WorldWideScience

Sample records for effective institutional control

  1. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  2. Institutional control and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides several possible principles to be used to guide future discussions and tries to place the need for institutional control into context for the various waste types. The proposed principles would allow institutional control to be used as one method to provide radiation protection in the future without presenting undue burdens to future generations. It also provides advice on how to apply the proposed principles in a practical manner. The key difference in the approach proposed is that institutional control should be viewed as a need to pass on information, knowledge and skills from one generation to the next. This would allow each successive generation to make its own decision as to whether such controls should be maintained. (author)

  3. ISSUES REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF INTERNAL CONTROL/ MANAGERIAL AND COMBATING SOME NEGATIVE EFFECTS IN ROMANIAN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS' ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stegaroiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the importance and impact of the management of internal control/ managerial in Romanian public institutions, as well as the consequences arising as a result of not implementing it. It also analyzed the legal framework governing the internal control/managerial and the main conclusions issued by the Romanian Court of Accounts on the status of its implementation in Romanian public institutions. At the same time, it is stressed the role of management carried out by heads of public institutions in terms of combating the negative effects that have a direct impact on their activity.

  4. Lessons From Love Canal: Considerations for the Effective Use of Institutional Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fil, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide background on a well-known failure of an institutional control (IC), an overview of the types and potential shortcomings of individual ICs, provide some considerations for more effectively selecting and maintaining appropriate ICs in the context of a decommissioning project (including those that may be subject to various federal and state requirements). In light of these considerations, it should be clear that the potential liabilities arising from the failure to comply with ICs may be very significant, even if such failure is not directly caused by the party responsible for the pre-existing conditions. A number of options exist to help manage risk at sites where impacts will remain in place following the completion of active decommissioning efforts. It is important to involve all appropriate professionals early on and throughout the process and to consult with other relevant parties (e.g., regulatory agencies, the community, and potential site owners and occupants) to evaluate the most appropriate ICs available. This is particularly critical in the context of a long-term decommissioning project involving a large number of contractors, personnel turnover or departure, potential isolation of individuals with focused technical or regulatory expertise, or other factors that may affect more ideal communication. Mechanisms for ensuring long-term compliance with ICs, as well as reliable approaches for enforcing their terms, also warrant early and on-going attention. However, even with a detailed and thoughtful approach, it must be recognized under certain circumstances that a more realistic goal may be to continue to reasonably minimize potential risks rather than absolutely avoid all risks for all time

  5. CONTROL ENVIRONMENT IN KOSOVO PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaqir M. REXHEPI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study on how is Internal Control System developed in public institutions is of a special importance for modalities, forms and the manner of the application of relevant strategies for the functioning of internal control environment in public institutions. In this paper, there is treated the existing situation of internal control system environment of public finances and its implementation in public sector. For internal control system environment in public finances to function effectively, there should exist a coherent control environment which includes responsibilities for financial management from managers of Publicly Owned Enterprises and with complete functioning of internal audit, which exists in the function of development to add value. In Kosovo public institutions, this framework is offered by legislation and by institutional mechanism for the implementation of legislation according to these parameters.

  6. EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL ON COLLEGE STUDENTS’ EVALUATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Jungki Lee

    2011-01-01

    Students are known to experience significant amounts of stress and challenges during their academic pursuit at college. This study explores a way to enhance student satisfaction by incorporating a concept called perceived control to the existing service quality model. To be specific, this study proposes and tests that perceived control could be a promising factor which may enhance service quality, satisfaction, and recommendation intention among college students. Data were collected a major c...

  7. How institutions matter for international business : Institutional distance effects vs institutional profile effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, Andre; Maseland, Robbert

    Extant institutional research has failed to make a distinction between the effects of institutional profile and institutional distance on MNEs. The problem stems from the fact that, due to the use of a single reference country, variation in institutional distance between the reference country and

  8. INTERNAL CONTROL IN PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila FRUMUSACHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control has a special role in the efficient organization of the entity’s management. The components of this control in the institutions of public health service are determined by the specific character of these institutions and National Standards of Internal Control in the Public Sector. The system of internal control in the institutions of public health service has the capacity to canalize the effort of the whole institution for the achievement of proposed objectives, to signalize permanently the dysfunctionalities about the quality of medical services and the deviations and to operate timely corrective measures for eliminating the noticed problems. In this regard the managers are obliged to analyse and to resize the system of internal control when in the organizational structure appear substantial changes.

  9. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  10. [Institutional insertion of Chagas' disease control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Antônio Carlos; Pimenta, Fabiano

    2011-01-01

    After the starting of the Center for studies and prophylaxis of Chagas disease in 1943, with the help of Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, in the city of Bambuí, state of Minas Gerais, technological and methodological basis for the extensive control of the disease were conceived. A main step to achieve success was the introduction of a new insecticide (gammexane, P 530) and the demonstration of its efficacy in the vector control. A consequence of these improvements was the official inauguration of the first prophylactic campaign for Chagas disease in Brazil, held in Uberaba in May, 1950. Even with the knowledge of how to control the vectorial transmission, financial resources were not available by this time, at a necessary degree to make it both regularly and in all the affected area. The institutional allocation of these activities is useful to understand the low priority given to them at that time. Several national services were created in 1941, for diseases as malaria, pest, smallpox, among others, but Chagas was included in a group of diseases with lower importance, inside a Division of Sanitary Organization. In 1956, the National Department of Rural endemies (DNERu) allocate all the major endemic diseases in a single institution, however this was not translated in an implementation program for the control of Chagas disease. After profound changes at the Ministry of Health, in 1970, the Superintendência de Campanhas de Saúde Pública (SUCAM) was in charge of all rural endemies including Chagas disease, which now could compete with other diseases transmitted by vectors, formerly priorities, included in the National Division. With this new status, more funds were available, as well as redistribution of personnel and expenses from the malaria program to the vectorial control of Chagas disease. In 1991 the Health National foundation was created to substitute SUCAM in the control of endemic diseases and it included all the units of the Ministry of Health related to

  11. INTERNAL CONTROLS IN ENSURING GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSMAS NJANIKE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed factors that influence the internal controls in ensuring good corporate governance in financial institutions in developing economies with special reference to Zimbabwe. The research paper assessed how lack of internal controls affected good corporate governance and aimed to bring out elements of good corporate governance. It emerged that failure to effectively implement internal controls contributed significantly to poor corporate governance. The study discovered that internal control system overrides and the issue of “fact cat” directors also contributed to poor corporate governance. The study recommended that there is need for the board of directors to guarantee an organizational structure that clearly defines management responsibilities, authority and reporting relationships. There is also need to ensure that delegated responsibilities are effectively carried out to ensure compliance with internal controls of the financial institution concerned.

  12. The Growth Effects of Institutional Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggren, Niclas; Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

     Both institutional quality and institutional stability have been argued to stimulate economic growth. But to improve institutional quality, a country must endure a period of institutional change, which implies at least a little and possibly a lot of institutional instability. We investigate...... the growth effects of institutional quality and instability, using the political risk index from the ICRG in a cross-country study of 132 countries, measuring instability as the coefficient of variation. Using the aggregate index, we find evidence that institutional quality is positively linked to growth....... While institutional instability is negatively related to growth in the baseline case, there are indications that the effect can be positive in rich countries, suggesting that institutional reform is not necessarily costly even during a transition period. Sensitivity analysis, e.g., decomposing...

  13. [Research on competency building standards of institutions of schistosomiasis prevention and control in Hubei Province I Investigation of institution management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-cheng; Zhong, Chen-hui; Liao, Si-qi; He, Hui

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the current situation of management of institutions of schistosomiasis prevention and control in Hubei Province, so as to explore the probable competency building standards for these institutions at the county and township levels. By using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, the institutions of schistosomiasis prevention and control at county and township levels were investigated for the institutional setup, staffing and fulfillment functions since the reform of 2004. Among 63 schistosomiasis endemic counties (cities, districts) of Hubei Province, there were 26 independent schistosomiasis control institutions (41.27%), there were 24 institutions which were incorporated into CDC (38.10%), and there were no institutions in 13 counties (20.63%). Among 518 endemic towns, there were 299 institutions (57.72%). The total staffing size were 1 932, but there were 1 586 (82.09%) people actually working in the post, and therefore there were 346 (17.91%) empty positions. The average rates of carrying out the six functions were 91.48%-71.19%, but only 19.23% of the institutions participated in the comprehensive schistosomiasis control management project and its effect assessment. According to the management model for schistosomiasis control institutions under the current institutional mechanisms, we need a rigorous industry standard to constrain, guide and standardize the management and capacity-building of the institutions in different historical periods.

  14. The causal effect of institutional quality on outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    H.J. Roelfsema; Zhang Yi

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the relationship between institutional quality and outsourcing to developing economies. In contrast to cross-sectional studies on institutions, this paper uses panel data for 76 countries over 25 years (1980-2004). Employing panel data helps to show the causal relationship by controlling for the fixed effects and dynamic factors. Using within and IV estimations, we find that there is a positive effect of institutional quality on outsourcing in the lower-mid...

  15. Role of institutional controls in selection of remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakr, A.A.; Agoston, E.N.; McLeod, R.V.; Hicks, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the regulatory intent of CERCLA's definition and applicability of institutional controls at hazardous substance release sites undergoing remedial action and institutional controls that have been defined and implemented at selected CERCLA (Superfund) sites in the United States. Under provisions of CERCLA, institutional controls can be components of, or supplements to, interim or final remedial measures for hazardous substance [as defined under CERCLA 101(14)] releases. The use of institutional controls has been proposed in a number of RODs for large Superfund sites (e.g., Times Beach, Missouri; the Clothier Disposal Site in Oswego County, New York; and the Wildcat Landfill in Kent County, Delaware). In these cases, the selected remedial actions combine active response measures with institutional controls to protect human health and the environment. These RODs provide insight to how widely the concept of institutional controls is used and under what conditions. The use of institutional controls at large federal facilities is also discussed

  16. Exploring CRM effectiveness: an institutional theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Hillebrand (Bas); J.J. Nijholt (Jurriaan); E.J. Nijssen (Edwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study identifies the potential contribution that institutional theory can make to understanding the success of marketing practices. Based on institutional theory, we argue that the effectiveness of marketing practices decreases when firms are motivated to adopt such practices under

  17. Exploring CRM effectiveness : an institutional theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, B.; Nijholt, J.J.; Nijssen, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the potential contribution that institutional theory can make to understanding the success of marketing practices. Based on institutional theory, we argue that the effectiveness of marketing practices decreases when firms are motivated to adopt such practices under the

  18. Institutions for Effective Water Demand Management

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... The paper also describes the state of South African WDM to highlight ... Download the PDF: Working Paper 4: Institutions for Effective Water Demand Management ​ ... Managing flood risk through collaborative governance.

  19. INL Sitewide Institutional Controls Annual Report FY2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. L. Jolley

    2006-08-01

    This document reports the results of the fiscal year 2006 institutional controls assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act sites at the Idaho National Laboratory. These activities are described in the INEEL Sitewide Institutional Control Plan. Inspections were performed by Long-term Stewardship Program personnel with representatives of the various facilities. The assessments showed that the various institutional control measures in place across the Idaho National Laboratory Site are functioning as intended. Information in the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Comprehensive Facilities and Land Use Plan was reviewed as part of the annual assessment and was revised as needed to reflect the current status of the institutional control sites.

  20. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  1. 10 CFR 61.63 - Financial assurances for institutional controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial assurances for institutional controls. 61.63... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Financial Assurances § 61.63 Financial assurances for institutional controls. (a) Prior to... the Commission to ensure that changes in inflation, technology and disposal facility operations are...

  2. Benign or malignant? The effects of institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimore, J; Mortimore, P

    1985-01-01

    The institutions discussed in this paper are those which most children attend for some (and in a few cases, most) of their time. It is argued that, not only are there differences in institutions ostensibly performing the same function, but that, with rare exceptions, differences in organization, philosophy and ethos can exert an influence on inmates in both the long and the short term. The question of what attempts have been made to alter the influence of institutions is then addressed in terms of changing structure, organization and attitudes. The agents of change include government committees, a local education authority, researchers, pressure groups and/or staff of the institutions. Whilst the enduring nature of institutions is recognized, some suggestions for strategies of change are made. These draw on research evidence indicating the kinds of institutional environments most suitable for children's development, the need for a coherent unified policy on child care, and for effective parent involvement, all of which could make the influence of institutions more positive--benign rather than malignant.

  3. The Theory of Effectiveness of the State: Institutional Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnichenko Irina M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the most urgent problems of modern economic theory and practice — effectiveness of the state. The aim of the paper is a comprehensive analysis of institutional aspects of the formation of a new economic theory of effectiveness of the state. To achieve this aim, the author first summarizes the evolution and theoretical and methodological characteristics of the economic theories of the state paying a special attention to the essence of the concept of “state” and focusing on “effectiveness of the state” as a major category of the new economic theory. Then he proceeds to institutional aspects of effectiveness of the state considering it as a specific organization and system of institutions of power and control; defines components of effectiveness of the state generalizing the existing methodological approaches and most importantly — the modern criteria for assessing the effectiveness of the state.

  4. Strategy to Ensure Institutional Control Implementation at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document sets forth EPA’s strategy (Strategy) for ensuring that institutional controls (ICs) are successfully implemented at Superfund sites, with an emphasis on evaluating ICs at sites where all construction of all remedies is complete (construction complete sites).

  5. Accounting for and control of nuclear material at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research, Rossendorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidel, S.; Rossbander, W.; Helming, M.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is given of the system of accounting for and control of nuclear material at the Central Institute for Nuclear Research, Rossendorf. It includes 3 material balance areas. Control is implemented at both the institute and the MBA levels on the basis of concepts which are coordinated with the national control authority of the IAEA. The system applied enables national and international nuclear material control to be carried out effectively and economically at a minimum of interference with operational procedures. (author)

  6. Internal control as part of prevention irregularities in accounting of budgetary institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.М. Bunda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the principles of internal control, the importance, the rationale for the essence of the system of internal control and the legislative building in budgetary institution. It describes the main challenges and problems of practical application of internal control in the normal course of business in modern enterprises. It reveals the following elements of the internal control of a budget institution as: control environment, risk assessment process of a budget institution, information systems, control procedures and control monitoring. The dependence between the effectiveness of accounting and internal control of a budget institution is determined. The paper highlights the methods of evaluation of internal control of a budget institution. This method is recommended for use in the preliminary assessment of control risk budget institution. The concept of «decision» as on the whole and also in particular in internal control is covered. The essential grouping indications of internal control decisions are defined and every type of decisions is characterized. The main directions of improvement of internal control to prevent violations in accounting of a budgetary institution is examined.

  7. The effect of institutions on Latin American economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfino Vargas Chanes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify relevant characteristics of institutions that have an effect on economic growth in selected Latin American countries. A multilevel model was used for this propose, the dependent variable is the real per capita gdp, and the explanatory variables are indicators of governance provided by the World Bank. The results show that the significant variables are regulatory quality and control of corruption. This implies the need to strengthen the institutions of the rule of law, voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, and government effectiveness.

  8. Organizational resilience: Sustained institutional effectiveness among smaller, private, non-profit US higher education institutions experiencing organizational decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kenneth A

    2016-06-04

    analysis was used to examine the direct and interaction effects between organizational decline, organizational rigidity response, organizational resilience response, and institutional effectiveness, controlling for age of institution and level of endowment. The study validated previous threat-rigidity response findings that organizational decline alone does not adversely impact institutional effectiveness. The direct effect of Goal-Directed Solution Seeking and Role Dependency organizational resilience factors had a positive, significant correlation with the Student Personal Development institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Goal-Directed Solution Seeking organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Professional Development and Quality of Faculty institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Avoidance during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Faculty and Administrator Employment Satisfaction institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Diminished Innovation, Morale, and Leader Credibility rigidity response factor and Avoidance organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Professional Development and Quality of Faculty institutional effectiveness factor. Lastly, the interactive effect of Increased Scapegoating of Leaders, Interest group Activities, and Conflict rigidity response factor and Avoidance organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Faculty and Administrator Employment Satisfaction institutional effectiveness factor. Factors of organizational resilience were found to have a positive effect among smaller, private non-profit higher educational institutions associated with this study toward sustaining institutional effectiveness during organizational decline. Specifically, the

  9. Community Involvement as an Effective Institutional Control at the Weldon Spring Site, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyo, Y.E.; Pauling, T.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) was conducted for the purpose of remediating a portion of a former trinitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene production plant that was operational from 1941 to 1945 and a former uranium refinery that was operational from 1957 to 1966. Surface remediation activities concluded in 2001 with the completion of a 45-acre (.18 square kilometer) on-site engineered disposal facility. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities at the site were officially transferred to the DOE Office of Legacy Management in 2003. The Weldon Spring Site is located within the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area (population 3 million). DOE's close relationship with surrounding land owners created a need for innovative solutions to long-term surveillance and maintenance issues at the site. Through a Secretarial proclamation, a plan was established for development of a comprehensive public involvement and education program. This program would act as an institutional control to communicate the historical legacy of the site and would make information available about contamination present at the site to guide people in making decisions about appropriate site activities. In August 2002, the Weldon Spring Site Interpretive Center opened to the public with exhibits about the history of the area, the remediation work that was completed, and a site information repository that is available to visitors. In addition, the Hamburg Trail for hiking and biking was constructed as a joint DOE/MDC effort. The 8-mile trail travels through both DOE and MDC property; a series of historical markers posted along its length to communicate the history of the area and the remediation work that was done as part of WSSRAP activities. A ramp and viewing platform with informational plaques were constructed on the disposal cell to provide an additional mechanism for public education. With a basic marketing program, site visitor-ship has

  10. CEO compensation, family control, and institutional investors in Continental Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croci, Ettore; Gonenc, Halit; Ozkan, Neslihan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of family control and institutional investors on CEO pay packages in Continental Europe, using a dataset of 754 listed firms with 3731 firm-year observations from 14 countries during 2001-2008. We find that family control curbs the level of CEO total and cash

  11. Intermediacy between political control and institutional autonomy: A transformative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Dorasamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The public sector is about providing services, managing resources efficiently and securing a return on investment. Producing results and managing performance depends on adaptation, flexibility and creativity. While one may argue for greater control to achieve performance indicators, this has to be underpinned by managerial control systems both internally and externally. Post NPM reforms have tried to respond to the problem of single purpose organisations that have distanced political control. While post NPM reforms tipped the scale toward more political control, it did not restore the balance between control and autonomy. In view of the NPM and post NPM reforms and the accompanying challenges, the paper argues that it is not possible to device a “one size fits all” response to these challenges. In trying to analyse the dilemma of balancing political control and institutional autonomy an institutional theoretical perspective is used by analysing structural and instrumental features (national political environment, cultural features (historical administrative traditions and external constraints (technical and institutional environments. It needs to be recognised that the aforementioned features have constraints. The structural and instrumental features specify the formal constraints on leaderships decisions. These constraints may give political leaders strong hierarchical control or may not give them much direction, but a lot of potential discretionary influence. The cultural features specify that public organisations develop informal norms and values which lead to a distinct institutional culture. While these informal norms and values are infused in formal structures and decision making, it may be inconsistent with the sub-culture, thereby giving it less systemic influence. The technical and institutional environment which focuses on efficiency production and internal culture may develop beliefs over time that cannot be ignored. Christensen

  12. Automated Stock Control System for Bookshops in Tertiary Institutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recent need for automated stock control system for bookshops in tertiary institutions was generated by unequal availability of books and stiff scarcity of books in some areas while in ... This approach provides for faster response times for users because the database is local to each business unit within the organization.

  13. Comprehensive review of the literature on institutional controls to limit land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify case studies that would provide a basis for establishing the effective duration of institutional controls to limit land use and to identify the attributes that contribute to their effectiveness. The literature on a variety of active and passive institutional controls to limit land use on government lands and on private lands adjacent to government lands was reviewed. No case studies and little detailed information were found concerning the periods for which the institutional controls remained effective over the long-term or the aspects of the controls that contributed to their effectiveness in limiting land use. The information available in the literature is discussed and an extensive bibliography and recommendations regarding future work are provided. (author)

  14. Comprehensive review of the literature on institutional controls to limit land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify case studies that would provide a basis for establishing the effective duration of institutional controls to limit land use and to identify the attributes that contribute to their effectiveness. The literature on a variety of active and passive institutional controls to limit land use on government lands and on private lands adjacent to government lands was reviewed. No case studies and little detailed information were found concerning the periods for which the institutional controls remained effective over the long-term or the aspects of the controls that contributed to their effectiveness in limiting land use. The information available in the literature is discussed and an extensive bibliography and recommendations regarding future work are provided. (author).

  15. Institutional control of mine wastes in Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, K.; Kristoff, D.; Hovdebo, D.; Webster, M.

    2014-01-01

    Many jurisdictions around the world require mining operations to prepare closure plans and to post a bond or other financial assurances of sufficient value to cover the cost of closure. However, not all jurisdictions address the conditions under which they would accept the return of such properties, once the operator has fulfilled their obligations and is requesting release from further financial bonding. The issue is further complicated when it includes former uranium mill and tailings sites where international conventions and the national nuclear regulatory frameworks play an overriding and often defining role. In Saskatchewan, a consultant led a team of provincial government departments in a process to develop an effective institutional control program (ICP). This required extensive consultations with industry, Aboriginal traditional users and other stakeholders to gain their support and inclusion. The entire policy development process culminated in 2007 with the implementation of the Reclaimed Industrial Sites Act and Regulations. The program addresses all aspects of conventional closed mines, as well as uranium specific issues of radioactive waste management, including all applicable articles of the IAEA’s Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, the requirements of the federal Nuclear Safety and Control Act, the expectations of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, and all applicable provincial Acts and regulations. Cameco Corporation was the first company to successfully register a decommissioned gold site, as well as five former uranium sites into the program. Following acceptance of a site into the program and a financial deposit from the operator, each site is monitored and maintained under provincial responsibility. (author)

  16. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - INSTITUTIONAL_CONTROLS_IDEM_IN.SHP: Institutional Control Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — INSTITUTIONAL_CONTROLS_IDEM_IN is a polygon shapefile that contains Institutional Control (IC) site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  17. Determinants of Controlling in Foreign Subsidiaries of MNEs: On the Explanatory Potential of the Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kochalski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this paper is to identify gaps in extant literature on controlling in MNEs, in particular factors affecting related managerial decisions. Secondly, the relevance of the institutional perspective will be examined for its potential to explain the design of controlling in foreign subsidiaries. Research Design & Methods: The dimensions of international controlling are discussed. Further, the institutional approach is examined for its applicability to advance the understanding of the determinants of shaping controlling systems in foreign subsidiaries of MNEs. Findings: Institutional aspects can have a significant impact on the functioning of MNEs in relation to their controlling systems. Informal institutions can influence the formation of the controlling system in the relations between the subsidiaries of the MNE, whereby also institutions within the MNE itself should be taken into account. Implications & Recommendations: Conducting in-depth qualitative research will allow for a set of recommendations that are relevant to managers responsible for an effective implementation of management control systems. Contribution & Value Added: The relevance of the controlling system in parent-subsidiary relationships has not received significant attention in existing studies in the discipline of international controlling.

  18. EFFECTIVE WAYS OF POSTGRADUATE PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION INSTITUTES TEACHERS’ TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla V. Kalachova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of comparative analysis of training for teachers of postgraduate pedagogical education institutes for various forms of training: full-time, full-time- distance and distance after the author's program "Teacher training of postgraduate pedagogical education institutes for use of audiovisual teaching aids." The comparison was done on such indicators as the number of participants who completed the training, the pace of learning, quality control test mastery of the material of the course, the qualitative and quantitative performance indicators of individual case studies. As a result, the article identifies the main advantages and disadvantages of each form of education and recommended the most effective form of in-service training of the teaching load.

  19. Control system of labour safety measures in the higher educational institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Feoktistova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines a system of labour safety measures control. With the introduction of the integrated system of management the competitive ability of production and organization, the effectiveness of its activity rise, and sinnergicheskiy effect is also reached and the savings of all forms of resources are ensured. Objectives and methods of control system of labour safety measures in enterprises are developed, including in the educational institutions.

  20. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  1. Great Expectations: The Persistent Effect of Institutions on Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Litina, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This research exploits the event of immigration to establish that institutions have a persistent effect on culture. It is argued that immigrants coming from corrupt countries, tend to overtrust the institutions at the host country. This inflated trust of immigrants is documented as the Great Expectations effect. This result is interesting and intriguing for several reasons. First, it highlights the persistent effect of institutions (at the origin coun- try) on the cultural attitudes of immigr...

  2. The duration of the institutional controls on the low and intermediate level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Li Yang; Liu Yafang; Lian Bing; Zhao Yangjun; Chen Hailong; Gu Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate institutional controls are put in place prior to repository closure. Such controls can guarantee the long term safety of the repository. Today there is no clear standard on how to determine the institutional control period. This paper tries to give possible factors and activities of the institutional controls on the low and intermediate level waste repositories, and makes some suggestions on the institutional controls in our country. (authors)

  3. Institutional Control Program: Long Term Care and Control of Decommissioned Mine/Mill Sites Located on Crown Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, K.

    2014-01-01

    Institutional Control Program: • Establishes an endpoint for mining company activities on sites located on Crown land; • Establishes funding for the long-term care and control of the closed sites; • Company responsibilities for sites under the Environmental Management and Protection Act remain; • Establishes an Institutional Control Registry; • Establishes an Institutional Control Monitoring and Maintenance Fund and an Institutional Control Unforeseen Events Fund

  4. Ensuring Effective Mentoring in Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper concerns itself only with ascertaining the strategies that could ensure effective mentoring in tertiary institutions. The survey method was employed. The study population comprised 78 teacher educators in tertiary institutions in Anambra State. One research question guided the study while one null hypothesis was ...

  5. Effects of political institutions on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Koubi, Vally

    2009-01-01

    We empirically test existing theories on the provision of public goods, in particular air quality, using data on sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) concentrations from the Global Environment Monitoring Projects for 107 cities in 42 countries from 1971 to 1996. The results are as follows: First, we provide additional support for the claim that the degree of democracy has an independent positive effect on air quality. Second, we find that among democracies, presidential systems are more conducive to air quality than parliamentary ones. Third, in testing competing claims about the effect of interest groups on public goods provision in democracies we establish that labor union strength contributes to lower environmental quality, whereas the strength of green parties has the opposite effect. (author)

  6. Conservatism, institutionalism, and the social control of intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ryan D

    2008-03-01

    This research investigates the state social control of intergroup conflict by assessing the sociopolitical determinants of hate crime prosecutions. Consistent with insights from the political sociology of punishment, group-threat accounts of intergroup relations and the state, and neoinstitutional theory, the findings suggest that hate crime prosecutions are fewer where political conservatism, Christian fundamentalism, and black population size are higher, although this last effect is nonlinear. Linkages between district attorneys' offices and communities, on the other hand, increase hate crime prosecutions and the likelihood of offices' creating hate crime policies. Yet these policies are sometimes decoupled from actual enforcement, and such decoupling is more likely in politically conservative districts. The results indicate that common correlates of criminal punishment have very different effects on types of state social control that are protective of minority groups, and also suggest conditions under which policy and practice become decoupled in organizational settings.

  7. THE RESULTS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSE CONTROL OF HEALTH INSTITUTIONS STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Shleenkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The  work  provides  comparative  assessment  of  the  levels  of  occupational  exposure  of  Saint-Petersburg health institutions staff. The analysis was carried out of the 891 individual doses measurement results which have  being  obtained  during  5  years  investigations  (2009-2013.  The  comparing  of  the  average  annual effective doses was carried out for 4 groups of medical specialists: x-ray laboratory assistant, radiotherapist, radiographer of dental clinics and X-ray surgery staff (surgeons, anesthesiologists and surgical nurses who are working close to irradiation source. It is shown that the annual effective dose average value is about 0.5 mSv for the first three groups of medical specialists. The same value for X-ray surgery staff is 1.6 mSv. Individual  annual  exposure  doses  have  not  exceeded  the  main  dose  limits  required  by  Radiation  Safety Standard 99/2009. The issues are considered of the estimation exactness of the effective dose basing on the results of individual dose equivalent measurement. 

  8. Effectiveness of groundwater governance structures and institutions in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudaga, J. L.; Kabote, S. J.; Tarimo, A. K. P. R.; Mosha, D. B.; Kashaigili, J. J.

    2018-05-01

    This paper examines effectiveness of groundwater governance structures and institutions in Mbarali District, Mbeya Region. The paper adopts exploratory sequential research design to collect quantitative and qualitative data. A random sample of 90 groundwater users with 50% women was involved in the survey. Descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the differences in responses between groups, while qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The results show that the Village Councils and Community Water Supply Organizations (COWSOs) were effective in governing groundwater. The results also show statistical significant difference on the overall extent of effectiveness of the Village Councils in governing groundwater between villages ( P = 0.0001), yet there was no significant difference ( P > 0.05) between male and female responses on the effectiveness of Village Councils, village water committees and COWSOs. The Mann-Whitney U test showed statistical significant difference between male and female responses on effectiveness of formal and informal institutions ( P = 0.0001), such that informal institutions were effective relative to formal institutions. The Kruskal-Wallis H test also showed statistical significant difference ( P ≤ 0.05) on the extent of effectiveness of formal institutions, norms and values between low, medium and high categories. The paper concludes that COWSOs were more effective in governing groundwater than other groundwater governance structures. Similarly, norms and values were more effective than formal institutions. The paper recommends sensitization and awareness creation on formal institutions so that they can influence water users' behaviour to govern groundwater.

  9. Interactive Intranet Portal for effective Management in Tertiary Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Idogho O. Philipa; Akpado Kenneth; James Agajo

    2011-01-01

    Interactive Intranet Portal for effective management in Tertiary Institution is an enhanced and interactive method of managing and processing key issues in Tertiary Institution, Problems of result processing, tuition fee payment, library resources management are analyzed in this work. An interface was generated to handle this problem; the software is an interactive one. Several modules are involved in the paper, like: LIBRARY CONSOLE, ADMIN, STAFF, COURSE REGISTRATION, CHECKING OF RESULTS and...

  10. Estrella Mountain Plan for Institutional Effectiveness, 1997-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella Mountain Community Coll., Avondale, AZ.

    This plan provides information on the efforts of Arizona's Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) to evaluate its effectiveness in achieving organizational mission and purpose. The plan contains the following information: (1) a discussion of EMCC's institutional effectiveness efforts to date, indicating that the college's Plan for…

  11. "Families" in International Context: Comparing Institutional Effects across Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Lynn Prince; Baxter, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    We review comparative evidence of institutional effects on families in Western societies. We focus on 2 key aspects of family life: gendered divisions of labor and people's transitions into, within, and out of relationships. Many individual-level models assume the effects are robust across countries. The international evidence over the past decade…

  12. Civil control over the security institutions in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    security policy. The main aim of this article is therefore to assist critical new thinking regarding security.6. Then, to draw policy implications for the governance of security and intelligence ...... network of institutions and relationships that involve vertical and horizontal accountability . Important is Karl s observation that ...

  13. Internal control as part of prevention irregularities in accounting of budgetary institution

    OpenAIRE

    O.М. Bunda; E.М. Guzenko

    2016-01-01

    The article researches the principles of internal control, the importance, the rationale for the essence of the system of internal control and the legislative building in budgetary institution. It describes the main challenges and problems of practical application of internal control in the normal course of business in modern enterprises. It reveals the following elements of the internal control of a budget institution as: control environment, risk assessment process of a budget institu...

  14. The Effect of Cyberpower on Institutional Development in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Knox

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of empirical interview data this research undertakes to investigate the ways in which the growing phenomenon of cyberpower – defined as using cyberspace for advantage and influence – is impacting on institutional development in Norway. Exploring this governance challenge through the conceptual framework of complexity, difference and emergence opens space – political or otherwise – for discussion regarding why rapid developments arising from digitalization are transforming the way individuals, organizations, institutions and states behave, relate and make decisions. Cyberpower is creating an uncertain institutional landscape as a dependency vs. vulnerability paradox shapes values, rules and norms. Findings from this thematic analysis of qualitative data reflect this paradox, and suggest that organizations in Norway are in a survival-mode that is blocking collaboration. This occurs as national governance systems, human capacity and cyberpower effects lack synergy making for an uneasy arena where complexity, contestation and emerging challenges frame institutional development. To improve long-term prospects of governing cyberpower effects requires a cross-sectorial conflation of time and human resources. This means consciously taking steps to merge organizational and institutional boundaries through expressive innovative collaborations that foster a shared and holistic agenda. The emerging challenges cyberpower is presenting across multiple domains means further research is recommended to build a richer understanding of the term cyberpower from different perspectives. The investigation recommends investment in building the skills and capacities necessary for the co-creation of new models and strategies for managing the effects of cyberpower.

  15. The Effect of Cyberpower on Institutional Development in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin J

    2018-01-01

    Through analysis of empirical interview data this research undertakes to investigate the ways in which the growing phenomenon of cyberpower - defined as using cyberspace for advantage and influence - is impacting on institutional development in Norway. Exploring this governance challenge through the conceptual framework of complexity, difference and emergence opens space - political or otherwise - for discussion regarding why rapid developments arising from digitalization are transforming the way individuals, organizations, institutions and states behave, relate and make decisions. Cyberpower is creating an uncertain institutional landscape as a dependency vs. vulnerability paradox shapes values, rules and norms. Findings from this thematic analysis of qualitative data reflect this paradox, and suggest that organizations in Norway are in a survival-mode that is blocking collaboration. This occurs as national governance systems, human capacity and cyberpower effects lack synergy making for an uneasy arena where complexity, contestation and emerging challenges frame institutional development. To improve long-term prospects of governing cyberpower effects requires a cross-sectorial conflation of time and human resources. This means consciously taking steps to merge organizational and institutional boundaries through expressive innovative collaborations that foster a shared and holistic agenda. The emerging challenges cyberpower is presenting across multiple domains means further research is recommended to build a richer understanding of the term cyberpower from different perspectives. The investigation recommends investment in building the skills and capacities necessary for the co-creation of new models and strategies for managing the effects of cyberpower.

  16. The Effect of Cyberpower on Institutional Development in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin J.

    2018-01-01

    Through analysis of empirical interview data this research undertakes to investigate the ways in which the growing phenomenon of cyberpower – defined as using cyberspace for advantage and influence – is impacting on institutional development in Norway. Exploring this governance challenge through the conceptual framework of complexity, difference and emergence opens space – political or otherwise – for discussion regarding why rapid developments arising from digitalization are transforming the way individuals, organizations, institutions and states behave, relate and make decisions. Cyberpower is creating an uncertain institutional landscape as a dependency vs. vulnerability paradox shapes values, rules and norms. Findings from this thematic analysis of qualitative data reflect this paradox, and suggest that organizations in Norway are in a survival-mode that is blocking collaboration. This occurs as national governance systems, human capacity and cyberpower effects lack synergy making for an uneasy arena where complexity, contestation and emerging challenges frame institutional development. To improve long-term prospects of governing cyberpower effects requires a cross-sectorial conflation of time and human resources. This means consciously taking steps to merge organizational and institutional boundaries through expressive innovative collaborations that foster a shared and holistic agenda. The emerging challenges cyberpower is presenting across multiple domains means further research is recommended to build a richer understanding of the term cyberpower from different perspectives. The investigation recommends investment in building the skills and capacities necessary for the co-creation of new models and strategies for managing the effects of cyberpower. PMID:29867680

  17. Revisiting the effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Assenova

    Full Text Available European settler mortality has been proposed as an instrument to predict the causal effect of colonial institutions on differences in economic development. We examine the relationship between mortality, temperature, and economic development in former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. We find that (i European settler mortality rates increased with regional temperatures and (ii economic output decreased with regional temperatures. Conditioning on the continent of settlement and accounting for colonies that were not independent as of 1900 undermines the causal effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development. Our findings run counter to the institutions hypothesis of economic development, showing instead that geography affected both historic mortality rates and present-day economic output.

  18. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-870] Certain Electronic Bark Control... AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint and a motion for temporary relief were filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on...

  19. AUDITING INTERNAL CONTROLS IN FINANCING PRESCHOOL PUBLIC INSTITUTION: EVIDENCE FROM SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana HORVAT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public preschool educational institutions in Slovenia are mostly financed by public money, it means bay state and municipalities. They are also financed by parents. So, it is important that preschool institutions are using public money transparent and responsible, for this reason public preschool institution should have internal controls in financing. The internal auditor as independent professional should verify if internal controls works. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how internal controls in financing public educational institution works it means which internal controls are important in financing the preschool institution - on the selected institution to show and check how internal controls work. For this reason we divide internal controls in the financing in two phases: (1 internal controls in the preparation of the annual financial plan and financial planning of financial resources for institution’s programs and activities, (2 internal controls in obtaining financial resources. We used methods of internal auditing and research approaches as sampling, unstructured interviews and analysis of documents. The results showed that selected preschool institution should work on rules of recovery and monitoring of claims. The findings provide useful academic insight to setting internal controls as well as practical guidance for preschool institutions.

  20. Community College Institutional Effectiveness: Perspectives of Campus Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolits, Gary J.; Graybeal, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses a campus institutional effectiveness (IE) process and its influence on faculty and staff. Although a comprehensive, rational IE process appeals to campus leaders, this study found that it creates significant faculty and staff challenges. Campus leaders, faculty, and staff differ in their (a) knowledge and support of IE; (b)…

  1. Working Paper 4: Institutions for Effective Water Demand ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-23

    Jan 23, 2012 ... Working Paper 4: Institutions for Effective Water Demand ... This working paper is part of WaDImena 's four Research Series on Water Demand Management ... Improving Water Demand Management Addressing Socioeconomic Inequalities and ... Women's rights and access to water and sanitation in Delhi.

  2. Local Government Planning Tool to Calculate Institutional and Engineering Control Costs for Brownfield Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This cost calculator is designed as a guide for municipal or local governments to assist in calculating their expected costs of implementing and conducting long-term stewardship of institutional controls and engineering controls at brownfield properties.

  3. Translating infection control guidelines into practice: implementation process within a health care institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveis, Victoria H; Conway, Laurie J; Uchida, Mayuko; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Larson, Elaine L; Stone, Patricia W

    2014-04-01

    Health-care-associated infections (HAIs) remain a major patient safety problem even as policy and programmatic efforts designed to reduce HAIs have increased. Although information on implementing effective infection control (IC) efforts has steadily grown, knowledge gaps remain regarding the organizational elements that improve bedside practice and accommodate variations in clinical care settings. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews in 11 hospitals across the United States with a range of hospital personnel involved in IC (n = 116). We examined the collective nature of IC and the organizational elements that can enable disparate groups to work together to prevent HAIs. Our content analysis of participants' narratives yielded a rich description of the organizational process of implementing adherence to IC. Findings document the dynamic, fluid, interactional, and reactive nature of this process. Three themes emerged: implementing adherence efforts institution-wide, promoting an institutional culture to sustain adherence, and contending with opposition to the IC mandate.

  4. Use of institutional controls by federal organizations in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziuban, J.; Kennedy, J.; Roles, G.

