Shiina, Akihiro; Niitsu, Tomihisa; Sato, Aiko; Omiya, Soichiro; Nagata, Takako; Tomoto, Aika; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Yoshito; Iyo, Masaomi
To evaluate the effect of educational intervention on individuals' knowledge of and attitudes toward forensic mental health. We conducted a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward various ideas about forensic mental health. The respondents attended a 1-h seminar regarding forensic mental health after answering the questionnaire. On completion of the seminar, the respondents answered another questionnaire containing many of the same questions as contained in the pre-seminar questionnaire. A total of 86 individuals attended the seminar, and 78 responded to the questionnaire. Only 13 (18.8%) participants were supportive of the concept of criminal responsibility initially, and there was a statistically significant increase in those who became more supportive after the seminar, with 22 (33%) being supportive after the seminar (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P criminal responsibility after the intervention. These results suggest that public attitudes toward criminal responsibility and mental health can be influenced via educational interventions.
Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Scarsella, Gina M; McGuire, Adam P; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions. However, identification of mediational pathways, which were not examined in the original study, is necessary to determine whether the HPA buffering effects were due to helping motivations (compassionate goals; CGs) rather than via previously identified variables such as control or support. In this new analysis, we combined the original cortisol data with novel observer ratings of interpersonal behavior and psychological variables during the stress task, and conducted new, theory-driven analyses to determine psychological mediators for the intervention's effect on cortisol responses (N = 54; 21 females, 33 males; 486 cortisol samples). Control, support, and task ego-threat failed to account for the effects of the intervention. As hypothesized, self and observer-rated CGs, as well as observer-rated perceptions of participants' interpersonal behavior as morally desirable (but not as dominant or affiliative) were significant mediators of neuroendocrine responses. The findings suggest that stress-reduction interventions based on prosocial behavior should target particular motivational and interpersonal features.
Aldridge, Robert W; Iglesias, David; Cáceres, Carlos F; Miranda, J Jaime
Background The HIV epidemic in Peru is still regarded as concentrated - sentinel surveillance data shows greatest rates of infection in men who have sex with men, while much lower rates are found in female sex workers and still lower in the general population. Without an appropriate set of preventive interventions, continuing infections could present a challenge to the sustainability of the present programme of universal access to treatment. Determining how specific prevention and care strategies would impact on the health of Peruvians should be key in reshaping the national response. Methods HIV/AIDS prevalence levels for risk groups with sufficient sentinel survey data were estimated. Unit costs were calculated for a series of interventions against HIV/AIDS which were subsequently inputted into a model to assess their ability to reduce infection transmission rates. Interventions included: mass media, voluntary counselling and testing; peer counselling for female sex workers; peer counselling for men who have sex with men; peer education of youth in-school; condom provision; STI treatment; prevention of mother to child transmission; and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Impact was assessed by the ability to reduce rates of transmission and quantified in terms of cost per DALY averted. Results Results of the analysis show that in Peru, the highest levels of HIV prevalence are found in men who have sex with men. Cost effectiveness varied greatly between interventions ranging from peer education of female commercial sex workers at $US 55 up to $US 5,928 (per DALY averted) for prevention of mother to child transmission. Conclusion The results of this work add evidence-based clarity as to which interventions warrant greatest consideration when planning an intervention response to HIV in Peru. Cost effectiveness analysis provides a necessary element of transparency when facing choices about priority setting, particularly when the country plans to amplify its
Cáceres Carlos F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Peru is still regarded as concentrated - sentinel surveillance data shows greatest rates of infection in men who have sex with men, while much lower rates are found in female sex workers and still lower in the general population. Without an appropriate set of preventive interventions, continuing infections could present a challenge to the sustainability of the present programme of universal access to treatment. Determining how specific prevention and care strategies would impact on the health of Peruvians should be key in reshaping the national response. Methods HIV/AIDS prevalence levels for risk groups with sufficient sentinel survey data were estimated. Unit costs were calculated for a series of interventions against HIV/AIDS which were subsequently inputted into a model to assess their ability to reduce infection transmission rates. Interventions included: mass media, voluntary counselling and testing; peer counselling for female sex workers; peer counselling for men who have sex with men; peer education of youth in-school; condom provision; STI treatment; prevention of mother to child transmission; and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Impact was assessed by the ability to reduce rates of transmission and quantified in terms of cost per DALY averted. Results Results of the analysis show that in Peru, the highest levels of HIV prevalence are found in men who have sex with men. Cost effectiveness varied greatly between interventions ranging from peer education of female commercial sex workers at $US 55 up to $US 5,928 (per DALY averted for prevention of mother to child transmission. Conclusion The results of this work add evidence-based clarity as to which interventions warrant greatest consideration when planning an intervention response to HIV in Peru. Cost effectiveness analysis provides a necessary element of transparency when facing choices about priority setting, particularly when the country
George E Billman
Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR or heart period (R-R interval, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20 or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9 autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD and the high frequency variability (HF, 0.2 to 1.04 Hz were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec2 for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.
Vaughn, Sharon; Cirino, Paul T.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Fletcher, Jack M.; Denton, Carolyn D.; Barth, Amy; Romain, Melissa; Francis, David J.
This study examined the effectiveness of a yearlong, researcher-provided, Tier 2 (secondary) intervention with a group of sixth-graders. The intervention emphasized word recognition, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. Participants scored below a proficiency level on their state accountability test and were compared to a similar group of…
Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.
Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years;…
Milling, Leonard S; Shores, Jessica S; Coursen, Elizabeth L; Menario, Deanna J; Farris, Catherine D
Several studies have shown that response expectancies are an important mechanism of popular psychological interventions for pain. However, there has been no research on whether response expectancies and treatment credibility independently mediate hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions and whether the pattern of mediation is affected by experience with the interventions. Also, past research has indicated that hypnotic pain interventions may be moderated by hypnotic suggestibility. However, these studies have typically failed to measure the full range of suggestibility and have assessed pain reduction and suggestibility in the same experimental context, possibly inflating the association between these variables. To clarify the mediator role of response expectancies and treatment credibility, and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility in the hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral reduction of pain. Approximately 300 participants were assessed for suggestibility. Then, as part of an apparently unrelated experiment, 124 of these individuals received analogue cognitive-behavioral, hypnotic, or placebo control pain interventions. Response expectancies and credibility independently mediated treatment. The extent of mediation increased as participants gained more experience with the interventions. Suggestibility moderated treatment and was associated with relief only from the hypnotic intervention. Response expectancies and treatment credibility are unique mechanisms of hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts relief from hypnotic pain interventions and this association is not simply an artifact of measuring suggestibility and pain reduction in the same experimental context. The relationship between suggestibility and hypnotic pain reduction appears to be linear in nature.
Lowén, M B O; Mayer, E A; Sjöberg, M; Tillisch, K; Naliboff, B; Labus, J; Lundberg, P; Ström, M; Engström, M; Walter, S A
Gut-directed hypnotherapy can reduce IBS symptoms, but the mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect remain unknown. To determine the effect of hypnotherapy and educational intervention on brain responses to cued rectal distensions in IBS patients. Forty-four women with moderate-to-severe IBS and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were included. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals were measured by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during expectation and delivery of high- (45 mmHg) and low-intensity (15 mmHg) rectal distensions. Twenty-five patients were assigned to hypnotherapy (HYP) and 16 to educational intervention (EDU). Thirty-one patients completed treatments and posttreatment fMRI. Similar symptom reduction was achieved in both groups. Clinically successful treatment (all responders) was associated with significant BOLD attenuation during high-intensity distension in the dorsal and ventral anterior insula (cluster size 142, P = 0.006, and cluster size 101, P = 0.005 respectively). Moreover HYP responders demonstrated a pre-post treatment BOLD attenuation in posterior insula (cluster sizes 59, P = 0.05) while EDU responders had a BOLD attenuation in prefrontal cortex (cluster size 60, P = 0.05). Pre-post differences for expectation conditions were almost exclusively seen in the HYP group. Following treatment, the brain response to distension was similar to that observed in HCs, suggesting that the treatment had a normalising effect on the central processing abnormality of visceral signals in IBS. The abnormal processing and enhanced perception of visceral stimuli in IBS can be normalised by psychological interventions. Symptom improvement in the treatment groups may be mediated by different brain mechanisms. NCT01815164. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lodenstein, Elsbet; Dieleman, Marjolein; Gerretsen, Barend; Broerse, Jacqueline Ew
Accountability has center stage in the current post-Millennium Development Goals (MDG) debate. One of the effective strategies for building equitable health systems and providing quality health services is the strengthening of citizen-driven or social accountability processes. The monitoring of actions and decisions of policymakers and providers by citizens is regarded as a right in itself but also as an alternative to weak administrative accountability mechanisms, in particular in settings with poor governance. The effects of social accountability interventions are often based on assumptions and are difficult to evaluate because of their complex nature and context sensitivity. This study aims to review and assess the available evidence for the effect of social accountability interventions on policymakers' and providers' responsiveness in countries with medium to low levels of governance capacity and quality. For policymakers and practitioners engaged in health system strengthening, social accountability initiatives and rights-based approaches to health, the findings of this review may help when reflecting on the assumptions and theories of change behind their policies and interventions. Little is known about social accountability interventions, their outcomes and the circumstances under which they produce outcomes for particular groups or issues. In this study, social accountability interventions are conceptualized as complex social interventions for which a realist synthesis is considered the most appropriate method of systematic review. The synthesis is based on a preliminary program theory of social accountability that will be tested through an iterative process of primary study searches, data extraction, analysis and synthesis. Published and non-published (grey) quantitative and qualitative studies in English, French and Spanish will be included. Quality and validity will be enhanced by continuous peer review and team reflection among the reviewers. The
Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Harmon, Mary Towle; Gray, Shelley
Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of a Tier 2 intervention that was designed to increase the phonemic awareness skills of low-income preschoolers who were enrolled in Early Reading First classrooms. Method: Thirty-four preschoolers participated in a multiple baseline across participants treatment design. Tier 2 intervention for…
Tilanus, Elisabeth A T; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo
We examined the responsiveness to a 12-week phonics intervention in 54 s-grade Dutch children with dyslexia, and compared their reading and spelling gains to a control group of 61 typical readers. The intervention aimed to train grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs), and word reading and spelling by using phonics instruction. We examined the accuracy and efficiency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, decoding words and pseudowords, as well as the accuracy of spelling words before and after the intervention. Moreover, responsiveness to intervention was examined by studying to what extent scores at posttest could directly or indirectly be predicted from precursor measures. Results showed that the children with dyslexia were significantly behind in all reading and spelling measures at pretest. During the intervention, the children with dyslexia made more progress on GPC, (pseudo)word decoding accuracy and efficiency, and spelling accuracy than the typical reading group. Furthermore, we found a direct effect of the precursor measures rapid automatized naming, verbal working memory and phoneme deletion on the dyslexic children's progress in GPC speed, and indirect effects of rapid automatized naming and phoneme deletion on word and pseudoword efficiency and word decoding accuracy via the scores at pretest. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pan, Guoyu; Su, Mei; Ding, Wenxiao; Ding, Ning; Huang, Hanpeng; Zhang, Xilong
To explore the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on oxidative stress and inflammatory response and the interventional roles of adiponectin (Ad). A total of 45 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of control group, CIH and CIH+Ad (n = 15 each). The control group breathed room air while the CIH and CIH+Ad groups received CIH 8 h/d for 5 successive weeks. The CIH+Ad group Ad had an injection of 10 µg once a week through tail vein. At the end of experiment (Day 35), comparison was performed among three groups about Ad, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL) 6 from serum as well as malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO), reactive oxygen spieces (ROS) and nuclear factor (NF) κB from genioglossus. Serum Ad level in CIH group was lower than those in control and CIH+Ad groups ((4 208 ± 2 239) vs (7 051 ± 2 432) and (6 405 ± 2 384) ng/ml, all P statistic difference between control and CIH+Ad groups. Both serum levels of TNF-α and CRP were higher in CIH group than those in control and CIH+Ad groups ((70.87 ± 35.16) vs (26.54 ± 20.32) and (29.50 ± 22.54) pg/ml, as well as (31.84 ± 11.48) vs (22.68 ± 9.63), (25.32 ± 8.34) mg/L, all P statistical difference with CIH+Ad group (1.04 ± 0.27). CIH may induce oxidative stress and inflammation possibly through NF κB pathway while a supplement of Ad attenuates the above CIH-induced responses.
Full Text Available Growing numbers of mental health organizations are developing community music-making interventions for service users; however, to date there has been little research into their efficacy or mechanisms of effect. This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group (with participants allocated to group by geographical location. Significant improvements were found in the drumming group but not the control group: by week 6 there were decreases in depression (-2.14 SE 0.50 CI -3.16 to -1.11 and increases in social resilience (7.69 SE 2.00 CI 3.60 to 11.78, and by week 10 these had further improved (depression: -3.41 SE 0.62 CI -4.68 to -2.15; social resilience: 10.59 SE 1.78 CI 6.94 to 14.24 alongside significant improvements in anxiety (-2.21 SE 0.50 CI -3.24 to -1.19 and mental wellbeing (6.14 SE 0.92 CI 4.25 to 8.04. All significant changes were maintained at 3 months follow-up. Furthermore, it is now recognised that many mental health conditions are characterised by underlying inflammatory immune responses. Consequently, participants in the drumming group also provided saliva samples to test for cortisol and the cytokines interleukin (IL 4, IL6, IL17, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP 1. Across the 10 weeks there was a shift away from a pro-inflammatory towards an anti-inflammatory immune profile. Consequently, this study demonstrates the psychological benefits of group drumming and also suggests underlying biological effects, supporting its therapeutic potential for mental health.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01906892.
To be effective, a medical intervention must improve one's health by targeting a disease. The concept of disease, though, is controversial. Among the leading accounts of disease-naturalism, normativism, hybridism, and eliminativism-I defend a version of hybridism. A hybrid account of disease holds that for a state to be a disease that state must both (i) have a constitutive causal basis and (ii) cause harm. The dual requirement of hybridism entails that a medical intervention, to be deemed effective, must target either the constitutive causal basis of a disease or the harms caused by the disease (or ideally both). This provides a theoretical underpinning to the two principle aims of medical treatment: care and cure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: This study examined the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an 8-week Relaxation Response (RR-based group. Methods: Twenty-two depressed Chinese American immigrants were recruited. Outcomes measures were response and remission rates, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale. Results: Participants (N = 22 were 82% female, mean age was 53 (±12. After intervention, completers (N = 15 showed a 40% response rate and a 27% remission rate, and statistically significant improvement in most outcome measures. Discussion: The RR-based group is feasible and safe in treating Chinese American immigrants with depression.
Riccomini, Paul J
Boost academic achievement for all students in your mathematics classroom! This timely resource leads the way in applying RTI to mathematics instruction. The authors describe how the three tiers can be implemented in specific math areas and illustrate RTI procedures through case studies. Aligned with the NMAP final report and IES practice guide, this book includes: Intervention strategies for number sense, fractions, problem solving, and more Procedures for teaching math using systematic and explicit instruction for assessment, instructional planning, and evaluation Essential components to con
Tilanus, E.A.T.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
We examined the responsiveness to a 12-week phonics intervention in 54 s-grade Dutch children with dyslexia, and compared their reading and spelling gains to a control group of 61 typical readers. The intervention aimed to train grapheme–phoneme correspondences (GPCs), and word reading and spelling
Fancourt, Daisy; Perkins, Rosie; Ascenso, Sara; Carvalho, Livia A.; Steptoe, Andrew; Williamon, Aaron
Growing numbers of mental health organizations are developing community music-making interventions for service users; however, to date there has been little research into their efficacy or mechanisms of effect. This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group (with participants allocated to group by geographical location.) Significant improvements ...
As some procedures of interventional radiology are complex and long, doses received by patients can be high and cause undesired effects, notably on the skin or in underlying tissues (particularly in the brain as far as interventional neuroradiology is concerned and in lungs in the case of interventional cardiology). The author briefly discusses some deterministic effects in interventional radiology (influence of dose level, delay of appearance of effects, number of accidents). He briefly comments the diagnosis and treatment of severe radiological burns
Catherine I Andreu
Full Text Available Research suggests that mindfulness-practices may aid smoking cessation. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of mindfulness-practices on smoking are unclear. Response inhibition is a main deficit in addiction, is associated with relapse, and could therefore be a candidate target for mindfulness-based practices. The current study hence investigated the effects of a brief mindfulness-practice on response inhibition in smokers using behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG measures. Fifty participants (33 females, mean age 20 years old underwent a protocol of cigarette exposure to induce craving (cue-exposure and were then randomly assigned to a group receiving mindfulness-instructions or control-instructions (for 15 minutes approximately. Immediately after this, they performed a smoking Go/NoGo task, while their brain activity was recorded. At the behavioral level, no group differences were observed. However, EEG analyses revealed a decrease in P3 amplitude during NoGo vs. Go trials in the mindfulness versus control group. The lower P3 amplitude might indicate less-effortful response inhibition after the mindfulness-practice, and suggest that enhanced response inhibition underlies observed positive effects of mindfulness on smoking behavior.
Hall, Carol; Mahoney, Jamie
Response to Intervention (RTI) is a service model designed to meet the learning needs of students prior to diagnosis and placement in special education settings. Results of a quantitative quasi-experimental research study to investigate the relationship between the RTI plan and self-reported implementation practices among general education…
New Mexico Public Education Department, 2014
This manual details the instructional framework and guidance on the Response to Intervention (RtI) process in New Mexico. The manual includes: (1) a section on each of the three instructional tiers; (2) a glossary of key terms; (3) sample forms to assist with the Student Assistance Team (SAT) process; and (4) key resources for teachers.
Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD can profoundly affect quality of life and are influenced by stress and resiliency. The impact of mind-body interventions (MBIs on IBS and IBD patients has not previously been examined.Nineteen IBS and 29 IBD patients were enrolled in a 9-week relaxation response based mind-body group intervention (RR-MBI, focusing on elicitation of the RR and cognitive skill building. Symptom questionnaires and inflammatory markers were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and at short-term follow-up. Peripheral blood transcriptome analysis was performed to identify genomic correlates of the RR-MBI.Pain Catastrophizing Scale scores improved significantly post-intervention for IBD and at short-term follow-up for IBS and IBD. Trait Anxiety scores, IBS Quality of Life, IBS Symptom Severity Index, and IBD Questionnaire scores improved significantly post-intervention and at short-term follow-up for IBS and IBD, respectively. RR-MBI altered expression of more genes in IBD (1059 genes than in IBS (119 genes. In IBD, reduced expression of RR-MBI response genes was most significantly linked to inflammatory response, cell growth, proliferation, and oxidative stress-related pathways. In IBS, cell cycle regulation and DNA damage related gene sets were significantly upregulated after RR-MBI. Interactive network analysis of RR-affected pathways identified TNF, AKT and NF-κB as top focus molecules in IBS, while in IBD kinases (e.g. MAPK, P38 MAPK, inflammation (e.g. VEGF-C, NF-κB and cell cycle and proliferation (e.g. UBC, APP related genes emerged as top focus molecules.In this uncontrolled pilot study, participation in an RR-MBI was associated with improvements in disease-specific measures, trait anxiety, and pain catastrophizing in IBS and IBD patients. Moreover, observed gene expression changes suggest that NF-κB is a target focus molecule in both IBS and IBD-and that its regulation may contribute to
As Response to Intervention (RTI) continues to be implemented in schools, it is important to consider how this initiative is perceived by the educational professionals involved in the implementation and effectiveness of the process. This study utilized a survey intended to investigate the perceptions of school psychologists regarding their…
Effect of integrated responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions in the Lady Health Worker programme in Pakistan on child development, growth, and health outcomes: a cluster-randomised factorial effectiveness trial.
Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Rizvi, Arjumand; Armstrong, Robert; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Stimulation and nutrition delivered through health programmes at a large scale could potentially benefit more than 200 million young children worldwide who are not meeting their developmental potential. We investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of the integration of interventions to enhance child development and growth outcomes in the Lady Health Worker (LHW) programme in Sindh, Pakistan. We implemented a community-based cluster-randomised effectiveness trial through the LHW programme in rural Sindh, Pakistan, with a 2 × 2 factorial design. We randomly allocated 80 clusters (LHW catchments) of children to receive routine health and nutrition services (controls; n=368), nutrition education and multiple micronutrient powders (enhanced nutrition; n=364), responsive stimulation (responsive stimulation; n=383), or a combination of both enriched interventions (n=374). The allocation ratio was 1:20 (ie, 20 clusters per intervention group). The data collection team were masked to the allocated intervention. All children born in the study area between April, 2009, and March, 2010, were eligible for enrolment if they were up to 2·5 months old without signs of severe impairments. Interventions were delivered by LHWs to families with children up to 24 months of age in routine monthly group sessions and home visits. The primary endpoints were child development at 12 and 24 months of age (assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition) and growth at 24 months of age. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT007159636. 1489 mother-infant dyads were enrolled into the study, of whom 1411 (93%) were followed up until the children were 24 months old. Children who received responsive stimulation had significantly higher development scores on the cognitive, language, and motor scales at 12 and 24 months of age, and on the social-emotional scale at 12 months of age, than did those who
Full Text Available To prevent or combat infection, increasing the effectiveness of the immune response is highly desirable, especially in case of compromised immune system function. However, immunostimulatory therapies are scarce, expensive, and often have unwanted side-effects. β-glucans have been shown to exert immunostimulatory effects in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal models. Oral β-glucan is inexpensive and well-tolerated, and therefore may represent a promising immunostimulatory compound for human use.We performed a randomized open-label intervention pilot-study in 15 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were randomized to either the β -glucan (n = 10 or the control group (n = 5. Subjects in the β-glucan group ingested β-glucan 1000 mg once daily for 7 days. Blood was sampled at various time-points to determine β-glucan serum levels, perform ex vivo stimulation of leukocytes, and analyze microbicidal activity.β-glucan was barely detectable in serum of volunteers at all time-points. Furthermore, neither cytokine production nor microbicidal activity of leukocytes were affected by orally administered β-glucan.The present study does not support the use of oral β-glucan to enhance innate immune responses in humans.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01727895.
Hennigar, Stephen R; McClung, James P; Pasiakos, Stefan M
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biologic effects. In response to prolonged exercise, IL-6 is synthesized by contracting skeletal muscle and released into circulation. Circulating IL-6 is thought to maintain energy status during exercise by acting as an energy sensor for contracting muscle and stimulating glucose production. If tissue damage occurs, immune cells infiltrate and secrete cytokines, including IL-6, to repair skeletal muscle damage. With adequate rest and nutrition, the IL-6 response to exercise is attenuated as skeletal muscle adapts to training. However, sustained elevations in IL-6 due to repeated bouts of unaccustomed activities or prolonged exercise with limited rest may result in untoward physiologic effects, such as accelerated muscle proteolysis and diminished nutrient absorption, and may impair normal adaptive responses to training. Recent intervention studies have explored the role of mixed meals or carbohydrate, protein, ω-3 fatty acid, or antioxidant supplementation in mitigating exercise-induced increases in IL-6. Emerging evidence suggests that sufficient energy intake before exercise is an important factor in attenuating exercise-induced IL-6 by maintaining muscle glycogen. We detail various nutritional interventions that may affect the IL-6 response to exercise in healthy human adults and provide recommendations for future research exploring the role of IL-6 in the adaptive response to exercise.-Hennigar, S. R., McClung, J. P., Pasiakos, S. M. Nutritional interventions and the IL-6 response to exercise. © FASEB.
Marziali, Elsa; Garcia, Linda J
The aim of this study was to examine the impact on dementia caregivers' experienced stress and health status of 2 Internet-based intervention programs. Ninety-one dementia caregivers were given the choice of being involved in either an Internet-based chat support group or an Internet-based video conferencing support group. Pre-post outcome measures focused on distress, health status, social support, and service utilization. In contrast to the Chat Group, the Video Group showed significantly greater improvement in mental health status. Also, for the Video Group, improvements in self-efficacy, neuroticism, and social support were associated with lower stress response to coping with the care recipient's cognitive impairment and decline in function. The results show that, of 2 Internet-based intervention programs for dementia caregivers, the video conferencing intervention program was more effective in improving mental health status and improvement in personal characteristics were associated with lower caregiver stress response.
Pau, Cindy T; Keefe, Candace; Duran, Jessica; Welt, Corrine K
Although metformin is widely used to improve insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), its mechanism of action is complex, with inconsistent effects on insulin sensitivity and variability in treatment response. The aim of the study was to delineate the effect of metformin on glucose and insulin parameters, determine additional treatment outcomes, and predict patients with PCOS who will respond to treatment. We conducted an open-label, interventional study at an academic medical center. Women with PCOS (n = 36) diagnosed by the National Institutes of Health criteria participated in the study. Subjects underwent fasting blood sampling, an IV glucose tolerance test, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, transvaginal ultrasound, and measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated androgen levels before and after 12 weeks of treatment with metformin extended release 1500 mg/d. Interval visits were performed to monitor anthropometric measurements and menstrual cycle parameters. Changes in glucose and insulin parameters, androgen levels, anthropometric measurements, and ovulatory menstrual cycles were evaluated. Insulin sensitivity did not change despite weight loss. Glucose effectiveness (P = .002) and the acute insulin response to glucose (P = .002) increased, and basal glucose levels (P = .001) decreased after metformin treatment. T levels also decreased. Women with improved ovulatory function (61%) had lower baseline T levels and lower baseline and stimulated T and androstenedione levels after metformin treatment (all P effectiveness and insulin sensitivity, metformin does not improve insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS but does improve glucose effectiveness. The improvement in glucose effectiveness may be partially mediated by decreased glucose levels. T levels also decreased with metformin treatment. Ovulation during metformin treatment was associated with lower baseline T levels and greater T and androstenedione decreases during
Kim, Cho-Ja; Hur, Hea-Kung; Kang, Duck-Hee; Kim, Bo-Hwan
The purpose of this study was to develop a socioculturally-appropriate psychosocial intervention program for Korean patients with breast cancer and test its effects on stress, anxiety, depression, and coping strategies. One group pretest and posttest design was used to test the effects of the intervention. A post-intervention interview was conducted to refine the nature of the intervention. A convenience sample of 10 breast cancer survivors was recruited from the outpatients clinics. Psychosocial intervention was developed to provide the health education, stress management, coping skill training and support weekly (90 min) for 6 weeks. There was a significant decrease in stress scores following the intervention (Z= -2.388, p=0.017). However, no significant changes were noted in the use of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies, nor in the changes of anxiety and depression levels. Content analysis of interview data revealed six clusters; changes in perception, changes in problem solving approaches, changes in anger management, changes in life pattern, social support and reduction of perceived stress. Based on quantitative and qualitative data, we recommend the refinements of the intervention in the following areas for future studies: 1) duration, activities, and progression of psychosocial intervention; 2) research design and sample size; and 3) measurements.
Dong, Shoujin; Zhong, Yunqing; Yang, Kun; Xiong, Xiaoling; Mao, Bing
To assess the effect of Tanreqing injection on airway inflammation in rats. A rat model of airway inflammation was generated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tanreqing injection was given by intratracheal instillation, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from the right lung was collected. BALF total cell and neutrophil counts were then determined. In addition, BALF levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-13, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoat-tractant-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The middle lobe of the right lung was stained with hematoxylin-eosin and histological changes examined. LPS increased airway inflammation, decreased BALF inflammatory cell count, inflammatory cytokine levels, and suppressed leukocyte influx of the lung. The LPS-induced airway inflammation peaked at 24 h, decreased beginning at 48 h, and had decreased markedly by 96 h. Tanreqing injection contains anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibits airway inflammation in a dose-dependent manner.
de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Lopez, J J; Gomez, E; Torres, B; Soto, G Diaz
Studies of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1 R) have been directed at identifying polymorphisms in the GLP-1 R gene that may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Nevertheless, the role of GLP-1 R variants on body weight response after dietary intervention has not been evaluated. We decided to analyze the effects of the rs6923761 GLP-1 R polymorphism on body weight changes and metabolic parameters after 3 months of a hypocaloric diet. A sample of 91 obese subjects was analyzed in a prospective way. The hypocaloric diet had 1,520 calories per day; 52 % of carbohydrates, 25 % of lipids and 23 % of proteins. Distribution of fats was: 50.7 % of monounsaturated fats, 38.5 % of saturated fats and 11.8 % of polyunsaturated fats. In both genotype groups (GG vs. GA + AA), weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, leptin, insulin and HOMA levels decreased. No statistical differences were detected in these changes between genotypes. In wild group (GG genotype) (pretreatment and posttreatment), BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference and triglyceride levels were higher than (GA + AA) group. Our data showed better anthropometric parameters and triglyceride levels in obese subjects with the mutant allele (A) of rs6923761 GLP-1R polymorphism. A lack of association of this polymorphism with weight loss or biochemical changes after a hypocaloric diet was observed.
Effects of responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions on children's development and growth at age 4 years in a disadvantaged population in Pakistan: a longitudinal follow-up of a cluster-randomised factorial effectiveness trial.
Yousafzai, Aisha K; Obradović, Jelena; Rasheed, Muneera A; Rizvi, Arjumand; Portilla, Ximena A; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole; Siyal, Saima; Memon, Uzma
A previous study in Pakistan assessed the effectiveness of delivering responsive stimulation and enhanced nutrition interventions to young children. Responsive stimulation significantly improved children's cognitive, language, and motor development at 2 years of age. Both interventions significantly improved parenting skills, with responsive stimulation showing larger effects. In this follow-up study, we investigated whether interventions had benefits on children's healthy development and care at 4 years of age. We implemented a follow-up study of the initial, community-based cluster-randomised effectiveness trial, which was conducted through the Lady Health Worker programme in Sindh, Pakistan. We re-enrolled 1302 mother-child dyads (87% of the 1489 dyads in the original enrolment) for assessment when the child was 4 years of age. The children were originally randomised in the following groups: nutrition education and multiple micronutrient powders (enhanced nutrition; n=311), responsive stimulation (n=345), combined responsive stimulation and enhanced nutrition (n=315), and routine health and nutrition services (control; n=331). The data collection team were masked to the allocated intervention. The original enrolment period included children born in the study area between April 1, 2009, and March 31, 2010, if they were up to 2·5 months old without signs of severe impairments. The primary endpoints for children were development and growth at 4 years of age. Interventions were given in monthly group sessions and in home visits. The primary endpoint for mothers was wellbeing and caregiving knowledge, practices, and skills when the child was 4 years of age. Analysis was by intention to treat. The original trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00715936. 1302 mother-child dyads were re-enrolled between Jan 1, 2013, and March 31, 2013, all of whom were followed up at 4 years of age. Children who received responsive stimulation (with or without enhanced
Nov 1, 2010 ... to interventions aimed at reducing energy consumption (specifically the use of .... 4 A system dynamics model of electricity consumption ...... to base comparisons on overly detailed quantitative predictions of behaviour.
Deneca Winfrey Avant
Full Text Available School social workers (SSWs are known for serving students with social, emotional, and academic needs. Implementing Response to Intervention (RTI/Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS is one avenue in which SSWs play an integral role by guiding the development and implementation of student interventions. RTI/MTSS requires substantive and multifaceted system changes that involve more than simply adopting new approaches. This paradigm shift brings change which may not be desired or easily accepted by school systems. However, developing collaborative relationships and using effective leadership strategies throughout the RTI/MTSS transformation can be a pathway to success. A survey of 192 SSWs in Illinois revealed the challenges that SSWs experienced as the process of implementing RTI/MTSS transformed them into change leaders. This revelation was viewed as an opportunity to closely align social and emotional practices with students’ academic achievement.
Karsten, Margo A
Organizations are transitioning from a management industrial era to a humanistic era. This transition will require a different set of leadership competencies. Competencies that reflect relationships, connections with employees, and having the skill to unleash the human capability at all levels of an organization are essential. Similar to when a sports team needs a different play book to be successful, leaders need a new play book. Coaches within the sports team are the ones who assist players in learning how to adapt to a different set of rules. They teach the players how to show up differently and how to implement different plays, with the overall goal of being a successful team. New competencies are being required to reflect a humanistic approach to leadership. It is critical that organizations offer coaching as an intervention to all levels of leadership. This actual case study demonstrates that coaching not only assisted leaders in learning a new way of leading but also improved overall organizational effectiveness. The results that have been accomplished through the use of implementing a 360-degree feedback system, with coaching, reaped overall organization improvement. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Law, Madelyn P; Orlando, Elaina; Baker, G Ross
Changes in resident duty hours in Europe and North America have had a major impact on the internal organizational dynamics of health care organizations. This paper examines, and assesses the impact of, organizational interventions that were a direct response to these duty hour reforms. The academic literature was searched through the SCOPUS database using the search terms "resident duty hours" and "European Working Time Directive," together with terms related to organizational factors. The search was limited to English-language literature published between January 2003 and January 2012. Studies were included if they reported an organizational intervention and measured an organizational outcome. Twenty-five articles were included from the United States (n=18), the United Kingdom (n=5), Hong Kong (n=1), and Australia (n=1). They all described single-site projects; the majority used post-intervention surveys (n=15) and audit techniques (n=4). The studies assessed organizational measures, including relationships among staff, work satisfaction, continuity of care, workflow, compliance, workload, and cost. Interventions included using new technologies to improve handovers and communications, changing staff mixes, and introducing new shift structures, all of which had varying effects on the organizational measures listed previously. Little research has assessed the organizational impact of duty hour reforms; however, the literature reviewed demonstrates that many organizations are using new technologies, new personnel, and revised and innovative shift structures to compensate for reduced resident coverage and to decrease the risk of limited continuity of care. Future research in this area should focus on both micro (e.g., use of technology, shift changes, staff mix) and macro (e.g., culture, leadership support) organizational aspects to aid in our understanding of how best to respond to these duty hour reforms.
Myers, Diane M.; Simonsen, Brandi; Sugai, George
A multiple baseline design across teachers was used to evaluate the effects of a systematic, response-to-intervention (RTI) approach on rates of desired teacher behavior. Specifically, teachers whose rates of specific, contingent praise were nonresponsive to typical schoolwide positive behavior support training (primary intervention tier) were…
Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [The American University of Beirut Medical Center, IR Division, The Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Lebanon)
Although clinical involvement by interventional radiologists in the care of their patients was advocated at the inception of the specialty, the change into the clinical paradigm has been slow and patchy for reasons related to pattern of practice, financial remuneration or absence of training. The case for the value of clinical responsibilities has been made in a number of publications and the consequences of not doing so have been manifest in the erosion of the role of the interventional radiologists particularly in the fields of peripheral vascular and neuro intervention. With the recent recognition of interventional radiology (IR) as a primary specialty in the USA and the formation of IR division in the Union of European Medical Specialists and subsequent recognition of the subspecialty in many European countries, it is appropriate to relook at the issue and emphasize the need for measures to promote the clinical role of the interventional radiologist.
Although clinical involvement by interventional radiologists in the care of their patients was advocated at the inception of the specialty, the change into the clinical paradigm has been slow and patchy for reasons related to pattern of practice, financial remuneration or absence of training. The case for the value of clinical responsibilities has been made in a number of publications and the consequences of not doing so have been manifest in the erosion of the role of the interventional radiologists particularly in the fields of peripheral vascular and neuro intervention. With the recent recognition of interventional radiology (IR) as a primary specialty in the USA and the formation of IR division in the Union of European Medical Specialists and subsequent recognition of the subspecialty in many European countries, it is appropriate to relook at the issue and emphasize the need for measures to promote the clinical role of the interventional radiologist
Zylstra, Sheryl Eckberg; Pfeiffer, Beth
We examined the effectiveness of an occupational therapist-led handwriting intervention for special education and at-risk kindergarteners. We incorporated a two-group, pretest-posttest design. Both groups consisted of kindergarteners receiving individualized education program (IEP) or Response to Intervention (RtI) support. An occupational therapist provided biweekly group handwriting instruction using the Size Matters Handwriting Program to students in the intervention group (n = 23). The control group (n = 12) received the standard handwriting instruction. Students in the intervention group demonstrated significantly greater gains in handwriting legibility than students in the control group. Students in the intervention group also demonstrated significantly greater gains in the prereading skills of uppercase letter recognition, lowercase letter recognition, and letter sound recognition. This study provides preliminary support for an occupational therapist-led handwriting intervention to improve writing legibility and letter recognition in kindergarteners receiving RtI and IEP supports. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Aboud, Katherine S; Barquero, Laura A; Cutting, Laurie E
A primary challenge facing the development of interventions for dyslexia is identifying effective predictors of intervention response. While behavioral literature has identified core cognitive characteristics of response, the distinction of reading versus executive cognitive contributions to response profiles remains unclear, due in part to the difficulty of segregating these constructs using behavioral outputs. In the current study we used functional neuroimaging to piece apart the mechanisms of how/whether executive and reading network relationships are predictive of intervention response. We found that readers who are responsive to intervention have more typical pre-intervention functional interactions between executive and reading systems compared to nonresponsive readers. These findings suggest that intervention response in dyslexia is influenced not only by domain-specific reading regions, but also by contributions from intervening domain-general networks. Our results make a significant gain in identifying predictive bio-markers of outcomes in dyslexia, and have important implications for the development of personalized clinical interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace M.
School-related difficulties are commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article describes effective school-based intervention strategies including behavioral interventions, modifications to academic instruction, and home-school communication programs. One overlooked aspect of treatment of children with ADHD…
de Villiers, Bernadette; Lionetti, Francesca; Pluess, Michael
People differ significantly in their response to psychological intervention, with some benefitting more from treatment than others. According to the recently proposed theoretical framework of vantage sensitivity, some of this variability may be due to individual differences in environmental sensitivity, the inherent ability to register, and process external stimuli. In this paper, we apply the vantage sensitivity framework to the field of psychiatry and clinical psychology, proposing that some people are more responsive to the positive effects of psychological intervention due to heightened sensitivity. After presenting theoretical frameworks related to environmental sensitivity, we review a selection of recent studies reporting individual differences in the positive response to psychological intervention. A growing number of studies report that some people benefit more from psychological intervention than others as a function of genetic, physiological, and psychological characteristics. These studies support the vantage sensitivity proposition that treatment response is influenced by factors associated with heightened sensitivity to environmental influences. More recently, studies have also shown that sensitivity can be measured with a short questionnaire which appears to predict the response to psychological intervention. Vantage sensitivity is a framework with significant relevance for our understanding of widely observed heterogeneity in treatment response. It suggests that variability in response to treatment is partly influenced by people's differing capacity for environmental sensitivity, which can be measured with a short questionnaire. Application of the vantage sensitivity framework to psychiatry and clinical psychology may improve our knowledge regarding when, how, and for whom interventions work.
Little, Suzanne; Marrs, Heath; Bogue, Heidi
The implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) in elementary schools may have important implications for school psychologists. Therefore, it is important to better understand how elementary school psychologists perceive RTI and what barriers to successful RTI implementation they identify. Although previous research has investigated the…
Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David J.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Cirino, Paul T.; Barth, Amy E.; Romain, Melissa A.
Addressing the literacy needs of secondary school students involves efforts to raise the achievement levels of all students and to address specifically the needs of struggling readers. One approach to this problem is to consider the application of a Response to Intervention (RTI) model with older students. We describe an approach to enhanced…
Aravena, S.; Tijms, J.; Snellings, P.; van der Molen, M.W.
In the current study we examined the value of a dynamic test for predicting responsiveness to reading intervention for children diagnosedwith dyslexia. The test consisted of a 20-minute training aimed at learning eight basic letter–speech sound correspondences within an artificial orthography,
Huber, Charles H.
Presents a cognitively based model, founded on rational emotive therapy, as a basis for assessment and intervention strategies for assisting individuals to cope with feelings of loss in response to divorce. The model is seen as a four-pane window through which persons might see their divorce. (Author/JAC)
Brown, Catana; Goetz, Jeannine; Hamera, Edna; Gajewski, Byron
Individuals with serious mental illness have high rates of obesity and a need for specialized weight loss intervention programs. This study examines the efficacy of the RENEW weight loss intervention and examines the impact of the intervention setting on outcomes. 136 individuals with serious mental illness from 4 different settings were randomly assigned to receive the RENEW weight loss intervention or a control condition of treatment as usual. The RENEW intervention is a one year program that includes an intensive, maintenance and intermittent supports phase. The intervention group experienced a modest weight loss of 4.8 lbs at 3 months, 4.1 lbs at 6 months and a slight weight gain of 1.5 lbs at 12 months. The control group gained a total of 6.2 lbs at 12 months. However when settings were examined separately the responder sites had a weight loss of 9.4 lbs at 3 months, 10.9 lbs at 6 months and 7 lbs at 12 months. These results suggest that the settings in which individuals receive services may act as a support or hindrance toward response to weight loss interventions. The concept of the obesogenic environment deserves further examination as a factor in the success of weight loss programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ending intimate partner violence (IPV) and reducing gender inequalities are recognised as critical to "'ending AIDS" by 2030. Amongst women, experiencing IPV has been shown to increase HIV acquisition, reduce women's ability to use HIV prevention strategies and reduce adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In Southern and Eastern Africa there has recently been a significant push to strengthen programming around this through broad funding and programming streams. However, while gender inequality underpins IPV and HIV acquisition, in different contexts a variety of other factors intersect to shape this vulnerability. Using reflections focused on young women living in urban informal settlements and the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention, this paper illustrates the need to understand the specific drivers of HIV and IPV in any given context and the need for interventions to prevent this. Any intervention needs to include three key components: 1) resonate with the lived realities of women they target; 2) tackle multiple factors shaping women's vulnerability to IPV and HIV simultaneously; and 3) consider how best to work with men and boys to achieve improved outcomes for women. Such an approach, it is argued, resonating with the "slow research" movement, will yield better outcomes for interventions, but will also require a fundamental rethinking of how interventions to prevent IPV and HIV amongst women are conceptualised, with a greater emphasis on understanding the ways in which gender resonates in each context and how interventions can operate.
Gardner, Frances; Leijten, Patty
The Incredible Years parenting intervention is a social learning theory-based programme for reducing children's conduct problems. Dozens of randomized trials, many by independent investigators, find consistent effects of Incredible Years on children's conduct problems across multiple countries and settings. However, in common with other interventions, these average effects hide much variability in the responses of individual children and families. Innovative moderator research is needed to enhance scientific understanding of why individual children and parents respond differently to intervention. Additionally, research is needed to test whether there are ways to make Incredible Years more effective and accessible for families and service providers, especially in low resource settings, by developing innovative delivery systems using new media, and by systematically testing for essential components of parenting interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Izano, Monika A; Brown, Daniel M; Neophytou, Andreas M; Garcia, Erika; Eisen, Ellen A
Occupational exposure guidelines are ideally based on estimated effects of static interventions that assign constant exposure over a working lifetime. Static effects are difficult to estimate when follow-up extends beyond employment because their identifiability requires additional assumptions. Effects of dynamic interventions that assign exposure while at work, allowing subjects to leave and become unexposed thereafter, are more easily identifiable but result in different estimates. Given the practical implications of exposure limits, we explored the drivers of the differences between static and dynamic interventions in a simulation study where workers could terminate employment because of an intermediate adverse health event that functions as a time-varying confounder. The two effect estimates became more similar with increasing strength of the health event and outcome relationship and with increasing time between health event and employment termination. Estimates were most dissimilar when the intermediate health event occurred early in employment, providing an effective screening mechanism.
Kok, Maarten Olivier; Bal, Roland; Roelofs, Caspar David; Schuit, Albertine Jantine
In several countries, attempts are made to improve health promotion by centrally rating the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Dutch Effectiveness Rating System (ERS) for health promotion interventions is an improvement-oriented approach in which multi-disciplinary expert committees rate available health promotion interventions as 'theoretically sound', 'probably effective' or 'proven effective'. The aim of this study is to explore the functioning of the ERS and the perspective of researchers, policy-makers and practitioners regarding its contribution to improvement. We interviewed 53 selected key informants from research, policy and practice in the Netherlands and observed the assessment of 12 interventions. Between 2008 and 2012, a total of 94 interventions were submitted to the ERS, of which 23 were rejected, 58 were rated as 'theoretically sound', 10 were rated as 'probably effective' and 3 were rated as 'proven effective'. According to participants, the ERS was intended to facilitate both the improvement of available interventions and the improvement of health promotion in practice. While participants expected that describing and rating interventions promoted learning and enhanced the transferability of interventions, they were concerned that the ERS approach was not suitable for guiding intervention development and improving health promotion in practice. The expert committees that assessed the interventions struggled with a lack of norms for the relevance of effects and questions about how effects should be studied and rated. Health promotion practitioners were concerned that the ERS neglected the local adaptation of interventions and did not encourage the improvement of aspects like applicability and costs. Policy-makers and practitioners were worried that the lack of proven effectiveness legitimised cutbacks rather than learning and advancing health promotion. While measuring and centrally rating the effectiveness of interventions can be
Kennedy, Suzanne; Bailey, Ryan; Jaffee, Katy; Markus, Anne; Gerstein, Maya; Stevens, David M; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Malveaux, Floyd J; Mitchell, Herman
Researchers often struggle with the gap between efficacy and effectiveness in clinical research. To bridge this gap, the Community Healthcare for Asthma Management and Prevention of Symptoms (CHAMPS) study adapted an efficacious, randomized controlled trial that resulted in evidence-based asthma interventions in community health centers. Children (aged 5-12 years; N = 590) with moderate to severe asthma were enrolled from 3 intervention and 3 geographically/capacity-matched control sites in high-risk, low-income communities located in Arizona, Michigan, and Puerto Rico. The asthma intervention was tailored to the participant's allergen sensitivity and exposure, and it comprised 4 visits over the course of 1 year. Study visits were documented and monitored prospectively via electronic data capture. Asthma symptoms and health care utilization were evaluated at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. A total of 314 intervention children and 276 control children were enrolled in the study. Allergen sensitivity testing (96%) and home environmental assessments (89%) were performed on the majority of intervention children. Overall study activity completion (eg, intervention visits, clinical assessments) was 70%. Overall and individual site participant symptom days in the previous 4 weeks were significantly reduced compared with control findings (control, change of -2.28; intervention, change of -3.27; difference, -0.99; P asthma in these high-need populations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Huffman, Kim M; Hawk, Victoria H; Henes, Sarah T; Ocampo, Christine I; Orenduff, Melissa C; Slentz, Cris A; Johnson, Johanna L; Houmard, Joseph A; Samsa, Gregory P; Kraus, William E; Bales, Connie W
The standard clinical approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk due to dyslipidemia is to prescribe changes in diet and physical activity. The purpose of the current study was to determine if, across a range of dietary patterns, there were variable lipoprotein responses to an aerobic exercise training intervention. Subjects were participants in the STRRIDE I, a supervised exercise program in sedentary, overweight subjects randomized to 6 months of inactivity or 1 of 3 aerobic exercise programs. To characterize diet patterns observed during the study, we calculated a modified z-score that included intakes of total fat, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids, and fiber as compared with the 2006 American Heart Association diet recommendations. Linear models were used to evaluate relationships between diet patterns and exercise effects on lipoproteins/lipids. Independent of diet, exercise had beneficial effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particle number, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol size, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol size, and triglycerides (P diet pattern that closely adhered to American Heart Association recommendations was not related to changes in these or any other serum lipids or lipoproteins in any of the exercise groups. We found that even in sedentary individuals whose habitual diets vary in the extent of adherence to AHA dietary recommendations, a rigorous, supervised exercise intervention can achieve significant beneficial lipid effects. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.; Guttentag, Cathy
This study examined the optimal timing (infancy, toddler–preschool, or both) for facilitating responsive parenting and the intervention effects on maternal behaviors and child social and communication skills for children who vary in biological risk. The intervention during infancy, Playing and Learning Strategies (PALS I), showed strong changes in maternal affective–emotional and cognitively responsive behaviors and infants’ development. However, it was hypothesized that a 2nd intervention do...
Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana
The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…
Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.; Yassine, Jordan N.
Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity…
Park, Maysoon Mohamad
This quantitative study evaluated how two consecutive years of math Response to Intervention (RtI) demonstrated its effectiveness on 995 fifth grade students within the School District A (SDA) on Smarter Balanced (SB) assessments. Research questions: "What is the relationship between the duration of math RtI implementation and math…
Miljanic, S.; Buls, N.; Clerinx, P.; Jarvinen, H.; Nikodemova, D.; Ranogajec-Komor, M; D'Errico, F.
Interventional radiological procedures can lead to significant radiation doses to patients and to staff members. In order to evaluate the personal doses with respect to the regulatory dose limits, doses measured by dosimeters have to be converted to effective doses (E). Measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) using a single unshielded dosimeter above the lead apron can lead to significant overestimation of the effective dose, while the measurement with dosimeter under the apron can lead to underestimation. To improve the accuracy, measurements with two dosimeters, one above and the other under the apron have been suggested ( d ouble dosimetry ) . The ICRP has recommended that interventional radiology departments develop a policy that staff should wear two dosimeters. The aim of this study was to review the double dosimetry algorithms for the calculation of effective dose in high dose interventional radiology procedures. The results will be used to develop general guidelines for personal dosimetry in interventional radiology procedures. This work has been carried out by Working Group 9 (Radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff) of the CONRAD project, which is a Coordination Action supported by the European Commission within its 6th Framework Program.(author)
Naturalistic interventions show promise for improving language in children with autism. Specific interventions differ in direct elicitation of child language and indirect language stimulation, and thus may produce different language outcomes. This study compared the effects of responsive interaction, milieu teaching, and a combined intervention on…
Lower, Ashley; Young, K. Richard; Christensen, Lynnette; Caldarella, Paul; Williams, Leslie; Wills, Howard
This study investigated the effects of a Tier 3 peer-matching self-management intervention on two elementary school students who had previously been less responsive to Tier 1 and Tier 2 interventions. The Tier 3 self-management intervention, which was implemented in the general education classrooms, included daily electronic communication between…
Psychophysiologic Response and Technology -Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Leigh W. Jerome, Ph.D...NUMBER Transformative Learning : Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response and Technology - Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems 5b. GRANT NUMBER...project entitled “Transformative Learning : Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response in Technology Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems.” The
Shen, Mingwang; Xiao, Yanni; Rong, Libin
Since the re-emergence of Ebola in West Africa in 2014, comprehensive and stringent interventions have been implemented to decelerate the spread of the disease. The effectiveness of interventions still remains unclear. In this paper, we develop an epidemiological model that includes various controlling measures to systematically evaluate their effects on the disease transmission dynamics. By fitting the model to reported cumulative cases and deaths in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia until March 22, 2015, we estimate the basic reproduction number in these countries as 1.2552, 1.6093 and 1.7994, respectively. Model analysis shows that there exists a threshold of the effectiveness of isolation, below which increasing the fraction of latent individuals diagnosed prior to symptoms onset or shortening the duration between symptoms onset and isolation may lead to more Ebola infection. This challenges an existing view. Media coverage plays a substantial role in reducing the final epidemic size. The response to reported cumulative infected cases and deaths may have a different effect on the epidemic spread in different countries. Among all the interventions, we find that shortening the duration between death and burial and improving the effectiveness of isolation are two effective interventions for controlling the outbreak of Ebola virus infection.
Gorla, Riccardo; Erbel, Raimund; Eagle, Kim A; Bossone, Eduardo
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), initially reported after cardiovascular surgery, has been described after various interventional cardiology procedures, including endovascular/thoracic aortic repair (EVAR/TEVAR), implantation of heart rhythm devices, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), electrophysiology procedures (EP), and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In these settings, a comprehensive understanding of the triggers, pathogenesis as well as a common diagnostic/therapeutic algorithm is lacking and will be discussed in this review. SIRS occurs in about 40% and 50% of patients undergoing TEVAR/EVAR and TAVI respectively; it affects 0.1% of patients undergoing implantation of heart rhythm devices. Prevalence is unknown after PCI or EP. Clinical presentation includes fever, dyspnoea/tachypnoea, tachycardia, weakness, chest pain and pericardial/pleural effusion. Several triggers can be identified, related to implanted devices, biomaterial, and procedural aspects (prolonged hypotension, aneurysm thrombus manipulation, active fixation atrial leads, coronary microembolization, balloon dilatation/stent implantantation, contrast medium, coronary/myocardial microperforation). Nonetheless, these triggers share three main pathogenic pathways leading to SIRS clinical manifestations: leucocytes activation, endothelial injury/activation, and myocardial/pericardial injury. Therapy consists of non-steroidal agents, with corticosteroids as second-line treatment in non-responders. Although a benign evolution is reported after implantation of heart rhythm devices, PCI and EP, major adverse events may occur after EVAR/TEVAR and TAVI at short- and mid-term follow up. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Greenberg, Mark; Bierman, Karen
Following theories that individual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) denote differential sensitivity to environmental influences, this study examines whether differences in RSA reactivity to specific emotional challenges predict differential response to intervention. We present data from a randomized clinical trial of a targeted intervention for early onset aggression. In collaboration with a high-risk urban school district, 207 kindergarten children (73% African American, 66% male), identified by their teachers as having high levels of aggressive and disruptive behavior, were recruited. All children received a universal social-emotional curriculum. One hundred children were randomly assigned to an additional intervention consisting of weekly peer-based social skills training. Complete RSA data were available for 139 of the children. Teacher-reported externalizing symptoms and emotion regulation in 1st grade (post intervention) were examined controlling for baseline levels. First-grade peer nominations of aggressive behavior, controlling for baseline nominations, were also examined as outcomes. No effect of resting RSA was found. However, greater reactivity to anger was associated with higher externalizing symptoms and lower emotion regulation skills in 1st grade relative to low reactive children. Lower reactivity to fear was associated with greater improvement over time, an effect that was enhanced in the targeted intervention condition. Results suggest that measures of affective reactivity may provide insight into children's capacity to benefit from different types of interventions.
Long, Joanna E; Ring, Chris; Bosch, Jos A; Eves, Francis; Drayson, Mark T; Calver, Rebecca; Say, Vanessa; Allen, Daniel; Burns, Victoria E
To assess whether a life-style physical activity intervention improved antibody response to a pneumococcal vaccination in sedentary middle-aged women. Eighty-nine sedentary women completed a 16-week exercise (physical activity consultation, pedometer, telephone/e-mail prompts; n = 44) or control (advisory leaflet; n = 45) intervention. Pneumococcal vaccination was administered at 12 weeks, and antibody titers (11 of the 23 contained in the pneumococcal vaccine) were determined before vaccination and 4 weeks and 6 months later. Physical activity, aerobic fitness, body composition, and psychological factors were measured before and after the intervention. The intervention group displayed a greater increase in walking behavior (from mean [standard deviation] = 82.16 [90.90] to 251.87 [202.13]) compared with the control condition (111.67 [94.64] to 165.16 [117.22]; time by group interaction: F(1,68) = 11.25, p = .001, η(2) = 0.14). Quality of life also improved in the intervention group (from 19.37 [3.22] to 16.70 [4.29]) compared with the control condition (19.97 [4.22] to 19.48 [5.37]; time by group interaction: F(1,66) = 4.44, p = .039, η(2) = 0.06). However, no significant effects of the intervention on antibody response were found (time by group η(2) for each of the 11 pneumococcal strains ranged from 0.001 to 0.018; p values all >.264). Participation in a life-style physical activity intervention increased subjective and objective physical activity levels and quality of life but did not affect antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination.
Limpo, Teresa; Alves, Rui A
In the field of intelligence research, it has been shown that some people conceive intelligence as a fixed trait that cannot be changed (entity beliefs), whereas others conceive it as a malleable trait that can be developed (incremental beliefs). What about writing? Do people hold similar implicit theories about the nature of their writing ability? Furthermore, are these beliefs likely to influence students' response to a writing intervention? We aimed to develop a scale to measure students' implicit theories of writing (pilot study) and to test whether these beliefs influence strategy-instruction effectiveness (intervention study). In the pilot and intervention studies participated, respectively, 128 and 192 students (Grades 5-6). Based on existing instruments that measure self-theories of intelligence, we developed the Implicit Theories of Writing (ITW) scale that was tested with the pilot sample. In the intervention study, 109 students received planning instruction based on the self-regulated strategy development model, whereas 83 students received standard writing instruction. Students were evaluated before, in the middle, and after instruction. ITW's validity was supported by piloting results and their successful cross-validation in the intervention study. In this, intervention students wrote longer and better texts than control students. Moreover, latent growth curve modelling showed that the more the intervention students conceived writing as a malleable skill, the more the quality of their texts improved. This research is of educational relevance because it provides a measure to evaluate students' implicit theories of writing and shows their impact on response to intervention. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
A combination of quantitative and qualitative research was used to determine the effectiveness of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme in a cohort of patients referred to the service at a London hospital. Quantitative data analysis provided evidence of effectiveness of participation in CR in reduced hospital readmission rates and use of recognised pharmacological management strategies. Self-reported physical activity levels and quality of life (QOL) in individuals who participated in the cardiac rehabilitation programme were qualitatively measured with questionnaires. Results provided evidence of benefit in continued participation in exercise. However, there was no evidence of benefit to QOL status post participation at 1 year. A p-value of 0.001 provided significant statistical evidence supporting the hypothesis of benefit in continued participation in exercise in participants following attendance at a cardiac rehabilitation programme. QOL status; a statistically significant p-value of 0.001 rejected the hypothesis (H1) of benefit. This would imply that participation CR programmes does not appear to provide sustained benefits in QOL. A number of moderating variables were suggested as explaining the finding such as homogeneity of respondents, age, mood bias and the timeframe of 1 year between participation in rehabilitation and self-reporting. CR appears to be an effective but time-limited intervention in relation to improvements in QOL. Collaborative working partnerships between specialist interventions, such as CR with chronic disease management strategies may provide greater sustainability of benefits gained from participation in cardiac rehabilitation programmes.
Corporate social responsibility: the role of public policy: a systematic literature review of the effects of government supported interventions on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) behaviour of enterprises in developing countries
Ingram, V.; de Grip, K.; de Ruyter de Wildt, M.; Ton, G.; Douma, M.; Boone, K.; van Hoeven, H.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) focuses on creating social and environmental value in addition to economic performance: people, planet and profit (or Triple P). Public authorities are increasingly supporting companies that choose to do so. What has become of the Dutch government’s efforts to
Full Text Available A physical activity is a key factor contributing to the improvement and maintenance of one’s general health. Although this issue is by no means limited to the workplace, it is precisely the work environment that can provide the basis for keeping and reinforcing more health-conscious attitudes and lifestyles, including programs promoting a physical activity. The paper presents an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity intervention at the workplace. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the physical activity programs on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, work ability, physical capacity and body weight of the participants. Given a marginal extent of programs of this kind in Poland, the authors’ intention was to show the benefits resulting from implementation of and participation in such initiatives. Med Pr 2017;68(2:277–301
A physical activity is a key factor contributing to the improvement and maintenance of one's general health. Although this issue is by no means limited to the workplace, it is precisely the work environment that can provide the basis for keeping and reinforcing more health-conscious attitudes and lifestyles, including programs promoting a physical activity. The paper presents an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity intervention at the workplace. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the physical activity programs on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, work ability, physical capacity and body weight of the participants. Given a marginal extent of programs of this kind in Poland, the authors' intention was to show the benefits resulting from implementation of and participation in such initiatives. Med Pr 2017;68(2):277-301. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Piehler, Timothy F; Winters, Ken C
Adolescent decision making has been previously identified as risk factor for substance abuse as well as a proximal intervention target. The study sought to extend this research by evaluating the role of decision-making style in response to parent involvement in brief substance abuse interventions. Adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years; n = 259) identified in a school setting as abusing alcohol and marijuana were randomly assigned to complete 1 of 2 brief interventions (BIs), either a 2-session adolescent-only program (BI-A) or the 2-session adolescent program with an additional parent session (BI-AP). Interventions were manualized and delivered in a school setting by trained counselors. Adolescent decision-making style was evaluated at intake, and alcohol and marijuana use were evaluated at intake and at a 6-month follow-up assessment. Supporting past research with these interventions, BI-AP demonstrated overall stronger outcomes for marijuana when compared with BI-A. Across both intervention models, an adaptive decision-making style (i.e., constructive, rational) assessed at intake predicted greater reductions in marijuana use. A significant moderation effect emerged for alcohol outcomes. Adolescents with maladaptive decision-making tendencies (i.e., impulsive/careless, avoidant) demonstrated the largest benefit from the parental involvement in BI-AP, whereas those with a less impulsive style derived little additional benefit from parental involvement in regard to alcohol use outcomes. Implications for the tailoring of brief interventions for adolescent substance abuse are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Rotheram-Borus, M J; Rebchook, G M; Kelly, J A; Adams, J; Neumann, M S
Long-term collaborations among researchers, staff and volunteers in community-based agencies, staff in institutional settings, and health advocates present challenges. Each group has different missions, procedures, attributes, and rewards. This article reviews areas of potential conflict and suggests strategies for coping with these challenges. During the replication of five effective HIV prevention interventions, strategies for maintaining mutually beneficial collaborations included selecting agencies with infrastructures that could support research-based interventions; obtaining letters of understanding that clarified roles, responsibilities, and time frames; and setting training schedules with opportunities for observing, practicing, becoming invested in, and repeatedly implementing the intervention. The process of implementing interventions highlighted educating funders of research and public health services about (a) the costs of disseminating interventions, (b) the need for innovation to new modalities and theories for delivering effective interventions, and (c) adopting strategies of marketing research and quality engineering when designing interventions.
The Carrier Intervention Effectiveness Model (CIEM) provides the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) with a tool for measuring the safety benefits of carrier interventions conducted under the Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) e...
Roč. 47, č. 4 (2011), s. 75-95 ISSN 1540-496X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:UK(CZ) GAUK 259027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : determinants of intervention * effectiveness of intervention * foreign exchange intervention Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.953, year: 2011
Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L.
The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for older adults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of older adults. Seventy-eight older adults (mean…
Kim, Jung-Hee; Yang, Younghee; Hwang, Eun-Suk
Although sexual health is a common concern for oncology patients, no practical guidelines to sexual intervention exist, perhaps because of a lack of systematic reviews or meta-analyses. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect size for psychoeducational intervention focused on sexuality and to compare effect sizes according to intervention outcomes and characteristic. We explored quantitative evidence for the effects of sexual intervention for cancer patients or partners by using the electronic databases. Among them, we considered 15 eligible articles. The meta-analysis provided 133 effect sizes from 15 primary studies. The analysis revealed significant improvements after intervention, with a random-effects standardized mean difference of 0.75. Psychoeducational interventions focused on sexuality after cancer diagnosis were effective for compliance (2.40), cognitive aspect (1.29), and psychological aspect (0.83). Individual-based interventions (0.85) were more effective in improving outcomes than group approach and group combined with individual intervention. With regard to intervention providers, registered nurse only (2.22) and team approach including the registered nurse (2.38) had the highest effect size. Face-to-face intervention combined with telephone or the Internet (1.04) demonstrated a higher effect size than face-to-face (0.62) and telephone (0.58) independently. We conducted an analysis of data from various subgroups of preexisting studies, obtained an overall estimate of the effectiveness of the intervention, and compared its effectiveness across variables that affect intervention outcomes. These results provide empirical data for evidence-based practice and inform the development of useful intervention programs through a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of the results.
Drury, Debra A.
The purpose of this problem-based study was to gather data which analyzed the degree of fidelity of implementation of Response to Intervention as reported by building principals in the State of Missouri. The project began when team members, providing professional development for the Response to Intervention process, came to the conclusion there…
Koekkoek, Bauke; van Meijel, Berno; Schene, Aart; Hutschemaekers, Giel
Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a structured intervention aimed at prevention and management of ineffective behaviours by long-term non-psychotic patients and their treating clinicians. The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to guide the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of the intervention. Qualitative (individual and group interviews), quantitative (survey), and mixed methods (Delphi-procedure) research was used to gain a broad perspective of the problem. Empirical findings, theoretical models, and existing evidence were combined to construct a program tailored to the needs of the target groups. A structured program to increase effective illness behaviour in long-term non-psychotic patients and effective professional behaviour in their treating clinicians was developed, consisting of three subsequent stages and four substantial components, that is described in detail. Implementation took place and evaluation of the intervention is being carried out. Intervention Mapping proved to be a suitable method to develop a structured intervention for a multi-faceted problem in mental health care.
Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Dencker, Magnus
INTRODUCTION: This study assessed short and long term effects of a 3-year controlled school-based physical activity (PA) intervention on fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. METHODS: The study involved 18 schools (10 intervention...
Vos, Petra J.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Garssen, Bert; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.
The importance of psychosocial counselling after a diagnosis of cancer has been acknowledged and many intervention studies have been carried out, with the aim to find out which types of intervention are most effective in enhancing quality of life in cancer patients. A factor which could be part of
Tracy R. G. Gladstone
Full Text Available We evaluated predictors and moderators of differential response to two family-based depression prevention programs for families with a depressed parent: a clinician-facilitated intervention and a lecture group intervention. Individual and family level variables were examined using regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. For the outcome of child understanding of depression, parental changes in child-related behaviors and attitudes predicted greater child understanding (p<0.001. For the parent outcome of behavior and attitude change, across intervention conditions, younger parent age (p<0.05, female parent gender (p<0.01, more chronic and severe parental depression history (p<0.05, lower SES (p<0.05, and single-parent status (p<0.05 were associated with better outcomes across conditions. Effect sizes were moderate, ranging from 0.4 to 0.7 SD. Family and marital functioning were not found to be predictors of any outcomes. When both parents were depressed at baseline, there was no difference in the clinician- versus lecture-based approach, and when only the father was depressed, families reported more changes with the clinician condition than with the lecture condition (p<0.05. Findings from this study can help identify intervention strategies that are appropriate for different types of at-risk individuals and families.
Caspar, Sienna; Le, Anne; McGilton, Katherine S
The Responsive Leadership Intervention (RLI) is a multi-faceted intervention. We evaluated the influence of the RLI on i) responsive leadership practices by team leaders; ii) health care aides' (HCAs) self-determination; iii) HCAs' perceived ability to provide individualized care. A quasi-experimental repeated measures non-equivalent control group design was used to assess participant outcomes in four long-term care facilities (two control, two intervention) across four time periods. Change from baseline to 1-month post-intervention was greater in the intervention group than control group for Individualized Care (IC) (p = 0.001), but not for Self Determination (p = 0.26). Perceived levels of responsive leadership was greater following the intervention among participants with baseline measures that were less than the median (p = 0.007), but not if greater. At 3-months post-intervention, the intervention group retained 32% of the difference from control in IC, and 49% of the difference from control in responsive leadership; at 6-months post-intervention, 35% and 28%, respectively. The RLI is a feasible method for improving responsive leadership practices and individualized care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brady, Nancy; Warren, Steven F.; Sterling, Audra
Maternal responsivity, or the ways in which mothers provide for, interact with, and respond to their children, helps to shape their children’s development, including language development. In this chapter, we describe maternal responsivity as a multilevel construct with different measures appropriate for each level. Molar responsivity refers to aspects of interaction style such as affect that can best be measured with rating scales. Molecular responsivity refers to contingent maternal behavior...
Sutliffe, Jay T; Wilson, Lori D; de Heer, Hendrik D; Foster, Ray L; Carnot, Mary Jo
This brief lifestyle intervention, including a vegan diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and various legumes, nuts and seeds, significantly improved health risk factors and reduced systemic inflammation as measured by circulating CRP. The degree of improvement was associated with baseline CRP such that higher levels predicted greater decreases. The interaction between gender and baseline CRP was significant and showed that males with higher baseline CRP levels appeared to have a more robust decrease in CRP due to the intervention than did their female counterparts. It is likely that the vegetable and high fiber content of a vegan diet reduces CRP in the presences of obesity. Neither the quantity of exercise nor the length of stay was significant predictors of CRP reduction. Additionally, those participants who had a vegan diet prior to the intervention had the lowest CRP risk coming into the program. Direct measure of body fat composition, estrogen and other inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha would enhance current understanding of the specific mechanisms of CRP reduction related to lifestyle interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper uses Lin's technique (1997) to report on the impulse response function analysis that traces the dynamics of exchange rate volatility from innovations in Japanese foreign exchange intervention. Using a multivariate GARCH model, we employed a volatility impulse response function based on Lin (1997) to detect the impulse response of exchange rate volatility on a one-unit foreign exchange intervention shock. The main findings of t his paper are as follows: (1) a foreign exchange inter...
Foster, E. Michael; Jones, Damon
Objectives To examine the cost-effectiveness of the Fast Track intervention, a multi-year, multi-component intervention designed to reduce violence among at-risk children. A previous report documented the favorable effect of intervention on the highest-risk group of ninth-graders diagnosed with conduct disorder, as well as self-reported delinquency. The current report addressed the cost-effectiveness of the intervention for these measures of program impact. Design Costs of the intervention were estimated using program budgets. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed to determine the cost per unit of improvement in the 3 outcomes measured in the 10th year of the study. Results Examination of the total sample showed that the intervention was not cost-effective at likely levels of policymakers' willingness to pay for the key outcomes. Subsequent analysis of those most at risk, however, showed that the intervention likely was cost-effective given specified willingness-to-pay criteria. Conclusions Results indicate that the intervention is cost-effective for the children at highest risk. From a policy standpoint, this finding is encouraging because such children are likely to generate higher costs for society over their lifetimes. However, substantial barriers to cost-effectiveness remain, such as the ability to effectively identify and recruit such higher-risk children in future implementations. PMID:17088509
Shope, Thomas B.
The purpose of this paper is to describe deterministic radiation injuries reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that resulted from therapeutic, interventional procedures performed under fluoroscopic guidance, and to investigate the procedure or equipment-related factors that may have contributed to the injury. Reports submitted to the FDA under both mandatory and voluntary reporting requirements which described radiation-induced skin injuries from fluoroscopy were investigated. Serious skin injuries, including moist desquamation and tissues necrosis, have occurred since 1992. These injuries have resulted from a variety of interventional procedures which have required extended periods of fluoroscopy compared to typical diagnostic procedures. Facilities conducting therapeutic interventional procedures need to be aware of the potential for patient radiation injury and take appropriate steps to limit the potential for injury. (author)
Cunha, Marlo; Portela, Cláudio; Bastos, Victor H; Machado, Dionis; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Maurício; Basile, Luis; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of bromazepam on EEG and the motor learning process when healthy subjects were submitted to a typewriting task. We investigated bromazepam due to its abuse by various populations and its prevalent clinical use among older individuals which are more sensitive to the negative effects of long half-life benzodiazepines. A randomized double-blind design was used with subjects divided into three groups: placebo (n=13), bromazepam 3mg (n=13) and bromazepam 6 mg (n=13). EEG data comprising theta, alpha and beta bands was recorded before, during and after the motor task. Our results showed a lower relative power value in the theta band in the Br 6 mg group when compared with PL. We also observed a reduction in relative power in the beta band in the Br 3mg and Br 6 mg when compared with PL group. These findings suggest that Br can contribute to a reduced working memory load in areas related to attention processes. On the other hand, it produces a higher cortical activation in areas associated with sensory integration. Such areas are responsible for accomplishing the motor learning task. The results are an example of the usefulness of integrating electrophysiological data, sensorimotor activity and a pharmacological approach to aid in our understanding of cerebral changes produced by external agents.
Full Text Available On the basis of two universal power-law scaling laws, i.e. the scaling dynamic hysteresis in physics and the allometric scaling metabolism in biosystem, we studied the dynamic response and the evolution of an immunosurveillant anti-tumor system subjected to a periodic external intervention, which is equivalent to the scheme of a radiotherapy or chemotherapy, within the framework of the growth dynamics of tumor. Under the modulation of either an abrupt or a gradual change external intervention, the population density of tumors exhibits a dynamic hysteresis to the intervention. The area of dynamic hysteresis loop characterizes a sort of dissipative-therapeutic relationship of the dynamic responding of treated tumors with the dose consumption of accumulated external intervention per cycle of therapy. Scaling the area of dynamic hysteresis loops against the intensity of an external intervention, we deduced a characteristic quantity which was defined as the theoretical therapeutic effectiveness of treated tumor and related with the destructive metabolism of tumor under treatment. The calculated dose-effectiveness profiles, namely the dose cumulant per cycle of intervention versus the therapeutic effectiveness, could be well scaled into a universal quadratic formula regardless of either an abrupt or a gradual change intervention involved. We present a new concept, i.e., the therapy-effect matrix and the dose cumulant matrix, to expound the new finding observed in the growth and regression dynamics of a modulated anti-tumor system.
Madison, Matthew J.; Bradshaw, Laine
The evaluation of intervention effects is an important objective of educational research. One way to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention is to conduct an experiment that assigns individuals to control and treatment groups. In the context of pretest/posttest designed studies, this is referred to as a control-group pretest/posttest design.…
Sanjana Brijball Parumasur
Orientation: Systematic and congruent organisational structures, systems, strategies and designs are necessary for the successful implementation of organisational development (OD) interventions. Research purpose: This article examines national and international OD practices. It assesses the effect of diverse cultures and cultural values for determining the effectiveness of OD interventions. Motivation for the study: Most organisational change and development programmes fail and only a ...
Objective: To determine the effectiveness of coronary heart disease risk reduction interventions. Methods: The effects of lipid lowering interventions as well as dietary and lifestyle modifications on some risk factors of CHD were studied retrospectively in 47 males and 53 female patients [aged 33 to 61 years; mean age 47.20 ...
Mooney, Kathleen C.
An abundance of research on early literacy intervention indicates that struggling, K-2 readers and writers can be effectively supported through the receipt of intervention services in school; however, research in the area has not yet addressed study of the unique, contextualized design and implementation of early literacy intervention in different…
Nestor Hugo Kisilevzky
Full Text Available Objective: To present the preliminary results of a feasibility study performed to determine the value of a mobile interventional radiology unit used to promote a uterine embolization program for low-income patients. Methods: Forty patients with symptomatic fibroids were treated with uterine embolization. Procedures were performed in four public hospitals in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. This study was approved by the institutional research ethics committee and all patients signed an informed consent form. A mobile interventional radiology unit, named ANGIOMOVEL, was conceived and implemented utilizing a small truck to transport one mobile C arm, one radiological table, protection aprons and a small trolley containing specific supplies for the procedures. The ANGIOMOVEL team consisted of two interventional radiologists, one nurse, one driver and one assistant. The unit visited one hospital per week during a three-month period. Patient inclusion was contingent upon several factors, such as evaluation by a trained gynecologist, completion of a pelvic MRI, routine serological laboratory tests and completion of a quality of life questionnaire (QOL. Outcomes, MRI and QOL were evaluated. Data obtained after 12 weeks were collected and analyzed. Results: Technical success was achieved in 100% of cases, with a mean procedure time of 43 minutes and a mean fluoroscopic time of 24 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 1.07 day and the mean time for recovery and return to normal activities was 10 days. After 12 weeks, 36 (90% of patients noticed improvement of their symptoms and 4 (10% did not notice any improvement. Thirty-eight patients (95% were satisfied or very satisfied and 39 (97.5% said they would recommend the procedure. Pre- and post-procedure magnetic resonance imaging analysis showed that complete fibroid ischemia was achieved in 92.5% of cases with a mean uterine volume reduction of 38% and a mean fibroid volume reduction of 52%. Health
Powell, Sarah R; Cirino, Paul T; Malone, Amelia S
We identified child-level predictors of responsiveness to 2 types of mathematics (calculation and word-problem) intervention among 2nd-grade children with mathematics difficulty. Participants were 250 children in 107 classrooms in 23 schools pretested on mathematics and general cognitive measures and posttested on mathematics measures. We assigned classrooms randomly assigned to calculation intervention, word-problem intervention, or business-as-usual control. Intervention lasted 17 weeks. Path analyses indicated that scores on working memory and language comprehension assessments moderated responsiveness to calculation intervention. No moderators were identified for responsiveness to word-problem intervention. Across both intervention groups and the control group, attentive behavior predicted both outcomes. Initial calculation skill predicted the calculation outcome, and initial language comprehension predicted word-problem outcomes. These results indicate that screening for calculation intervention should include a focus on working memory, language comprehension, attentive behavior, and calculations. Screening for word-problem intervention should focus on attentive behavior and word problems.
This paper assesses empirically the motives and effectiveness of forex interventions in Peru. While the central bank of Peru states that its forex interventions aim only at containing excessive exchange rate volatility, the results of this paper show that, in practice, the interventions seem to have aimed at “leaning against the wind” as well. The results also show that forex sales, but not forex purchases, react to volatility, indicating asymmetry in the central bank’s reactions to episodes ...
Wammes, Birgitte; Breedveld, Boudewijn; Kremers, Stef; Brug, Johannes
To help people prevent weight gain, the Netherlands Nutrition Centre initiated the "balance intervention", which promotes moderation of food intake and/or increased physical activity in response to occasions of overeating. The aim of this study was to determine whether intervention materials were appreciated, encouraged information…
Brown, Julie Esparza; Doolittle, Jennifer
Response to Intervention (RTI) has been heralded by many as the long-awaited alternative to using a discrepancy formula for special education eligibility decisions. RTI focuses on intervening early through a multi-tiered approach where each tier provides interventions of increasing intensity. RTI has the potential to affect change for English…
Speece, Deborah L.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Silverman, Rebecca; Case, Lisa Pericola; Cooper, David H.; Jacobs, Dawn M.
Models of Response to Intervention (RTI) include parameters of assessment and instruction. This study focuses on assessment with the purpose of developing a screening battery that validly and efficiently identifies first-grade children at risk for reading problems. In an RTI model, these children would be candidates for early intervention. We…
Spear-Swerling, Louise; Cheesman, Elaine
This study examined the knowledge base of 142 elementary-level educators for implementing response-to-intervention (RTI) models in reading. A questionnaire assessed participants' professional background for teaching reading, as well as their familiarity with specific assessments, research-based instructional models, and interventions potentially…
van Erk, M.J.; Wopereis, S.; Rubingh, C.; van Vliet, T.; Verheij, E.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Pedersen, T.L.; Newman, J.W.; Smilde, A.K.; van der Greef, J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; van Ommen, B.
Background: Chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in obese subjects is associated with health complications including cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and diabetes. Reducing inflammatory responses may reduce these risks. However, available markers of inflammatory status inadequately
Potnuru, Rama Krishna Gupta; Sahoo, Chandan Kumar
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of human resource development (HRD) interventions on organizational effectiveness by means of employee competencies which are built by some of the selected HRD interventions. Design/methodology/approach: An integrated research model has been developed by combining the principal factors…
Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd
This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…
Koivisto, Petri; Vinokur, Amiram D.; Vuori, Jukka
This randomized experimental study (N = 1,034) examines both the direct and the indirect effects of the Towards Working Life intervention on 2 components of adolescents' career preparation: preparedness for career choice and attitude toward career planning. The intervention comprised a 1-week workshop program, the proximal goals of which were to…
Bokhove, C.; Drijvers, P.H.M.
The design and arrangement of appropriate automatic feedback in digital learning environment is a widely recognized issue. In this article, we investigate the effect of feedback on the design and the results of a digital intervention for algebra. Three feedback principles guided the intervention:
Gómez Puente, Juana María; Martínez-Marcos, Mercedes
To identify the most effective interventions in overweight and obese adults. A narrative review through a search of the literature in databases PubMed, Cochrane, Joanna Briggs Institute, EMBASE, Cuiden y Cinahl with free and controlled language (MeSH terms) using Boolean operators AND and NOT. The research was limited to articles published between 2007 and 2015. Eighteen articles were selected based on the established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Different types of interventions were identified based on the modification of lifestyles, mainly diet, physical activity and behavior. Major differences were found in specific content, degree of intensity of interventions, time tracking and elements evaluated. Most of studies found statistically significant weight loss but this was limited in terms of weight and number of people. Web-based interventions have no uniform effect on weight loss but achieve similar levels to face-to-face interventions in maintaining weight loss. The combination of personalised diet, exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy is the most effective form of intervention in overweight and obesity. There is insufficient data to indicate whether group or individual interventions are more effective. Online intervention allows greater accessibility and lower cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ebhuoma, Osadolor; Gebreslasie, Michael; Magubane, Lethumusa
The change of the malaria control intervention policy in South Africa (SA), re-introduction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), may be responsible for the low and sustained malaria transmission in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). We evaluated the effect of the re-introduction of DDT on malaria in KZN and suggested practical ways the province can strengthen her already existing malaria control and elimination efforts, to achieve zero malaria transmission. We obtained confirmed monthly malaria cases in KZN from the malaria control program of KZN from 1998 to 2014. The seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) intervention time series analysis (ITSA) was employed to model the effect of the re-introduction of DDT on confirmed monthly malaria cases. The result is an abrupt and permanent decline of monthly malaria cases (w 0 =-1174.781, p-value=0.003) following the implementation of the intervention policy. The sustained low malaria cases observed over a long period suggests that the continued usage of DDT did not result in insecticide resistance as earlier anticipated. It may be due to exophagic malaria vectors, which renders the indoor residual spraying not totally effective. Therefore, the feasibility of reducing malaria transmission to zero in KZN requires other reliable and complementary intervention resources to optimize the existing ones. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Foster, E. Michael; Olchowski, Allison E.; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.
The cost-effectiveness of delivering stacked multiple intervention components for children is compared to implementing single intervention by analyzing the Incredible Years Series program. The result suggests multiple intervention components are more cost-effective than single intervention components.
Research on effectiveness of workplace bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across empirical studies. This study addresses the question of whether workplace bullying can be reduced in prevalence and consequences, if so to what extent and by which strategies and interventions. It opens with a brief overview of the nature of bullying at work and discussion of some precursors and existing interventions. However, its principal focus is on the findings obtained from selected (quasi-) experimental longitudinal studies on antibullying interventions, drawing together the results of studies conducted in Europe, USA, and Australia, including several economic sectors, and concerned about primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs and strategies. Additional emphasis is considered from the psychosocial drivers highlighted both from prescriptive and cross-sectional studies and factual empirical studies. One randomized control study and seven quasiexperimental longitudinal studies were identified by searching electronic databases and bibliographies and via contact with experts. The majority of outcomes evidenced some level of change, mostly positive, suggesting that workplace bullying interventions are more likely to affect knowledge, attitudes, and self-perceptions, but actual bullying behaviors showed much more mixed results. In general, growing effectiveness was stated as the level of intervention increased from primary to tertiary prevention. However, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs in most studies do not allow direct attribution of these findings to the interventions. Overall, the evaluation of antibullying interventions must flourish and be improved, requiring close cooperation between practitioners and academics to design, implement, and evaluate effective interventions based
Weeland, Joyce; Chhangur, Rabia R.; van der Giessen, Danielle; Matthys, Walter; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Overbeek, Geertjan
We tested the effectiveness of the preventive behavioral parent training (BPT) program, The Incredible Years (IY), and the independent effects of previously suggested sociodemographic and intervention-based moderator variables (i.e., initial severity of externalizing problem behavior, child gender,
Derakhshanpour, Firoozeh; Hajebi, Ahmad; Panaghi, Leili; Ahmadabadi, Zohre
Background: Child abuse is a significant public health and social problem worldwide. It can be described as a failure to provide care and protection for children by the parents or other caregivers. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in abused children and their families. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the psychosocial support unit of a pediatric hospital in Bandar Abbas, Iran, from 2012 to 2013. The participants consisted of child abuse cases and their parents who referred to the psychosocial support unit to receive services. Services delivered in this unit included parenting skills training, psychiatric treatments, and supportive services. The effectiveness of the interventions was assessed with Child Abuse Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ). Participants were assessed at baseline, at 3, and 6 months follow-ups. ANOVA with repeated measures and Friedman test were used to evaluate the effect of the interventions. Results: A total of 68 children and their parents enrolled in this study, of whom 53% were males. Post-intervention follow-ups revealed significant changes in mothers' general health questionnaire (pchildren's conduct problem (pabuses significantly decreased (p<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that psychosocial interventions effectively improved child-parents interaction and mental health of parents. The effectiveness of interventions based on subgroup analysis and implications of the results have been discussed for further development of psychosocial interventions in the health system.
Full Text Available The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (disincentives, and restricting choice. We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.
Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans
The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949
Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans
The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.
Neumann, W P; Eklund, J; Hansson, B; Lindbeck, L
This paper addresses a number of issues for work environment intervention (WEI) researchers in light of the mixed results reported in the literature. If researchers emphasise study quality over intervention quality, reviews that exclude case studies with high quality and multifactorial interventions may be vulnerable to 'quality criteria selection bias'. Learning from 'failed' interventions is inhibited by both publication bias and reporting lengths that limit information on relevant contextual and implementation factors. The authors argue for the need to develop evaluation approaches consistent with the complexity of multifactorial WEIs that: a) are owned by and aimed at the whole organisation; and b) include intervention in early design stages where potential impact is highest. Context variety, complexity and instability in and around organisations suggest that attention might usefully shift from generalisable 'proof of effectiveness' to a more nuanced identification of intervention elements and the situations in which they are more likely to work as intended. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper considers ergonomics interventions from perspectives of what constitutes quality and 'proof". It points to limitations of traditional experimental intervention designs and argues that the complexity of organisational change, and the need for multifactorial interventions that reach deep into work processes for greater impact, should be recognised.
Kok, Maarten Olivier; Bal, Roland; Roelofs, Caspar David; Schuit, Albertine Jantine
In several countries, attempts are made to improve health promotion by centrally rating the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Dutch Effectiveness Rating System (ERS) for health promotion interventions is an improvement-oriented approach in which multi-disciplinary expert
population was screened for hypertension, non- ... a large effect in the subgroup above the cut-off point for hypertension .... were addressed by means of posters, billboards and mailings in ... intensity intervention (UI) that focused on the use of.
effect on factors such as their social-emotional well-being and school performance .... media were used before and after the adolescents took part in the group intervention. ..... Group counseling for elementary and middle school children.
... of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. ... As Ghana strides towards mainstreaming early childhood education in the quest ... an integrated, inclusive and effective early intervention programme becomes ...
Ergonomic Chair Explorative Intervention Study: Effect on Chronic Upper ... they are associated with a complex relationship between individual, work-related and ... in chronic upper quadrant musculoskeletal dysfunction and work productivity ...
Sanjana Brijball Parumasur
Research purpose: This article examines national and international OD practices. It assesses the effect of diverse cultures and cultural values for determining the effectiveness of OD interventions. Motivation for the study: Most organisational change and development programmes fail and only a few result in increased competitiveness, improvements and profitability. This emphasises the need for change interventions to give sufficient attention to leadership, cultures, managing change and adopting context-based OD interventions. Research design, approach and method: This article is a literature review of the current trends and research in the area of OD interventions. It synthesises the influence that cultures and cultural orientations have on determining which OD intervention strategies organisations should adopt in different cultures. Main findings: The analysis emphasises how important it is to achieve congruence between the OD interventions organisations select and their local cultures. Practical/managerial implications: It is important to note the evolving nature of the political and economic climates that influence national cultures and that they emphasise that interventions that reflect OD values, which are tailor-made and shaped to the needs of local cultures, are necessary. Contribution/value-add: This study links various OD interventions to Hofstede’s dimensions for differentiating national cultures. It provides guidelines for aligning the practices and techniques of OD to the values and cultures of the organisations and societies in which they are to be implemented.
Lousada, Marisa; Ramalho, Margarida; Marques, Carolina
This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Language Intervention Programme for the treatment of 14 preschool-aged children with primary language impairment. We used a waiting list control design, in which half the sample (7 children) received immediate intervention with the Language Intervention Programme, whereas the remaining children received treatment after a 4-week delay. The intervention consisted of 8 individual biweekly sessions. Outcome measures of language ability (receptive semantic and morphosyntactic, expressive semantic and morphosyntactic, and metalinguistic) were taken before and after intervention. After 4 weeks of intervention, the experimental group showed significant improvements in language (receptive, expressive and metalinguistic skills), but no differences were found for those in the waiting control group. After 4 weeks of intervention for the control group, significant progress in language was also observed. The Language Intervention Programme was found to be effective in treating language skills of children with language impairment, providing clinical evidence for speech and language therapists to employ this programme for the treatment of preschool children with language disorders. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kennedy, Joseph L D; Tuliao, Antover P; Flower, KayLee N; Tibbs, Jessie J; McChargue, Dennis E
This research investigated the effectiveness of a brief Restorative Justice Intervention. Probationers who attended a Restorative Justice Intervention ( n = 383) were compared with probationers receiving treatment as usual ( n = 130) over a 2- to 6-year follow-up period. The proportion of individuals who recidivated in the control condition ( n = 89, 68.46%) were higher compared with those who recidivated in the intervention condition ( n = 127, 33.16%; z = 7.04, p restorative justice. Implications of these effects are discussed.
Cazzell, Samantha; Skinner, Christopher H.; Ciancio, Dennis; Aspiranti, Kathleen; Watson, Tiffany; Taylor, Kala; McCurdy, Merilee; Skinner, Amy
A concurrent multiple-baseline across-tasks design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer flash-card sight-word recognition intervention with elementary-school students with intellectual disability. This intervention allowed the participants to self-determine each response interval and resulted in both participants acquiring…
Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.
Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…
The main goals of the OG21 initiative are to (1) develop new technology and knowledge to increase the value creation of Norwegian oil and gas resources and (2) enhance the export of Norwegian oil and gas technology. The OG21 Cost-effective Drilling and Intervention (CEDI) Technology Target Area (TTA) has identified some key strategic drilling and well intervention needs to help meet the goals of OG21. These key strategic drilling and well intervention needs are based on a review of present and anticipated future offshore-Norway drilling and well intervention conditions and the Norwegian drilling and well intervention industry. A gap analysis has been performed to assess the extent to which current drilling and well intervention research and development and other activities will meet the key strategic needs. Based on the identified strategic drilling and well intervention needs and the current industry res each and development and other activities, the most important technology areas for meeting the OG21 goals are: environment-friendly and low-cost exploration wells; low-cost methods for well intervention/sidetracks; faster and extended-reach drilling; deep water drilling, completion and intervention; offshore automated drilling; subsea and sub-ice drilling; drilling through basalt and tight carbonates; drilling and completion in salt formation. More specific goals for each area: reduce cost of exploration wells by 50%; reduce cost for well intervention/sidetracks by 50%; increase drilling efficiency by 40%; reduce drilling cost in deep water by 40 %; enable offshore automated drilling before 2012; enable automated drilling from seabed in 2020. Particular focus should be placed on developing new technology for low-cost exploration wells to stem the downward trends in the number of exploration wells drilled and the volume of discovered resources. The CEDI TTA has the following additional recommendations: The perceived gaps in addressing the key strategic drilling and
Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias
of the DCIA in BMI z-score, clustered risk z-score, systolic blood pressure, abdominal fat-%, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. In body fat-%, waist circumference and triglycerides, there is only a significant group difference at 6 weeks and not at 52 weeks......Aim: The primary aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the Odense Overweight Intervention Study on BMI development. Methods: The OOIS is a semi-blinded randomized controlled trial with three measurement occasions. Participants were allocated into two intervention arms; a day camp...... intervention arm (DCIA) and a standard intervention arm (SIA). For the DCIA the camp lasted for six weeks and consisted of fun-based physical activities, healthy eating, and health classes. The following 10 months a family based intervention was accomplished. The SIA was offered a weekly activity session...
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), in cooperation with the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe), has developed a quantitative model to measure the effectiveness of motor carrier interventions in terms of ...
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), in cooperation with the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe), has developed a quantitative model to measure the effectiveness of motor carrier interventions in terms of ...
Bailey, Beth A.
Despite the known dangers of pregnancy smoking, rates remain high, especially in the rural, Southern United States. Interventions are effective, but few have been developed and tested in regions with high rates of pregnancy smoking, a culture that normalizes smoking, and a hard-to-reach prenatal population. The goals were to describe a smoking…
Julio César Espinoza Rodríguez
Full Text Available This paper represents an empirical approach to assess the effectiveness of foreign exchange interventions following the criteria by K. Domínguez (1998 using a GARCH model based on the work by C. Broto (2012. Analyses are conducted to evaluate the FOREX rules of intervention followed by the BCCR, and the probability of occurrence of an intervention is estimated using a LOGIT model. In addition, the paper attempts to analyze what happened to the exchange arrangements applied in Costa Rica as a result of the 2006 exchange rate flexibility and transition to inflation targets.
Paavonen, E Juulia; Huurre, Taina; Tilli, Maija; Kiviruusu, Olli; Partonen, Timo
Sleep disturbances are common among adolescents, but there are no brief interventions to treat them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief semistructured, individually delivered sleep intervention to ameliorate adolescents' sleeping difficulties and lengthen sleep duration. All students aged 16-18 years in a high school were screened for sleeping difficulties and 36 students with the highest sleep problem scores were invited to the intervention. Postintervention improvements were observed on self-reported and actiwatch-registered sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality and sleep latency, perceived stress and anxiety (all p values sleep efficiency and sleep latency did not change (p > 0.05). A brief individual sleep intervention can be effective in lengthening sleep duration and improving subjective sleep quality and well-being among adolescents.
McHale, Susan M; Davis, Kelly D; Green, Kaylin; Casper, Lynne; Kan, Marni L; Kelly, Erin L; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Okechukwu, Cassandra
This study tested whether effects of a workplace intervention, aimed at promoting employees' schedule control and supervisor support for personal and family life, had implications for parent-adolescent relationships; we also tested whether parent-child relationships differed as a function of how many intervention program sessions participants attended. Data came from a group randomized trial of a workplace intervention, delivered in the information technology division of a Fortune 500 company. Analyses focused on 125 parent-adolescent dyads that completed baseline and 12-month follow-up home interviews. Results revealed no main effects of the intervention, but children of employees who attended 75% or more program sessions reported more time with their parent and more parent education involvement compared to adolescents whose parents attended less than 75% of sessions, and they tended to report more time with parent and more parental solicitation of information about their experiences compared to adolescents whose parents were randomly assigned to the usual practice condition.
