Mansoor

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common and serious microvascular complications of diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin (MEL) on retinal injury in diabetic rats. In this study, 21 rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic + MEL. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes at a dose of 50 mg/kg, i.p., and blood glucose was measured to choose the diabetic rats for the study. MEL (20 mg/kg) was given orally for 7 weeks in diabetic rats starting 1 week after induction of diabetes. After 8 weeks, the groups were compared in terms of mean scores of fluorescein leakage, using fluorescein angiography. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in retina using commercially available assays. Structural changes in retinas were evaluated by light microscopy. Results showed that diabetes significantly increased the mean scores of fluorescein leakage, and MDA and ROS levels compared to control group. Treatment of the diabetic rats with MEL for 7 weeks prevented the alterations induced by diabetes in comparison with the diabetic control group.Based on these findings, it can be concluded that MEL might have beneficial effects in prevention of DR. © 2018 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.