    1999-01-01

    A primary risk management goal for Federal agencies is protection of human health from exposure to hazardous materials in the environment. Although there is generally consensus among US Federal agencies on the methods for evaluating risks associated with exposures to hazardous materials, risk management practices have evolved separately. All US agencies use institutional controls as a long-term risk management tool for the disposal of hazardous materials. Regulatory programs depend in part on institutional controls to ensure the integrity of a disposal site is maintained. Yet the emphasis on institutional controls differs among the regulatory programs, as do the specific institutional control requirements. The poster session discusses and compares the historical evolution and current use of institutional controls developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under their various statutory authorities. (author)

  5. A rapid evidence review on the effectiveness of institutional health partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ema; Doyle, Vicki; Weakliam, David; Schönemann, Yvonne

    2015-12-14

    Institutional Health Partnerships are long-term, institution to institution partnerships between high income and low and middle income countries which seek to build capacity and strengthen health institutions in order to improve health service delivery and outcomes. Funding for Institutional Health Partnerships has increased in recent years. This paper outlines a rapid evidence review on the effectiveness of this modality. A rapid evidence review of published and grey literature was conducted. Content relating to the effectiveness of working in partnership and methods and frameworks used were extracted and analysed. The results of this analysis were used to structure a discussion regarding the next steps to strengthen the evidence base for the effectiveness of institutional health partnerships. The evidence review, including citation mapping, returned 27 published papers and 17 grey literature documents that met all of the inclusion criteria. Most of the literature did not meet the high standards of formal academic rigour and there was no original research amongst this literature that specifically addressed the effectiveness of institutional health partnerships. This was not surprising given institutional health partnerships do not lend themselves easily to case control studies and randomised control trials due to their high level of diversity and operation in complex social systems. There was, however, a body of practice based knowledge and experience. Evidence for the effectiveness of Institutional Health Partnerships is thin both in terms of quantity and academic rigour. There is a need to better define and differentiate Institutional Health Partnerships in order to measure and compare effectiveness across such a diverse group. Effectiveness needs to be measured at the level of individual partnerships, the bodies that facilitate partnership programmes and the level of health service delivery. There is a need to develop indicators and frameworks that specifically

  6. Institutional Infrastructure for Broader Impacts Engagement - Showcasing Effective Strategies and Approaches from a Large Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Sullivan, S. B.; Smith, L. K.; Lynds, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The need for robust scientific and especially climate literacy is increasing. Funding agencies mandate that scientists make their findings and data publically available. Ideally, this mandate is achieved by scientists and educators working together to translate research findings into common knowledge. The Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) is the largest research institute at the University of Colorado and home institute to over 500 scientists. CIRES provides an effective organizational infrastructure to support its scientists in broadening their research impact. Education specialists provide the necessary experience, connections, logistical support, and evaluation expertise to develop and conduct impactful education and outreach efforts. Outreach efforts are tailored to the project needs and the scientists' interests. They span from deep engagement efforts with a high time commitment by the scientist thus a high dosage to short presentations by the scientists that reach many people without stimulating a deep engagement and have therefore a low dosage. We use three examples of current successful programs to showcase these different engagement levels and report on their impact: i) deep transformative and time-intensive engagement through a Research Experience for Community College students program, ii) direct engagement during a teacher professional development workshop centered around a newly developed curriculum bringing authentic climate data into secondary classrooms, iii) short-time engagement through a virtual panel discussion about the state of recent climate science topics, the recordings of which were repurposed in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). In this presentation, we discuss the challenges and opportunities of broader impacts work. We discuss successful strategies that we developed, stress the importance of robust impact evaluation, and summarize different avenues of funding outreach efforts.

  7. Automated Stock Control System for Bookshops in Tertiary Institutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... 2Department of Computer Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, ... database systems in developing stock control systems for ... information is generally accessible from various terminals ... A distributed database can normally be applied by business units, ... instances of a database management system.

  8. Evaluation of Management Control Systems in Higher Education Institution with the Performance Management and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Maria Beuren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the structure and operation of management control systems for performance evaluation in a private higher education institution (HEI. To capture the structure and operation of Management Control Systems (MCS of the HEI, the survey instrument proposed by Ferreira and Otley was used (2006, called Performance Management and Control (PMC. Thus, an adapted PMC structure questionnaire was sent to 55 managers responsible for strategic actions and plans established in the business of the HEI, having 48 answered questionnaires. Also, four out of the five directors of the business school of the HEI were interviewed, besides the documentary research, for the triangulation of data and to validate the results. In data analysis, the techniques of descriptive statistics and information entropy were used. The results show that the overall level of performance evaluation for MCS reached a mean of 3.62 on the scale, less than partial agreement on the items presented. Some weaknesses were pointed out in the system used, and it was also denoted the need for better alignment among strategy, performance and control. It is concluded that the adapted PMC structure questionnaire managed to capture the structure and operation of MCS for performance evaluation in the HEI.

  9. Formalization, implementation, and modeling of institutional controllers for distributed robotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José N; Silva, Porfírio; Lima, Pedro U; Martinoli, Alcherio

    2014-01-01

    The work described is part of a long term program of introducing institutional robotics, a novel framework for the coordination of robot teams that stems from institutional economics concepts. Under the framework, institutions are cumulative sets of persistent artificial modifications made to the environment or to the internal mechanisms of a subset of agents, thought to be functional for the collective order. In this article we introduce a formal model of institutional controllers based on Petri nets. We define executable Petri nets-an extension of Petri nets that takes into account robot actions and sensing-to design, program, and execute institutional controllers. We use a generalized stochastic Petri net view of the robot team controlled by the institutional controllers to model and analyze the stochastic performance of the resulting distributed robotic system. The ability of our formalism to replicate results obtained using other approaches is assessed through realistic simulations of up to 40 e-puck robots. In particular, we model a robot swarm and its institutional controller with the goal of maintaining wireless connectivity, and successfully compare our model predictions and simulation results with previously reported results, obtained by using finite state automaton models and controllers.

  10. 28 CFR 54.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational institutions and other... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 54.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled by...

  11. Effect of Demographic Factors on E-Learning Effectiveness in a Higher Learning Institution in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Aminul; Rahim, Noor Asliza Abdul; Liang, Tan Chee; Momtaz, Hasina

    2011-01-01

    This research attempted to find out the effect of demographic factors on the effectiveness of the e-learning system in a higher learning Institution. The students from this institution were randomly selected in order to evaluate the effectiveness of learning system in student's learning process. The primary data source is the questionnaires that…

  12. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vefa Yucel; Greg Shott; Denise Wieland

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and type of waste

  13. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and

  14. An Introduction to the Cost of Engineering and Institutional Controls at Brownfield Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet introduces and explores the costs of site cleanup and, where cleanup leaves site contamination that restricts reuse, outlines the engineering and institutional controls and their monitoring and maintenance costs over a longer time frame.

  15. 77 FR 30327 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice Of Application; Research Triangle Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives for use by their customers in...

  16. 78 FR 46372 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Research Triangle Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives for use by...

  17. 77 FR 55504 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Research Triangle Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives for use by their customers in analytical kits, reagents, and...

  18. Impacts of the use of institutional controls on risk assessments at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.K.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.; Redfearn, A.; King, A.D.; Shaw, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the National Oil and Hazardous Waste Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), has determined that institutional controls cannot be applied when determining baseline human health risks from exposure to contaminants present at a hazardous waste site. Environmental restoration activities at DOE-OR/ER sites are primarily driven by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Therefore, the report focuses on the approaches and assumptions relating to institutional controls under CERCLA. In order to demonstrate the implications of the use of institutional controls at DOE facilities, this report summarizes the approaches and results of the recent baseline risk assessment for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report concludes with possible options on the use of institutional controls at DOE-OR/ER sites. This report summarizes some of the major issues related to the use of institutional controls at hazardous waste sites under the auspices of DOE-OR/ER. In particular, the report addresses the impacts that assumptions regarding institutional controls have on the results and interpretation of the risk assessment, [in both the Remedial Investigation (RI) and the FS] and provides a case study from an actual DOE site

  19. A consideration about major business control system for independent administrative institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shinya; Nakata, Yutaka; Iitsuka, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Kojiro

    2003-10-01

    Japanese government is carrying out the administrative reform aiming to promote decentralization of authority, to magnify the field of private sectors, etc. in order to corresponds appropriately to matured economy, internationalized market, etc. As one of the reforms, Japanese government decided that JAERI and JNC would unite into an independent administrative agency. The aims of the independent administrative agency institution include realization of effective and transparent system and management. The aim of the present investigation is to be useful for the new agency to develop a major business control system, which manages financial affairs and accounts not only efficiently but also in correspondence with open information to the public and promoting research activities effectively. First of all, the authors examined Japanese laws and standards relating to the independent administrative agency. They investigated the financial affairs and accounts systems of the preceding independent administrative agencies for research and development and also the development trends of work-flow systems in private enterprises in Japan. They considered expected problems and solutions for developing and making use of the major business control system. On the basis of the above investigations, the authors revealed the total concept of the best major business control system of the new unified agency besides the necessary conditions of the system for an independent administrative agency. Additionally, the above mentioned laws and standards are collected in an appendix. (author)

  20. Effects of organizational justice on organizational citizenship behaviors: mediating effects of institutional trust and affective commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guh, Wei-Yuan; Lin, Shang-Ping; Fan, Chwei-Jen; Yang, Chin-Fang

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. The study participants were 315 faculty members at 67 public/private universities of technology and vocational colleges in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships between the variables and assess the goodness of fit of the overall model. Organizational justice was positively related to institutional trust and there was an indirect effect of organizational justice on affective commitment through institutional trust. In addition, the relation between institutional trust and affective commitment was positive and affective commitment was shown to have a positive relation to organizational citizenship behaviors. Institutional trust was found to indirectly affect organizational citizenship behaviors through affective commitment. Most importantly, this study suggested a mediating effect of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relation between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. Implications, limitations, and future research were also discussed.

  1. [Construction and operation status of management system of laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions in Hubei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao-Hui, Zheng; Jun, Qin; Li, Chen; Hong, Zhu; Li, Tang; Zu-Wu, Tu; Ming-Xing, Zeng; Qian, Sun; Shun-Xiang, Cai

    2016-10-09

    To analyze the construction and operation status of management system of laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions in Hubei Province, so as to provide the reference for the standardized detection and management of schistosomiasis laboratories. According to the laboratory standard of schistosomiasis at provincial, municipal and county levels, the management system construction and operation status of 60 schistosomiasis control institutions was assessed by the acceptance examination method from 2013 to 2015. The management system was already occupied over all the laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions and was officially running. There were 588 non-conformities and the inconsistency rate was 19.60%. The non-conformity rate of the management system of laboratory quality control was 38.10% (224 cases) and the non-conformity rate of requirements of instrument and equipment was 23.81% (140 cases). The management system has played an important role in the standardized management of schistosomiasis laboratories.

  2. Institutional Level Identity Control Strategies in the Distance Education Environment: A Survey of Administrative Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Amigud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical separation of students and instructors creates the gap of anonymity and limited control over the remote learning environment. The ability of academic institutions to authenticate students and validate authorship of academic work at various points during a course is necessary for preserving not only perceived credibility but also public safety. With the growing scope of distance education programs that permeate critical areas such as healthcare, airspace, water management, and food solutions, universities have a moral obligation to employ secure measures to verify learning outcomes. This study examines the measures universities with large distance education programs employ to align identity of learners with the academic work they do, as well as the effectiveness of and challenges and barriers to their implementation. The research was undertaken using a multiple case approach and examined survey responses from five academic administrators at five officially accredited post secondary institutions in three countries. The cases examined in the study include: Athabasca University, Open University UK, Penn State University World Campus, University of Maryland University College, and eConcordia, Concordia University’s distance learning facility. This study is not an exhaustive attempt to examine all aspects of academic integrity, but rather to create awareness about various learner authentication strategies. This study confirms that secure learner authentication in the distance education environment is possible. However, with greater pressure to enhance security of learner authentication, the openness of open learning is challenged and may change as we know it.

  3. The use of institutional controls at Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office environmental restoration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.K.; Swindle, D.W.; Redfearn, A.; King, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes some of the major issues related to the use of institutional controls at hazardous waste sites under the auspices of the Department of Energy Field Office, Oak Ridge/Environmental Restoration (DOE-OR/ER) Division. In particular, the report addresses the impacts that assumptions regarding institutional controls have on the results and interpretation of the risk assessment, both in the Remedial Investigation (RI) and the Feasibility Study (FS). Environmental restoration activities at DOE-OR/ER sites are primarily driven by CERCLA. Therefore, the report focuses on the approaches and assumptions relating to institutional controls under CERCLA. Also the report briefly outlines approaches adopted under other authorities such as RCRA and radiation regulatory authorities (such as NRC regulations/guidance, DOE orders, and EPA standards) in order to contrast these approaches to those adopted under CERCLA. In order to demonstrate the implications of the use of institutional controls at DOE facilities, this report summarizes the approaches and results of the recent baseline risk assessment for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report concludes with possible options on the use of institutional controls at DOE-OR/ER sites

  4. Institutionalism and culture in strategies of multinational firms: the case of Johnson controls Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze both the internal and external aspects that may pose a risk to the operations of the subsidiaries of the multinational Johnson Controls Inc. in the U.S. and Mexico from an institutional point of view. The main challenges are the impact in the achievement of goals both of workers and of the same organization and the influence institutions have on the organizational environment, for the decommissioning of some branch/ subsidiary.

  5. [Impact of an educational institutional program in the control of the diabetic patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando; Nieva de Jesús, Rafael Natividad; Andrade-Rodríguez, Héctor de Jesús; Rodríguez-Pérez, Carlos Vicente; Palou-Fraga, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    to assess the impact of an educational institutional program in the control of type 2 diabetic patient. intervention educational study, with quasi-experimental and self-controlled subjects. A convenience non-probabilistic sample was used including 151 patients from the program for the integral care of diabetic patients. Demographic variables: gender, age, type of insurance, somatometric and metabolic profile. The assistance to a one-year length, educational program was necessary. Descriptive and inferential parametric statistics were used. 106 women and 45 men, with age range between 15 and 87 years, and with an average of 57.22 ± 11.47, were studied. A significant decrease in body mass index, waist circumference, venous glucose fasting and post-prandial values, cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and glycosylated hemoglobin (t Student semi-detached, p education for the control of the diabetic patient shown a favorable pattern in most of somatometric and metabolic parameters. We suggest to extend this study over a longer period to determine if the effects persist over time.

  6. The effect of institutional setting on attributional content in management commentary reports

    OpenAIRE

    AERTS, Walter; TARCA, Ann

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of expected regulatory and litigation costs embedded in a country’s institutional environment on the explanatory content of management commentary reports. Using a behavioural accountability lens, we argue that regulatory control and expected litigation risk affect the attributional framing of financial performance. We also investigate whether differential attributional properties have economic relevance by considering the relationship between content profiles and analyst f...

  7. The causal effect of institutional quality on outsourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, H.J.; Yi, Zhang

    This paper empirically investigates the relationship between institutional quality and outsourcing to developing economies. In contrast to cross-sectional studies on institutions, this paper uses panel data for 76 countries over 25 years (1980-2004). Employing panel data helps to show the causal

  8. 5 Ways Your Institution Can Be More Cost Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapovsky, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    College and university boards are well aware of the pressures facing their institutions today, ranging from diminished or uncertain financial support to competitors offering new and sometimes less-expensive educational services. To help meet those challenges, boards need to ask probing questions about all the possible ways their institutions can…

  9. TrueNTH sexual recovery study protocol: a multi-institutional collaborative approach to developing and testing a web-based intervention for couples coping with the side-effects of prostate cancer treatment in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, D; Mehta, A; Northouse, L; Dunn, R; Braun, T; Duby, A; An, L; Arab, L; Bangs, R; Bober, S; Brandon, J; Coward, M; Dunn, M; Galbraith, M; Garcia, M; Giblin, J; Glode, M; Koontz, B; Lowe, A; Mitchell, S; Mulhall, J; Nelson, C; Paich, K; Saigal, C; Skolarus, T; Stanford, J; Walsh, T; Pollack, C E

    2017-10-02

    Over half of men who receive treatment for prostate suffer from a range of sexual problems that affect negatively their sexual health, sexual intimacy with their partners and their quality of life. In clinical practice, however, care for the sexual side effects of treatment is often suboptimal or unavailable. The goal of the current study is to test a web-based intervention to support the recovery of sexual intimacy of prostate cancer survivors and their partners after treatment. The study team developed an interactive, web-based intervention, tailored to type of treatment received, relationship status (partnered/non-partnered) and sexual orientation. It consists of 10 modules, six follow the trajectory of the illness and four are theme based. They address sexual side effects, rehabilitation, psychological impacts and coaching for self-efficacy. Each includes a video to engage participants, psychoeducation and activities completed by participants on the web. Tailored strategies for identified concerns are sent by email after each module. Six of these modules will be tested in a randomized controlled trial and compared to usual care. Men with localized prostate cancer with partners will be recruited from five academic medical centers. These couples (N = 140) will be assessed prior to treatment, then 3 months and 6 months after treatment. The primary outcome will be the survivors' and partners' Global Satisfaction with Sex Life, assessed by a Patient Reported Outcome Measure Information Systems (PROMIS) measure. Secondary outcomes will include interest in sex, sexual activity, use of sexual aids, dyadic coping, knowledge about sexual recovery, grief about the loss of sexual function, and quality of life. The impact of the intervention on the couple will be assessed using the Actor-Partner Interaction Model, a mixed-effects linear regression model able to estimate both the association of partner characteristics with partner and patient outcomes and the association

  10. Organizational culture and its implications for infection prevention and control in healthcare institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bono, S; Heling, G; Borg, M A

    2014-01-01

    It is not uncommon for infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions to be successful in one hospital yet fail, or have significantly less success, when implemented in another healthcare institution. Organizational factors have been postulated to be a major reason. As a result, there has been an increasing drive in recent years to understand and address organizational culture (OC) in order to achieve improved healthcare performance. To examine the inter-relationship between OC and behavioural attitudes by healthcare professionals; to determine whether and how OC may impact on IPC compliance; and to highlight the potential for OC modification interventions to improve IPC practices within hospitals. Previous literature is reviewed and synthesized, using both IPC journals as well as publications focusing on human behaviour and organizational change. The article evaluates the theory of OC within healthcare settings and identifies how various elements appear to impact on IPC-related behaviour. It highlights the paucity of well-designed studies but identifies sporadic literature suggesting that well-designed and customized OC change initiatives can have a positive impact on IPC practices, such as hand hygiene. OC change appears to be a promising, albeit challenging, target for IPC improvement campaigns - both from a theoretical perspective as well as from the results of the few available studies. However, more data and quality information are needed to identify effective strategies that can elicit effective and sustained change. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model--an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information--we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences.

  12. Integrating the Functions of Institutional Research, Institutional Effectiveness, and Information Management. Professional File. Number 126, Summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, James T.; Pitter, Gita Wijesinghe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify common essential information and data needs of colleges and universities and to suggest a model to integrate these data needs into one office or department. The paper suggests there are five major data and information foundations that are essential to the effective functioning of an institution: (a)…

  13. Family control, institutional environment and cash dividend policy: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of 1486 Chinese A-share listed companies for the period 2004–2008, this study empirically tests the impact of family control, institutional environment and their interaction on the cash dividend policy of listed companies. Our results indicate that (1 family firms have a lower cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends than non-family firms; (2 a favorable regional institutional environment has a significant positive impact on the cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends of listed companies; and (3 the impact of the regional institutional environment on cash dividends is stronger in family firms than in non-family firms. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that controlling family shareholders in China may intensify Agency Problem I (the owner–manager conflict rather than Agency Problem II (the controlling shareholder–minority shareholder conflict, and thus have a significant negative impact on cash dividend policy. In contrast, a favorable regional institutional environment plays a positive corporate governance role in mitigating Agency Problem I and encouraging family firms to pay cash dividends.

  14. The Effect of CSR Disclosure on Institutional Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ziaul Hoq

    Full Text Available This study attempts to address the question of whether Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure (CSRD has any impact to institutional investors of the public limited companies (PLC in Malaysia. Despite CSRD being at a nascent stage in Malaysia, such reporting is found to be positively related to institutional ownership and these results provide evidence that is consistent with the conjecture that institutional investors pay attention to the way Malaysian companies manage their social issues. Using longitudinal data analysis, the findings of this study solidly support the outcome of the majority of results in developed markets. This result suggests that local firms are able to attract and maintain their institutional investors while they engage in social activities.

  15. Integration and disease control: notes from the Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine Colloquium 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Moerman, Filip

    2004-06-01

    The discussion on the desirability or not to integrate disease control activities with general health services is a longstanding one. The recent creations of global health initiatives for poverty-related disease control have refueled the debate. The Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM) convened a colloquium in Antwerp to clarify concepts involved in integrated disease control and contribute to the creation of a common scientific language and a better understanding of the issues at stake. We present an overview of highlights from the colloquium sessions. Some of the contributions reported here are presented in more detail elsewhere in this special issue.

  16. Certifying Effect and Consumer Effect: Some Remarks on Strategies Employed by Higher Education Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod de l'Ain, Bertrand

    1981-01-01

    Institutions wishing to increase the perceived value of their degrees or awards do so by increasing demand for those degrees, by stimulating applications for admission (the certifying effect) and even reducing graduates. Receipt of one of these degrees increases chances of success and affluence (the consumer effect). (MSE)

  17. Evaluating program effects on institutional delivery in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael J; Velasquez, Anibal

    2006-07-01

    We evaluate the joint effects of two targeted Peruvian health programs on a mother's choice of whether to deliver in a public emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facility. The national maternal and child health insurance, or SMI Program, provided delivery care coverage to Peru's poorest households beginning in 1998. During 1996-2002, Proyecto 2000 sought to improve the quality of EmOC and increase utilization of public EmOC facilities in the districts reporting the highest maternal and neonatal mortality levels. Our data come from the Proyecto 2000 endline evaluation, which sampled 5335 mothers living in the catchment areas of 29 treatment and 29 matched control EmOC facilities. Using propensity scoring and two quality of care indices, we find significantly higher quality of care in Proyecto 2000 treatment facilities. Using variance components logistic models, we find a mother enrolled in the SMI Program was more likely to have delivered her last child in a public EmOC, controlling for household constraints. Residence in a Proyecto 2000 treatment area did not significantly affect the choice. A cross-level interaction term was insignificant, indicating the two program effects were independent.

  18. Control of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak in a day-care institution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ulrik; Jensen, ET; Larsen, AR

    2006-01-01

    in the study: 38 children, 60 staff members and 12 close relatives of colonized subjects. Infection control measures included screening all individuals. When MRSA infection or colonization was found, an attempt was made to eradicate MRSA, staff education was undertaken and attempts were made to determine...... the route of transmission. Eleven individuals were found to be positive for MRSA (10.0%). All isolates were identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and harboured the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV. All colonized and infected individuals were associated with a single room...... in one of the institutions. MRSA was eradicated from all the colonized and infected subjects. This study shows that it is possible to control an MRSA outbreak in institutions for multi-handicapped children where there is a high degree of physical contact....

  19. Determinants of institutional delivery among childbearing age women in Western Ethiopia, 2013: unmatched case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Regassa Feyissa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. METHODS: Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. RESULTS: Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 2.754(1.510-8.911], family size [AOR (95% CI = .454(.209-.984], residence [AOR (95% CI = 3.822 (1.766-8.272] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC (AOR (95% CI = 2.914(1.105-7.682], birth order [(AOR (95% CI = .136(.054-.344, age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI = 9.995(2.101-47.556], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI = 6.957(2.422-19.987], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI = 3.541(1.732-7.239] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI = .665(.173-.954], respondents' awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI = 2.454 (1.663-6.255], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI = .258(.122-.549] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Policy makers, health service

  20. Determinants of institutional delivery among childbearing age women in Western Ethiopia, 2013: unmatched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Genemo, Gebi Agero

    2014-01-01

    Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) = 2.754(1.510-8.911)], family size [AOR (95% CI) = .454(.209-.984)], residence [AOR (95% CI) = 3.822 (1.766-8.272)] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC) (AOR (95% CI) = 2.914(1.105-7.682)], birth order [(AOR (95% CI) = .136(.054-.344), age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI) = 9.995(2.101-47.556)], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI) = 6.957(2.422-19.987)], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI) = 3.541(1.732-7.239)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI) = .665(.173-.954)], respondents' awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI) = 2.454 (1.663-6.255)], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI) = .258(.122-.549)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Policy makers, health service organizations, community leaders and other concerned bodies have

  1. The Effect of Institutional Evolution on Indian Firms' Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stucchi, Tamara; Pedersen, Torben; Kumar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    that have impacts of different magnitudes on international investments. We also investigate the case of firms affiliated with domestic business groups. We develop four hypotheses and test them using data on Indian firms. Our findings provide interesting insights into different institutional factors...

  2. Making Our Institutional Discourse Sticky: Suggestions for Effective Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author offers cautionary advice to help avoid some tempting morasses to unwittingly fall into as well as some more solid ground to stroll along when composing institutional prose. Ultimately, drawing on concepts from the fields of business, linguistics, social psychology, and professional writing, the author wishes to…

  3. Quality control of the analysis of IAEA samples in the radium institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, B.N.; Lovtsus, A.V.; Makarova, T.P.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Metrological chracteristics of mass and alpha spectrometric methods in the Radium Institute for analysis of spent fuel control samples are evaluated. The techniques of analysis and the procedure of quality control for isotopic ratio measurements based on the use of uranium and plutonium standard reference materials (NBS, NBL, SAL made in USSR) are described. The results of measurements performed during cooperation with IAEA are discussed, and the sources of systematic and random errors are analyzed. The results obtained agree well with the target values. (author)

  4. The control of nuclear proliferation: future challenges. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, 23 April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Swedish Institute of International Affairs in Stockholm on 23 April 1998. After a short presentation of the Agency's current verification activities, particularly in Iraq and Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Director General focuses on the present and future role of the IAEA in the control of nuclear proliferation through its strengthened safeguards system, in the prevention of nuclear terrorism, and future challenges of controlling nuclear proliferation from both political and technical point of view

  5. Institutional Effectiveness Plan: Assessing Effectiveness To Improve Service and Increase Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinley, John W.; And Others

    This institutional effectiveness plan for Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) is designed to serve as the blueprint by which assessment activities are undertaken and results disseminated throughout the college. First, Chapter One provides an overview of CPCC's self-study planning process, indicating that a 33-member task force comprised of…

  6. Long-term radiological liabilities and institutional control for radiation hazardous objects in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, A.; Lebedev, O.; Popov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts aimed at securing safe human life environment are taking more and more significant place in the RF public policy sphere, practical steps are being made for the purpose of environmental remediation, including scheduled life cycle completion of a number of nuclear- and radiation-hazardous engineering objects. Currently nuclear subs decommissioning and dismantling is being carried out, as well as decommissioning of research reactors in various cities of the country. A number of industrial sites have already been cleaned up, in some places restoration works are on, remediation of the reactor sites and former naval technical service bases is being planned. Whereas nuclear reactors for various purposes, spent nuclear fuel and radwaste storage facilities, have safe and reliable physical protection, trained personnel and arm guard, so that the risk of the objects' eventual effects on the natural environment and the population in adjacent areas is well predicted at any stage of their life cycle, be it regular operation, shutdown, dismantling or site remediation, such components of the radiation legacy as radioactively contaminated sites and radionuclide ionizing radiation sources, though so different by nature, but equally bearing radiation threat, cause well explainable public anxiety. Their specific character lies not only in the fact that they are often not guarded in a proper way, but also in the great extent to which they are spread geographically. In order to prevent non-sanctioned access to such kind of objects and eventual exposure of the population, an institutional control system (ICS) should be set up for the radiation risk sources. The ICS has very much in common for various types of the radiation hazardous objects, and it should include such constituents as regulatory and normative documentation, environmental (radiation inclusive) monitoring arrangement, radioactive materials and radioactive wastes control and accounting, ensuring of civil security

  7. Organizational Effectiveness Evaluation for Higher Education Institutions, Ministry of Tourism and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraipetch, Chanita; Kanjanawasee, Sirichai; Prachyapruit, Apipa

    2013-01-01

    The present research was aimed to: 1) develop the components and indicators of organizational effectiveness for public higher education institutions under the Ministry of Tourism and Sports, Thailand, and 2) develop organizational effectiveness evaluation system for these institutions. The sample included total 41 participants comprising…

  8. Perspectives on Performance Indicators: GCE Advanced Level and Differences Between Institution Types in Cost Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, A.

    1998-01-01

    Applies multilevel models of cost-effectiveness to numerous types of (British) institutions providing courses of instruction in the General Certificate of Education at Advanced Level. Different impressions may be gained about an institution's relative effectiveness when cost considerations are combined with outcome measures. Data evaluation needs…

  9. Assessment of Teaching Effectiveness: Lack of Alignment between Instructors, Institutions, and Research Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Charles; Turpen, Chandra; Dancy, Melissa; Chapman, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    Ideally, instructors and their institutions would have a shared set of metrics by which they determine teaching effectiveness. And, ideally, these metrics would overlap with research findings on measuring teaching effectiveness. Unfortunately, the current situation at most institutions is far from this ideal. As part of a larger interview study,…

  10. Institutional Effectiveness Analysis and Student Goal Attainment in the Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marilyn Wertheimer

    In an effort to effect institutional change through an analysis of institutional effectiveness, California's Fresno City College (FCC) undertook a 3-year project to examine student success. In order to determine appropriate measures of and methodologies for improving student success, a Student Success Task was established, developing 13 core…

  11. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-01-12

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified.

  12. Visible, Durable, Enforceable Institutional Controls: Weldon Spring Site - A 10-Year Journey - 13190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlmeyer, Terri; Thompson, Randy; Starr, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management's (LM's) mission is to manage the DOE's post-closure responsibilities and ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. LM has control and custody of legacy land, structures, and facilities and is responsible for maintaining them at levels suitable for their long-term use. This includes all engineered and institutional controls (ICs) designed as another level of assurance to prevent exposure to residual contamination and waste. The development and management of ICs has been, and continues to be, a critical component to the success of LM surveillance and maintenance activities. Many major federal laws, Executive Orders, regulations, and various other drivers influence the establishment and use of ICs at LM sites. LM uses a wide range of ICs to appropriately limit access to, or uses of, land, facilities, and other real and personal properties; protect the environment; maintain the physical safety and security of DOE facilities; and prevent or limit inadvertent human and environmental exposure to residual contaminants and other hazards. The ICs at the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site were developed in close coordination with federal and state regulators. An Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) was issued in February 2005, which clarified the use restrictions necessary for the remedial actions specified in the Records of Decision for the separate operable units to remain protective over the long-term. The operable units included the Chemical Plant Operable Unit, the Chemical Plant Groundwater Operable Unit, and the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit. The ESD clarified specific requirements for each site area that needed use restrictions and established how DOE would implement, maintain, and monitor the specific requirements. DOE developed the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site (LTS and M Plan) that addressed the full scope of the site

  13. The ICRP 66 Internal Radiation Exposure Control and Dose Evaluation of The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, H. F.; Hwang, W. S.; Chiu, J. H.

    2004-07-01

    The Atomic Energy Council (AEC) is the regulatory body of ionization radiation protection in Taiwan. To effectively control the safety in ionization radiation, AEC brought into force the Ionization Radiation Protection Act on 1 February, 2003 with clear statements of the penalty for violating the Law. The Article 5 of the Act provides: In order to limit the radiation exposure from radiation sources or practices, the Competent Authority shall refer to the latest standards of the International Commission on Radiological Protection to lay down the Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation. Thus, AEC is going to draft new safety standards of ionization radiation protection of Taiwan according to ICRP Publication 60. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), the governmental institute working on ionization radiation research in Taiwan, took the responsibility of assisting AEC in establishing guidelines on the control of internal radiation exposure and responding to the regulations in the new standards as soon as possible. So, according to the recommendations of ICRP Publications 60, 66,67,68,69,71,78,88, and IAEA Safety Standard Series No. RS-G- 1.1 and 1.2, INER undertook researches on the internal radiation exposure control and dose evaluations for INER's radiation workers as well as dose evaluations for the general public. The research accomplishments not only can be the reference of AEC when making new standards, but also can be followed by other radiation protection businesses. (Author) 23 refs.

  14. The ICRP 66 Internal Radiation Exposure Control and Dose Evaluation of The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, H. F.; Hwang, W. S.; Chiu, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Council (AEC) is the regulatory body of ionization radiation protection in Taiwan. To effectively control the safety in ionization radiation, AEC brought into force the Ionization Radiation Protection Act on 1 February, 2003 with clear statements of the penalty for violating the Law. The Article 5 of the Act provides: In order to limit the radiation exposure from radiation sources or practices, the Competent Authority shall refer to the latest standards of the International Commission on Radiological Protection to lay down the Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation. Thus, AEC is going to draft new safety standards of ionization radiation protection of Taiwan according to ICRP Publication 60. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), the governmental institute working on ionization radiation research in Taiwan, took the responsibility of assisting AEC in establishing guidelines on the control of internal radiation exposure and responding to the regulations in the new standards as soon as possible. So, according to the recommendations of ICRP Publications 60, 66,67,68,69,71,78,88, and IAEA Safety Standard Series No. RS-G- 1.1 and 1.2, INER undertook researches on the internal radiation exposure control and dose evaluations for INER's radiation workers as well as dose evaluations for the general public. The research accomplishments not only can be the reference of AEC when making new standards, but also can be followed by other radiation protection businesses. (Author) 23 refs

  15. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the steering committee. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued with the Pilot High Velocity FGD (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurements and control studies involving the EPA Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger capture solutions, and the use of activated carbon injection across the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) unit. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System was utilized this month in the TER test configuration to inject and transfer activated carbon to the PJFF bags for downstream mercury capture. Work also began in December to prepare the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber system for receipt of the B and W Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) unit to be used in the 1996 DOE/PRDA testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained in cold-standby this month.

  16. A randomized, controlled comparison of home versus institutional rehabilitation of patients with hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Raija

    2002-08-01

    To compare ambulation outcomes between home and institutional rehabilitation of patients with hip fracture. Randomized controlled clinical equivalence trial. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. Eighty-one patients with hip fracture. Study group patients (40) were discharged directly home from the acute hospital and visited by a physiotherapist an average of 4.6 times. The control group subjects (41) were discharged to a rehabilitation centre for further treatment lasting on average 36.2 days (SD 14.6) and they received physiotherapy daily. Ambulation ability measured on a categorical scale. The mean age of the subjects was 75 years (SD 8.3 years). Females comprised 60% of all the subjects and majority were retired or home makers. Both groups of patients improved in their ambulation ability during their rehabilitation period but neither group achieved their pre-ambulatory status by the time of completion of the study. The study group achieved significantly higher ambulation scores (p institution-based rehabilitation.

  17. Analysis of Institutional Artifact Cost in Management Control in a Textile Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barraco Marassi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the process of institutionalization of artifacts in cost management control of Paraná company in the textile sector. For this, we developed descriptive, qualitative research with development of a case study conducted by semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and document analysis. The company under study was selected for accessibility and intentionally to be in the implementation phase of change in management control practices. Was structured semi-structured interviews and questionnaires based on Burns and Scapens (2000, Guerreiro et al. (2005 and Rock and Warrior (2010. The controller and an employee of the comptroller, as well as two officials involved in the supply of the information system were interviewed. The company seeks to implement new accounting and management reporting system that offers the best timing and management of costs and fixed and variable costs, cost centers, among others. The research results show that the encoding step was performed by the controller and by consulting the codified principles and institutional desires in routines, rules and regulations and so draft the proposed changes. The company has not adequately met some factors of institutionalization listed by Guerreiro et al. (2005, regarding training of the people involved, elements of repetition and perceived consequences of the implementation of change by people. By analyzing the case study and reflect the results with the lens of institutional theory, it follows that to obtain management information artifacts cost depends on appropriate processes for data collection, and even when using updated technologies, needs some several facts that this process becomes institutionalized, which may be better understood based on this lens.

  18. How an Effective Leadership and Governance Supports to Achieve Institutional Vision, Mission, and Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2015-01-01

    Effective leadership by setting values and participative decision- making process is key not only to achieve the vision, mission and goals of the institution but also in building the organizational culture. The formal and informal arrangements in the institution to co-ordinate the academic and administrative planning and implementation reflects the institutions efforts in achieving its vision. This paper focus on the vision, mission and the objectives identified for a higher educa...

  19. The Resilient Family Firm: Stakeholder Outcomes and Institutional Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357514491; Strike, Vanessa M.; Carney, M.; Sapp, S.

    Manuscript Type Empirical Research Question/Issue Our study seeks to explain the relationship between publicly listed family-controlled firms (FCFs) and investor and employee outcomes before and during the global financial crisis. Theoretically, we develop hypotheses suggesting that FCF resilience

  20. The perceived influence of diversity factors on effective strategy implementation in a higher education institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Strydom

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Managing diversity is one of the major challenges in higher education institutions in South Africa. Additionally, effective strategy implementation is vital for an institution to be successful and sustainable. Questionnaires were distributed to the management of Walter Sisulu University, South Africa, to investigate the relationship between diversity factors and effective strategy implementation. The questionnaires interrogated the effect of the acculturation process, the degree of structural integration, the degree of informal integration, institutional bias and intergroup conflict, and how these factors influence strategy implementation. Structural equation modelling (SEM was employed as the statistical tool to confirm the hypothetical model. Results of this study revealed that there is no statistically significant relationship between diversity and strategy implementation at the institution, and imply that diversity among staff do not impact on the successful achievement of strategic objectives in the institution. The findings of the study are contrary to empirical evidence by other studies. Keywords: Education, Sociology, Political science, Psychology

  1. National Cancer Institute's leadership role in promoting State and Community Tobacco Control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginexi, Elizabeth M; Vollinger, Robert E

    2016-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been at the vanguard of funding tobacco control research for decades with major efforts such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) in 1988 and the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) in 1991, followed by the Tobacco Research Initiative for State and Community Interventions in 1999. Most recently, in 2011, the NCI launched the State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative to address gaps in secondhand smoke policies, tax and pricing policies, mass media countermeasures, community and social norms and tobacco marketing. The initiative supported large scale research projects and time-sensitive ancillary pilot studies in response to expressed needs of state and community partners. This special issue of Tobacco Control showcases exciting findings from the SCTC. In this introductory article, we provide a brief account of NCI's historical commitment to promoting research to inform tobacco control policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Effective Teaching with ICT in Nigerian Higher Institutions: A Solution to Graduates' Unemployability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femi, Sunday Akinwumi; Yemisi, Etomi Edwin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effective teaching with the aid of ICT in Nigerian higher education institutions as a proposed solution to graduates' unemployability. The survey method was utilized for this study. Respondents were randomly selected from students and teachers of selected higher institutions in Nigeria. The findings reveal that, even though…

  3. The Effects of Institutional Classification and Gender on Faculty Inclusion of Syllabus Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Peter E.; Lusk, Danielle L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the effects that gender and institutional classification have on the inclusion of syllabus components. Course syllabi (N = 350) written by men and women from seven types of institutions, based on Carnegie classification, were sampled and evaluated for the presence of 26 syllabus components. The gender…

  4. Predicting a Taxonomy of Organisational Effectiveness in U.K. Higher Educational Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysons, Art; Hatherly, David

    1996-01-01

    The framework of a study of organizational effectiveness in Australian higher education institutions was applied to a similar study in the United Kingdom. The approach was found useful for classifying U.K. institutions as classical universities, former polytechnics and colleges of advanced technology, and greenfield universities. (Author/MSE)

  5. Internationalization Management in Japanese Universities: The Effects of Institutional Structures and Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Yukako

    2017-01-01

    This study examines approaches to the internationalization of Japanese universities by focusing on the effects of institutional structures and cultures. Using a qualitative case study method, the research examines the following question: "How do institutional structures and cultures affect the internationalization of education in Japanese…

  6. The Role of Social Institutions in Determining Aid Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Foa (Roberto)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, scholars and policymakers have placed growing attention on the issue of aid effectiveness, that is, the efficiency of donor assistance in achieving stated economic and human development objectives. While research has tended to highlight the need for greater capacity

  7. Effect of delivery care user fee exemption policy on institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To improve access to skilled attendance at delivery and thereby reduce maternal mortality, the Government of Ghana introduced a policy exempting all women attending health facilities from paying delivery care fees. Objective: To examine the effect of the exemption policy on delivery-related maternal mortality.