Sharifi, Mona; Franz, Calvin; Horan, Christine M; Giles, Catherine M; Long, Michael W; Ward, Zachary J; Resch, Stephen C; Marshall, Richard; Gortmaker, Steven L; Taveras, Elsie M
To estimate the cost-effectiveness and population impact of the national implementation of the Study of Technology to Accelerate Research (STAR) intervention for childhood obesity. In the STAR cluster-randomized trial, 6- to 12-year-old children with obesity seen at pediatric practices with electronic health record (EHR)-based decision support for primary care providers and self-guided behavior-change support for parents had significantly smaller increases in BMI than children who received usual care. We used a microsimulation model of a national implementation of STAR from 2015 to 2025 among all pediatric primary care providers in the United States with fully functional EHRs to estimate cost, impact on obesity prevalence, and cost-effectiveness. The expected population reach of a 10-year national implementation is ∼2 million children, with intervention costs of $119 per child and $237 per BMI unit reduced. At 10 years, assuming maintenance of effect, the intervention is expected to avert 43 000 cases and 226 000 life-years with obesity at a net cost of $4085 per case and $774 per life-year with obesity averted. Limiting implementation to large practices and using higher estimates of EHR adoption improved both cost-effectiveness and reach, whereas decreasing the maintenance of the intervention's effect worsened the former. A childhood obesity intervention with electronic decision support for clinicians and self-guided behavior-change support for parents may be more cost-effective than previous clinical interventions. Effective and efficient interventions that target children with obesity are necessary and could work in synergy with population-level prevention strategies to accelerate progress in reducing obesity prevalence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Cummings, Greta G; Olivo, Susan Armijo; Biondo, Patricia D; Stiles, Carla R; Yurtseven, Ozden; Fainsinger, Robin L; Hagen, Neil A
Cancer pain is prevalent, yet patients do not receive best care despite widely available evidence. Although national cancer control policies call for education, effectiveness of such programs is unclear and best practices are not well defined. To examine existing evidence on whether knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting health care providers, patients, and caregivers improve cancer pain outcomes. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to evaluate primary studies that examined effects of KT interventions on providers and patients. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies reported interventions targeting health care providers, four focused on patients or their families, one study examined patients and their significant others, and 16 studies examined patients only. Seven quantitative comparisons measured the statistical effects of interventions. A significant difference favoring the treatment group in least pain intensity (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44, 1.42) and in usual pain/average pain (95% CI: 0.13, 0.74) was observed. No other statistical differences were observed. However, most studies were assessed as having high risk of bias and failed to report sufficient information about the intervention dose, quality of educational material, fidelity, and other key factors required to evaluate effectiveness of intervention design. Trials that used a higher dose of KT intervention (characterized by extensive follow-up, comprehensive educational program, and higher resource allocation) were significantly more likely to have positive results than trials that did not use this approach. Further attention to methodological issues to improve educational interventions and research to clarify factors that lead to better pain control are urgently needed. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Jordi Escartín Department of Social Psychology, Facultad de Psicologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Passeig de la Vall d’Hebrón, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Research on effectiveness of workplace bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across empirical studies. This study addresses the question of whether workplace bullying can be reduced in prevalence and consequences, if so to what extent and by which strategies and interventions. It opens with a brief overview of the nature of bullying at work and discussion of some precursors and existing interventions. However, its principal focus is on the findings obtained from selected (quasi- experimental longitudinal studies on antibullying interventions, drawing together the results of studies conducted in Europe, USA, and Australia, including several economic sectors, and concerned about primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs and strategies. Additional emphasis is considered from the psychosocial drivers highlighted both from prescriptive and cross-sectional studies and factual empirical studies. One randomized control study and seven quasiexperimental longitudinal studies were identified by searching electronic databases and bibliographies and via contact with experts. The majority of outcomes evidenced some level of change, mostly positive, suggesting that workplace bullying interventions are more likely to affect knowledge, attitudes, and self-perceptions, but actual bullying behaviors showed much more mixed results. In general, growing effectiveness was stated as the level of intervention increased from primary to tertiary prevention. However, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs in most studies do not allow direct attribution of these findings to the interventions. Overall, the evaluation of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of interventions to treat schizophrenia can assist health policy decision making, particularly given the lack of health resources in developing countries like Thailand. This study aims to determine the optimal treatment package, including drug and non-drug interventions, for schizophrenia in Thailand. Methods A Markov model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of typical antipsychotics, generic risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine and family interventions. Health outcomes were measured in disability adjusted life years. We evaluated intervention benefit by estimating a change in disease severity, taking into account potential side effects. Intervention costs included outpatient treatment costs, hospitalization costs as well as time and travel costs of patients and families. Uncertainty was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. A sensitivity analysis of the expected range cost of generic risperidone was undertaken. Results Generic risperidone is more cost-effective than typicals if it can be produced for less than 10 baht per 2 mg tablet. Risperidone was the cheapest treatment with higher drug costs offset by lower hospital costs in comparison to typicals. The most cost-effective combination of treatments was a combination of risperidone (dominant intervention. Adding family intervention has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 1,900 baht/DALY with a 100% probability of a result less than a threshold for very cost-effective interventions of one times GDP or 110,000 baht per DALY. Treating the most severe one third of patients with clozapine instead of risperidone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 320,000 baht/DALY with just over 50% probability of a result below three times GDP per capita. Conclusions There are good economic arguments to recommend generic risperidone as first line treatment in combination with family intervention. As the uncertainty interval indicates
Phanthunane, Pudtan; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey; Bertram, Melanie
Information on cost-effectiveness of interventions to treat schizophrenia can assist health policy decision making, particularly given the lack of health resources in developing countries like Thailand. This study aims to determine the optimal treatment package, including drug and non-drug interventions, for schizophrenia in Thailand. A Markov model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of typical antipsychotics, generic risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine and family interventions. Health outcomes were measured in disability adjusted life years. We evaluated intervention benefit by estimating a change in disease severity, taking into account potential side effects. Intervention costs included outpatient treatment costs, hospitalization costs as well as time and travel costs of patients and families. Uncertainty was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. A sensitivity analysis of the expected range cost of generic risperidone was undertaken. Generic risperidone is more cost-effective than typicals if it can be produced for less than 10 baht per 2 mg tablet. Risperidone was the cheapest treatment with higher drug costs offset by lower hospital costs in comparison to typicals. The most cost-effective combination of treatments was a combination of risperidone (dominant intervention). Adding family intervention has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 1,900 baht/DALY with a 100% probability of a result less than a threshold for very cost-effective interventions of one times GDP or 110,000 baht per DALY. Treating the most severe one third of patients with clozapine instead of risperidone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 320,000 baht/DALY with just over 50% probability of a result below three times GDP per capita. There are good economic arguments to recommend generic risperidone as first line treatment in combination with family intervention. As the uncertainty interval indicates the addition of clozapine may be dominated and there are serious
Background Information on cost-effectiveness of interventions to treat schizophrenia can assist health policy decision making, particularly given the lack of health resources in developing countries like Thailand. This study aims to determine the optimal treatment package, including drug and non-drug interventions, for schizophrenia in Thailand. Methods A Markov model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of typical antipsychotics, generic risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine and family interventions. Health outcomes were measured in disability adjusted life years. We evaluated intervention benefit by estimating a change in disease severity, taking into account potential side effects. Intervention costs included outpatient treatment costs, hospitalization costs as well as time and travel costs of patients and families. Uncertainty was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. A sensitivity analysis of the expected range cost of generic risperidone was undertaken. Results Generic risperidone is more cost-effective than typicals if it can be produced for less than 10 baht per 2 mg tablet. Risperidone was the cheapest treatment with higher drug costs offset by lower hospital costs in comparison to typicals. The most cost-effective combination of treatments was a combination of risperidone (dominant intervention). Adding family intervention has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 1,900 baht/DALY with a 100% probability of a result less than a threshold for very cost-effective interventions of one times GDP or 110,000 baht per DALY. Treating the most severe one third of patients with clozapine instead of risperidone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 320,000 baht/DALY with just over 50% probability of a result below three times GDP per capita. Conclusions There are good economic arguments to recommend generic risperidone as first line treatment in combination with family intervention. As the uncertainty interval indicates the addition of clozapine
Ogilvie, David; Mitchell, Richard; Mutrie, Nanette; Petticrew, Mark; Platt, Stephen
There is little evidence about the effects of environmental interventions on population levels of physical activity. Major transport projects may promote or discourage physical activity in the form of walking and cycling, but researching the health effects of such "natural experiments" in transport policy or infrastructure is challenging. Case study of attempts in 2004-2005 to evaluate the effects of two major transport projects in Scotland: an urban congestion charging scheme in Edinburgh, and a new urban motorway (freeway) in Glasgow. These interventions are typical of many major transport projects. They are unique to their context. They cannot easily be separated from the other components of the wider policies within which they occur. When, where, and how they are implemented are political decisions over which researchers have no control. Baseline data collection required for longitudinal studies may need to be planned before the intervention is certain to take place. There is no simple way of defining a population or area exposed to the intervention or of defining control groups. Changes in quantitative measures of health-related behavior may be difficult to detect. Major transport projects have clear potential to influence population health, but it is difficult to define the interventions, categorize exposure, or measure outcomes in ways that are likely to be seen as credible in the field of public health intervention research. A final study design is proposed in which multiple methods and spatial levels of analysis are combined in a longitudinal quasi-experimental study.
The Carrier Intervention Effectiveness Model (CIEM) : provides the Federal Motor Carrier Safety : Administration (FMCSA) with a tool for measuring : the safety benefits of carrier interventions conducted : under the Compliance, Safety, Accountability...
Betts, Andrea C; Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine; Driver, Simon; Carlton, Danielle; Kramer, M Kaye
People with impaired mobility (IM) disabilities have a higher prevalence of obesity and obesity-related chronic conditions; however, lifestyle interventions that address the unique needs of people with IM are lacking. This paper describes an adapted evidence-based lifestyle intervention developed through community-based participatory research (CBPR). Individuals with IM, health professionals, disability group representatives, and researchers formed an advisory board to guide the process of thoroughly adapting the Diabetes Prevention Program Group Lifestyle Balance (DPP GLB) intervention after a successful pilot in people with IM. The process involved two phases: 1) planned adaptations to DPP GLB content and delivery, and 2) responsive adaptations to address issues that emerged during intervention delivery. Planned adaptations included combining in-person sessions with conference calls, providing arm-based activity trackers, and adding content on adaptive cooking, adaptive physical activity, injury prevention, unique health considerations, self-advocacy, and caregiver support. During the intervention, participants encountered numerous barriers, including health and mental health issues, transportation, caregivers, employment, adjusting to disability, and functional limitations. We addressed barriers with responsive adaptations, such as supporting electronic self-monitoring, offering make up sessions, and adding content and activities on goal setting, problem solving, planning, peer support, reflection, and motivation. Given the lack of evidence on lifestyle change in people with disabilities, it is critical to involve the community in intervention planning and respond to real-time barriers as participants engage in change. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is underway to examine the usability, feasibility, and preliminary effectiveness of the adapted intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Han, Xikun; Hu, Zunsong; Chen, Jing; Huang, Jianfeng; Huang, Chen; Liu, Fangchao; Gu, Charles; Yang, Xueli; Hixson, James E; Lu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Liu, De-Pei; He, Jiang; Chen, Shufeng; Gu, Dongfeng
The aim of this study was to comprehensively test the associations of genetic variants of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-related genes with blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium intervention in a Chinese population. We conducted a 7-day low-sodium intervention followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention among 1,906 participants in rural China. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each dietary intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the additive associations of 63 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 NADPH oxidase-related genes with BP responses to dietary sodium intervention. Gene-based analyses were conducted using the truncated product method. The Bonferroni method was used to adjust for multiple testing in all analyses. Systolic BP (SBP) response to high-sodium intervention significantly decreased with the number of minor T allele of marker rs6967221 in RAC1 (P = 4.51 × 10-4). SBP responses (95% confidence interval) for genotypes CC, CT, and TT were 5.03 (4.71, 5.36), 4.20 (3.54, 4.85), and 0.56 (-1.08, 2.20) mm Hg, respectively, during the high-sodium intervention. Gene-based analyses revealed that RAC1 was significantly associated with SBP response to high-sodium intervention (P = 1.00 × 10-6) and diastolic BP response to low-sodium intervention (P = 9.80 × 10-4). These findings suggested that genetic variants of NADPH oxidase-related genes may contribute to the variation of BP responses to sodium intervention in Chinese population. Further replication of these findings is warranted. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
O'Rourke, Holly P; MacKinnon, David P
Mediation models are used in prevention and intervention research to assess the mechanisms by which interventions influence outcomes. However, researchers may not investigate mediators in the absence of intervention effects on the primary outcome variable. There is emerging evidence that in some situations, tests of mediated effects can be statistically significant when the total intervention effect is not statistically significant. In addition, there are important conceptual and practical reasons for investigating mediation when the intervention effect is nonsignificant. This article discusses the conditions under which mediation may be present when an intervention effect does not have a statistically significant effect and why mediation should always be considered important. Mediation may be present in the following conditions: when the total and mediated effects are equal in value, when the mediated and direct effects have opposing signs, when mediated effects are equal across single and multiple-mediator models, and when specific mediated effects have opposing signs. Mediation should be conducted in every study because it provides the opportunity to test known and replicable mediators, to use mediators as an intervention manipulation check, and to address action and conceptual theory in intervention models. Mediators are central to intervention programs, and mediators should be investigated for the valuable information they provide about the success or failure of interventions.
Farris, Jaelyn R; Bert, Shannon S Carothers; Nicholson, Jody S; Glass, Kerrie; Borkowski, John G
This study assessed the secondary effects of a parent training intervention program on maternal adjustment, with a focus on understanding ways in which program efficacy differed for participants as a function of whether or not their children had behavior problems. Mothers (N = 99) of toddlers (2-3 years of age) were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of intervention: (1) informational booklet (2) booklet + face-to-face parent training sessions, or (3) booklet + web-based parent training sessions. Findings indicated that all levels of intervention were associated with increases in maternal well-being for participants with typically developing children. Mothers of toddlers with behavior problems, however, did not benefit from receiving only the booklet but significantly benefitted from receiving either the face-to-face or web-based interventions. Findings are discussed in terms of efficient and efficacious program dissemination and the resulting implications for public policy.
Macoveanu, Julian; Fisher, Patrick M; Madsen, Martin K
Bright-light interventions have successfully been used to reduce depression symptoms in patients with seasonal affective disorder, a depressive disorder most frequently occurring during seasons with reduced daylight availability. Yet, little is known about how light exposure impacts human brain...... function, for instance on risk taking, a process affected in depressive disorders. Here we examined the modulatory effects of bright-light exposure on brain activity during a risk-taking task. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers living in the greater Copenhagen area received 3weeks of bright......-light intervention during the winter season. Adopting a double-blinded dose-response design, bright-light was applied for 30minutes continuously every morning. The individual dose varied between 100 and 11.000lx. Whole-brain functional MRI was performed before and after bright-light intervention to probe how...
Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D
To examine the effects of a free-living, sedentary-inducing intervention on cognitive function. Randomized controlled, parallel group intervention. University campus. Thirty-three young adults (n = 23 intervention; n = 10 control). The intervention group was asked to eliminate all exercise and minimize steps to ≤5000 steps/day for 1 week, whereas the control group was asked to continue normal physical activity (PA) levels for 1 week. Both groups completed a series of 8 cognitive function assessments (assessing multiple parameters of cognition) preintervention and immediately postintervention. The intervention group was asked to resume normal PA levels for 1 week postintervention and completed the cognitive assessments for a third time at 2 weeks postintervention. Split-plot repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results of our statistical analyses showed that the group × time interaction effect was not significant ( P > .05) for any of the evaluated cognitive parameters. These findings demonstrate the need for future experimental investigations of sedentary behavior to better understand its effects on cognitive function. However, although previous work has demonstrated favorable effects of acute and chronic PA on cognitive function, our findings suggest that a 1-week period of reduced PA does not detrimentally affect cognitive function, which may have encouraging implications for individuals going through a temporary relapse in PA.
Malmir, Shabnam; Barati, Majid; Khani Jeihooni, Ali; Bashirian, Saeed; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi
Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to prevent cervical cancer among marginalized Iranianwomen based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a theoretical framework. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 143 women of Kermanshah City in western Iran during 2017. Participants were recruited through cluster and simple random sampling and randomly divided into experimental (n=72) and control groups (n=71). All completed a self-administered questionnaire including PMT constructs and demographic variables. An intervention over six sessions was then applied to the experimental group. Reassessment was conducted three months after the intervention, with data was analyzed with SPSS-16 using chi-square, McNemar, paired T- and independent T-tests. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of PMT, and cervical cancer screening behavior showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention (P>0.05). The educational manipulation had significant effects on the experimental groups’ average response for perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived reward, self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost and protection motivation (all p health centers were significantly increased after 3 months in the experimental (P=0.048), but notthe control group (P>0.05). Conclusions: The results show that applying an educational intervention based on PMT might help prevent cervical cancer and improve regular Pap smear testing. Creative Commons Attribution License
Engvall, Gunn; Lindh, Viveca; Mullaney, Tara; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte
Children can experience distress when undergoing radiotherapy as a reaction to being scared of and unfamiliar with the procedure. The aim was to evaluate children's experiences and responses towards an intervention for psychological preparation for radiotherapy. A case control design with qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews and statistical analysis of anxiety ratings were used for evaluating a strategy for psychological preparation and distraction. Fifty-seven children aged 2 to 18 years and their parents participated - 30 children in the baseline group and 27 in the intervention group. Child interviews were performed and the child and their parents rated the child's anxiety. The intervention was most appropriate for the younger children, who enjoyed the digital story, the stuffed animal and training with their parents. There were some technical problems and the digital story was not detailed enough to fit exactly with various cancer diagnoses. Children described suggestions for improvement of the intervention. The ratings of the child's anxiety during radiation treatment showed no differences between the baseline group and the intervention group. The children of all the age groups experienced their interventions as positive. The strength of the intervention was that it encouraged interaction within the family and provided an opportunity for siblings and peers to take part in what the child was going through. Future research on children's experiences to interventions should be encouraged. The intervention and the technical solutions could improve by further development. The study design was structured as an un-matched case-control study, baseline group vs. intervention group. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02993978 , Protocol Record 2012-113-31 M. Retrospectively registered - 21 November 2016.
Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B
An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless
Full Text Available Despite the effects of food insecurity on health are well documented, clear governmental policies to face food insecurity do not exist in western countries. In Canada, interventions to face food insecurity are developed at the community level and can be categorized into two basic strategies: those providing an immediate response to the need for food, defined "traditional" and those targeting the improvement of participants' social cohesion, capabilities and management of their own nutrition, defined "alternative".The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of food insecurity interventions on food security status and perceived health of participants.This was a longitudinal multilevel study implemented in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Participants were recruited in a two-stage cluster sampling frame. Clustering units were community organizations working on food insecurity; units of analysis were participants in community food security interventions. A total of 450 participants were interviewed at the beginning and after 9 months of participation in traditional or alternative food security interventions. Food security and perceived health were investigated as dependent variables. Differences overtime were assessed through multilevel regression models.Participants in traditional interventions lowered their food insecurity at follow-up. Decreases among participants in alternative interventions were not statistically significant. Participants in traditional interventions also improved physical (B coefficient 3.00, CI 95% 0.42-5.59 and mental health (B coefficient 6.25, CI 95% 4.15-8.35.Our results challenge the widely held view suggesting the ineffectiveness of traditional interventions in the short term. Although effects may be intervention-dependent, food banks decreased food insecurity and, in so doing, positively affected perceived health. Although study findings demonstrate that food banks offer short term reprise from the effects of food
Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Toomey, Elaine; Delaney, Lisa; Harrington, Janas; Byrne, Molly; Kearney, Patricia M
Childhood obesity is a global public health challenge. Parental feeding practices, such as responsive feeding, are implicated in the etiology of childhood obesity. This systematic review aimed to examine of effects of healthcare professional-delivered early feeding interventions, on parental feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes for children up to 2 years. The role of responsive feeding interventions was also specifically examined. Databases searched included: CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Maternity and Infant Care. participants are parents of children ≤2 years; intervention includes focus on early child feeding to prevent overweight and obesity; intervention delivered by healthcare professionals. Sixteen papers, representing 10 trials, met inclusion criteria for review. Six interventions included responsive feeding components. Interventions demonstrated inconsistent effects on feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes. Findings suggest some reductions in pressure to eat and infant consumption of non-core beverages. Responsive feeding based interventions demonstrate greater improvements in feeding approaches, and weight outcomes. The findings of this review highlight the importance of incorporating responsive feeding in healthcare professional delivered early feeding interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Observed inconsistencies across trials may be explained by methodological limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dicks, B.M.; White, I.C.
The incidence of oil spills from offshore industry operates on the United Kingdom continental shelf is reported for the period 1979 to 1988. The properties of North Sea crude oils which determine their fate and effects when spilled onto the surface of the sea are summarized. Examples of oil impacts on specific North Sea habitats and communities are used to illustrate the effect of oil spills and the economic impact on human activities such as recreation, industry and fishing are considered. Since most oil spills will dissipate through natural processes if they remain at sea long enough, the most appropriate response to a spill from a platform in the middle of the sea is often aerial surveillance to monitor the movement and dissipation of the oil. However, if an active response is required, containment and collection of the oil or chemical dispersion are the two main options. In coastal waters, it will be necessary to focus protection efforts on selected sensitive areas of coastline. Once the oil is ashore there are still occasions when the best course of actions is to do nothing as clean-up operations may do more harm than good. If oil removal is feasible and necessary, the methods which are most effective are usually straightforward and require no sophisticated technology. Contingency planning is an essential preparation for all operations to deal with oil spills. (UK)
Sun, Xiaojie; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Kun; Li, Wen; Oksanen, Tuula; Shi, Lizheng
To examine whether workplace social capital improved after implementing a workplace social capital intervention in community health centers in China. This study was conducted in 20 community health centers of similar size in Jinan of China during 2012-2013. Using the stratified site randomization, 10 centers were randomized into the intervention group; one center was excluded due to leadership change in final analyses. The baseline survey including 447 staff (response rate: 93.1%) was conducted in 2012, and followed by a six-month workplace social capital intervention, including team building courses for directors of community health centers, voluntarily public services, group psychological consultation, and outdoor training. The follow-up survey in July 2013 was responded to by 390 staff members (response rate: 86.9%). Workplace social capital was assessed with the translated and culturally adapted scale, divided into vertical and horizontal dimensions. The facility-level intervention effects were based on all baseline (n = 427) and follow-up (n = 377) respondents, except for Weibei respondents. We conducted a bivariate Difference-in-Difference analysis to estimate the facility-level intervention effects. No statistically significant intervention effects were observed at the center level; the intervention increased the facility-level workplace social capital, and its horizontal and vertical dimensions by 1.0 (p = 0.24), 0.4 (p = 0.46) and 0.8 (p = 0.16), respectively. The comprehensive intervention seemed to slightly improve workplace social capital in community health centers of urban China at the center level. High attrition rate limits any causal interpretation of the results. Further studies are warranted to test these findings.
Marrs, Heath; Little, Suzanne
As Response to Intervention (RTI) models continue to be implemented, an important research question is how school psychologists are experiencing the transition to RTI practice. In order to better understand the experiences of school psychologists, interviews with seven practicing school psychologists regarding their perceptions of barriers and…
Landry, Dena F.
The reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) allows states the use of a process based on a child's response to scientific, research-based intervention as a means to assist in the determination of a specific learning disability (SLD). As a result, the traditional role of the school psychologist as a test…
Grigorenko, Elena L.
This article compares and contrasts the main features of dynamic testing and assessment (DT/A) and response to intervention (RTI). The comparison is carried out along the following lines: (a) historical and empirical roots of both concepts, (b) premises underlying DT/A and RTI, (c) terms used in these concepts, (d) use of these concepts, (e)…
Duffy, Helen; Scala, Jenny
The National High School Center continues to receive inquiries about how to support high school implementation of response to intervention (RTI). Given the National High School Center's previous work on the topic, the authors wanted to better understand the conditions that contribute to or inhibit implementation of tiered frameworks in high…
Sanger, Dixie; Friedli, Corey; Brunken, Cindy; Snow, Pamela; Ritzman, Mitzi
Mixed methods were used to explore the reactions of educators before and after implementing the Response to Intervention (RTI) model in secondary settings during a school year. Eighteen participants from six middle schools and four high schools collaborated on interdisciplinary teams that involved classroom teachers, speech-language pathologists…
Ai, Amy L.; Jackson Foster, Lovie J.; Pecora, Peter J.; Delaney, Nancy; Rodriguez, Wenceslao
Growing evidence has linked early trauma with severe psychiatric consequences. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a potentially debilitating mental health condition found among some youth in foster care and foster care alumni. However, the current child welfare practice response has not met the demands in both assessment and intervention.…
Bartholomew, Mitch; De Jong, David
Despite the successful implementation of the Response to Intervention (RtI) framework in many elementary schools, there is little evidence of successful implementation in high school settings. Several themes emerged from the interviews of nine secondary principals, including a lack of knowledge and training for successful implementation, the…
King Thorius, Kathleen A.; Maxcy, Brendan D.; Macey, Erin; Cox, Adrienne
This qualitative case study focuses on factors mediating an urban school's enactment of Response to Intervention (RTI). Over one school year, we (a) observed weekly RTI meetings, (b) debriefed observations weekly, (c) interviewed RTI team members, and (d) examined procedural documents. Analyses included post-observation debriefing and coding…
Long, J.E.; Ring, C.; Bosch, J.A.; Eves, F.; Drayson, M.T.; Calver, R.; Say, V.; Allen, D.; Burns, V.E.
Objective: To assess whether a life-style physical activity intervention improved antibody response to a pneumococcal vaccination in sedentary middle-aged women. Methods: Eighty-nine sedentary women completed a 16-week exercise (physical activity consultation, pedometer, telephone/e-mail prompts; n
Scheltinga, Femke; van der Leij, Aryan; Struiksma, Chris
The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of rapid digit naming, phonological memory, letter sound naming, and orthographic knowledge to the prediction of responsiveness to a school-based, individual intervention of word reading fluency problems of 122 Dutch second and third graders whose reading scores were below the 10th…
Response to Intervention (RTI) emerged as a new service delivery model designed to meet the learning needs of all students prior to diagnosis and placement in the special education setting. The problem was few research studies had been conducted between general education teachers with intensive professional development and those without…
Patrikakou, Eva; Ockerman, Melissa S.; Hollenbeck, Amy Feiker
As a result of the Response to Intervention (RTI) mandate in schools across many states, school counselors are well-positioned to take a leadership role. The present research study examines how school counselors across the nation perceived their training and knowledge of RTI, as well as their confidence in its implementation. Results indicate that…
Hawkins, Renee O.; Kroeger, Stephen D.; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Barnett, David W.; Ward, Justine E.
Marking major changes in professional role performance, response to intervention (RTI) is now in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) as a possible method to improve the identification of specific learning disabilities. Moreover, RTI and related concepts and initiatives have fundamentally influenced more general methods of…
Feifer, Steven G.
This article integrates the fundamental components of both "Response to Intervention" (RTI) and cognitive neuropsychology when identifying reading disorders in children. Both proponents of RTI and cognitive neuropsychology agree the "discrepancy model" is not a reliable or valid method to identify learning disorders in school. In addition, both…
Artiles, Alfredo J.; Bal, Aydin; King Thorius, Kathleen A.
The emergence of Response to Intervention (RTI) anticipates a different future for all students, particularly learners from racial minority backgrounds and students with disabilities. RTI is being widely adopted in school districts as a viable alternative to enhance learning opportunities; hence, some education scholars argue it promises a…
Andrew M. Lane
Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65 who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2 to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running
Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng Hsiang; Lee, Jin
Computer use and its association with musculoskeletal and visual symptoms is an escalating concern. Organizations are shifting to a more proactive injury prevention perspective. Accordingly, a macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workplace design and office ergonomics training was designed to examine the effects on worker's computing behaviors, postures, and musculoskeletal discomfort, and their relationship to psychosocial factors. Participants were assigned to either group: 1) no-intervention control 2) flexible Workplace-only (WP-only), and 3) flexible Workplace + Training (WP+T). Observational findings indicate both intervention groups experienced positive, significant changes in improved workstation arrangements and computing postures, with the WP+T intervention group exhibiting a higher, significant change of behavioral translation. Also, significant, positive relationships between observed postures and musculoskeletal discomfort/pain were found. The intervention effect was stronger when management was responsive to workers' ergonomics needs. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention can produce beneficial effects for office and computer workers and organizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klimenko, Natalia S; Tyakht, Alexander V; Popenko, Anna S; Vasiliev, Anatoly S; Altukhov, Ilya A; Ischenko, Dmitry S; Shashkova, Tatiana I; Efimova, Daria A; Nikogosov, Dmitri A; Osipenko, Dmitrii A; Musienko, Sergey V; Selezneva, Kseniya S; Baranova, Ancha; Kurilshikov, Alexander M; Toshchakov, Stepan M; Korzhenkov, Aleksei A; Samarov, Nazar I; Shevchenko, Margarita A; Tepliuk, Alina V; Alexeev, Dmitry G
Personalized nutrition is of increasing interest to individuals actively monitoring their health. The relations between the duration of diet intervention and the effects on gut microbiota have yet to be elucidated. Here we examined the associations of short-term dietary changes, long-term dietary habits and lifestyle with gut microbiota. Stool samples from 248 citizen-science volunteers were collected before and after a self-reported 2-week personalized diet intervention, then analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Considerable correlations between long-term dietary habits and gut community structure were detected. A higher intake of vegetables and fruits was associated with increased levels of butyrate-producing Clostridiales and higher community richness. A paired comparison of the metagenomes before and after the 2-week intervention showed that even a brief, uncontrolled intervention produced profound changes in community structure: resulting in decreased levels of Bacteroidaceae , Porphyromonadaceae and Rikenellaceae families and decreased alpha-diversity coupled with an increase of Methanobrevibacter , Bifidobacterium , Clostridium and butyrate-producing Lachnospiraceae - as well as the prevalence of a permatype (a bootstrapping-based variation of enterotype) associated with a higher diversity of diet. The response of microbiota to the intervention was dependent on the initial microbiota state. These findings pave the way for the development of an individualized diet.
Natalia S. Klimenko
Full Text Available Personalized nutrition is of increasing interest to individuals actively monitoring their health. The relations between the duration of diet intervention and the effects on gut microbiota have yet to be elucidated. Here we examined the associations of short-term dietary changes, long-term dietary habits and lifestyle with gut microbiota. Stool samples from 248 citizen-science volunteers were collected before and after a self-reported 2-week personalized diet intervention, then analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Considerable correlations between long-term dietary habits and gut community structure were detected. A higher intake of vegetables and fruits was associated with increased levels of butyrate-producing Clostridiales and higher community richness. A paired comparison of the metagenomes before and after the 2-week intervention showed that even a brief, uncontrolled intervention produced profound changes in community structure: resulting in decreased levels of Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae and Rikenellaceae families and decreased alpha-diversity coupled with an increase of Methanobrevibacter, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and butyrate-producing Lachnospiraceae- as well as the prevalence of a permatype (a bootstrapping-based variation of enterotype associated with a higher diversity of diet. The response of microbiota to the intervention was dependent on the initial microbiota state. These findings pave the way for the development of an individualized diet.
Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie
Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children’s signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents’ responsive behaviour in association with children’s social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention. Eighty-five dyads were randomized to one of two 10-week caregiver-training interventions. Parent–child play interactions were coded for parental responsivity and children’s joint engagement. Significant gains in responsivity and time jointly engaged were found post JASPER parent-mediated intervention over a psychoeducation intervention. Further, combining higher levels of responsive behaviour with greater adoption of intervention strategies was associated with greater time jointly engaged. Findings encourage a focus on enhancing responsive behaviour in parent-mediated intervention models. PMID:26797940
Langberg, Joshua M; Becker, Stephen P; Epstein, Jeffery N; Vaughn, Aaron J; Girio-Herrera, Erin
The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictors of response and mechanisms of change for the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for middle school students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Twenty-three middle school students with ADHD (grades 6-8) received the HOPS intervention implemented by school mental health providers and made significant improvements in parent-rated materials organization and planning skills, impairment due to organizational skills problems, and homework problems. Predictors of response examined included demographic and child characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, intelligence, ADHD and ODD symptom severity, and ADHD medication use. Mechanisms of change examined included the therapeutic alliance and adoption of the organization and planning skills taught during the HOPS intervention. Participant implementation of the HOPS binder materials organization system and the therapeutic alliance as rated by the student significantly predicted post-intervention outcomes after controlling for pre-intervention severity. Adoption of the binder materials organization system predicted parent-rated improvements in organization, planning, and homework problems above and beyond the impact of the therapeutic alliance. These findings demonstrate the importance of teaching students with ADHD to use a structured binder organization system for organizing and filing homework and classwork materials and for transferring work to and from school.
Ma, Xin; Nelson, Regena F.; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.
Using hierarchical linear modeling, the present study aimed to examine whether targeted intervention strategies implemented individually during a preschool program exhibited any short-term and long-term effects on children's school readiness in kindergarten, utilizing data gathered through the Supporting Partnerships to Assure Ready Kids (SPARK)…
The purpose of this research was evaluating the effects of an intervention programme on the self concept as well as on the levels of anxiety and depression of adolescents of divorce. A literature study was done and an empirical investigation was conducted. Eight adolescents who were still in the acute phase of the divorce ...
Sweet, Tracy M.; Junker, Brian W.
The hierarchical network model (HNM) is a framework introduced by Sweet, Thomas, and Junker for modeling interventions and other covariate effects on ensembles of social networks, such as what would be found in randomized controlled trials in education research. In this article, we develop calculations for the power to detect an intervention…
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a volunteer led crafts group intervention (VLCG) as an adjunct to antidepressant medication on mild to moderately depressed women. A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent, control group study was conducted in an urban, psychiatric clinic. Depression was ...
Jongeneel, Roel; Silvis, Huib; Verhoog, David; Daatselaar, Co
At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, this report analyses the potential market impacts and budgetary effects of different strategies of selling EU public intervention stocks of skimmed milk powder
(SMP). A gradual phasing out of the EU's SMP stocks over
Hawkins, J. David; And Others
A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…
Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo
We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…
Berryman, Mere; Woller, Paul
This paper examines Early Intervention (EI) service provision from within one Ministry of Education region in New Zealand. It does this in order to better understand what works well and what needs to change if children from Maori families, of Early Childhood age, are to be provided with the most effective EI services. By engaging with Maori…
Strepparava, Maria Grazia; Bani, Marco; Zorzi, Federico; Corrias, Deborah; Dolce, Rossella; Rezzonico, Giorgio
Offering counselling to students is increasingly considered as a key academic service. However, the reduction of resources allocated to Italian universities emphasises the need to assess the quality of interventions. This paper presents data reporting the effectiveness of a university counselling service. A sample of 45 undergraduate students…
The Effectiveness of Prenatal Intervention on Pain and Anxiety during the Process of ... and intensity of pain based on visual analogue scale and McGill scales. The data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software ...
Brian, Ali; Taunton, Sally
Background: Young children from disadvantaged settings often present delays in fundamental motor skills (FMS). Young children can improve their FMS delays through developmentally appropriate motor skill intervention programming. However, it is unclear which pedagogical strategy is most effective for novice and expert instructors. Purpose: The…
van Mierlo, L.D.; van der Roest, H.G.; Meiland, F.J.M.; Dröes, R.M.
Many psychosocial intervention studies report effects in subgroups of people with dementia. Insight into the characteristics of these subgroups is important for care practice. This study reviews personal characteristics of people with dementia (living in the community or in an institution) that are
DiGennaro-Reed, Florence D.; Codding, Robin; Catania, Cynthia N.; Maguire, Helena
We examined the effects of individualized video modeling on the accurate implementation of behavioral interventions using a multiple baseline design across 3 teachers. During video modeling, treatment integrity improved above baseline levels; however, teacher performance remained variable. The addition of verbal performance feedback increased…
Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…
Turner, William; Hester, Marianne; Broad, Jonathan; Szilassy, Eszter; Feder, Gene; Drinkwater, Jessica; Firth, Adam; Stanley, Nicky
Exposure of children to domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a form of child maltreatment with short- and long-term behavioural and mental health impact. Health care professionals are generally uncertain about how to respond to domestic violence and are particularly unclear about best practice with regards to children's exposure and their role in a multiagency response. In this systematic review, we report educational and structural or whole-system interventions that aim to improve professionals' understanding of, and response to, DVA survivors and their children. We searched 22 bibliographic databases and contacted topic experts for studies reporting quantitative outcomes for any type of intervention aiming to improve professional responses to disclosure of DVA with child involvement. We included interventions for physicians, nurses, social workers and teachers. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria: three randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 18 pre-post intervention surveys. There were 18 training and three system-level interventions. Training interventions generally had positive effects on participants' knowledge, attitudes towards DVA and clinical competence. The results from the RCTs were consistent with the before-after surveys. Results from system-level interventions aimed to change organisational practice and inter-organisational collaboration demonstrates the benefit of coordinating system change in child welfare agencies with primary health care and other organisations. Implications for policy and research are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Child Abuse Review published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 'We searched 22 bibliographic databases and contacted topic experts'. We reviewed published evidence on interventions aimed at improving professionals' practice with domestic violence survivors and their children.Training programmes were found to improve participants' knowledge, attitudes and clinical competence up to a year after delivery.Key elements of
Wicks, K M
This paper illustrates one model of providing an integrated paediatric speech and language therapy service which attempts to meet the demands of both inclusive education and effective early intervention. A move has been made from location-oriented therapy provision to offering children and their families equal opportunities to have appropriate intervention according to need. The model incorporates the philosophy of inclusive education and supports the development of current specialist educational establishments into resource bases of expertise for children with special needs in mainstream schools.
Full Text Available The genomic basis of the response to dietary intervention of human gut beneficial bacteria remains elusive, which hinders precise manipulation of the microbiota for human health. After receiving a dietary intervention enriched with nondigestible carbohydrates for 105 days, a genetically obese child with Prader-Willi syndrome lost 18.4% of his body weight and showed significant improvement in his bioclinical parameters. We obtained five isolates (C1, C15, C55, C62, and C95 of one of the most abundantly promoted beneficial species, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, from a postintervention fecal sample. Intriguingly, these five B. pseudocatenulatum strains showed differential responses during the dietary intervention. Two strains were largely unaffected, while the other three were promoted to different extents by the changes in dietary carbohydrate resources. The differential responses of these strains were consistent with their functional clustering based on the COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, including those involved with the ABC-type sugar transport systems, suggesting that the strain-specific genomic variations may have contributed to the niche adaption. Particularly, B. pseudocatenulatum C15, which had the most diverse types and highest gene copy numbers of carbohydrate-active enzymes targeting plant polysaccharides, had the highest abundance after the dietary intervention. These studies show the importance of understanding genomic diversity of specific members of the gut microbiota if precise nutrition approaches are to be realized.
In response to comments about our article, "Meal-specific dietary changes from Squires Quest! II: a serious video game intervention," we concur that studies on video game interventions are important. A future study with a control group receiving no video game intervention and the collection of poten...
Full Text Available Book review: Chomsky N. A New Generation Draws the Line: Humanitarian Intervention and the “Responsibility to Protect” Today.Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2012. 176 p. The book under review examines controversial norm of “humanitarian intervention”. It clearly demonstrates that the norm was used selectively and with different argumentations in various situations. Noam Chomsky has managed to present a fair and balanced account of positive and negative aspects of humanitarian interventions as well as provide thought-provoking policy recommendations for improving human rights protection.
Stuart, Elizabeth A; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Individuals not fully complying with their assigned treatments is a common problem encountered in randomized evaluations of behavioral interventions. Treatment group members rarely attend all sessions or do all "required" activities; control group members sometimes find ways to participate in aspects of the intervention. As a result, there is often interest in estimating both the effect of being assigned to participate in the intervention, as well as the impact of actually participating and doing all of the required activities. Methods known broadly as "complier average causal effects" (CACE) or "instrumental variables" (IV) methods have been developed to estimate this latter effect, but they are more commonly applied in medical and treatment research. Since the use of these statistical techniques in prevention trials has been less widespread, many prevention scientists may not be familiar with the underlying assumptions and limitations of CACE and IV approaches. This paper provides an introduction to these methods, described in the context of randomized controlled trials of two preventive interventions: one for perinatal depression among at-risk women and the other for aggressive disruptive behavior in children. Through these case studies, the underlying assumptions and limitations of these methods are highlighted.
Full Text Available Overweight or obese adults aged 20~55 years and living in Beijing more than one year were randomly divided into different management groups. A one-year integrated health management intervention was applied in the health management groups. The physical indicators and metabolic indicators changed after one-year intervention on the overweight and obese adults. The annual reduction of the physical indicators was significant in all groups (p<0.05 except the weight loss in the placebo + general management group. The health management and the dietary supplement have statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001 effects on the annual reduction of these indicators and interactive effect between them was found on some of these indicators such as bodyweight, body mass index (BMI, body fat ratio (BFR, and hipline (p<0.05. The dietary supplement + health management group had the best annual reduction effects for the indicators among the groups. Integrated health management interventions including both dietary supplements intervention and health management could improve metabolic indicators in overweight and obese adults together with the physical indicators, suggesting the intermediated role of metabolic indictors in controlling obesity.
Lane, Andrew M; Davis, Paul A; Devonport, Tracey J
The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65) who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2) to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running. Key pointsListening to music with a high motivational quotient as indicated by scores on the BMRI-2 was associated with enhanced running performance and meta-emotional beliefs that emotions experienced during running helped performance.Beliefs on the
Rayce, Signe Lynne Boe; Rasmussen, Ida Scheel; Klest, Sihu
Objectives Infancy is a critical stage of life, and a secure relationship with caring and responsive caregivers is crucial for healthy infant development. Early parenting interventions aim to support families in which infants are at risk of developmental harm. Our objective is to systematically...... review the effects of parenting interventions on child development and on parent–child relationship for at-risk families with infants aged 0–12 months. Design This is a systematic review and meta-analyses. We extracted publications from 10 databases in June 2013, January 2015 and June 2016......, and supplemented with grey literature and hand search. We assessed risk of bias, calculated effect sizes and conducted meta-analyses. Inclusion criteria (1) Randomised controlled trials of structured psychosocial interventions offered to at-risk families with infants aged 0–12 months in Western Organisation...
Häfner, Isabelle; Flunger, Barbara; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Gaspard, Hanna; Brisson, Brigitte M; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich
Using a cluster randomized field trial, the present study tested whether 2 relevance interventions affected students' value beliefs, self-concept, and effort in math differently depending on family background (socioeconomic status, family interest (FI), and parental utility value). Eighty-two classrooms were randomly assigned to either 1 of 2 intervention conditions or a control group. Data from 1,916 students (M age = 14.62, SD age = 0.47) and their predominantly Caucasian middle-class parents were obtained via separate questionnaires. Multilevel regression analyses with cross-level interactions were used to investigate differential intervention effects on students' motivational beliefs 6 weeks and 5 months after the intervention. Socioeconomic status, FI, and parental utility values were investigated as moderators of the intervention effects. The intervention conditions were especially effective in promoting students' utility, attainment, intrinsic value beliefs, and effort 5 months after the intervention for students whose parents reported lower levels of math interest. Furthermore, students whose parents reported low math utility values especially profited in terms of their utility and attainment math values 5 months after the intervention. No systematic differential intervention effects were found for socioeconomic status. These results highlight the effectiveness of relevance interventions in decreasing motivational gaps between students from families with fewer or more motivational resources. Findings point to the substantial importance of motivational family resources, which have been neglected in previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Korpela, Katri; Flint, Harry J.; Johnstone, Alexandra M.; Lappi, Jenni; Poutanen, Kaisa; Dewulf, Evelyne; Delzenne, Nathalie; de Vos, Willem M.; Salonen, Anne
Background Interactions between the diet and intestinal microbiota play a role in health and disease, including obesity and related metabolic complications. There is great interest to use dietary means to manipulate the microbiota to promote health. Currently, the impact of dietary change on the microbiota and the host metabolism is poorly predictable and highly individual. We propose that the responsiveness of the gut microbiota may depend on its composition, and associate with metabolic changes in the host. Methodology Our study involved three independent cohorts of obese adults (n = 78) from Belgium, Finland, and Britain, participating in different dietary interventions aiming to improve metabolic health. We used a phylogenetic microarray for comprehensive fecal microbiota analysis at baseline and after the intervention. Blood cholesterol, insulin and inflammation markers were analyzed as indicators of host response. The data were divided into four training set – test set pairs; each intervention acted both as a part of a training set and as an independent test set. We used linear models to predict the responsiveness of the microbiota and the host, and logistic regression to predict responder vs. non-responder status, or increase vs. decrease of the health parameters. Principal Findings Our models, based on the abundance of several, mainly Firmicute species at baseline, predicted the responsiveness of the microbiota (AUC = 0.77–1; predicted vs. observed correlation = 0.67–0.88). Many of the predictive taxa showed a non-linear relationship with the responsiveness. The microbiota response associated with the change in serum cholesterol levels with an AUC of 0.96, highlighting the involvement of the intestinal microbiota in metabolic health. Conclusion This proof-of-principle study introduces the first potential microbial biomarkers for dietary responsiveness in obese individuals with impaired metabolic health, and reveals the potential of
Blanca-Gutiérrez, Joaquín Jesús; Jiménez-Díaz, María del Carmen; Escalera-Franco, Luis Felipe
To select and summarize the interventions that have proved effective in reducing absenteeism among hospital nurses. A scoping review was conducted through a literature search using Medline, Web of Science, Cinahl, Embase, Lilacs, Cuiden and Cochrane Library Plus databases. Of a total of 361 articles extracted, 15 were finally selected for this review. The implementation of multifaceted support or physical training programs can produce positive results in terms of reducing absenteeism among hospital nurses. Cognitive-behavioral type interventions require studies with larger samples to provide conclusive results. Establishing more flexible working shifts may also reduce absenteeism rates, although again studies with larger samples are needed. Programs aimed at managing change developed by nurses themselves, participatory management of professional relations, the support provided by supervisors who are opposed to hierarchical leadership styles, and wage supplements that reward the lack of absence can also reduce these types of indicators. Absenteeism can be considered as a final result and a consequence of the level of job satisfaction. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce absenteeism among hospital nurses will no doubt largely depend on the ability of these interventions to increase the job satisfaction of these workers. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Amick, Benjamin C; Robertson, Michelle M; DeRango, Kelly; Bazzani, Lianna; Moore, Anne; Rooney, Ted; Harrist, Ron
Office workers invited and agreeing to participate were assigned to one of three study groups: a group receiving a highly adjustable chair with office ergonomics training, a training-only group, and a control group receiving the training at the end of the study. To examine the effect of office ergonomics intervention in reducing musculoskeletal symptom growth over the workday and, secondarily, pain levels throughout the day. Data collection occurred 2 months and 1 month before the intervention and 2, 6, and 12 months postintervention. During each round, a short daily symptom survey was completed at the beginning, middle, and end of the workday for 5 days during a workweek to measure total bodily pain growth over the workday. Multilevel statistical models were used to test hypotheses. The chair-with-training intervention lowered symptom growth over the workday (P = 0.012) after 12 months of follow-up. No evidence suggested that training alone lowered symptom growth over the workday (P = 0.461); however, average pain levels in both intervention groups were reduced over the workday. Workers who received a highly adjustable chair and office ergonomics training had reduced symptom growth over the workday. The lack of a training-only group effect supports implementing training in conjunction with highly adjustable office furniture and equipment to reduce symptom growth. The ability to reduce symptom growth has implications for understanding how to prevent musculoskeletal injuries in knowledge workers.