  8. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security & Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Trevor J; Paredes, Sofia A; Extreme Photonics & Applications

    2010-01-01

    "Extreme Photonics & Applications" arises from the 2008 NATO Advanced Study Institute in Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security and Defense. Leading experts in the manipulation of light offered by recent advances in laser physics and nanoscience were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise and participate in discussions on current research, applications and new directions. The sum of their contributions to this book is a primer for the state of scientific knowledge and the issues within the subject of photonics taken to the extreme frontiers: molding light at the ultra-finest scales, which represents the beginning of the end to limitations in optical science for the benefit of 21st Century technological societies. Laser light is an exquisite tool for physical and chemical research. Physicists have recently developed pulsed lasers with such short durations that one laser shot takes the time of one molecular vibration or one electron rotation in an ...

  9. Effective model development of internal auditors in the village financial institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsana, I. M. M.; Sugiarta, I. N.

    2018-01-01

    Designing an effective audit system is complex and challenging, and a focus on examining how internal audit drive improvement in three core performance dimensions ethicality, efficiency, and effectiveness in organization is needed. The problem of research is how the desain model and peripheral of supporter of effective supervation Village Credit Institution? Research of objectives is yielding the desain model and peripheral of supporter of effective supervation Village Credit Institution. Method Research use data collecting technique interview, observation and enquette. Data analysis, data qualitative before analysed to be turned into quantitative data in the form of scale. Each variable made to become five classificat pursuant to scale of likert. Data analysed descriptively to find supervation level, Structural Equation Model (SEM) to find internal and eksternal factor. So that desain model supervation with descriptive analysis. Result of research desain model and peripheral of supporter of effective supervation Village Credit Institution. The conclusion desain model supported by three sub system: sub system institute yield body supervisor of Village Credit Institution, sub system standardization and working procedure yield standard operating procedure supervisor of Village Credit Institution, sub system education and training yield supervisor professional of Village Credit Institution.

  10. Specialists training on nuclear materials control, accounting and physical protection in the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromov, V.V.; Pogozhin, N.S.; Kryuchkov, E.F.; Glebov, V.B.; Geraskin, N.I.

    1998-01-01

    Educational program to train specialists on non-proliferation problems and nuclear materials control, accounting and physical protection systems (NMCA and PP) at the Science Master's level was developed and is being realized in Moscow Sate Institute of Engineering and Physics at the support of the USA Ministry of Energy. The program is intended to train students who already got the Bachelor's degree on physical and technical subjects. The United methodological base of the program comprises lecture courses, practice in laboratories and computer programs. The educational program contains the following parts for training the students. 1) Deep scientific and technical knowledge. 2) System approach to designing and analysis of the NMCA and PP systems. 3) Knowledge of scientific and technical principles, means, devices and procedures used in the NMCA and PP systems. 4) Judicial, international and economical aspects of nuclear materials management. 5) Application of computer and information technologies for nuclear materials control and accounting. 6) Extensive practice in laboratories, using the most up-to-date equipment and devices used in the worldwide practice of NM control

  11. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center: Report to the Steering Committee, June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (SDA) and Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) - Carbon Injection System. Investigations also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit, while the 1.0 MW Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode as monthly inspections were conducted. Pilot Testing Highlights Testing efforts in June were focused on the HAP test block and the Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block. Both programs were conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and PJFF unit. The HAP test block was temporarily concluded in June to further review the test data. This program began in March as part of the DOE Advanced Power Systems Program; the mission of this program is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. The 1996 HAP test block focuses on three research areas, including: Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. The TER test block is part of EPRI`s overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions.

  12. France. The Centre de la Manche disposal facility: Entering into the institutional control period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Centre de la Manche disposal facility, created by decree in 1969, is the first French near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility. It lies at the northwest end of the Cotentin peninsula, next to the COGEMA-La Hague fuel reprocessing plant. The Centre de la Manche facility occupies an area of about 150,000 m 2 . Its operation was terminated in late June 1994 with about 500,000 m 3 of packages disposed of. Operating feedback from the Centre de la Manche was used to design the second French disposal facility, located in the Aube, which has been receiving LILW since 1992. Since the end of the operating period, ANDRA has been preparing the statutory files to prepare the Centre de la Manche for its entry into the institutional control period. A new government decree will set the framework in which the Centre will evolve in this period. The regulatory process includes the filing of an application with the ministries concerned, containing a file with the requisite statutory documents, including an impact study of the facility on its environment as well as a hazard study. The file will then be submitted to a public inquiry, an essential informative period of the project designed to make a compilation of criticisms and suggestions from the public. In support of the application, a safety report has been sent to the Nuclear Installation Safety Directorate (DSIN) for a decision on the admissibility of the application. Recently, the Group of experts appointed by the DSIN which examined it has come out in favor of the creation of a new basic nuclear installation (i.e., a new government agency) for the institutional control period. A draft decree will then be submitted to the approval of the Interministerial Commission for Basic Nuclear Installations. This process, initiated in 1994, is nearing completion

  13. Computerized materials protection, control, and accountability at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimenko, V.; Goryunov, V.; Ilyantsev, A.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a multifaceted approach to protecting its nuclear materials, The Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) at Obninsk, Russia, has been computerizing its materials protection, control, and accountability capabilities. This is being accomplished in collaboration with the CoreMAS team at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Such international cooperation in applying advanced science and technology to managing and controlling nuclear materials will help reduce the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation by preventing acquisition of weapons-grade nuclear materials by unauthorized individuals, organizations, or states. One important characteristic of IPPE is that it encompasses several facilities that manage nuclear materials, and three of these facilities already operate their own independent (or independently developed) computerized accounting systems. This paper focuses on the importance of compatibility between the computerized accountability systems at the facilities, the ability of the individual systems to communicate with a single site-wide system, and the necessity of coordination between facilities in designing and developing computerized systems. The authors believe that the lessons learned at IPPE in coordinating these efforts have wide-ranging significance for other sites with multiple facilities

  14. Corruption, Institutions and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Breen; Robert Gillanders

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effects of corruption and institutional quality on the quality of business regulation. Our key findings indicate that corruption negatively aspects the quality of regulation and that general institutional quality is insignificant once corruption is controlled for. These findings hold over a number of specifications which include additional exogenous historical and geographic controls. The findings imply that policy-makers should focus on curbing corruption to improve regulat...

  15. The Effect of Each Other Perceived Service Quality and Institutional Image In Pre - sc hool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Sönmez Karapınar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of service quality and dimensions of perceived institutional image; and effect of perceived institutional image and perceived service quality in pre-school education facilities. Two models were developed for that purpose. Perceived service quality was evaluated in five dimensions (empathy, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and tangibles and perceived institutional image was evaluated in four dimensions (quality image institutional communication, social image and institutional perspective. Influence of independent variable on dependent variable was mentioned in both of two models. Sample of the study consists of 250 families who use service provided by pre-schools in Kayseri. Data was collected by the way of a questionnaire which formed in the basis of two scales named as “servperf scale” and “institutional image scale”. Factor analysis, KMO test and regression analysis were used in order to test data. Findings indicate that there was a positive affect each other perceived service quality and perceived institutional image.

  16. Time Management and Administrative Effectiveness of Kwara State Tertiary Institutions, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasunkanmi Muftau AFOLABI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between time management and administrative effectiveness of Kwara State owned tertiary institutions. The study adopted a descriptive survey of correlational type. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted to select 600 respondents from the sampled institutions. The respondents selected are deans, directors, head of departments, senior lecturers, lecturers, head of the units, class representatives and student’s government executives and the Associations Presidents, secretaries and treasurers. Four research questions and four research hypotheses were generated to guide the study. The instruments staged Time Management for Administrative Effectiveness Questionnaire (TMADEQ was researcher’s self designed instrument. The instrument was validated by the experts in Educational management and psychology. Reliability index of .65 was obtained after subjecting to test-retest method, and using Spearman Ranking order Statistics at .05 significance level. All the research questions were answered using percentages while, Pearson product moment correlation statistics was used to test all the research hypotheses formulated also at .05 significance level. The findings however showed that time allocation, utilization commitment and lapses have high positive significant relationship with the indicators of the administrative effectiveness of Kwara State tertiary institutions. Recommendations was however made that time management skills should be taught as a course in the higher institutions so as to enhance administrative effectiveness in the tertiary institutions and that adequate time should be allocated to every institutional programmes.

  17. DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONS AS AN EFFECTIVE MODEL AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL (ON THE EXAMPLE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leysan Kashapova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article questions of a choice of flexible instruments of government support to territories ensure their economic stability and economic growth. The formation of institutions is one of such approaches of profiling and of the results of operations which depends on the degree of development of territories. You have made the necessary relationship of selection and formation of development institutions from the strategic development priorities of the region We proved that effective implementation and activities of development institutions depends on the achievement of strategic targets set at the regional level and the municipal level.

  18. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial ...

  19. The Revised WIPP Passive Institutional Controls Program - A Conceptual Plan - 13145

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Russ; Klein, Thomas; Van Luik, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO) is responsible for managing all activities related to the disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed waste in the geologic repository, 650 m below the land surface, at WIPP, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The main function of the Passive Institutional Controls (PIC's) program is to inform future generations of the long-lived radioactive wastes buried beneath their feet in the desert. For the first 100 years after cessation of disposal operations, the rooms are closed and the shafts leading underground sealed, WIPP is mandated by law to institute Active Institutional Controls (AIC's) with fences, gates, and armed guards on patrol. At this same time a plan must be in place of how to warn/inform the future, after the AIC's are gone, of the consequences of intrusion into the geologic repository disposal area. A plan was put into place during the 1990's with records management and storage, awareness triggers, permanent marker design concepts and testing schedules. This work included the thoughts of expert panels and individuals. The plan held up under peer review and met the requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Today the NEA is coordinating a study called the 'Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) Across Generations' to provide the international nuclear waste repository community with a guide on how a nuclear record archive programs should be approached and developed. CBFO is cooperating and participating in this project and will take what knowledge is gained and apply that to the WIPP program. At the same time CBFO is well aware that the EPA and others are expecting DOE to move forward with planning for the future WIPP PIC's program; so a plan will be in place in time for WIPP's closure slated for the early 2030's. The DOE/CBFO WIPP PIC's program in place today meets the regulatory criteria, but complete feasibility of implementation is questionable, and may not be in conformance

  20. The Institution Image and Trust and Their Effect on the Positive Word of Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Harsono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In marketing, it is important to see how competitive a university is. Among public universities (PTN and private universities (PTS, it shows a very competitive situation recently. To overcome this problem, it requires shaping up the institution image and trust for increasing the positive word of mouth among students. This study aims to determine the effect of the institution image, trust both partially and simultaneously on the positive word of mouth by the students of private universities in Surabaya with their accreditation levels of A, B and C. The sample consists of students from six colleges with accreditation ratings A, B, and C totaling 125 students. Accidental sampling technique was done using a sampling technique of multiple regression analysis with SPSS version 17. It shows, for the college with accreditation category C, the image of the institution both partially and simulta-neously has significant positive effect on the positive word of mouth. For the college accreditation category B, the image of the institution and trust simultaneously has significant positive effect on the positive word of mouth and, finally, trust in accreditation category A has significant positive effect on the positive word of mouth and the institution image and trust simultaneously have significant positive effect on the positive word of mouth.

  1. Effective radiation doses in CT colonography: results of an inventory among research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensch, Sebastiaan; Gelder, Rogier E. van; Lameris, Johan S.; Stoker, Jaap; Venema, Henk W.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effective dose that is currently used in CT colonography using scan parameters that were collected for this purpose, and to investigate trends in time. PubMed was systematically searched from 1996 until January 2004 for studies investigating CT colonography. Research institutions were contacted and asked for their current scan protocol. Thirty-six institutions published 74 studies. Twenty-eight of the 36 institutions provided their current protocol. The median effective dose in 2004 was 5.1 mSv (range 1.2-11.7 mSv) per position. Most institutions (93%) scan in both the supine and prone positions. The median mAs value was 67 mAs (range 20-200), median collimation was 2.5 mm (range 0.75-5). From 1996 until 2004 a significant decrease in mAs and collimation (P=0.006, P<0.0001, respectively) was observed, while institutions that used a multislice scanner increased (P<0.0001). The effective dose remained constant (P=0.76). In 2004 the median effective dose for a complete CT colonography was 10.2 mSv. Despite the increasing use of multislice scanners, which are slightly less dose-efficient, the median effective dose remained approximately constant between 1996 and 2004. This is mainly caused by the use of lower mAs settings. (orig.)

  2. 23 CFR 750.705 - Effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective control. 750.705 Section 750.705 Highways... BEAUTIFICATION Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.705 Effective control. In order to provide effective control of... of applicable control requirements will apply; (h) Develop laws, regulations, and procedures to...

  3. Enacting Effective Climate Policy Advice: Institutional Strategies to Foster Saliency, Credibility and Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anja; Pregernig, Michael; Reinecke, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    This article asks how scientific advisory institutions (SAIs) in climate policy strive towards effectiveness. Our analysis is grounded on the assumption that effectiveness is not passively experienced but is deliberately enacted by SAIs. We draw on a widely used set of criteria, namely saliency, credibility and legitimacy (SCL). Based on an…

  4. Exploring the link between institutional pressures and environmental management systems effectiveness: An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddi, Tiberio; Testa, Francesco; Frey, Marco; Iraldo, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    Institutional theory has been widely debated by scholars. A part of literature examines how institutional pressures act on company choices regarding proactive environmental strategies. However, the institutional perspective has still not completely clarified the influence of these pressures on the effectiveness of environmental management systems (EMSs) in achieving goals in terms of eco-innovation, competitiveness and corporate reputation. This paper analyses the role played by coercive, mimetic and normative forces in stimulating innovative and competitive responses by firms with an environmental certification. Using the results of a survey on 242 European EMAS-registered organisations, the paper highlights the more positive influence of mimetic and normative pressures than coercive ones. The paper contributes to the literature debate on EMSs analysed through the lens of institutional theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effectiveness of Private Forest Institutional and Policy in Banjarnegara and Banyumas Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fauziyah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effectiveness of institusional and policy on private forest. The research was conducted in Banjarnegara and Banyumas Regency in August 2012 - May 2013. The methods used in this study are structured interview, open interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD. Assessment of institutional effectiveness was done to government institutional, marketing institututional, and farmer institutional using recommended indicator namely: 1 user and resource boundaries, 2 appropriation and provision, 3 collective-choice arrangements, 4 monitoring, 5 graduated sanctions, 6 conflict-resolution mechanisms, and 7 recognition of appropriators’ rights to organize. The collected data were processed using likert scale and analyzed descriptively. The results showed that effectiveness of institutional in Kabupaten Banjarnegara and Banyumas Regency was moderate condition (quite effective. The effectiveness of private forest policy is seen from four policy viewpoints: policy accuracy, policy implementation, target accuracy, and environmental accuracy. Private forest policy in Kabupaten Banjarnegara is effective based on policy accuracy and environmental accuracy, while private forest policy in Banyumas Regency is effective based on target accuracy and environmental accuracy. This difference in assessment is due to the different of policy or program at the location according to the condition and the desire of community.

  6. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  7. On the role of taxation and tax control institutions in implementation of sustainable development strategy in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamir Sagirovich Yakupov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to research scientific approaches to the institution of tax control taking into account the basic theories and scientific concepts that affect the functioning of this institution. Methods logical and statistical methods were applied as well as methods of deduction and induction scientific abstraction. Results it is proved that sustainable economic development can be achieved by enhancing the financial and taxation mechanism. The institute of tax control is viewed as a softener of economic crises. Mechanisms are proposed to influence the crises and to minimize the losses of both taxpayers and the state. Scientific novelty the model is proposed of the taxation tools and mechanisms for sustainable development of Russia. Practical value the possibility to increase the value and efficiency of the taxation mechanisms for sustainable development. nbsp

  8. Report on environmental control at the 'Boris Kidric' Institute, Vinca, Period 01.01. - 31.12.1979. Annex 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report includes description of the regular tasks performed on the territory of the 'Boris Kidric' Institute, namely, radioactivity control of water, precipitation, soil, plants, radioactivity control of aerosols and meteorology measurements. During 1979, total beta activity of aerosols in the air were measured at three measuring stations, two located in the Institute and one about three kilometers far from the Institute in the direction of the predominant wind towards Belgrade. Total of 761 samples were measured. From the obtained results it can be concluded that during the reporting period there was no environmental contamination caused by RA reactor operation. During 1979 the radioactivity of air was significantly lower compared to previous years [sr

  9. United States regulations for institutional controls at high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccone, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The United States regulations for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are found at Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Parts 60 and 63, which cover deep geologic disposal at a generic site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, respectively. As an independent regulator, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for licensing and oversight of a high-level waste repository in the United States. The licensing approach for disposal has discreet decisions, made by the NRC, that include approval of construction authorisation, approval to receive and possess high-level radioactive waste, and approval for permanent closure. For construction authorisation approval, the applicant must provide a description of the programme to be used to maintain the records. The NRC will have an active oversight role during the construction and operation period, which can be on the order of 100 years for the facility before permanent closure. The oversight activities are part of the active institutional controls, and serve as a means of conveying knowledge for that initial period, given that this will likely involve multiple generations of workers for both the implementer and the regulator. Additionally, the NRC provides requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at 10 CFR Chap. 73.51. For permanent closure approval, the applicant must provide a detailed description of the measures to be employed-such as land use controls, construction of monuments, and preservation of records. The NRC's regulatory role in any licensing action is to apply the applicable regulations and guidance, and to review applications for proposed actions to determine if compliance with regulations has been achieved. The burden of proof is on the applicant or licensee to show that the proposed action is safe, to demonstrate that regulations are met, and to ensure continued compliance with the regulations

  10. Institutional entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Institutional entrepreneurship pays specific attention to the process and outcomes of agents who are willing and capable of changing institutions. It has some common ground with the political entrepreneur, a concept that proposes change in norms and institutions because of commitment and activities...... of agents or organisations in the policy arena. The present chapter understands institutional entrepreneurship as the process of changing institutionalised practices. Based on a literature review, it describes the triggers, activities and potential effects of institutional entrepreneurs. The chapter...... concludes by tentatively arguing that political entrepreneurs can be institutional entrepreneurs, but institutional entrepreneurship can be considered as the broader concept that incorporates strategies and visions as well as interpretative-discursive power into the conceptual framework....

  11. Overt employment discrimination in MNC affiliates: home-country cultural and institutional effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cindy Wu; John J Lawler; Xiang Yi

    2008-01-01

    Using job announcements posted by MNC subsidiaries in Taiwan and Thailand, we investigated the effects of MNC home-country cultural and institutional forces on the use of employment gender and age discriminatory criteria in host countries where anti-discrimination legislation was absent. We examined the cultural effects with composite measures taken from the work of Hofstede and Schwartz. The effects of the existence of anti-age and anti-gender discrimination employment legislation in an MNC ...

  12. The effects of tax policy and labour market institutions on income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Obadić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate how labor market institutions and regulations and tax policies effect income inequality across the European member countries. The sample contains the fifteen core European Union (EU members as well as thirteen Central and Eastern European (CEE economies which have recently joined. Using fixed and random effect panel models over the sample period 2000–2011 we test the influence of three major tax forms (labor, capital and consumption, social security contributions, and labor market institutions. We demonstrate that the overall social contributions and labor taxes lead to statistically significant improvements in income inequality among EU member states. We conclude that tax policy, specifically the choice of taxes implemented, and labor market institutions, union membership in particular, reduce income inequality in the EU-28 in the observed period.

  13. 23 CFR 751.9 - Effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective control. 751.9 Section 751.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT JUNKYARD CONTROL AND ACQUISITION § 751.9 Effective control. (a) In order to provide effective control of junkyards located within 1...

  14. Institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV: Countries progress in implementing technical guidelines and good governance requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochieng, R.M.; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid; Arts, B.; Brockhaus, M.; Herold, M.

    2016-01-01

    The UNFCCC requires REDD+ countries wishing to receive results-based payments to measure, report and verify (MRV) REDD+ impacts; and outlines technical guidelines and good governance requirements for MRV. This article examines institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV by assessing countries’ progress

  15. Developing Effective Earthquake Risk Reduction Strategies: The Potential Role of Academic Institutions in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda

    2015-01-01

    Lebanon faces the risk of powerful earthquakes with potentially devastating effects. However, the Lebanese people in general have not yet recognized this risk, as current educational programs and government officials have failed to inform them about it. This article discusses the essential role that Lebanese institutions of higher education should…

  16. The institutional arrangements of innovation: Antecedents and performance effects of trust in high-tech alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.; Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigate the institutional arrangements of innovation processes in high-tech alliances, focusing on the role of trust. A major strength of the research is the opportunity to address antecedents as well as performance effects of trust. The antecedents of interorganizational trust

  17. Examining the Effects of Institutional and Cohort Characteristics on Retention Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.; Graunke, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite being criticized as unrepresentative and misleading, retention and graduation rates are an important part of college-search web sites and accountability systems, and they frequently have been used as indicators of institutional quality and effectiveness in educational research. Retention and graduation rates are often compared over time…

  18. The Effect of a Social-Emotional Intervention on the Development of Preterm Infants in Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernego, Daria I.; McCall, Robert B.; Wanless, Shannon B.; Groark, Christina J.; Vasilyeva, Marina J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a social-emotional intervention implemented in one St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) institution (called a Baby Home, BH) on the general behavioral development of preterm children (gestational ages of 30-36 weeks) during their first 2 years of life. The intervention consisted of training caregivers and…

  19. The Effect of Organizational Learning Patterns on Leading Strategic Change among Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olla, Woyita W.

    2013-01-01

    Innovations and reforms are crucial for both public and Christian higher education institutions in order to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex and turbulent today's environment. Although there is a plethora of literature on strategic change, the effect of organizational learning on leading strategic change has been barely investigated…

  20. An Empirical Test of Cameron's Dimensions of Effectiveness: Implications for Australian Tertiary Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysons, Art; Ryder, Paul

    1988-01-01

    A theory postulating nine dimensions of effectiveness in U.S. higher education institutions was tested in an Australian sample. Findings suggest that administrators should use caution when extrapolating from results in at least the Australian context. Areas for future research are also suggested by cross-cultural comparisons. (Author/MSE)

  1. Negotiating the Mine Field: Strategies for Effective Online Education Administrative Leadership in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    As online learning becomes a strategic focus of colleges and universities, the effectiveness of online education administrative leaders assumes an increasingly critical role in achieving institutional goals. In this article, the author uses a critical theory lens to understand how online education administrative leaders in higher education…

  2. Recruitment Combined with Retention Strategies Results in Institutional Effectiveness and Student Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngman, Curtis

    In Winter 1994, the Marketing Department at Salt Lake Community College (SLCC) in Utah implemented an educational marketing plan that incorporated a focus on customer service to improve institutional effectiveness and student satisfaction. The plan includes a retention and recruitment program to strengthen the college's relationship with current…

  3. Centre de la Manche institutional control period: after the first safety review - 59236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, Michel; Vervialle, Jean Pierre; Andre, Alain; Marchiol, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Centre de la Manche disposal facility is the first French surface disposal facility dedicated to low and intermediate level short lived radioactive waste. It started up in 1969. After a continuous improvement, in the design of disposal vaults, in operational modes, in the whole process of waste management, in the safety approach, the last packages were received in 1994. 527, 000 m 3 of waste packages have been disposed during the 25 years of operation. The facility was licensed for the institutional control period in 2003. The disposal vaults are covered with a multilayer capping system that includes a bituminous membrane to provide protection against rainwater infiltration. Water that might infiltrate through the membrane is collected by the bottom slab of the vaults to a pipe network implemented in an underground gallery. Measurements show an overall infiltration rate of about 3 l/m 2 /year that complies with the objective of Andra of a few liters per square meter and per year. Investigations are performed in order to assess the behavior of the membrane in the long term. For this purpose periodically samples of the bituminous membrane are taken and measurements are performed. As at the beginning of the operational period waste packages were not conditioned in accordance with the specifications that are presently prescribed to waste generators, some settlements can be observed on the ancient part or the facilities. At the end of 2009 some excavation works were performed in an area where a settlement of few tens of centimeters was observed. The integrity of the membrane could be observed and the adequacy of the selection of this option for the water-tightness of the capping system was so confirmed. Environmental monitoring includes radiological and chemical measurements for discharge, underground water and surface water. In the particular framework of Centre de la Manche, a contamination of groundwater by tritiated wastes occurred in 1976. Theses wastes were

  4. AXIOMS AND INTERNAL CONTROL REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. APPLICATION MODE IN ROMANIA AND OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of any institution is to have a management that would implement public policies, programs and projects aimed at fulfilling the mission of the institution and the objectives of the government, through the rational use of resources (often limited and at the same time to satisfy stakeholders. Implement a system of internal control has emerged as a necessity from globalization and liberalization of financial markets, free movement of capital, information, people and goods through the application of internationally recognized standards and to be understood in a uniform manner. The research was focused on the one hand, the literature review Romanian and foreign legislation and internal control management system, providing a theoretical and practical approach, but on the other hand, we considered appropriate to perform a research on the application of internal control management system in member states of the European Union.

  5. Interactive Effect of Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance Causal Circular Studies on Sharia Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaulan; Noor; wildan

    2017-01-01

    Research aims to confirm and test the interactive effect of motivation, job satisfaction, and job performance. This study applied to employees of Sharia Financial Institutions in Jakarta. The number of respondents is 70 employees with randomly selected samples stratified. Research analysis data using multiple indicators within analyzed using structural equation model. The results showed that there was a positive interactive effect motivation on job performance and job performance on motivatio...

  6. Causes of behavioral disorders leading to compulsory institutional correction or controlled education.

    OpenAIRE

    Poplšteinová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of my work is to provide a comprehensive overview of the possible causes of behavioral disorders that lead to the placement of individuals into correctional institutions. The work is primarily concerned with the influence of the family in the formation of the child's personality and with the other equally important factors from the external and internal environment of the individual.

  7. Shifting Governance and Control in Church-Related Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioke, Clarence J.; King, Richard A.

    Factors related to shifts in governance patterns of church-related private colleges were investigated through historical document analysis, interviews with 34 presidents and board members, and 59 questionnaires returned by current and past board members of 2 New Mexico institutions. Document analysis focused upon mission statements, annual…

  8. Instrumentation and control activities at the Electric Power Research Institute to support operator support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.

    1995-01-01

    Most nuclear power plants in the United States continue to operate with analog instrumentation and control (I and C) technology designed 20 to 40 years ago. This equipment is approaching or exceeding its life expectancy, resulting in increasing maintenance efforts to sustain system performance. Decreasing availability of replacement parts and the accelerating deterioration of the infrastructure of manufacturers that support analog technology exacerbate obsolescence problems and resultant operation and maintenance (O and M) cost increases. Modern digital technology holds a significant potential to improve the safety, cost-effectiveness, productivity, and, therefore, competitiveness of nuclear power plants. Operator support systems provide the tools to help achieve this potential. Reliable, integrated information is a critical element for protecting the utility's capital investment and increasing availability, reliability, and productivity. Integrated operator support systems with integrated information can perform more effectively to increase productivity, to enhance safety, and to reduce O and M costs. The plant communications and computing architecture is the infrastructure needed to allow the implementation of I and C systems and associated operator support systems in an integrated manner. Current technology for distributed digital systems, plant process computers, and plant communications and computing networks support the integration of systems and information. (author). 16 refs

  9. Burnout and work engagement of academics in higher education institutions: effects of dispositional optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhuizen, Nicolene; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among dispositional optimism, job demands and resources, burnout, work engagement, ill health and organizational commitment of South African academic staff in higher education institutions. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with stratified random samples (N = 595) taken of academics in South African higher education institutions. The results confirmed that job demands and a lack of job resources contributed to burnout, whereas job resources contributed to work engagement. Dispositional optimism had a strong direct effect on perceptions of job resources as well as strong indirect effects (via job resources) on burnout, work engagement, ill health and organizational commitment. The results of this study extend the dual-process model of burnout and engagement by demonstrating the strong effects of dispositional optimism on the constructs in the model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun; Dong, Kyung Rae; Han, Seung Moo

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment

  11. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  12. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  13. Qualitative Case Study Exploring Operational Barriers Impeding Small and Private, Nonprofit Higher Education Institutions from Implementing Information Security Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesen, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    The higher education industry uses the very latest technologies to effectively prepare students for their careers, but these technologies often contain vulnerabilities that can be exploited via their connection to the Internet. The complex task of securing information and computing systems is made more difficult at institutions of higher education…

  14. The effectiveness of sexual harassment policies and procedures at higher education institutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Joubert

    2011-02-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness levels of academic staff members at higher education institutions in South Africa of sexual harassment policies and procedures in their institutions. Motivation for the study: A number of high profile court cases emphasised the need for effective policies to reduce the incidence of sexual harassment complaints. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was conducted amongst 161 academic staff members, representing 10 higher education institutions in South Africa. The measuring instrument that was used is the Sexual Harassment Questionnaire (SHQ that was developed specifically for this study. Main findings: The results showed that despite indications that sexual harassment policies do exist and that they are regarded as effective tools in addressing sexual harassment, the implementation of such policies is not effective and few academic staff members received training and/or guidance on the utilisation of the policy. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the elements of an effective policy and between population group and some of the elements. Practical/managerial implications: Employers across the board should regularly conduct an audit to determine the level of awareness of sexual harassment policies and procedures and plan interventions. Contribution: No other study in South Africa attempted to measure the awareness levels of academics and its impact on the management of sexual harassment.

  15. Which Risks Get Managed? Addressing Climate Effects in the Context of Evolving Water-Governance Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Conca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Warnings about climate change invariably stress water-related effects. Such effects are typically framed as both unpredictable and disruptive, and are thus said to create large new risks to the water sector demanding adaptive responses. This article examines how such responses are mediated by, and also compromised by, two dominant trends in the evolution of water governance institutions: (1 the rise of an “integrated” paradigm of water resources management, which has encouraged the development of more complex and interconnected water institutions, and (2 the rapidly changing political economy of water financing and investment. Each of these trends carries its own strong presumptions about what constitutes water-related risk and how such risk is properly managed. The article uses the specific example of large dam projects to illustrate how these ongoing trends in water governance shape and complicate the prospect of managing climate-water risks.

  16. Voice Range Profiles of Singing Students: The Effects of Training Duration and Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycke, Hugo; Siupsinskiene, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in voice parameters measured by the physiological voice range profile (VRP) in groups of vocally healthy subjects differentiated by the duration of vocal training and the training institution. Six basic frequency- and intensity-related VRP parameters and the frequency dip of the register transition zone were determined from VRP recordings of 162 females studying in individual singing lessons (1st-5th level) in Dutch, Belgian, English, and French public or private training facilities. Sixty-seven nonsinging female students served as controls. Singing students in more advanced singing classes demonstrated a significantly greater frequency range, particularly at high frequencies, than did first-year students. Students with private training showed a significantly increased mean intensity range in comparison to those in group classes, while students with musical theater training exhibited significantly increased frequency- and intensity-related VRP parameters in comparison to the students with classical training. When compared to nonsingers, all singing student subgroups showed significant increases in all basic VRP parameters. However, the register transition parameter was not influenced by training duration or institution. Our study suggests that the extension of physiological vocal limits might depend on training duration and institution. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The role of institutions on the effectiveness of malaria treatment in the Ghanaian health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amporfu, Eugenia; Nonvignon, Justice

    2015-04-19

    The Ghanaian health sector has undertaken several policies to help improve the quality of care received by patients. This includes the construction of several health facilities, the increase in the training of health workers, especially nurses, and the introduction of incentive packages (such as salary increase) to motivate health workers. The important question is to what extent does the institutional arrangement between the health facilities and the government as well as between health workers and public health facility administration affect the quality of care? The objective of this study is to find the effect of institutional factors on the quality of care. The institutional factors examined were mainly the extent of decentralization between government and health facilities, as well as between health workers and facility administration, the hiring procedure, and job satisfaction. The study used primary data on former patients from sixty six health facilities in three administrative regions of Ghana: the Northern, the Ashanti and the Greater Accra regions. The quality indicator used was effectiveness of treatment as determined by the patient. Ordered logit regression was run for the indicator with patient and health facility characteristics as well as institutional factors as independent variables. The sample size was 2248. The results showed that the patient's level of formal education had a strong influence on the effectiveness of treatment. In addition, effectiveness of treatment differed according to the administrative region in which the facility was located, and according to the extent of decentralization between health facility and government. The quality of instruments used for treatment, the working conditions for health workers, and job satisfaction had no effect on the effectiveness of treatment. Decentralization, the flow of information from government to health facilities and from health facility administrators to health workers are important in

  18. Building institutions for an effective health system: lessons from China's experience with rural health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Gerald

    2011-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the management of health system changes aimed at substantially increasing the access to safe and effective health services. It argues that an effective health sector relies on trust-based relationships between users, providers and funders of health services, and that one of the major challenges governments face is to construct institutional arrangements within which these relationships can be embedded. It presents the case of China, which is implementing an ambitious health reform, drawing on a series of visits to rural counties by the author over a 10-year period. It illustrates how the development of reform strategies has been a response both to the challenges arising from the transition to a market economy and the result of actions by different actors, which have led to the gradual creation of increasingly complex institutions. The overall direction of change has been strongly influenced by the efforts made by the political leadership to manage a transition to a modern economy which provides at least some basic benefits to all. The paper concludes that the key lessons for other countries from China's experience with health system reform are less about the detailed design of specific interventions than about its approach to the management of institution-building in a context of complexity and rapid change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. From Attitude Change to Behaviour Change: Institutional Mediators of Education for Sustainable Development Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Velasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the way in which institutional contexts mediate values-focused behaviour change, with potential design implications. We use concepts taken from training research, where “learning transfer” refers to the translation into practice of the learning acquired during training: it is considered necessary to generalize it for the job context and for it to be maintained over a period of time on the job. In this paper, we analyse the example of one education for sustainable development (ESD intervention that is already established as pedagogically effective when it is deployed in diverse institutional environments worldwide—the Youth as Agents of Behaviour Change program of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC. This allows an opportunity to consider variations in learning transfer due to distinctive moderating institutional features, which can now be understood in terms of varying transfer climates, levels of leadership support and opportunities to practice. Additional barriers of tokenistic consultation, lack of role clarity and perverse effects of increased distance between trainees and their colleagues on return were also seen. ESD programs intending to bridge the values-action gap could benefit from not focusing only on the training content, but pre-planning organisational support for returning trainees and including in the training ways for them to assess and plan to overcome such difficulties.

  20. Proposed full automatic control system for the Medical Small Cyclotron C-30 at the Institute of Nuclear Studies, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, A.

    1987-01-01

    The computer control system for the C-30 Medical Small Cyclotron, which is currently under construction at the Institute of Nuclear Studies will be presented. The features of this simple and secure system are briefly discussed. Some efforts have been done to make a conversational system easily understandable for operators. The keystone of the control system is an fibre optical link (wireless) between the cyclotron and the computer. The control system is based on the use of an extended configuration of the IBM PC/AT computer. A new system software is used to execute multitask hierarchical programs to control the cyclotron. The comercial adapters for control and data aquisition, connected with the fibre optic communication channels are used to transmit data and control codes. Two colour graphic CRT displays the ongoing status and function of each controlled units so that the operator can monitor the whole system conditions at a glance. The paper gives a general description of the programs which are executed on the computer. It also shows how the cyclotron is controlled by dedicated computer practically without special electronic equipment except of the hardware safety cutout switch. The cyclotron is protected against operating incidents and mistakes by a complex system of interlocks. (author)

  1. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center: Report to the Steering Committee, March 1996. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Carbon Injection System for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued with various impinger capture solutions. Also, the installation of the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit was completed in March. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (Carbon Injection System) and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD Unit and were utilized in the HAP test configuration this month. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold- standby mode. Monthly inspections were conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems, and will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff.

  2. Institutional sexism: An obstacle to an effective protection against domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is an analysis of the social treatment of victims of domestic violence and their institutional treatment in the context of gender stereotypes, prejudices and discriminatory attitudes, which are deeply rooted and widely spread among professionals involved in the prevention and prosecution of domestic violence. The aim of the paper is to point out how, and in what way institutional sexism becomes a barrier to effective prevention, prosecution and sanctioning of domestic violence and the cause of discrimination of victims of this form of violence in the exercise of the right to legal protection. In this context, the current situation in Serbia has been observed in light of the international standard of “due diligence”, which is normatively operationalized in Istanbul Convention (2011. From the perspective of this standard, the authors discuss the standpoints of the CEDAW Committee as well as the latest opinion of the European Court of Human Rights in the verdict of the case Eremia and others v. Moldova (2013, which was the first time that the Court held that institutional sexism was the main reason for the state authorities’ failure to provide adequate legal protection against domestic violence. The authors underscore that the state action on the recognition, demystification and eradication of the deeply rooted institutional sexism is one of the key prerequisites for an effective prevention of domestic violence in compliance with the international “due diligence” standard. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179046: Zaštita ljudskih i manjinskih prava u evropskom pravnom prostoru

  3. 78 FR 46369 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Research Triangle Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Anileridine (9020) II Bezitramide (9800) II Carfentanil (9743) II Coca Leaves (9040) II Cocaine (9041) II... controlled substances listed in schedule I or II, which fall under the authority of section 1002(a)(2)(B) of...

  4. The Effects of Education on Occupational Status and Earnings. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.

    This paper investigated the effects of educational attainment on occupational status and earnings among men. Drawing on nine data sets, it attempted to assess the effects of schooling that persist after measured and unmeasured aspects of family background, and measured cognitive skill were controlled. It also examined differences in the effects of…

  5. CER Hub: An informatics platform for conducting comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional, heterogeneous, electronic clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Brian L; Kurtz, Stephen E; Masica, Andrew; Stevens, Victor J; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Puro, Jon E; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Au, David H; Brannon, Elissa D; Sittig, Dean F

    2015-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) requires the capture and analysis of data from disparate sources, often from a variety of institutions with diverse electronic health record (EHR) implementations. In this paper we describe the CER Hub, a web-based informatics platform for developing and conducting research studies that combine comprehensive electronic clinical data from multiple health care organizations. The CER Hub platform implements a data processing pipeline that employs informatics standards for data representation and web-based tools for developing study-specific data processing applications, providing standardized access to the patient-centric electronic health record (EHR) across organizations. The CER Hub is being used to conduct two CER studies utilizing data from six geographically distributed and demographically diverse health systems. These foundational studies address the effectiveness of medications for controlling asthma and the effectiveness of smoking cessation services delivered in primary care. The CER Hub includes four key capabilities: the ability to process and analyze both free-text and coded clinical data in the EHR; a data processing environment supported by distributed data and study governance processes; a clinical data-interchange format for facilitating standardized extraction of clinical data from EHRs; and a library of shareable clinical data processing applications. CER requires coordinated and scalable methods for extracting, aggregating, and analyzing complex, multi-institutional clinical data. By offering a range of informatics tools integrated into a framework for conducting studies using EHR data, the CER Hub provides a solution to the challenges of multi-institutional research using electronic medical record data. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Institutional design and regime effectiveness in transboundary river management – the Elbe water quality regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dombrowsky

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature on transboundary river management suggests that institutions play an important role in bringing about cooperation. However, knowledge about how such institutions should be designed in order to do so remains limited. One way to learn more about adequate institutional design is to assess the effectiveness of existing regimes, and to trace the causal relationships that lead to the respective outcomes. In order to gain further insights into the relationship between institutional design and regime effectiveness, this paper presents a study on the water quality regime of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The analysis is based on a review of pertinent documents and ten qualitative interviews with Czech and German Commission members and NGO representatives. Particular emphasis has been put on determining the ICPE's specific contribution and the no-regime counterfactual as well as on the perceived expediency of the institutional arrangements. The study shows overall that the countries were relatively successful in improving water quality in the Elbe basin. However, this outcome can only partly be attributed to the ICPE itself. Furthermore, the ICPE's contribution towards achieving the various goals varied significantly between the different areas of activity: it was relatively significant where the main responsibility for action lay with the public authorities, such as in the area of wastewater treatment and the establishment of an international alarm plan and model, but was practically non-existent in the reduction of non-point pollution from agriculture, where success depended on the behavior of individual private actors (farmers. The commission contributed towards problem solving by serving as a forum for the joint identification of priorities for action from a basin-wide perspective. The resulting international obligations increased the power of national water administrations and their access to funds

  7. The Effect of Social Capital on Customer’s Repayment Rate at Islamic Microfinance Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenal Effendi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The potency of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs in Indonesia which is great, is not directly proportional to the ease of getting capital from formal financial institutions such as banks because it is not bankable. Meanwhile, microfinance institutions (MFIs that provide financing to the MSEs are currently thriving. This condition exposes the existence of factors that cause the MFIs continuesly providing financing to MSEs which are not bankable. This research aims to analyze the effect of social capital toward the repayment rate of Islamic MFIs’ customers. The methods used in this research was the logistic regression. The results showed variable relationship with BMT employees, relations with other customers, and Islamic recitation had positive and significant effect toward the repayment rate of the customer. While recommendations, membership status, and travel time from home to the BMT had negative and significant effect.  Variable outside the social capital indicator which is income rate had no significant effect.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i2.2631

  8. North american natural gas supply forecast: the Hubbert method including the effects of institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D. B.; Kolodziej, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the U.S. and southern Canadian natural gas supply market is considered. An important model for oil and natural gas supply is the Hubbert curve. Not all regions of the world are producing oil or natural gas following a Hubbert curve, even when price and market conditions are accounted for. One reason is that institutions are affecting supply. We investigate the possible effects of oil and gas market institutions in North America on natural gas supply. A multi-cycle Hubbert curve with inflection points similar to the Soviet Union's oil production multi-cycle Hubbert curve is used to determine North American natural gas discovery rates and to analyze how market specific institutions caused the inflection points. In addition, we analyze the latest shale natural gas projections critically. While currently, unconventional resources of natural gas suggest that North American natural gas production will increase without bound, the model here suggests a peak in North American natural gas supplies could happen in 2013. (author)

  9. Collaborative Russian-US work in nuclear material protection, control and accounting at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, I.P.; Pshakin, G.M.; Mozhaev, V.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) is a leading research center under the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation. IPPE encompasses many installations and many specialists who perform fundamental and applied investigations in nuclear power and technology for the national nuclear program. IPPE has a key role in the national nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC ampersand A) system both as a nuclear facility and also as a training center for MPC ampersand A. As a participant in the US-Russian Laboratory-to-Laboratory Cooperative Program in MPC ampersand A, IPPE is conducting several tasks in collaboration with US Department of Energy national laboratories. The main goal of these tasks is the rapid improvement of MPC ampersand A at one of the most sensitive operating IPPE installations, the BFS critical facility, which has large numbers of fuel items containing highly enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium. After the completion of several test, evaluation, and demonstration tasks, it is hoped that the tested and adopted methods and procedures can be applied not only to the entire population of BFS fuel items, but also to other facilities at IPPE and other Russian nuclear institutes and operating facilities. The collaborative tasks cover seven areas: computerized nuclear material accounting, entry control and portals, item control and inventory, design evaluation and analysis, gamma and neutron assay, an integrated demonstration, and physical protection elements and test bed

  10. Total rewards and its effects on organisational commitment in higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin M. Mabaso

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Retaining staff with special endeavours within higher education institutions has become a top priority and crucial for any organisational productivity and competiveness. Attracting and retaining talent has remained a critical and complex issue for human capital management in organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of total rewards on organisational commitment measured by Total Rewards Scale and Organisational Commitment Questionnaire. Motivation for the study: There is paucity in research on the impact of total rewards on organisational commitment. Commitment of academic staff is significant as higher education institutions are influential in the development of a country. Research design, approach and method: This study employed the quantitative research method using a survey design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect survey data. A sample of 279 academic staff, which was the total population of participants, was selected for this study. Main findings: Results show a positive and significant correlation between elements of total rewards (performance management, 0.387; recognition, 0.335; talent development and career opportunities, 0.328; compensation, 0.231; benefits, 0.213; work–life balance, 0.024 and organisational commitment. A variance of 52.3% of total rewards explained organisational commitment. Performance management, compensation, benefits, recognition, talent development and career opportunities significantly predicted organisational commitment. However, work–life balance indicated a negative effect on organisational commitment. Practical managerial implications: Findings of the study has implications to managers because they have to encourage and promote total rewards in order to enforce talent retention within higher education institutions for the benefit of both institutions and employees. Contribution: The results are important to managers

  11. Institutional structure of the russian national innovative system: path dependence – effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Kamko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the effects of the postperestroika period of the 1990s on the existing national innovation system of Russia and to assess it the present stage of development. Methods the study used traditional methods of analysis synthesis description analogy systematization and historical approach and institutional analysis based on the categorical apparatus of institutional matrices theory. Results the article is an attempt to understand the problems of the modern national innovation system through the prism of the 1990s which became the cause of its imperfections. It is emphasized that the systemic problems of the economy in that period made innovative development impossible which led to the loss of intellectual capital of the country. The abrupt transition from a planned to a market economy without a smooth adjustment accompanied by the reduction in public spending on research led to the paralysis of innovation in the real sector of the economy and reduction of hightech industries. The negative influence was also produced by privatization destruction of production chains due to the collapse of the Soviet Union as well as domestic structural adjustment of the postSoviet economies. In this regard the authors investigated the peculiarities of the Russian innovation system from the standpoint of institutional approach including the problems of staff and investment resources deficit and the historical dominance of the state in the organization of scientific research. Activity of the state is studied on the basis of the Russian venture capital analysis. The conclusions are formulated about the centralization of the institutional structure of scientific research and development. The possible directions of the national innovation system improvement with a view to achieve more effective results are specified. nbsp Scientific novelty the diagnostics of the problems of modern national innovation system is made in the context of institutional

  12. [Assessment of malaria screening management in blood donation control in the French Military Blood Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, T; Garcia-Hejl, C; Bouzard, S; Roche, C; Sailliol, A; Martinaud, C

    2014-06-01

    The French Military Blood Institute is responsible for the entire blood supply chain in the French Armed Forces. Considering, the high exposition rate of military to malaria risk, blood donation screening of plasmodium infection must be as efficient as possible. The main aim of our study was to assess our malaria testing strategy based on a single Elisa test compared with a two-step strategy implying immunofluorescence testing as confirmation test. The second goal was to describe characteristic of malaria Elisa positive donors. We conducted a prospective study: every malaria Elisa positive test was implemented by immunofluorescence testing and demographical data were recorded as usual by our medical software. We showed a significant risk of malaria ELISA positive tests among donor born in endemic area and we estimate the number of abusively 3-year rejected donors. However, based on our estimations, the two-step strategy is not relevant since the number of additionally collected blood products will be low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. New institutional assemblages for borderless customs control in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, A.C.; Hofman, W.; Enserink, B.; Kotterink, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a use case proposing a Single Window implementation for borderless customs control in the European Union (EU). This EU e-Customs initiative proposes to combine trade facilitation from a customs perspective with secure trade based on supply chain risk analysis. To achieve

  14. National Parliamentary Control of EU Policy: The Challenge of Supranational Institutional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Olsen, Ingvild

    2015-01-01

    are likely to want to impose both police patrol and fire alarm control on the government. These arguments are investigated in the case of Denmark during the 50-year period since the first Danish application for EU membership in 1961, and considerable support is found for the authors’ hypotheses....

  15. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices and Poison Control Centers: Collaborating to Prevent Medication Errors and Unintentional Poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaida, Allen J

    2015-06-01

    This article provides an overview on the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), the only independent nonprofit organization in the USA devoted to the prevention of medication errors. ISMP developed the national Medication Errors Reporting Program (MERP) and investigates and analyzes errors in order to formulate recommendations to prevent further occurrences. ISMP works closely with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), drug manufacturers, professional organizations, and others to promote changes in package design, practice standards, and healthcare practitioner and consumer education. By collaborating with ISMP to share and disseminate information, Poison Control centers, emergency departments, and toxicologists can help decrease unintentional and accidental poisonings.

  16. Ride control of surface effect ships using distributed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgeir J. Sørensen

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A ride control system for active damping of heave and pitch accelerations of Surface Effect Ships (SES is presented. It is demonstrated that distributed effects that are due to a spatially varying pressure in the air cushion result in significant vertical vibrations in low and moderate sea states. In order to achieve a high quality human comfort and crew workability it is necessary to reduce these vibrations using a control system which accounts for distributed effects due to spatial pressure variations in the air cushion. A mathematical model of the process is presented, and collocated sensor and actuator pairs are used. The process stability is ensured using a controller with appropriate passivity properties. Sensor and actuator location is also discussed. The performance of the ride control system is shown by power spectra of the vertical accelerations obtained from full scale experiments with a 35 m SES.

  17. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REFINANCING CREDIT INSTITUTIONS BY THE BANK OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Gladkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to assessing the effectiveness of refi nancing credit institutions as a tool of monetary policy the Bank of Russia. The Bank of Russia has a policy on the basis of certain economic situations, to create an enabling environment for financial sector development, increasing the stability of commercial banks, and, in general, economic growth in the country. The refinancing rate, which in turn should influence the currency market in the country and the level of interest rates, can not perform their duties because of inefficiencies such as a refinancing.

  18. The effect of institutional trust on internet banking acceptance: Perspectives of South African banking retail customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maduku

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transactions carried out in the uncertain and impersonal conditions of the Internet require substantial levels of trust. Obtaining customers’ trust is therefore imperative to cultivating and nurturing long-lasting and profitable customer-firm relationships in online environments. Surprisingly however, there is currently a dearth of research on the effects of trust on customers’ acceptance of e-commerce in Africa. This paper investigates the effects of the components of institutional trust on perceptions of ease of use and usefulness, as well as attitudes towards use on customers’ intentions to use Internet banking services. An integrated research model based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was built and empirically tested using data obtained from 390 retail banking customers in South Africa. The results show that the proposed model possesses high explanatory capabilities as it could explain 61 per cent of the variance in Internet banking use intentions. The study results further show that situational normality is neither a salient determinant of customers’ attitudes towards use of internet banking nor their use intention, whereas structural assurance is. By examining the effects of institutional trust on the TAM’s variables, especially in a developing African country, this study does not only provide insights for managers in their efforts to achieve rapid adoption of Internet banking, but also contributes to the literature on the topic.

  19. Understanding the Effects of Users' Behaviors on Effectiveness of Different Exogenous Regulatory Common Pool Resource Management Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Dinar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tragedy of the commons is generally recognized as one of the possible destinies for common pool resources (CPRs). To avoid the tragedy of the commons and prolonging the life of CPRs, users may show different behavioral characteristics and use different rationales for CPR planning and management. Furthermore, regulators may adopt different strategies for sustainable management of CPRs. The effectiveness of different regulatory exogenous management institutions cannot be evaluated through conventional CPR models since they assume that either users base their behavior on individual rationality and adopt a selfish behavior (Nash behavior), or that the users seek the system's optimal solution without giving priority to their own interests. Therefore, conventional models fail to reliably predict the outcome of CPR problems in which parties may have a range of behavioral characteristics, putting them somewhere in between the two types of behaviors traditionally considered. This work examines the effectiveness of different regulatory exogenous CPR management institutions through a user-based model (as opposed to a system-based model). The new modeling framework allows for consideration of sensitivity of the results to different behavioral characteristics of interacting CPR users. The suggested modeling approach is applied to a benchmark groundwater management problem. Results indicate that some well-known exogenous management institutions (e.g. taxing) are ineffective in sustainable management of CPRs in most cases. Bankruptcy-based management can be helpful, but determination of the fair level of cutbacks remains challenging under this type of institution. Furthermore, some bankruptcy rules such as the Constrained Equal Award (CEA) method are more beneficial to wealthier users, failing to establish social justice. Quota-based and CPR status-based management perform as the most promising and robust regulatory exogenous institutions in prolonging the CPR's life and

  20. Effect of two Howard Hughes Medical Institute research training programs for medical students on the likelihood of pursuing research careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Di; Meyer, Roger E

    2003-12-01

    To assess the effect of Howard Hughes Medical Institute's (HHMI) two one-year research training programs for medical students on the awardees' research careers. Awardees of the HHMI Cloister Program who graduated between 1987 and 1995 and awardees of the HHMI Medical Fellows Program who graduated between 1991 and 1995 were compared with unsuccessful applicants to the programs and MD-PhD students who graduated during the same periods. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess research career outcomes while controlling for academic and demographic variables that could affect selection to the programs. Participation in both HHMI programs increased the likelihood of receiving National Institutes of Health postdoctoral support. Participation in the Cloister Program also increased the likelihood of receiving a faculty appointment with research responsibility at a medical school. In addition, awardees of the Medical Fellows Program were not significantly less likely than Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) and non-MSTP MD-PhD program participants to receive a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral award, and awardees of the Cloister Program were not significantly less likely than non-MSTP MD-PhD students to receive a faculty appointment with research responsibility. Women and underrepresented minority students were proportionally represented among awardees of the two HHMI programs whereas they were relatively underrepresented in MD-PhD programs. The one-year intensive research training supported by the HHMI training programs appears to provide an effective imprinting experience on medical students' research careers and to be an attractive strategy for training physician-scientists.

  1. THE PROBLEMS OF ACCOUNTING AND CONTROL OF PROPERTY OF BUDGET LOW VALUE IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Efimova S.B.; Sobachko A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Consideration of the treatment facilities, which are debited from the balance, but continue to participate in the activities of the institutio. We used a systematic approach to the study of the issues, analysis, synthesis, observation, group, etc. The article focuses on the issues arising in the course of accounting and control system development. The key issues in this respect are property valuation and classification, ways of entity identification and writing them off from offbalan...

  2. NATO Advanced Study Institute entitled Physics of Plasma-Wall Interactions in Controlled Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Behrisch, R; Physics of plasma-wall interactions in controlled fusion

    1986-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion is one of the possible candidates for long term energy sources which will be indispensable for our highly technological society. However, the physics and technology of controlled fusion are extremely complex and still require a great deal of research and development before fusion can be a practical energy source. For producing energy via controlled fusion a deuterium-tritium gas has to be heated to temperatures of a few 100 Million °c corres­ ponding to about 10 keV. For net energy gain, this hot plasma has to be confined at a certain density for a certain time One pro­ mising scheme to confine such a plasma is the use of i~tense mag­ netic fields. However, the plasma diffuses out of the confining magnetic surfaces and impinges on the surrounding vessel walls which isolate the plasma from the surrounding air. Because of this plasma wall interaction, particles from the plasma are lost to the walls by implantation and are partially reemitted into the plasma. In addition, wall...

  3. The Impact Discounts and the Price-Quality Effect Have on the Choice of an Institution of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Charles J., Jr.; Bingham, Frank G., Jr.; Notarantonio, Elaine M.; Murray, Keith

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 303 potential college students and their parents found that high price and low price institutions are evaluated higher on quality attributes than are moderately priced institutions. Further, discounts (such as financial aid) were found to have little effect on the attendance decision. Implications for the pricing strategies used by…

  4. Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Physical and Cognitive Development of Children in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…

  5. Developing a measure for student perspectives on institutional effectiveness in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Ayuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study outlines institutional effectiveness (IE in higher education (HE and interrogates its underlying elements from a student perspective. Following a review of contemporary perspectives on student educational outcomes, the study identifies and explores the importance of four pertinent indicators of IE in the context of a South African (SA higher education institution (HEI.   Research purpose: This study aimed to explore the structural validity and reliability of the Student Educational Outcomes Effectiveness Questionnaire (SEEQ, administered to students at an SA HEI, collecting data on their perceptions of IE.   Motivation for the study: Institutional effectiveness is a contested concept in HE and several approaches to define it, using various sets of underpinning elements, can be found. The conceptualisation and measuring of IE within the SA HE sector is a hugely neglected area of research. This study therefore attempted to delineate and to gauge IE, utilising the perceptions and preferences of students at an SA HEI.   Research design, approach and method: Data for this study were collected using a self-selection sample (N = 807 of students from four schools at the selected HEI. Reliability and exploratory factor analyses were performed to explore the internal consistency and structural validity of the above-mentioned SEEQ.   Main findings: The reliability of SEEQ is deemed to be acceptable and the validity of the four theoretical constructs (or dimensions hypothesised in respect of IE from a student perspective were supported.   Practical/managerial implications: Preliminary empirical evidence suggests that SEEQ could be employed in a cautious manner by HEIs (especially in SA, with a view to gauge IE, as well as to promoting the scholarship and management of institutional performance and student success.   Contribution or value-add: This article presents a multidimensional approach to the depiction and

  6. The Effects of Organizational Conflicts on Team Effectiveness in a Malaysian Statutory Body Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd, Idaya Husna; Omar, Muhammad Khalil; Asri, Tengku Nural Tengku

    2016-01-01

    Working in teams is usually expected to improve organizational effectiveness; however, there are several challenges that would affect team effectiveness. While team members are usually empowered to find a solution to a problem, this raises the question of effectiveness of the team itself, especially in terms of conflict that usually occurs when working in teams. Conflict was suggested to be positive and useful for organizations, but also provides negative effects, interferes with team perform...

  7. Project-Based Emissions Trading. The Impact of Institutional Arrangements on Cost-Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerdman, E.; Van der Gaast, W.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the institutional arrangement (or: design) of Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has a decisive impact on their cost-effectiveness. We illustrate our arguments by statistically analyzing the costs from 94 Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) pilot phase projects as well as by adjusting these data on the basis of simple mathematical formulas. These calculations explicitly take into account the institutional differences between JI (sinks, no banking) and the CDM (banking, no sinks) under the Kyoto Protocol and also show the possible effects on credit costs of alternative design options. However, our numerical illustrations should be viewed with caution, because AIJ is only to a limited extent representative of potential future JI and CDM projects and because credit costs are not credit prices. Some of the main figures found in this study are: an average cost figure per unit of emission reduction for AIJ projects of 46 dollar per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent ($/Mg CO 2 -eq), an average potential JI credit cost figure which is lowered to 37 $/Mg CO 2 -eq by introducing banking and an average of 6 $/Mg CO 2 -eq per credit for potential low-cost CDM projects which includes sinks. However, at CoP6 in November 2000 in The Hague (The Netherlands), the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) did not (yet) reach consensus on the institutional details of the project-based mechanisms, such as the possible arrangement of early JI action or the inclusion of sinks under the CDM. 55 refs

  8. The effect of institutional development on the growth of Brazilian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gledson de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the determinants of firm's growth in Brazil. In particular it investigates the individual characteristics of firm that determine its growth; how institutional development affects firm's performance, and how institutional development differently affects small and large firms. We find that, consistently with the learning models, growth is decreasing on age and negatively correlated to size. As expected, firms that belong to an economic group, export and maintain operations abroad grow faster. Growth is negatively correlated to profitability. Furthermore, we observe that shortcomings in institutional development, when measured in terms of corruption, inefficiency of the judicial system and lack of financial development, have a negative impact on firms' growth. This negative impact of corruption and inefficiency of the judicial system is stronger for smaller firms. Large firms benefit the most with financial development. Overall our results indicate that improvement in institutions can be an important mechanism to promote growth. Furthermore, institutional underdevelopment has the perverse effect of promoting concentration.Este artigo foca nos determinantes da taxa de crescimento das firmas no Brasil. Em particular, investigamos as características individuais das empresas que determinam o seu crescimento, como o desenvolvimento institucional afeta a performance da firma e como o desenvolvimento institucional afeta de maneira diversa pequenas e grandes empresas. Nossos resultados, consistentemente com os modelos de crescimento, indicam que taxas de crescimento decrescem com a idade e tamanho da empresa. Conforme o esperado, empresas que pertencem a um grupo econômico, exportam ou mantêm operações no exterior crescem mais rapidamente. Crescimento é negativamente correlacionado com lucratividade. Observamos também que fraco desenvolvimento institucional, mensurado em termos de corrupção e ineficiência do sistema judici

  9. Tracking investments by financial institutions in tobacco companies (2007-2016 - what tobacco control advocates need to know and do about it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Lal

    2018-03-01

    Definition of socially responsible investments within the perspective of screening tobacco investments is perceived variably by financial institutions. Also in the absence of a watchdog institution and few disincentives for truant behaviour, investors continue to invest tobacco companies. Tobacco control advocates need to monitor investments made by large lending banks and financial institutions in tobacco industry and ensure that banks which have committed to SRI codes conform to them.

  10. Institutional blood glucose monitoring system for hospitalized patients: an integral component of the inpatient glucose control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Mona; Landau, Zohar; Matas, Zipora; Wainstein, Julio

    2009-09-01

    The ability to measure patient blood glucose levels at bedside in hospitalized patients and to transmit those values to a central database enables and facilitates glucose control and follow-up and is an integral component in the care of the hospitalized diabetic patient. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of an institutional glucometer employed in the framework of the Program for the Treatment of the Hospitalized Diabetic Patient (PTHDP) at E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel. As part of the program to facilitate glucose control in hospitalized diabetic patients, an institutional glucometer was employed that permits uploading of data from stands located in each inpatient department and downloading of that data to a central hospital-wide database. Blood glucose values from hospitalized diabetic patients were collected from August 2007 to October 2008. The inpatient glucose control program was introduced gradually beginning January 2008. During the follow-up period, more than 150,000 blood glucose measures were taken. Mean glucose was 195.7 +/- 99.12 mg/dl during the follow-up period. Blood glucose values declined from 206 +/- 105 prior to PTHDP (August 2007-December 2007) to 186 +/- 92 after its inception (January 2008-October 2008). The decline was associated significantly with time (r = 0.11, p < 0.0001). The prevalence of blood glucose values lower than 60 mg/dl was 1.48% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36%] prior to vs 1.55% (95% CI 0.37%) following implementation of the PTHDP. Concomitantly, a significant increase in the proportion of blood glucose values between 80 and 200 mg/dl was observed, from 55.5% prior to program initiation vs 61.6% after program initiation (p < 0.0001). The present study was designed to observe changes in institution-wide glucose values following implementation of the PTHDP. Information was extracted from the glucometer system itself. Because the aforementioned study was not a clinical trial, we cannot rule out

  11. ["Podmoskovie"--health resort institution of the Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation celebrates the 20th anniversary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar', I V; Minaev, D Iu; Nasretdinov, I N; Petukhov, A E

    2014-12-01

    The article is dedicated to the 20th anniversary of the Federal government health resort institution of the Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation (FGI "Health resort "Podmoskovie" of the Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation). In this health resort were developed treatment programs for patients with abnormalities of the cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive systems; methods of ultrasonic, laser and magnetic therapy, atmospheric hypoxic, herbal medicine, speleotherapy are employed. Widely used natural healing factors of Ruza district of the Moscow region such as climate therapy, treatment with mineral water group of X type of Smolensk from own wells and balneo-mudtherapy. Over the past 20 years 70 000 patients received an appropriate treatment in this health resort.

  12. What is the radiotherapy quality control program (PQRT) of the National Cancer Institute - Rio de Janeiro/Brazil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos de Araujo, A.M.; Viegas, C.C.B.; Salomon de Souza, R. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Praca Cruz Vermelha No. 23, Centro 20230-130, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. e-mail: amcampos@inca.gov.br; tld@inca.gov.br; salomon@inca.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The National Cancer Institute (INCA) Quality Program in Radiotherapy (PQRT) started in 1999 as a 3 years pilot program with only 33 participant institutions. Due to its positive results, it has been integrated to the permanent INCA programs and its activities extended to all the radiotherapy services where patients from the National Health System (SUS) are treated. They are about 150 services (90% of all the available Brazilian radiotherapy services). The PQRT activities objective is to allow that radiotherapeutic treatments can be carried out just like planned, according to international quality and safety standards. The PQRT main activities are: on-site quality control audits, postal TLD audits in reference and non-reference conditions, training and development of research projects. The on-site quality control audits have already evaluated 75 teletherapy units (37 Co-60 and 38 linear accelerators), performing dosimetric, electrical, mechanical and safety tests. The Postal TLD audits used, till 2002, for the 33 participants, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) system for reference conditions. Five audits have been performed with this simple system. Since 2003, the PQRT postal TLD audit program is using its own system, developed for reference and non-reference conditions. This new system has been already applied to 58 beams (18 Co-60 and 40 linacs). In total, in reference conditions, PQRT has performed 400 audits in reference conditions (190 Co-60 and 210 linacs). Eighteen courses attended to the participants, covering their main practical problems. In parallel, some research studies have been carried out.

  13. What is the radiotherapy quality control program (PQRT) of the National Cancer Institute - Rio de Janeiro/Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos de Araujo, A.M.; Viegas, C.C.B.; Salomon de Souza, R.

    2004-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (INCA) Quality Program in Radiotherapy (PQRT) started in 1999 as a 3 years pilot program with only 33 participant institutions. Due to its positive results, it has been integrated to the permanent INCA programs and its activities extended to all the radiotherapy services where patients from the National Health System (SUS) are treated. They are about 150 services (90% of all the available Brazilian radiotherapy services). The PQRT activities objective is to allow that radiotherapeutic treatments can be carried out just like planned, according to international quality and safety standards. The PQRT main activities are: on-site quality control audits, postal TLD audits in reference and non-reference conditions, training and development of research projects. The on-site quality control audits have already evaluated 75 teletherapy units (37 Co-60 and 38 linear accelerators), performing dosimetric, electrical, mechanical and safety tests. The Postal TLD audits used, till 2002, for the 33 participants, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) system for reference conditions. Five audits have been performed with this simple system. Since 2003, the PQRT postal TLD audit program is using its own system, developed for reference and non-reference conditions. This new system has been already applied to 58 beams (18 Co-60 and 40 linacs). In total, in reference conditions, PQRT has performed 400 audits in reference conditions (190 Co-60 and 210 linacs). Eighteen courses attended to the participants, covering their main practical problems. In parallel, some research studies have been carried out

  14. Issues and considerations on the development of an institutional controls policy for uranium mines within Northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurdson, B.E.; Bilokury, M.R.; Snider, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Institutional control of a mine site is required to ensure long-term public safety and environmental protection once responsibility for a decommissioned uranium mine site reverts back to the Crown. During the exploration, development, operation and decommissioning phases of a uranium mine's life cycle, public safety and environmental protection are ensured through the Federal and Provincial Environmental Assessment Review process, regulatory permitting and compliance monitoring by the province. However, at present, there is no clear provincial policy with respect to a proponent's application for release from a reclaimed and decommissioned site, and the resulting provincial responsibility for the long-term management and maintenance of the site once a release has been granted. Another policy issue has been identified with respect to the long-term institutional control of previously abandoned uranium mine sites. A number of issues are being considered by the Government of Saskatchewan in developing a policy which addresses the needs of the people of Saskatchewan and which is consistent with the intent of the commitments made by Canada through its ratification of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. (author)

  15. Using Habitat Equivalency Analysis to Assess the Cost Effectiveness of Restoration Outcomes in Four Institutional Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scemama, Pierre; Levrel, Harold

    2016-01-01

    At the national level, with a fixed amount of resources available for public investment in the restoration of biodiversity, it is difficult to prioritize alternative restoration projects. One way to do this is to assess the level of ecosystem services delivered by these projects and to compare them with their costs. The challenge is to derive a common unit of measurement for ecosystem services in order to compare projects which are carried out in different institutional contexts having different goals (application of environmental laws, management of natural reserves, etc.). This paper assesses the use of habitat equivalency analysis (HEA) as a tool to evaluate ecosystem services provided by restoration projects developed in different institutional contexts. This tool was initially developed to quantify the level of ecosystem services required to compensate for non-market impacts coming from accidental pollution in the US. In this paper, HEA is used to assess the cost effectiveness of several restoration projects in relation to different environmental policies, using case studies based in France. Four case studies were used: the creation of a market for wetlands, public acceptance of a port development project, the rehabilitation of marshes to mitigate nitrate loading to the sea, and the restoration of streams in a protected area. Our main conclusion is that HEA can provide a simple tool to clarify the objectives of restoration projects, to compare the cost and effectiveness of these projects, and to carry out trade-offs, without requiring significant amounts of human or technical resources.

  16. Direct assessment as a measure of institutional effectiveness in a dental hygiene distance education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Jodi L

    2014-10-01

    This ten-year, longitudinal examination of a dental hygiene distance education (DE) program considered student performance on standard benchmark assessments as direct measures of institutional effectiveness. The aim of the study was to determine if students face-to-face in a classroom with an instructor performed differently from their counterparts in a DE program, taking courses through the alternative delivery system of synchronous interactive television (ITV). This study used students' grade point averages and National Board Dental Hygiene Examination scores to assess the impact of ITV on student learning, filling a crucial gap in current evidence. The study's research population consisted of 189 students who graduated from one dental hygiene program between 1997 and 2006. One hundred percent of the institution's data files for these students were used: 117 students were face-to-face with the instructor, and seventy-two received instruction through the ITV system. The results showed that, from a year-by-year perspective, no statistically significant performance differences were apparent between the two student groups when t-tests were used for data analysis. The DE system examined was considered effective for delivering education if similar performance outcomes were the evaluation criteria used for assessment.

  17. NATO Advanced Research Institute on Adaptive Control of Ill-Defined Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rissland, Edwina; Arbib, Michael

    1984-01-01

    There are some types of complex systems that are built like clockwork, with well-defined parts that interact in well-defined ways, so that the action of the whole can be precisely analyzed and anticipated with accuracy and precision. Some systems are not themselves so well-defined, but they can be modeled in ways that are like trained pilots in well-built planes, or electrolyte balance in healthy humans. But there are many systems for which that is not true; and among them are many whose understanding and control we would value. For example, the model for the trained pilot above fails exactly where the pilot is being most human; that is, where he is exercising the highest levels of judgment, or where he is learning and adapting to new conditions. Again, sometimes the kinds of complexity do not lead to easily analyzable models at all; here we might include most economic systems, in all forms of societies. There are several factors that seem to contribute to systems being hard to model, understand, or control. ...

  18. Moderating effects of leader-member exchange (LMX) on job burnout in dietitians and chefs of institutional foodservice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate job burnout and leader-member exchange (LMX) levels as well as to evaluate buffering effects of LMX on burnout among dietitians and chefs at institutional foodservices. Hypotheses were proposed based on the Job Demands-Resources model and LMX theory. The study population consisted of dietitians and chefs who were in charge of managing unit operations in a nationwide contract management company. Positive/negative affectivity, workload, job burnout, and LMX scales that had been validated in previous research were adopted. A total of 552 questionnaires were distributed and 154 responses were returned. Results indicated that respondents' burnout levels were moderate and emotional exhaustion was greater than cynicism. In terms of LMX, the surveyed dietitians and chefs showed higher respect toward their supervisors than loyalty. When positive affectivity and negative affectivity were controlled, workload influenced emotional exhaustion and professional efficacy significantly. With affectivity and workload controlled, however, LMX did not influence any dimensions of burnout. The moderating effect of LMX on the relationship between workload and cynicism was significant. That is, the effect of workload on cynicism was weak if the dietitians and chefs perceived the relationship with their supervisor positively. Based on the findings and literature reviewed, how to mitigate job burnout among foodservice managers is discussed. PMID:21487501

  19. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 15: Internal Aid Office Management and Institutional Quality Control. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 15th in a 17-module self-instructional course on student financial aid administration (designed for novice financial aid administrators and other institutional personnel) focuses on internal aid office management and institutional quality control. The course provides a systematic introduction to the management of federal financial aid programs…

  20. Quality controls in two mammography of the Institute of Oncology Angel H. Roffo - C.A.B.A - Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirchio, R.; Sánchez, H.; Lerman, Y.; Ángel H. Roffo, Av. San Martín 5481 - C1417DTO, C.A.B.A, Buenos Aires (Argentina))" data-affiliation=" (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Oncología Ángel H. Roffo, Av. San Martín 5481 - C1417DTO, C.A.B.A, Buenos Aires (Argentina))" >Casal, M.

    2013-01-01

    National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) under the Technical Cooperation Project with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) “ARG/6/013 Implementing a Dosimetric System in Diagnostic Radiology to Minimize Doses Received by Patients” for the biennium 2012-2013, is carrying on courses for physicians, technicians and physicist working on radiodiagnost and studies about quality control in mammography equipment. The goal of this project is minimizing the dose received by patients who undergo diagnostic studies X-rays. The first controls were performed at the Institute of Oncology Angel H. Roffo of C.A.B.A – Buenos Aires. The mammographs used were: the digital FujiFilm Amulet and ther hybrid General Electric (GE) Senographe DMR, out of order. The latter was used to adjust protocols and equipment. Quality controls of mamography equipments were done according to the following IAEA documents: Technical Reports Series (TRS) N° 457, Technical Document (TECDOC) -1517 and IAEA Human Health Series N° 17. Among the checks performed are mentioned: mechanical (visual inspection), compression, compression thickness, mean glandular dose for Mo-Mo 28 kV and Mo-Rh 28 kV, repeatability and linearity, half-value layer, accuracy and repeatability voltage, leakage radiation and focus- tray distance. The Radcal calibrated equipment, used for the measurements was provided by the IAEA as part of the project. They are: reader, chamber for mammography, chamber for leakage, voltage meter and other elements such as aluminum plates. In addition, dosimeters TLDs rods 700 and 200 of the Personal Dosimetry Laboratory - CNEA, and dosimetry films of the Medical University - Personal Dosimetry Laboratory and Radiological Protection - were calibrated in the GE mammograph in Mo-Mo for the incident air kerma values of 2.28, 4.58, 6.38, 9.15, 10.96, 14.71 and 18.34 mGy. For both TLDs dosemeters, the effective energy response has been studied for: 14.4, 15, 15.4, 15.7 y 16.1 kev

  1. Infection control knowledge and practice: A cross-sectional survey on dental laboratories in dental institutes of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sakshi; Rani, Sapna; Garg, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of dental laboratory technicians regarding infection control and modes of infection control employed by them. A self-assessment questionnaire-based survey was carried out among dental technicians to assess the knowledge and practice of infection control in dental laboratories. Survey instrument containing 16 questions were randomly distributed to 70 dental colleges of North India regarding knowledge of infection control methods and infection control practised in laboratories. Data were collected and analyzed. The response showed that 30.76% of dental technicians receive 30-50 or more than 50 impressions in a week. About 96.15% of the technicians used a plastic bag to carry impressions. Twenty-five percent of the dental technicians were aware of infection control protocol. Fifty-five percent of the technicians received impressions while wearing gloves and 61.53% of the institutes had a separate receiving area. Nearly 71.15% of the technicians communicate with the doctor regarding the disinfection of impression received in the laboratory. Almost 30.76% of the dental technicians disinfect all the impressions and 67.30% technicians use immersion for disinfection of impressions. Only 38.46% responded that they immerse impressions for 10 min for disinfection. About 73.07% use gloves, 90.38% use mouth masks, 57.69% wear eye shields, and 88.46% wear aprons while working. Nearly 78.84% of the technicians received vaccination against hepatitis B virus. Almost 69.23% of the technicians change pumice slurry after regular intervals, and 75% do not add any disinfectant. Nearly 59.61% of technicians disinfect the prostheses before sending it to the clinic, and 42.30% disinfect them by immersion technique. About disposal of waste, 80.76% said that they dispose the waste properly. To summarize, most of the technicians were not aware of basic infection control protocols.

  2. Black Hats and White Hats: The Effect of Organizational Culture and Institutional Identity on the Twenty-third Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koskinas, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    .... Although brief, the Twenty-third Air Force's experience provides sufficient data for a thorough analysis of the effect of organizational culture and institutional agendas on the evolution of a nascent organization...

  3. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Technology Control Center, report to the Steering committee. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report describes test for air pollution control of flue gas and mercury as a result of coal combustion. The NYSEG Kintigh Station provided flue gas to the Center 100% of the time during this performance period. As the Kintigh Station operated with a variety of coals, fluctuations in the Center`s inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations were experienced. Safety training for the month was conducted by the O&M Superintendent, Maintenance Supervisor and Shift Supervisors. {open_quotes}Personal Protective Equipment{close_quotes} was the topic of the month. Inspections of the ECTC Facility and safety equipment (SCR air-packs, fire extinguishers, etc.) were completed and recorded this month. All systems were found to be in good condition. By continuing to emphasize safe work habits at the Center, we have raised the total number of days without a lost time injury to 1426 as of 4/30/96. The monthly safety meeting with the NYSEG Kintigh Station was held on April 30, 1996 with both NYSEG and ECTC representatives. The topics of discussion included an overview of NYSEG`s upcoming alternate fuel burn, an update on plant staffing changes, and a discussion of future safety training activities.

  4. Effect of Board Management and Governmental Model on Zakat Payers’ Trust on Zakat Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlane K Ghani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Trust among zakat payers is important as it contributes to the success of zakat institutions. Zakat payers, are reluctant to pay zakat through zakat institutions due to lack of trust. This study examines whether perceived board management and governmental model may influence zakat payers’ trust on zakat institutions. Using questionnaire survey on 184 zakat payers, this study shows that perceived board management influences zakat payers’ trust on zakat institutions. By contrast, perceived governmental model does not influence zakat payers’ trust on zakat institutions. These findings imply that zakat institutions should focus on strengthening the efficiency of their institutions to increase the trust level among zakat payers. In doing so, the zakat payers are driven to pay zakat diligently, thereby ensuring the sustainability of zakat institutions particularly in developing countries such as Malaysia.

  5. Japan's Orientation towards Foreign Investments: Inertia Effects and Driving Force of Institutional Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Kshetri; Ralf Bebenroth

    2012-01-01

    We use an institutional perspective to develop a framework for understanding the contexts, mechanisms and processes associated with institutions and institutional changes related to foreign investment in Japan. We examine power dynamics and relational boundaries between diverse actors and analyze why and how some components of institutions have changed and others have not. Also explored in this paper are the conflicting discourses that have been raised in regards to the participation of forei...

  6. Effect of Board Management and Governmental Model on Zakat Payers’ Trust on Zakat Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Erlane K Ghani; Asmah Abdul Aziz; Sakinah Mohamed Tajularifin; Nahla Samargandi

    2018-01-01

    Trust among zakat payers is important as it contributes to the success of zakat institutions. Zakat payers, are reluctant to pay zakat through zakat institutions due to lack of trust. This study examines whether perceived board management and governmental model may influence zakat payers’ trust on zakat institutions. Using questionnaire survey on 184 zakat payers, this study shows that perceived board management influences zakat payers’ trust on zakat institution...