Boscarato, Kara; Lee, Stuart; Kroschel, Jon; Hollander, Yitzchak; Brennan, Alice; Warren, Narelle
The manner in which people with mental illness are supported in a crisis is crucial to their recovery. The current study explored mental health consumers' experiences with formal crisis services (i.e. police and crisis assessment and treatment (CAT) teams), preferred crisis supports, and opinions of four collaborative interagency response models. Eleven consumers completed one-on-one, semistructured interviews. The results revealed that the perceived quality of previous formal crisis interventions varied greatly. Most participants preferred family members or friends to intervene. However, where a formal response was required, general practitioners and mental health case managers were preferred; no participant wanted a police response, and only one indicated a preference for CAT team assistance. Most participants welcomed collaborative crisis interventions. Of four collaborative interagency response models currently being trialled internationally, participants most strongly supported the Ride-Along Model, which enables a police officer and a mental health clinician to jointly respond to distressed consumers in the community. The findings highlight the potential for an interagency response model to deliver a crisis response aligned with consumers' preferences. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Appels, Ad; van Elderen, Therese; Bär, Frits
The EXhaustion Intervention Trial investigated the effect of a behavioural intervention programme on exhaustion, health-related quality of life (HRQL), depression, anxiety, hostility, and anginal complaints in angioplasty patients who felt exhausted after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)....
van der Put, Claudia E; Assink, Mark; Gubbels, Jeanne; Boekhout van Solinge, Noëlle F
There is a lack of knowledge about specific components that make interventions effective in preventing or reducing child maltreatment. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to increase this knowledge by summarizing findings on effects of interventions for child maltreatment and by examining potential moderators of this effect, such as intervention components and study characteristics. Identifying effective components is essential for developing or improving child maltreatment interventions. A literature search yielded 121 independent studies (N = 39,044) examining the effects of interventions for preventing or reducing child maltreatment. From these studies, 352 effect sizes were extracted. The overall effect size was significant and small in magnitude for both preventive interventions (d = 0.26, p child maltreatment. For preventive interventions, larger effect sizes were found for short-term interventions (0-6 months), interventions focusing on increasing self-confidence of parents, and interventions delivered by professionals only. Further, effect sizes of preventive interventions increased as follow-up duration increased, which may indicate a sleeper effect of preventive interventions. For curative interventions, larger effect sizes were found for interventions focusing on improving parenting skills and interventions providing social and/or emotional support. Interventions can be effective in preventing or reducing child maltreatment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Carey, Joanne C; Wade, Shari L; Wolfe, Christopher R
This study examined the role of regular prior technology use in treatment response to an online family problem-solving (OFPS) intervention and an Internet resource intervention (IRI) for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 150 individuals in 40 families of children with TBI randomly assigned to OFPS intervention or an IRI. All families received free computers and Internet access to TBI resources. OFPS families received Web-based sessions and therapist-guided synchronous videoconferences focusing on problem solving, communication skills, and behavior management. All participants completed measures of depression, anxiety, and computer usage. OFPS participants rated treatment satisfaction, therapeutic alliance, and Web site and technology comfort. With the OFPS intervention, depression and anxiety improved significantly more among technology using parents (n = 14) than nontechnology users (n = 6). Technology users reported increasing comfort with technology over time, and this change was predictive of depression at followup. Satisfaction and ease-of-use ratings did not differ by technology usage. Lack of regular prior home computer usage and nonadherence were predictive of anxiety at followup. The IRI was not globally effective. However, controlling for prior depression, age, and technology at work, there was a significant effect of technology at home for depression. Families with technology experience at home (n = 11) reported significantly greater improvements in depression than families without prior technology experience at home (n = 8). Although Web-based OFPS was effective in improving caregiver functioning, individuals with limited computer experience may benefit less from an online intervention due to increased nonadherence.
Dupont, Hans B; Lemmens, Paul; Adriana, Gerald; van de Mheen, Dike; de Vries, Nanne K
The Moti-4 intervention was developed to prevent addiction and other health problems among vulnerable adolescent cannabis users. The aims of Moti-4 are to reduce the use of cannabis among adolescents and to encourage their motivation to change their behavior. Intervention Mapping, a systematic approach to developing theory- and evidence-based interventions, was used to develop a protocol for the intervention. The process of developing the intervention also used the method of responsive evaluation to explore the opinions of the immediate target group and intermediaries (N = 31). Feasibility was assessed in 9 interviews and analyzed in grids. A quantitative pilot analysis involving a pre- and post-assessment in 31 subjects assessed whether the intervention was able to reduce drug use and would change intentions to change drug use behavior. Using Intervention Mapping resulted in the development of a substantial four-session intervention with a clear manual and training for prevention workers. The choice of 12 consecutive steps was based on the Trans Theoretical Model of Behavior Change, Motivational Interviewing, Theory of Planned Behavior and the Self Determination Theory. Positive aspects of working with Moti-4 were assessed in a feasibility study. Criticism by users has led to improvements to the manual. In the pilot study, the average weekly amount spent on cannabis decreased significantly from an average € 17.77 to € 11,95 in the period after the intervention, with a medium effect size (d = 0.36). Likewise, a significant decrease was found in the frequency of use during the past week, from 4.3 to 2.4 (d = .52). As to motivation to change, a statistically significant increase was found in planning (d = .44) and a large increase in the desire to stop (d = .76). The change in the motivation to smoke less cannabis was small. Intervention Mapping proved to be a useful approach for the development of the intervention, using a productive combination of theory and
Richert, Jana; Lippke, Sonia; Ziegelmann, Jochen P
Intervention-engagement has received little attention in sports medicine as well as research and promotion of physical exercise. The construct is important, however, in the understanding of why interventions work. This study aimed at shedding more light on the interplay of engagement and the subsequent effectiveness of physical exercise interventions. A three-stage model differentiating among nonintenders, intenders, and actors informed the intervention design in this study. In an Internet-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two measurement points, N = 326 participants received a stage-matched, stage-mismatched, or control treatment. Assessed variables were goal setting, planning, behavior, and intervention-engagement. It was found that regarding goal setting, nonintenders in the stage-matched intervention and those who engaged highly in the stage-matched intervention improved significantly over time. Regarding planning, intenders in the matched condition as well as all actors increased their levels over time. Regarding behavior, nonintenders and intenders having engaged highly in the intervention improved more than those having engaged little. In order to help nonintenders progress on their way toward goal behavior, it is necessary that they engage highly in a stage-matched intervention. Implications for exercise promotion are that interventions should also aim at increasing participants' intervention-engagement.
Nathan C. Hall
Full Text Available College students in STEM disciplines are increasingly faced with highly competitive and demanding degree programs and are at risk of academic overconfidence. Following from theory and research highlighting the psychological and developmental risks of unrealistic expectations, the present exploratory study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a motivational intervention encouraging college students in STEM degree programs (N = 52 to consider the importance of downgrading one’s expectations in response to academic setbacks. Contrary to study hypotheses, the results showed intervention participants to report significantly higher expectations and optimism on post-test measures administered four months later, no significant gains in emotional well-being or achievement goal orientations, and lower GPAs over five subsequent semesters. These paradoxical effects underscore the need for additional larger-scale research on the nature of students’ responses to potentially ego-threatening motivational programs in STEM disciplines so as to minimize achievement deficits at the expense of preserving motivational resources.
Engvall, Gunn; Lindh, Viveca; Mullaney, Tara; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte
Background: Children can experience distress when undergoing radiotherapy as a reaction to being scared of and unfamiliar with the procedure. The aim was to evaluate children's experiences and responses towards an intervention for psychological preparation for radiotherapy. Methods: A case control design with qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews and statistical analysis of anxiety ratings were used for evaluating a strategy for psychological preparation and distraction. ...
Full Text Available Parental knowledge gained from monitoring activities protects against adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring approaches are varied and may be modified with successful interventions but not all parents or adolescents respond to monitoring programs the same way. 339 parent-adolescent dyads randomized to receive a parental monitoring intervention and 169 parent-adolescent dyads in the control group were followed for one year over four measurement periods. Parent attitudes about the usefulness of monitoring, the importance of trust and respecting their teens’ privacy, and the appropriateness of adolescent risk-taking behavior and experimentation were examined as predictors of longitudinal change in parental monitoring and open communication. Similar effects were found in both the intervention and control group models regarding open communication. Parental attitudes impacted longitudinal patterns of teen-reported parent monitoring, and these patterns differed across experimental groups. In the intervention group, parents’ beliefs about the importance of trust and privacy were associated with a steeper decline in monitoring across time. Finally, parents’ attitudes about the normative nature of teen experimentation were associated with a quadratic parental monitoring time trend in the intervention but not the control group. These findings suggest that parental attitudes may impact how families respond to an adolescent risk intervention.
Turja, Johanna; Kaleva, Simo; Kivistö, Marketta; Seitsamo, Jorma
The purpose of the controlled longitudinal study was to determine the effect of a tailored early support intervention method on workers' workplace ergonomics. The main areas of the early support intervention were training, guidance and support for supervisors in finding weak signals of impaired ergonomics. Supervisors were also trained to bring up these weak signals in discussion with employees and to make necessary changes at the workplace. The data consisted of 301 intervention subjects and 235 control subjects working in the field of commerce. The questionnaires were carried out in 2008 and in 2010, and the response rates among both groups were 45%. We used multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance (MANOVA) to test the difference in the groups at two points of time. The main result was that in the areas of work environment, the interaction between group and time was statistically significant (p=0.0004). The work environment improved in the intervention group, but deteriorated in the control. Working methods improved due to the interventions, but physical load factors increased over time in both groups. According to the study, tailored early support intervention has a generally beneficial impact on workers' workplace ergonomics in the areas of work methods, work environment and accident factors.
Baldasseroni, A; Olimpi, Nadia; Bonaccorsi, G
The authors carried out a systematic review of the effectiveness of workplace safety interventions, as a part of a wider project funded by CCM, Centre for Disease Control. Several electronic bibliographic databases were checked, using a standardized string selection. The string contained the following four items: the intervention; job features; type of injury; efficacy/effectiveness. Of the various databases consulted, Web of Science was the most efficient. Overall 5531 articles were selected. After reading the title and abstract, 4695 were excluded and eventually 35 systematic reviews were selected, which synthesized 769 original articles. The main topics of the selected systematic reviews were: certain sectors (building industry, agriculture, health care); personal protective equipment; work organization and prevention management at plant level; evaluation of prevention policies by national and regional authorities. A clear need for multiple bibliographical data-base search emerged at the end of this study.
According to the survey carried out by the National Centre for Workplace Health Promotion at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, the level and quality of smoking cessation interventions implemented in Polish enterprises are insufficient. Therefore, the dissemination of good practices in this field is needed. The paper presents (on the basis of the literature review) chosen outcomes of the research focused on the effectiveness of workplace smoking cessation interventions. These are mostly methods influencing the turnout in such programs as well as reduction of smoking in the workplace. According to the papers in question, partnership relationships between the organizers of the program and its participants as well as ensuring the employees in the process of quitting various forms of social support are factors, which may contribute to effective reduction of smoking in the workplace. It seems necessary to increase awareness of this issue among Polish managers.
Papadopoulos, P; Coolen, A C C
We solve the dynamics of large spherical minority games (MG) in the presence of non-negligible time-dependent external contributions to the overall market bid. The latter represent the actions of market regulators or other major natural or political events that impact on the market. In contrast to non-spherical MGs, the spherical formulation allows one to derive closed dynamical order parameter equations in an explicit form and work out the market's response to such events fully analytically. We focus on a comparison between the response to stationary versus oscillating market interventions, and reveal profound and partially unexpected differences in terms of transition lines and the volatility
Full Text Available "n "nObjective: Many studies have shown that the level of postoperative distress and anxiety in children is associated with the amount of anxiety during the pre operative period. In this study, we compared the effect of pre-operational attending in a playroom and using play activities on the level of anxiety increment after surgery in an intervention and a control group of Iranian children. "n "nMethod: In a clinical trial, 75 children aged 5 to 12 enrolled in the intervention and the control group. The anxiety symptoms were assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and Yale modified Pre operative Anxiety Scale. The mean differences of pre and post operative anxiety scores were calculated and compared using the ANCOVA statistical method. "n "nResults: The two groups had similar demographic characteristics except for age which was higher in the control group. The baseline anxiety score was lower in the intervention compare to the control group and was statistically significant. There was a significant reduction in the trend of anxiety increment after surgery in the intervention group in comparison to the control group. "n "nConclusion: Attending in playrooms and using play activities may reduce the trend of increment in the anxiety level induced by surgical procedures.
Geaney, F; Kelly, C; Greiner, B A; Harrington, J M; Perry, I J; Beirne, P
To evaluate the effectiveness of workplace dietary modification interventions alone or in combination with nutrition education on employees' dietary behaviour, health status, self-efficacy, perceived health, determinants of food choice, nutrition knowledge, co-worker support, job satisfaction, economic cost and food-purchasing patterns. Data sources included PubMed, Medline, Embase, Psych Info., Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Library (November 2011). This review was guided by the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Studies were randomised controlled trials and controlled studies. Interventions were implemented for at least three months. Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool measured potential biases. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. Results were presented in a narrative summary. Six studies conducted in Brazil, the USA, Netherlands and Belgium met the inclusion criteria. Four studies reported small increases in fruit and vegetable consumption (≤half serving/day). These studies involved workplace dietary modifications and three incorporated nutrition education. Other outcomes reported included health status, co-worker support, job satisfaction, perceived health, self-efficacy and food-purchasing patterns. All studies had methodological limitations that weakened confidence in the results. Limited evidence suggests that workplace dietary modification interventions alone and in combination with nutrition education increase fruit and vegetable intakes. These interventions should be developed with recommended guidelines, workplace characteristics, long-term follow-up and objective outcomes for diet, health and cost. © 2013.
KERA, Masaki; NAKAYA, Motoyuki
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a utility value intervention influenced students’motivation and performance. Specifically, we examined the effect of distal utility value (i.e., the recognition of content usefulness for skill development that can improve daily and future endeavors) instruction in this study.Fifty-one Japanese undergraduate students completed an experimental session in the laboratory, in which they performed a series of logical reasoning problem-solving tasks...
Mello, Andrea Feijo; Juruena, Mario Francisco; Maciel, Mariana Rangel; Cavalcante-Nobrega, Luciana Porto; Cividanes, Giuliana Claudia; Fossaluza, Victor; Calsavara, Vinicius; Mello, Marcelo Feijo; Cleare, Anthony James; Mari, Jair de Jesus
The study objective was to observe the cortisol awakening response (CAR) pattern before and after a psychosocial intervention with children from dysfunctional families who had at least one child working on the streets, and to verify factors related to it. Two hundred and eleven children between 7 and 14 years old were selected and 191 were included, 178 were re-evaluated 2 years after, of whom 113 had cortisol measures completed. Besides cortisol, they were evaluated at baseline and at end point regarding: abuse/neglect, mental health symptoms, exposure to urban violence and family environment. There was no significant difference between the CAR area under the curve (AUC) before and after the intervention. Two regression analysis models were built to evaluate factors related to the CAR before and after intervention. Before the intervention, working on the streets (vs. not) was related to a greater cortisol increase after awakening, at follow-up, having suffered physical punishment (vs. not) was related to a flattened cortisol response. The intervention was not associated with changes in the magnitude of the CAR AUC, though the CAR was associated with psychosocial stressors pre- and post-intervention. Effective interventions for children at risk that might shape a physiological cortisol response are still needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Janette Y. Taylor
Full Text Available Objective. To determine if incarcerated women survivors of IPV had a physiological response to the Music and Account-Making for Behavioral-Related Adaptation (MAMBRA intervention, as measured by cortisol levels. Methods. A single-group repeated measures designed exploratory study was used to pilot-test MAMBRA. A convenience sample (n=33 was recruited in a Midwestern women’s correctional facility. Serving as their own control, participants provided demographics and pre-/post-MAMBRA salivary samples while attending four MAMBRA sessions. Baseline data were compared to participants’ data collected over the remaining 3 MAMBRA sessions. Data were analyzed with descriptive and univariate statistics with an alpha of .05 and post-hoc power of .65. Results. Participants were predominantly White (52%, single (80%, and early middle-aged (x-AGE=38.7±9.4, with a history of physical/nonphysical spousal abuse. Using a subsample (n=26, salivary cortisol decreased between the pre-/post-MAMBRA over the sessions (F(3,75=4.59, p<.01. Conclusion. Participants had a physiological response to the MAMBRA intervention as evidenced by the decreased cortisol between the pre-/post-MAMBRA. This is the first step in examining MAMBRA’s clinical utility as an intervention for female IPV survivors. Future longitudinal studies will examine MAMBRA’s effectiveness given this change in cortisol.
Lee, Augustine C; Harvey, William F; Price, Lori Lyn; Han, Xingyi; Driban, Jeffrey B; Wong, John B; Chung, Mei; McAlindon, Timothy E; Wang, Chenchen
To examine the association between baseline mindfulness and response from exercise interventions in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Cohort study; responder analysis of a clinical trial subset. Urban tertiary care academic hospital. Participants with symptomatic, radiographic knee OA (N=86; mean age, 60y; 74% female; 48% white). Twelve weeks (twice per week) of Tai Chi or physical therapy exercise. Treatment response was defined using Osteoarthritis Research Society International criteria indicating meaningful improvements in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, WOMAC function, or Patient Global Assessment scores. At baseline, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (mean total score, 142±17) and were grouped into 3 categories of total mindfulness: higher, medium, or lower. Relative risk (RR) ratios were used to compare treatment response across groups. Participants with higher total mindfulness were 38% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.83) more likely to meet responder criteria than those with lower mindfulness. We found no significant difference between medium and lower mindfulness groups (RR=1.0; 95% CI, 0.69-1.44). Among the 5 mindfulness facets, medium acting-with-awareness was 46% (95% CI, 1.09-1.96) more likely to respond than lower acting-with-awareness, and higher acting-with-awareness was 34% more likely to respond, but this did not reach significance (95% CI, 0.97-1.86). In this study, higher mindfulness, primarily driven by its acting-with-awareness facet, was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of response to nonpharmacologic exercise interventions in knee OA. This suggests that mindfulness-cultivating interventions may increase the likelihood of response from exercise. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walthouwer, Michel Jean Louis; Oenema, Anke; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein
Many Web-based computer-tailored interventions are characterized by high dropout rates, which limit their potential impact. This study had 4 aims: (1) examining if the use of a Web-based computer-tailored obesity prevention intervention can be increased by using videos as the delivery format, (2) examining if the delivery of intervention content via participants' preferred delivery format can increase intervention use, (3) examining if intervention effects are moderated by intervention use and matching or mismatching intervention delivery format preference, (4) and identifying which sociodemographic factors and intervention appreciation variables predict intervention use. Data were used from a randomized controlled study into the efficacy of a video and text version of a Web-based computer-tailored obesity prevention intervention consisting of a baseline measurement and a 6-month follow-up measurement. The intervention consisted of 6 weekly sessions and could be used for 3 months. ANCOVAs were conducted to assess differences in use between the video and text version and between participants allocated to a matching and mismatching intervention delivery format. Potential moderation by intervention use and matching/mismatching delivery format on self-reported body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and energy intake was examined using regression analyses with interaction terms. Finally, regression analysis was performed to assess determinants of intervention use. In total, 1419 participants completed the baseline questionnaire (follow-up response=71.53%, 1015/1419). Intervention use declined rapidly over time; the first 2 intervention sessions were completed by approximately half of the participants and only 10.9% (104/956) of the study population completed all 6 sessions of the intervention. There were no significant differences in use between the video and text version. Intervention use was significantly higher among participants who were allocated to an
McHale, Susan M; Lawson, Katie M; Davis, Kelly D; Casper, Lynne; Kelly, Erin L; Buxton, Orfeu
The implications of sleep patterns for adolescent health are well established, but we know less about larger contextual influences on youth sleep. We focused on parents' workplace experiences as extrafamilial forces that may affect youth sleep. In a group-randomized trial focused on employee work groups in the information technology division of a Fortune 500 company, we tested whether a workplace intervention improved sleep latency, duration, night-to-night variability in duration, and quality of sleep of employees' offspring, aged 9-17 years. The intervention was aimed at promoting employees' schedule control and supervisor support for personal and family life to decrease employees' work-family conflict and thereby promote the health of employees, their families, and the work organization. Analyses focused on 93 parent-adolescent dyads (57 dyads in the intervention and 46 in the comparison group) that completed baseline and 12-month follow-up home interviews and a series of telephone diary interviews that were conducted on eight consecutive evenings at each wave. Intent-to-treat analyses of the diary interview data revealed main effects of the intervention on youth's sleep latency, night-to-night variability in sleep duration, and sleep quality, but not sleep duration. The intervention focused on parents' work conditions, not on their parenting or parent-child relationships, attesting to the role of larger contextual influences on youth sleep and the importance of parents' work experiences in the health of their children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brecht, Carrie; Shaw, Richard J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; John, Nicholas H. St.
Premature birth has been associated with a number of adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants and children who were premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent. In response to these findings, there have been a number of educational and behavioral interventions developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. Since the last comprehensive review of this topic in 2002, there have been a significant number of developments in the quality of the studies conducted and the theoretical models that address the experience of parents of premature infants. In the current review, eighteen new interventions were identified and grouped into four categories based on treatment length and the target of the intervention. Findings suggest a trend towards early, brief interventions that are theoretically based, specifically target parent trauma, and utilize cognitive behavioral techniques. Although it is difficult to generalize study findings, conclusions from the review suggest that targeted interventions may have positive effects on both maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:24532861
Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe
Researchers advocate that interventions should apply a participatory approach i.e. employee participation. It is also widely recognized that top management’s support is an important part of a successful intervention implementation. Lately there has been a request for multi-level intervention...... momentum and increase chances of successful implementation. Four SMEs participated in the study. The typical intervention construct was that top management initiated the intervention and first line managers had to manage the intervention on a daily basis together with two selected employees who acted as in...... between top management and first line management. The top manager’s most important responsibilities were to ensure that the first line manager understood the purpose of the intervention, and to support the first line manager’s dispositions through the intervention. The first line manager’s most important...
Hallman, David M; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen
obtained at baseline and at 4-month follow-up. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were derived during work, leisure time and sleep to evaluate cardiac autonomic regulation. Linear mixed models were used to determine the effect of the intervention on HRV indices, with adjustment for age, gender...... and daily use of antihypertensive and/or heart medication. RESULTS: Compared with the reference group, the exercise group increased all HRV indices apart from a reduction in LF/HF ratio from baseline to follow-up both during work (psleep, the HRV indices......, but not during sleep. The health effect of this contrasting change in autonomic regulation needs further investigation....
Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva
Full Text Available The study of the marital relationship and of the evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions with couples can promote communication skills, affection and problem solving. Researches with dating couples are incipient on the literature, and it is believed that extending such behaviors can help those couples. The present case study evaluates an intervention (four evaluation sessions and ten sessions of group with dating couples, in the design of a single subject, considering measures baseline, pretest, posttest and follow-up, combined with procedural measures of expectation and satisfaction with the procedure conducted. The results show satisfaction with treatment, generalization to other relationships and improvement of the relationship as communication, affection and problem solving. Implications are discussed for future prevention and researches.
Ganz, Jennifer B; Lashley, Erin; Rispoli, Mandy Jenkins
Providing a detailed description of two participants who failed to acquire functional communication skills following a verbal modelling intervention and Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) training. Single-case research; Independent verbal requests, imitated verbal requests, word approximations and independent picture requests were assessed in a toddler and a pre-schooler with autism before and during two interventions. Although both participants used some vocalizations over the course of the study, experimental control was not demonstrated and the participants did not acquire a functional communication system prior to the cessation of intervention. Future research should include additional, detailed reports that provide insight to why some children with autism do not respond to particular communication interventions and should investigate the pairing of particular child characteristics with targeted interventions.
Lei, Cuiping; Liu, Ying
Full text: Although the incidence rate of nuclear or radiological accident and their terror attack is very low, their influence is tremendous because of the unexpected of their occurrence and uncertainty of their damage degree. An attack involving the release of radiation will create uncertainty, fear, and terror. Therefore, the management of acute psychological and behavioral responses is likely to be as important and challenging as the treatment of radiation-related injuries and illnesses. In this paper, we introduce the principle of psychological intervention at the preparation stage and during and after emergency. At the preparation stage, people should be educated by various means to prevent them from the impact of accident. When accident happens, effective action should be taken immediately to reduce the psychological influence. Special groups such as children and pregnant women must be considered. Furthermore, we analyze the symptom of different groups including victims, the public and responders and put forward the methods to prevent and treat psychological damage. After radiation accident, victims who have been exposed or anticipate possible exposure may experience feelings of vulnerability, anxiety, and lack of control. The most important element is providing good medical care. Moreover, communication between patients and their family is very important too. The public in the affected community is likely to be anxious and terrified. Trusted and informed leadership should be assigned to give psychological support in counselling center established at monitoring and evacuation centers. Government must be honest in communication with public and media. Responders have to perform their duty under stressful condition. Some of them are unable to deal with such stress could develop mental health problems such as post traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse or depression. Protective clothing and dosimeters must be provided to ensure responders' safety. Moreover
Tahira M. Probst
Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention × 4 (within-subjects time points mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR and heart rate (HR were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities.
Chamine, Irina; Atchley, Rachel; Oken, Barry S
Sleep improvement is a promising target for preventing and modifying many health problems. Hypnosis is considered a cost-effective and safe intervention with reported benefits for multiple health conditions. There is a growing body of research assessing the efficacy of hypnosis for various health conditions in which sleep was targeted as a primary or secondary outcome. This review aimed to investigate the effects of hypnosis interventions on sleep, to describe the hypnotic procedures, and to evaluate potential adverse effects of hypnosis. We reviewed studies (prior to January 2017) using hypnosis in adults for sleep problems and other conditions comorbid with sleep problems, with at least one sleep outcome measure. Randomized controlled trials and other prospective studies were included. One hundred thirty-nine nonduplicate abstracts were screened, and 24 of the reviewed papers were included for qualitative analysis. Overall, 58.3% of the included studies reported hypnosis benefit on sleep outcomes, with 12.5% reporting mixed results, and 29.2% reporting no hypnosis benefit; when only studies with lower risk of bias were reviewed the patterns were similar. Hypnosis intervention procedures were summarized and incidence of adverse experiences assessed. Hypnosis for sleep problems is a promising treatment that merits further investigation. Available evidence suggests low incidence of adverse events. The current evidence is limited because of few studies assessing populations with sleep complaints, small samples, and low methodological quality of the included studies. Our review points out some beneficial hypnosis effects on sleep but more high-quality studies on this topic are warranted. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Hoogendoorn, Martine; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Rutten-van Molken, Maureen P. M. H.
Background The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term (cost-) effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods A systematic review was performed of randomised controlled trials on smoking cessation interventions in
Trespalacios, Jesús H.; Perkins, Ross A.
Individual strategies to increase response rate and survey completion have been extensively researched. Recently, efforts have been made to investigate a combination of interventions to yield better response rates for web-based surveys. This study examined the effects of four different survey invitation conditions on response rate. From a large…
Rozental, Alexander; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Schmidt, Brad; Carlbring, Per
Internet interventions are defined as the delivery of health care-related treatments via an online or a smartphone interface, and have been shown to be a viable alternative to face-to-face treatments. However, not all patients benefit from such treatments, and it is possible that some may experience negative effects. Investigations of face-to-face treatments indicate that deterioration occurs in 5-10% of all patients. The nature and scope of other negative effects of Internet interventions is, however, largely unknown. Hence, the current study explored patients' reported negative experiences while undergoing treatments delivered via the Internet. Data from four large clinical trials (total N = 558) revealed that 9.3% of patients reported some type of negative effects. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore the patients' responses to open-ended questions regarding their negative experiences. Results yielded two broad categories and four subcategories of negative effects: patient-related negative effects (insight and symptom) and treatment-related negative effects (implementation and format). Results emphasize the importance of always considering negative effects in Internet-based interventions, and point to several ways of preventing such experiences, including regular assessment of negative events, increasing the flexibility of treatment schedules and therapist contact, as well as prolonging the treatment duration.
Simone, Thomas A.; Brooke, Benjamin S.; Goodney, Philip P.; Walsh, Daniel B.; Stone, David H.; Powell, Richard J.; Cronenwett, Jack L.; Nolan, Brian W.
Objective Secondary interventions for renal artery restenosis (RAS) after renal artery stenting are common, despite limited data about their effectiveness. This study was designed to evaluate the outcomes of endovascular treatment of recurrent RAS. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent renal artery stenting between 2001 and 2011 at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. Patients who required secondary interventions were compared with control patients who underwent only primary interventions for RAS. Multivariate regression models were used to identify factors associated with successful outcomes, as measured by changes in blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and number of antihypertensive medications required. Results Sixty-five secondary (57 patients) renal interventions were undertaken for recurrent RAS associated with progressive hypertension or renal dysfunction and compared with outcomes after 216 primary (180 patients) renal artery stenting procedures. Patients undergoing primary vs secondary interventions did not differ significantly in the number of preoperative antihypertensive medications used, comorbid conditions, or blood pressure. All primary and secondary interventions were performed with stents and showed no difference in procedural complications. At a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 1–128 months), similar improvements in renal function and blood pressure were found between patients undergoing primary and secondary interventions, and there was no difference in rates of restenosis or survival between cohorts. Regression models showed that the use of embolic protection devices was associated with improved renal function after primary (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.8; P < .05) and secondary (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.7–12.5; P < .05) interventions, whereas statin therapy was associated with improved renal (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3–3.2; P < .05) and blood pressure response (OR, 4
Murdaugh, Donna L; Deshpande, Hrishikesh D; Kana, Rajesh K
Deficits in language comprehension have been widely reported in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with behavioral and neuroimaging studies finding increased reliance on visuospatial processing to aid in language comprehension. However, no study to date, has taken advantage of this strength in visuospatial processing to improve language comprehension difficulties in ASD. This study used a translational neuroimaging approach to test the role of a visual imagery-based reading intervention in improving the brain circuitry underlying language processing in children with ASD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in a longitudinal study design, was used to investigate intervention-related change in sentence comprehension, brain activation, and functional connectivity in three groups of participants (age 8-13 years): an experimental group of ASD children (ASD-EXP), a wait-list control group of ASD children (ASD-WLC), and a group of typically developing control children. After intervention, the ASD-EXP group showed significant increase in activity in visual and language areas and right-hemisphere language area homologues, putamen, and thalamus, suggestive of compensatory routes to increase proficiency in reading comprehension. Additionally, ASD children who had the most improvement in reading comprehension after intervention showed greater functional connectivity between left-hemisphere language areas, the middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus while reading high imagery sentences. Thus, the findings of this study, which support the principles of dual coding theory [Paivio 2007], suggest the potential of a strength-based reading intervention in changing brain responses and facilitating better reading comprehension in ASD children. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hollands, Fiona; Bowden, A. Brooks; Belfield, Clive; Levin, Henry M.; Cheng, Henan; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Hanisch-Cerda, Barbara
In this article, we perform cost-effectiveness analysis on interventions that improve the rate of high school completion. Using the What Works Clearinghouse to select effective interventions, we calculate cost-effectiveness ratios for five youth interventions. We document wide variation in cost-effectiveness ratios between programs and between…
Glisson, Charles; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip; Dukes, Denzel; Atkinson, Shannon; Williams, Nathaniel J.
Objective: Evidence-based Practice (EBP) implementation is likely to be most efficient and effective in organizations with positive social contexts (i.e., organizational culture, climate, and work attitudes of clinicians). The study objective was to test whether an organizational intervention labeled Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity…
Mahoney, Brian J.
This research study explored the concept of capacity building and motivation of staff by school leadership teams in the successful development and implementation of educational initiatives, specifically Response to Intervention (RtI). A great deal of scholarship has addressed leadership and its effect on motivation, but few studies have…
Evans, Stephanie; Alden, Kieran; Cucurull-Sanchez, Lourdes; Larminie, Christopher; Coles, Mark C; Kullberg, Marika C; Timmis, Jon
A calibrated computational model reflects behaviours that are expected or observed in a complex system, providing a baseline upon which sensitivity analysis techniques can be used to analyse pathways that may impact model responses. However, calibration of a model where a behaviour depends on an intervention introduced after a defined time point is difficult, as model responses may be dependent on the conditions at the time the intervention is applied. We present ASPASIA (Automated Simulation Parameter Alteration and SensItivity Analysis), a cross-platform, open-source Java toolkit that addresses a key deficiency in software tools for understanding the impact an intervention has on system behaviour for models specified in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). ASPASIA can generate and modify models using SBML solver output as an initial parameter set, allowing interventions to be applied once a steady state has been reached. Additionally, multiple SBML models can be generated where a subset of parameter values are perturbed using local and global sensitivity analysis techniques, revealing the model's sensitivity to the intervention. To illustrate the capabilities of ASPASIA, we demonstrate how this tool has generated novel hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which Th17-cell plasticity may be controlled in vivo. By using ASPASIA in conjunction with an SBML model of Th17-cell polarisation, we predict that promotion of the Th1-associated transcription factor T-bet, rather than inhibition of the Th17-associated transcription factor RORγt, is sufficient to drive switching of Th17 cells towards an IFN-γ-producing phenotype. Our approach can be applied to all SBML-encoded models to predict the effect that intervention strategies have on system behaviour. ASPASIA, released under the Artistic License (2.0), can be downloaded from http://www.york.ac.uk/ycil/software.
Viljakainen, H.T.; Natri, A.M.; Karkkainen, M.
The effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral augmentation in 212 adolescent girls with adequate calcium intake was studied in a randomized placebo-controlled setting. Bone mineral augmentation determined by DXA increased with supplementation both in the femur and the lumbar vertebrae i...
Full Text Available Objectives: Objective of this study was investigating impact of early psychological interventions on marital satisfaction of mothers with slow pace under 5 years children. Considering variables of the research, that is, early psychological interventions and marital satisfaction, research hypotheses was as follows: "early psychological interventions affect marital satisfaction of mothers with slow pace under 5 years children" and it was examined. Methods: This research is of experimental type and pretest-posttest plan with control groups was used. Statistical population included all mothers with slow pace under 5 years children in Urmia. To this end, 40 mothers with slow pace children were selected as the sample in a non-random manner by convenience sampling. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 20 (20 test group and 20 control group, and finally psychological interventions were conducted on one of groups randomly. In order to evaluate marital satisfaction, Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire with 47 items was used. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of covariance. Results: findings showed that there is significant difference between two groups in posttest in overall score of marital satisfaction as well as in some elements such as conventional responses, marital satisfaction, personality issues, marital relationships, conflict resolution, leisure, parenting, family and friends, and ideological orientation and sexual relations (P<0.005, and no significant difference was observed in financial supervision and roles related to gender equality. Discusion: Psychological interventions were effective in promoting marital satisfaction in mothers with slow pace under 5 years children.
Koczy, Petra; Becker, Clemens; Rapp, Kilian; Klie, Thomas; Beische, Denis; Büchele, Gisela; Kleiner, Andrea; Guerra, Virginia; Rissmann, Ulrich; Kurrle, Susan; Bredthauer, Doris
To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce the use of physical restraints in residents of nursing homes. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Forty-five nursing homes in Germany. Three hundred thirty-three residents who were being restrained at the start of the intervention. Persons responsible for the intervention in the nursing homes attended a 6-hour training course that included education about the reasons restraints are used, the adverse effects, and alternatives to their use. Technical aids, such as hip protectors and sensor mats, were provided. The training was designed to give the change agents tools for problem-solving to prevent behavioral symptoms and injuries from falls without using physical restraints. The main outcome was the complete cessation of physical restraint use on 3 consecutive days 3 months after the start of the intervention. Secondary outcomes were partial reductions in restraint use, percentage of fallers, number of psychoactive drugs, and occurrence of behavioral symptoms. The probability of being unrestrained in the intervention group (IG) was more than twice that in the control group (CG) at the end of the study (odds ratio=2.16, 95% confidence interval=1.05-4.46). A partial reduction of restraint use was also about twice as often achieved in the IG as in the CG. No negative effect was observed regarding medication or behavioral symptoms. The percentage of fallers was higher in the IG. The intervention reduced restraint use without a significant increase in falling, behavioral symptoms, or medication. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.
An operational Contingency Plan is one of the single most important aspects of effective oil spill response operations. It is a spill control game plan. A thorough contingency plan provides a set of guidelines that can be used to help direct all phases of spill response activities. More than simple a compilation of lists and rosters, the contingency plan reflects strategic and philosophical elements of spill response that help to ensure a viable response to any spill incident. Facilities and oil carrying vessels should have well maintained contingency plans with these features. This paper describes the requirement for effective oil spill response pans and the training required to exercise them
In this chapter, I review basic tenets of response expectancy theory (Kirsch, 1985), beginning with the important distinction between response expectancies and stimulus expectancies. Although both can affect experience, the effects of response expectancies are stronger and more resistant to extinction than those of stimulus expectancies. Further, response expectancies are especially important to understanding placebo effects. The response expectancy framework is consistent with and has been amplified by the Bayesian model of predictive coding. Clinical implications of these phenomena are exemplified. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wisløff, Torbjørn; Atar, Dan
Clopidogrel has, for long time, been accepted as the standard treatment for patients who have undergone a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The introduction of prasugrel-and more recently, ticagrelor-has introduced a decision-making problem for clinicians and governments worldwide: to use the cheaper clopidogrel or the more effective, and also more expensive prasugrel or ticagrelor. We aim to give helpful contributions to this debate by analysing the cost-effectiveness of clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor compared with each other. We modified a previously developed Markov model of cardiac disease progression. In the model, we followed up cohorts of patients who have recently had a PCI until 100 years or death. Possible events are revascularization, bleeding, acute myocardial infarction, and death. Our analysis shows that ticagrelor is cost-effective in 77% of simulations at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €7700 compared with clopidogrel. Ticagrelor was also cost-effective against prasugrel at a cost-effectiveness ratio of €7800. Given a Norwegian cost-effectiveness threshold of €70 000, both comparisons appear to be clearly cost-effective in favour of ticagrelor. Ticagrelor is cost-effective compared with both clopidogrel and prasugrel for patients who have undergone a PCI.
Saeki, Elina; Jimerson, Shane R.; Earhart, James; Hart, Shelley R.; Renshaw, Tyler; Singh, Renee D.; Stewart, Kaitlyn
As many schools move toward a three-tier model that incorporates a Response to Intervention (RtI) service delivery model in the social, emotional, and behavioral domains, school psychologists may provide leadership. The decision-making process for filtering students through multiple tiers of support and intervention and examining change is an area…
Christian A Tiemann
Full Text Available The field of medical systems biology aims to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive disease progression and to translate this knowledge into therapies to effectively treat diseases. A challenging task is the investigation of long-term effects of a (pharmacological treatment, to establish its applicability and to identify potential side effects. We present a new modeling approach, called Analysis of Dynamic Adaptations in Parameter Trajectories (ADAPT, to analyze the long-term effects of a pharmacological intervention. A concept of time-dependent evolution of model parameters is introduced to study the dynamics of molecular adaptations. The progression of these adaptations is predicted by identifying necessary dynamic changes in the model parameters to describe the transition between experimental data obtained during different stages of the treatment. The trajectories provide insight in the affected underlying biological systems and identify the molecular events that should be studied in more detail to unravel the mechanistic basis of treatment outcome. Modulating effects caused by interactions with the proteome and transcriptome levels, which are often less well understood, can be captured by the time-dependent descriptions of the parameters. ADAPT was employed to identify metabolic adaptations induced upon pharmacological activation of the liver X receptor (LXR, a potential drug target to treat or prevent atherosclerosis. The trajectories were investigated to study the cascade of adaptations. This provided a counter-intuitive insight concerning the function of scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1, a receptor that facilitates the hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Although activation of LXR promotes cholesterol efflux and -excretion, our computational analysis showed that the hepatic capacity to clear cholesterol was reduced upon prolonged treatment. This prediction was confirmed experimentally by immunoblotting measurements of SR-B1
Gurusamy, Kurinchi S; Wilson, Edward; Koretz, Ronald L
Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of antiviral interventions in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection use sustained virological response (SVR) as the main outcome. There is sparse information on long-term mortality from RCTs.......Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of antiviral interventions in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection use sustained virological response (SVR) as the main outcome. There is sparse information on long-term mortality from RCTs....
Vansteelandt, Stijn; Daniel, Rhian M
The mediation formula for the identification of natural (in)direct effects has facilitated mediation analyses that better respect the nature of the data, with greater consideration of the need for confounding control. The default assumptions on which it relies are strong, however. In particular, they are known to be violated when confounders of the mediator-outcome association are affected by the exposure. This complicates extensions of counterfactual-based mediation analysis to settings that involve repeatedly measured mediators, or multiple correlated mediators. VanderWeele, Vansteelandt, and Robins introduced so-called interventional (in)direct effects. These can be identified under much weaker conditions than natural (in)direct effects, but have the drawback of not adding up to the total effect. In this article, we adapt their proposal to achieve an exact decomposition of the total effect, and extend it to the multiple mediator setting. Interestingly, the proposed effects capture the path-specific effects of an exposure on an outcome that are mediated by distinct mediators, even when-as often-the structural dependence between the multiple mediators is unknown, for instance, when the direction of the causal effects between the mediators is unknown, or there may be unmeasured common causes of the mediators.
Tong, Guixian; Geng, Qingqing; Cheng, Jing; Chai, Jing; Xia, Yi; Feng, Rui; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Debin
This study aimed at summarizing evidence about effects of psycho-behavioral interventions (PBIs) on immune responses among cancer patients and analyzing quality of published studies so as to inform future researches. Literature retrieval utilized both highly inclusive algorithms searching randomized controlled studies published in English and Chinese and manual searching of eligible studies from references of relevant review papers. Two researchers examined the articles selected separately and extracted the information using a pre-designed form for soliciting data about the trials (e.g., sample size, disease status, intervention, immune responses) and quality ratings of the studies. Both narrative descriptions and meta-analysis (via Review manager 5) were used synthesizing the effects of PBIs on immune responses among cancer patients and state of art of the researches in this area. Seventy-six RCTs met inclusion criteria. PBIs implemented were divided into three major categories including psychological state adjustment, physical activity and dietary modification. Immune indicators measured included CD4+ cells, CD8+ cells, CD4/CDC8+ ratio, CD3+ cells, NK cell activity, etc. Effects of PBIs on immune responses documented in individual papers were mixed and pooled analysis of CD4+ cells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, CD3+ cells, NKCA, IgG, IgM and IL-2 showed modest effects. However, there were huge discrepancies in intervention effects between studies published in English and Chinese and the results should be interpreted with caution. Besides, most studies suffer from some quality flaws concerning blinding, randomization procedures, compliance, attrition and intention-to-treat analyses, etc. Although there are considerable evidences of PBI effects on some immune indicators, the effect sizes are modest and it is still premature to conclude whether PBIs have effects on immune functions among cancer patients. There is a clear need for much more rigorous efforts in this area
Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark. T.
This study examines gender, grade-level, and baseline depressive symptoms as potential moderators of a school-based mindfulness intervention's impact on the self-regulatory outcomes of urban youth. Ninety-seven participants from four urban public schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or wait-list control condition. Fourth and fifth…
S. S. Sarycheva
Full Text Available This study is devoted to the estimation of effective dose for children undergoing interventional cardiology examinations. The conversion coefficients (CC from directly measured dose area product (DAP value to effective dose (ED were calculated within the approved effective dose assessment methodology (Guidelines 2.6.1. 2944-11. The CC, Ed K , [mSv / (Gy • cm2] for newborn infants and children of 1, 5, 10 and 15 years old (main(range were calculated as 2.5 (1.8-3.2; 1.1 (0.8-1.3; 0.6 (0.4-0.7; 0.4 (0.3-0.5; and 0,22 (0,18-0,30 respectively. A special Finnish computer program PCXMC 2.0 was used for calculating the dose CC. The series of calculations were made for different values of the physical and geometrical parameters based on their real-existing range of values. The value of CC from DAP to ED were calculated for all pediatric age groups. This work included 153 pediatric interventional studies carried out in two hospitals of the city of St. Petersburg for the period of one year from the summer of 2015. The dose CC dependency from the patient’s age and parameters of the examinations were under the study. The dependence from the beam quality (filtration and tube voltage and age of the patient were found. The younger is the patient, stronger is the filtration and higher is the voltage, the higher is the CC value. The CC in the younger (newborn and older (15 years age groups are different by the factor of 10. It was shown that the changes of the geometric parameters (in the scope of their real existing range have small effect on the value of the effective dose, not exceed 30-50% allowable for radiation protection purpose. The real values of effective doses of children undergoing cardiac interventions were estimated. In severe cases, the values of ED can reach several tens of mSv.
Abdel Shaheed, Christina; Maher, Christopher G; Mak, Wendy; Williams, Kylie A; McLachlan, Andrew J
Practitioner beliefs and attitudes towards low back pain (LBP) influence treatment decisions. Little is known about pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards LBP. To investigate the effect of educational interventions on pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards LBP. Setting Sydney Metropolitan Area. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs was measured using the "Pharmacists' Back Beliefs Questionnaire", with items from two previously reported questionnaires on back beliefs. Responses from pharmacists attending a 2-h educational workshop on LBP (n = 204) and pharmacists recruiting participants for a LBP clinical trial (n = 66) were compared to responses from a control group of pharmacists (n = 65) to allow an evaluation of the two interventions. Responses from workshop participants were also evaluated before and after the session. Participants indicated their agreement with statements about LBP on a 5-point Likert scale. Preferred responses were based on guidelines for the evidence-based management of LBP. The primary analysis evaluated total score on the nine-inevitability items of the Back Beliefs Questionnaire ("inevitability score"). Inevitability score. There was no significant difference in inevitability score between LBP clinical trial pharmacists and the control group [mean difference (MD) 0.47 (95 % CI -1.35 to 2.29; p = 0.61)]. The educational workshop led to a significant and favourable change in inevitability score (MD 7.23 p changes in responses to misconceptions regarding bed rest and the need for imaging (p changing practitioner knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards LBP.