  7. The Effects of Army and Air Force Institutional Theories of Victory on Operation Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    an institutional theory of victory.22 The categorization of rules, norms, and culture is somewhat artificial, but it remains useful for examining...rationality that constitutes an institutional theory of victory using the framework provided by Martel above. Chapter 3 seeks to create an argument...practical action,” but for the purposes of military institutions, this thesis refers to this concept as a theory of victory.125 The institutional

  8. The moral agency of institutions: effectively using expert nurses to support patient autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Sonya

    2017-08-01

    Patient autonomy-with an emphasis on informed consent and the right to refuse treatment-is a cornerstone of modern bioethics. Within discussions about patient autonomy, feminist bioethicists have argued for a relational approach to autonomy. Under a relational framework, we must look beyond the individual moment of choice to include the role relationships and specific contexts can play in supporting or undermining autonomy. Given the day-to-day interactions they have with patients, nurses play a significant role in helping patients understand the nature of their illnesses and make truly informed decisions. However, the skills of expert nurses also support patient autonomy in more subtle ways. Specifically, nurses develop skills of attunement that help them to find subtle ways to support patient autonomy. However, in order to effectively do this, nurses need institutions that support their professional autonomy. In this paper, I look at the ways nurses have been inhibited in their professional autonomy both as a profession and as individual practitioners. I argue that turning our attention to institutions and the role they play in supporting or undermining nurses' autonomy can help promote nurses' professional autonomy and thereby enhance patient autonomy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. The effect of a bidirectional exchange on faculty and institutional development in a global health collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Bodnar

    Full Text Available The MUYU Collaboration is a partnership between Mulago Hospital-Makerere University College of Health Sciences (M-MakCHS, in Kampala, Uganda, and the Yale University School of Medicine. The program allows Ugandan junior faculty to receive up to 1 year of subspecialty training within the Yale hospital system. The authors performed a qualitative study to assess the effects of this program on participants, as well as on M-MakCHS as an institution.Data was collected via semi-structured interviews with exchange participants. Eight participants (67% of those eligible as of 4/2012 completed interviews. Study authors performed data analysis using standard qualitative data analysis techniques.Analysis revealed themes addressing the benefits, difficulties, and opportunities for improvement of the program. Interviewees described the main benefit of the program as its effect on their fund of knowledge. Participants also described positive effects on their clinical practice and on medical education at M-MakCHS. Most respondents cited financial issues as the primary difficulty of participation. Post-participation difficulties included resource limitations and confronting longstanding institutional and cultural habits. Suggestions for programmatic improvement included expansion of the program, ensuring appropriate management of pre-departure expectations, and refinement of program mentoring structures. Participants also voiced interest in expanding post-exchange programming to ensure both the use of and the maintenance of new capacity.The MUYU Collaboration has benefitted both program participants and M-MakCHS, though these benefits remain difficult to quantify. This study supports the assertion that resource-poor to resource-rich exchanges have the potential to provide significant benefits to the resource-poor partner.

  10. THE CURRENT INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL SUPERVISION INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS EFFECTIVENESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA Ovidiu; CAPRARU Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    The international financial turmoil rise challenges in evaluating and choosing the optimal financial supervision institutional arrangements in many countries. Our study focuses on the financial supervision institutional architecture and its effectiveness in the European Union during the international financial crisis.We evaluated the effectiveness of the financial supervisory framework by groups of countries, categorised according to the supervisory model. Our analysis demonstrates that the p...

  11. Instrumentation and control activities at the electric power research institute to support computerized support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most nuclear power plants in the United States are operating with their original analog I and C equipment. This equipment requires increasing maintenance efforts to sustain systems performance. Decreasing availability of replacement parts and support organization for analog technology accentuate obsolescence problems and resultant O and M cost increases. Modern technology, especially digital systems, offers improved functionality, performance, and reliability; solutions to obsolescence of equipment; reduction in O and M costs; and the potential to enhance safety. Digital systems, including computerized support systems, with their inherent advantages will be implemented only if reliable and cost-effective implementation and licensing acceptance is achieved and if the upgraded systems supports reduced power production costs. EPRI and its member utilities are working together under the Integrated I and C Upgrade Initiative to address I and C issues. (author). 23 refs

  12. The effects and control of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; ionising radiation (alpha and beta particles, gamma- and X-radiation, neutrons, half-life, sources of radiation); biological effects; risk estimates (somatic) (early effects, delayed effects); risk estimates (hereditary); control of radiation; risk estimates (accidents). (U.K.)

  13. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center. Report to the Steering Committee, November 1995. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Pilot High Velocity (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurement studies involving the EPA Draft Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger solutions. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber system was utilized in the TER test configuration this month while the 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber unit remained in a state of cold-standby. A monthly inspection was conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems in the SCR building. These inspections will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff each month.

  14. [Effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use: The view of experts and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Cristian; del Moral, Gonzalo; Musitu, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Juan Carlos; John, Bev

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain the views of a sample of adolescents and experts on adolescence, family, school, local policies and media, regarding the effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use. Four educational centers in the province of Seville. Head office of the Alcohol and Society Foundation in Madrid. Qualitative study using the method proposed by Grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Data were collected from 10 discussion groups guided by semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using Atlas ti 5 software. A total of 32 national experts and 40 adolescents of both sexes aged 15 to 20 years living in the province of Seville, selected by theoretical intentional sampling. The experts believed that most of the evaluated preventive actions were effective, while adolescents disputed the preventive impact of most of them. Adolescents proposed actions focused on the reduction of supply of alcohol. Experts proposed a mixed model as the most effective strategy to prevent alcohol consumption in adolescents, combining supply and demand reduction policies, depending on specific short and long term objectives. We have obtained, not only an overview of what is working (or not) from the view of adolescents and experts, but also the key points that should be taken into account for designing effective prevention policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect Of Leadership Behavior On The Performance Of Micro-Financial Institutions In Kakamega County.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisiangani Benson Walela

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leadership behavior is key factor to performance of any organization. It is a human factor that enables a leader to influence the subordinates towards a given goal. Despite the increased emphasis on strong leadership behavior in teams there is a lack of integration concerning the relationship between leader behaviors and performance outcomes. Use of task-focused behaviors is related to perceived team effectiveness and productivity. The problem manifests itself in multiple ways in which senior managers are commonly in the wrong position relative to their strengths and therefore the positions remain vacant. There is little middle level management talent which in turn leads to a high turnover at all levels. This study sought to find out how leadership behavior affects the performance of micro-finance institutions. The study adopted a correlational study design which helped to establish the associations between and among the study variables.

  16. Open Educational Resources as a Tool to Improve Language Education Effectiveness in the Russian Higher Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Sidorenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt of Russian universities to move forward to the leading positions in the world rankings has resulted in some initiatives to enhance their activities on the market of education services. Under these conditions, foreign language proficiency is no longer a luxury and it is becoming an important tool to implement goals of university development. In this regard, new methods and techniques of foreign language teaching are highly demanded, which would significantly improve the language competency of both students and faculty members. A search for effective methods to enhance foreign language teaching makes analyze Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs open educational platforms and consider an opportunity for these platforms to be integrated into the existing system of foreign language teaching in Russian higher education institutions. Based on the research findings, the author concludes that it is irrational to use the resources as embedded components without significant adjustment to the conditions existing in the current higher education system.

  17. Growth, institutions and power groups. The forgotten effects in Sinaloa, 1994-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Avilés Ochoa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a non-numerical model, this research identifies the relations of causality revealed by omissions of the power groups that are in charge of political and economic institutions in Sinaloa, and which account for the weak local economic growth. This contribution lies in the use of a methodology that evaluates economic performance based on the subjective assessment of experts’ thinking, who are members of the power elite. For this purpose, postulates of the fuzzy subset theory and the forgotten effects model are introduced. The results suggest that the causes of technological backwardness are a fragile democracy and a weak citizen participation, which reduce growth potential by accumulating degrees of omission. Deficient investment in human capital, technology and research and development leads to insufficient technical progress, educational backwardness, technological stagnation and crime.

  18. Cost-Effective Control Systems for Colleges and Universities: A New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Loren Loomis; Dougherty, Jennifer Dowling

    This report addresses the issue of maintaining adequate controls within a streamlined or restructured financial affairs environment at an institution of higher education. It presents a new paradigm for control structures designed to more effectively meet administrators' needs--both in terms of cost and risk management. The first section: (1)…

  19. 78 FR 54677 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of Investigation and Scheduling of Hearing... investigation No. 332-543, Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy... supporting Indian domestic industries, and the effect that those barriers have on the U.S. economy and U.S...

  20. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Relativistic and Electron Correlation Effects in Molecules and Solids

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on "R@lativistic and Electron Correlation Effects in Molecules and Solids", co-sponsored by Simon Fraser University (SFU) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) was held Aug 10- 21, 1992 at the University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, Canada. A total of 90 lecturers and students with backgrounds in Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and various interdisciplinary subjects attended the ASI. In my proposal submitted to NATO for financial support for this ASI, I pointed out that a NATO ASI on the effects of relativity in many-electron systems was held ten years ago, [See G.L. Malli, (ed) Relativistic Effects in Atoms, Molecules and Solids, Plenum Press, Vol B87, New York, 1983]. Moreover, at a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on advanced methods for molecular electronic structure "an assessment of state-of­ the-art of Electron Correlation ... " was carried out [see C.E. Dykstra, (ed), Advanced Theories and Computational Approa...

  1. Cost effective material control and accountability training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaux, J.J.; Shull, L.M.; Salizzoni, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    DOE Order 5630.15, ''Safeguards and Security Training Program'' is being implemented at the Savannah River Site within the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's material control and accountability program. This paper reviews the development of a material control and accountability task analysis, the development of specific material control and accountability courses, and the cost effective and innovative strategies employed to implement the training program. The paper also discusses how the site material control and accountability policies and procedures are incorporated into the Westinghouse Savannah River Company training program to ensure that personnel receive the most current information

  2. Controlling attribute effect in linear regression

    KAUST Repository

    Calders, Toon; Karim, Asim A.; Kamiran, Faisal; Ali, Wasif Mohammad; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2013-01-01

    In data mining we often have to learn from biased data, because, for instance, data comes from different batches or there was a gender or racial bias in the collection of social data. In some applications it may be necessary to explicitly control this bias in the models we learn from the data. This paper is the first to study learning linear regression models under constraints that control the biasing effect of a given attribute such as gender or batch number. We show how propensity modeling can be used for factoring out the part of the bias that can be justified by externally provided explanatory attributes. Then we analytically derive linear models that minimize squared error while controlling the bias by imposing constraints on the mean outcome or residuals of the models. Experiments with discrimination-aware crime prediction and batch effect normalization tasks show that the proposed techniques are successful in controlling attribute effects in linear regression models. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Controlling attribute effect in linear regression

    KAUST Repository

    Calders, Toon

    2013-12-01

    In data mining we often have to learn from biased data, because, for instance, data comes from different batches or there was a gender or racial bias in the collection of social data. In some applications it may be necessary to explicitly control this bias in the models we learn from the data. This paper is the first to study learning linear regression models under constraints that control the biasing effect of a given attribute such as gender or batch number. We show how propensity modeling can be used for factoring out the part of the bias that can be justified by externally provided explanatory attributes. Then we analytically derive linear models that minimize squared error while controlling the bias by imposing constraints on the mean outcome or residuals of the models. Experiments with discrimination-aware crime prediction and batch effect normalization tasks show that the proposed techniques are successful in controlling attribute effects in linear regression models. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Coauthorship and institutional collaborations on cost-effectiveness analyses: a systematic network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrán Catalá-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA has been promoted as an important research methodology for determining the efficiency of healthcare technology and guiding medical decision-making. Our aim was to characterize the collaborative patterns of CEA conducted over the past two decades in Spain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic analysis was carried out with the information obtained through an updated comprehensive literature review and from reports of health technology assessment agencies. We identified CEAs with outcomes expressed as a time-based summary measure of population health (e.g. quality-adjusted life-years or disability-adjusted life-years, conducted in Spain and published between 1989 and 2011. Networks of coauthorship and institutional collaboration were produced using PAJEK software. One-hundred and thirty-one papers were analyzed, in which 526 authors and 230 institutions participated. The overall signatures per paper index was 5.4. Six major groups (one with 14 members, three with 7 members and two with 6 members were identified. The most prolific authors were generally affiliated with the private-for-profit sector (e.g. consulting firms and the pharmaceutical industry. The private-for-profit sector maintains profuse collaborative networks including public hospitals and academia. Collaboration within the public sector (e.g. healthcare administration and primary care was weak and fragmented. CONCLUSIONS: This empirical analysis reflects critical practices among collaborative networks that contributed substantially to the production of CEA, raises challenges for redesigning future policies and provides a framework for similar analyses in other regions.

  5. US/Russian program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute: 1997--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Rumyantsev, A.; Shmelev, V.

    1998-01-01

    Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute to improve nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) at Kurchatov. In 1997--1998 the primary thrust of this program has been directed to Building 106, which houses a number of test reactors and critical facilities. Substantial improvements in physical protection, upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, installation of equipment for the computerized materials accounting system, and installation of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment are being carried out at this facility. Software for the computerized accounting system, named KI-MACS, has been developed at Kurchatov and the system has been fully integrated with the bar code printing and reading equipment, electronic scales, and nondestructive assay equipment provided under this program. Additional 1997--1998 activities at Kurchatov include continuation of a tamper indicating device program, vulnerability assessments of several facilities, hosting of a Russian-American Workshop on Fissile Material Control and Accountability at Critical Facilities, and the development of accounting procedures for transfers of nuclear materials between material balance areas

  6. Augmented-reality-based skills training for robot-assisted urethrovesical anastomosis: a multi-institutional randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowriappa, Ashirwad; Raza, Syed Johar; Fazili, Anees; Field, Erinn; Malito, Chelsea; Samarasekera, Dinesh; Shi, Yi; Ahmed, Kamran; Wilding, Gregory; Kaouk, Jihad; Eun, Daniel D; Ghazi, Ahmed; Peabody, James O; Kesavadas, Thenkurussi; Mohler, James L; Guru, Khurshid A

    2015-02-01

    To validate robot-assisted surgery skills acquisition using an augmented reality (AR)-based module for urethrovesical anastomosis (UVA). Participants at three institutions were randomised to a Hands-on Surgical Training (HoST) technology group or a control group. The HoST group was given procedure-based training for UVA within the haptic-enabled AR-based HoST environment. The control group did not receive any training. After completing the task, the control group was offered to cross over to the HoST group (cross-over group). A questionnaire administered after HoST determined the feasibility and acceptability of the technology. Performance of UVA using an inanimate model on the daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) was assessed using a UVA evaluation score and a Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS) score. Participants completed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA TLX) questionnaire for cognitive assessment, as outcome measures. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare outcomes among the groups (HoST group vs control group and control group vs cross-over group). A total of 52 individuals participated in the study. UVA evaluation scores showed significant differences in needle driving (3.0 vs 2.3; P = 0.042), needle positioning (3.0 vs 2.4; P = 0.033) and suture placement (3.4 vs 2.6; P = 0.014) in the HoST vs the control group. The HoST group obtained significantly higher scores (14.4 vs 11.9; P 0.012) on the GEARS. The NASA TLX indicated lower temporal demand and effort in the HoST group (5.9 vs 9.3; P = 0.001 and 5.8 vs 11.9; P = 0.035, respectively). In all, 70% of participants found that HoST was similar to the real surgical procedure, and 75% believed that HoST could improve confidence for carrying out the real intervention. Training in UVA in an AR environment improves technical skill acquisition with minimal cognitive demand. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International

  7. Effects of Improvement on Selective Attention: Developing Appropriate Somatosensory Video Game Interventions for Institutional-Dwelling Elderly with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Ti; Chiang, I-Tsun; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chang, Maiga

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop appropriate somatosensory video game interventions on enhancing selective attention of institutional-dwelling elderly with disabilities. Fifty-eight participants aged 65[approximately]92 were recruited and divided into four groups, 4-week and 8-week experimental and two control groups, for evaluating the…

  8. "Supra-Institutional Research": A Cost-Effective Contribution towards Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Mantz

    2010-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive studies that go beyond the boundaries of individual institutions have considerable attraction, particularly at a time when resources are under significant constraint. These studies can be viewed as existing under the rather larger umbrella of "supra-institutional research". Three examples illustrate the argument…

  9. Towards a Strength-Based Juvenile Correctional Facility: Sustainability and Effects of an Institutional Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, William H.; Mackin, Juliette R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the administration of a state-run, secure juvenile correctional facility initiated an attempt to transform its institutional culture using a strength-based approach to assessment and case planning. This resulted in a rapid improvement in institutional climate. The current study revisits this setting several years later to see if those…

  10. Impact of National Institutes of Health Gastrointestinal PROMIS Measures in Clinical Practice: Results of a Multicenter Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, Christopher V; Chey, William D; Khanna, Dinesh; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Ahmed, Shahzad; Afghani, Elham; Whitman, Cynthia; Fuller, Garth; Reid, Mark; Bolus, Roger; Dennis, Buddy; Encarnacion, Rey; Martinez, Bibiana; Soares, Jennifer; Modi, Rushaba; Agarwal, Nikhil; Lee, Aaron; Kubomoto, Scott; Sharma, Gobind; Bolus, Sally; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2016-11-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) created the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) to allow efficient, online measurement of patient-reported outcomes (PROs), but it remains untested whether PROMIS improves outcomes. Here, we aimed to compare the impact of gastrointestinal (GI) PROMIS measures vs. usual care on patient outcomes. We performed a pragmatic clinical trial with an off-on study design alternating weekly between intervention (GI PROMIS) and control arms at one Veterans Affairs and three university-affiliated specialty clinics. Adults with GI symptoms were eligible. Intervention patients completed GI PROMIS symptom questionnaires on an e-portal 1 week before their visit; PROs were available for review by patients and their providers before and during the clinic visit. Usual care patients were managed according to customary practices. Our primary outcome was patient satisfaction as determined by the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included provider interpersonal skills (Doctors' Interpersonal Skills Questionnaire (DISQ)) and shared decision-making (9-item Shared Decision Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9)). There were 217 and 154 patients in the GI PROMIS and control arms, respectively. Patient satisfaction was similar between groups (P>0.05). Intervention patients had similar assessments of their providers' interpersonal skills (DISQ 89.4±11.7 vs. 89.8±16.0, P=0.79) and shared decision-making (SDM-Q-9 79.3±12.4 vs. 79.0±22.0, P=0.85) vs. This is the first controlled trial examining the impact of NIH PROMIS in clinical practice. One-time use of GI PROMIS did not improve patient satisfaction or assessment of provider interpersonal skills and shared decision-making. Future studies examining how to optimize PROs in clinical practice are encouraged before widespread adoption.

  11. Tracking Transfer: New Measures of Institutional and State Effectiveness in Helping Community College Students Attain Bachelor's Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Davis; Fink, John

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the effectiveness of two- to four-year college transfer is critical for meeting national goals for college attainment and promoting upward social mobility. Efforts to improve institutional effectiveness in serving transfer students and state transfer policy have been hampered by a lack of comparable metrics for measuring transfer…

  12. Assessing the Measures of and Defining Community College Institutional Effectiveness: A President's Perspective Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Juliet Adair

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study included two main goals. The first was to provide a common definition for community college institutional effectiveness through a review of the literature and from the personal definitions of a panel of community colleges presidents leading notably effective community colleges. The second purpose was to review the…

  13. Investigating Effective Components of Higher Education Marketing and Providing a Marketing Model for Iranian Private Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmaee, Roya Babaee; Nadi, Mohammad Ali; Shahtalebi, Badri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study and identify the effective components of higher education marketing and providing a marketing model for Iranian higher education private sector institutions. Design/methodology/approach: This study is a qualitative research. For identifying the effective components of higher education marketing and…

  14. MONITORING IN CREDIT INSTITUTIONS – COMPARATIVE APPROACH ON INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEMS – THE CASE OF ROMANIA VS. INTERNATIONAL MODELS OF CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURESAN MARIANA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the stipulations of the two well-known internal control system models – COSO and CoCo - the purpose of this paper is to focus on the Romanian framework for credit institutions – trying to to identify on which international model is our national one most appropriate to. The research methodology is based on an empirical analysis between Romanian regulation and the models already mentioned. To reach to a conclusion we tried to identify several key issues closely related to information and communication, and to determine the degree of similarities and dissimilarities between the three selected frameworks, by using statistical indicators. The paper has some limitations, too, because it only approaches formal harmonization. So, those issues analyzed through the regulations’ perspectives need to be closely quantified in matters of their actual implementation, which offer us outlooks of future research.

  15. Effect of glycemic control on diabetic dyslipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Arshad, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether good glycemic control has an effect on lipid profile in diabetics After taking relevant history and physical examination, serum urea, creatinine, thyroid stimulating hormone, bilirubin, alanine transaminase and HbA1c were measured. Blood samples for determination of fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were collected in a fasting state. Patients were divided into two groups based on HbA1c levels. They were compared using SPSS 13. 42 patients had good glycemic control and 58 had poor control. The two groups were age and weight matched. 43 patients had abnormal lipid profiles. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower and HDL levels higher in the good control group but serum LDL levels were equal. Conclusion: Good glycemic control improves lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  16. Effect of glycemic control on diabetic dyslipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, W [Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Arshad, A R [Combined Military Hospital, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2010-03-15

    To determine whether good glycemic control has an effect on lipid profile in diabetics After taking relevant history and physical examination, serum urea, creatinine, thyroid stimulating hormone, bilirubin, alanine transaminase and HbA1c were measured. Blood samples for determination of fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were collected in a fasting state. Patients were divided into two groups based on HbA1c levels. They were compared using SPSS 13. 42 patients had good glycemic control and 58 had poor control. The two groups were age and weight matched. 43 patients had abnormal lipid profiles. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower and HDL levels higher in the good control group but serum LDL levels were equal. Conclusion: Good glycemic control improves lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  17. Countermeasures against methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis instituted by parents show no effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuern, Andrea; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Hügle, Boris

    2017-06-01

    A high proportion of children with JIA will develop intolerance to MTX with anticipatory and associative gastrointestinal adverse effects. Parents and physicians frequently try to alleviate these symptoms with a variety of countermeasures. The objective of this study was to investigate the course of MTX intolerance within a 6 month period, and the effects of countermeasures on MTX intolerance severity. We performed a prospective study of 196 consecutive JIA patients treated with MTX. Intolerance was determined using the Methotrexate Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) questionnaire. MISS and countermeasures instituted by parents or physicians were determined at four time points, each 2 months apart. Countermeasures, classified into four types (antiemetic drugs, covert dosing, taste masking and complementary medicine), were analysed using non-parametric statistics and mixed linear modelling, adjusted by propensity scoring for use of countermeasures. Ninety patients (46%) showed MTX intolerance, with 58 (64%) using countermeasures at time of inclusion. Median MISS at inclusion was 11 (interquartile range = 8.0-14.25), and did not change significantly over time. No significant difference in MISS score was observed between patients receiving countermeasures and those who did not. For specific countermeasures, MISS did not change significantly after introduction. Sensitivity analysis adjusting for propensity score indicated no significant association of MISS severity on parents' decision to implement any countermeasures. MTX intolerance was present in many children with JIA and symptoms decreased little in the short term. Various modalities used as countermeasures against nausea by parents showed no discernible effect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Biological effects of embedded depleted uranium (DU). Summary of Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClain, D.E.; Dalton, T.K.; Emond, C.A.; Hodge, S.J.; Kalinich, J.F.; Landauer, M.A.; Miller, A.C.; Stewart, M.D.; Villa, V.; Xu, J.; Benson, K.A.; Ejnik, J.; Pellmar, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    The Persian Gulf War resulted in injuries of US Coalition personnel by fragments of depleted uranium (DU). Fragments not immediately threatening the health of the individuals were allowed to remain in place, based on long-standing treatment protocols designed for other kinds of metal shrapnel injuries. However, questions were soon raised as to whether this approach is appropriate for a metal with the unique radiological and toxicological properties of DU. The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is investigating health effects of embedded fragments of DU to determine whether current surgical fragment removal policies remain appropriate for this metal. These studies employ rodents implanted with DU pellets as well as cultured human cells exposed to DU compounds. Results indicate uranium from implanted DU fragments distributed to tissues far-removed from implantation sites, including bone, kidney, muscle, and liver. Despite levels of uranium in the kidney that were nephrotoxic after acute exposure, no histological or functional kidney toxicity was observed. However, results suggest the need for further studies of long-term health impact, since DU was found to be mutagenic, and it transformed human osteoblast cells to a tumorigenic phenotype. It also altered neurophysiological parameters in rat hippocampus, crossed the placental barrier, and entered fetal tissue. This report summarizes AFRRI's depleted uranium research to date

  19. Making the business case for enhanced depression care: the National Institute of Mental Health-harvard Work Outcomes Research and Cost-effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Philip S; Simon, Gregory E; Kessler, Ronald C

    2008-04-01

    Explore the business case for enhanced depression care and establish a return on investment rationale for increased organizational involvement by employer-purchasers. Literature review, focused on the National Institute of Mental Health-sponsored Work Outcomes Research and Cost-effectiveness Study. This randomized controlled trial compared telephone outreach, care management, and optional psychotherapy to usual care among depressed workers in large national corporations. By 12 months, the intervention significantly improved depression outcomes, work retention, and hours worked among the employed. Results of the Work Outcomes Research and Cost-effectiveness Study trial and other studies suggest that enhanced depression care programs represent a human capital investment opportunity for employers.

  20. The effects of networks on U.S. institution selection by foreign doctoral students in science and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyildiz, Zeynep Esra

    The United States has been a very attractive destination for foreign Science and Engineering (S&E) graduate students and postdoctoral scholars for a considerable period of time. Several studies have documented significant contributions of foreign students and foreign scientists in S&E. These contributions in turn foster economic development. Recent studies suggest, however, that the U.S. is losing its dominance in attracting foreign talent. Increased competition outside the U.S. contributes to the change as do changes in visa regulations. Despite the important role of foreign doctoral students in the U.S., relatively little is known about factors influencing their decision to attend an institution. One factor that is rarely explored is the effect of networks on institution selection. Through their networks, students learn about application procedures, studying at an institution, housing opportunities, general culture and people. In doing this, they draw both on the experience of the alumni as well as the support of current students and faculty at their target institution. Thus, networks can play an important role in where foreign doctoral students actually end up studying. This study aims to provide both qualitative and quantitative information about the role networks play in foreign doctoral students' institution selection. This three-part study utilizes different methodologies: (1) focus group interviews conducted with Turkish doctoral students at the Georgia Institute of Technology; (2) a web study of research laboratories in science and engineering; and (3) the estimation of Random Utility Model (RUM) of institution selection. These three components build on each other, in addition to the individual contributions that they make. Together they provide an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of the role of networks. The results from guided focus group interviews indicate that students, alumni, faculty and local community of the same nationality influence

  1. US/Russian laboratory-to-laboratory program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Roumiansev, A.; Shmelev, V.

    1996-01-01

    Six US DOE Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (RRC KI) to improve the capabilities and facilities in nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC ampersand A). In 1995, the primary emphasis of this program was the implementation of improved physical protection at a demonstration building at RRC KI, and the upgrading of the computerized MC ampersand A system, diagnostic instrumentation, and physical inventory procedures at a critical assembly within this building. Work continues in 1996 at the demonstration building but now also has begun at the two Kurchatov buildings which constitute the Central Storage Facility (CSF). At this facility, there will be upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, a test and evaluation of gamma-ray isotopic measurements, evaluations of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment as well as development of an improved computerized materials accounting system, implementation of bar code printing and reading equipment, development of tamper indicating device program, and substantial improvements in physical protection. Also, vulnerability assessments begun in 1995 are being extended to additional high priority facilities at Kurchatov

  2. Twenty-years of lung transplantation in Taiwan: Effects of cumulative institutional experience on early outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Mao Yang

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Although the results were undesirable in the first decade of the transplant program, the cumulative institutional experience led to significantly improved outcomes in the second decade of the transplant program.

  3. Significance assessment of the external control effects of lecturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbatova Margarita, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The state policy regarding higher education has changed in the last decade. These changes were part of the efficiency programs of the public sector. Governments of different countries ruined previously existing system of higher education state regulation and attempted to build the quasi-market structure in the higher education industry. Such transformations served as timely and progressive reforms in the recent studies of the economics of education. Substitution of bureaucratic management mechanisms and modern competition managerial tools are articulated. Economic and institutional and sociological studies on the effects of the introduction of quasi-markets and managerial tools in higher education governance oppose to orthodox market approach. They drew attention to the fact that evaluation methods and improve the effectiveness of organizations and employees that are typical of the private sector often produce results that differ from those in the public sector. To assess the consequences of the introduction of managerial tools of external control activities of university lecturers used a methodology based on the allocation of the individual structural components (effects and building on their basis of a multi-level hierarchical model in the research. Each component of the model (single effect is characterized by a degree of significance (importance and the degree of severity. The results of the systematization and assessment of the significance of the effects of external control activity of lecturers of Russian universities implemented in conditions of quasi-market mechanisms of the higher education system are highlighted in the paper.

  4. Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects on Trypanosomiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. ... African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease that causes serious economic losses in livestock due to anemia, loss of condition and emaciation. The disease when neglected is lethal and untreated ...

  5. Effectiveness of weed control methods on pavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Verwijs, B.R.; Kempenaar, C.

    2007-01-01

    The policy in the Netherlands is to signifiantly reduce the use of herbicides, also on pavements. Existing non-chemical methods to control weeds are much less effective than spot spraying, the usual method at this moment. Therefore, the cost of non-chemical weed management is often estimated to be 4

  6. CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF STUDENT TEACHER ABSENTEEISM IN TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. B. S. Gupta

    2017-01-01

    A school was a place to get knowledge. A student absentee is a major concern for lecturers at institutions of teacher education learning. Absences create a dead, tiresome, unpleasant classroom environment that makes students who come to class uncomfortable and the lecturer irritable. The objective of the study was to study the causes of student teacher absentees in teacher education institution. The investigator selected the sample through random sampling, 994 student teachers were selected f...

  7. Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Communication between Public Institutions and Journalists through Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Păun

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and opportunities of social media for public institutions and argues that the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communication channel for publics. I will explain the “social media”, the differences between social media and electronic-Public Relations - E-PR, and the communication between public institutions and journalists. The interviews with journalists or with PR specialist...

  8. Institutions and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution.

  9. Gate Control Coefficient Effect on CNFET Characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanudin, Rahmat; Ma'Radzi, Ahmad Alabqari; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2009-01-01

    The development of carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNFET) as alternative to existing transistor technology has long been published and discussed. The emergence of this device offers new material and structure in building a transistor. This paper intends to do an analysis of gate control coefficient effect on CNFET performance. The analysis is based on simulation study of current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of ballistic CNFET. The simulation study used the MOSFET-like CNFET mathematical model to establish the device output characteristic. Based on the analysis of simulation result, it is found that the gate control coefficient contributes to a significant effect on the performance of CNFET. The result also shown the parameter could help to improve the device performance in terms of its output and response as well. Nevertheless, the characteristic of the carbon nanotube that acts as the channel is totally important in determining the performance of the transistor as a whole.

  10. Effect of Somatosensory Impairments on Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hassanpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The somatosensory system is one of the most effective systems in balance control. It consists of peripheral and central components. Knowing the role of these components in balance control assists the developing of effective rehabilitation protocols. In some diseases peripheral components and in others central components are impaired. This paper reviews the effect of impairment of peripheral and central components of the somatosensory system on balance control.Methods: In this study publication about somatosensory impairments from 1983 through 2011 in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and Magiran were reviewed. Medical subject headings terms and keywords related to balance, somatosensory, somatosensory loss, and sensory integration/processing were used to perform the searches.Conclusion: Somatosensory impairments either with peripheral or central origin, can cause problems in balance control. However, these problems are not considered in some patients. In these impairments, balance training is recommended to be used alongside other routine treatments in the patients' rehabilitation programs.

  11. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  12. Preventing and controlling foodborne disease in commercial and institutional food service settings: a systematic review of published intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine; Blitstein, Jonathan; Brophy, Jenna E; Fraser, Angela

    2015-02-01

    This study reviews the current literature on behavioral and environmental food safety interventions conducted in commercial and institutional food service settings. A systematic search of the published literature yielded 268 candidate articles, from which a set of 23 articles reporting intervention outcomes was retained for evaluation. A categorization of measured outcomes is reported; studies addressed multiple outcomes ranging from knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of personal hygiene and food safety to management practices and disease rates and outbreaks. This study also investigates the quality of reported research methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions, using a nine-point quality index adapted by the authors. The observed scores suggest that there are opportunities to improve the design and reporting of research in the field of foodborne disease prevention as it applies to food safety interventions that target the food service industry. The aim is to aid researchers in this area to design higher quality studies and to produce clearer and more useful reports of their research. In turn, this can help to create a more complete evidence base that can be used to continually improve interventions in this domain.

  13. The Effects of Vocational Leadership Development for Individuals Who Participated in the Ohio Vocational Education Leadership Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimbach, Gale John

    The effects of vocational leadership development were studied for 23 Fellows enrolled in the 1992 Ohio Vocational Education Leadership Institute (OVELI). A literature review focused on four components: leadership styles, educational leadership development, vocational leadership development, and visionary leadership development. The Leadership…

  14. The System-Supplementing Effect of the Interaction between Innovative Capacity and Institutional Environment Factors of a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Nikolayevich Ovchinnikov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the effect of interaction between the development level of regional innovative capacity and its innovative and institutional infrastructure is traced. The research objective is to prove the hypothesis of the essential impact of the regional institutional and information environment on its innovative capacity, the identification of the effect of their systemsupplementing interaction. From the standpoint of the methodology of system-structural research its components are allocated within the innovative capacity of the regional innovative system (RIS, they are presented by a corporate sector, the structures of small and medium business, and also by the subjects of ethnic economy. The use of essential-analytical and functional approaches has revealed the leading role of intangible assets of the corporate sector of the economy in region’s innovative development. The correlation and regression analysis has confirmed the essential dependence of the innovative activity of the region on the systemic completeness of the development of its institutional and infrastructure environment. The results of the research have shown that to ensure the system-supplementing effect of the interaction between innovative capacity and the factors of its activation in the sphere of institutional infrastructure, it is necessary to consistently develop its operational base — the institutions of RIS. The recommendations reasoned in the article may be used for the development of regional innovation strategies, the formation of innovation clusters. The three-component structure of the innovation cluster of the region is offered; its integrating function in relation to the innovative components of the regional sectoral clusters is determined. The factors constraining the growth of innovation activity of the regional economic subjects are revealed and the recommendations on the development of the institutional and infrastructural environment of the Rostov

  15. Assessing sample representativeness in randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susukida, Ryoko; Crum, Rosa M; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ebnesajjad, Cyrus; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    To compare the characteristics of individuals participating in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments of substance use disorder (SUD) with individuals receiving treatment in usual care settings, and to provide a summary quantitative measure of differences between characteristics of these two groups of individuals using propensity score methods. Design Analyses using data from RCT samples from the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN) and target populations of patients drawn from the Treatment Episodes Data Set-Admissions (TEDS-A). Settings Multiple clinical trial sites and nation-wide usual SUD treatment settings in the United States. A total of 3592 individuals from 10 CTN samples and 1 602 226 individuals selected from TEDS-A between 2001 and 2009. Measurements The propensity scores for enrolling in the RCTs were computed based on the following nine observable characteristics: sex, race/ethnicity, age, education, employment status, marital status, admission to treatment through criminal justice, intravenous drug use and the number of prior treatments. Findings The proportion of those with ≥ 12 years of education and the proportion of those who had full-time jobs were significantly higher among RCT samples than among target populations (in seven and nine trials, respectively, at P difference in the mean propensity scores between the RCTs and the target population was 1.54 standard deviations and was statistically significant at P different from individuals receiving treatment in usual care settings. Notably, RCT participants tend to have more years of education and a greater likelihood of full-time work compared with people receiving care in usual care settings. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  17. [Effect of implementation of essential medicine system in the primary health care institution in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Donghong; Ren, Xiaohua; Hu, Jingxuan; Shi, Jingcheng; Xia, Da; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2015-02-01

    Our primary health care institution began to implement national essential medicine system in 2009. In past fi ve years, the goal of national essential medicine system has been initially achieved. For examples, medicine price is steadily reducing, the quality of medical services is improving and residents' satisfaction is substantial increasing every year. However, at the same time, we also found some urgent problems needed to be solved. For examples, the range of national essential medicine is limited, which is difficult to guarantee the quality of essential medication. In addition, how to compensate the primary health care institution is still a question.

  18. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  19. effects of weed control and cow dung manure on growth indices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... ABSTRACT. Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for. Agricultural Research farm Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of quality protein maize. The.

  20. Effects of weed control and cow dung manure on growth indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research farm Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of quality protein maize. The trials consisted of factorial ...

  1. Acid deposition: sources, effects and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this collection of 19 papers is to review our understanding of the cause and effect of acid deposition, to present new data that assist in the provision of a fuller understanding of cause, process and implication and thus to assist in defining the research agenda of the future. The materials presented are European in perspective, drawn from the Federal Republic of Germany, Hungary, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The current position as regards deposition monitoring, ecological effects and control technologies is presented in five sections: acid deposition monitoring, freshwater acidification, soils and forest systems, structural materials and control technologies. Each section is introduced by an overview paper outlining the contemporary understanding and identifying areas requiring future work. Specialist papers presenting new data or re-interpretations of existing information comprise the remainder of each section. Four of the papers have been abstracted separately.

  2. Effective regulatory control of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meserve, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the situation in the USA regarding government control over use of radiation sources, the challenges it faces and the potential paths to their resolution. In the light of the large number of radiation sources in use worldwide, the safety record on balance is remarkably good. But there is still considerable room for improvement. The IAEA has an important role to play, and it is playing it effectively

  3. Where to Attend? Estimating the Effects of Beginning College at a Two-Year Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. Lockwood

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges are an important part of the higher education system in the United States but there are concerns as to how attendance at these institutions affects educational attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper uses data from a nationally representative survey to examine the impact of students beginning their college career at a…

  4. The Impact of Self Beliefs on Post-Secondary Transitions: The Moderating Effects of Institutional Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane Cardenas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between self beliefs, institutional characteristics, and college student persistence. More specifically, this study sought to understand whether self-efficacy beliefs, both academic self-efficacy and social self-efficacy, play a role in college persistence. Further, the possible moderating…

  5. The Effect of Computer Automation on Institutional Review Board (IRB) Office Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Karl; Pittman, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Companies purchase computer systems to make their processes more efficient through automation. Some academic medical centers (AMC) have purchased computer systems for their institutional review boards (IRB) to increase efficiency and compliance with regulations. IRB computer systems are expensive to purchase, deploy, and maintain. An AMC should…

  6. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Academic Staff in Higher Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Suleyman M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their important roles in organizational performance, internal marketing and organizational citizenship behavior have become more interesting subjects among researchers and practitioners. However, empirical research is limited in the literature, and the relationship between these two variables in higher educational institutions is not clear.…

  7. The Trickle-Down Effect of Institutional Vision: Vision Statements and Academic Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelman, Robert; Atkin, David; Dalessandro, Amy; Snyder-Suhy, Sharon; Janstova, Patricie

    2007-01-01

    A description of the kinds of educated humans to be cultivated at a particular institution can be found in the college or university vision statement. The extent that vision is reflected in the governing models of advising operations, known by personnel, and transformed into day-to-day activities was assessed through a NACADA membership survey.…

  8. How Colleges, Universities, and Other Educational Institutions Can Use Direct Mail More Effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Glenn L.

    This series of magazine articles stresses ways in which educational institutions can use direct mail advertising to promote lectures, concerts, and other programs to off-campus audiences. The application of direct mail principles to selling education is suggested, and the advantages and disadvantages of direct mailings by colleges and universities…

  9. The Effect of Market-Oriented Subcultures on Post-Merger Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Balazs; Chandler, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, HEIs (higher education institutions) around the world have undergone transformation for a number of reasons, including mergers and acquisitions. The reasons for this vary from remaining competitive in an ever-increasingly competitive academic environment to being forced to do so. With deeply ingrained traditions, long tenures…

  10. Innovating in the Real World: Exploring Institutional Effects on Tertiary Teacher Innovations in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Belinda

    2018-01-01

    Innovation is a key goal of many tertiary education and distance learning providers. This research explores how teachers and educational designers across three New Zealand tertiary institutions worked to innovatively achieve teaching goals. A longitudinal design using the Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) framework explored the influence…

  11. Strategic and institutional effects on foreign IPO performance : Examining the impact of country of origin, corporate governance, and host country effects

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Curt B.; Bell, R. Greg; Filatotchev, Igor

    2012-01-01

    By integrating signaling research with an institutional perspective we examine how country of origin, corporate governance, and host market effects impact foreign IPO performance. Using a sample of 202 foreign IPOs listed in the U.S. or U.K in 2002-2007 results indicate both the legal environment surrounding these organizations in their countries of origin and board independence impact the success of foreign firms at IPO. However, the institutional environment of the chosen IPO...

  12. DYSFUNCTIONS IN THE APPLICATION OF THE MANAGERIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS IN ROMANIAN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS: THE REPORTING IMPROPRIETIES, THE INFORMATION AND THE COMMUNICATION STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRĂCIUN Liviu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development level of managerial control systems in the Romanian public entities is not a remarkable one, on the contrary, some institutions do not understand the real usefulness of the internal control system and the related set of standards; the compliance is determined only by the regulatory norms. The practice of implementing the internal control proves that the perception of executives and middle managers regarding that system is not a favourable and supporting one. The managers face difficulties caused by the ambiguity of some of the standards, poorly understood, and for which the body of laws does not provide advices. Thus, some institutions report the high compliance of standards, although the reality shows numerous inconsistencies. Other public institutions assess their own level of implementation only partially, but do not identify improvement solutions. Because of the lacking of benchmarking initiatives and knowledge transferring between institutions, the picture of this situation indicates dysfunctions that influence the efficiency of the activities and the achievement of the objectives. In this paper, we will analyze the correlation between the observed shortcomings in the implementation of three of the most important standards, namely the Reporting improprieties, the Information and the Communication. The methodology used is an analytical and exploratory one and critically examines the implementation status of these three standards in more than 40 public institutions in Dolj County, Romania. Also, by analyzing the answers to the questionnaire, our study identifies differences in interpretation and implementation of these standards between certain types of organizations (given the heterogeneity of the investigated sample. The results show a high interdependence between this control standards and our proposals focus on the strengthening of the interpersonal skills and the personal relationships. Our study is directed toward the

  13. OPREVENT2: Design of a multi-institutional intervention for obesity control and prevention for American Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and other nutrition-related chronic disease rates are high in American Indian (AI populations, and an urgent need exists to identify evidence-based strategies for prevention and treatment. Multi-level, multi-component (MLMC interventions are needed, but there are significant knowledge gaps on how to deliver these types of interventions in low-income rural AI communities. Methods OPREVENT2 is a MLMC intervention targeting AI adults living in six rural reservations in New Mexico and Wisconsin. Aiming to prevent and reduce obesity in adults by working at multiple levels of the food and physical activity (PA environments, OPREVENT2 focuses on evidence-based strategies known to increase access to, demand for, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages, and increase worksite and home-based opportunities for PA. OPREVENT2 works to create systems-level change by partnering with tribal stakeholders, multiple levels of the food and PA environment (food stores, worksites, schools, and the social environment (children as change agents, families, social media. Extensive evaluation will be conducted at each level of the intervention to assess effectiveness via process and impact measures. Discussion Novel aspects of OPREVENT2 include: active engagement with stakeholders at many levels (policy, institutional, and at multiple levels of the food and PA system; use of community-based strategies to engage policymakers and other key stakeholders (community workshops, action committees; emphasis on both the built environment (intervening with retail food sources and the social environment. This paper describes the design of the intervention and the evaluation plan of the OPREVENT2. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02803853 (June 10, 2016

  14. OPREVENT2: Design of a multi-institutional intervention for obesity control and prevention for American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Jock, Brittany; Redmond, Leslie; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Eckmann, Thomas; Bleich, Sara N; Loh, Hong; Ogburn, Elizabeth; Gadhoke, Preety; Swartz, Jacqueline; Pardilla, Marla; Caballero, Benjamin

    2017-01-23

    Obesity and other nutrition-related chronic disease rates are high in American Indian (AI) populations, and an urgent need exists to identify evidence-based strategies for prevention and treatment. Multi-level, multi-component (MLMC) interventions are needed, but there are significant knowledge gaps on how to deliver these types of interventions in low-income rural AI communities. OPREVENT2 is a MLMC intervention targeting AI adults living in six rural reservations in New Mexico and Wisconsin. Aiming to prevent and reduce obesity in adults by working at multiple levels of the food and physical activity (PA) environments, OPREVENT2 focuses on evidence-based strategies known to increase access to, demand for, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages, and increase worksite and home-based opportunities for PA. OPREVENT2 works to create systems-level change by partnering with tribal stakeholders, multiple levels of the food and PA environment (food stores, worksites, schools), and the social environment (children as change agents, families, social media). Extensive evaluation will be conducted at each level of the intervention to assess effectiveness via process and impact measures. Novel aspects of OPREVENT2 include: active engagement with stakeholders at many levels (policy, institutional, and at multiple levels of the food and PA system); use of community-based strategies to engage policymakers and other key stakeholders (community workshops, action committees); emphasis on both the built environment (intervening with retail food sources) and the social environment. This paper describes the design of the intervention and the evaluation plan of the OPREVENT2. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02803853 (June 10, 2016).

  15. Navigating Institutions and Institutional Leadership to Address Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisneros, Kathy; Rivera, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Using an institutional example, this chapter offers strategies to effectively navigate institutional culture, processes, and structures to engage the entire campus community in addressing sexual violence.

  16. EFFECT OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ON FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN BARINGO COUNTY GOVERNMENT, KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Lagat, Cornelius; Okelo, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    This study intended to establish the effect of internal control systems on financial management in Baringo County government in Kenya. Internal control systems are integral components of the management processes of a public sector institution which should be established in order to provide reasonable assurance that the financial operations are carried out transparently and accountably. The study adopted the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Tread way Commission (COSO) theoretical f...

  17. Public health capacity building in southeastern Europe: a partnership between the Open Society Institute and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Noah; Brborovic, Ognjen; Fimka, Tozija; Robie, Brian D; Bull, David L; Spasovski, Mome; Baker, Edward L

    2005-01-01

    The political disintegration of former Yugoslavia inaugurated in 1991 resulted in the decentralization of health systems in the federation's successor nation-states. Efforts by the Open Society Institute improved public health planning and management needs consequent to health sector changes. Beginning in Croatia in 2001, the Institute developed ongoing collaborations between Andrija Stampar School of Public Health and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2003 and 2004, it expanded its project to include the republics of Macedonia and of Serbia and Montenegro.

  18. The effects of integrating service learning into computer science: an inter-institutional longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Jamie; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Rorrer, Audrey; Zuo, Huifang

    2015-07-01

    This study is a follow-up to one published in computer science education in 2010 that reported preliminary results showing a positive impact of service learning on student attitudes associated with success and retention in computer science. That paper described how service learning was incorporated into a computer science course in the context of the Students & Technology in Academia, Research, and Service (STARS) Alliance, an NSF-supported broadening participation in computing initiative that aims to diversify the computer science pipeline through innovative pedagogy and inter-institutional partnerships. The current paper describes how the STARS Alliance has expanded to diverse institutions, all using service learning as a vehicle for broadening participation in computing and enhancing attitudes and behaviors associated with student success. Results supported the STARS model of service learning for enhancing computing efficacy and computing commitment and for providing diverse students with many personal and professional development benefits.

  19. The role of institutions on the effectiveness of malaria treatment in the Ghanaian health sector

    OpenAIRE

    Amporfu, Eugenia; Nonvignon, Justice

    2015-01-01

    Background The Ghanaian health sector has undertaken several policies to help improve the quality of care received by patients. This includes the construction of several health facilities, the increase in the training of health workers, especially nurses, and the introduction of incentive packages (such as salary increase) to motivate health workers. The important question is to what extent does the institutional arrangement between the health facilities and the government as well as between ...

  20. Size Matters: The Effect of the Scramble for Africa on Informal Institutions and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dimico, Arcangelo

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the partition of ethnic groups following the Scramble for Africa does not itself matter for development in Africa. It matters only when the partitioned groups are relatively small because small groups lack political representation which may promote ethnic mobilization and foster support for informal (rather than formal) institutions which then may affect development. Furthermore, the analysis of data from the Afrobarometer shows that the persistence of informal/tribal institutio...

  1. Installation of the product transport system and control system for the Co-60 irradiator at the Institute of Investigations of the Alimentary Industry (IIIA), La Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac An; Le Minh Tuan; Pham Thi Thu Hong; Nguyen Thanh Cuong; Huynh Dong Phuong; Ha Thanh Viet; Truong Vu Thanh Nhan

    2016-01-01

    Under the protocol of international cooperation in science and technology between Vietnam and Cuba - “Installation of the product transport system and control system for the Cobalt-60 irradiator at the Institute of Investigations of the Alimentary Industry (IIIA)”, the renovation of the irradiator has been started since 2012 and carried out by Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology (VINAGAMMA). The renovation work comprises the installation of the tote box transport system that was designed and constructed by Isotope Institute Budapest, Hungary, the installation of the PLC based control system which were designed and constructed by VINAGAMMA, installations of technological systems and training Cuban irradiator operators. The project has been successfully implemented and the industrial Co-60 irradiator with new control system has been put into operation. (author)

  2. Traineeships industrial and professional practice as effective mechanism of marketing of the scientific and research institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szafran Krzysztof

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The following paper presents executed at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw student internship program and a program of industrial internships for young researchers technical universities of the country and from abroad. Many years of experience staff and a modern database of certified, modern laboratories can convey knowledge, the level of which is highly esteemed in the world. Conducted new projects and specialized training organizations in the design and maintenance of the Institute of Aviation enable trainees to familiarize themselves with modern technologies in the wider area around the aviation. The author presented the work program proposed the possibility of potential trainees in the laboratories of aerodynamics, strength, testing equipment and installation of air, environmental and motor. Posted framework programs, which are carried out by students and trainees. At the end of the shows achievements, and plans for the future. Run this way MARKETING Aviation Institute allows popularize unit in the country and abroad. Measurable benefits include contacts with similar companies in the world, as well as gaining a new perspective valuable employees.

  3. Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Communication between Public Institutions and Journalists through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Păun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the challenges and opportunities of social media for public institutions and argues that the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communication channel for publics. I will explain the “social media”, the differences between social media and electronic-Public Relations - E-PR, and the communication between public institutions and journalists. The interviews with journalists or with PR specialists in public institutions were focused on the use, the extent of this use, and the perceived value of various social media as sources contributing to agenda building (Cobb, Elder 1983. If journalists are regularly monitoring sites and forums for story ideas and information, it is necessary for PR professionals within each industry to carefully monitor the information placed there and perhaps engage content producers. In this paper, I conclude that social media is an alternative instrument to encourage a two-way communication channel between government and publics. In public relations, the emergence of social media challenges the traditional instruments of government public relations. Responding to the development of information and communication technology (ICT, social media is considered as an alternative communication channel of government public relations efforts.

  4. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or “plate-sized” fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen’s revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (−3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen’s revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations. PMID:23865225

  5. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheila M W; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M

    2013-06-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or "plate-sized" fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen's revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (-3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen's revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations.

  6. The Hawthorne Effect: a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Haselen Robbert

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Hawthorne Effect' may be an important factor affecting the generalisability of clinical research to routine practice, but has been little studied. Hawthorne Effects have been reported in previous clinical trials in dementia but to our knowledge, no attempt has been made to quantify them. Our aim was to compare minimal follow-up to intensive follow-up in participants in a placebo controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba for treating mild-moderate dementia. Methods Participants in a dementia trial were randomised to intensive follow-up (with comprehensive assessment visits at baseline and two, four and six months post randomisation or minimal follow-up (with an abbreviated assessment at baseline and a full assessment at six months. Our primary outcomes were cognitive functioning (ADAS-Cog and participant and carer-rated quality of life (QOL-AD. Results We recruited 176 participants, mainly through general practices. The main analysis was based on Intention to treat (ITT, with available data. In the ANCOVA model with baseline score as a co-variate, follow-up group had a significant effect on outcome at six months on the ADAS-Cog score (n = 140; mean difference = -2.018; 95%CI -3.914, -0.121; p = 0.037 favouring the intensive follow-up group, and on participant-rated quality of life score (n = 142; mean difference = -1.382; 95%CI -2.642, -0.122; p = 0.032 favouring minimal follow-up group. There was no significant difference on carer quality of life. Conclusion We found that more intensive follow-up of individuals in a placebo-controlled clinical trial of Ginkgo biloba for treating mild-moderate dementia resulted in a better outcome than minimal follow-up, as measured by their cognitive functioning. Trial registration Current controlled trials: ISRCTN45577048

  7. Surface effects in controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.

    1975-08-01

    During the operation of large size plasma facilities and future controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors the surfaces of such major components as container walls, beam limiters, diverter walls and beam-dump walls of the injector region will be exposed to particle and photon bombardment from primary plasma radiations and from secondary radiations. Such radiations can cause, for example, physical and chemical sputtering, blistering, particle- and photon-impact induced desorption, secondary electron and x-ray emission, backscattering, nuclear reactions, photo-decomposition of surface compounds, photocatalysis, and vaporization. Such effects in turn can (a) seriously damage and erode the bombarded surface and (b) release major quantities of impurities which will contaminate the plasma. The effects of some of the major surface phenomena on the operation of plasma facilities and future fusion reactors are discussed

  8. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  9. How Institutions Shape Preferences: Experimental Evidence from a Large-Scale Property Rights Reform Implemented as Randomized Control-Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fabbri (Marco)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractI investigate how a major institutional reform of property rights over land affects cooperation and trust preferences in a society where agricultural land is the main households' asset. The reform took place in hundreds of West African villages in Benin and consists in registering

  10. Why Agencies Budget For Results : Exploring Institutional Explanations for Performance Budgeting: The Case of Forestry and Air Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong (Maarten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractSummary This PhD research examines institutional explanations for the use of performance information (PI) to learn and improve by government agencies. Despite widespread criticism of and disappointment with New Public Management (NPM) reforms, performance budgeting (PB) is

  11. Effectiveness of the Chinese Communist Party’s Anti-corruption Institutions and Policies: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    WAHED, Mohammad Shakil

    2016-01-01

    The intensity of corruption in China has been progressively high since the 1980s. This seriously undermines the overall effectiveness of Chinese anti-corruption institutions and policies. This article argues that the existing anti-corruption measures in China have not been working properly to eliminate or even contain the problem at an acceptable level. It seems that something has been holding it back somewhere. This article argues that China badly needs, inter alia, a sincere demonstration o...

  12. [Hygiene and Infection Prevention in Medical Institutions, Kindergartens and Schools - Statutory Basis, Infection Control Practice and Experiences of the Public Health Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, U

    2015-07-01

    Infection prevention is one of the main tasks of the public health services. The "Protection against infection act" places all medical institutions and facilities for children (kindergartens and schools) under the obligation to assume responsibility and to cooperate. Duties of the institutions are described, and public health services are obliged to perform hygiene control visits.Regarding medical institutions, the guidelines of the German Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Control have to be observed, and the counties were obliged to publish hygiene enactments. Subsequently, good improvements in hygiene management in medical institutions were achieved. In schools, however, severe hygienic problems (i.e. sanitary hygiene, indoor air hygiene) are detected, without any improvement - obviously due to a missing sense of responsibility in the school community. Causes for poor behaviour prevention (hand hygiene, ventilation) and missing situational prevention (i.e. cleaning) are discussed. Without reversion to the obviously needed but nearly forgotten subject school hygiene, obligatory guidelines and the assuming of responsibility, permanent improvements cannot be achieved. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Institutional Logics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...... institutional logics in the course of their organizational practice. We introduce an exciting line of new works on the meta-theoretical foundations of logics, institutional logic processes, and institutional complexity and organizational responses. Collectively, the papers in this volume advance the very...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  14. Effect of glycemic index on obesity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elisângela Vitoriano; Costa, Jorge de Assis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate the effect of glycemic index (GI) on biochemical parameters, food intake, energy metabolism, anthropometric measures and body composition in overweight subjects. Simple blind study, in which nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to consume in the laboratory two daily low GI (n = 10) or high GI (n = 9) meals, for forty-five consecutive days. Habitual food intake was assessed at baseline. Food intake, anthropometric measures and body composition were assessed at each 15 days. Energy metabolism and biochemical parameters were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study. Low GI meals increased fat oxidation, and reduced waist circumference and HOMA-IR, while high GI meals increased daily dietary fiber and energy intake compared to baseline. There was a higher reduction on waist circumference and body fat, and a higher increase on postprandial fat oxidation in response to the LGI meals than after high GI meals. High GI meals increased fasting respiratory coefficient compared to baseline and low GI meals. The results of the present study showed that the consumption of two daily low GI meals for forty-five consecutive days has a positive effect on obesity control, whereas, the consumption of high GI meals result has the opposite effect.

  15. Using Institutional Effectiveness Data To Stimulate Improvement...Getting Data off the Shelf and into the Hands of Stakeholders. AIR 2000 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sandy; Willekens, Rene G.

    This paper outlines a successful, stakeholder driven, continuous improvement process that is currently used at Estrella Mountain Community College, Arizona. The process is designed to address the next step of what to do with institutional effectiveness data after it has been collected and reported. Many institutional effectiveness processes stop…

  16. A survey of informatics platforms that enable distributed comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional heterogeneous clinical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F.; Hazlehurst, Brian L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Murphy, Shawn; Rosenman, Marc; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has the potential to transform the current healthcare delivery system by identifying the most effective medical and surgical treatments, diagnostic tests, disease prevention methods and ways to deliver care for specific clinical conditions. To be successful, such research requires the identification, capture, aggregation, integration, and analysis of disparate data sources held by different institutions with diverse representations of the relevant clinical events. In an effort to address these diverse demands, there have been multiple new designs and implementations of informatics platforms that provide access to electronic clinical data and the governance infrastructure required for inter-institutional CER. The goal of this manuscript is to help investigators understand why these informatics platforms are required and to compare and contrast six, large-scale, recently funded, CER-focused informatics platform development efforts. We utilized an 8-dimension, socio-technical model of health information technology use to help guide our work. We identified six generic steps that are necessary in any distributed, multi-institutional CER project: data identification, extraction, modeling, aggregation, analysis, and dissemination. We expect that over the next several years these projects will provide answers to many important, and heretofore unanswerable, clinical research questions. PMID:22692259

  17. Remaking collective knowledge: An analysis of the complex and multiple effects of inquiries into historical institutional child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katie

    2017-12-01

    This article provides an overview and critical analysis of inquiries into historical institutional child abuse and examines their multiple functions and complex effects. The article takes a broadly international view but focuses primarily on Australia, the UK and Ireland, jurisdictions in which there have been major national inquiries. Drawing on sociological and other social science literature, it begins by considering the forms, functions, and purposes of inquiries. An overview of emergent concerns with institutional abuse in the 1980s and 1990s is then provided, followed by an examination of the response of many governments since that time in establishing inquiries. Key findings and recommendations are considered. The final sections of the article explore the evaluation of inquiries, both during their operation and in their aftermath. Policy change and legislative reform are discussed but the focus is on aspects often underplayed or overlooked, including an inquiry's credibility, its role in processes of knowledge production, and the part it plays in producing social and cultural shifts. In the context of growing numbers of inquiries across Western democracies, including the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, it is argued that grasping the complexity of the inquiry mechanism, with its inherent tensions and its multiple effects, is crucial to evaluating inquiry outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Entrepreneurship as institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper responds to calls to make more explicit linkages between institutional theory and entrepreneurship research through studies on how entrepreneurs navigate and work with institutions. The research examines the micro-strategies and activities through which small-scale entrepreneurs maneuver...... between and exploit the multiple, potentially contradictory institutional logics of the different spheres in which they operate. While much research has elucidated how institutional entrepreneurs effect change, this study illustrates how effective entrepreneurs managing and exploiting institutional...... contradictions engage simultaneously in practices of maintaining and changing institutions to establish a balance between the poles on which their ventures depend. We illustrate this by two cases of small-scale entrepreneurship bridging institutional contradictions from an ethnographic study conducted under...

  19. Report on Quality Control Review of the Raich Ende Malter & Co. LLP FY 2009 Single Audit of the Riverside Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    compliance was based on a determination that 10 of the 14 compliance requirements were applicable to the Institute. However, the audit working papers...for all 14 of the compliance requirements were not adequate to support conclusions on applicability, internal control, and the audit opinion on...compliance with laws, regulations, and award provisions applicable to the R&D cluster program. In addition, the audit firm did not appropriately report an

  20. Computer networks for financial activity management, control and statistics of databases of economic administration at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyupikova, T.V.; Samoilov, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    Modern information technologies urge natural sciences to further development. But it comes together with evaluation of infrastructures, to spotlight favorable conditions for the development of science and financial base in order to prove and protect legally new research. Any scientific development entails accounting and legal protection. In the report, we consider a new direction in software, organization and control of common databases on the example of the electronic document handling, which functions in some departments of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

  1. The effects of a professional development geoscience education institute upon secondary school science teachers in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerandi Roman, Pablo Antonio

    The geographic and geologic settings of Puerto Rico served as the context to develop a mixed methods investigation on: (1) the effects of a five-day long constructivist and field-based earth science education professional development institute upon 26 secondary school science teachers' earth science conceptual knowledge, perceptions of fieldwork, and beliefs about teaching earth science; and (2) the implementation of participants' newly acquired knowledge and experience in their science lessons at school. Qualitative data included questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, reflective journals, pre-post concept maps, and pre-post lesson plans. The Geoscience Concept Inventory and the Science Outdoor Learning Environment Inventory were translated into Spanish and culturally validated to collect quantitative data. Data was analyzed through a constructivist grounded theory methodology, descriptive statistics, and non-parametric methods. Participants came to the institute with serious deficiencies in earth science conceptual understanding, negative earth science teaching perspectives, and inadequate earth science teaching methodologies. The institute helped participants to improve their understanding of earth science concepts, content, and processes mostly related to the study of rocks, the Earth's structure, plate tectonics, maps, and the geology of Puerto Rico. Participants also improved their earth science teaching beliefs, perceptions on field-based education, and reflected on their environmental awareness and social responsibility. Participants greatly benefited from the field-based learning environment, inquiry-based teaching approaches modeled, the attention given to their affective domain, and reflections on their teaching practice as part of the institute's activities. The constructivist learning environment and the institute's contextualized and meaningful learning conceptual model were effective in generating interest and confidence in earth science teaching

  2. Institutions, public debt and growth in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Masuch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence that supports the view that the quality of institutions is an important determinant of long-term growth in European countries. It shows that an initial high government debt level coupled with institutional quality below the EU average tends to be associated with particularly poor longterm real growth performance. Interestingly, the detrimental effect of high debt levels on long-term growth seems cushioned by the presence of very sound institutions. The paper offers some evidence that sound institutions may be particularly important for long-term growth in countries in which the exchange rate tool is no longer available and less so in countries with flexible exchange rate regimes. The empirical findings on the importance of institutions are robust to various measures of output growth, different measures of institutional indicators, different sample sizes, different country groupings and to the inclusions of additional control variables.

  3. The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article shall present a detailed and critical review of the legislative and institutional framework of environmental protection and pollution control in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria; it shall conclude with some recommendations for a better, more efficient and effective environmental protection and pollution control regime ...

  4. Establishment of a computer-controlled retroreflection measurement system at the National Metrology Institute of Turkey (UME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samedov, Farhad; Celikel, Oguz; Bazkir, Ozcan

    2005-01-01

    In order to characterize photometric properties of retroreflectors, a fully automated retroreflector measurement system is designed in National Metrology Institute of Turkey (UME). The system is composed of a lighting projector, a goniometer, filter radiometers, 100 dB transimpedance amplifiers, and 24-bit resolution analog-digital converter card with a special software. The established system provides a new calibration capability to determine the luminous intensity and retroreflection coefficients of the retroreflective materials with the expanded uncertainties of 1.07% and 1.13% (k=2), respectively. The traceability in retroreflection measurements was linked to the detector-based photometric scale of UME

  5. How to effectively promote universities and research institutes in the network? Psychological mechanisms of e-marketing effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Wolski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Universities and research institutes more and more often resort to promotion tools up till now used mainly in business. Omnipresent market competition has reached also the area of science, where more and more often the fight for students and money for scientific research takes place. Competition among science institutions is additionally stimulated by demographic factors – the gradual aging of the European society. As data from the Central Statistical Office show, the number of peopled aged 19-24 in Poland will drop from 2,817,000 in 2015 to 2,135,000 in 2025. The reduction of the number of young people will substantially boost competition between universities. Their success, similarly as success in business will depend to an ever greater extent on the quality of conducted marketing activities. Education and research have become a product which, just like any other product, has to „fight” for the client.

  6. Role of radiotherapy in local control of non-AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients in Korea: a single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ji Hyun; Kim, Il Han

    2012-01-01

    There has been no definite consensus on standard treatment, either local or systemic, for the Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Radiotherapy (RT) can be a good local therapeutic choice especially in non-AIDS associated KS (NAKS) for its indolent behavior. Medical records of 17 KS patients treated with RT at the Seoul National University Hospital from February 1998 to January 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. One human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ patient with 3 lesions was excluded. The total number of the lesion was 23 among the 16 patients. The median follow-up period was 27.9 months. Correlation between response and variables was analyzed using the logistic regression model. Median age of the patients was 75 years. All the 23 lesions were located at the extremities. Fourteen (61%) of those had pain or local swelling as the initial presentation. Ten patients had possible causes of immunodeficiency and were regarded as iatrogenic, and other 6 were classic KS. Median dose of RT was 36 Gy. No KS-related death was observed. Excluding 2 with short-term follow-up only, complete response and partial response were obtained in 2 (9%) and 19 (73%) lesions, respectively. Of those, 3 lesions underwent local progression. Six had out-of-field recurrence after RT. Symptom improvement was achieved in 13 (93%) of 14 patients. Grade 2 skin toxicities were found in 9 lesions but all got improvement after treatment. When divided into responsive and progressive group, free from progression was not related to any of the possible variables. RT is effective in local control of NAKS resulting great response rate.

  7. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  8. Radiation effects on non-human biota and ecosystems. Researches in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Ishikawa, Yuuji

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes research activities in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for evaluation of the radiation effects on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms as well as the ecosystems. Seven organisms, conifers, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, daphnia and Medaka are presently selected to study. Most of them play important roles in Japanese ecosystems and are possibly useful for bio-indicator of the radiation effects. For the estimation of possible radiation dose, transfers of radionuclides and related elements from medium to organisms are evaluated. Dose-effect relationships of acute gamma radiation on the survival, growth, and reproduction of selected organisms have been studied. Studies on the effect of chronic gamma radiation at low dose rate were also started. In order to understand the mechanism of radiation effects and to find possible indicators of the effects, information of genome- and metagenome-wide gene expression obtained by the High Coverage Expression Profiling (HiCEP) has been collected. Evaluation of ecological effects of radiation is more challenging task. Study methods by using three-species microcosm were established, and an index for the holistic evaluation of effects on various ecological parameters was proposed. The microcosm has been simulated for its population dynamics, and mass and energy budgets as a computer simulation code. Developments of more complicated and practical model ecosystems have been started. The Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) has been applied on soil bacterial community in order to evaluate the radiation effects on soil ecosystems. (author)

  9. Institutional Regime, Off-Farm Employment, and the Interaction Effect: What are the Determinants of Households’ Forestland Transfer in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the land rental market has been widely attributed to the associated institutional regime and the functioning of the off-farm labor market. However, little is known of the interaction effect of these two factors. To fill this gap, we employ a nationwide representative household dataset to investigate the effects of China’s collective forest tenure reform (CFTR and off-farm employment on forestland transfer in China. Special interest is focused on their potential interaction effect. The Smith-Blundell instrumental variable tobit model is adopted to account for the endogeneity of off-farm employment. The estimation results show that both the tenure reform and off-farm employment significantly influence forestland transactions. However, compared to the positive effect of the reform on both renting in and renting out forestland, the effect of off-farm employment is mixed, that is, its effect is negative when forestland is rented in but positive on rent-out decisions. An important finding is that the CFTR imposes a negative enhancement effect on forestland rent-in through its interaction term with off-farm employment. In contrast, the enhancement effect on rent-out is not statistically significant, which may be due to the neutralization by the endowment effect of the CFTR.

  10. Enhancing Human Capital Development and Service Delivery in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions through Effective Academic Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyeaka Igbokwe-Ibeto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of bureaucratic and human capital theories, an eclectic approach, the study examines the nexus between academic staff recruitment in Nigerian tertiary institutions and human capital development as well as service delivery with specific reference to universities. It is generally agreed that higher education is a sine-qua-non for human capital development and efficient service delivery. Higher education is a prerequisite for the production of highly competent experts, which in turn, contributes to the development of organizations and the economy at large. For these to be achieved, the right content and academic staff  must be in place to perform this varied function.  However, over the years the quality of human capital coming out of Nigerian universities and its impact on service delivery has become a source of concern to employers of labour and all stakeholders. Inferential opinions have traced the problem to the recruitment of incompetent academic staff. To investigate the issues raised, the study relied heavily on primary and secondary data and multi stage sampling was used to select the sample population. The data collected was presented in pie chart and simple percentage. Similarly, in order to test the hypotheses and establish the degree of dependence or independence of the variables under investigation, the chi-square statistical technique was used. The findings of the study revealed among others, that Nigerian universities do not employ merit, qualification and competency in the academic staff recruitment. It also established that there is a significant relationship between merit, qualification and competency based academic staff recruitment and human capital development and service delivery. To enhance human capital development and service delivery in Nigerian universities, the study recommends among others, that an independent body like the National University Commission (NUC should be given the responsibility of

  11. Suicide Risk Response: Enhancing Patient Safety Through Development of Effective Institutional Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Laura; Felker, Bradford; Chaney, Edmund; Vollen, Karen; Berry, Karen; Revay, Barbara; Simon, Barbara; Kofoed, Lial; Ober, Scott; Worley, Linda

    2004-01-01

    A suicidal patient requires a prompt, coordinated intervention. In this paper, we describe a process for developing a suicidality policy, which may help clinics develop effective, locally adapted policies...

  12. From the risk analysis to the development of interventions and training for the prevention and control of healthcare associated infections. The experience of G. Pini Orthopedic Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, P; Conti, C; Domeniconi, G; Nobile, M

    2015-01-01

    Health-care associated infections (HAIs) represents a phenomenon of central importance all over Europe. Every year 4,5 millions cases are detected in European Union, with 37.000 related deaths. Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are one of the most common HAIs, that are associated with an increased length of stay, re-operation rate, intensive care admissions rate, and higher mortality rate. G. Pini Orthopedics Institute implemented in the last two years a multimodal strategy for controlling and preventing HAIs, in particular for SSIs. This paper describes the prevention's strategies adopted for prevention of HAIs, at G. Pini Orthopedic Institute. Our findings show that application of a multi modal promotion strategy was associated with an improvement in HAI prevention.

  13. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  14. Administrative Strategies of Departmental Heads as Determinants for the Effective Management of Human Resources in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakwe, Regina N.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated administrative strategies of departmental heads as determinants of effective management of human resources in tertiary institutions. Four research questions were asked and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. As a descriptive survey, the population comprised all the eight tertiary institutions in the state…

  15. Comparison of the dimensions of electrical resistance units, supported on the basis of the Hall quantum effect, in the all-Russia research institute of metrological service and the Czech metrological institute

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semenchinsky, S. G.; Chrobok, P.; Svoboda, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 12 (2008), s. 1351-1356 ISSN 0543-1972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : resistance unit * quantum Hall effect * comparison * standards Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.151, year: 2008

  16. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira TCG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thaís Cristina Galdino De Oliveira,1 Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 Liliane Dias E Dias De Macedo,1 Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço Diniz,1 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,2 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Laboratory of Investigations in Neurodgeneration and Infection, Biological Sciences Institute, University Hospital João de Barros Barreto, 2College of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil Abstract: The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I] or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]. We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total. Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation, in the middle (after 24 sessions, and at the end (after 48 sessions of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion

  17. The Motivate Effect of Higher Education Institutions' Compensation System on Faculties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Qing-liang; SU Jun

    2007-01-01

    Based on the questionnaire survey, this article reveals the effects of the current university compensation system on faculties in three psychological aspects, namely performance exam effect, work pressure and endurance capability. The results indicate that university faculties have a strong pursuit for self-fulfillment and successful career. Most of them love their teaching career and wish to further improve the fairness and efficiency of university management system by deepening the management systemic reform. Multi-leveled, multi-purposed and multi-modeled managing strategy of university compensation system is proved to be the main methods of improving fairness and efficiency.

  18. Institutional actorhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states....

  19. Single-institution effectiveness assessment of open-heart surgery in octogenarians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, B. A.; Kallewaard, M.; Lewin, F.; van Gaalen, G. L.; van den Brink, R. B.

    1997-01-01

    To determine short- and long-term outcome of open-heart surgery in octogenarians. We reviewed the medical charts of 130 consecutive octogenarians undergoing open-heart surgery. Patients with significant comorbidity were excluded from the study. The effect of cardiac and operative risk factors on

  20. Institutional Pedagogy and Semiosis: Investigating the Missing Link between Peirce's Semiotics and Effective Semiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    My aim in this paper is to show the relevance of an "effective semiotics"; that is, a field study based upon Peirce's semiotics. The general context of this investigation is educational semiotics rather than semiotics of teaching: I am concerned with a general approach of educational processes, not with skills and curricula. My paper is…

  1. Organizational Climate, Citizenship, and Effectiveness in a Public Liberal Arts Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Racheal Brantley

    2013-01-01

    Organizational citizenship behavior has been studied in various organizational settings, but few have examined the construct within the context of higher education. In addition, evidence (DiPaola, Tarter, Hoy, 2007), has suggested a relationship between organizational citizenship and effectiveness within schools, but has not been fully examined in…

  2. Rancang Bangun Sistem Scada (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition pada Instalasi Pengolahan Air Sungai Cihideung Institut Pertanian Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Eko Handoko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SCADA is a combination of telemetry and data acquisition. SCADA proceeding by means of accumulating some information and return back to center controlling, it is also implementing every analysis and necessary control through PID control system as a control parameter to SCADA input data system in this research. In designing PID control system it is needed the arrangement of P, I and D parameter in order to acquire output signal system to particular input system which has adjusted to necessity. The research was implemented on Water Treatment Plant in Bogor Agricultural University at Cihideung's area region. The NTU score as a starting operational data is necessary as a bench mark in PAC dose application which is obtained from the samples of morning and afternoon raw water and dose proportion is 75% for 14kgs PAC mixed with 200 Litre water within 30 NTU as the maximal treatment. 75% dose application can be imposed for 7 hours PAC usage. The result of research indicated that the variety of percentages value in PAC dose application delivered the advantage in operating of clean water processing installation particularly for PAC needed. Design Of SCADA System SCADA indicated the outcome of unit data acquirement on certain period to determine the PAC necessity in operating Water Treatment Plant.

  3. Quality of Institutions : Does Intelligence Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Kalonda-Kanyama; Oasis Kodila-Tedika

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the eect of the average level of intelligence on different measures of the quality of institutions, using a 2006 cross-sectional sample of 113 countries. The results show that average IQ positively affects all the measures of institutional quality considered in our study, namely government efficiency, regulatory quality, rule of law, political stability and voice and accountability. The positive effect of intelligence is robust to controlling for other determinants of inst...

  4. A survey of informatics platforms that enable distributed comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional heterogenous clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; Hazlehurst, Brian L; Brown, Jeffrey; Murphy, Shawn; Rosenman, Marc; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has the potential to transform the current health care delivery system by identifying the most effective medical and surgical treatments, diagnostic tests, disease prevention methods, and ways to deliver care for specific clinical conditions. To be successful, such research requires the identification, capture, aggregation, integration, and analysis of disparate data sources held by different institutions with diverse representations of the relevant clinical events. In an effort to address these diverse demands, there have been multiple new designs and implementations of informatics platforms that provide access to electronic clinical data and the governance infrastructure required for interinstitutional CER. The goal of this manuscript is to help investigators understand why these informatics platforms are required and to compare and contrast 6 large-scale, recently funded, CER-focused informatics platform development efforts. We utilized an 8-dimension, sociotechnical model of health information technology to help guide our work. We identified 6 generic steps that are necessary in any distributed, multi-institutional CER project: data identification, extraction, modeling, aggregation, analysis, and dissemination. We expect that over the next several years these projects will provide answers to many important, and heretofore unanswerable, clinical research questions.

  5. Perceptions of effective relationships in an institutional care setting for older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Roos

    2014-10-01

    Research purpose: This article reports older residents’ perceptions of effective relationships. Motivation for the study: Effective relationships protect against loneliness and depression and contribute to well-being. The facility was identified by a social worker as a showcase for effective relationships, but it was not clear what these consist of. Research approach, design and method: The World Café, a qualitative, participatory action research method, was applied to an economically deprived, urban facility caring for older people in Gauteng, South Africa. Three positively framed questions elicited perceptions from participants (nine men, ten women, aged 65–89. Visual and textual data were obtained and thematically analysed until saturation had been achieved. Themes were then subjected to deductive direct content analysis in terms of Self-Interactional Group Theory (SIGT. Main findings: Older residents perceive care managers as friendly and trustworthy and co-residents as caring. Care managers were seen as flexible, empathetic and congruent leaders and they confirmed residents. Relationships between residents were parallel-defined with relational qualities such as empathy and unconditional acceptance. Residents’ needs for privacy were honoured and they felt confirmed. Group dynamics were underpinned by caring and a stimulating environment provided opportunities for engagement. Practical/managerial implications: Relationships between managers and consumers are facilitated by flexibility, empathy, congruence and unconditional acceptance. Supportive group dynamics develop when people confirm and accept one another. A stimulating environment that encourages continuous and close interpersonal contact contributes to effective relationships. Contribution/value-add: Effective relationships should be understood on different levels.

  6. Automatic control algorithm effects on energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnerney, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model was developed using actual wind time series and turbine performance data to simulate the power produced by the Sandia 17-m VAWT operating in automatic control. The model was used to investigate the influence of starting algorithms on annual energy production. The results indicate that, depending on turbine and local wind characteristics, a bad choice of a control algorithm can significantly reduce overall energy production. The model can be used to select control algorithms and threshold parameters that maximize long term energy production. The results from local site and turbine characteristics were generalized to obtain general guidelines for control algorithm design.