Since the early 1980s, there has been considerable attention in the psychology literature to mental health problems related to living in a world threatened by nuclear destruction. Questionnaires were mailed to 630 psychotherapists from the Colorado Psychological Association, California Psychotherapists for Social Responsibility, California Psychologists for Social Responsibility, the US Army, and the APA Division of Military Psychology; 174 questionnaires were returned. It was hypothesized that liberalism, nuclear weapons opposition, nuclear concern, nuclear awareness, and anti-nuclear activism in psychotherapists would facilitate perception of, and openness to working with, a client's nuclear concerns and thus, would be positively correlated with intentions to discuss nuclear issues with clients in three different clinical vignettes. Results indicated that when controlling for subject group, psychotherapy orientation, age, sex, and income, all five independent variables were positively correlated with responses to all three clinical vignettes, with nuclear concern having the strongest unique effect in accounting for variance in responses to the vignettes
The rapidly shifting field of epigenetics has expanded scientific understanding of how environmental conditions affect gene expression and development. This article focuses on two ongoing clinical trials-one in the United States and one in the United Kingdom-that have used epigenetics as the conceptual basis for testing the relationship between nutrition and obesity during pregnancy. Drawing on ethnographic research, I highlight the different ways that clinical scientists interpret epigenetics to target particular domains of the environment for prenatal intervention. Here I examine three environmental domains: the pregnant body, the home, and everyday experiences. In so doing, I show how different scientific approaches to epigenetics multiply concepts of "the environment," while also individualizing responsibility onto pregnant bodies. Ultimately, I argue that how the environment is conceptualized in epigenetics is both a scientific and a political project that opens up questions of reproductive responsibility. © 2018 by the American Anthropological Association.
Zelig, Ari; Harwayne-Gidansky, Ilana; Gault, Allison; Wang, Julie
The growing prevalence of food allergies indicates a responsibility among primary care providers to ensure that their patients receive accurate diagnosis and management. To improve physician knowledge and management of food allergies by implementing educational and electronic medical record interventions. Pre- and posttest scores of pediatric residents and faculty were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of an educational session designed to improve knowledge of food allergy management. One year later, a best practice advisory was implemented in the electronic medical record to alert providers to consider allergy referral whenever a diagnosis code for food allergy or epinephrine autoinjector prescription was entered. A review of charts 6 months before and 6 months after each intervention was completed to determine the impact of both interventions. Outcome measurements included referrals to an allergy clinic, prescription of self-injectable epinephrine, and documentation that written emergency action plans were provided. There was a significant increase in test scores immediately after the educational intervention (mean, 56.2 versus 84.3%; p management of children with food allergies at our pediatrics clinic. Further studies are needed to identify effective strategies to improve management of food allergies by primary care physicians.
Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.
Paris, Ruth; Herriott, Anna; Holt, Melissa; Gould, Karen
This study examines the relationship between levels of psychological distress in substance-dependent mothers and their differential response to a dyadic parent-child intervention. A sample of 66 mothers who were receiving treatment for substance abuse, as well as a simultaneous parenting intervention, were interviewed pre and post-treatment on measures of psychological distress, adult and child trauma history, parental reflective functioning, and child social-emotional development. Additionally, clinicians provided assessments of the parent-child relationships. As anticipated, trauma histories for mothers and children, children's social emotional development, and parental reflective functioning were associated with aspects of maternal psychological distress. Kruskal-Wallis and subsequent Wilcoxson signed rank tests revealed that women with highest levels of baseline psychological distress showed significant improvements in psychological functioning post-treatment while women with moderately elevated levels of psychological distress did not. Women who were most distressed at baseline showed increased levels of parental reflective functioning post-treatment while women with moderate and lower levels of baseline psychological distress showed improvements on clinician-rated assessments of parent-child relationships. Chi Square analyses showed that parents who endorsed the highest levels of distress at baseline reported that their children's risk status regarding social-emotional development decreased post-treatment. Despite similarities in substance dependence, mothers in this sample had different needs and outcomes in the context of this parenting intervention due to variation in mental health. Given this variation, parenting interventions for substance-dependent mothers need to account for the individual differences in levels of psychological distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bock, M; Umathum, R; Sikora, J; Brenner, S; Aguor, E N; Semmler, W
An optical sensor is presented which determines the position and one degree of orientation within a magnetic resonance tomograph. The sensor utilizes the Faraday effect to measure the local magnetic field, which is modulated by switching additional linear magnetic fields, the gradients. Existing methods for instrument localization during an interventional MR procedure often use electrically conducting structures at the instruments that can heat up excessively during MRI and are thus a significant danger for the patient. The proposed optical Faraday effect position sensor consists of non-magnetic and electrically non-conducting components only so that heating is avoided and the sensor could be applied safely even within the human body. With a non-magnetic prototype set-up, experiments were performed to demonstrate the possibility of measuring both the localization and the orientation in a magnetic resonance tomograph. In a 30 mT m(-1) gradient field, a localization uncertainty of 1.5 cm could be achieved.
Evans Philip H
Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop more efficient programmes for promoting dietary and/or physical activity change (in order to prevent type 2 diabetes it is critical to ensure that the intervention components and characteristics most strongly associated with effectiveness are included. The aim of this systematic review of reviews was to identify intervention components that are associated with increased change in diet and/or physical activity in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews of interventions targeting diet and/or physical activity in adults at risk of developing type 2 diabetes from 1998 to 2008. Two reviewers independently selected reviews and rated methodological quality. Individual analyses from reviews relating effectiveness to intervention components were extracted, graded for evidence quality and summarised. Results Of 3856 identified articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria and 129 analyses related intervention components to effectiveness. These included causal analyses (based on randomisation of participants to different intervention conditions and associative analyses (e.g. meta-regression. Overall, interventions produced clinically meaningful weight loss (3-5 kg at 12 months; 2-3 kg at 36 months and increased physical activity (30-60 mins/week of moderate activity at 12-18 months. Based on causal analyses, intervention effectiveness was increased by engaging social support, targeting both diet and physical activity, and using well-defined/established behaviour change techniques. Increased effectiveness was also associated with increased contact frequency and using a specific cluster of "self-regulatory" behaviour change techniques (e.g. goal-setting, self-monitoring. No clear relationships were found between effectiveness and intervention setting, delivery mode, study population or delivery provider. Evidence on long
Fraser, Nicole; Kerr, Cliff C; Harouna, Zakou; Alhousseini, Zeinabou; Cheikh, Nejma; Gray, Richard; Shattock, Andrew; Wilson, David P; Haacker, Markus; Shubber, Zara; Masaki, Emiko; Karamoko, Djibrilla; Görgens, Marelize
Niger's low-burden, sex-work-driven HIV epidemic is situated in a context of high economic and demographic growth. Resource availability of HIV/AIDS has been decreasing recently. In 2007-2012, only 1% of HIV expenditure was for sex work interventions, but an estimated 37% of HIV incidence was directly linked to sex work in 2012. The Government of Niger requested assistance to determine an efficient allocation of its HIV resources and to strengthen HIV programming for sex workers. Optima, an integrated epidemiologic and optimization tool, was applied using local HIV epidemic, demographic, programmatic, expenditure, and cost data. A mathematical optimization algorithm was used to determine the best resource allocation for minimizing HIV incidence and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) over 10 years. Efficient allocation of the available HIV resources, to minimize incidence and DALYs, would increase expenditure for sex work interventions from 1% to 4%-5%, almost double expenditure for antiretroviral treatment and for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and reduce expenditure for HIV programs focusing on the general population. Such an investment could prevent an additional 12% of new infections despite a budget of less than half of the 2012 reference year. Most averted infections would arise from increased funding for sex work interventions. This allocative efficiency analysis makes the case for increased investment in sex work interventions to minimize future HIV incidence and DALYs. Optimal HIV resource allocation combined with improved program implementation could have even greater HIV impact. Technical assistance is being provided to make the money invested in sex work programs work better and help Niger to achieve a cost-effective and sustainable HIV response.
Honigh-de Vlaming, R.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Heinrich, J.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.
Background: Public health policy calls for intervention programmes to reduce loneliness in the ageing population. So far, numerous loneliness interventions have been developed, with effectiveness demonstrated for few of these interventions. The loneliness intervention described in this manuscript
Clements, Melissa A.; Bolt, Daniel; Hoyt, William; Kratochwill, Thomas R.
Data collected in school settings are inherently hierarchical. At the same time, it is becoming increasingly common for interventions to be implemented within the context of a similar multitiered intervention framework where different interventions are provided at different levels of the hierarchy, often simultaneously. This prevalence of…
Strahorn, Joshua; Serpell, Benjamin G; McKune, Andrew; Pumpa, Kate L
Strahorn, J, Serpell, BG, McKune, A, and Pumpa, KL. Effect of physical and psychosocial interventions on hormone and performance outcomes in professional rugby union players: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3158-3169, 2017-This systematic review investigates the acute effects of physical or psychosocial interventions on testosterone and cortisol responses in elite male rugby union players, and the subsequent association with physical performance areas (e.g., strength, power, sprint performance) or key performance indicators (e.g., coach-identified skills). Medline (via EBSCO), SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, InformIT, ProQuest, Cochrane, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria, with 6 articles examining the effect of speed, strength or power training, and the remaining 3 psychosocial interventions. Quality assessment of the articles as determined by their PEDro score was either 6 or 7 out of 11. This review found that both physical and psychosocial interventions can alter testosterone and cortisol, and physical performance areas important for rugby union are affected by these changes. The limited literature in the field supports the notion that physical interventions of short duration and high intensity, and psychosocial interventions that create a positive environment may elicit a hormonal response that is associated with favorable performance outcomes. Studies that reported psychosocial interventions suggest that testosterone and cortisol may be altered in elite rugby players without metabolic stress, something of great interest to elite athletes and coaches who are looking to elicit a performance advantage without increasing athlete load. Overall, this review identified that when the testosterone responses to an intervention are notably greater than that of cortisol, favorable outcomes are likely. Further research is required to improve our understanding on how to best manipulate training to induce
Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A
The primary objectives were (1) to examine the importance of sexuality within the self-view and cross-sectional correlates for 120 colorectal cancer patients and (2) to determine whether the importance of sexuality changed for 46 colorectal cancer patients and partners participating in an intimacy enhancement intervention. Two newly developed items assessed importance of sexuality within the self-view (1) currently and (2) before cancer; a calculated change score assessed perceived change. In the cross-sectional sample, associations between importance of sexuality and demographic and medical factors and sexual function status were examined. Intervention participants' importance ratings before and after participation were used to calculate effect sizes. For patients, importance of sexuality before cancer was greater (M = 65.7) than current importance (M = 56.8, p = .001). Greater current importance of sexuality was associated with partnered status, non-metastatic disease, and not being in treatment. Scoring in the sexually functional range was associated with greater current importance of sexuality for men and a smaller perceived change in importance for both men and women (p values Sexual function status also significantly predicted current importance independent of covariates. Small to medium effect sizes for intervention patients (.37) and partners (.60) were found for increases in importance of sexuality. Items showed evidence of test-retest reliability and construct validity. Coping with sexual concerns is important to those affected by colorectal cancer. Findings suggest that the importance of sexuality can decrease through colorectal cancer and associated sexual problems and can increase through participating in an intimacy-focused intervention.
Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide an analysis of the features that have shaped the state's decision-making process in the United Nations, with regard to the humanitarian intervention in Darfur from 2003 onwards. Design/methodology/approach: The methodological approach to the study is a review of political statement papers grounded in…
Rashidian, Arash; Joudaki, Hossein; Vian, Taryn
Despite the importance of health care fraud and the political, legislative and administrative attentions paid to it, combating fraud remains a challenge to the health systems. We aimed to identify, categorize and assess the effectiveness of the interventions to combat health care fraud and abuse. The interventions to combat health care fraud can be categorized as the interventions for 'prevention' and 'detection' of fraud, and 'response' to fraud. We conducted sensitive search strategies on Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from 1975 to 2008, and Medline from 1975-2010, and on relevant professional and organizational websites. Articles assessing the effectiveness of any intervention to combat health care fraud were eligible for inclusion in our review. We considered including the interventional studies with or without a concurrent control group. Two authors assessed the studies for inclusion, and appraised the quality of the included studies. As a limited number of studies were found, we analyzed the data using narrative synthesis. The searches retrieved 2229 titles, of which 221 full-text studies were assessed. We found no studies using an RCT design. Only four original articles (from the US and Taiwan) were included: two studies within the detection category, one in the response category, one under the detection and response categories, and no studies under the prevention category. The findings suggest that data-mining may improve fraud detection, and legal interventions as well as investment in anti-fraud activities may reduce fraud. Our analysis shows a lack of evidence of effect of the interventions to combat health care fraud. Further studies using robust research methodologies are required in all aspects of dealing with health care fraud and abuse, assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methods to prevent, detect, and respond to fraud in health care.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of health care fraud and the political, legislative and administrative attentions paid to it, combating fraud remains a challenge to the health systems. We aimed to identify, categorize and assess the effectiveness of the interventions to combat health care fraud and abuse. METHODS: The interventions to combat health care fraud can be categorized as the interventions for 'prevention' and 'detection' of fraud, and 'response' to fraud. We conducted sensitive search strategies on Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from 1975 to 2008, and Medline from 1975-2010, and on relevant professional and organizational websites. Articles assessing the effectiveness of any intervention to combat health care fraud were eligible for inclusion in our review. We considered including the interventional studies with or without a concurrent control group. Two authors assessed the studies for inclusion, and appraised the quality of the included studies. As a limited number of studies were found, we analyzed the data using narrative synthesis. FINDINGS: The searches retrieved 2229 titles, of which 221 full-text studies were assessed. We found no studies using an RCT design. Only four original articles (from the US and Taiwan were included: two studies within the detection category, one in the response category, one under the detection and response categories, and no studies under the prevention category. The findings suggest that data-mining may improve fraud detection, and legal interventions as well as investment in anti-fraud activities may reduce fraud. DISCUSSION: Our analysis shows a lack of evidence of effect of the interventions to combat health care fraud. Further studies using robust research methodologies are required in all aspects of dealing with health care fraud and abuse, assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methods to prevent, detect, and respond to fraud in health care.
Morgan, Amy J; Rapee, Ronald M; Bayer, Jordana K
Background/aims Achieving a high response rate to follow-up questionnaires in randomized controlled trials of interventions is important for study validity. Few studies have tested the value of incentives in increasing response rates to online questionnaires in clinical trials of health interventions. This study evaluated the effect of a gift card prize-draw incentive on response rates to follow-up questionnaires within a trial of an online health intervention. Method The study was embedded in a host randomized controlled trial of an online parenting program for child anxiety. A total of 433 participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: (1) being informed that they would enter a gift card prize-draw if they completed the final study questionnaire (24-week follow-up) and (2) not informed about the prize-draw. All participants had a 1 in 20 chance of winning an AUD50 gift card after they completed the online questionnaire. Results The odds of the informed group completing the follow-up questionnaire were significantly higher than the uninformed group, (79.6% vs 68.5%, odds ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval = 1.15-2.79). This response rate increase of 11.1% (95% confidence interval = 2.8-19.1) occurred in both intervention and control groups in the host randomized controlled trial. The incentive was also effective in increasing questionnaire commencement (84.6% vs 75.9%, odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-2.84) and reducing the delay in completing the questionnaire (19.9 vs 22.6 days, hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.67). Conclusion This study adds to evidence for the effectiveness of incentives to increase response rates to follow-up questionnaires in health intervention trials.
de Kwaadsteniet, Leontien; Hagmayer, York; Krol, Nicole P. C. M.; Witteman, Cilia L. M.
An important reason to choose an intervention to treat psychological problems of clients is the expectation that the intervention will be effective in alleviating the problems. The authors investigated whether clinicians base their ratings of the effectiveness of interventions on models that they construct representing the factors causing and…
Evelyn Coronado Interis
Full Text Available Despite declines in cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates remain high in Jamaica due to low levels of screening. Effective interventions are needed to decrease barriers to preventive behaviors and increase adoption of behaviors and services to improve prospects of survival. We enrolled 225 women attending health facilities in an intervention consisting of a pre-test, educational presentation and post-test. The questionnaires assessed attitudes, knowledge, risk factors, and symptoms of cervical cancer among women. Changes in knowledge and intention to screen were assessed using paired t-tests and tests for correlated proportions. Participants were followed approximately six months post-intervention to determine cervical cancer screening rates. We found statistically significant increases from pre-test to post-test in the percentage of questions correctly answered and in participants’ intention to screen for cervical cancer. The greatest improvements were observed in responses to questions on knowledge, symptoms and prevention, with some items increasing up to 62% from pre-test to post-test. Of the 123 women reached for follow-up, 50 (40.7% screened for cervical cancer. This theory-based education intervention significantly increased knowledge of and intention to screen for cervical cancer, and may be replicated in similar settings to promote awareness and increase screening rates.
van de Grift, Tim C; Elaut, Els; Cerwenka, Susanne C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; De Cuypere, Griet; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C
The aim of this study from the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence is to investigate the status of all individuals who had applied for gender confirming interventions from 2007 to 2009, irrespective of whether they received treatment. The current article describes the study protocol, the effect of medical treatment on gender dysphoria and body image, and the predictive value of (pre)treatment factors on posttreatment outcomes. Data were collected on medical interventions, transition status, gender dysphoria (Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale), and body image (Body Image Scale for transsexuals). In total, 201 people participated in the study (37% of the original cohort). At follow-up, 29 participants (14%) did not receive medical interventions, 36 hormones only (18%), and 136 hormones and surgery (68%). Most transwomen had undergone genital surgery, and most transmen chest surgery. Overall, the levels of gender dysphoria and body dissatisfaction were significantly lower at follow-up compared with clinical entry. Satisfaction with therapy responsive and unresponsive body characteristics both improved. High dissatisfaction at admission and lower psychological functioning at follow-up were associated with persistent body dissatisfaction. Hormone-based interventions and surgery were followed by improvements in body satisfaction. The level of psychological symptoms and the degree of body satisfaction at baseline were significantly associated with body satisfaction at follow-up.
Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke; Bast, Lotus Sofie
BACKGROUND: Uptake of smoking in adolescence is still of major public health concern. Evaluations of school-based programmes for smoking prevention show mixed results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of X:IT, a multi-component school-based programme to prevent adolescent smoking....... METHODS: Data from a Danish cluster randomized trial included 4041 year-7 students (mean age: 12.5) from 51 intervention and 43 control schools. Outcome measure 'current smoking' was dichotomized into smoking daily, weekly, monthly or more seldom vs do not smoke. Analyses were adjusted for baseline...... covariates: sex, family socioeconomic position (SEP), best friend's smoking and parental smoking. We performed multilevel, logistic regression analyses of available cases and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses, replacing missing outcome values by multiple imputation. RESULTS: At baseline, 4.7% and 6...
Wood, Lesley; Egger, Matthias; Gluud, Lise Lotte
To examine whether the association of inadequate or unclear allocation concealment and lack of blinding with biased estimates of intervention effects varies with the nature of the intervention or outcome....
Häggman-Laitila, Arja; Tanninen, Hanna-Mari; Pietilä, Anna-Maija
The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a resource-enhancing family-oriented intervention. There is very little empirical knowledge of how nurses working in a home context develop relationships with families, what methods they use to enhance families' resources and how such relationships affect the families' health outcomes. The study was designed as a descriptive service evaluation. A total of 129 family members from 30 families with small children participated in the study. Data were collected with family care plans and client reports in 2004-2005. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis and by descriptive statistical methods. Resource-enhancing discussions were carried out in all family meetings. Other methods were video guidance, creation of a family tree and parents' role map, network collaboration, observation and parent-child group activity. The families needed support mostly in parents' health and well-being, coping with parenthood, upbringing and child care, parents' relationships, social relations and children's health and growth. The families had an average of five support needs at the beginning of the intervention and 1·8 needs at the completion. The families set on average 3·6 and achieved 4·5 goals during the family nursing process. The resource-enhancing family nursing can be used for supporting parenthood, the raising of and caring for the children, strengthening of social support networks, decreasing the need for support from the authorities and enhancing the parents' resources to manage the duties related to their work and studies. The study resulted in empirically based concepts that can be used in the future to construct instruments to evaluate the effectiveness of resource-enhancing family nursing from the perspective of families and family health. The findings add to our professional understanding of resource-enhancing family nursing. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available An application of building a system dynamics model of the way households might respond to interventions aimed at reducing energy consumption (specifically the use of electricity is described in this paper. A literature review of past research is used to build an initial integrated model of household consumption, and this model is used to generate a small number of research hypotheses about how households possessing different characteristics might react to various types of interventions. These hypotheses are tested using data gathered from an efficiency intervention conducted in a town in the South African Western Cape in which households were able to exchange regular light bulbs for more efficient compact fluorescent lamp light bulbs. Our experiences are (a that a system dynamics approach proved useful in advancing a non-traditional point of view for which, for historical and economic reasons, data were not abundantly available; (b that, in areas where traditional models are heavily quantitative, some scepticism to a system dynamics model may be expected; and (c that a statistical comparison of model results by means of empirical data may be an effective tool in reducing such scepticism.
Johnson, Maxine; Blank, Lindsay; Cantrell, Anna; Brumfitt, Shelagh; Enderby, Pam; Goyder, Elizabeth
Abstract Background The growing range of available treatment options for people who stutter presents a challenge for clinicians, service managers and commissioners, who need to have access to the best available treatment evidence to guide them in providing the most appropriate interventions. While a number of reviews of interventions for specific populations or a specific type of intervention have been carried out, a broad‐based systematic review across all forms of intervention for adults and children was needed to provide evidence to underpin future guidelines, inform the implementation of effective treatments and identify future research priorities. Aims To identify and synthesize the published research evidence on the clinical effectiveness of the broad range of non‐pharmacological interventions for the management of developmental stuttering. Methods & Procedures A systematic review of the literature reporting interventions for developmental stuttering was carried out between August 2013 and April 2014. Searches were not limited by language or location, but were restricted by date to studies published from 1990 onwards. Methods for the identification of relevant studies included electronic database searching, reference list checking, citation searching and hand searching of key journals. Appraisal of study quality was performed using a tool based on established criteria for considering risk of bias. Due to heterogeneity in intervention content and outcomes, a narrative synthesis was completed. Main Contribution The review included all available types of intervention and found that most may be of benefit to at least some people who stutter. There was evidence, however, of considerable individual variation in response to these interventions. The review indicated that effects could be maintained following all types of interventions (although this was weakest with regard to feedback and technology interventions). Conclusions This review highlights a need for
Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Roston, Karen Laurie; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim
This study examined the effectiveness of two approaches used in elementary schools to improve children's handwriting. Participants were 72 New York City public school students from the first and second grades. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest group design was used in which students engaged in handwriting activities using two approaches: intensive handwriting practice and visual-perceptual-motor activities. Handwriting speed, legibility, and visual-motor skills were examined after a 12-wk Handwriting Club using multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed that students in the intensive handwriting practice group demonstrated significant improvements in handwriting legibility compared with students in the visual-perceptual-motor activity group. No significant effects in handwriting speed and visual-motor skills were found between the students in intensive handwriting practice group and the students in visual-perceptual-motor activities group. The Handwriting Club model is a natural intervention that fits easily into existing school curriculums and can be an effective short-term intervention (response to intervention Tier II). Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Sullivan, Amanda L.; Long, Lori
As Response to Intervention (RtI) approaches become more common in educational systems throughout the country, it is increasingly important to identify how practitioners perceive these changes and how they obtain the skills necessary to face emergent roles and responsibilities. In this exploratory study, a national sample of 557 school…
Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Hansen, Klaus
BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among laboratory technicians and work-related stress may aggravate the problem. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of a multifaceted worksite intervention on pain and stress among laboratory technicians with chronic musculoskeletal......: neck, shoulder, lower and upper back, elbow, and hand at 10 week follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was stress assessed by Cohen´s perceived stress questionnaire. In addition, an explorative dose-response analysis was performed on the adherence to PCMT with pain and stress, respectively......, as outcome measures. RESULTS: A significant (P stress was observed (treatment by time P = 0.16). Exploratory analyses for each body...
Anttila, Heidi; Suoranta, Jutta; Malmivaara, Antti
We conducted a criteria-based appraisal of systematic reviews on the effectiveness of physiotherapy and conductive education interventions in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Computerized bibliographic databases were searched without language restriction up to August 2007. Reviews on trials...... physiotherapy and occupational therapy interventions. Conclusions in the other reviews should be interpreted cautiously, although, because of the poor quality of the primary studies, most reviews drew no conclusions on the effectiveness of the reviewed interventions. Reviews on complex interventions...
Ewell Foster, Cynthia J; Burnside, Amanda N; Smith, Patricia K; Kramer, Anne C; Wills, Allie; A King, Cheryl
Gatekeeper training is a public health approach to suicide prevention that encourages community members to identify those at risk for suicide, respond appropriately, and refer for clinical services. Despite widespread use, few studies have examined whether training results in behavior change in participants. This study employed a naturalistic pre-post design to follow 434 participants in Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training, finding small but significant increases in self-reported identification of at-risk youth, some helpful responses to youth, and numbers of youth referred to treatment from pre-test to 6- to 9-month follow-up. Changes in active listening and helping behaviors meant to support treatment referrals (such as convincing a youth to seek treatment) were not observed over time. Additional analyses explored predictors of self-reported skill utilization including identification as a "natural helper" and attitudes about suicide prevention. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.
Noelia Bueno Gómez
Full Text Available On the one hand, it seems to be an agreement in Western countries in favor of values included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. On the other hand, Western countries initiate or intervene in armed conflicts outside their territories, which implies actions contrary to such values. This article examines this apparent contradiction: it describes briefly the international context of contemporary conflicts and it refers to the just-war tradition in order to analyze both the position of the Charter of the United Nations and the justifications given by Western countries. Moreover, the arguments used by the US and the Spanish Governments to justify their interventions in the Afghanistan (2001 and Iraq (2008 wars, and the responses of civil society are considered.
Crosbie, W.A.; Gittus, J.H.
The proceedings of a conference on 'Medical Response to Effects of Ionising Radiation' in 1989 in the form of nineteen papers published as a book. Topics discussed include radiation accidents at nuclear facilities, the medical management of radiation casualties, the responsibilities, plans and resources for coping with a nuclear accident and finally the long term effects of radiation, including leukaemia epidemiology studies. All papers were selected and indexed separately. (UK)
Lagercrantz, Love Per; Wyon, David; Meyer, H. W.
and objective (clinical) measurements were applied. The following effects of increased humidity were significant, though small: the air was evaluated as less dry (though still on the dry side of neutral), eyes smarted less (by 10% of full scale) eye irritation decreased (by 11%), symptoms of dry throat, mouth......The impact of dry indoor air on comfort and health in winter was investigated in a crossover intervention study in two floors of an office building in northern Sweden. The indoor air humidity (normally 10-20% RH) was raised to 23-24% RH, one floor at a time, using steam humidifiers. Questionnaires...
Hoyos, I. C.; González Morales, C.; Serna López, J. P.; Duque, C. L.; Canon Barriga, J. E.; Dominguez, F.
Andean water bodies in tropical regions are significantly influenced by fluctuations associated with climatic and anthropogenic drivers, which implies long term changes in mountain snow peaks, land covers and ecosystems, among others. Our work aims at providing an integrative framework to realistically assess the possible future of natural water bodies with different degrees of human intervention. We are studying in particular the evolution of three water bodies in Colombia: two Andean lakes and a floodplain wetland. These natural reservoirs represent the accumulated effect of hydrological processes in their respective basins, which exhibit different patterns of climate variability and distinct human intervention and environmental histories. Modelling the hydrological responses of these local water bodies to climate variability and human intervention require an understanding of the strong linkage between geophysical and social factors. From the geophysical perspective, the challenge is how to downscale global climate projections in the local context: complex orography and relative lack of data. To overcome this challenge we combine the correlational and physically based analysis of several sources of spatially distributed biophysical and meteorological information to accurately determine aspects such as moisture sources and sinks and past, present and future local precipitation and temperature regimes. From the social perspective, the challenge is how to adequately represent and incorporate into the models the likely response of social agents whose water-related interests are diverse and usually conflictive. To deal with the complexity of these systems we develop interaction matrices, which are useful tools to holistically discuss and represent each environment as a complex system. Our goal is to assess partially the uncertainties of the hydrological balances in these intervened water bodies we establish climate/social scenarios, using hybrid models that combine
Taylor, Pennie J; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Mummery, W Kerry; George, Emma S; Karunanithi, Mohanraj; Noakes, Manny J
Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1) published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2) male only studies (≥18 years) or 3) where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i) a significant change (pstudies were included. Sample sizes ranged from 53 to 5042 male participants, with study durations ranging from 12 weeks to 24 months. Overlap was seen with eight of the nine studies including a weight management component whilst six studies focused on achieving changes in dietary intake patterns relating to modifications of fruit, vegetable, dairy and total fat intakes and three studies primarily focused on achieving weight loss through caloric restriction. Intervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg) and/or BMI (kg/m2) changes (p≤0.05). Four studies had effective interventions (pself-monitoring and tailored feedback. Uncertainty remains as to the features of successful nutrition interventions for males due to limited details provided for nutrition intervention protocols, variability in mode of delivery and comparisons between delivery modes as well as content of information provided to participants between studies. This review offers knowledge to guide researchers in making informed decisions on how to best utilise resources in interventions to engage adult males while highlighting the need for improved reporting of intervention protocols.
.... The central technical objective of this proposal is to determine whether a multimodal psychosocial intervention provided during the presurgery interval affects immune and psychological function...
Research has demonstrated that siblings of chronically ill children can experience significant emotional and behavior changes; however, few studies have looked at the specific impact of pediatric hospitalization on the nonhospitalized child. Studies also indicate that children who receive age-appropriate information are better equipped to handle the stress and anxiety often associated with hospitalization.This study explored whether siblings of hospitalized children who received educational interventions had lower anxiety levels compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. A pretest-posttest experimental design was used with 50 subjects, ages 6-17 years, recruited from a children's hospital within a university medical center. Subjects were matched according to age, sex, and race, with 25 siblings each in the experimental and control groups. Siblings assigned to the experimental group received interventions from a standardized educational intervention protocol developed by the researcher. Interventions focused on teaching the sibling about hospitalization, illness or injury, and treatment for the patient, based on cognitive stages of development. All interventions were conducted by child life specialists on staff at the hospital with extensive training and experience in preparation and procedural teaching. Results shows that siblings who received educational interventions had significantly lower anxiety levels after interventions, compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. These findings have significant impact on children's health care and supporting family needs when a child is hospitalized.
Jakobsen, M D; Sundstrup, E; Brandt, M; Andersen, L L
The aim of this study is to identify factors associated with musculo-skeletal pain reduction during workplace-based or home-based physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers. Two hundred female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0-10) from three hospitals participated. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level (18 departments) to 10 weeks of (i) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5 × 10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (ii) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure-time for 5 × 10 minutes per week. Linear mixed models accounting for cluster identified factors affecting pain reduction. On average 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. The multi-adjusted analysis showed a significant effect on pain reduction of both training adherence (P=.04) and intervention group (P=.04) with participants in WORK experiencing greater reductions compared with HOME. Obesity at baseline was associated with better outcome. Leisure-time exercise, daily patient transfer, age, and chronic pain did not affect the changes in pain. In conclusion, even when adjusted for training adherence, performing physical exercise at the workplace is more effective than home-based exercise in reducing musculo-skeletal pain in healthcare workers. Noteworthy, obese individuals may especially benefit from physical exercise interventions targeting musculo-skeletal pain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirtuin1 (SIRT1 regulates gene expression in distinct metabolic pathways and mediates beneficial effects of caloric restriction in animal models. In humans, SIRT1 genetic variants associate with fasting energy expenditure. To investigate the relevance of SIRT1 for human metabolism and caloric restriction, we analyzed SIRT1 genetic variants in respect to the outcome of a controlled lifestyle intervention in Caucasians at risk for type 2 diabetes. Methods A total of 1013 non-diabetic Caucasians from the Tuebingen Family Study (TUEF were genotyped for four tagging SIRT1 SNPs (rs730821, rs12413112, rs7069102, rs2273773 for cross-sectional association analyses with prediabetic traits. SNPs that associated with basal energy expenditure in the TUEF cohort were additionally analyzed in 196 individuals who underwent a controlled lifestyle intervention (Tuebingen Lifestyle Intervention Program; TULIP. Multivariate regressions analyses with adjustment for relevant covariates were performed to detect associations of SIRT1 variants with the changes in anthropometrics, weight, body fat or metabolic characteristics (blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and liver fat, measured by magnetic resonance techniques after the 9-month follow-up test in the TULIP study. Results Minor allele (X/A carriers of rs12413112 (G/A had a significantly lower basal energy expenditure (p = 0.04 and an increased respiratory quotient (p = 0.02. This group (rs12413112: X/A was resistant against lifestyle-induced improvement of fasting plasma glucose (GG: -2.01%, X/A: 0.53%; p = 0.04, had less increase in insulin sensitivity (GG: 17.3%, X/A: 9.6%; p = 0.05 and an attenuated decline in liver fat (GG: -38.4%, X/A: -7.5%; p = 0.01. Conclusion SIRT1 plays a role for the individual lifestyle intervention response, possibly owing to decreased basal energy expenditure and a lower lipid-oxidation rate in rs12413112 X/A allele carriers. SIRT1 genetic
Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K; Wacker, David P; Crook, Kayla; Molony, Maggie A; Vargo, Kristina K; Neurnberger, Jodi E; Zabala, Karla; Taylor, Christopher J
Treatments based on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, such as functional communication training, are widely used. Research regarding the maintenance of related treatment effects is limited. Nevin and Wacker (2013) provided a conceptual framework, rooted in behavioral momentum theory, for the study of treatment maintenance that addressed two components: (a) reemergence of problem behavior, and (b) continued expression of appropriate behavior. In the few studies on this topic, focus has been on variables impacting the reemergence of problem behavior, with fewer studies evaluating the persistence of appropriate behavior. Given the findings from applied research related to functional communication training, variables related to response topography, such as response preference, may impact this aspect of maintenance. In the current study, the impact of response preference on persistence was evaluated in the context of functional communication training for individuals who did not exhibit problem behavior (Experiment 1) and for individuals with a history of reinforcement for problem behavior (Experiment 2). High-preferred mands were more persistent than low-preferred mands. These findings suggest that response related variables, such as response preference, impact response persistence and further suggest that response related variables should be considered when developing interventions such as functional communication training. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
. Alternatively, it could be argued that these constructs need not be targeted in interventions aimed at adolescents, as they may not be responsible for the intervention effects on fat intake. To draw any conclusions regarding mediators of fat-intake change in adolescent' girls and regarding optimal future intervention strategies, more systematic research on the mediating properties of psychosocial variables is needed.
Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Hales, Sarah B; Schoffman, Danielle E; Valafar, Homay; Brazendale, Keith; Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Mandes, Trisha; Hébert, James R; Wilcox, Sara; Hester, Andrew; McGrievy, Matthew J
Both mobile apps and responsive-design websites (web apps) can be used to deliver mobile health (mHealth) interventions, but it can be difficult to discern which to use in research. The goal of this paper is to present four case studies from behavioral interventions that developed either a mobile app or a web app for research and present an information table to help researchers determine which mobile option would work best for them. Four behavioral intervention case studies (two developed a mobile app, and two developed a web app) presented include time, cost, and expertise. Considerations for adopting a mobile app or a web app-such as time, cost, access to programmers, data collection, security needs, and intervention components- are presented. Future studies will likely integrate both mobile app and web app modalities. The considerations presented here can help guide researchers on which platforms to choose prior to starting an mHealth intervention.
Full Text Available This paper assesses the effectiveness of intervention measures adopted by central authorities during 2005-2012 in CEE. We investigate their impact on bank stability in 15 countries from CEE using bank-level data and OLS estimation method. The bank stability is proxied by the natural logarithm of the Z-Score and the non-performing loans to gross loans ratio. Empirical findings suggest that interest rates cuts, as well as domestic and foreign liquidity injections have a significant impact on bank stability in Emerging Europe. Moreover, their effectiveness differs according to several bank characteristics. Policy measures adopted by CEE countries significantly reduced the stability of domestic banks, but increased the stability of banks with a lower level of capitalization. The impact on the Z–score of banking system liquidity policy measures and the policy interest rates cuts is significantly lower in the case of domestic banks, amplified for less-capitalized banks (except for the category regarding banks’ solvency, while their impact on large banks remains statistically insignificant.
Shire, Stephanie Y.; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie
Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children’s signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents’ responsive behaviour in association with children’s social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention. Eighty-five dyads were randomized to one of two 10-week caregiver-training interventions. Parent–child play interactions were coded for parental resp...
Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J
We tested the effects of different post-match recovery interventions on the subsequent hormonal responses to a physical stress-test and game performance in professional rugby union players. On four occasions, participants (n=12) completed a video session (1 h each) with accompanying coach feedback the day after a rugby union match. The interventions showed either video footage of player mistakes with negative coach feedback (NCF1) or player successes with positive feedback (PCF1). Both approaches were repeated (NCF2 and PCF2). In the following week, participants were assessed for their free testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses to a physical stress-test, pre-game T and game-ranked performance. The PFC1 and PCF2 approaches were both associated with significantly (pgame T concentrations and superior game-ranked performances than the NCF approaches (pgame presentation of specific video footage combined with different coach feedbacks appeared to influence the free hormonal state of rugby players and game performance several days later. Therefore, within the sporting context, future behaviour and performance might be modified through the use of simple psychological strategies. These data are applicable to generalised human stress responses and their modifiability by prior exposure to a stressor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In order to control and eliminate malaria, areas of on-going transmission need to be identified and targeted for malaria control interventions. Immediately following intense interventions, malaria transmission can become more heterogeneous if interventions are more successful in some areas than others. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, has been subject to comprehensive malaria control interventions since 2004. This has resulted in substantial reductions in the parasite burden, although this drop has not been uniform across the island.In 2008, filter paper blood samples were collected from 7387 people in a cross-sectional study incorporating 18 sentinel sites across Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. Antibodies were measured to P. falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1 by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Age-specific seropositivity rates were used to estimate seroconversion rates (SCR. Analysis indicated there had been at least a 60% decline in SCR in four out of five regions on the island. Changes in SCR showed a high degree of congruence with changes in parasite rate (PR and with regional reductions in all cause child mortality. The mean age adjusted concentration of anti-AMA-1 antibodies was mapped to identify areas where individual antibody responses were higher than expected. This approach confirmed the North West of the island as a major focus of continuing infection and an area where control interventions need to be concentrated or re-evaluated.Both SCR and PR revealed heterogeneity in malaria transmission and demonstrated the variable effectiveness of malaria control measures. This work confirms the utility of serological analysis as an adjunct measure for monitoring transmission. Age-specific seroprevalence based evidence of changes in transmission over time will be of particular value when no baseline data are available. Importantly, SCR data provide additional evidence to link malaria control activities to contemporaneous
Griffin, Megan M.
Various interventions have been developed to promote student individualized education program (IEP) participation. Although they are generally endorsed by educators and researchers, critics argue that interventions to promote self-determination and IEP participation may be counter to the values of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD)…
Constantinou, Elena; Panayiotou, Georgia; Theodorou, Marios
Findings on alexithymic emotion difficulties have been inconsistent. We examined potential differences between alexithymic and control participants in general arousal, reactivity, facial and subjective expression, emotion labeling, and covariation between emotion response systems. A depth of processing intervention was introduced. Fifty-four participants (27 alexithymic), selected using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, completed an imagery experiment (imagining joy, fear and neutral scripts), under instructions for shallow or deep emotion processing. Heart rate, skin conductance, facial electromyography and startle reflex were recorded along with subjective ratings. Results indicated hypo-reactivity to emotion among high alexithymic individuals, smaller and slower startle responses, and low covariation between physiology and self-report. No deficits in facial expression, labeling and emotion ratings were identified. Deep processing was associated with increased physiological reactivity and lower perceived dominance and arousal in high alexithymia. Findings suggest a tendency for avoidance of intense, unpleasant emotions and less defensive action preparation in alexithymia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Borsari, Brian; Magill, Molly; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Hustad, John T P; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Barnett, Nancy P; Kahler, Christopher W; Eaton, Erica; Monti, Peter M
Students referred to school administration for alcohol policies violations currently receive a wide variety of interventions. This study examined predictors of response to 2 interventions delivered to mandated college students (N = 598) using a stepped care approach incorporating a peer-delivered 15-min brief advice (BA) session (Step 1) and a 60- to 90-min brief motivational intervention (BMI) delivered by trained interventionists (Step 2). Analyses were completed in 2 stages. First, 3 types of variables (screening variables, alcohol-related cognitions, mandated student profile) were examined in a logistic regression model as putative predictors of lower risk drinking (defined as 3 or fewer heavy episodic drinking [HED] episodes and/or 4 or fewer alcohol-related consequences in the past month) 6 weeks following the BA session. Second, we used generalized estimating equations to examine putative moderators of BMI effects on HED and peak blood alcohol content compared with assessment only (AO) control over the 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-ups. Participants reporting lower scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, more benefits to changing alcohol use, and those who fit the "Bad Incident" profile at baseline were more likely to report lower risk drinking 6 weeks after the BA session. Moderation analyses revealed that Bad Incident students who received the BMI reported more HED at 9-month follow-up than those who received AO. Current alcohol use as well as personal reaction to the referral event may have clinical utility in identifying which mandated students benefit from treatments of varying content and intensity. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Timmerman, Gayle M.; Brown, Adama
Objective: To evaluate the effect of a "Mindful Restaurant Eating" intervention on weight management. Design: Randomized control trial. Setting: Greater metropolitan area of Austin, Texas. Participants: Women (n = 35) 40-59 years old who eat out at least 3 times per week. Intervention: The intervention, using 6 weekly 2-hour, small group…
Fatum, Rasmus; Pedersen, Jesper
This paper investigates the real-time effects of foreign exchange intervention using official intraday intervention data provided by the Danish central bank. Denmark is currently pursuing an active intervention policy under the provisions of the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM II) and intervenes...
Fatum, Rasmus; Pedersen, Jesper; Sørensen, Peter Norman
We investigate the intraday effects of intra-marginal intervention in a horizontal band on the exchange rate spread. Official intraday data on Danish intervention transactions in the ERM II, the Exchange Rate Mechanism of the European Union, facilitates our analysis. We show that intervention...
Hernandez-Melis, Claudia; Fenning, Pamela; Lawrence, Elizabeth
The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of an alternative to suspension intervention on students' subsequent major referrals. The intervention included activities designed to teach social coping strategies as well as mediation to resolve interpersonal conflicts. The intervention was implemented in a therapeutic high school, and…
Bevelander, K.E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Wansink, B.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to pilot test two interventions designed to reduce children's susceptibility to peers' candy intake and to determine if interventions had different effects on boys and girls. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the standard intervention, peer modeling was explained
Tucker, Sharon J; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; Murphy, Justyne N; Thompson, Warren G; Weymiller, Audrey J; Lohse, Christine; Levine, James A
Hospital nurses who are working mothers are challenged to maintain their personal health and model healthy behaviors for their children. This study aimed to develop and test an innovative 10-week worksite physical activity intervention integrated into the work flow of hospital-based nurses who were mothers. Three volunteer adult medical-surgical nursing units participated as intervention units. Fifty-eight nurses (30 intervention and 28 control) provided baseline and post-intervention repeated measurements of physical activity (steps) and body composition. Intervention participants provided post-intervention focus group feedback. For both groups, daily steps averaged more than 12,400 at baseline and post-intervention. No significant effects were found for physical activity; significant effects were found for fat mass, fat index, and percent fat (p working mothers. Future research is warranted with a larger sample, longer intervention, and additional measures. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Capewell, Simon; Capewell, Ann
Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats). These comprehensive, policy-based interventions reach all parts of the population and do not depend on a sustained 'agentic' individual response. They thus tend to be more effective, more rapid, more equitable and also cost-saving. This effectiveness hierarchy is self-evident to many professionals working in public health. Previously neglected in the wider world, this effectiveness hierarchy now needs to be acknowledged by policy makers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abdullah, Ghadah; Rossy, Dianne; Ploeg, Jenny; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn; Sikora, Lindsey; Stacey, Dawn
Mentoring as a knowledge translation (KT) intervention uses social influence among healthcare professionals to increase use of evidence in clinical practice. To determine the effectiveness of mentoring as a KT intervention designed to increase healthcare professionals' use of evidence in clinical practice. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, CINAHL), grey literature, and hand searching. Eligible studies evaluated mentoring of healthcare professionals responsible for patient care to enhance the uptake of evidence into practice. Mentoring is defined as (a) a mentor more experienced than mentee; (b) individualized support based on mentee's needs; and (c) involved in an interpersonal relationship as indicated by mutual benefit, engagement, and commitment. Two reviewers independently screened citations for eligibility, extracted data, and appraised quality of studies. Data were analyzed descriptively. Of 10,669 citations from 1988 to 2012, 10 studies were eligible. Mentoring as a KT intervention was evaluated in Canada, USA, and Australia. Exposure to mentoring compared to no mentoring improved some behavioral outcomes (one study). Compared to controls or other multifaceted interventions, multifaceted interventions with mentoring improved practitioners' knowledge (four of five studies), beliefs (four of six studies), and impact on organizational outcomes (three of four studies). There were mixed findings for changes in professionals' behaviors and impact on practitioners' and patients' outcomes: some outcomes improved, while others showed no difference. Only one study evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring alone as a KT intervention and showed improvement in some behavioral outcomes. The other nine studies that evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring as part of a multifaceted intervention showed mixed findings, making it difficult to determine the added effect of mentoring. Further research is needed to identify effective
Abdullah, Ghadah; Rossy, Dianne; Ploeg, Jenny; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn; Sikora, Lindsey; Stacey, Dawn
Background Mentoring as a knowledge translation (KT) intervention uses social influence among healthcare professionals to increase use of evidence in clinical practice. Aim To determine the effectiveness of mentoring as a KT intervention designed to increase healthcare professionals’ use of evidence in clinical practice. Methods A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, CINAHL), grey literature, and hand searching. Eligible studies evaluated mentoring of healthcare professionals responsible for patient care to enhance the uptake of evidence into practice. Mentoring is defined as (a) a mentor more experienced than mentee; (b) individualized support based on mentee's needs; and (c) involved in an interpersonal relationship as indicated by mutual benefit, engagement, and commitment. Two reviewers independently screened citations for eligibility, extracted data, and appraised quality of studies. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results Of 10,669 citations from 1988 to 2012, 10 studies were eligible. Mentoring as a KT intervention was evaluated in Canada, USA, and Australia. Exposure to mentoring compared to no mentoring improved some behavioral outcomes (one study). Compared to controls or other multifaceted interventions, multifaceted interventions with mentoring improved practitioners’ knowledge (four of five studies), beliefs (four of six studies), and impact on organizational outcomes (three of four studies). There were mixed findings for changes in professionals’ behaviors and impact on practitioners’ and patients’ outcomes: some outcomes improved, while others showed no difference. Linking Evidence to Action Only one study evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring alone as a KT intervention and showed improvement in some behavioral outcomes. The other nine studies that evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring as part of a multifaceted intervention showed mixed findings, making it difficult to determine the added effect
Penner, Melanie; Rayar, Meera; Bashir, Naazish; Roberts, S. Wendy; Hancock-Howard, Rebecca L.; Coyte, Peter C.