  7. The information system of learning quality control in higher education institutions: achievements and problems of European universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhova Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main trends in the development of the system of learning quality control connected with the European integration of higher education and the democratization of education. The authors analyze the state of information systems of learning quality control existing in European higher education and identify their strong and weak points. The authors show that in the learning process universities actively use innovative analytic methods as well as modern means of collecting, storing and transferring information that ensure the successful management of such a complex object as the university of the 21st century.

  8. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately....../Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....

  9. Institutional Assessment

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many approaches can and have helped research institutions in the developing .... There are many good texts on project and program evaluation, not to ...... has challenged managers and students of organizational development for decades.

  10. Effect of Industrial and Organizational Psychology on Administrators' Perception of Entrepreneurial University in Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tezcan UYSAL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of industrial and organizational psychology on entrepreneurship university perceptions of academic personnel that maintain their duties as executives within the climate of university. In accordance with this purpose, a study for academicians that carry out their duties as executives virtually in two state universities one of which (Y takes place among entrepreneur and entrepreneurial university index while another (X doesn't take place within this index was conducted. The results of the questionnaires which tried to measure the entrepreneurial university perception and industrial and organizational psychology were analyzed with correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, Kruskal-Wallis H Test and Mann-Whitney U test within the scope of SPSS program. As a result of the correlation analysis that was conducted for both of the samplings, a significant relationship was detected between negative and positive industrial and organizational psychology and entrepreneurial university perception. As a result of the regression analysis that was conducted for the sample obtained from X university, it was determined that the psychological output that had the most effect on the entrepreneurship university perception of the executives was motivation while the negative output that had the most effect was the intention to quit the job. As a result of the regression analysis that was conducted for the sample obtained from the Y University, it was detected that the positive output that had the most effect on the entrepreneurial university conception of the executives was motivation, while the negative output that had the most effect was job stress. As a result of the comparison of both examples, the fundamental psychological factor that intensified the entrepreneurial university perception was high motivation.

  11. Effects of Financial Performance and Governance on Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure: Evidence from Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslinda Yusoff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic financial institutions (IFIs are established based on Islamic foundations and their corporate practices are expected to be aligned with Islamic laws and framework. This study seeks to understand the determinants for the CSR disclosure of IFIs in Malaysia. Using the 2010 annual reports of 37 IFIs, this study investigates the effects of financial performance and corporate governance mechanism (proxied by Shariah supervisory committee or SCC and ownership structure on CSR disclosure. Results reveal that between financial performance and SCC and ownership structure, only the latter significantly influences CSR disclosure. Overall, the findings offer insights into current reporting practices and propose ideas pertaining to the establishment of an Islamic-based CSR reporting framework. The significant factors influencing CSR disclosure may be used to develop effective practice among IFIs in Malaysia and other countries.

  12. Preparedness of institutions around the world for managing patients with Ebola virus disease: an infection control readiness checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tartari, E.; Allegranzi, B.; Ang, B.; Calleja, N.; Collignon, P.; Hopman, J.; Lang, L.; Lee, L.C.; Ling, M.L.; Mehtar, S.; Tambyah, P.A.; Widmer, A.; Voss, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In response to global concerns about the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD), outbreak to-date in West Africa documented healthcare associated transmission and the risk of global spread, the International Society of Chemotherapy (ISC) Infection Control Working Group created an Ebola

  13. Radioisotope devices and sanitary control over its application in the units and institutions of Army and Navy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, E.V.; Rymarchuk, A.A.; Shishkanov, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Sanitary control over the use of radioisotope devices (RID) is considered. To avoid losses of radioactive sources, an attention is paid to the order of RID account, their storage and issue, writing off unfit devices and sources and their burial. The role of military medical personnel grows. They must provide efficiency of safety of radioactive substance use in the units of Army and Navy

  14. Program for upgrading nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting at all facilities within the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuferev, V.; Zhikharev, S.; Yakimov, Y.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy-Russian program for strengthening nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A), plans have now been formulated to install an integrated MPC and A system at all facilities containing large quantities of weapons-usable nuclear material within the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF, Arzamas-16) complex. In addition to storage facilities, the complex houses a number of critical facilities used to conduct nuclear physics research and facilities for developing procedures for disassembly of nuclear weapons

  15. Effects of Radiotherapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma: a retrospective analysis of a Single Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuschek, Christiane; Ochtrop, Thomas A; Bölke, Edwin; Ganswindt, Ute; Fenk, Roland; Gripp, Stephan; Kröpil, Patric; Gerber, Peter Arne; Kammers, Kai; Hamilton, Jackson; Orth, Klaus; Budach, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Palliative irradiation of osteolytic lesions is a considerable component in the treatment for patients with multiple myeloma. In this study, we analyzed the efficacy of irradiation in these patients. We retrospectively analyzed 153 patients with multiple myeloma who were admitted to our department between 1989 and 2013. According to the staging system of Durie & Salmon 116 patients were classified as stage III. 107/153 patients were treated with radiotherapy of at least one and up to 6 bony lesions at different times. In order to evaluate the effect of local radiotherapy on pain relief and bone recalcification a uni- and multivariate analysis was performed using a binary logistic regression model to correct for multiple measurements. Complete information on dose, fractionation and volume of radiotherapy was available from 81 patients treated in 136 target volumes for pain relief, and from 69 patients treated in 108 target volumes for recalcification. Total radiation doses varied between 8 Gy to 50 Gy (median dose 25 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions, 5 times a week). Radiotherapy resulted in complete local pain relief in 31% and partial local pain relief in 54% of the patients. In the univariate analysis, higher total radiation doses (p = 0.023) and higher age (p = 0.014) at the time of radiotherapy were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of pain relief, whereas no significant association was detected for concurrent systemic treatment, type and stage of myeloma and location of bone lesions. The same variables were independent predictors for pain relief in the multivariate analysis. Recalcification was observed in 48% of irradiated bone lesions. In the uni- and multivariate analysis higher radiation doses were significantly associated (p = 0.048) with an increased likelihood of recalcification. Side effects of radiotherapy were generally mild. Higher total biological radiation doses were associated with better pain relief and recalcification in this

  16. Radiation effect calculation means of the Crisis Technical Center of the Nuclear Safety and Protection Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.; Manesse, D.; Robeau, D.

    1989-07-01

    The available calculation tools of the Crisis Technical Center (CTC), for the analysis and evaluation of radiation effects from a nuclear accident, are presented. The CTC calculation unit depends on local means, and on the National Meteorology system, in order to collect the data needed for the atmospheric waste diffusion evaluation. For the radiation dose calculations, plotters and software allowing the analysis of all waste Kinetics and all the meteorological conditions are available. The work developed by CTC calculation unit enables an easy application of the calculation tools as well as the results obtention. Images from data bases are provided to complete the obtained results [fr

  17. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; De Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I]) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]). We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total). Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation), in the middle (after 24 sessions), and at the end (after 48 sessions) of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion, language tests should be routinely adopted in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects, and long-term-care institutions need to include regular sensorimotor, social, and cognitive stimulation as a public health policy for elderly persons. PMID:24600211

  18. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; De Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I]) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]). We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total). Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation), in the middle (after 24 sessions), and at the end (after 48 sessions) of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion, language tests should be routinely adopted in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects, and long-term-care institutions need to include regular sensorimotor, social, and cognitive stimulation as a public health policy for elderly persons.

  19. Operative time and cost of resident surgical experience: effect of instituting an otolaryngology residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollei, Taylor R; Barrs, David M; Hinni, Michael L; Bansberg, Stephen F; Walter, Logan C

    2013-06-01

    Describe the procedure length difference between surgeries performed by an attending surgeon alone compared with the resident surgeon supervised by the same attending surgeon. Case series with chart review. Tertiary care center and residency program. Six common otolaryngologic procedures performed between August 1994 and May 2012 were divided into 2 cohorts: attending surgeon alone or resident surgeon. This division coincided with our July 2006 initiation of an otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency program. Operative duration was compared between cohorts with confounding factors controlled. In addition, the direct result of increased surgical length on operating room cost was calculated and applied to departmental and published resident case log report data. Five of the 6 procedures evaluated showed a statistically significant increase in surgery length with resident involvement. Operative time increased 6.8 minutes for a cricopharyngeal myotomy (P = .0097), 11.3 minutes for a tonsillectomy (P operative time difference. Cost of increased surgical time was calculated per surgery and ranged from $286 (cricopharyngeal myotomy) to $2142 (mastoidectomy). When applied to reported national case log averages for graduating residents, this resulted in a significant increase of direct training-related costs. Resident participation in the operating room results in increased surgical length and additional system cost. Although residency is a necessary part of surgical training, associated costs need to be acknowledged.

  20. Effect of Distance on Open Innovation: Differences among Institutions According to Patent Citation and Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JinHyo Joseph Yun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this paper is the effects of distance between technology and the market, on open innovation. For this, we set up two research questions, as follows: Is there any relation between the distance between technology and the market, and open innovation? If there is, what differences are there in the relation among Fortune 500 companies, non-Fortune 500 companies, laboratories, universities, and start-ups? First, this study measured the distance between technology and the market of a patent by the size of its list of references and citations. Second, the OI network among patent application subjects was described based on patent similarity. Third and most importantly, regression analyses were used to answer the research questions. The first result was that there were differences in the distance and OI among Fortune 500 firms, Fortune non-500 firms, laboratories, universities, and start-ups. Thus, there are relations between the distance between technology and the market, and open innovation. The second result was that the distance between technology and the market was found to moderate the open innovation effect in Fortune 500 companies and laboratories.

  1. Quality Control Review of the Dixon Hughes Goodman LLP FY 2014 Single Audit of Logistics Management Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-29

    assurance , tax, and advisory services to United States and international clients. DHG employs more than 2,000 people in 12 states. DHG maintains...the review of indirect costs for the allowable costs/cost principles compliance requirement that needs to be addressed in future audits (Finding C...before payment when an item or service is received, but it is unclear how this internal control would provide assurance that LMI complied with

  2. Incidence of urinary bladder tumors in the control Beagle dog population at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Kusewitt, D.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The report reviews the incidence and types of urinary bladder tumors in 94 dogs that have died in a population of 250 control dogs (median life span 14.0 years). Six bladder tumors, two papillomas and four transitional cell carcinomas, were found. The cumulative incidence for bladder tumors was 10.5 percent at 16 to 19 years of age; this was a 20 percent age-specific incidence

  3. IPO AS AN EFFECTIVE INSTITUTION AND A PRECONDITION OF CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING FOR AGRICULTURAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baiura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The key factors of investment attractiveness of the agricultural sector of Ukraine and the need to finance its development through the use of the IPO are analyzed. The main advantages and disadvantages received by any company after passing the IPO are demonstrated. The analysis of the results of the IPO of agricultural enterprises of Ukraine is conducted. Such areas of corporate restructuring as organization of a new corporate structure, bringing system of a corporate governance to the principles of OECD, increased transparency of financial – economic and not financial reporting, optimization of financial management and business process, and also appropriate measures for each of these areas in order to ensure an effectiveness of the IPO are proposed.

  4. WEED CONTROL EFFECTS ON SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The weed control procedures are known to affect the soil physical attributes and the nutrient amount taken up by weed roots. This work hypothesis is that weed control methods might also affect soil chemical attributes. Four experiments were carried out, three with maize (E-1, E-2 and E-3 and one with cotton (E-4, in randomized complete blocks design arranged in split-plots, with five replications. In E-1 experiment, the plots consisted of two weed control treatments: no-weed control and weed shovel-digging at 20 and 40 days after sowing; and the subplots consisted of six maize cultivars. In the three other experiments, the plots consisted of plant cultivars: four maize cultivars (E-2 and E-3 and four cotton cultivars (E-4. And, the subplots consisted of three weed control treatments: (1 no-weed control; (2 weed shovel-digging at 20 and 40 days after sowing; and (3 intercropping with cowpea (E-2 or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. (E-3 and E-4. In all experiments, after harvest, eight soil samples were collected from each subplot (0-20 cm depth and composed in one sample. Soil chemical analysis results indicated that the weed control by shovel-digging or intercropping may increase or decrease some soil element concentrations and the alterations depend on the element and experiment considered. In E-2, the weed shovel-dug plots showed intermediate soil pH, lower S (sum of bases values and higher soil P concentrations than the other plots. In E-4, soil K and Na concentrations in plots without weed control did not differ from plots with intercropping, and in both, K and Na values were higher than in weed shovel-dug plots. Maize and cotton cultivars did not affect soil chemical characteristics.

  5. Effect of Solvency, Sales Growth, and Institutional Ownership on Tax Avoidance with Profitability as Moderating Variables in Indonesian Property and Real Estate Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusna Oktaviyani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the effect of solvency, sales growth, and institutional ownership towards tax avoidance with profitability as a moderating variable. The sample was real estate and property companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2011-2015. The sample was selected using purposive sampling method to get sample about 31 companies. The data used moderated regression analysis. The results indicate that the solvency has significant and positive effect on tax avoidance. Meanwhile, sales growth and institutional ownership do not affect tax avoidance. Then, profitability can moderate the relationship between institutional ownership and tax avoidance.

  6. Analyzing EFL Teachers’ Initial Job Motivation and Factors Effecting Their Motivation in Fezalar Educational Institutions in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Koran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Teacher motivation is one of the primary variables of students’ high performance. It is experienced that students whose teachers are highly motivated are more engaged in the learning process. Therefore, it’s mostly the teacher who determines the level of success or failure in achieving institution’s goal in the educational process. Thus, teachers are expected to demonstrate a high job motivation performance by administrations. However, some teachers seem naturally enthusiastic about teaching while others need to be stimulated, inspired and challenged. There are several factors that provide teachers with necessary motivation driven by which they can work effectively. These factors can be emotional, financial, physical or academic. This study is an attempt to find out what motivates teachers to enter this profession, since the reasons of entering this job has significant influence on their commitment to the job, investigate factors which are responsible for high or low motivation of language teachers in Fezalar Educational Institutions (FEI, which is a Turkish private institution that operates in Iraq, and ascertain the degree to which intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors impact teachers in their work situation. Based on the review of the recent researches of motivation, in general, and of language teacher motivation, in particular, and relying on the qualitative and quantitative study of the issue, a detailed analysis of some aspects of foreign language teacher motivation is presented in the article. Keywords: teacher motivation, job satisfaction, foreign language teaching, L2 teacher motivation

  7. Mass Media’s Impact on Confidence in Political Institutions: The Moderating Role of Political Preferences. A Preferences-Perceptions Model of Media Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Floss, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on mass media’s impact on citizens’ confidence in political institutions. Drawing on research within the field of political science that builds on the discrepancy theory from cognitive psychology, the paper argues that citizens’ preferences of how political institutions should work and the outcomes they should produce moderate mass media’s impact. Building on research of media framing effects on political attitudes an preference-perception model of media effects is develope...

  8. Institutional corruption of pharmaceuticals and the myth of safe and effective drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Donald W; Lexchin, Joel; Darrow, Jonathan J

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 35 years, patients have suffered from a largely hidden epidemic of side effects from drugs that usually have few offsetting benefits. The pharmaceutical industry has corrupted the practice of medicine through its influence over what drugs are developed, how they are tested, and how medical knowledge is created. Since 1906, heavy commercial influence has compromised congressional legislation to protect the public from unsafe drugs. The authorization of user fees in 1992 has turned drug companies into the FDA's prime clients, deepening the regulatory and cultural capture of the agency. Industry has demanded shorter average review times and, with less time to thoroughly review evidence, increased hospitalizations and deaths have resulted. Meeting the needs of the drug companies has taken priority over meeting the needs of patients. Unless this corruption of regulatory intent is reversed, the situation will continue to deteriorate. We offer practical suggestions including: separating the funding of clinical trials from their conduct, analysis, and publication; independent FDA leadership; full public funding for all FDA activities; measures to discourage R&D on drugs with few, if any, new clinical benefits; and the creation of a National Drug Safety Board. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. Procedure to evaluate and control efficiently the operations management of medical equipment in the maintenance unit of a health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Galán Michael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance management plays a very important role in the success of any company. As a consequence of this, in the year of 2013, a study was carried out in health facilities found in the South Eastern Region of Jamaica with the objective of evaluating the existing Maintenance Management Program for Medical Equipment. Among the results obtained, it showed that there is an inadequacy in the existing program whose principal deficiency is attributed to the operations management. As such, this work proposes a procedure for evaluating and controlling in an efficient manner the operations management within the Biomedical Department which forms part of the South East Regional Health Authority Maintenance Unit (SERHAMU, this latter is found on the premises of the Bustamante Hospital for Children (BHC, Jamaica. The method used to develop the procedure (GOMHO is based fundamentally on the design of: a codification system to identify control registers and to record failures associated with each equipment, a system of placing equipment into categories and further differentiating them based on the potential hazard such pose on the human body in the event of an operational failure. In addition, this procedure gives the SERHAMU at the BHC the opportunity to calculate the amount of human resources needed to carry out efficiently the preventative and corrective maintenance work being demanded on the department. During the implementation phase, the results demonstrated that from the control procedure designed there was an improvement in the planning and carrying out of maintenance work and a better system of monitoring the activities that are executed. Also, it was evidenced that there is a 61.53% of the amount of human resources needed to carry out the maintenance actions.

  10. Collaborative Russian-US work in nuclear material protection, control and accounting at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. II. extension to additional facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, V.V.; Pshakin, G.M.; Belov, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    During 1995, collaborative Russian-US nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC ampersand A) tasks at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk, Russia focused on improving the protection of nuclear materials at the BFS Fast Critical Facility. BFS has thousands of fuel disks containing highly enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium that are used to simulate the core configurations of experimental reactors in two critical assemblies. Completed tasks culminated in demonstrations of newly implemented equipment and methods that enhanced the MPC ampersand A at BFS through computerized accounting, nondestructive inventory verification measurements, personnel identification and assess control, physical inventory taking, physical protection, and video surveillance. The collaborative work is now being extended. The additional tasks encompass communications and tamper-indicating devices; new storage alternatives; and systemization of the MPC ampersand A elements that are being implemented

  11. Radiotherapy as an effective treatment modality for follicular lymphoma: a single institution experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seo Hee; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Jin Seok; Cheong, June Won; Suh, Chang Ok [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is highly sensitive to radiotherapy (RT). However, the effectiveness of RT has not been well established. We reviewed our experiences to assess the role of RT for FL and analyze treatment results. Retrospective analysis was done on 29 patients who received first RT between January 2003 and August 2013. Of 23 early stage (stage I, II) patients, 16 received RT alone, four received chemotherapy followed by RT, two received RT postoperatively, and one received salvage RT for relapse after resection. Six advanced-stage (stage III, IV) patients received RT after chemotherapy: two received consolidation RT, three received salvage RT for residual lesions, and one received RT for progressive sites. Median RT dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 21.6 to 48.6 Gy). Median follow-up duration was 62 months (range, 6 to 141 months). All patients showed complete response in the radiation field. Eight outfield relapses were reported. Seven patients received salvage treatment (three chemotherapy, four RT). Four patients showed excellent responses, especially to RT. Estimated 5-year and 10-year relapse-free survivals were 72% and 60%. In the RT-alone group, 5-year relapse-free survival was 74.5%. All advanced-stage patients were disease-free with 100% 5-year overall survival. Disease-specific death was noted in only one patient; four others died of other unrelated causes. No significant toxicity was reported. RT resulted in excellent treatment outcomes for all FL stages when used as a primary treatment modality for early stage or salvage-treatment modality for advanced-stage disease.

  12. An analysis of safety control effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, K.S.; Melchers, R.E.; Kal, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The cost of injuries and 'accidents' to an organisation is very important in establishing how much it should spend on safety control. Despite the usefulness of information about the cost of a company's accidents, it is not customary accounting practice to make these data available. Of the two kinds of costs incurred by a company through occupational injuries and accidents, direct costs and indirect costs; the direct costs are much easier to estimate. However, the uninsured costs are usually more critical and should be estimated by each company. The authors investigate a general model to estimate the above costs and hence to establish efficient safety control. One construction company has been a pilot for this study. By analysing actual company data for three years, it is found that the efficient safety control cost should be 1.2-1.3% of total contract costs

  13. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....

  14. Towards an effective partnership policy for improving urban low-income housing provision in Nigeria: New institutional economics perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Taiwo Gbadegesin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent critique against the past urban housing provision strategies in Nigeria was that the low-income groups are marginalised. It then led to the adoption of public private partnership (PPP initiative with a view to pursuing the broad goal of housing-for-all in Nigeria. Most recent studies have however criticised the effectiveness of the existing PPP practice in the housing provision structure without providing a pragmatic suggestion towards an effective framework for improvement. It thus raised the question; what are the main causes of ineffectiveness of existing PPP in housing provision and how can an effective PPP policy framework for urban low-income housing be achieved in Nigeria? This study utilised the concepts of new institutional economics (NIE - a theoretical and methodological underpinning for multi-actors’ policy matters. Using qualitative data from structured interview and credible literature sources, findings indicate that uncertainties in land accessibility, high transaction costs and the developers’ high profit agenda, are the major causes of PPP ineffectiveness for housing provision, which are also attributed to lack of a specific PPP policy that recognises all income groups and their roles on housing provision. End-users suggested that government could have a negotiation with land owners and building materials dealers to address the housing problem. In conclusion, it is established in this study that adoption of all-inclusive conceptual approach described within the context of NIE thought can facilitate an effective planning for urban low-income housing in Nigeria.

  15. The gender effect in stroke thrombolysis: of CASES, controls, and treatment-effect modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David M; Buchan, Alastair M; Hill, Michael D

    2008-09-30

    Large studies of patients with acute stroke not receiving thrombolytic therapy have repeatedly demonstrated poorer outcomes for women compared to men. An analysis of five pooled randomized controlled trials testing IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) demonstrated that rtPA benefits women more than men; the usual gender difference, apparent among controls, was totally nullified in the rtPA group. This nullification of the usual gender effect among rtPA-treated patients has not been confirmed. We analyzed baseline characteristics and functional outcomes in men vs women in the Canadian Alteplase for Stroke Effectiveness Study (CASES), a multicenter study that collected outcomes data for patients treated with rtPA in Canada to assess the safety and effectiveness of alteplase for stroke in the context of routine care. Among 1,110 patients, including 615 men and 505 women, a normal or near normal outcome at 90 days was found in 37.1% of men vs 36.0% of women (p = 0.71). This was essentially unchanged after adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics, including age >70, glucose, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, hypercholesterolemia, baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Severity, and baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (35.2% in men vs 38.2% in women, p = 0.332). Ninety-day mortality was similar between the sexes in both the adjusted and unadjusted analysis. There was no difference in 90-day outcomes in recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA)-treated men and rtPA-treated women. This is consistent with the pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials, showing greater benefit for thrombolysis in women and nullification of the usual gender difference in outcome.

  16. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  17. Institution Morphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  18. Multi-institutional application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to CyberKnife Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Ivan; De Martin, Elena; Martinotti, Anna Stefania; Fumagalli, Maria Luisa; Vite, Cristina; Redaelli, Irene; Malatesta, Tiziana; Mancosu, Pietro; Beltramo, Giancarlo; Fariselli, Laura; Cantone, Marie Claire

    2015-06-13

    A multidisciplinary and multi-institutional working group applied the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) approach to assess the risks for patients undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) treatments for lesions located in spine and liver in two CyberKnife® Centres. The various sub-processes characterizing the SBRT treatment were identified to generate the process trees of both the treatment planning and delivery phases. This analysis drove to the identification and subsequent scoring of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk probability number (RPN) scoring system. Novel solutions aimed to increase patient safety were accordingly considered. The process-tree characterising the SBRT treatment planning stage was composed with a total of 48 sub-processes. Similarly, 42 sub-processes were identified in the stage of delivery to liver tumours and 30 in the stage of delivery to spine lesions. All the sub-processes were judged to be potentially prone to one or more failure modes. Nineteen failures (i.e. 5 in treatment planning stage, 5 in the delivery to liver lesions and 9 in the delivery to spine lesions) were considered of high concern in view of the high RPN and/or severity index value. The analysis of the potential failures, their causes and effects allowed to improve the safety strategies already adopted in the clinical practice with additional measures for optimizing quality management workflow and increasing patient safety.

  19. Social transactions with future generations for the management of high level radioactive waste in deep repositories: Reflections on institutional control and retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Viala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The management of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel is a key issue and one of the most sensitive aspect of radioactive waste management. Recognising that it is the responsibility of our generation to find a way to isolate the waste, deep geological disposals have been envisaged to provide a definitive solution to the problem, in order to avoid 'undue burden on future generations'. However, even if they are buried, the wastes still exist and human intrusion is still possible as well as releases into the environment in the very far future. At the same time, the ongoing reflections on the ethical aspects of disposals show that it is of great worth that we guarantee future generations the same right of control and responsibility that we ourselves enjoy. This paper presents some reflections on the social transactions associated with the management and design of geological repositories. It is focused on the mission of institutional control in the transmission to future generation of a safety patrimony, composed of the know-how and techniques that permit the human community to 'domesticate' and control the risk. As it appears that the efficiency and the confidence in the control system rely mainly on the capability of implementing corrective actions, some considerations on the role, the consequences and the implementation of retrievability are also presented

  20. Methods for the estimation of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence cost-effectiveness threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Karl; Martin, Steve; Soares, Marta; Rice, Nigel; Spackman, Eldon; Hinde, Sebastian; Devlin, Nancy; Smith, Peter C; Sculpher, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis involves the comparison of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a new technology, which is more costly than existing alternatives, with the cost-effectiveness threshold. This indicates whether or not the health expected to be gained from its use exceeds the health expected to be lost elsewhere as other health-care activities are displaced. The threshold therefore represents the additional cost that has to be imposed on the system to forgo 1 quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of health through displacement. There are no empirical estimates of the cost-effectiveness threshold used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (1) To provide a conceptual framework to define the cost-effectiveness threshold and to provide the basis for its empirical estimation. (2) Using programme budgeting data for the English NHS, to estimate the relationship between changes in overall NHS expenditure and changes in mortality. (3) To extend this mortality measure of the health effects of a change in expenditure to life-years and to QALYs by estimating the quality-of-life (QoL) associated with effects on years of life and the additional direct impact on QoL itself. (4) To present the best estimate of the cost-effectiveness threshold for policy purposes. Earlier econometric analysis estimated the relationship between differences in primary care trust (PCT) spending, across programme budget categories (PBCs), and associated disease-specific mortality. This research is extended in several ways including estimating the impact of marginal increases or decreases in overall NHS expenditure on spending in each of the 23 PBCs. Further stages of work link the econometrics to broader health effects in terms of QALYs. The most relevant 'central' threshold is estimated to be £12,936 per QALY (2008 expenditure, 2008-10 mortality). Uncertainty analysis indicates that the probability that the threshold is effects of changes in expenditure are greater

  1. Effectiveness of the home-based alcohol prevention program "In control: No alcohol!": study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdurmen Jacqueline EE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, children start to drink at an early age; of the Dutch 12-year olds, 40% reports lifetime alcohol use, while 9.7% reports last-month drinking. Starting to drink at an early age puts youth at risk of developing several alcohol-related problems later in life. Recently, a home-based prevention program called "In control: No alcohol!" was developed to delay the age of alcohol onset in children. The main aim of this project is to conduct a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Methods/Design The prevention program will be tested with an RCT among mothers and their 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old, randomly assigned to the prevention or control condition. The program consists of five printed magazines and an activity book designed to improve parental alcohol-specific socialization. Parent-child dyads in the control group receive a factsheet information brochure, which is the standard alcohol brochure of the Trimbos Institute (the Netherlands Institute for Mental Health and Addiction. Outcome measures are initiation of alcohol use (have been drinking at least one glass of alcohol, alcohol-specific parenting, susceptibility to drinking alcohol, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and frequency and intensity of child alcohol use. Questionnaires will be administered online on secured Internet webpages, with personal login codes for both mothers and children. Mothers and children in both the experimental and control condition will be surveyed at baseline and after 6, 12, and 18 months (follow-ups. Discussion The present study protocol presents the design of an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of the home-based "In control: No alcohol!" program for 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old. It is hypothesized that children in the prevention condition will be less likely to have their first glass of alcohol, compared to the control condition. When the

  2. Potential environmental effects of controlled thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) the fusion reaction, (2) approach to the environmental analysis, (3) the reference CTR, (4) CTR environmental effects, (5) CTR accident potential, and (6) the advanced CTR

  3. Electrostatic control of the coffee stain effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alex; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2013-11-01

    The ``coffee stain effect,'' as first explained by Deegan et al. 1997, has received a great deal of attention amongst modellers and experimentalists in recent years, perhaps due in part to its obvious casual familiarity. However, it maintains interest because of its intriguing reliance on an interplay of a trio of effects: contact line pinning, inhomogeneous mass flux, and resulting capillarity-driven flow. What is more, the effect, and especially its suppression or reversal, find applications in fields as diverse as sample recovery, mass spectroscopy and the printing of Organic LEDs. We examine the motion a nanoparticle-laden droplet deposited on a precursor film, incorporating the effects of capillarity, concentration-dependent rheology, together with a heated substrate and resultant mass flux and Marangoni effects. We allow the substrate to act as an electrode and incorporate a second electrode above the droplet. The potential difference together with a disparity in electrical properties between the two regions results in electrical (Maxwell) stresses at the interface. We show via lubrication theory and via direct numerical simulations that the ring effect typically observed may be suppressed or augmented via appropriate use of electric fields. EPSRC DTG

  4. Time-delay effects and simplified control fields in quantum Lyapunov control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, X X; Wu, S L; Wu, Chunfeng; Feng, X L; Oh, C H

    2011-01-01

    Lyapunov-based quantum control has the advantage that it is free from the measurement-induced decoherence and it includes the instantaneous information of the system in the control. The Lyapunov control is often confronted with time delay in the control fields and difficulty in practical implementations of the control. In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the Lyapunov control and explore the possibility of replacing the control field with a pulse train or a bang-bang signal. The efficiency of the Lyapunov control is also presented through examining the convergence time of the system. These results suggest that the Lyapunov control is robust against time delay, easy to realize and effective for high-dimensional quantum systems.

  5. The effectiveness of robust RMCD control chart as outliers’ detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanto; Astutik, Suci

    2017-12-01

    A well-known control chart to monitor a multivariate process is Hotelling’s T 2 which its parameters are estimated classically, very sensitive and also marred by masking and swamping of outliers data effect. To overcome these situation, robust estimators are strongly recommended. One of robust estimators is re-weighted minimum covariance determinant (RMCD) which has robust characteristics as same as MCD. In this paper, the effectiveness term is accuracy of the RMCD control chart in detecting outliers as real outliers. In other word, how effectively this control chart can identify and remove masking and swamping effects of outliers. We assessed the effectiveness the robust control chart based on simulation by considering different scenarios: n sample sizes, proportion of outliers, number of p quality characteristics. We found that in some scenarios, this RMCD robust control chart works effectively.

  6. Perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana: Implications for health sector staff internal migration control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Beyere, Christopher B; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Mwini-Nyaledzigbor, Prudence P

    2017-01-01

    The population of Ghana is increasingly becoming urbanized with about 70% of the estimated 27 million people living in urban and peri-urban areas. Nonetheless, eight out of the ten regions in Ghana remain predominantly rural where only 32% of the national health sector workforce works. Moreover, the rural-urban disparities in the density of health tutors (staff responsible for pre-service training of health professionals) are enormous. This paper explores perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana. This is a descriptive qualitative study conducted in the Greater Accra and Northern regions of Ghana. The Study used the deductive thematic and sub-thematic analysis approaches. Five health training institutions were randomly sampled, and 72 tutors engaged in separate focus group discussions with an average size of 14 participants per group in each training institution. Perceived rural-urban disparities among health tutors were found in the payment of extra duty allowances; school infrastructure including libraries and internet connectivity; staff accommodation; and opportunities for scholarships and higher education. Health tutors in rural areas generally expressed more frustration with these work conditions than those in urban areas. There is the need to initiate and sustain work incentives that promote motivation of rural health tutors to control ongoing rural-urban migration of qualified staff. It is recommended the following incentives be prioritized to promote retention of qualified health tutors in rural health training schools: payment of research, book and rural allowances; early promotion of rural staff; prioritizing rural tutors for scholarships, and introduction of national best health tutor awards.

  7. Material control: Problems in assessing effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanborn, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of material accounting and control systems at facilities processing large quantities of strategic nuclear materials. The subject is timely because of the content of new orders and procedures adopted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in particular the performance requirements in DOE order 5633.3. This order requires the contractor to demonstrate specified levels of detection probability by the safeguards system for actions involving the attempted removal of specified target quantities of material from a facility. The paper reviews some of the difficulties involved in developing methods for determining adequacy with respect to this and similar requirements

  8. Effectiveness of a biological control agent Palexorista gilvoides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Effectiveness of a biological control agent Palexorista gilvoides in controlling Gonometa podorcarpi in conifer ... gilvoides as a potential biological control agent for G. podocarpi. Field and laboratory studies further established that P. .... version for windows (SPSS, 2002). Results. Gonometa podocarpi was present in.

  9. Relevant Costs for Decision in an Effective Controlling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Controlling is considered a leading concept in the sense of coordination, planning, control and automation, in order to produce the synthesis necessary in decision making. The purpose of article is to highlight the link between a dynamic accounting system and an effective controlling system. The research method used is based on the idea that the cost analysis in an efficient controlling system involves obtaining accounting information from within the entity which management then uses in decision making. In conclusion, we emphasize that an effective controlling system must provide managers the tools to meet their informational needs.

  10. Institutional obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines

  11. The case for a United Nations verification agency. Disarmament under effective international control. Working paper 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, A.W.

    1990-07-01

    It is now universally recognized that arms control treaties should be effectively verified. The most objective, flexible and cost-effective means to verify the majority of multilateral treaties would be through a new agency under the United Nations. As a cooperative international effort to develop both the technology and the political framework for arms control verification, a United Nations verification agency (UNVA) would speed up and help secure the disarmament process by: verifying a number of existing and future treaties; investigating alleged breaches of treaties; and certifying, upon request, that voluntary arms control and confidence-building measures have been carried out. This paper presents the case for such a proposal, outlines a possible institutional configuration, considers the possibilities for growth and discusses the challenges facing the establishment of such an agency. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab

  12. The case for a United Nations verification agency. Disarmament under effective international control. Working paper 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, A W

    1990-07-01

    It is now universally recognized that arms control treaties should be effectively verified. The most objective, flexible and cost-effective means to verify the majority of multilateral treaties would be through a new agency under the United Nations. As a cooperative international effort to develop both the technology and the political framework for arms control verification, a United Nations verification agency (UNVA) would speed up and help secure the disarmament process by: verifying a number of existing and future treaties; investigating alleged breaches of treaties; and certifying, upon request, that voluntary arms control and confidence-building measures have been carried out. This paper presents the case for such a proposal, outlines a possible institutional configuration, considers the possibilities for growth and discusses the challenges facing the establishment of such an agency. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab.

  13. The effects and control of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1985-09-01

    Written for the layman, this booklet describes the effects of ionising radiation on people, and discusses the somatic hereditary risk estimates, and the measures taken to ensure the safe operation of the nuclear industry. New edition based on the sievert. (U.K.)

  14. Determinants of Effective Internal Control System in Nigerian Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Effective Internal Control System in Nigerian Banks. ... (21) chief internal auditors of selected recapitalized banks currently operating in Port Harcourt. ... can be carried out, high level ethical standards should be enshrined in Nigerian banks to make internal control more effective. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  15. Effect of External Quality Assurance Evaluation for Chest Radiography: 3-Year Follow-Up in the Medical Institution for Pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Soon Byung

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of external quality assurance (QA) evaluation for chest radiography in the medical institution for pneumoconiosis (MIP). The chest radiography of the MIPs were evaluated for a radiological technique (RT), image quality (IQ), and reading environment (RE), during a 3-year follow up according to the Korean guidelines. Same methods were implemented each year to ensure that the results are reliable. RT, IQ, and RE were compared between examination and medical care (EMP), and only medical care (MCP) for pneumoconiosis, film-screen (FSR) and digital (DR) radiography. Uneducated and educated for QA during a 3-year follow up referencing with 2008 were realized. RT and IQ of the MIPs showed a significantly higher score in 2009 and 2010 compared with 2008 (p < 0.01). However, RE was not significantly improved. The score of RT, IQ, and RE of the EMPs were higher than those of MCPs every year, and FSR showed a lower score in all evaluations, although, more improvement was seen than the DR. The chest radiography of the MIPs showed a significant effect as a result of a repeated external QA evaluation. However, the MIPs need to transfer from FSR to DR, and maintain a continuous QA evaluation for the MCPs.

  16. How trust in institutions and organizations builds general consumer confidence in the safety of food: a decomposition of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, J; van Trijp, J C M; van der Lans, I A; Renes, R J; Frewer, L J

    2008-09-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between general consumer confidence in the safety of food and consumer trust in institutions and organizations. More specifically, using a decompositional regression analysis approach, the extent to which the strength of the relationship between trust and general confidence is dependent upon a particular food chain actor (for example, food manufacturers) is assessed. In addition, the impact of specific subdimensions of trust, such as openness, on consumer confidence are analyzed, as well as interaction effects of actors and subdimensions of trust. The results confirm previous findings, which indicate that a higher level of trust is associated with a higher level of confidence. However, the results from the current study extend on previous findings by disentangling the effects that determine the strength of this relationship into specific components associated with the different actors, the different trust dimensions, and specific combinations of actors and trust dimensions. The results show that trust in food manufacturers influences general confidence more than trust in other food chain actors, and that care is the most important trust dimension. However, the contribution of a particular trust dimension in enhancing general confidence is actor-specific, suggesting that different actors should focus on different trust dimensions when the purpose is to enhance consumer confidence in food safety. Implications for the development of communication strategies that are designed to regain or maintain consumer confidence in the safety of food are discussed.

  17. Fostering Child Development by Improving Care Quality: A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Structural Interventions and Caregiver Trainings in Institutional Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Katharin; Goessmann, Katharina; Rygaard, Niels Peter; Landolt, Markus A; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Quality of child care has been shown to have a crucial impact on children's development and psychological adjustment, particularly for orphans with a history of maltreatment and trauma. However, adequate care for orphans is often impacted by unfavorable caregiver-child ratios and poorly trained, overburdened personnel, especially in institutional care in countries with limited resources and large numbers of orphans. This systematic review investigated the effects of structural interventions and caregiver trainings on child development in institutional environments. The 24 intervention studies included in this systematic review reported beneficial effects on the children's emotional, social, and cognitive development. Yet, few studies focused on effects of interventions on the child-caregiver relationship or the general institutional environment. Moreover, our review revealed that interventions aimed at improving institutional care settings have largely neglected violence and abuse prevention. Unfortunately, our findings are partially limited by constraints of study design and methodology. In sum, this systematic review sheds light on obstacles and possibilities for the improvement in institutional care. There must be greater efforts at preventing violence, abuse, and neglect of children living in institutional care. Therefore, we advocate for combining attachment theory-based models with maltreatment prevention approaches and then testing them using rigorous scientific standards. By using approaches grounded in the evidence, it could be possible to enable more children to grow up in supportive and nonviolent environments.