Novel management strategies for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose providing interventions before diagnosis. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the costs and dependency-free life years (DFLYs) generated by pre-diagnosis intensive Early Start Denver Model (ESDM-I); pre-diagnosis parent-delivered ESDM (ESDM-PD); and the Ontario…
Hendrie, Gilly A.; Brindal, Emily; Corsini, Nadia; Gardner, Claire; Baird, Danielle; Golley, Rebecca K.
This review identifies studies describing interventions delivered across both the home and school/community setting, which target obesity and weight-related nutrition and physical activity behaviors in children. Fifteen studies, published between 1998 and 2010, were included and evaluated for effectiveness, study quality, nutrition/activity…
Koolhaas, Wendy; Groothoff, Johan W; de Boer, Michiel R; van der Klink, Jac J L; Brouwer, Sandra
An ageing workforce combined with increasing health problems in ageing workers implies the importance of evidence-based interventions to enhance sustainable employability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the 'Staying healthy at work' problem-solving based intervention compared to business as usual. This study was designed as a quasi-experimental trial with a one-year follow-up. Measurements were performed at baseline, three and twelve months. The problem-solving based intervention provides a strategy for increasing the awareness of ageing workers of their role and responsibility in living sustainable, healthy working lives. The primary outcomes were work ability, vitality and productivity. Secondary outcomes were perceived fatigue, psychosocial work characteristics, work attitude, self-efficacy and work engagement. Analyses were performed on the 64 workers in the intervention and 61 workers from the business as usual group. No effects on productivity (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.23-3.00) and adverse effects on work ability (B = -1.33, 95% CI -2.45 to -0.20) and vitality (OR = 0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.46) were found. Positive results were found for the work attitude secondary outcome (B = 5.29, 95% CI -9.59 to -0.99), the self-efficacy persistence subscale (B = 1.45, 95% CI 0.43-2.48) and the skill discretion subscale of the Job Content Questionnaire (B = 1.78, 95% CI 0.74-2.83). The results of the problem-solving intervention showed no positive effects on the three outcome measures compared to business as usual. However, effectiveness was shown on three of the secondary outcome measures, i.e. work attitude, self-efficacy and skill discretion. We presume that the lack of positive effects on primary outcomes is due to programme failure and not to theory failure. The trial is registered with the Dutch Trial Register under number NTR2270 .
Ameling, Jessica M; Ephraim, Patti L; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David M; Roter, Debra L; Wolff, Jennifer L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Noronha, Gary J; Fagan, Peter J; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Cooper, Lisa A; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Albert, Michael C; Flynn, Sarah J; Boulware, L Ebony
African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions' cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community members. The process required substantial time and resources, and the adapted interventions will be tested in a randomized controlled trial.
Full Text Available The Northern Territory National Emergency Response Intervention (the Intervention of 2007 was a bold experiment by the Howard Government. The Intervention was developed quickly without comprehensive policy development based on evidence or consultation. During its five-year statutory life (ending August 2012, the absence of coherent policy logic has seen the Intervention fundamentally reframed by the Rudd and Gillard Governments. The unprecedented and controversial nature of the Intervention has seen extraordinary levels of monitoring, review and evaluation, but the absence of an overarching evaluation strategy has resulted in a fragmented and confused approach. In this article, we do not seek to critique the Intervention itself or to assess whether these multiple monitoring and evaluation exercises have been successes or failures. Indeed, our review illustrates that in highly contested policy areas, notions of success, failure and the evaluations themselves become politically charged. Instead we make a series of critical observations regarding this contradictory messiness of evaluations, using political science and anthropological frameworks to draw wider conclusions about the nature and logic of evaluation fetishism. We conclude that evaluations of the Intervention have not led to greater transparency, accountability and monitoring of outcomes and outputs. The Intervention evaluations instead are consistent with the view that they are both obfuscating mechanisms and techniques of governance designed to allay public concern and normalise the governance of marginalised Indigenous Australian spaces.
Tatum, James M; White, Terris; Kang, Christopher; Ley, Eric J; Melo, Nicolas; Bloom, Matthew; Alban, Rodrigo F
The objective of the study was to characterize house staff time to response and intervention when notified of a patient care issue by pager vs. smartphone. We hypothesized that smartphones would reduce house staff time to response and intervention. Prospective study of all electronic communications was conducted between nurses and house staff between September 2015 and October 2015. The 4-week study period was randomly divided into two 2-week study periods where all electronic communications between intensive care unit nurses and intensive care unit house staff were exclusively by smartphone or by pager, respectively. Time of communication initiation, time of house staff response, and time from response to clinical intervention for each communication were recorded. Outcomes are time from nurse contact to house staff response and intervention. Single-center surgical intensive care unit of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, an academic tertiary care and level I trauma center. All electronic communications occurring between nurses and house staff in the study unit during the study period were considered. During the study period, 205 nurse-house staff electronic communications occurred, 100 in the phone group and 105 in the pager group. House staff response to communication time was significantly shorter in the phone group (0.5 [interquartile range = 1.7] vs. 2 min, p house staff intervention after response was also significantly more rapid in the phone group (0.8 [1.7] vs. 1 min, p = 0.003). Dedicated clinical smartphones significantly decrease time to house staff response after electronic nursing communications compared with pagers. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cortés, Dharma E.; Garcia, Samantha; Duan, Lei; Black, David S.
Objectives. To compare changes in food-purchasing knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior after viewing nutrition education videos among Los Angeles, California Latinas responsible for household grocery shopping. Methods. From February to May 2015, a convenience sample of 113 Latinas watched 1 video (El Carrito Saludable) featuring MyPlate guidelines applied to grocery shopping (1-video intervention) and another convenience sample of 105 Latinas watched 2 videos (El Carrito Saludable and Ser Consciente), the latter featuring mindfulness to support attention and overcome distractions while grocery shopping (2-video intervention). We administered questionnaires before and after intervention. A preselected sample in each intervention condition (n = 72) completed questionnaires at 2-months after intervention and provided grocery receipts (before and 2-months after intervention). Results. Knowledge improved in both intervention groups (P behavior and mindfulness show promise for improving the quality of foods that Latinas bring into the home. PMID:28323473
Amaro, Hortensia; Cortés, Dharma E; Garcia, Samantha; Duan, Lei; Black, David S
To compare changes in food-purchasing knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior after viewing nutrition education videos among Los Angeles, California Latinas responsible for household grocery shopping. From February to May 2015, a convenience sample of 113 Latinas watched 1 video (El Carrito Saludable) featuring MyPlate guidelines applied to grocery shopping (1-video intervention) and another convenience sample of 105 Latinas watched 2 videos (El Carrito Saludable and Ser Consciente), the latter featuring mindfulness to support attention and overcome distractions while grocery shopping (2-video intervention). We administered questionnaires before and after intervention. A preselected sample in each intervention condition (n = 72) completed questionnaires at 2-months after intervention and provided grocery receipts (before and 2-months after intervention). Knowledge improved in both intervention groups (P shopping list (both P behavior and mindfulness show promise for improving the quality of foods that Latinas bring into the home.
Sultan, Dagnenet; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Adgo, Enyew; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Masunaga, Tsugiyuki; Aklog, Dagnachew; Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Ebabu, Kindiye
Various soil and water conservation measures (SWC) have been widely implemented to reduce surface runoff in degraded and drought-prone watersheds. But little quantitative study has been done on to what extent such measures can reduce watershed-scale runoff, particularly from typical humid tropical highlands of Ethiopia. The overall goal of this study is to analyze the impact of SWC interventions on the runoff response by integrating field measurement with a hydrological CN model which gives a quantitative analysis future thought. Firstly, a paired-watershed approach was employed to quantify the relative difference in runoff response for the Kasiry (treated) and Akusty (untreated) watersheds. Secondly, a calibrated curve number hydrological modeling was applied to investigate the effect of various SWC management scenarios for the Kasiry watershed alone. The paired-watershed approach showed a distinct runoff response between the two watersheds however the effect of SWC measures was not clearly discerned being masked by other factors. On the other hand, the model predicts that, under the current SWC coverage at Kasiry, the seasonal runoff yield is being reduced by 5.2%. However, runoff yields from Kasiry watershed could be decreased by as much as 34% if soil bunds were installed on cultivated land and trenches were installed on grazing and plantation lands. In contrast, implementation of SWC measures on bush land and natural forest would have little effect on reducing runoff. The results on the magnitude of runoff reduction under optimal combinations of SWC measures and land use will support decision-makers in selection and promotion of valid management practices that are suited to particular biophysical niches in the tropical humid highlands of Ethiopia.
This article explores the pattern of early marriage in Africa. It focuses on the sub-Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a framework for analyzing global, regional and local initiatives to curb early marriage and examines the application of these interventions in sub-Saharan countries. Regional patterns are then examined and countries which have made progress in reducing age of marriage are compared to countries in which age of marriage amongst girls has reminded low. The paper concludes on the note that countries with the highest rates of early marriage are also the countries with the highest rates of poverty and highest population growth rates. The paper argues for a sub-regional strategy to address the problem of early marriage in the zone with the highest incidence.
Novoa, Ana M; Pérez, Katherine; Borrell, Carme
Only road safety interventions with scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness should be implemented. The objective of this study was to identify and summarize the available evidence on the effectiveness of road safety interventions in reducing road traffic collisions, injuries and deaths. All literature reviews published in scientific journals that assessed the effectiveness of one or more road safety interventions and whose outcome measure was road traffic crashes, injuries or fatalities were included. An exhaustive search was performed in scientific literature databases. The interventions were classified according to the evidence of their effectiveness in reducing road traffic injuries (effective interventions, insufficient evidence of effectiveness, ineffective interventions) following the structure of the Haddon matrix. Fifty-four reviews were included. Effective interventions were found before, during and after the collision, and across all factors: a) the individual: the graduated licensing system (31% road traffic injury reduction); b) the vehicle: electronic stability control system (2 to 41% reduction); c) the infrastructure: area-wide traffic calming (0 to 20%), and d) the social environment: speed cameras (7 to 30%). Certain road safety interventions are ineffective, mostly road safety education, and others require further investigation. The most successful interventions are those that reduce or eliminate the hazard and do not depend on changes in road users' behavior or on their knowledge of road safety issues. Interventions based exclusively on education are ineffective in reducing road traffic injuries.
Hoogendoorn, Martine; Feenstra, Talitha L; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H
The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term (cost-) effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A systematic review was performed of randomised controlled trials on smoking cessation interventions in patients with COPD reporting 12-month biochemical validated abstinence rates. The different interventions were grouped into four categories: usual care, minimal counselling, intensive counselling and intensive counselling + pharmacotherapy ('pharmacotherapy'). For each category the average 12-month continuous abstinence rate and intervention costs were estimated. A dynamic population model for COPD was used to project the long-term (cost-) effectiveness (25 years) of 1-year implementation of the interventions for 50% of the patients with COPD who smoked compared with usual care. Uncertainty and one-way sensitivity analyses were performed for variations in the calculation of the abstinence rates, the type of projection, intervention costs and discount rates. Nine studies were selected. The average 12-month continuous abstinence rates were estimated to be 1.4% for usual care, 2.6% for minimal counselling, 6.0% for intensive counselling and 12.3% for pharmacotherapy. Compared with usual care, the costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for minimal counselling, intensive counselling and pharmacotherapy were euro 16 900, euro 8200 and euro 2400, respectively. The results were most sensitive to variations in the estimation of the abstinence rates and discount rates. Compared with usual care, intensive counselling and pharmacotherapy resulted in low costs per QALY gained with ratios comparable to results for smoking cessation in the general population. Compared with intensive counselling, pharmacotherapy was cost saving and dominated the other interventions.
Smith, Isabel M.; Koegel, Robert L.; Koegel, Lynn K.; Openden, Daniel A.; Fossum, Kristin L.; Bryson, Susan E.
The Nova Scotia early intensive behavior intervention model--NS EIBI (Bryson et al., 2007) for children with autistic spectrum disorders was designed to be feasible and sustainable in community settings. It combines parent training and naturalistic one-to-one behavior intervention employing Pivotal Response Treatment--PRT (R. Koegel & Koegel,…
Greenland, Katie; Chipungu, Jenala; Chilekwa, Joyce; Chilengi, Roma; Curtis, Val
Diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death in Zambia. As elsewhere, the disease burden could be greatly reduced through caregiver uptake of existing prevention and treatment strategies. We recently reported the results of the Komboni Housewives intervention which tested a novel strategy employing motives including affiliation and disgust to improve caregiver practice of four diarrhoea control behaviours: exclusive breastfeeding; handwashing with soap; and correct preparation and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. The intervention was delivered via community events (women's forums and road shows), at health clinics (group session) and via radio. A cluster randomised trial revealed that the intervention resulted in a small improvement in exclusive breastfeeding practices, but was only associated with small changes in the other behaviours in areas with greater intervention exposure. This paper reports the findings of the process evaluation that was conducted alongside the trial to investigate how factors associated with intervention delivery and receipt influenced caregiver uptake of the target behaviours. Process data were collected from the eight peri-urban and rural intervention areas throughout the six-month implementation period and in all 16 clusters 4-6 weeks afterwards. Intervention implementation (fidelity, reach, dose delivered and recruitment strategies) and receipt (participant engagement and responses, and mediators) were explored through review of intervention activity logs, unannounced observation of intervention events, semi-structured interviews, focus groups with implementers and intervention recipients, and household surveys. Evaluation methods and analyses were guided by the intervention's theory of change and the evaluation framework of Linnan and Steckler. Intervention reach was lower than intended: 39% of the surveyed population reported attending one or more face-to-face intervention event, of whom only 11% attended two or more
Getter, H; Nowinski, J K
Development of the Interpersonal Problem Solving Assessment Technique (IPSAT), College form, is described. Guided by Rotter's Social Learning Theory, problem-solving, and assertiveness research, a semi-structured free response format was designed to assess components of interpersonal effectiveness, The instrument yields patterns of self-reported behaviors in six classes of problematic social situations. A detailed manual enabled reliable scoring of the following response categories: Effectiveness, avoidance, appropriateness, dependency and solution productivity. Scores were not materially affected by sex, verbal ability, or social desirability response sets. Correlations with the College Self-Expression Scale, the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule and the Lanyon Psychological Screening Inventory provided initial evidence of validity. Comparison of mean IPSAT scores of 23 psychotherapy clients with those of 78 normative subjects showed that clients report less interpersonal effectiveness and more avoidance than controls. Implications for utility of the IPSAT are discussed.
Gaspard, H.; Dicke, A.-l.; Flunger, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412516322; Haefner, I.; Brisson, B. M.; Trautwein, U.; Nagengast, B.
One way to address the leaking pipeline toward STEM-related careers (i.e., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) is to intervene on students’ STEM motivation in school. However, a neglected question in intervention research is how such interventions affect motivation in subjects not
Taylor Pennie J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. Methods A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1 published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2 male only studies (≥18 years or 3 where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i a significant change (p Results Nine studies were included. Sample sizes ranged from 53 to 5042 male participants, with study durations ranging from 12 weeks to 24 months. Overlap was seen with eight of the nine studies including a weight management component whilst six studies focused on achieving changes in dietary intake patterns relating to modifications of fruit, vegetable, dairy and total fat intakes and three studies primarily focused on achieving weight loss through caloric restriction. Intervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg and/or BMI (kg/m2 changes (p≤0.05. Four studies had effective interventions (p Intervention features, which appeared to be associated with better outcomes, include the delivery of quantitative information on diet and the use of self-monitoring and tailored feedback. Conclusion Uncertainty remains as to the features of successful nutrition interventions for males due to limited details provided for nutrition intervention protocols, variability in mode of delivery and comparisons between delivery modes as well as content of information provided to participants between studies. This review offers knowledge to
Wiedermann, Wolfgang; Li, Xintong; von Eye, Alexander
In a recent update of the standards for evidence in research on prevention interventions, the Society of Prevention Research emphasizes the importance of evaluating and testing the causal mechanism through which an intervention is expected to have an effect on an outcome. Mediation analysis is commonly applied to study such causal processes. However, these analytic tools are limited in their potential to fully understand the role of theorized mediators. For example, in a design where the treatment x is randomized and the mediator (m) and the outcome (y) are measured cross-sectionally, the causal direction of the hypothesized mediator-outcome relation is not uniquely identified. That is, both mediation models, x → m → y or x → y → m, may be plausible candidates to describe the underlying intervention theory. As a third explanation, unobserved confounders can still be responsible for the mediator-outcome association. The present study introduces principles of direction dependence which can be used to empirically evaluate these competing explanatory theories. We show that, under certain conditions, third higher moments of variables (i.e., skewness and co-skewness) can be used to uniquely identify the direction of a mediator-outcome relation. Significance procedures compatible with direction dependence are introduced and results of a simulation study are reported that demonstrate the performance of the tests. An empirical example is given for illustrative purposes and a software implementation of the proposed method is provided in SPSS.
Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakashita, Tomoe
To explore the long-term impact of a universal screening intervention for depression on suicide rates among older community-dwelling adults, with gender as an effect modifier. Controlled cohort study reporting long-term follow-up of previous research. Two sets of three municipalities in Japan were assigned as intervention and control regions and compared with the surrounding zone and prefecture. Intervention area residents aged 60 years and older (14,291) were invited to participate in a 2-year intervention (2005-2006). Four population-based dynamic cohorts of residents aged 65 years and older (1999-2010) were included as subjects, 6 years before and after the intervention started. At-risk residents within the intervention region (4,918) were invited for a two-step screening program; 2,552 participated in the program linked with care/support services for 2 years. An education program open to the public was held. Changes in suicide from a 6-year baseline to the 2-year intervention and a 4-year follow-up in the intervention region (11,700 adults ≥65 years) were compared with a matched control and two comparison areas using mixed-effects negative binomial regression models. Suicide rates among older adults exposed to screening were compared with those of the control region. Suicide rates in the intervention region decreased by 48%, which was significantly greater than in the three comparison areas. The program's benefits lasted longer for women than men. Screening exposure may be associated with decreased suicide risk over the 4-year follow-up. Universal screening may decrease suicide rates among older adults, with potential gender differences in treatment response. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background: A systematic review was conducted of randomized trials of workplace weight management interventions, including trials with dietary, physical activity, environmental, behavioral and incentive based components. Main outcomes were defined as change in weight-related measures. Methods: Key w...
M. Hoogendoorn (Martine); T.L. Feenstra (Talitha); R.T. Hoogenveen (Rudolf); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)
textabstractBackground: The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term (cost-) effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: A systematic review was performed of randomised controlled trials on smoking cessation
Felver, Joshua C; Tipsord, Jessica M; Morris, Maxwell J; Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Dishion, Thomas J
This article describes results from a randomized clinical trial of a mindfulness-based intervention for parents and children, Mindful Family Stress Reduction, on a behavioral measure of attention in youths, the Attention Network Task (ANT). Forty-one parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to either the mindfulness-based intervention condition or a wait-list control. School-age youths completed the ANT before and after the intervention. Results demonstrate significant, medium-size ( f 2 = -.16) intervention effects to the conflict monitoring subsystem of the ANT such that those in the intervention condition decreased in conflict monitoring more than those in the wait-list control. Youths in the intervention condition also showed improvements in their orienting subsystem scores, compared with controls. Mindfulness-based interventions for youths have potential utility to improve attentional self-regulation, and future research should consider incorporating measures of attention into interventions that use mindfulness training.
To access the effects of life style interventions on impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in Shanghai urban communities, China. Two communities were randomly cluster-sampled to be carried out epidemiological intervention trial. Totally, 232 subjects with IGR were randomly allocated into 4 groups: control group,sports intervention group, diet intervention group, and sports and diet intervention group with the physical examinations in the baseline and end of this study respectively. Tests for fasting blood glucose, OGTT, HbA1c, total cholesterol,etc. were done. Data statistical analysis was occupied in SPSS 16.0. Compared to subjects of control group,fasting blood glucose, OGTT, HbAlc,total cholesterol,BMI,waist hip ratio and blood pressures were significantly decreased among subjects with three interventions (P intervention and sports and diet intervention (P intervention (P interventions groups (8.6% vs. 0, Fisher' s exact P = 0.002), and the rate of transferring into normal blood glucose levels (fasting blood glucose interventions group (3.4% vs. 8.6%, 14.0% and 16.9%, respectively) but only significant difference was observed between control group and sports and diet intervention group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI 1. 19-27. 64, P = 0.029). The life style interventions could decrease the risk of diabetes mellitus, help their transferring into normal blood glucose, and improve diabetic measures for the IGR population in Shanghai urban communities.
O'Brien, Eileen C; Alberdi, Goiuri; Geraghty, Aisling A; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M
To determine if response to a low glycaemic index (GI) dietary intervention, measured by changes in dietary intake and gestational weight gain, differed across women of varying socio-economic status (SES). Secondary data analysis of the ROLO randomised control trial. The intervention consisted of a two-hour low-GI dietary education session in early pregnancy. Change in GI was measured using 3 d food diaries pre- and post-intervention. Gestational weight gain was categorised as per the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. SES was measured using education and neighbourhood deprivation. The National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Women (n 625) recruited to the ROLO randomised control trial. The intervention significantly reduced GI and excess gestational weight gain (EGWG) among women with third level education residing in both disadvantaged (GI, mean (sd), intervention v. control: -3·30 (5·15) v. -0·32 (4·22), P=0·024; EGWG, n (%), intervention v. control: 7 (33·6) v. 22 (67·9); P=0·022) and advantaged areas (GI: -1·13 (3·88) v. 0·06 (3·75), P=0·020; EGWG: 41 (34·1) v. 58 (52·6); P=0·006). Neither GI nor gestational weight gain differed between the intervention and control group among women with less than third level education, regardless of neighbourhood deprivation. A single dietary education session was not effective in reducing GI or gestational weight gain among less educated women. Multifaceted, appropriate and practical approaches are required in pregnancy interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes for less educated women.
Background Organisational-level workplace interventions are thought to produce more sustainable effects on the health of employees than interventions targeting individual behaviours. However, scientific evidence from intervention studies does not fully support this notion. It is therefore important to explore conditions of positive health effects by systematically reviewing available studies. We set out to evaluate the effectiveness of 39 health-related intervention studies targeting a variety of working conditions. Methods Systematic review. Organisational-level workplace interventions aiming at improving employees’ health were identified in electronic databases and manual searches. The appraisal of studies was adapted from the Cochrane Back Review Group guidelines. To improve comparability of the widely varying studies we classified the interventions according to the main approaches towards modifying working conditions. Based on this classification we applied a logistic regression model to estimate significant intervention effects. Results 39 intervention studies published between 1993 and 2012 were included. In terms of methodology the majority of interventions were of medium quality, and four studies only had a high level of evidence. About half of the studies (19) reported significant effects. There was a marginally significant probability of reporting effects among interventions targeting several organisational-level modifications simultaneously (Odds ratio (OR) 2.71; 95% CI 0.94-11.12), compared to those targeting one dimension only. Conclusions Despite the heterogeneity of the 39 organisational-level workplace interventions underlying this review, we were able to compare their effects by applying broad classification categories. Success rates were higher among more comprehensive interventions tackling material, organisational and work-time related conditions simultaneously. To increase the number of successful organisational-level interventions in the
Montano, Diego; Hoven, Hanno; Siegrist, Johannes
Organisational-level workplace interventions are thought to produce more sustainable effects on the health of employees than interventions targeting individual behaviours. However, scientific evidence from intervention studies does not fully support this notion. It is therefore important to explore conditions of positive health effects by systematically reviewing available studies. We set out to evaluate the effectiveness of 39 health-related intervention studies targeting a variety of working conditions. Systematic review. Organisational-level workplace interventions aiming at improving employees' health were identified in electronic databases and manual searches. The appraisal of studies was adapted from the Cochrane Back Review Group guidelines. To improve comparability of the widely varying studies we classified the interventions according to the main approaches towards modifying working conditions. Based on this classification we applied a logistic regression model to estimate significant intervention effects. 39 intervention studies published between 1993 and 2012 were included. In terms of methodology the majority of interventions were of medium quality, and four studies only had a high level of evidence. About half of the studies (19) reported significant effects. There was a marginally significant probability of reporting effects among interventions targeting several organisational-level modifications simultaneously (Odds ratio (OR) 2.71; 95% CI 0.94-11.12), compared to those targeting one dimension only. Despite the heterogeneity of the 39 organisational-level workplace interventions underlying this review, we were able to compare their effects by applying broad classification categories. Success rates were higher among more comprehensive interventions tackling material, organisational and work-time related conditions simultaneously. To increase the number of successful organisational-level interventions in the future, commonly reported obstacles against
Radatz, Dana L; Wright, Emily M
The majority of batterer intervention program (BIP) evaluations have indicated they are marginally effective in reducing domestic violence recidivism. Meanwhile, correctional programs used to treat a variety of offenders (e.g., substance users, violent offenders, and so forth) that adhere to the "principles of effective intervention" (PEI) have reported significant reductions in recidivism. This article introduces the PEI-the principles on which evidence-based practices in correctional rehabilitation are based-and identifies the degree to which they are currently integrated into BIPs. The case is made that batterer programs could be more effective if they incorporate the PEI. Recommendations for further integration of the principles into BIPs are also provided. © The Author(s) 2015.
Diab, Marwan; Peltonen, Kirsi; Qouta, Samir R; Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
The study examines, first, the effectiveness of a psychosocial intervention based on Teaching Recovery Techniques (TRT) to increase resiliency among Palestinian children, exposed to a major trauma of war. Second, it analyses the role of family factors (maternal attachment and family atmosphere) as moderating the intervention impacts on resilience. School classes in Gaza were randomized into intervention (N=242) and control (N=240) groups. The percentage of girls (49.4%) and boys (50.6%) were equal, and the child age was 10-13 years in both groups. Children reported positive indicators of their mental health (prosocial behaviour and psychosocial well-being) at baseline (T1), post-intervention (T2) and at a six-month follow-up (T3). At T1 they accounted their exposure to war trauma. Mothers reported about their willingness to serve as an attachment figure, and the child reported about the family atmosphere. Resilience was conceptualized as a presence of positive indications of mental health despite trauma exposure. Against our hypothesis, the intervention did not increase the level of resilience statistically significantly, nor was the effect of the intervention moderated by maternal attachment responses or family atmosphere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sharla N. Fasko
Full Text Available Recently there has been an ongoing, at times acrimonious, discussion about the newest incarnation of the federal law that mandates special services for children with disabilities. At the heart of the controversy is a relatively new evaluation model referred to as Response to Intervention (RTI. Advocates and stakeholders have been very vocal in their opinions, leaving those down on the frontlines puzzled and confused. Teachers in particular are feeling frustration over yet another, seemingly arbitrary change in the red tape of special education, about which no one has consulted them or even really bothered to explain.Historically, teachers have felt, not unreasonably, a bit victimized by special education law. In 1975, they were told to step aside, that they were not skilled enough to teach children with special needs. Teachers were given a clear message that their role was to keep alert for disabled children and send them on to the experts. Over time, that message has transformed into something quite different; now they hear that they are evading their responsibility by pushing children onto the special education rolls. In addition, procedures for referrals have modified almost yearly; just when they understand the process, it changes.The purpose of this paper is to examine the circumstances that led up to the conception of RTI, and why many people believe it is a significant but necessary change to special education law. In order to understand the rationale behind RTI, it must be examined in the context of the federal laws which necessitated its creation, beginning with Public Law 94-142 (also known as the Education for Handicapped Act, or EHA, passed in 1975, and its subsequent reauthorizations, the most recent of which is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, or IDEIA. For purposes of brevity in this paper, the original act and its descendants will be collectively referred to as IDEIA, unless an issue specific
Astrid Ledgaard Holm
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. METHODS: We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. RESULTS: Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. CONCLUSION: Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost
Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn
Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus be first priority for implementation.
Full Text Available Lipids are known to play crucial roles in the development of life-style related risk factors such as obesity, dyslipoproteinemia, hypertension and diabetes. The first selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant, an anorectic anti-obesity drug, was frequently used in conjunction with diet and exercise for patients with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2 with associated risk factors such as type II diabetes and dyslipidaemia in the past. Less is known about the impact of this drug on the regulation of lipid metabolism in plasma and liver in the early stage of obesity.We designed a four-week parallel controlled intervention on apolipoprotein E3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein (ApoE*3Leiden.CETP transgenic mice with mild overweight and hypercholesterolemia. A liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometric approach was employed to investigate plasma and liver lipid responses to the rimonabant intervention. Rimonabant was found to induce a significant body weight loss (9.4%, p<0.05 and a significant plasma total cholesterol reduction (24%, p<0.05. Six plasma and three liver lipids in ApoE*3Leiden.CETP transgenic mice were detected to most significantly respond to rimonabant treatment. Distinct lipid patterns between the mice were observed for both plasma and liver samples in rimonabant treatment vs. non-treated controls. This study successfully applied, for the first time, systems biology based lipidomics approaches to evaluate treatment effects of rimonabant in the early stage of obesity.The effects of rimonabant on lipid metabolism and body weight reduction in the early stage obesity were shown to be moderate in ApoE*3Leiden.CETP mice on high-fat diet.
Sun, Guohui; Feng, Chao; Jiang, Changqing; Zhang, Tingting; Bao, Zixian; Zuo, Yajun; Kong, Ming; Cheng, Xiaojie; Liu, Ya; Chen, Xiguang
This work targeted to investigate the potential of thermo-responsive hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC) hydrogel using as an embolic material for occlusion of selective blood vessels. HBC hydrogel was prepared via an etherification reaction between chitosan (CS) and 1, 2-butene oxide. The hydroxybutyl groups were introduced into CS backbone, which endowed HBC hydrogel with properties of porous structure, favorable hydrophilia and rapid sol-gel interconvertibility. The gelation temperatures and gelation time respectively decreased from 30.7°C to 11.5°C and 79.60±3.19s to 7.70±1.42s at 37°C, with HBC solutions viscoelasticity increased from 3.0% to 7.0%. HBC hydrogel exhibited noncytotoxic to mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and excellent hemocompatibility with red blood cells (RBCs). After injection HBC solution into rat renal arteries, HBC solution transformed into hydrogel and attached onto blood vessel inner wall tightly, giving immediate blood vessels embolization. Meanwhile, RBCs could aggregate around HBC hydrogel to form moderate coagulation, which was beneficial to avoid hydrogel migration with blood flow. Above results suggested that HBC hydrogel could be applied as a promising embolic agent for hemorrage in the interventional vascular embolization field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Wang, Xinchao
This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a workplace-based intervention program to improve mental health, work ability, and work productivity in privately owned enterprises in China. A prospective cohort intervention study design was employed in which the intervention program was implemented for 30 months (from July 2009 to December 2012). Nine privately owned retail enterprises in China participated in the intervention study. Researchers administered a self-report survey to 2768 employees. The research team measured participants' job stress, resilience, work ability, absenteeism, depression, and work performance. A comprehensive Health Promotion Enterprise Program was implemented that entailed the following components: policies to support a healthy work environment, psychosocial interventions to promote mental health, provision of health services to people with mental illness, and professional skills training to deal with stress and build resilience. Analysis of variance was used to examine preintervention versus postintervention differences in stress, resilience, and work ability. Logistic regression was used to examine absenteeism related to depression. The results suggest that the intervention program was effective at improving participants' ability to work, their sense of control over their jobs, and, in particular, their ability to meet the mental demands of work. The intervention program also reduced participants' job stress levels and reduced the probability of absenteeism related to depression. The intervention programs incorporating both individual-level and organizational-level factors to promote mental health were effective and have implications for both practice and policy regarding enterprises taking more responsibility for the provision of mental health services to their employees.
Sasson, Irit; Cohen, Donita
Israel suffers from a growing problem of socio-economic gaps between those who live in the center of the country and residents of outlying areas. As a result, there is a low level of accessibility to higher education among the peripheral population. The goal of the Sidney Warren Science Education Center for Youth at Tel-Hai College is to strengthen the potential of middle and high school students and encourage them to pursue higher education, with an emphasis on majoring in science and technology. This study investigated the implementation and evaluation of the enrichment science academic program, as an example of informal learning environment, with an emphasis on physics studies. About 500 students conducted feedback survey after participating in science activities in four domains: biology, chemistry, physics, and computer science. Results indicated high level of satisfaction among the students. No differences were found with respect to gender excluding in physics with a positive attitudes advantage among boys. In order to get a deeper understanding of this finding, about 70 additional students conducted special questionnaires, both 1 week before the physics enrichment day and at the end of that day. Questionnaires were intended to assess both their attitudes toward physics and their knowledge and conceptions of the physical concept "pressure." We found that the activity moderately improved boys' attitudes toward physics, but that girls displayed decreased interest in and lower self-efficacy toward physics. Research results were used to the improvement of the instructional design of the physics activity demonstrating internal evaluation process for effective intervention.
Full Text Available Aims: Investigating the situation of the utilization of the library sources indicates that the students are not familiar with the utilization of the sources and do not have enough skills in source searching. Based on the conducted studies, presenting training courses to make the students familiar with searching the library sources considerably enhance their abilities to utilize the sources. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of academic intervention on the freshmen students’ utilization of the library sources. Instrument & Methods: In the cross-sectional study, Medical, Midwifery, and Nursing students (n=200 of Babol University of Medical Sciences enrolled in 2013 were studied at the 1st semester of 2013-14 academic year. Based on the former presence at the library familiarity workshops at the university entrance, the students were divided into two groups including “case group” (n=136 and “control group” (n=64. Data was collected, using a researcher-made form. In addition, book loan number during a year and number of the delayed days in returning the books were considered as indices to investigate the students’ performance. Data was analyzed in SPSS 18 software using Chi-square and Independent T tests. Findings: Of 4865 book loan cases, 26.0±22.2 and 17.9±18.8 books were averagely borrowed by the trained students (case group and control group, respectively (p<0.05. Mean delayed time in “case group” (151.2±171.7 days was more than the mean time in “control group” (122.0±136.5 days; p<0.05. Conclusion: Conducting library familiarity training courses at the university entrance for the students positively and significantly affects the utilization of the scientific sources.
Yancey, Elleen M; Mayberry, Robert; Armstrong-Mensah, Elizabeth; Collins, David; Goodin, Lisa; Cureton, Shava; Trammell, Ella H; Yuan, Keming
To design and test HIV-RAAP (HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Among Heterosexually Active African American Men and Women: A Risk Reduction Prevention Intervention) a coeducational, culture- and gender-sensitive community-based participatory HIV risk reduction intervention. A community-based participatory research process included intervention development and implementation of a 7-session coeducational curriculum conducted over 7 consecutive weeks. The results indicated a significant intervention effect on reducing sexual behavior risk (P=0.02), improving HIV risk knowledge (P=0.006), and increasing sexual partner conversations about HIV risk reduction (P= 0.001). The HIV-RAAP intervention impacts key domains of heterosexual HIV transmission.
Chen, Huan; Chai, Yanling; Dong, Le; Niu, Wenyi; Zhang, Puhong
Background The application of mobile health (mHealth) technology in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) is increasing worldwide. However, best practice and the most effective mHealth interventions have not been reviewed systematically. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of mHealth interventions for RMNCH around the world were conducted to investigate their characteristics as well as the features and effectiveness of mHealth interventions. Methods ...
Greenland, Katy; Xenias, Dimitrios; Maio, Gregory R.
HIGHLIGHTS We show the promotion intervention has positive effects during intergroup contact, but that high levels of compunction can have negative effects. Intergroup contact is probably the longest standing and most comprehensively researched intervention to reduce discrimination. It is also part of ordinary social experience, and a key context in which discrimination is played out. In this paper, we explore two additional interventions which are also designed to reduce discriminatio...
MacCourt, Penny; McLennan, Marianne; Somers, Sandie; Krawczyk, Marian
In this article, we report on the structure and effectiveness of a grief management coaching intervention with caregivers of individuals with dementia. The intervention was informed by Marwit and Meuser’s Caregiver Grief Model and considered levels of grief, sense of empowerment, coping, and resilience using five methods of delivery. Results indicate that the intervention had significant positive effects on caregivers’ levels of grief and increased their levels of empowerment, coping, and res...
Maki, Kathrin E.
Response to intervention (RTI) is increasingly being implemented in schools as a means to identify students with specific learning disabilities (SLD). Despite its wide use, there is limited research regarding school psychologists' graduate preparation in and familiarity with RTI for SLD identification. This study examined how school psychologists'…
The most recent reauthorization of the Individual's with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004) allows for the expansion of occupational therapy's role in school-based practice to include students who have not been identified for special education through early intervening services such as response to intervention (RtI).…
Shire, Stephanie Y.; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie
Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children's signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents' responsive behaviour in association with children's social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention.…
Glisson, Charles; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J.
Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to assess whether the Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity (ARC) organizational intervention improved youth outcomes in community based mental health programs. The second objective was to assess whether programs with more improved organizational social contexts following the 18-month ARC…
... questions that the study will address are: (1) What is the average impact on academic achievement of... as at risk for reading difficulties compared with children just above the cutoff point for providing..., vary with elementary schools' adoption of Response to Intervention practices for early grade reading...
Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV vaccine was developed to reduce HPV-attributable cancers, external genital warts (EGW, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Adolescent HPV vaccination series completion rates are less than 40% in the United States of America, but up to 80% in Australia and the United Kingdom. Population-based herd immunity requires 80% or greater vaccination series completion rates. Pro-vaccination counseling facilitates increased vaccination rates. Multimodal counseling interventions may increase HPV vaccination series non-completers’ HPV-attributable disease knowledge and HPV-attributable disease prophylaxis (vaccination acceptance over a brief 14-sentence counseling intervention. An online, 4-group, randomized controlled trial, with 260 or more participants per group, found that parents were more likely to accept HPV vaccination offers for their children than were childless young adults for themselves (68.2% and 52.9%. A combined audiovisual and patient health education handout (PHEH intervention raised knowledge of HPV vaccination purpose, p = 0.02, and HPV vaccination acceptance for seven items, p < 0.001 to p = 0.023. The audiovisual intervention increased HPV vaccination acceptance for five items, p < 0.001 to p = 0.006. That HPV causes EGW, and that HPV vaccination prevents HPV-attributable diseases were better conveyed by the combined audiovisual and PHEH than the control 14-sentence counseling intervention alone.
Tomsic, Louis P.
This study examined the effects of four post-crisis responses on five different variables using a blog tool. The four post-crisis responses are information only, compensation, apology, and sympathy. The five dependent variables are reputation, anger (negative emotion), negative word-of-mouth, account acceptance and state of the publics based on…
Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S
Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages 14?16, n = 230) tested the impact of a 6-session intervention that taught an incremental theory (a belief in the potential for personal change). Co...
Intervention studies This dissertation describes three trials in which the effectiveness of three preventive interventions for youth were tested in the Netherlands. The interventions aim to improve the social and emotional development of children in elementary school (PATHS), reduce alcohol use and
LaGasse, A Blythe
Research indicates that music therapy can improve social behaviors and joint attention in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); however, more research on the use of music therapy interventions for social skills is needed to determine the impact of group music therapy. To examine the effects of a music therapy group intervention on eye gaze, joint attention, and communication in children with ASD. Seventeen children, ages 6 to 9, with a diagnosis of ASD were randomly assigned to the music therapy group (MTG) or the no-music social skills group (SSG). Children participated in ten 50-minute group sessions over a period of 5 weeks. All group sessions were designed to target social skills. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and video analysis of sessions were used to evaluate changes in social behavior. There were significant between-group differences for joint attention with peers and eye gaze towards persons, with participants in the MTG demonstrating greater gains. There were no significant between-group differences for initiation of communication, response to communication, or social withdraw/behaviors. There was a significant interaction between time and group for SRS scores, with improvements for the MTG but not the SSG. Scores on the ATEC did not differ over time between the MTG and SSG. The results of this study support further research on the use of music therapy group interventions for social skills in children with ASD. Statistical results demonstrate initial support for the use of music therapy social groups to develop joint attention. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Objectives: Individuals with schizophrenia show perceptual-cognitive abnormalities. Besides, depression and anxiety is an integral part of the disease most of the times. People with mental diseases, while under institutional care, experience lack of control and choice in their daily lives. Sensory room is an environment in which individuals can choose, control and explore the stimuli around them. So, they can organize their responses to their environment and restore and develop their skills, interacting through it. Methods: 48 people met the study criteria, who were evaluated with Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment, Mini Mental State examination, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Then they were randomly and equally assigned to intervention and comparison groups. Intervention group received sensory room intervention and comparison group had their traditional therapies. After 32 treatment sessions, 14 participants in intervention group and 7 participants in comparison group were excluded from the study and the tests were repeated for the remaining ones. Results: Findings did not show a significant effect of sensory room intervention on perceptual-cognitive performance and psychiatric status of people with schizophrenia (P>0.05. In reminding domain, however, results indicated maintenance of the skill in intervention group (P>0.05. and exacerbating of that in comparison group (P<0.05. Discussion: No significant change in perceptual-cognitive performance and psychiatric status for individuals with schizophrenia during 3 month period of sensory room intervention was found, except for reminding which did not changed significantly in intervention group, but regressed in comparison group after the intervention period.
Janssen, Meriam M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van Oers, Hans A M; Garretsen, Henk F L
Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour could not be assessed. More
Marcum, Christopher Steven; Goldring, Megan R; McBride, Colleen M; Persky, Susan
Meal construction is largely governed by nonconscious and habit-based processes that can be represented as a collection of in dividual, micro-level food choices that eventually give rise to a final plate. Despite this, dietary behavior intervention research rarely captures these micro-level food choice processes, instead measuring outcomes at aggregated levels. This is due in part to a dearth of analytic techniques to model these dynamic time-series events. The current article addresses this limitation by applying a generalization of the relational event framework to model micro-level food choice behavior following an educational intervention. Relational event modeling was used to model the food choices that 221 mothers made for their child following receipt of an information-based intervention. Participants were randomized to receive either (a) control information; (b) childhood obesity risk information; (c) childhood obesity risk information plus a personalized family history-based risk estimate for their child. Participants then made food choices for their child in a virtual reality-based food buffet simulation. Micro-level aspects of the built environment, such as the ordering of each food in the buffet, were influential. Other dynamic processes such as choice inertia also influenced food selection. Among participants receiving the strongest intervention condition, choice inertia decreased and the overall rate of food selection increased. Modeling food selection processes can elucidate the points at which interventions exert their influence. Researchers can leverage these findings to gain insight into nonconscious and uncontrollable aspects of food selection that influence dietary outcomes, which can ultimately improve the design of dietary interventions.
Wong, Annie Ngai Man; Siva, Shankar; Chin, Kwang; Manser, Renee; Antippa, Phillip; Dowling, Richard; Mileshkin, Linda Rose
Case report demonstrating the differential kinetics of response and toxicity using stereotactic radiation and interventional radiological coiling for pulmonary arterio-venous shunting from leiomyosarcoma pulmonary metastases.
van Wagenberg, C.P.A.; van Horne, P.L.M.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard
interventions on broiler farms in six European countries: Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, and United Kingdom. The cost-effectiveness ratio of an intervention was the estimated costs of the intervention divided by the estimated public health benefits due to the intervention, and was expressed......Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter...... in euro per avoided disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Interventions were selected on the basis of a European risk factor study and other risk factor research. A deterministic simulation model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention, if it would be implemented on all...
Bergh, I.H.; van Stralen, M.M.; Bjelland, M.; Grydeland, M.; Lien, N.; Klepp, K.I.; Anderssen, S.A.; Ommundsen, Y.
Background: To improve effectiveness of future screen behaviour interventions, one needs to know whether an intervention works via the proposed mediating mechanisms and whether the intervention is equally effective among subgroups. Parental regulation is identified as a consistent correlate of
Lindau, Natalie; Amin, Tara; Zambon, Amy; Scior, Katrina
Background: Evidence on the effects of contact and education based interventions on attitudes is limited in the intellectual disability field. This study compared the effects of brief interventions with different education, indirect and imagined contact components on lay people's attitudes. Materials and Methods: 401 adult participants were…
Darragh, Michael; Traynor, Victoria; Joyce-McCoach, Joanne
What interventions are the most effective for the development of leadership skills for nurses?The review objective is to systematically review the evidence to identify the effectiveness of interventions for the development of leadership skills among nurses. Centre for Evidence-based Initiatives in Health Care - University of Wollongong: an Affiliate Center of the Joanna Briggs Institute.
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Sterba, Sonya K.; Long, Jessica; Namkung, Jessica; Malone, Amelia; Hamlett, Carol L.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.; Changas, Paul
This study investigated whether individual differences in working memory (WM) moderate effects of 2 variations of intervention designed to improve at-risk 4th graders' fraction knowledge. We also examined the effects of each intervention condition against a business-as-usual control group and assessed whether children's measurement interpretation…
Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Christenhusz, Lieke C.A.; Seydel, E.R.
Background Cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions typically use a dichotomous outcome criterion. However, achieving behavioral change is a complex process involving several steps towards a change in behavior. Delayed effects may occur after an intervention period ends, which can
van der Scheer, Emmelien; Visscher, Arend J.
Research into the effects of interventions on teacher efficacy is scarce. In this study, the long-term effects of an intensive data-based decision making intervention on teacher efficacy of mainly grade 4 teachers were investigated by means of a delayed treatment control group design (62 teachers).
Eron, Leonard D.
Describes and evaluates attempts to mitigate effect that watching television violence has on young children. Most relevant studies have been laboratory experiments, and there is no reported evidence that any intervention has been effective over long-term. Concludes that interventions combining cognitive and behavioral approaches have most promise,…
Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.
Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…
Bokhove, C.; Drijvers, P.H.M.
In this article we report on the effects of a digital intervention on the development of algebraic expertise of 17–18 year old students in the Netherlands. The question to be answered was whether the intervention would be effective and what factors influenced the outcome. With notions of formative
Bokhove, C.; Drijvers, P.H.M.
In this article we report on the effects of a digital intervention on the development of algebraic expertise of 17-18 year old students in the Netherlands. The question to be answered was whether the intervention would be effective and what factors influenced the outcome. With notions of
Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben
. An experimental controlled trial has been conducted using 10 supermarkets in Denmark. The study looked specifically into the possible effect of shelf space management intervention at supermarkets. The study found a significant intervention effect for individual products targeted by the project. But overall, care...
van der Put, C.E.; Assink, M.; Gubbels, J.; Boekhout van Solinge, N.F.
There is a lack of knowledge about specific components that make interventions effective in preventing or reducing child maltreatment. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to increase this knowledge by summarizing findings on effects of interventions for child maltreatment and by examining
Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Kunugita, Naoki; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, E.R.
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no death or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious disease. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Robust evidence supports the effectiveness of screening and brief alcohol interventions in primary healthcare. However lack of understanding about their ‘active ingredients’ and concerns over the extent to which current approaches remain faithful to their original theoretical roots, has led some to demand a cautious approach to future roll-out pending further research. Against this background, this paper provides a timely overview of the development of the brief alcohol intervention evidence base in order to assess the extent to which it has achieved the four key levels of intervention research: efficacy; effectiveness; implementation; and demonstration.Methods: Narrative overview based on:(1 results of a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the effectiveness of brief alcohol intervention in primary healthcare;(2 synthesis of the findings of key additional primary studies on the improvement and evaluation of brief alcohol intervention implementation in routine primary healthcare.Results: The brief intervention field seems to constitute an almost perfect example of the evaluation of a complex intervention. Early evaluations of screening and brief intervention approaches included more tightly controlled efficacy trials and have been followed by more pragmatic trials of effectiveness in routine clinical practice. Most recently, attention has shifted to dissemination, implementation and wider-scale roll-out. However, delivery in routine primary health remains inconsistent, with an identified knowledge gap around how to successfully embed brief alcohol intervention approaches in mainstream care, and as yet unanswered questions concerning what specific intervention component prompt the positive changes in alcohol consumption.Conclusion: Both the efficacy and effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions have been comprehensively demonstrated, and intervention effects seem replicable and stable over time, and across
Donker-Cools, Birgit H P M; Daams, Joost G; Wind, Haije; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W
To gather knowledge about effective return-to-work (RTW) interventions for patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). A database search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library using keywords and Medical Subject Headings. Studies were included if they met inclusion criteria: adult patients with non-progressive ABI, working pre-injury and an intervention principally designed to improve RTW as an outcome. The methodological quality of included studies was determined and evidence was assessed qualitatively. Twelve studies were included, of which five were randomized controlled trials and seven were cohort studies. Nine studies had sufficient methodological quality. There is strong evidence that work-directed interventions in combination with education/coaching are effective regarding RTW and there are indicative findings for the effectiveness of work-directed interventions in combination with skills training and education/coaching. Reported components of the most effective interventions were tailored approach, early intervention, involvement of patient and employer, work or workplace accommodations, work practice and training of social and work-related skills, including coping and emotional support. Effective RTW interventions for patients with ABI are a combination of work-directed interventions, coaching/education and/or skills training. These interventions have the potential to facilitate sustained RTW for patients with ABI.
Parr, Evelyn B; Camera, Donny M; Burke, Louise M; Phillips, Stuart M; Coffey, Vernon G; Hawley, John A
Interactions between diet, physical activity and genetic predisposition contribute to variable body mass changes observed in response to weight loss interventions. Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) may act as 'biomarkers' that are associated with the rate of change in weight loss, and/or play a role in regulating the biological variation, in response to energy restriction. To quantify targeted c-miRNAs with putative roles in energy metabolism and exercise adaptations following a 16 wk diet and exercise intervention in individuals with large (high responders; HiRes) versus small (low responders; LoRes) losses in body mass. From 89 male and female overweight/obese participants who completed the intervention (energy restriction from diet, 250 kcal/d, and exercise, 250 kcal/d), subgroups of HiRes (>10% body mass loss, n = 22) and LoRes (exercise and diet intervention suggests a putative role for these 'biomarkers' in the prediction or detection of individual variability to weight loss interventions.
Full Text Available Recently, new interest in terrorism and psychological factors related to supporting the war on terrorism has been growing in the field of psychology. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of various socio-political attitudes on the level of agreement with military and humanitarian counterterrorism interventions. 270 Italian participants responded to a news article concerning measures against terrorism. Half of the participants read an article regarding a military intervention while the other half read about a humanitarian intervention. They then evaluated the other type of intervention. Results showed that military intervention was supported by people with high authoritarian, dominant, ethnocentric attitudes and by people who attach importance to both positive and negative reciprocity norms. Instead, none of these variables was correlated with humanitarian intervention. Finally, there was a considerable influence of media on the acceptance of both interventions.
Nwanodi, Oroma; Salisbury, Helen; Bay, Curtis
Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine was developed to reduce HPV-attributable cancers, external genital warts (EGW), and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Adolescent HPV vaccination series completion rates are less than 40% in the United States of America, but up to 80% in Australia and the United Kingdom. Population-based herd immunity requires 80% or greater vaccination series completion rates. Pro-vaccination counseling facilitates increased vaccination rates. Multimodal counseling interventions may increase HPV vaccination series non-completers' HPV-attributable disease knowledge and HPV-attributable disease prophylaxis (vaccination) acceptance over a brief 14-sentence counseling intervention. An online, 4-group, randomized controlled trial, with 260 or more participants per group, found that parents were more likely to accept HPV vaccination offers for their children than were childless young adults for themselves (68.2% and 52.9%). A combined audiovisual and patient health education handout (PHEH) intervention raised knowledge of HPV vaccination purpose, p = 0.02, and HPV vaccination acceptance for seven items, p HPV vaccination acceptance for five items, p HPV causes EGW, and that HPV vaccination prevents HPV-attributable diseases were better conveyed by the combined audiovisual and PHEH than the control 14-sentence counseling intervention alone.
The aim of this study was to determine if indicators of HRV can be used to identify moderate risk of cardiovascular disease and to compare the influence of different lifestyle interventions in a student population. This was a double blind, randomised, prospective, pre-test, post-test group comparison. Thirty-seven university ...
Gharibi, Farid; Tabrizi, JafarSadegh; Eteraf Oskouei, MirAli; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad
Service quality is considered as a main domain of quality associ-ated with non-clinical aspect of healthcare. This study aimed to survey and im-proves service quality of delivered care in the Physiotherapy Clinic affiliated with the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. A quasi experimental interventional study was conducted in the Physiotherapy Clinic, 2010-2011. Data were collected using a validated and reli-able researcher made questionnaire with participation of 324 patients and their coadjutors. The study questionnaire consisted of 7 questions about demographic factors and 38 questions for eleven aspects of service quality. Data were then analyzed using paired samples t-test by SPSS16. In the pre intervention phase, six aspects of service quality including choice of provider, safety, prevention and early detection, dignity, autonomy and availability achieved non-acceptable scores. Following interventions, all aspects of the service quality improved and also total service quality score improved from 8.58 to 9.83 (PService quality can be improved by problem implementation of appropriate interventions. The acquired results can be used in health system fields to create respectful environments for healthcare customers.
Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Meyer, Lori E.; Favazza, Paddy C.; Mouzourou, Chryso; van Luling, Lisa
This article describes the use of "Teacher Impression Journals" during a larger study that examined the efficacy of an intervention program designed to promote kindergarteners' positive attitudes toward peers with disabilities (i.e., the "Special Friends" program). The journals were designed to gather information about…
Pillhofer, M.; Schoellhorn, A.; Jungmann, T.; Eickhorst, A.; Schuengel, C.
In Germany early intervention has not been systematically implemented in the regular service delivery and the existing programs have not been profoundly evaluated. Due to serious child protection cases the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth participated in a
Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen
Literature reviews suggest that tools facilitating the ergonomic intervention processes should be integrated into rationalization tools, particular if such tools are participative. Such a Tool has recently been developed as an add-in module to the Lean tool “Value Stream Mapping” (VSM). However...
Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Dweck, Carol S.
Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages…
Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.
Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The…
Kleij, S.W. van der; Segers, P.C.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
The goal of this study was to investigate how growth during a phonics-based intervention, as well as reading levels at baseline testing, predicted long-term reading outcomes of children with dyslexia. Eighty Dutch children with dyslexia who had completed a 50-week phonics-based intervention in grade
To determine if the changes observed in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) after a physical activity or health education intervention are influenced by sarcopenia status at baseline. Data were obtained from the Lifestyles for Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study, a RCT th...
The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) has drawn scholarly attention in recent years, and a large amount of efforts have been made in applying SNSs to health behavior change interventions. However, these interventions showed mixed results, with a large variance of effect sizes in Cohen's d ranging from -1.17 to 1.28. To provide a better understanding of SNS-based interventions' effectiveness, a meta-analysis of 21 studies examining the effects of health interventions using SNS was conducted. Results indicated that health behavior change interventions using SNS are effective in general, but the effects were moderated by health topic, methodological features, and participant features. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract This commentary adds effect sizes to the recently published systematic review by De Meester and colleagues and provides a more detailed insight into the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity among European teenagers. The main findings based on this evidence were: (1 school-based interventions generally lead to short term improvement in physical activity levels, but there were large differences between interventions with regard to effect sizes; (2 a multi-component approach (including environmental components generally resulted in larger effect sizes, thereby providing evidence for the assumption that a multi-component approach should produce synergistic results; and (3 if an intervention aimed to affect more health behaviours besides physical activity, then the intervention appeared to be less effective in favour of physical activity.
Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte
.7%). Marital status, ethnic background and highest completed education were associated with non-response in both modes. Furthermore, sex and age were associated with non-response in the self-administered mode. No significant mode effects were observed for indicators related to use of health services......BACKGROUND: While face-to-face interviews are considered the gold standard of survey modes, self-administered questionnaires are often preferred for cost and convenience. This article examines response patterns in two general population health surveys carried out by face-to-face interview and self......-administered questionnaire, respectively. METHOD: Data derives from a health interview survey in the Region of Southern Denmark (face-to-face interview) and The Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2010 (self-administered questionnaire). Identical questions were used in both surveys. Data on all individuals were obtained from...
Bellicha, Alice; Kieusseian, Aurélie; Fontvieille, Anne-Marie; Tataranni, Antonio; Copin, Nane; Charreire, Hélène; Oppert, Jean-Michel
Stair climbing helps to accumulate short bouts of physical activity throughout the day as a strategy for attaining recommended physical activity levels. There exists a need for effective long-term stair-climbing interventions that can be transferred to various worksite settings. The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate short- and long-term effectiveness of a worksite stair-climbing intervention using an objective measurement of stair climbing and a controlled design; and 2) to perform a process evaluation of the intervention. We performed a controlled before-and-after study. The study was conducted in two corporate buildings of the same company located in Paris (France), between September, 2013 and September, 2014. The status of either "intervention site" or "control site" was assigned by the investigators. Participants were on-site employees (intervention site: n = 783; control site: n = 545 at baseline). Two one-month intervention phases using signs (intervention phase 1) and enhancement of stairwell aesthetics (intervention phase 2) were performed. The main outcome was the change in stair climbing, measured with automatic counters and expressed in absolute counts/day/100 employees and percent change compared to baseline. Qualitative outcomes were used to describe the intervention process. Stair climbing significantly increased at the intervention site (+18.7%) but decreased at the control site (-13.3%) during the second intervention phase (difference between sites: +4.6 counts/day/100 employees, p levels at the intervention site, but a significant difference between sites was found (intervention site vs. control site: +2.9 counts/day/100 employees, p level after the end of the study. This study shows a successful stair-climbing intervention at the worksite. The main barriers to adoption and implementation were related to location and visibility of posters. Process evaluation was useful in identifying these barriers throughout the study, and in
Paul A. Swinton
Full Text Available The concept of personalized nutrition and exercise prescription represents a topical and exciting progression for the discipline given the large inter-individual variability that exists in response to virtually all performance and health related interventions. Appropriate interpretation of intervention-based data from an individual or group of individuals requires practitioners and researchers to consider a range of concepts including the confounding influence of measurement error and biological variability. In addition, the means to quantify likely statistical and practical improvements are facilitated by concepts such as confidence intervals (CIs and smallest worthwhile change (SWC. The purpose of this review is to provide accessible and applicable recommendations for practitioners and researchers that interpret, and report personalized data. To achieve this, the review is structured in three sections that progressively develop a statistical framework. Section 1 explores fundamental concepts related to measurement error and describes how typical error and CIs can be used to express uncertainty in baseline measurements. Section 2 builds upon these concepts and demonstrates how CIs can be combined with the concept of SWC to assess whether meaningful improvements occur post-intervention. Finally, section 3 introduces the concept of biological variability and discusses the subsequent challenges in identifying individual response and non-response to an intervention. Worked numerical examples and interactive Supplementary Material are incorporated to solidify concepts and assist with implementation in practice.
Roslita, Riau; Nurhaeni, Nani; Wanda, Dessie
The clinical manifestation of asthma in children can interfere with their daily activities. Music therapy may become one of the alternative approaches to making children feel comfortable during inhalation therapy. The aim of the study was to identify the effects of music therapy on the physiological response of asthmatic preschool and school-age children receiving inhalation therapy. This study used a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group with a pre-test-post-test design. The 44 respondents consisted of preschool and school-age children assigned to intervention and control groups. The results showed a significant difference in average oxygen saturation, heart rate, and respiratory rate between the control and intervention groups before and after intervention (p Music therapy can be used as a nursing intervention to improve the physiological response of children with breathing problems.
Bonell, C; Wells, H; Harden, A; Jamal, F; Fletcher, A; Thomas, J; Campbell, R; Petticrew, M; Whitehead, M; Murphy, S; Moore, L
Owing to the limited effectiveness of traditional health education curricula in schools, there is increasing interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by modifying the school environment. Existing systematic reviews cannot determine whether environmental intervention is effective because they examine interventions combining environmental modifications and traditional health education. This gap is significant because school-environment interventions are complex to implement and may be sidelined in underfunded and attainment-focused school systems without evidence to support such an approach. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of school-environment interventions without health-education components on student health and inequalities. This was a systematic review of experimental/quasi-experimental studies of school-environment interventions. Sixteen databases were searched, eliciting 62 329 references which were screened, with included studies quality assessed, data extracted and narratively synthesised. Sixteen reports of 10 studies were included, all from the USA and the UK. Five evaluations of interventions aiming to develop a stronger sense of community and/or improve relationships between staff and students suggested potential benefits particularly regarding violence and aggression. Two trials of interventions enabling students to advocate for changes in school catering and physical activity reported benefits for physical activity but not diet. Three evaluations of improvements to school playgrounds offered weak evidence of effects on physical activity. School environment interventions show the potential to improve young people's health particularly regarding violence, aggression and physical activity. Further trials are required to provide a stronger and more generalisable evidence base.
Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari
Full Text Available Purpose: To identify and appraise the published studies assessing interventions accounting for reducing fatigue and sleepiness while driving. Methods: This systematic review searched the following electronic databases: Medline, Science direct, Scopus, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Transport Database, Cochrane, BIOSIS, ISI Web of Knowledge, specialist road injuries journals and the Australian Transport and Road Index database. Additional searches included websites of relevant organizations, reference lists of included studies, and issues of major injury journals published within the past 15 years. Studies were included if they investigated interventions/exposures accounting for reducing fatigue and sleepiness as the outcome, measured any potential interventions for mitigation of sleepiness and were written in English. Meta-analysis was not attempted because of the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results: Of 63 studies identified, 18 met the inclusion criteria. Based on results of our review, many interventions in the world have been used to reduce drowsiness while driving such as behavioral (talking to passengers, face washing, listening to the radio, no alcohol use, limiting the driving behavior at the time of 12 p.m. â 6 a.m. etc, educational interventions and also changes in the environment (such as rumble strips, chevrons, variable message signs, etc. Meta-analysis on the effect of all these interventions was impossible due to the high heterogeneity in methodology, effect size and interventions reported in the assessed studies. Conclusion: Results of present review showed various interventions in different parts of the world have been used to decrease drowsy driving. Although these interventions can be used in countries with high incidence of road traffic accidents, precise effect of each intervention is still unknown. Further studies are required for comparison of the efficiency of each intervention and localization of each intervention
Rasmussen, Mette; Fernández, Esteve; Tønnesen, Hanne
Objectives: We compared the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme (a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention commonly used in Denmark) with other face-to-face smoking cessation programmes in Denmark after implementation in real life, and we identified factors associated with successful...... did not want further contact, who intentionally were not followed up or who lacked information about the intervention they received were excluded. A total of 46 287 smokers were included. Interventions: Various real-life smoking cessation interventions were identified and compared: The Gold Standard...... smokers. The follow-up rate was 74%. Women were less likely to remain abstinent, OR 0.83 (CI 0.79 to 0.87). Short interventions were more effective among men. After adjusting for confounders, the Gold Standard Programme was the only intervention with significant results across sex, increasing the odds...
Full Text Available Topic. Additional interventions used to enhance the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS. Aim. To establish whether additional interventions improve the vocational outcomes of IPS alone for people with severe mental illness. Method. A rapid evidence assessment of the literature was conducted for studies where behavioural or psychological interventions have been used to supplement standard IPS. Published and unpublished empirical studies of IPS with additional interventions were considered for inclusion. Conclusions. Six published studies were found which compared IPS alone to IPS plus a supplementary intervention. Of these, three used skills training and three used cognitive remediation. The contribution of each discrete intervention is difficult to establish. Some evidence suggests that work-related social skills and cognitive training are effective adjuncts, but this is an area where large RCTs are required to yield conclusive evidence.
Pettigrew, Jonathan; Segrott, Jeremy; Ray, Colter D; Littlecott, Hannah
Successful prevention programs depend on a complex interplay among aspects of the intervention, the participant, the specific intervention setting, and the broader set of contexts with which a participant interacts. There is a need to theorize what happens as participants bring intervention ideas and behaviors into other life-contexts, and theory has not yet specified how social interactions about interventions may influence outcomes. To address this gap, we use an ecological perspective to develop the social interface model. This paper presents the key components of the model and its potential to aid the design and implementation of prevention interventions. The model is predicated on the idea that intervention message effectiveness depends not only on message aspects but also on the participants' adoption and adaptation of the message vis-à-vis their social ecology. The model depicts processes by which intervention messages are received and enacted by participants through social processes occurring within and between relevant microsystems. Mesosystem interfaces (negligible interface, transference, co-dependence, and interdependence) can facilitate or detract from intervention effects. The social interface model advances prevention science by theorizing that practitioners can create better quality interventions by planning for what occurs after interventions are delivered.
Fitzgibbon, M. L.; Stolley, M. R.; Schiffer, L.; Braunschweig, C. L.; Gomez, S. L.; Van Horn, L.; Dyer, A.
The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children enrolled in the 9 schools randomized to the intervention group received a 14-week weight control intervention delivered by their classroom teachers. Children in the 9 control schools received a general health intervention. Height and weight, physical activity, screen time, and diet data were collected at baseline and post-intervention. At post-intervention, children in the intervention schools engaged in more moderate-to vigorous physical activity than children in the control schools (difference between adjusted group means=7.46 min/day, p=.02). Also, children in the intervention group had less total screen time (−27.8 min/day, p=.05). There were no significant differences in BMI, BMI Z score, or dietary intake. It is feasible to adapt an obesity prevention program to be taught by classroom teachers. The intervention showed positive influences on physical activity and screen time, but not diet. Measuring diet and physical activity in preschool children remains a challenge, and interventions delivered by classroom teachers require both intensive initial training and ongoing individualized supervision. PMID:21193852
Penner, Melanie; Rayar, Meera; Bashir, Naazish; Roberts, S Wendy; Hancock-Howard, Rebecca L; Coyte, Peter C
Novel management strategies for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose providing interventions before diagnosis. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the costs and dependency-free life years (DFLYs) generated by pre-diagnosis intensive Early Start Denver Model (ESDM-I); pre-diagnosis parent-delivered ESDM (ESDM-PD); and the Ontario Status Quo (SQ). The analyses took government and societal perspectives to age 65. We assigned probabilities of Independent, Semi-dependent or Dependent living based on projected IQ. Costs per person (in Canadian dollars) were ascribed to each living setting. From a government perspective, the ESDM-PD produced an additional 0.17 DFLYs for $8600 less than SQ. From a societal perspective, the ESDM-I produced an additional 0.53 DFLYs for $45,000 less than SQ. Pre-diagnosis interventions targeting ASD symptoms warrant further investigation.
Dorsey, Julie; Bradshaw, Michelle
Lower-extremity (LE) musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can have a major impact on the ability to carry out daily activities. The effectiveness of interventions must be examined to enable occupational therapy practitioners to deliver the most appropriate services. This systematic review examined the literature published between 1995 and July 2014 that investigated the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for LE MSDs. Forty-three articles met the criteria and were reviewed. Occupational therapy interventions varied on the basis of population subgroup: hip fracture, LE joint replacement, LE amputation or limb loss, and nonsurgical osteoarthritis and pain. The results indicate an overall strong role for occupational therapy in treating clients with LE MSDs. Activity pacing is an effective intervention for nonsurgical LE MSDs, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation is effective for LE joint replacement and amputation. Further research on specific occupational therapy interventions in this important area is needed. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Full Text Available This work includes a review of the literature to analyze the effectiveness of the TEACCH intervention, as well as the effect of this intervention on the level of parental and teachers’ stress of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Considering the inclusion criteria, a total of 14 studies were analyzed. Regardless of the context of intervention, all the studies revealed developmental abilities improvements and a reduction in autistic symptoms and maladaptative behaviors. In 11 of the 14 studies, statistically significant improvements were obtained. As for the effect of the TEACCH intervention in the level of the parents or teachers stress, out of the 7 studies that evaluated stress, 5 of them obtained a significant decrease between Pre and Post measurements. Considering these results, TEACCH intervention could be effective not only improving the child’s development, but also enhancing the adults’ level of well-being.
MacCourt, Penny; McLennan, Marianne; Somers, Sandie; Krawczyk, Marian
In this article, we report on the structure and effectiveness of a grief management coaching intervention with caregivers of individuals with dementia. The intervention was informed by Marwit and Meuser's Caregiver Grief Model and considered levels of grief, sense of empowerment, coping, and resilience using five methods of delivery. Results indicate that the intervention had significant positive effects on caregivers' levels of grief and increased their levels of empowerment, coping, and resilience. The intervention was found to be effective across caregivers' characteristics as well as across five delivery modalities. Through description of this intervention, as well as outcome, this research contributes to the body of knowledge about caregivers' disenfranchised grief and ways to effectively address it.
Ismail, Suriani; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Abidin, Emelia Zainal; Isha, Ahmad Sharul Nizam; Abu Bakar, Sallehuddin; Zulkifley, Nur Aishah; Fuad, Ahmad Farhan Ahmad
Objectives: To study the effects of a faith-based smoking cessation intervention during Ramadan among Malay male smokers working in public offices. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted during Ramadan 2015. The intervention was developed based on the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The intervention intended to increase the intention and the perceived behaviour control to stop smoking among Muslim smokers during Ramadan. The outcomes measured were changes in...
Chee Huei Phing; Hazizi Abu Saad; M.Y. Barakatun Nisak; M.T. Mohd Nasir
Background/Objective: Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prom...
Hirsch, Gary B.; Edelstein, Burton L.; Frosh, Marcy; Anselmo, Theresa
Introduction Early childhood caries (ECC) — tooth decay among children younger than 6 years — is prevalent and consequential, affecting nearly half of US 5-year-olds, despite being highly preventable. Various interventions have been explored to limit caries activity leading to cavities, but little is known about the long-term effects and costs of these interventions. We developed a system dynamics model to determine which interventions, singly and in combination, could have the greatest effec...
Kawahito, Junko; Hori, Masashi; Otsuka, Yasumasa
The present study developed an intervention program for self-complexity (SC; Linville, 1987), and examined the effects of this program on college students. Participants (N=40) were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received one session of psycho-education about SC, and kept daily records of self-aspects (social roles, interpersonal relationships, specific events/behaviors, traits, abilities, etc.) for one week. All participants were asked to...
Ameling, Jessica M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; Bone, Lee R.; Levine, David M.; Roter, Debra L.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Noronha, Gary J.; Fagan, Peter J.; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Cooper, Lisa A.; Aboumatar, Hanan J.; Albert, Michael C.; Flynn, Sarah J.; Boulware, L. Ebony
African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions’ cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community members. The process required substantial time and resources, and the adapted interventions will be tested in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24569158
Steinberg, Dori M; Levine, Erica L; Lane, Ilana; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry B; Puleo, Elaine; Bennett, Gary G
eHealth interventions are effective for weight control and have the potential for broad reach. Little is known about the use of interactive voice response (IVR) technology for self-monitoring in weight control interventions, particularly among populations disproportionately affected by obesity. This analysis sought to examine patterns and predictors of IVR self-monitoring adherence and the association between adherence and weight change among low-income black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. The Shape Program was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-month eHealth behavioral weight gain prevention intervention to usual care among overweight and obese black women in the primary care setting. Intervention participants (n=91) used IVR technology to self-monitor behavior change goals (eg, no sugary drinks, 10,000 steps per day) via weekly IVR calls. Weight data were collected in clinic at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Self-monitoring data was stored in a study database and adherence was operationalized as the percent of weeks with a successful IVR call. Over 12 months, the average IVR completion rate was 71.6% (SD 28.1) and 52% (47/91) had an IVR completion rate ≥80%. At 12 months, IVR call completion was significantly correlated with weight loss (r =-.22; P=.04) and participants with an IVR completion rate ≥80% had significantly greater weight loss compared to those with an IVR completion rate self-monitoring. Adherence to IVR self-monitoring was high among socioeconomically disadvantaged black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. Higher adherence to IVR self-monitoring was also associated with greater weight change. IVR is an effective and useful tool to promote self-monitoring and has the potential for widespread use and long-term sustainability. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00938535; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00938535.
Full Text Available Depression is a very common mood disorder, resulting in a loss of social function, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Music interventions have been shown to be a potential alternative for depression therapy but the number of up-to-date research literature is quite limited. We present a review of original research trials which utilize music or music therapy as intervention to treat participants with depressive symptoms. Our goal was to differentiate the impact of certain therapeutic uses of music used in the various experiments. Randomized controlled study designs were preferred but also longitudinal studies were chosen to be included. 28 studies with a total number of 1,810 participants met our inclusion criteria and were finally selected. We distinguished between passive listening to music (record from a CD or live music (79%, and active singing, playing, or improvising with instruments (46%. Within certain boundaries of variance an analysis of similar studies was attempted. Critical parameters were for example length of trial, number of sessions, participants' age, kind of music, active or passive participation and single- or group setting. In 26 studies, a statistically significant reduction in depression levels was found over time in the experimental (music intervention group compared to a control (n = 25 or comparison group (n = 2. In particular, elderly participants showed impressive improvements when they listened to music or participated in music therapy projects. Researchers used group settings more often than individual sessions and our results indicated a slightly better outcome for those cases. Additional questionnaires about participants confidence, self-esteem or motivation, confirmed further improvements after music treatment. Consequently, the present review offers an extensive set of comparable data, observations about the range of treatment options these papers addressed, and thus might represent a valuable aid
The urban interventions aimed at promoting the right to the city increasingly take events as their main repertoire of action, thus feeding a process of eventification of space which is particularly controversial with respect to neoliberal urbanism. The growing field of events studies, indeed, illustrates how the variety of minor events crowding contemporary cities may engender social inclusion, yet at the price of producing new forms of social exclusion or, similarly, can challenge neoliberal...
Leubner, Daniel; Hinterberger, Thilo
Depression is a very common mood disorder, resulting in a loss of social function, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Music interventions have been shown to be a potential alternative for depression therapy but the number of up-to-date research literature is quite limited. We present a review of original research trials which utilize music or music therapy as intervention to treat participants with depressive symptoms. Our goal was to differentiate the impact of certain therapeutic uses of music used in the various experiments. Randomized controlled study designs were preferred but also longitudinal studies were chosen to be included. 28 studies with a total number of 1,810 participants met our inclusion criteria and were finally selected. We distinguished between passive listening to music (record from a CD or live music) (79%), and active singing, playing, or improvising with instruments (46%). Within certain boundaries of variance an analysis of similar studies was attempted. Critical parameters were for example length of trial, number of sessions, participants' age, kind of music, active or passive participation and single- or group setting. In 26 studies, a statistically significant reduction in depression levels was found over time in the experimental (music intervention) group compared to a control (n = 25) or comparison group (n = 2). In particular, elderly participants showed impressive improvements when they listened to music or participated in music therapy projects. Researchers used group settings more often than individual sessions and our results indicated a slightly better outcome for those cases. Additional questionnaires about participants confidence, self-esteem or motivation, confirmed further improvements after music treatment. Consequently, the present review offers an extensive set of comparable data, observations about the range of treatment options these papers addressed, and thus might represent a valuable aid for future
Paulin, L. M.; Diette, G. B.; Scott, M.; McCormack, M. C.; Matsui, E. C.; Curtin-Brosnan, J.; Williams, D. L.; Kidd-Taylor, A.; Shea, M.; Breysse, P. N.; Hansel, N. N.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placemen...
Paulin, L M; Diette, G B; Scott, M; McCormack, M C; Matsui, E C; Curtin-Brosnan, J; Williams, D L; Kidd-Taylor, A; Shea, M; Breysse, P N; Hansel, N N
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placement of air purifiers with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and carbon filters. Home inspection and NO2 monitoring were conducted at 1 week pre-intervention and at 1 week and 3 months post-intervention. Stove replacement resulted in a 51% and 42% decrease in median NO2 concentration at 3 months of follow-up in the kitchen and bedroom, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.01); air purifier placement resulted in an immediate decrease in median NO2 concentration in the kitchen (27%, P kitchen (20%, P = 0.05). NO2 concentrations in the kitchen and bedroom did not significantly change following ventilation hood installation. Replacing unvented gas stoves with electric stoves or placement of air purifiers with HEPA and carbon filters can decrease indoor NO2 concentrations in urban homes. Several combustion sources unique to the residential indoor environment, including gas stoves, produce nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and higher NO2 concentrations, are associated with worse respiratory morbidity in people with obstructive lung disease. A handful of studies have modified the indoor environment by replacing unvented gas heaters; this study, to our knowledge, is the first randomized study to target unvented gas stoves. The results of this study show that simple home interventions, including replacement of an unvented gas stove with an electric stove or placement of HEPA air purifiers with carbon filters, can significantly decrease indoor NO2 concentrations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A
Hooper, Stephen R; Wakely, Melissa B; de Kruif, Renee E L; Swartz, Carl W
We examined the effectiveness of a metacognitive intervention for written language performance, based on the Hayes model of written expression, for 73 fourth-grade (n = 38) and fifth-grade (n = 35) students. The intervention consisted of twenty 45-min writing lessons designed to improve their awareness of writing as a problem-solving process. Each of the lessons addressed some aspect of planning, translating, and reflecting on written products; their self-regulation of these processes; and actual writing practice. All instruction was conducted in intact classrooms. Prior to the intervention, all students received a battery of neurocognitive tests measuring executive functions, attention, and language. In addition, preintervention writing samples were obtained and analyzed holistically and for errors in syntax, semantics, and spelling. Following the intervention, the writing tasks were readministered and cluster analysis of the neurocognitive data was conducted. Cluster analytic procedures yielded 7 reliable clusters: 4 normal variants, 1 Problem Solving weakness, 1 Problem Solving Language weaknesses, and 1 Problem Solving strength. The response to the single treatment by these various subtypes revealed positive but modest findings. Significant group differences were noted for improvement in syntax errors and spelling, with only spelling showing differential improvement for the Problem Solving Language subtype. In addition, there was a marginally significant group effect for holistic ratings. These findings provide initial evidence that Writing Aptitude (subtype) x Single Treatment interactions exist in writing, but further research is needed with other classification schemes and interventions.
Tak, Young-Ran; An, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Young-A; Woo, Hae-Young
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention(PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children. Thirty-two participants (BMI>or=85 percentile or relative obesity>or=10) were allocated to the PABM-intervention group and behavior modification only intervention group. The PABM-intervention was composed of exercise intervention consisting of 50 minutes of physical activity(Hip-hop dance & gym-based exercises) twice a week and the behavior modification intervention consisted of 50 minutes of instruction for modifying lifestyle habits(diet & exercise) once a week. Effectiveness of intervention was based on waist circumference, BP, HDL-cholesterol, TG, and fasting glucose before and after the intervention. The proportion of subjects with 1, 2, 3 or more metabolic risk factors were 28.1, 43.8, and 15.6%, respectively. After the 8-week intervention, waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly(p<.01) in the PABM group. This provides evidence that a PABM-intervention is effective in changing metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese elementary school children.
Hijar, Gisely; Bonilla, Catherine; Munayco, Cesar V; Gutierrez, Ericson L; Ramos, Willy
This article reviews public health interventions for preparedness and response to natural disasters within the context of El Niño phenomenon using systematic reviews and a review of revisions with emphasis on vector-borne diseases, water-borne diseases, malnutrition, heat stress, drought, flood-associated diseases, mental health problems, vulnerability of the physical health-system infrastructure, as well as long-term policies aimed at protecting the populations of these cases. Environmental interventions were identified, including vector control, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, and intradomiciliary water treatment. While these finds are based primarily on systematic reviews, it is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these interventions within the population, according to the context of each region.
Schinke, Steven P; Schwinn, Traci M; Hursh, Hilary A
Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The program, called Vamos, is aimed at the risk and protective factors as well as the cultural prerogatives that demark the adolescent years of Hispanic American youths. Innovative in its approach, the program is delivered through a smartphone application (app). By interacting with engaging content presented via the app, youths can acquire the cognitive-behavioral skills necessary to avoid risky situations, urges, and pressures associated with early drug use. The intervention development process is presented in detail, and an evaluation plan to determine the program's efficacy is outlined. Lessons for practice and intervention programming are discussed.
Congruence between patient characteristics and interventions may partly explain medication adherence intervention effectiveness: an analysis of 190 randomized controlled trials from a Cochrane systematic review.
Allemann, Samuel S; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Navarro, Tamara; Haynes, Brian; Hersberger, Kurt E; Arnet, Isabelle
Due to the negative outcomes of medication nonadherence, interventions to improve adherence have been the focus of countless studies. The congruence between adherence-related patient characteristics and interventions may partly explain the variability of effectiveness in medication adherence studies. In their latest update of a Cochrane review reporting inconsistent effects of adherence interventions, the authors offered access to their database for subanalysis. We aimed to use this database to assess congruence between adherence-related patient characteristics and interventions and its association with intervention effects. We developed a congruence score consisting of six features related to inclusion criteria, patient characteristics at baseline, and intervention design. Two independent raters extracted and scored items from the 190 studies available in the Cochrane database. We correlated overall congruence score and individual features with intervention effects regarding adherence and clinical outcomes using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test and Fisher's exact test. Interrater reliability for newly extracted data was almost perfect with a Cohen's Kappa of 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.89-0.94; P congruence score nor any other individual feature (i.e., "determinants of nonadherence as inclusion criteria," "tailoring of interventions to the inclusion criteria," "reasons for nonadherence assessed at baseline," "adjustment of intervention to individual patient needs," and "theory-based interventions") was significantly associated with intervention effects. The presence of only six studies that included nonadherent patients and the interdependency of this feature with the remaining five might preclude a conclusive assessment of congruence between patient characteristics and adherence interventions. In order to obtain clinical benefits from effective adherence interventions, we encourage researchers to focus on the inclusion of nonadherent patients. Copyright
Full Text Available Abstract Background Choosing cost-effective strategies for improving the health of the public is difficult because the relative effects of different types of interventions are not well understood. The benefits of one-shot interventions may be different from the benefits of interventions that permanently change the probability of getting sick, recovering, or dying. Here, we compare the benefits of such types of public health interventions. Methods We used multi-state life table methods to estimate the impact of five types of interventions on mortality, morbidity (years of life in fair or poor health, and years of healthy life (years in excellent, very good, or good health. Results A one-shot intervention that makes all the sick persons healthy at baseline would increase life expectancy by 3 months and increase years of healthy life by 6 months, in a cohort beginning at age 65. An equivalent amount of improvement can be obtained from an intervention that either decreases the probability of getting sick each year by 12%, increases the probability of a sick person recovering by 16%, decreases the probability that a sick person dies by 15%, or decreases the probability that a healthy person dies by 14%. Interventions aimed at keeping persons healthy increased longevity and years of healthy life, while decreasing morbidity and medical expenditures. Interventions focused on preventing mortality had a greater effect on longevity, but had higher future morbidity and medical expenditures. Results differed for older and younger cohorts and depended on the value to society of an additional year of sick life. Conclusion Interventions that promote health and prevent disease performed well, but other types of intervention were sometimes better. The value to society of interventions that increase longevity but also increase morbidity needs further research. More comprehensive screening and treatment of new Medicare enrollees might improve their health and
Fridriksdottir, N; Gunnarsdottir, S; Zoëga, S; Ingadottir, B; Hafsteinsdottir, E J G
Symptom management is of high priority in cancer care. Information and communication technology allows interventions to be provided through the internet to enhance the delivery of care. This study aimed to review the effects of web-based interventions on cancer patients' symptoms. MEDLINE, PSychINFO, PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched. Included were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), pilot RCTs, or quasi-experimental (QE) studies focusing on web-based interventions in adult cancer patients with at least one outcome primary or secondary, in terms of symptoms, treatment side effects, or distress. Data were analyzed study by study. Twenty studies were identified. All web interventions included information, 16 included self-management support, 14 included self-monitoring, 13 included feedback/tailored information, 12 used communication with health-care professionals, and eight used communication with other patients. Overall, 13 studies reported positive symptom outcomes. Psychological distress was reported in eight studies with positive intervention effects in three. Symptoms of anxiety/depression were reported in ten studies with positive intervention effects in five. Somatic symptom severity was reported in ten studies with intervention effects found in six, and symptom distress was reported in six studies with intervention effects found in all. This review shows the promising potential of web-based interventions for cancer symptom management, although it was limited by considerable heterogeneity in the interventions tested and targeted outcomes. The multidimensional nature of symptoms was partly addressed; only one study was guided by a comprehensive theoretical model of cancer symptom management. It can only be speculated which web elements are important for effective symptom outcomes. Further testing is needed for web-based cancer symptom management.
Cameron, Silke; Hünerbein, Diana; Mansuroglu, Tümen; Armbrust, Thomas; Scharf, Jens-Gerd; Schwörer, Harald; Füzesi, László; Ramadori, Giuliano
The treatment of the primary tumor in advanced metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is still a matter of discussion. Little attention has thus far been paid to the endoscopically observable changes of the primary in non-curatively resectable stage IV disease. 20 patients [14 men, 6 women, median age 67 (39–82) years] were observed after initial diagnosis of non-curatively resectable metastasized symptomatic (83%) or asymptomatic (17%) CRC, from June 2002 to April 2009. If necessary, endoscopic tumor debulking was performed. 5-FU based chemotherapy was given immediately thereafter. In 10 patients, chemotherapy was combined with antibody therapy. Response of the primary was observed in all patients. Local symptoms were treated endoscopically whenever necessary (obstruction or bleeding), and further improved after chemotherapy was started: Four patients showed initial complete endoscopic disappearance of the primary. In an additional 6 patients, only adenomatous tissue was histologically detected. In both these groups, two patients revealed local tumor relapse after interruption of therapy. Local tumor regression or stable disease was achieved in the remaining 10 patients. 15 patients died during the observation time. In 13 cases, death was related to metastatic disease progression. The mean overall survival time was 19.6 (3–71) months. No complications due to the primary were observed. This study shows that modern anti-cancer drugs combined with endoscopic therapy are an effective and safe treatment of the symptomatic primary and ameliorate local complaints without the need for surgical intervention in advanced UICC stage IV CRC
Lee Zhi Yi, Amelia; Dercon, Gerd; Blackburn, Carl; Kheng, Heng Lee
In the event of a large-scale nuclear accident, the swift implementation of response actions is imperative. For food and agriculture, it is important to restrict contaminated food from being produced or gathered, and to put in place systems to prevent contaminated produce from entering the food chain. Emergency tools and response protocols exist to assist food control and health authorities but they tend to focus on radioactivity concentrations in food products as a means of restricting the distribution and sale of contaminated produce. Few, if any, emergency tools or protocols focus on the food production environment, for example radioactivity concentrations in soils. Here we present the Operational Intervention Levels for Soils (OIL for Soils) concept, an optimization tool developed at the IAEA to facilitate agricultural decision making and to improve nuclear emergency preparedness and response capabilities. Effective intervention relies on the prompt availability of radioactivity concentration data and the ability to implement countermeasures. Sampling in food and agriculture can be demanding because it may involve large areas and many sample types. In addition, there are finite resources available in terms of manpower and laboratory support. Consequently, there is a risk that timely decision making will be hindered and food safety compromised due to time taken to sample and analyse produce. However, the OILs for Soils concept developed based on experience in Japan can help in this situation and greatly assist authorities responsible for agricultural production. OILs for Soils - pre-determined reference levels of air dose rates linked to radionuclide concentrations in soils - can be used to trigger response actions particularly important for agricultural and food protection. Key considerations in the development of the OILs for Soils are: (1) establishing a pragmatic sampling approach to prioritize and optimize available resources and data requirements for
Background Although school-based interventions to promote physical activity in adolescents have been suggested in several recent reviews, questions have been raised regarding the effects of the strategies and the methodology applied and for whom the interventions are effective. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of a school-based intervention program: the HEalth in Adolescents (HEIA) study, on change in physical activity, and furthermore, to explore whether potential effects varied by gender, weight status, initial physical activity level and parental education level. Methods This was a cluster randomized controlled 20 month intervention study which included 700 11-year-olds. Main outcome-variable was mean count per minute (cpm) derived from ActiGraph accelerometers (Model 7164/GT1M). Weight and height were measured objectively. Adolescents reported their pubertal status in a questionnaire and parents reported their education level on the consent form. Linear mixed models were used to test intervention effects and to account for the clustering effect of sampling by school. Results The present study showed an intervention effect on overall physical activity at the level of p = 0.05 with a net effect of 50 cpm increase from baseline to post intervention in favour of the intervention group (95% CI −0.4, 100). Subgroup analyses showed that the effect appeared to be more profound among girls (Est 65 cpm, CI 5, 124, p = 0.03) and among participants in the low-activity group (Est 92 cpm, CI 41, 142, p activity group, respectively. Furthermore, the intervention affected physical activity among the normal weight group more positively than among the overweight, and participants with parents having 13–16 years of education more positively than participants with parents having either a lower or higher number of years of education. The intervention seemed to succeed in reducing time spent sedentary among girls but not among boys. Conclusions A
Clyde B Schechter
Full Text Available Clyde B Schechter1, Charles E Basch2, Arlene Caban3, Elizabeth A Walker41Departments of Family and Social Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA; 2Department of Health Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 4Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USAAbstract: In a clinical trial, we have previously shown that a telephone intervention can significantly increase participation in dilated fundus examination (DFE screening among low-income adults with diabetes. Here the costs and cost-effectiveness ratio of this intervention are calculated. Intervention effectiveness was estimated as the difference in DFE utilization between the telephone intervention and print groups from the clinical trial multiplied by the size of the telephone intervention group. A micro-costing approach was used. Personnel time was aggregated from logs kept during the clinical trial of the intervention. Wage rates were taken from a commercial compensation database. Telephone charges were estimated based on prevailing fees. The cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated as the ratio of total costs of the intervention to the number of DFEs gained by the intervention. A sensitivity analysis estimated the cost-effectiveness of a more limited telephone intervention. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis using bootstrap samples from the clinical trial results quantified the uncertainties in resource utilization and intervention effectiveness. Net intervention costs were US$18,676.06, with an associated gain of 43.7 DFEs and 16.4 new diagnoses of diabetic retinopathy. The cost-effectiveness ratio is US$427.37 per DFE gained. A restricted intervention limiting the number of calls to 5, as opposed to 7, would achieve the same results
Rayce, Signe B; Rasmussen, Ida S; Klest, Sihu K; Patras, Joshua; Pontoppidan, Maiken
Infancy is a critical stage of life, and a secure relationship with caring and responsive caregivers is crucial for healthy infant development. Early parenting interventions aim to support families in which infants are at risk of developmental harm. Our objective is to systematically review the effects of parenting interventions on child development and on parent-child relationship for at-risk families with infants aged 0-12 months. This is a systematic review and meta-analyses. We extracted publications from 10 databases in June 2013, January 2015 and June 2016, and supplemented with grey literature and hand search. We assessed risk of bias, calculated effect sizes and conducted meta-analyses. (1) Randomised controlled trials of structured psychosocial interventions offered to at-risk families with infants aged 0-12 months in Western Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, (2) interventions with a minimum of three sessions and at least half of these delivered postnatally and (3) outcomes reported for child development or parent-child relationship. Sixteen studies were included. Meta-analyses were conducted on seven outcomes represented in 13 studies. Parenting interventions significantly improved child behaviour ( d =0.14; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.26), parent-child relationship ( d =0.44; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.80) and maternal sensitivity ( d =0.46; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.65) postintervention. There were no significant effects on cognitive development ( d= 0.13; 95% CI -0.08 to 0.41), internalising behaviour ( d= 0.16; 95% CI -0.03 to 0.33) or externalising behaviour ( d= 0.16; 95% CI -0.01 to 0.30) post-intervention. At long-term follow-up we found no significant effect on child behaviour ( d= 0.15; 95% CI -0.03 to 0.31). Interventions offered to at-risk families in the first year of the child's life appear to improve child behaviour, parent-child relationship and maternal sensitivity post-intervention, but not child cognitive
de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander; Post, Wendy
In this study we examine the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of elementary school students towards peers with intellectual, physical and severe physical and intellectual disabilities. A quasi-experimental longitudinal study was designed with an experimental group and a control group, both comprising two rural schools. An intervention program was developed for kindergarten (n(experimental) = 22, n(control) = 31) and elementary school students without disabilities (n(experimental) = 91, n(control) = 127) (age range 4-12 years old). This intervention consisted of a 3 weeks education project comprising six lessons about disabilities. The Acceptance Scale for Kindergarten-revised and the Attitude Survey to Inclusive Education were used to measure attitudes at three moments: prior to the start of the intervention, after the intervention and 1 year later. The outcomes of the multilevel analysis showed positive, immediate effects on attitudes of kindergarten students, but limited effects on elementary school students' attitudes.
Signal, Louise; Lanumata, Tolotea; Bowers, Sharron
Growth in the high-cost, unregulated fringe lender market (with these lenders commonly referred to as loan sharks) has occurred both internationally and in New Zealand in recent years. The credit practices of loan sharks create financial hardship for many people including Māori, Pacific and low-income New Zealanders. This paper reports on research that explored strategies for reducing the impact of the fringe lender market on Māori, Pacific and low-income New Zealanders. A narrative literature review and 10 key informant interviews were conducted to provide information on how best to intervene to reduce the impact of the fringe lender market for these people. The main interventions identified were: two regulatory approaches, one for capping interest rates and another to create codes of responsible lending; access to safe affordable micro-finance options; financial literacy education; and Pacific cultural change around fa'alavelave, which are the 'obligations' of giving. Protecting consumers from the unsafe practices of fringe lenders requires a combined approach of discouraging the undesirable practices of fringe lenders through regulation and encouraging the growth of safe, affordable micro-finance options. Financial literacy education is a valuable activity for directing consumer attention to the safest options, but in isolation will have limited effect if options are limited. Health promoters have a valuable role to play in implementing these interventions.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.
Toftager, Mette; Christiansen, Lars B; Ersbøll, Annette K
BACKGROUND: Multicomponent school-based interventions have the potential to reduce the age-related decline in adolescents' physical activity (PA), yet there is not consistent evidence to guide non-curricular and school environment interventions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness......-up. A total of 1,348 students (11-13 years, in grade 5 and 6) enrolled in the study at baseline. The 14 schools included in the study were located in the Region of Southern Denmark. The intervention consisted of organizational and physical changes in the school environment with a total of 11 intervention...
Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of lutein intervention on visual function of patients with early age-related macular degeneration(AMD. METHODS: Totally 200 early AMD patients were divided into lutein intervention group(20mg/dand placebo group by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trail. Questionnaire investigation, serum lutein concentration and visual function were conducted at baseline, 12, 24, 36 and 48wk respectively. RESULTS: The serum lutein concentration in lutein intervention group was higher than the baseline(PPPPP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Lutein intervention can improve the visual function of patients with early AMD.
Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Bois, P. du; Dommelen, P. van; Hopman-Rock, M.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactor and multimethod community intervention programme to reduce falls among older persons by at least 20%. In a pre-test-post test design, self-reported falls were registered for 10 months in the intervention community and two
Niks, I.M.W.; de Jonge, J.; Gevers, J.M.P.; Houtman, I.L.D.
Effective interventions to prevent work stress and to improve health, well-being, and performance of employees are of the utmost importance. This quasi-experimental intervention study presents a specific method for diagnosis of psychosocial risk factors at work and subsequent development and
van Oers, A M; Groen, H; Mutsaerts, M A Q; Burggraaff, J M; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Perquin, D A M; Koks, C A M; van Golde, R; Kaaijk, E M; Schierbeek, J M; Oosterhuis, G J E; Broekmans, F J; Vogel, N E A; Land, J A; Mol, B W J; Hoek, A
STUDY QUESTION: Do age, ovulatory status, severity of obesity and body fat distribution affect the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women? SUMMARY ANSWER: We did not identify a subgroup in which lifestyle intervention increased the healthy live birth rate however it did
This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor,…
Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie
This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak…
Somers, Cheryl L.; Wang, Dan; Piliawsky, Monte
This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of a combined tutoring and mentoring intervention for urban, low-income Black youth during the transition to high school. Participants were 118 ninth-grade students (experimental n = 69; comparison n = 49). After 7 months in the intervention program, students in the experimental group showed…
Chernego, Daria I.; McCall, Robert B.; Wanless, Shannon B.; Groark, Christina J.; Vasilyeva, Marina J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.
This study examined the effect of a social-emotional intervention implemented in one St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) institution (called a Baby Home, BH) on the general behavioral development of preterm children (gestational ages of 30-36 weeks) during their first 2 years of life. The intervention consisted of training caregivers and…
Robichaux, Natalie M.; Gresham, Frank M.
Class-wide interventions such as the Mystery Motivator are an easy and effective way to remediate problematic behavior in the classroom and increase the level of classroom management. Multiple procedural variations to the Mystery Motivator intervention have successfully changed student behavior, but a systematic comparison of two procedural…
Haley, William E.; Bergman, Elizabeth J.; Roth, David L.; McVie, Theresa; Gaugler, Joseph E.; Mittelman, Mary S.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the joint effects of bereavement and caregiver intervention on caregiver depressive symptoms. Design and Methods: Alzheimer's caregivers from a randomized trial of an enhanced caregiver support intervention versus usual care who had experienced the death of their spouse (n = 254) were repeatedly…
Rodriguez-Artalej..., F; Lafuente, U; Guallar-Castillon, P; Garteizaurrekoa, D.; Sainz, M; Diez, A; Foj, A; Banegas, J
Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention at the workplace. The intervention was adapted to smokers‘ tobacco dependence, and included minimal structured counselling at the first visit (5–8 minutes), nicotine patches for three months, and three sessions of counselling for reinforcement of abstinence (2–3 minutes) over a three month period.
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.
Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…
Jacob, Udeme Samuel; Olisaemeka, Angela Nneka; Edozie, Isioma Sitamalife
The paper attempts to discuss the place of intervention in the developmental and communication disorders of children with intellectual disability for the purpose of providing effective inclusion programme. The definition of early intervention was stated, areas affected by children communication disorder such as language comprehension, fluency,…
Riper, H.; Spek, V.; Boon, B.; Conijn, B.; Kramer, J.; Martin-Abello, K.; Smit, H.F.E.
Background: Self-help interventions without professional contact to curb adult problem drinking in the community are increasingly being delivered via the Internet. Objective: The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the overall effectiveness of these eHealth interventions. Methods: In all,
Zanjani, Faika; Allen, Hannah; Schoenberg, Nancy; Martin, Catherine; Clayton, Richard
Background: Older adults are at risk for experiencing alcohol and medication interactions (AMIs) given their concomitant alcohol and medication use. However, there have been limited efforts to develop and evaluate AMI prevention interventions. Purpose: The current study examined sustained intervention effects on older adults' attitudes, awareness,…
Niks, I.M.W.; Gevers, J.M.P.; Jonge, J. de; Houtman, I.L.D.
Effective interventions to prevent work stress and to improve health, well-being, and performance of employees are of the utmost importance. This quasi-experimental intervention study presents a specific method for diagnosis of psychosocial risk factors at work and subsequent development and
Kitchens, Vivian D.; Deris, Aaron R.; Simon, Marilyn K.
Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. The study examined the effects of a mathematics intervention known as Cover, Copy, and Compare for learning basic…
Ameling, Jessica M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; Bone, Lee R.; Levine, David M.; Roter, Debra L.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Noronha, Gary J.; Fagan, Peter J.; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette
African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions’ cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community ...
Hoogsteder, L.M.; Kuijpers, N.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van Horn, J.E.; Hendriks, J.; Wissink, I.B.
This article describes a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART), a Dutch intervention for 16- to 21-year-old juveniles. Re-ART aims to decrease severe aggressive behavior using a cognitive behavioral approach combined
Hoogsteder, L.; Kuijpers, N N; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van Horn, J.; Hendriks, J.; Wissink, I.B.
This article describes a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART), a Dutch intervention for 16- to 21-year-old juveniles. Re-ART aims to decrease severe aggressive behavior using a cognitive behavioral approach combined
Rütten, Alfred; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionut; Schätzlein, Valentin; Suhrcke, Marc
On the basis of international published reviews, this systematic review aims to determine the health economic benefits of interventions promoting physical activity.This review of reviews is based on a systematic literature research in 10 databases (e. g. PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus) supplemented by hand searches from January 2000 to October 2015. Publications were considered in the English or German language only. Results of identified reviews were derived.In total, 18 reviews were identified that could be attributed to interventions promoting physical activity (2 reviews focusing on population-based physical activity interventions, 10 reviews on individual-based and 6 reviews on both population-based and individual-based physical activity interventions). Results showed that population-based physical activity interventions are of great health economic potential if reaching a wider population at comparably low costs. Outstanding are political and environmental strategies, as well as interventions supporting behavioural change through information. The most comprehensive documentation for interventions promoting physical activity could be found for individual-based strategies (i. e. exercise advice or exercise programs). However, such programs are comparatively less cost-effective due to limited reach and higher utilization of resources.The present study provides an extensive review and analysis of the current international state of research regarding the health economic evaluation of interventions promoting physical activity. Results show favourable cost-effectiveness for interventions promoting physical activity, though significant differences in the effectiveness between various interventions were noticed. The greatest potential for cost-effectiveness can be seen in population-based interventions. At the same time, there is a need to acknowledge the limitations of the economic evidence in this field which are attributable to methodological challenges and
Rauniar, G P; Das, B P; Manandhar, T R; Bhattacharya, S K
Irrational use of drugs as well as inappropriate and over drug prescribing leads to unnecessary expenditures and emergence of resistant bacterial strains. Feedback intervention on drug prescribing habits and face to face educational intervention of prescription audit would be effective in rationalizing prescribing practices. To measure the impact of educational feedback intervention on the prescribing behavior of dental surgeons. Prospective audit of twelve hundred outpatients prescriptions in dental OPD at BPKIHS of those dental surgeon who attended the educational intervention session was collected randomly by trained persons on customized data collection sheet before and after educational intervention. A total 1200 prescription were collected, 300 before and 300 after intervention period at the internal of one month, three months and six months. Majority of the prescriptions (39.33%) contained four drugs but after intervention, prescriptions contained mostly one drug, 73% in first month, 78.67% in third month and 65.34% in six month. Mean number of drugs per prescription after intervention were decreased. There was increased number of generic names of drugs after intervention. Amoxicillin, Metronidazole, Chlorhexidine, Povidone iodine gargle, Nimesulide, Ibuprofen, Ibuprofen + paracetamol, and Paracetamol were most commonly prescribed by dental prescribers before and after intervention. Selection of antimicrobial was done on empirical basis which was correct because Amoxicillin concentration reaches effectively in gingival crevicular fluid and Metronidazole covered effectively against anaerobic bacteria were found in orodental infection. The uses of topical anti-infective preparation as irrigants of choice that can kill majority of micro-organisms found is root canal and dental tubules and minimize systemic use of antimicrobials. Nimesulide prescribing needs to be rationalized. Feedback educational intervention of prescription audit is effective to improve their
Wong, Jason Y L; Gilson, Nicholas D; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Brown, Wendy J
The workplace is cited as a promising setting for physical activity (PA) promotion, but workplace PA interventions tend not to specifically target men. The aim of this article was to review the literature on workplace PA interventions for men and to identify key issues for future intervention development. Articles targeting PA at the workplace were located through a structured database search. Information on intervention strategies and PA outcomes were extracted. Only 13 studies (10.5%) reviewed focused on men, of which 5 showed significant increases in PA. These studies used generic, multicomponent, health promotion strategies with a variety of timeframes, self-report PA measures, and PA outcomes. The systematic review identified that evidence on the effectiveness of workplace PA interventions for men is equivocal and highlighted methodological concerns. Future research should use reliable and valid measures of PA and interventions that focus specifically on men's needs and PA preferences.
Objective Bullying threatens the mental and educational well-being of students. Although anti-bullying policies are prevalent, little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the methodological characteristics and summarizes substantive findings of studies examining the effectiveness of school bullying policies. Method Searches of 11 bibliographic databases yielded 489 studies completed since January 1, 1995. Following duplicate removal and double-independent screening based on a priori inclusion criteria, 21 studies were included for review. Results Substantially more educators perceive anti-bullying policies to be effective rather than ineffective. Whereas several studies show that the presence or quality of policies is associated with lower rates of bullying among students, other studies found no such associations between policy presence or quality and reductions in bullying. Consistent across studies, this review found that schools with anti-bullying policies that enumerated protections based on sexual orientation and gender identity were associated with better protection of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students. Specifically, LGBTQ students in schools with such policies reported less harassment and more frequent and effective intervention by school personnel. Findings are mixed regarding the relationship between having an anti-bullying policy and educators’ responsiveness to general bullying. Conclusions Anti-bullying policies might be effective at reducing bullying if their content is based on evidence and sound theory and if they are implemented with a high level of fidelity. More research is needed to improve on limitations among extant studies. PMID:28344750
Full Text Available A set of mediation analyses were carried out in this study using data from It’s Your Game. . .Keep It Real (IYG, a successful HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program. The IYG study evaluated a skill and normbased. HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program that was implemented from 2004 to 2007 among 907 urban low-income middle school youth in Houston, TX, USA. Analyses were carried out to investigate the degree to which a set of proposed psychosocial measures of behavioral knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral, and normative beliefs, and perceived risky situations, all targeted by the intervention, mediated the intervention’s effectiveness in reducing initiation of sex. The mediation process was assessed by examining the significance and size of the estimated effects from the mediating pathways. The findings from this study provide evidence that the majority of the psychosocial mediators targeted by the IYG intervention are indeed related to the desired behavior and provide evidence that the conceptual theory underlying the targeted psychosocial mediators in the intervention is appropriate. Two of the psychosocial mediators significantly mediated the intervention effect, knowledge of STI signs and symptoms and refusal self-efficacy. This study suggests that the underlying causal mechanisms of action of these interventions are complex and warrant further analyses.
Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi
to the prolonged treatment with regards to disorganized and negative dimension. For participants with short duration from first symptom until start of SEI treatment there was a significant difference on the negative dimension favoring the prolonged OPUS treatment. The finding of an effect of prolonged treatment......The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been shown to have an effect on outcome after first-episode psychosis. The premise of specialized early intervention (SEI) services is that intervention in the early years of illness can affect long-term outcomes. In this study, we investigate whether...... DUP affects treatment response after 5 years of SEI treatment compared to 2 years of SEI treatment. As part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effect of prolonged SEI treatment 400 participants diagnosed within the schizophrenia spectrum were recruited. For this specific study participants...
Linda J Cobiac
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a key risk factor for chronic disease, but a growing number of people are not achieving the recommended levels of physical activity necessary for good health. Australians are no exception; despite Australia's image as a sporting nation, with success at the elite level, the majority of Australians do not get enough physical activity. There are many options for intervention, from individually tailored advice, such as counselling from a general practitioner, to population-wide approaches, such as mass media campaigns, but the most cost-effective mix of interventions is unknown. In this study we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From evidence of intervention efficacy in the physical activity literature and evaluation of the health sector costs of intervention and disease treatment, we model the cost impacts and health outcomes of six physical activity interventions, over the lifetime of the Australian population. We then determine cost-effectiveness of each intervention against current practice for physical activity intervention in Australia and derive the optimal pathway for implementation. Based on current evidence of intervention effectiveness, the intervention programs that encourage use of pedometers (Dominant and mass media-based community campaigns (Dominant are the most cost-effective strategies to implement and are very likely to be cost-saving. The internet-based intervention program (AUS$3,000/DALY, the GP physical activity prescription program (AUS$12,000/DALY, and the program to encourage more active transport (AUS$20,000/DALY, although less likely to be cost-saving, have a high probability of being under a AUS$50,000 per DALY threshold. GP referral to an exercise physiologist (AUS$79,000/DALY is the least cost-effective option if high time and travel costs for patients in screening and consulting an exercise physiologist are considered
Quercia, Sara; Turroni, Silvia; Fiori, Jessica; Soverini, Matteo; Rampelli, Simone; Biagi, Elena; Castagnetti, Andrea; Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Pianesi, Mario; Fallucca, Francesco; Pozzilli, Paolo; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco
Reactive hypoglycemia is a metabolic disorder that provokes severe hypoglycemic episodes after meals. Over recent years, the gut microbiota has been recognized as potential target for the control of metabolic diseases, and the possibility to correct gut microbiota dysbioses through diet, favouring the recovery of metabolic homeostasis, has been considered. We investigate the impact of 2 short-term (3-day) nutritional interventions, based on the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet and a control Mediterranean diet, on the structure and functionality of the gut microbiota in 12 patients affected by reactive hypoglycemia. The gut microbiota composition was characterized by next-generation sequencing of the V3 to V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and the ecosystem functionality was addressed by measuring the faecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In order to measure the short-term physiological gut microbiota fluctuation, the microbiomes of 7 healthy people were characterized before and after 3 days of constant diet. While no convergence of the gut microbiota compositional profiles was observed, a significant increase in SCFA faecal levels was induced only in the Ma-Pi 2 diet group, suggesting the potential of this diet to support a short-term functional convergence of the gut microbiota, regardless of the individual compositional layout. The Ma-Pi 2 diet, with its high fibre load, was effective in increasing the production of SCFAs by the gut microbiota. Because these metabolites are known for their ability to counterbalance the metabolic deregulation in persons with glucose impairment disorders, their increased bioavailability could be of some relevance in reactive hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dirkx, Kim; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.
Dirkx, K. J. H., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, July). Toetsen als leerinterventie. Samenvatten in het testing effect paradigma onderzocht [Tests as learning interventions. Summarization in the testing effect paradigma investigated]. Presentation for Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam.
Yue, Liqing; Plummer, Virginia; Cross, Wendy
To identify the effectiveness of education interventions provided for nurses for clinical alarm response and management. Some education has been undertaken to improve clinical alarm response, but the evidence for evaluating effectiveness for nurse education interventions is limited. Systematic review. A systematic review of experimental studies published in English from 2005-2015 was conducted in four computerised databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Scopus). After identification, screening and appraisal using Joanna Briggs Institute instruments, quality research papers were selected, data extraction and analysis followed. Five studies met the inclusion criteria for alarm response and no articles were concerned with clinical alarm education for management. All had different types and methods of interventions and statistical pooling was not possible. Response accuracy, response time and perceptions were consistent when different interventions were adopted. A positive effect was identified when learning about general alarms, single alarms, sequential alarms and medium-level alarms for learning as the primary task. Nurses who were musically trained had a faster and more accurate alarm response. Simulation interventions had a positive effect, but the effect of education provided in the care unit was greater. Overall, clinical alarm awareness was improved through education activities. Nurses are the main users of healthcare alarms and work in complex environments with high numbers of alarms, including nuisance alarms and other factors. Alarm-related adverse events are common. The findings of a small number of experimental studies with diverse evidence included consideration of various factors when formulating education strategies. The factors which influence effectiveness of nurse education are nurse demographics, nurse participants with musical training, workload and characteristics of alarms. Education interventions based in clinical practice settings increase
Celander, Malin C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [University of Gothenburg, Department of Zoology, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)
One of today's greatest challenges in environmental toxicology is to understand effects of mixture toxicity, commonly referred to as cocktail effects, in humans and in wildlife. Biomarker responses in fish are routinely used to assess exposure of anthropogenic chemicals in the aquatic environment. However, little is known about how cocktail effects affect these biomarker responses. For this reason, there is an obvious risk for misinterpretation of biomarker-data and this can have profound negative effects on stakeholder's decisions and actions, as well as on legislations and remediation-plans initiated in order to reduce exposure to certain chemicals. Besides, chemical safety-levels are traditionally based on experiences from lab-studies with single chemicals, which is unfortunate as a chemical can be more toxic when it is mixed with other chemicals, because of the cocktail effect. This review focuses on pharmacokinetic interactions between different classes of pollutants on detoxification mechanisms and how that affects two commonly used biomarkers in the aquatic environment: (1) induction of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) that is mediated via activation of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), used to assess exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons; (2) induction of vitellogenin (VTG) that is mediated via activation of the estrogen receptor (ER), used to assess exposure to estrogenic chemicals. These responses can be either directly or indirectly affected by the presence of other classes of pollutants as a result of cocktail effects. For example, chemicals that inhibit the function of key metabolic enzymes and transporter pumps that are involved in elimination of AhR- and ER agonists, can result in bioaccumulation of aromatic hydrocarbons and estrogenic chemicals resulting in increased biomarker responses. This cocktail effect can lead to overestimation of the actual exposure pressure. On the contrary, induction of expression of key metabolic enzymes and transporter
Goto, Yoshikazu; Funada, Akira; Goto, Yumiko
The response time of emergency medical services (EMS) is an important determinant of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We sought to identify upper limits of EMS response times and bystander interventions associated with neurologically intact survival. We analyzed the records of 553 426 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a Japanese registry between 2010 and 2014. The primary study end point was 1-month neurologically intact survival (Cerebral Performance Category scale 1 or 2). Increased EMS response time was associated with significantly decreased adjusted odds of 1-month neurologically intact survival (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for each 1-minute increase, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-0.90), although this relationship was modified by bystander interventions. The bystander interventions and the ranges of EMS response times that were associated with increased adjusted 1-month neurologically intact survival were as follows: bystander defibrillation, from ≤2 minutes (aOR, 3.10 [95% CI, 1.25-7.31]) to 13 minutes (aOR, 5.55 [95% CI, 2.66-11.2]); bystander conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation, from 3 minutes (aOR 1.48 [95% CI, 1.02-2.12]) to 11 minutes (aOR 2.41 [95% CI, 1.61-3.56]); and bystander chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation, from ≤2 minutes (aOR 1.57 [95% CI, 1.01-2.25]) to 11 minutes (aOR 1.92 [95% CI, 1.45-2.56]). However, the increase in neurologically intact survival of those receiving bystander interventions became statistically insignificant compared with no bystander interventions when the EMS response time was outside these ranges. The upper limits of the EMS response times associated with improved 1-month neurologically intact survival were 13 minutes when bystanders provided defibrillation (typically with cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and 11 minutes when bystanders provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation without defibrillation. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the
Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M; Berkman, Lisa; Olson, Ryan; Moen, Phyllis; Buxton, Orfeu M
To examine the effects of a workplace flexibility/support intervention on employees' sleep quantity and quality during nights and days and whether the effects differ by employee age. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Information technology industry workplaces. US employees ( M age = 46.9 years) at an information technology firm who provided actigraphy at baseline and a 12-month follow-up (N = 396; n = 195 intervention, n = 201 control). The Work, Family, and Health Study intervention aimed to increase workplace flexibility and support. The intervention consisted of facilitated discussions to help employees increase control over when and where they work as well as manager-specific training sessions to increase manager support for employees' work-family issues. Nighttime sleep duration, wake after sleep onset (WASO), and nap duration were measured with wrist actigraphy. Day-to-day variability in these variables (min 2 ) was also estimated. Intervention employees increased nighttime sleep duration at 12 months, by 9 minutes per day, relative to control employees. There were interaction effects between the intervention and age on daytime nap duration and day-to-day variability in WASO. Older employees (56-70 years) in the intervention condition decreased nap duration at 12 months relative to older employees in the control condition. Older employees in the intervention condition also exhibited a greater decrease in day-to-day variability of WASO at 12 months compared with their baseline. The workplace flexibility/support intervention was effective in enhancing employees' sleep health by increasing nighttime sleep duration. Furthermore, the intervention was particularly effective for older employees in decreasing their daytime nap duration and day-to-day variability in WASO.
Livingston, James D; Milne, Teresa; Fang, Mei Lan; Amari, Erica
This study provides a systematic review of existing research that has empirically evaluated interventions designed to reduce stigma related to substance use disorders. A comprehensive review of electronic databases was conducted to identify evaluations of substance use disorder related stigma interventions. Studies that met inclusion criteria were synthesized and assessed using systematic review methods. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies was moderately strong. Interventions of three studies (23%) focused on people with substance use disorders (self-stigma), three studies (23%) targeted the general public (social stigma) and seven studies (54%) focused on medical students and other professional groups (structural stigma). Nine interventions (69%) used approaches that included education and/or direct contact with people who have substance use disorders. All but one study indicated their interventions produced positive effects on at least one stigma outcome measure. None of the interventions have been evaluated across different settings or populations. A range of interventions demonstrate promise for achieving meaningful improvements in stigma related to substance use disorders. The limited evidence indicates that self-stigma can be reduced through therapeutic interventions such as group-based acceptance and commitment therapy. Effective strategies for addressing social stigma include motivational interviewing and communicating positive stories of people with substance use disorders. For changing stigma at a structural level, contact-based training and education programs targeting medical students and professionals (e.g. police, counsellors) are effective. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Livingston, James D; Milne, Teresa; Fang, Mei Lan; Amari, Erica
Aims This study provides a systematic review of existing research that has empirically evaluated interventions designed to reduce stigma related to substance use disorders. Methods A comprehensive review of electronic databases was conducted to identify evaluations of substance use disorder related stigma interventions. Studies that met inclusion criteria were synthesized and assessed using systematic review methods. Results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies was moderately strong. Interventions of three studies (23%) focused on people with substance use disorders (self-stigma), three studies (23%) targeted the general public (social stigma) and seven studies (54%) focused on medical students and other professional groups (structural stigma). Nine interventions (69%) used approaches that included education and/or direct contact with people who have substance use disorders. All but one study indicated their interventions produced positive effects on at least one stigma outcome measure. None of the interventions have been evaluated across different settings or populations. Conclusions A range of interventions demonstrate promise for achieving meaningful improvements in stigma related to substance use disorders. The limited evidence indicates that self-stigma can be reduced through therapeutic interventions such as group-based acceptance and commitment therapy. Effective strategies for addressing social stigma include motivational interviewing and communicating positive stories of people with substance use disorders. For changing stigma at a structural level, contact-based training and education programs targeting medical students and professionals (e.g. police, counsellors) are effective. PMID:21815959
Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Li; Xv, Yi-Chong; Shi, Ling; Wang, Yan
To understand the utilisation of prenatal care and hospitalised delivery among pregnant Muslim women in Ningxia, China, and to explore the effectiveness of the integrated interventions to reduce maternal mortality. Cross-sectional surveys before and after the intervention were carried out. Using multistage sampling, 1215 mothers of children <5 years old were recruited: 583 in the pre-intervention survey and 632 in the post-intervention study. Data on prenatal care and delivery were collected from face-to-face interviews. Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) data were obtained from the local Maternal and Child Mortality Report System. After the intervention, the MMR significantly decreased (45.5 deaths per 100,000 live births to 32.7 deaths). Fewer children were born at home after the intervention than before the intervention (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.08-0.15). The proportion of women who attended prenatal care at least once increased from 78.2% to 98.9% (OR, 24.55; 95% CI, 11.37-53.12). The proportion of women who had prenatal visit(s) in the first trimester of pregnancy increased from 35.1% to 82.6% (OR, 8.77; 95% CI, 6.58-11.69). The quality of prenatal care was greatly improved. Effects of the intervention on the utilisation of maternal care remained significant after adjusting for education level and household possessions. The findings suggest that integrated strategies can effectively reduce maternal mortality. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8 y old low-income children (N=1474. Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children’s nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA. Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant. % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2 while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7% in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24 and increased (1.22–1.35 in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P=0.024. Interaction group * time was significant for boys (P<0.0001 and girls (P=0.004. Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.
Jiménez, Juan E; Rodríguez, Cristina; Crespo, Patricia; González, Desirée; Artiles, Ceferino; Alfonso, Miguel
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of second tier intervention at-risk readers within the context of a Response to Intervention approach. The study was conducted in the Canary Islands (Spain), directed by research team ¨Dificultades de Aprendizaje, Psicolingüística y Nuevas Tecnologías¨ (DEA&NT) from University of La Laguna, and supported by the Government of the Canary Islands. A sample of 1.123 Spanish children from fourteen schools districts were given the Spanish adaptation of The Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behavior Checklist and children who scored at or above the 75th percentile on the test were classified as "at risk" for early reading difficulties. Half of the students were randomly assigned to a project-based intervention condition where they received small group supplementary intervention for 30 minutes daily using the Prevención de las Dificultades Específicas de Aprendizaje (PREDEA) curriculum from mid to late December and continued until mid June. The other half received whatever remedial services were available at their schools. Results indicated that children who received the PREDEA curriculum had higher scores on the Early Grade Reading Assessment Test (EGRA) on initial sound identification, listening comprehension, letter sound knowledge and oral reading fluency compared to the control group.
Louise F. Saliba
Full Text Available The individual response to diet may be influenced by gene polymorphisms. This study hypothesized that ADRB2 (Gln27Glu, rs1042714 and Arg16Gly, rs1042713, ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994 and GHRL (Leu72Met, rs696217 polymorphisms moderate weight loss. The study was a seven weeks dietary weight loss intervention with Brazilian adult obese women (n = 109. The body mass index (BMI was calculated and polymorphisms in these genes were assessed by real-time PCR assays. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (2 x 2 were used to analyze the intervention effect between polymorphisms and BMI over the period and after stratification for age and socioeconomic status (SES. The weight loss intervention resulted in decreased BMI over the seven-week period (p < 0.001, for high and low SES (p < 0.05 and mainly for participants with 30-49 y. The intervention did not result in a statistically significant difference in weight loss between polymorphism carriers and non-carriers, and although, the ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms did not moderate weight loss, the Gln27Glu polymorphism carriers showed a lower BMI compared to non-carriers in the low SES (p = 0.018 and the 30-39 y (p = 0.036 groups, suggesting a role for this polymorphism related to BMI control.
Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Sossa-Briceño, Monica P; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A
Asthma educational interventions have been shown to improve several clinically and economically important outcomes. However, these interventions are costly in themselves and could lead to even higher disease costs. A cost-effectiveness threshold analysis would be helpful in determining the threshold value of the cost of educational interventions, leading to these interventions being cost-effective. The aim of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness threshold analysis to determine the level at which the cost of a pediatric asthma educational intervention would be cost-effective and cost-saving. A Markov-type model was developed in order to estimate costs and health outcomes of a simulated cohort of pediatric patients with persistent asthma treated over a 12-month period. Effectiveness parameters were obtained from a single uncontrolled before-and-after study performed with Colombian asthmatic children. Cost data were obtained from official databases provided by the Colombian Ministry of Health. The main outcome was the variable "quality-adjusted life-years" (QALYs). A deterministic threshold sensitivity analysis showed that the asthma educational intervention will be cost-saving to the health system if its cost is under US$513.20. Additionally, the analysis showed that the cost of the intervention would have to be below US$967.40 in order to be cost-effective. This study identified the level at which the cost of a pediatric asthma educational intervention will be cost-effective and cost-saving for the health system in Colombia. Our findings could be a useful aid for decision makers in efficiently allocating limited resources when planning asthma educational interventions for pediatric patients.
Glisson, Charles; Dukes, Denzel; Green, Philip
This study examines the effects of the Availability, Responsiveness, and Continuity (ARC) organizational intervention strategy on caseworker turnover, climate, and culture in a child welfare and juvenile justice system. Using a pre-post, randomized blocks, true experimental design, 10 urban and 16 rural case management teams were randomly assigned to either the ARC organizational intervention condition or to a control condition. The culture and climate of each case management team were assessed at baseline and again after the one-year organizational intervention was completed. In addition, caseworker turnover was assessed by identifying caseworkers on the sampled teams who quit their jobs during the year. Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) analyses indicate that the ARC organizational intervention reduced the probability of caseworker turnover by two-thirds and improved organizational climate by reducing role conflict, role overload, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization in both urban and rural case management teams. Organizational intervention strategies can be used to reduce staff turnover and improve organizational climates in urban and rural child welfare and juvenile justice systems. This is important because child welfare and juvenile justice systems in the U.S.A. are plagued by high turnover rates, and there is evidence that high staff turnover and poor organizational climates negatively affect service quality and outcomes in these systems.
Williams, Kate E; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M; Walker, Sue; Abad, Vicky
The positive relationship between parent-child interactions and optimal child development is well established. Families of children with disabilities may face unique challenges in establishing positive parent-child relationships; yet, there are few studies examining the effectiveness of music therapy interventions to address these issues. In particular, these studies have been limited by small sample size and the use of measures of limited reliability and validity. This study examined the effectiveness of a short-term group music therapy intervention for parents of children with disabilities and explored factors associated with better outcomes for participating families. Participants were 201 mother-child dyads, where the child had a disability. Pre- and post-intervention parental questionnaires and clinician observation measures were completed to examine outcomes of parental wellbeing, parenting behaviors, and child development. Descriptive data, t-tests for repeated measures and a predictive model tested via logistic regression are presented. Significant improvements pre to post intervention were found for parent mental health, child communication and social skills, parenting sensitivity, parental engagement with child and acceptance of child, child responsiveness to parent, and child interest and participation in program activities. There was also evidence for high parental satisfaction and that the program brought social benefits to families. Reliable change on six or more indicators of parent or child functioning was predicted by attendance and parent education. This study provides positive evidence for the effectiveness of group music therapy in promoting improved parental mental health, positive parenting and key child developmental areas.
Poulsen, Tine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Vass, Mikkel; Avlund, Kirsten
To analyse if social capital modifies the effect of educational intervention of home visitors on mobility disability. Earlier studies have found that educational intervention of home visitors has a positive effect of older peoples' functional decline, but how social capital might modify this effect is still unknown. We used the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits - a prospective cohort study including 2863 75-year-olds and 1171 80-year-olds in 34 Danish municipalities - to analyse the modifying effect of different aspects of social capital on the effect of educational intervention of home visitors on functional decline. The three measures of social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) were measured at contextual level. Data was analysed with multivariate linear regression model using generalised estimating equations to account for repeated measurements. We found that 80-year-olds living in municipalities with high bonding (B=0.089, p=0.0279) and high linking (B=0.0929; p=0.0217) had significant better mobility disability in average at 3-year follow up if their municipality had received intervention. With the unique design of the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits and with theory-based measures of social capital that distinguish between three aspects of social capital with focus on older people, this study contributes to the literature about the role of social capital for interventions on mobility disability.
Hanisch, Sabine E; Twomey, Conal D; Szeto, Andrew C H; Birner, Ulrich W; Nowak, Dennis; Sabariego, Carla
The majority of people experiencing mental-health problems do not seek help, and the stigma of mental illness is considered a major barrier to seeking appropriate treatment. More targeted interventions (e.g. at the workplace) seem to be a promising and necessary supplement to public campaigns, but little is known about their effectiveness. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions targeting the stigma of mental illness at the workplace. Sixteen studies were included after the literature review. The effectiveness of anti-stigma interventions at the workplace was assessed by examining changes in: (1) knowledge of mental disorders and their treatment and recognition of signs/symptoms of mental illness, (2) attitudes towards people with mental-health problems, and (3) supportive behavior. The results indicate that anti-stigma interventions at the workplace can lead to improved employee knowledge and supportive behavior towards people with mental-health problems. The effects of interventions on employees' attitudes were mixed, but generally positive. The quality of evidence varied across studies. This highlights the need for more rigorous, higher-quality evaluations conducted with more diverse samples of the working population. Future research should explore to what extent changes in employees' knowledge, attitudes, and supportive behavior lead to affected individuals seeking help earlier. Such investigations are likely to inform important stakeholders about the potential benefits of current workplace anti-stigma interventions and provide guidance for the development and implementation of effective future interventions.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the exchange market interventions of the Bank of Korea on the exchange rate of Korean won vis-a-vis US dollar during the 1997 currency crisis. In particular, this paper tests the effects of spot and forward market interventions, using daily intervention data of the Bank of Korea. During the 1997 period, Korea faced two series of crisis in January-March and September-November. It turns out that the spot market intervention was effective in stabilizing the spot market exchange rate at least during the first crisis period. In contrast, there seemed no effect of the forward market intervention. Forward market intervention was rather destabilizing through forward exchange rate during the second crisis period. This implies that even though the forward and sterilized spot market interventions are equivalent in their effect on exchange rate, these two instruments can widely diverge from each other under the circumstances of exchange rate volatility and speculation.
Janice Du Mont
Full Text Available We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention.Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey.Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important, and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention.Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88, geriatrician (4.87, police officer (4.87, GEM (geriatric emergency management nurse (4.80, GEM social worker (4.78, community health worker (4.76, social worker/counsellor (4.74, family physician in community (4.71, paramedic (4.65, financial worker (4.59, lawyer (4.59, pharmacist (4.59, emergency physician (4.57, geriatric psychiatrist (4.33, occupational therapist (4.29, family physician in hospital (4.28, Crown prosecutor (4.24, neuropsychologist (4.24, bioethicist (4.18, caregiver advocate (4.18, victim support worker (4.18, and respite care worker (4.12.A large and
Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Macdonald, Sheila; Elliot, Shannon; Yaffe, Mark
Objective We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention. Methods Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey. Analysis Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important), and an interquartile rangeelder abuse intervention. Results Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88), geriatrician (4.87), police officer (4.87), GEM (geriatric emergency management) nurse (4.80), GEM social worker (4.78), community health worker (4.76), social worker/counsellor (4.74), family physician in community (4.71), paramedic (4.65), financial worker (4.59), lawyer (4.59), pharmacist (4.59), emergency physician (4.57), geriatric psychiatrist (4.33), occupational therapist (4.29), family physician in hospital (4.28), Crown prosecutor (4.24), neuropsychologist (4.24), bioethicist (4.18), caregiver advocate (4.18), victim support worker (4.18), and respite care worker (4.12). Conclusion A large and diverse group of multidisciplinary, intersectoral collaborators was
Tomás, Esther Pousa; Hurtado, Gemma; Noguer, Sílvia; Domènech, Cristina; García, Montse; López, Nuria; Negredo, Maríacruz; Penadés, Rafael; Reinares, María; Serrano, Dolors; Dolz, Montse; Gallo, Pedro
Despite their proven efficacy, family work interventions on families of patients with schizophrenia are not being implemented in routine clinical practice in contexts where expressed emotion levels among caregivers are relatively high. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a family work intervention in a Mediterranean environment in Catalonia, Spain. Participants were 23 patients and 35 key relatives in five different clinical settings. The family intervention was provided by 10 trained health care professionals during a nine-month period. A six-month follow-up was also conducted. Statistically significant improvements were found in patients' clinical status, global functioning and social functioning levels, as well as in caregivers' burden of care. These results were maintained during follow-up. This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of family intervention in a high-expressed emotion context in Catalonia. The findings add weight to the growing literature supporting these interventions in different cultural settings.
Smith, Jennifer L; Hanni, Agnieszka A
Savoring is the ability to be mindful of positive experiences and to be aware of and regulate positive feelings about these experiences. Previous research has found that savoring interventions can be effective at improving well-being of younger adults, but findings have not been extended to older populations. This pilot study examined the effects of a 1-week savoring intervention on older adults' psychological resilience and well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms and happiness). Participants, 111 adults ages 60 or over, completed measures of resilience, depressive symptoms, and happiness pre- and postintervention as well as 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Analyses revealed that participants who completed the savoring intervention with high fidelity also reported improvements in resilience, depressive symptoms, and happiness over time. These findings suggest that the savoring intervention has the potential to enhance older adults' resilience and psychological well-being.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using different types of media on physical performance and perceived exertion. This study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, we examined the effects of different combination of audio and video interventions on physical performance and rating of perceived effort (RPE. We recruited 20 collegiate students who performed a 12-minute cycling task (where they were asked to bike as hard as possible under 4 conditions (music, video, music and video, and control in a randomized order. Results indicated participants in the 2 media groups (music & audio reported a significantly lower score for RPE. In addition, there was also an effect of media type where participants in music condition perceived less effort on the cycling task compared to the video condition. Part 2 examined how music preference influenced physical performance, but used a running task (where they were asked to run as hard as possible, and by recruiting a much larger sample. Seventy-five students were assigned into 5 groups (high preference and high motivation, high preference and low motivation, low preference and low motivation, low preference and high motivation, and control based on responses on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI. Results showed that music preference, but not its motivational quality, had a significant effect on physical performance. Overall, these results show that listening to music, and in particular preferred music increases physical performance and reduces perceived effort.
van Oers, A M; Mutsaerts, M A Q; Burggraaff, J M; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Perquin, D A M; Koks, C A M; van Golde, R; Kaaijk, E M; Schierbeek, J M; Klijn, N F; van Kasteren, Y M; Land, J A; Mol, B W J; Hoek, A; Groen, H
What is the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment in obese infertile women? Lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment as compared to prompt infertility treatment in obese infertile women is not a cost-effective strategy in terms of healthy live birth rate within 24 months after randomization, but is more likely to be cost-effective using a longer follow-up period and live birth rate as endpoint. In infertile couples, obesity decreases conception chances. We previously showed that lifestyle intervention prior to infertility treatment in obese infertile women did not increase the healthy singleton vaginal live birth rate at term, but increased natural conceptions, especially in anovulatory women. Cost-effectiveness analyses could provide relevant additional information to guide decisions regarding offering a lifestyle intervention to obese infertile women. The cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment compared to prompt infertility treatment was evaluated based on data of a previous RCT, the LIFEstyle study. The primary outcome for effectiveness was the vaginal birth of a healthy singleton at term within 24 months after randomization (the healthy live birth rate). The economic evaluation was performed from a hospital perspective and included direct medical costs of the lifestyle intervention, infertility treatments, medication and pregnancy in the intervention and control group. In addition, we performed exploratory cost-effectiveness analyses of scenarios with additional effectiveness outcomes (overall live birth within 24 months and overall live birth conceived within 24 months) and of subgroups, i.e. of ovulatory and anovulatory women, women birth rates were 27 and 35% in the intervention group and the control group, respectively (effect difference of -8.1%, P birth rate. Mean costs per healthy live birth event were €15 932 in the intervention group and €15 912 in the
A written language intervention for at-risk second grade students: a randomized controlled trial of the process assessment of the learner lesson plans in a tier 2 response-to-intervention (RtI) model.
Hooper, Stephen R; Costa, Lara-Jeane C; McBee, Matthew; Anderson, Kathleen L; Yerby, Donna Carlson; Childress, Amy; Knuth, Sean B
In a randomized controlled trial, 205 students were followed from grades 1 to 3 with a focus on changes in their writing trajectories following an evidence-based intervention during the spring of second grade. Students were identified as being at-risk (n=138), and then randomized into treatment (n=68) versus business-as-usual conditions (n=70). A typical group also was included (n=67). The writing intervention comprised Lesson Sets 4 and 7 from the Process Assessment of the Learner (PAL), and was conducted via small groups (three to six students) twice a week for 12 weeks in accordance with a response-to-intervention Tier 2 model. The primary outcome was the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II Written Expression Scale. Results indicated modest support for the PAL lesson plans, with an accelerated rate of growth in writing skills following treatment. There were no significant moderator effects, although there was evidence that the most globally impaired students demonstrated a more rapid rate of growth following treatment. These findings suggest the need for ongoing examination of evidence-based treatments in writing for young elementary students.
Rafiee Vardanjani, Leila; Parvin, Neda; Mahmoodi Shan, Gholamreza
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of individual, multistep intervention on adherence to treatment in hemodialysis patients referred to a hemodialysis center in Shahrekord, Iran. In this interventional study, hemodialysis patients referring the center of the study were randomly assigned into two control and intervention groups (each 33). The control group received routine treatment, recommended dietary and fluid restrictions. The intervention group participated in eight individual interventional sessions accompanied routine treatment. At the beginning and the end of the study, routine laboratory tests and end-stage renal disease-adherence questionnaire were filled out for patients in both groups. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. At the end of the study, the two groups showed a significant difference in all domains of adherence except adherence to diet and adherence was better in the intervention group (p adherence to dialysis program (p = 0.04, r = 0.254). After intervention, serum phosphorus decreased significantly in the intervention group (p Adherence to treatment is one of the major problems in hemodialysis patients; however, comprehensive interventions are required in view of individual condition. Implications for Rehabilitation Adherence to treatment means that all patients' behaviors (diet, fluids and drugs intake) should be in line with the recommendations given by healthcare professionals. There is evidence on the association between adherence to treatment and decreased risk of hospitalization in dialysis patients. Individual structured programs are most likely to be successful in encouraging adherence to treatment.
Marteau Theresa M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many interventions shown to be effective through clinical trials are not readily implemented in clinical practice. Unfortunately, little is known regarding how clinicians construct their perceptions of the effectiveness of medical interventions. This study aims to explore general practitioners' perceptions of the nature of 'effectiveness'. Methods The design was qualitative in nature using the repertory grid technique to elicit the constructs underlying the perceived effectiveness of a range of medical interventions. Eight medical interventions were used as stimuli (diclophenac to reduce acute pain, cognitive behaviour therapy to treat depression, weight loss surgery to achieve weight loss, diet and exercise to prevent type 2 diabetes, statins to prevent heart disease, stopping smoking to prevent heart disease, nicotine replacement therapy to stop smoking, and stop smoking groups to stop smoking. The setting involved face-to-face interviews followed by questionnaires in London Primary Care Trusts. Participants included a random sample of 13 general practitioners. Results Analysis of the ratings showed that the constructs clustered around two dimensions: low patient effort versus high patient effort (dimension one, and small impact versus large impact (dimension two. Dimension one represented constructs such as 'success requires little motivation', 'not a lifestyle intervention', and 'health-care professional led intervention'. Dimension two represented constructs such as 'weak and/or minimal evidence of effectiveness', 'small treatment effect for users', 'a small proportion of users will benefit' and 'not cost-effective'. Constructs within each dimension were closely related. Conclusions General practitioners judged the effectiveness of medical interventions by considering two broad dimensions: the extent to which interventions involve patient effort, and the size of their impact. The latter is informed by trial evidence, but
Brown, Nadia J; David, Michael; Cuttle, Leila; Kimble, Roy M; Rodger, Sylvia; Higashi, Hideki
To report the cost-effectiveness of a tailored handheld computerized procedural preparation and distraction intervention (Ditto) used during pediatric burn wound care in comparison to standard practice. An economic evaluation was performed alongside a randomized controlled trial of 75 children aged 4 to 13 years who presented with a burn to the Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. Participants were randomized to either the Ditto intervention (n = 35) or standard practice (n = 40) to measure the effect of the intervention on days taken for burns to re-epithelialize. Direct medical, direct nonmedical, and indirect cost data during burn re-epithelialization were extracted from the randomized controlled trial data and combined with scar management cost data obtained retrospectively from medical charts. Nonparametric bootstrapping was used to estimate statistical uncertainty in cost and effect differences and cost-effectiveness ratios. On average, the Ditto intervention reduced the time to re-epithelialize by 3 days at AU$194 less cost for each patient compared with standard practice. The incremental cost-effectiveness plane showed that 78% of the simulated results were within the more effective and less costly quadrant and 22% were in the more effective and more costly quadrant, suggesting a 78% probability that the Ditto intervention dominates standard practice (i.e., cost-saving). At a willingness-to-pay threshold of AU$120, there is a 95% probability that the Ditto intervention is cost-effective (or cost-saving) against standard care. This economic evaluation showed the Ditto intervention to be highly cost-effective against standard practice at a minimal cost for the significant benefits gained, supporting the implementation of the Ditto intervention during burn wound care. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Robinson, Hayley; Norton, Sam; Jarrett, Paul; Broadbent, Elizabeth
Psychological stress has been shown to delay wound healing. Several trials have investigated whether psychological interventions can improve wound healing, but to date, this evidence base has not been systematically synthesized. The objective was to conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials in humans investigating whether psychological interventions can enhance wound healing. A systematic review was performed using PsychINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and MEDLINE. The searches included all papers published in English up until September 2016. The reference lists of relevant papers were screened manually to identify further review articles or relevant studies. Nineteen studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Fifteen of nineteen studies were of high methodological quality. Six studies were conducted with acute experimentally created wounds, five studies with surgical patients, two studies with burn wounds, two studies with fracture wounds, and four studies were conducted with ulcer wounds. Post-intervention standardized mean differences (SMD) between groups across all intervention types ranged from 0.13 to 3.21, favouring improved healing, particularly for surgical patients and for relaxation interventions. However, there was some evidence for publication bias suggesting negative studies may not have been reported. Due to the heterogeneity of wound types, population types, and intervention types, it is difficult to pool effect sizes across studies. Current evidence suggests that psychological interventions may aid wound healing. Although promising, more research is needed to assess the efficacy of each intervention on different wound types. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Psychological stress negatively affects wound healing. A number of studies have investigated whether psychological interventions can improve healing. However, no systematic reviews have been conducted. What does this study add
Conclusions: The intervention designed based on the Health Belief Model was effective in improving the adherence to FBDGs and could serve as a basic model for the promotion of healthy nutrition behavior among women in the primary health care setting.
Bos, Evelien; Krol, B.; Van der Star, A; Groothoff, Johan
The objective of the review was to gain more insight into the effects of occupational interventions for primary prevention of musculoskeletal symptoms in healthcare workers. The Cochrane Collaboration methodological guidelines for systematic reviews functioned as a starting point. Thirteen studies
Maria B Ospina
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reliable evidence detailing effective treatments and management practices for chronic noncancer pain exists. However, little is known about which knowledge translation (KT interventions lead to the uptake of this evidence in practice.
Chee Huei Phing
Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.
Sophy Ting-Fang Shih
Conclusion: Screening the population of high-risk individuals for HCC with the two-stage screening intervention in Taiwan is considered potentially cost-effective compared with opportunistic screening in the target population of an HCC endemic area.