  18. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  19. Cooperative efforts to improve nuclear materials accounting, control and physical protection at the National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelensky, V.F.; Mikhailov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ukrainian Government are engaged in a program of cooperation to enhance the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons by developing a strong national system of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A). This paper describes the capabilities and work of the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) and cooperative efforts to improve MPC and A at this facility. It describes how these cooperative efforts grew out of Ukraine''s decision to become a non-nuclear weapon state and the shortcomings in MPC and A that developed at KIPT after the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. It also envisions expanded future cooperation in other areas of nuclear materials management

  20. Influence of verbal instructions on effect-based action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas B; Dignath, David

    2017-03-01

    According to ideomotor theory, people use bidirectional associations between movements and their effects for action selection and initiation. Our experiments examined how verbal instructions of action effects influence response selection without prior experience of action effects in a separate acquisition phase. Instructions for different groups of participants specified whether they should ignore, attend, learn, or intentionally produce acoustic effects produced by button presses. Results showed that explicit instructions of action-effect relations trigger effect-congruent action tendencies in the first trials following the instruction; in contrast, no evidence for effect-based action control was observed in these trials when instructions were to ignore or to attend to the action effects. These findings show that action-effect knowledge acquired through verbal instruction and direct experience is similarly effective for effect-based action control as long as the relation between the movement and the effect is clearly spelled out in the instruction.

  1. The Effects of Flattening the Effective Marginal Rate Structure in Australia: Policy Simulations Using the Melbourne Institute Tax and Transfer Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    John Creedy; Guyonne Kalb; Hsein Kew

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses the Melbourne Institute Tax and Transfer Simulator (MITTS) to examine the effects of a reduction in the means-tested benefit taper, or withdrawal, rates in Australia to 30 per cent. That is, all taper rates of 50 per cent and 70 per cent in the 1998 system are reduced to 30 per cent, while leaving all basic benefit levels unchanged. This change is therefore expected to ‘flatten’ the tax structure by reducing the high marginal tax rates applying to those with relatively low inc...

  2. Time Trends of High Blood Pressure Prevalence, Awareness and Control in the Italian General Population : Surveys of the National Institute of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lonardo, Anna; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Palmieri, Luigi; Vanuzzo, Diego; Giampaoli, Simona

    2017-06-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The urgency of the problem was underlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, which recommends a 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of raised BP by 2020. A surveillance system represents a useful tool to monitor BP in the general population. Since 1980s, the National Institute of Health has conducted several surveys of the adult general population, measuring cardiovascular risk factors by standardized procedures and methods. To describe mean BP levels and high BP prevalence from 1978 to 2012 by sex and quinquennia of age. Data were derived from the following three studies: (i) Risk Factors and Life Expectancy (RIFLE), conducted between 1978 and 2002 in 13 Italian regions (>70,000 persons); (ii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare (OEC), conducted between 1998-2002 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons); and (iii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey (OEC/HES), conducted between 2008-2012 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons). A significant decrease in mean systolic and diastolic BP levels and prevalence of high BP from 1978 to 2012 was observed both in men and women. BP and high BP increased by age classes in all considered periods. BP awareness and control also improved. Our data suggest that BP control could be achieved by 2020, as recommended by WHO.

  3. Institutional Disparities in the Cost Effectiveness of GCE A-Level Provision: A Multi-Level Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, A.

    1995-01-01

    Reanalyzes H. Thomas's 1980s data, which used teaching group as the unit of analysis and illuminated some institutional disparities in provision of General Certificate of Education (GCE) A-levels. Uses multilevel analysis to focus on individual students in a hierarchical framework. Among the study institutions, school sixth forms appear less…

  4. 75 FR 51818 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Final Effect of Designation of a Class of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health...: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS... a number of work days aggregating at least 250 work days, occurring either solely under this...

  5. 76 FR 62409 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Final Effect of Designation of a Class of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health...: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS..., from January 1, 1961 through June 30, 1970, for a number of work days aggregating at least 250 work...

  6. 75 FR 74733 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Final Effect of Designation of a Class of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health...: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS... aggregating at least 250 work days, occurring either solely under this employment, or in combination with work...

  7. 75 FR 51816 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Final Effect of Designation of a Class of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health...: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS... number of work days aggregating at least 250 work days, occurring either solely under this employment or...

  8. Report of evaluation on socio-economic effects of R and D results in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), as a core organization devoted to comprehensive nuclear energy research, has steadily promoted nuclear energy research aiming at long-term and stable supply of energy supporting the basis of national existence, advanced nuclear science and engineering leading to increase in Japanese industrial competitive power, etc. Through these undertaking, JAERI has produced a lot of remarkable achievements to contribute the national requests mentioned above. In total, about 1.8 trillion-yen of national funds and over 60,000 person · years of researchers and technical staffs have been invested in the R and D's for the past 45 years. Recently it has been argued and recognized to evaluate how the profits of R and D results in public research institutes supported by national funds are returned to the Japanese people as taxpayers and society as part of an administrative and financial reform. Then, seeing its 45th anniversary, JAERI has tried to evaluate the effects of the R and D achievements on the Japanese society and economy apart from the reviews on the management of the organization and research results by the ex-house experts from the viewpoints of specialty and technical aspects. In order to execute the aforementioned evaluation, JAERI established the in-house Ad hoc Committee for Evaluation of R and D Achievements where decision of the evaluation plan is made, in July 2001, and executed the evaluation followed by assembling the necessary database collected from individual branches. Results obtained from these activities were finally summarized in the Ad hoc Committee. Because a methodology for quantitative evaluation of the economical effects, i.e. cost-benefit effects of R and D's was not established yet, the evaluation was prudently carried out with the assistance of three think tanks and under advices by three ex-house experts. R and D's in JAERI are not limited to the ones where benefits corresponding to profits can be

  9. Tool-effect: Controls on Landscape Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenbring, J. K.; Brocard, G. Y.; Salles, T.; Harrison, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    The ability of rivers to cut through rock and to remove former land surfaces sets the pace of landscape response to mountain uplift. Because of associations between tectonism, river incision, erosion, carbon burial and silicate weathering, high rates of rock uplift are thought to initiate a cascade of processes that are linked to sequestration of CO2 over geologic timescales. However, even in some cases of landscapes experiencing rapid uplift, some portions of landscapes remain unchanged or `relict' for long periods and the fluxes of chemical weathering and physical erosion do not reflect the new tectonic regime-sometimes for millions of years following uplift. These relict portions of the landscape are often composed of subdued topography with thick soils. River incision is achieved by various processes, but one of the main contributors is bedrock abrasion by bedload. Here, we show how the presence of flat, relict landscapes in headwaters can lead to reduced incision rates and low erosion fluxes. We use a known pulse of uplift in Puerto Rico and track the river response to the uplift over time to illustrate a how landscapes in hot, humid climates can persist for millions of years even after rapid mountain uplift. We run experiments on simplified topography using numerical landscape evolution models. Typically, numerical landscape evolution models apply a standard stream power law model, whereby river incision is proportional to basal shear stress or unit stream power, and is not affected by gravel flux. We implement a formulation of the tool and cover effect model, and then we added a reinforcing effect of weathering on this process, by implementing a gravel production function. This function simulates the effect of the residence time of rocks in soil, which is expected to affect the grain-size distribution of the particles in the soil, with lower erosion rates, and longer residence time further decreasing the proportion of gravel delivered to the streams. We find

  10. Effect of call-clubs to institute local network effects in mobile telecommunication and its′ implications on brand loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunarathne E. A .C. P

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid technological advancements in the mobile telecommunication industry, many firms have set their strategies to target larger customer bases since it forecasts extensive future profit generation. Due to severe competition, while employing successful customer loyalty strategies, customer locked-in strategies are also commonly used in the telecommunication industry to retain their customers within the firm. Call-clubs benefits are one of the commonly used strategies used to create local network effects in the mobile telecommunication market place. Thus, this paper targets to provide insight on the implication of subscriber’s involvement in call-clubs on their loyalty towards service providers. A survey based quantitative approach was followed for this study and the data was gathered through a structured off-line questionnaire from randomly selected mobile users in Sri Lanka. Based on collected valid responses, analysis was carried out to answer the designed research hypotheses and structural equation modelling techniques were mainly used for statistical analysis. As per the analysis, research model shows a fairly high level of explanatory power with customer loyalty and perceived call-clubs benefits which indicate customers′ preference towards the service provider when most frequently contacting parties are using the same network. Further analysis was carried out to investigate the moderating effect on call-clubs benefits and customer loyalty relationships due to two main technological advancements; namely, Internet based voice calling facility and multiple connection access facility. Based on the analysis results recommendations were made to track the value of call-clubs strategies accordingly.

  11. Effective augmentation of networked systems and enhancing pinning controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2018-06-01

    Controlling dynamics of networked systems to a reference state, known as pinning control, has many applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we introduce a method for effective augmentation of networked systems, while also providing high levels of pinning controllability for the final augmented network. The problem is how to connect a sub-network to an already existing network such that the pinning controllability is maximised. We consider the eigenratio of the augmented Laplacian matrix as a pinning controllability metric, and use graph perturbation theory to approximate the influence of edge addition on the eigenratio. The proposed metric can be effectively used to find the inter-network links connecting the disjoint networks. Also, an efficient link rewiring approach is proposed to further optimise the pinning controllability of the augmented network. We provide numerical simulations on synthetic networks and show that the proposed method is more effective than heuristic ones.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bress, Adam P; Bellows, Brandon K; King, Jordan B; Hess, Rachel; Beddhu, Srinivasan; Zhang, Zugui; Berlowitz, Dan R; Conroy, Molly B; Fine, Larry; Oparil, Suzanne; Morisky, Donald E; Kazis, Lewis E; Ruiz-Negrón, Natalia; Powell, Jamie; Tamariz, Leonardo; Whittle, Jeff; Wright, Jackson T; Supiano, Mark A; Cheung, Alfred K; Weintraub, William S; Moran, Andrew E

    2017-08-24

    In the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), adults at high risk for cardiovascular disease who received intensive systolic blood-pressure control (target, control (target, costs associated with intensive control versus standard control. We used a microsimulation model to apply SPRINT treatment effects and health care costs from national sources to a hypothetical cohort of SPRINT-eligible adults. The model projected lifetime costs of treatment and monitoring in patients with hypertension, cardiovascular disease events and subsequent treatment costs, treatment-related risks of serious adverse events and subsequent costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for intensive control versus standard control of systolic blood pressure. We determined that the mean number of QALYs would be 0.27 higher among patients who received intensive control than among those who received standard control and would cost approximately $47,000 more per QALY gained if there were a reduction in adherence and treatment effects after 5 years; the cost would be approximately $28,000 more per QALY gained if the treatment effects persisted for the remaining lifetime of the patient. Most simulation results indicated that intensive treatment would be cost-effective (51 to 79% below the willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per QALY and 76 to 93% below the threshold of $100,000 per QALY), regardless of whether treatment effects were reduced after 5 years or persisted for the remaining lifetime. In this simulation study, intensive systolic blood-pressure control prevented cardiovascular disease events and prolonged life and did so at levels below common willingness-to-pay thresholds per QALY, regardless of whether benefits were reduced after 5 years or persisted for the patient's remaining lifetime. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; SPRINT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01206062 .).

  13. Institutional ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    The study of M&As is dominated by positivist and functionalist world views and the use of quantitative methods. Although extant research also uses qualitative and mixed methods, it can be criticized for viewing its subject matter through an abstract and external lens. The researcher is placed in ......, and point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....

  14. Age effects on mediolateral balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Eduardo Cofré Lizama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related balance impairments, particularly in mediolateral direction (ML may cause falls. Sufficiently sensitive and reliable ML balance tests are, however, lacking. This study is aimed to determine (1 the effect of age on and (2 the reliability of ML balance performance using Center of Mass (CoM tracking. METHODS: Balance performance of 19 young (26±3 years and 19 older (72±5 years adults on ML-CoM tracking tasks was compared. Subjects tracked predictable and unpredictable target displacements at increasing frequencies with their CoM by shifting their weight sideward. Phase-shift (response delay and gain (amplitude difference between the CoM and target in the frequency domain were used to quantify performance. Thirteen older and all young adults were reassessed to determine reliability of balance performance measures. In addition, all older adults performed a series of clinical balance tests and conventional posturography was done in a sub-sample. RESULTS: Phase-shift and gain dropped below pre-determined thresholds (-90 degrees and 0.5 at lower frequencies in the older adults and were even lower below these frequencies than in young adults. Performance measures showed good to excellent reliability in both groups. All clinical scores were close to the maximum and no age effect was found using posturography. ML balance performance measures exhibited small but systematic between-session differences indicative of learning. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to accurately perform ML-CoM tracking deteriorates with age. ML-CoM tracking tasks form a reliable tool to assess ML balance in young and older adults and are more sensitive to age-related impairment than posturography and clinical tests.

  15. Biological effect of penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yamashita, Takao

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation with ion beams on biological systems, technique for penetration controlled irradiation has been established. The range in a target was controlled by changing the distance from beam window in the atmosphere, and could be controlled linearly up to about 31 {mu}m in biological material. In addition, the effects of the penetration controlled irradiations with 1.5 MeV/u C and He ions were examined using tobacco pollen. The increased frequency of leaky pollen produced by ion beams suggests that the efficient pollen envelope damages would be induced at the range-end of ion beams. (author)

  16. Employees' perceptions of the effectiveness and fairness of performance management in a South African public sector institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Makhubela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The implementation of performance management systems (PMSs and performance appraisals (PAs by public managers remains a challenge and necessitates an investigation into employees’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the PMS and the fairness of PA. Research purpose: This study investigated the association between employee involvement, performance-oriented culture, management commitment and the effectiveness of a PMS. Six factors that determine and influence employees’ perceptions of PA fairness were also investigated. Motivation for the study: Employees’ experiences of the implementation and practice of PMSs and PAs by public managers may differ from what is intended. The motivation for this study was to quantify employee perceptions of the effectiveness of a PMS and the fairness of PA to establish if there is a discrepancy between what is intended and how they are implemented and practiced. Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study conducted a census on a total population of 140 employees in a public sector institution. A questionnaire comprising three sections was used to collect data: Section A contained biographical questions, Section B comprised questions on the contextual factors that measure the perceived effectiveness of the PMS while Section C comprised questions related to the perceived fairness of PA. Main findings: The results show that employees perceive their PMS to be ineffective and their PAs to be unfair. The mean perception scores for PA fairness for the Assets and Facilities Department were significantly lower than those of the Human Resources Department. This is indicative of some deficiencies in the appraisal process in the Assets and Facilities Department. Respondents occupying general positions returned significantly lower mean scores for PA fairness compared to those in managerial and professional positions, which indicates serious shortcomings in their appraisal process. Practical

  17. Controlling Legal Risk for Effective Hospital Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jun Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the types of medical malpractice, medical errors, and medical disputes in a university hospital for the proposal of countermeasures that maximize the efficiency of hospital management, medical departments, and healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed and analyzed 55 closed civil lawsuits among 64 medical lawsuit cases carried out in Pusan National University Hospital from January 2000 to April 2013 using medical records, petitions, briefs, and data from the Medical Dispute Mediation Committee. Results: Of 55 civil lawsuits, men were the main plaintiffs in 31 cases (56.4%. The average period from medical malpractice to malpractice proceeding was 16.5 months (range, 1 month to 6.4 years, and the average period from malpractice proceeding to the disposition of a lawsuit was 21.7 months (range, 1 month to 4 years and 11 months. Conclusions: Hospitals can effectively manage their legal risks by implementing a systematic medical system, eliminating risk factors in administrative service, educating all hospital employees on preventative strategies, and improving customer service. Furthermore, efforts should be made to establish standard coping strategies to manage medical disputes and malpractice lawsuits, operate alternative dispute resolution methods including the Medical Dispute Mediation Committee, create a compliance support center, deploy a specialized workforce including improved legal services for employees, and specialize the management-level tasks of the hospital.

  18. Higher motivation - greater control? The effect of arousal on judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Hila; Viswanathan, Madhu

    2013-01-01

    This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed.

  19. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shankar; Frazier, Timothy R.; Stanton, Donald W.; Xu, Yi; Bunting, Bruce G.; Wolf, Leslie R.

    2014-08-26

    A technique for engine control to account for fuel effects including providing an internal combustion engine and a controller to regulate operation thereof, the engine being operable to combust a fuel to produce an exhaust gas; establishing a plurality of fuel property inputs; establishing a plurality of engine performance inputs; generating engine control information as a function of the fuel property inputs and the engine performance inputs; and accessing the engine control information with the controller to regulate at least one engine operating parameter.

  20. Clarification of Institutional Controls at the Rocky Flats Site Central Operable Unit and Implementation of the Soil Disturbance Review Plan - 13053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSalvo, Rick [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover St, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States); Surovchak, Scott [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover St, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States); Spreng, Carl [Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, 4300 Cherry Creek Dr. S, Denver, CO 80246-1530 (United States); Moritz, Vera [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, 1595 Wynkoop St., Denver, CO 80202-1129 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Cleanup and closure of DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado, which was placed on the CERCLA National Priority List in 1989, was accomplished under CERCLA, RCRA, and the Colorado Hazardous Waste Act (CHWA). The physical cleanup work was completed in late 2005 and all buildings and other structures that composed the Rocky Flats industrial complex were removed from the surface, but remnants remain in the subsurface. Other remaining features include two landfills closed in place with covers, four groundwater treatment systems, and surface water and groundwater monitoring systems. Under the 2006 Corrective Action Decision/Record of Decision for Rocky Flats Plant (US DOE) Peripheral Operable Unit and the Central Operable Unit (CAD/ROD), the response actions selected for the Central Operable Unit (OU) are institutional controls (ICs), physical controls, and continued monitoring and maintenance. The objectives of these ICs were to prevent unacceptable exposure to remaining subsurface contamination and to prevent contaminants from mobilizing to surface water and to prevent interfering with the proper functioning of the engineered components of the remedy. An amendment in 2011 of the 2006 CAD/ROD clarified the ICs to prevent misinterpretation that would prohibit work to manage and maintain the Central OU property. The 2011 amendment incorporated a protocol for a Soil Disturbance Review Plan for work subject to ICs that requires approval from the State and public notification by DOE prior to conducting approved soil-disturbing work. (authors)

  1. U.S./Russian lab-to-lab materials protection, control and accounting program efforts at the Institute of Inorganic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Kositsyn, V.; Rudenko, V.; Siskind, B.; Bieber, A.; Hoida, H.; Augustson; Ehinger, M.; Smith, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) performs research in nuclear power reactor fuel,m spent fuel reprocessing and waste management, materials science of fissionable and reactor structural materials, metallurgy, superconducting materials, and analytical sciences. VNIINM supports the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (MINATOM) in technologies for fabrication and processing of nuclear fuel. As a participant in the U. S./Russian Lab-to-Lab nuclear materials protection, control and accounting (MPC ampersand A) program, VNIINM is providing evaluation, certification, and implementation of measurement methods for such materials. In 1966, VNIINM will be working with Brookhaven staff in developing and documenting material control and accounting requirements for nuclear materials in bulk form, Livermore and Los Alamos staff in testing and evaluating gamma-ray spectrometry methods for bulk materials, Los Alamos staff in test and evaluation of neutron-coincidence counting techniques, Oak Ridge staff in accounting of bulk materials with process instrumentation, and Pacific Northwest staff on automating VNIINM's coulometric titration system. In addition, VNIINM will develop a computerized accounting system for nuclear material within VNIINM and heir storage facility. This paper describes the status of this work and anticipated progress in 1996

  2. U.S./Russian lab-to-lab materials protection, control and accounting program efforts at the Institute of Inorganic Materials. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Kositsyn, V.; Rudenko, V.; Siskind, B.; Bieber, A.; Hoida, Hiroshi; Augustson, R.; Ehinger, M.; Smith, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) performs research in nuclear power reactor fuel, spent fuel reprocessing and waste management, materials science of fissionable and reactor structural materials, metallurgy, superconducting materials, and analytical sciences. VNIINM supports the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (MINATOM) in technologies for fabrication and processing of nuclear fuel. As a participant in the US/Russian Lab-to-Lab nuclear materials protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) program, VNIINM is providing support for measurements of nuclear materials in bulk forms by developing specifications, test and evaluation, certification, and implementation of measurement methods for such materials. In 1996, VNIINM will be working with Brookhaven staff in developing and documenting material control and accounting requirements for nuclear materials in bulk form, Livermore and Los Alamos staff in testing and evaluating gamma-ray spectrometry methods for bulk materials, Los Alamos staff in test and evaluation of neutron-coincidence counting techniques, Oak Ridge staff in accounting of bulk materials with process instrumentation, and Pacific Northwest staff on automating VNIINM's coulometric titration system. In addition, VNIINM will develop a computerized accounting system for nuclear material within VNIINM and their storage facility. The paper will describe the status of this work and anticipated progress in 1996

  3. Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  4. Effectance and control as determinants of video game enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimmt, Christoph; Hartmann, Tilo; Frey, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    This article explores video game enjoyment originated by games' key characteristic, interactivity. An online experiment (N=500) tested experiences of effectance (perceived influence on the game world) and of being in control as mechanisms that link interactivity to enjoyment. A video game was manipulated to either allow normal play, reduce perceived effectance, or reduce perceived control. Enjoyment ratings suggest that effectance is an important factor in video game enjoyment but that the relationship between control of the game situation and enjoyment is more complex.

  5. Cost effectiveness analysis of indoor radon control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1989-01-01

    The problem of radon 222 in buildings as a contributor to radiation exposure is described. Five different control methods and the dose reductions that would result from each are analysed. The annualized cost for each control measure was evaluated and the cost effectiveness of each control measure was calculated on the basis of dollars per person-sievert dose reduction. The use of unipolar ion generators for particle removal appears to be the most cost effective and the use of ceiling fans to increase air circulation the least cost effective. 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Pilot-model analysis and simulation study of effect of control task desired control response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. J.; Gera, J.; Jaudon, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot model analysis was performed that relates pilot control compensation, pilot aircraft system response, and aircraft response characteristics for longitudinal control. The results show that a higher aircraft short period frequency is required to achieve superior pilot aircraft system response in an altitude control task than is required in an attitude control task. These results were confirmed by a simulation study of target tracking. It was concluded that the pilot model analysis provides a theoretical basis for determining the effect of control task on pilot opinions.

  7. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V; Müller, Daniel; Radeloff, Volker C; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ∼273 800 km 2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus–Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and

  8. Financial management and job social skills training components in a summer business institute: a controlled evaluation in high achieving predominantly ethnic minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Conway, Debbie; Beisecker, Monica; Murphy, Heather; Farley, Alisha; Waite, Melissa; Gugino, Kristin; Knatz, Danielle; Lopez-Frank, Carolina; Burns, Jack; Madison, Suzanne; Shorty, Carrie

    2005-07-01

    Ninety-two adolescents, predominantly ethnic minority high school students, participated in a structured Summer Business Institute (SBI). Participating youth were randomly assigned to receive either job social skills or financial management skills training components. Students who additionally received the job social skills training component were more likely to recommend their employment agency to others than were youth who received the financial management component, rated their overall on-the-job work experience more favorably, and demonstrated higher scores in areas that were relevant to the skills that were taught in the job social skills workshops. The financial management component also appeared to be relatively effective, as youth who received this intervention improved their knowledge of financial management issues more than youth who received job social skills, and rated their workshops as more helpful in financial management, as well as insurance management. Future directions are discussed in light of these results.

  9. Impact and cost-effectiveness of snail control to achieve disease control targets for schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nathan C; Gurarie, David; Yoon, Nara; Coulibaly, Jean T; Bendavid, Eran; Andrews, Jason R; King, Charles H

    2018-01-23

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that affects over 240 million people globally. To improve population-level disease control, there is growing interest in adding chemical-based snail control interventions to interrupt the lifecycle of Schistosoma in its snail host to reduce parasite transmission. However, this approach is not widely implemented, and given environmental concerns, the optimal conditions for when snail control is appropriate are unclear. We assessed the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of various snail control strategies. We extended previously published dynamic, age-structured transmission and cost-effectiveness models to simulate mass drug administration (MDA) and focal snail control interventions against Schistosoma haematobium across a range of low-prevalence (5-20%) and high-prevalence (25-50%) rural Kenyan communities. We simulated strategies over a 10-year period of MDA targeting school children or entire communities, snail control, and combined strategies. We measured incremental cost-effectiveness in 2016 US dollars per disability-adjusted life year and defined a strategy as optimally cost-effective when maximizing health gains (averted disability-adjusted life years) with an incremental cost-effectiveness below a Kenya-specific economic threshold. In both low- and high-prevalence settings, community-wide MDA with additional snail control reduced total disability by an additional 40% compared with school-based MDA alone. The optimally cost-effective scenario included the addition of snail control to MDA in over 95% of simulations. These results support inclusion of snail control in global guidelines and national schistosomiasis control strategies for optimal disease control, especially in settings with high prevalence, "hot spots" of transmission, and noncompliance to MDA. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Bourgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline; will matching institutional and regulatory contexts lead to an effective bargaining and eventual consensus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegaki, Angeliki N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs Muthoo's bargaining principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result (. A Non-Technical Introduction to Bargaining Theory, World Economics 1(2): 145-166) to decide whether Greece and Bulgaria can form a successful energy coalition. Motivation for this is the proposed construction of the crude oil pipeline from the Bulgarian port Burgas to the Greek Aegean port of Alexandroupolis. The reason Turkey is the third country in the analysis despite its current non-membership in this venture, is that: (i) Turkey offers to host a competitive route of the pipeline, (ii) It is a transit, neighboring country to Greece forming an important geopolitical triangle together with Greece and Bulgaria and (iii) co-operates separately with Bulgaria and Greece in other energy pipelines. Therefore, the three countries engage to interwining energy and geopolitical futures. Whether B-A oil pipeline will be implemented or not, will be due to a mix of bargaining procedures. The paper shows that Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy and energy figures and characteristics), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising based on this theory. - Research Highlights: →The B-A oil pipeline project is currently at a junction point. Bargaining and public discussion is ongoing. →Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy, energy, socio-demographic and E-governance figures and characteristics as well as environmental effects and construction characteristics of the pipeline), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. Therefore the two countries match in all parameters and remains pending the last but not least point of agreement, namely citizens' consensus. →A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising

  11. Bourgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline; will matching institutional and regulatory contexts lead to an effective bargaining and eventual consensus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menegaki, Angeliki N., E-mail: amenegaki@her.forthnet.g [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Languages, Literature and Civilization of Black Sea Countries, Polytechniou 7A, 69100 Komotini (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    This paper employs Muthoo's bargaining principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result (. A Non-Technical Introduction to Bargaining Theory, World Economics 1(2): 145-166) to decide whether Greece and Bulgaria can form a successful energy coalition. Motivation for this is the proposed construction of the crude oil pipeline from the Bulgarian port Burgas to the Greek Aegean port of Alexandroupolis. The reason Turkey is the third country in the analysis despite its current non-membership in this venture, is that: (i) Turkey offers to host a competitive route of the pipeline, (ii) It is a transit, neighboring country to Greece forming an important geopolitical triangle together with Greece and Bulgaria and (iii) co-operates separately with Bulgaria and Greece in other energy pipelines. Therefore, the three countries engage to interwining energy and geopolitical futures. Whether B-A oil pipeline will be implemented or not, will be due to a mix of bargaining procedures. The paper shows that Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy and energy figures and characteristics), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising based on this theory. - Research Highlights: {yields}The B-A oil pipeline project is currently at a junction point. Bargaining and public discussion is ongoing. {yields}Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy, energy, socio-demographic and E-governance figures and characteristics as well as environmental effects and construction characteristics of the pipeline), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. Therefore the two countries match in all parameters and remains pending the last but not least point of agreement, namely citizens' consensus. {yields}A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might

  12. Ideological Bases of Institutional Trust in Eastern and Western Europe and the Effect of Motivated Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Hadarics

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates the assumption that citizens expect the democratic institutional system to operate in accordance with values and norms that are deeply embedded in public thinking of their country. As individual-level trust towards the institutional system is built mainly on these norms and values, our results show that differences between Eastern and Western European public thinking lead to asymmetries regarding the bases of institutional trust. Specifically, degree of income inequalities and perceived quality of welfare services seem to be more important factors in the postsocialist region in comparison with Western Europe. Furthermore, in accordance with the approach of motivated social cognition, we could also confirm that those with a higher level of conventionality motivation lean on normative ideological elements to a greater extent when they are indicating their personal level of institutional trust.

  13. Power effects on cognitive control: Turning conflict into action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Petra C; Kleiman, Tali; Amodio, David M

    2015-06-01

    Power is known to promote effective goal pursuit, especially when it requires one to overcome distractions or bias. We proposed that this effect involves the ability to engage and implement cognitive control. In Study 1, we demonstrated that power enhances behavioral performance on a response conflict task and that it does so by enhancing controlled processing rather than by reducing automatic processing. In Study 2, we used an event-related potential index of anterior cingulate activity to test whether power effects on control were due to enhanced conflict sensitivity or action implementation. Power did not significantly affect neural sensitivity to conflict; rather, high power was associated with a stronger link between conflict processing and intended action, relative to low power. These findings suggest a new perspective on how social factors can affect controlled processing and offer new evidence regarding the transition between conflict detection and the implementation of action control. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Controlling Healthcare Costs: Just Cost Effectiveness or "Just" Cost Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Leonard M

    2018-04-01

    Meeting healthcare needs is a matter of social justice. Healthcare needs are virtually limitless; however, resources, such as money, for meeting those needs, are limited. How then should we (just and caring citizens and policymakers in such a society) decide which needs must be met as a matter of justice with those limited resources? One reasonable response would be that we should use cost effectiveness as our primary criterion for making those choices. This article argues instead that cost-effectiveness considerations must be constrained by considerations of healthcare justice. The goal of this article will be to provide a preliminary account of how we might distinguish just from unjust or insufficiently just applications of cost-effectiveness analysis to some healthcare rationing problems; specifically, problems related to extraordinarily expensive targeted cancer therapies. Unconstrained compassionate appeals for resources for the medically least well-off cancer patients will be neither just nor cost effective.

  15. Southern Universities Nuclear Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Southern Universities Nuclear Institute was created in 1961 to provide postgraduate research and teaching facilities for the universities of Cape Town and Stellenbosch. The main research tool is the 6,0 MV Van de Graaff accelerator installed in 1964. Developments and improvements over the years have maintained the Institute's research effectiveness. The work of local research groups has led to a large number of M Sc and doctorate degrees and numerous publications in international journals. Research at the Institute includes front-line studies of basic nuclear and atomic physics, the development and application of nuclear analytical techniques and the application of radioisotope tracers to problems in science, industry and medicine. The Institute receives financial support from the two southern universities, the Department of National Education, the CSIR and the Atomic Energy Board

  16. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth Performance of Quality Protein Maize in ... worldwide on over 159.5 million hectares in the year. 2010. ...... Fertilizer company of Nigeria, NAFCON, Port. Harcourt.

  17. Modeling Reaction Control System Effects on Mars Odyssey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanna, Jill

    2002-01-01

    ...) simulations to determine rotational motion of the spacecraft. The main objective of this study was to assess the reaction control system models and their effects on the atmospheric flight of Odyssey...

  18. Effective Development and Verification of Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This document presents a method for effective development of software for a product line of similar railway control systems. The software is constructed in three steps: first a specifications in a domain-specific language is created, then a formal behavioural controller model is automatically...

  19. Evaluating the effects of mosquito control adulticides on honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    While mosquito control adulticides can be effective in rapidly reducing mosquito populations during times of high arbovirus transmission, the impacts of these control measures on pollinators has been of recent interest. The purpose of our study was to evaluate mosquito and honey bee mortality using ...

  20. Prevalence of Mastitis and Effectiveness of Mastitis Control in Dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed prevalence of mastitis and effectiveness of mastitis control in dairy cattle in Mathira constituency. Data regarding occurrence of mastitis, farmers' current practices in mastitis control, and administering a questionnaire to 76 smallholder farmers collected their knowledge about dairy cow mastitis. Quarter ...

  1. Using Movement Test to Evaluate Effectiveness of Health and Fitness Activities of Students in Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pashkevich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to evaluate the possibility of using screening methods for determining the effectiveness of health and fitness activities of students in higher education institutions. Materials and methods. The participants in the experiment were 37 first-year students (17 boys and 20 girls of the School of History of H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University. The experiment lasted during the fall semester. Using the Framingham method for analyzing weekly timing, the study conducted a survey among the students on their level of motor activity and performed a functional movement screen testing. To tentatively evaluate the cause and effect relationship between the level of motor activity and the occurrence of a pathological movement pattern, the study used the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The characteristics between the groups were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney test for comparing the distribution of ordinal variables. Results. The correlation analysis showed that the first-year students’ motor activity was positively related to the results of functional movement screening (R=+0.69, p< 0.05. At the same time, the students (EG1 who mainly had a high level of physical activity at physical education classes showed low values of functional movement evaluation, compared to the students (EG2 participating in extra-curricular physical activity. In EG1, the overall screening score was 10.3±0.7, in EG2 — 14.2±0.9 (p<0.05. Conclusions. The students with insufficient weekly motor activity had risk values of the test (10.3±0.7, which requires further analysis of the causes of a pathological movement pattern. The study results have confirmed the existence of the relationship between motor activity indicators and functional movement evaluation (R=+0.69, p<0.05. This provides a way to use the screening method of determining motor competence for the effectiveness evaluation of health and fitness programs, but further

  2. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  3. Effects of Locus of Control and Learner-Control on Web-Based Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Mei; Ho, Chiung-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The study explored the effects of students' locus of control and types of control over instruction on their self-efficacy and performance in a web-based language learning environment. A web-based interactive instructional program focusing on the comprehension of news articles for English language learners was developed in two versions: learner-…

  4. Effects of Internal Control Training on the Locus of Control of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of internal control training on the locus of control of selected school going adolescents in Benin City. A sample size of 60 was drawn from two of the 27 co-educational schools in Oredo Local government area of Benin City. A table of random number technique was used to select subjects for ...

  5. EFFECTIVE CRISIS MANAGEMENT FOR ISLAMIC FINANCIAL INDUSTRY AND THE INSTITUTION OF HISBAH: LESSONS FROM GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Zada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis resulted destructive effects on finance industry. Islamic financial industry (IFI is still naïve and largely untested in the face of a major financial turmoil. Major issues and uncertainties of the insolvency of IFI include the issue of moral hazard, government bailouts, excessive risk taking and deposit insurance. This paper addresses the issue of crisis management in IFI from the perspective of al-Siyasah al-Shar’iyyah and attempts to derive public policy guidelines that are useful in developing a timely and efficient crises management framework for Islamic finance industry. By using qualitative methods, the study found that the global financial crisis resulted in great destruction of financial institution. Although Islamic finance was quite immune to the global crisis as compared to its conventional peer, concerns still exist. It is time that Islamic finance industry learns from the financial woes of the rest of the world. =========================================== Krisis keuangan baru-baru ini mengakibatkan efek destruktif pada industri keuangan. Industri keuangan Islam (IKI masih naif dan sebagian besar belum teruji dalam menghadapi gejolak keuangan besar. Isu utama dan ketidakpastian dari kebangkrutan IKI meliputi moral hazard, dana talangan pemerintah, pengambilan risiko yang berlebihan dan asuransi deposito. Makalah ini membahas isu manajemen krisis dalam IKI dari perspektif al-Siyasah al-Shar'iyyah dan berusaha mendapatkan pedoman kebijakan publik yang bermanfaat dalam mengembangkan kerangka kerja manajemen krisis yang tepat waktu dan efisien bagi IKI. Dengan menggunakan metode kualitatif, studi ini menemukan bahwa krisis keuangan global mengakibatkan kehancuran besar bagi industri keuangan. Meskipun keuangan Islam cukup kebal terhadap krisis global dibandingkan dengan keuangan konvensional, kekhawatiran masih ada. Sudah saatnya industri keuangan Islam belajar dari krisis keuangan dari seluruh dunia.

  6. The institutional design, politics, and effects of a bioregional approach: observations and lessons from 11 case studies of river basin organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Meijerink

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the prescriptions for adaptive comanagement of social-ecological systems is to follow a bioregional approach. In water resources management, experience has been gained with a bioregional approach by the foundation of river basin organizations (RBOs. Here, we summarize the results of a research project involving 27 colleagues who have undertaken an analysis of the global discussion on RBOs and the foundation of RBOs in Canada, USA, Great Britain, Germany, Portugal, South Africa, Ukraine, Afghanistan, Mongolia, Thailand, and Australia. Drawing on Ostrom's institutional analysis and development framework, we first present a fine-grained analysis of the institutional architecture of these RBOs, which enables us to distinguish between autonomous, coordinating, partnership, and agency type RBOs. Second, we unravel the main controversies over this architecture by focusing on the key actors involved in either promoting or hindering RBO formation, globally and at the national level. Third, we summarize how the performance of RBOs can be evaluated in terms of coordination, accountability, legitimacy, and environmental effectiveness. Finally, we discuss the relationship between institutional design and performance. The main findings are: (1 the foundation of RBOs is not a neutral process but rather a highly political one, (2 the foundation of RBOs creates complex accountability relationships, and (3 institutional interplay, the capacity to generate financial resources, and a minimum degree of institutional stability are crucial to the successes of RBOs in realizing coordination and environmental effectiveness.

  7. Experimental effective shape control of a powered transfemoral prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D; Lenzi, Tommaso; Fey, Nicholas P; Hargrove, Levi J; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental implementation of a novel feedback control strategy that regulates effective shape on a powered transfemoral prosthesis. The human effective shape is the effective geometry to which the biological leg conforms--through movement of ground reaction forces and leg joints--during the stance period of gait. Able-bodied humans regulate effective shapes to be invariant across conditions such as heel height, walking speed, and body weight, so this measure has proven to be a very useful tool for the alignment and design of passive prostheses. However, leg joints must be actively controlled to assume different effective shapes that are unique to tasks such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. Using our previous simulation studies as a starting point, we model and control the effective shape as a virtual kinematic constraint on the powered Vanderbilt prosthetic leg with a custom instrumented foot. An able-bodied subject used a by-pass adapter to walk on the controlled leg over ground and over a treadmill. These preliminary experiments demonstrate, for the first time, that effective shape (or virtual constraints in general) can be used to control a powered prosthetic leg.

  8. Community effectiveness of copepods for dengue vector control: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, A; Han, W W; Manrique-Saide, P; George, L; Velayudhan, R; Toledo, J; Runge Ranzinger, S; Horstick, O

    2015-06-01

    Vector control remains the only available method for primary prevention of dengue. Several interventions exist for dengue vector control, with limited evidence of their efficacy and community effectiveness. This systematic review compiles and analyses the existing global evidence for community effectiveness of copepods for dengue vector control. The systematic review follows the PRISMA statement, searching six relevant databases. Applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, 11 articles were included. There is evidence that cyclopoid copepods (Mesocyclops spp.) could potentially be an effective vector control option, as shown in five community effectiveness studies in Vietnam. This includes long-term effectiveness for larval and adult control of Ae. aegypti, as well as dengue incidence. However, this success has so far not been replicated elsewhere (six studies, three community effectiveness studies--Costa Rica, Mexico and USA, and three studies analysing both efficacy and community effectiveness--Honduras, Laos and USA), probably due to community participation, environmental and/or biological factors. Judging by the quality of existing studies, there is a lack of good study design, data quality and appropriate statistics. There is limited evidence for the use of cyclopoid copepods as a single intervention. There are very few studies, and more are needed in other communities and environments. Clear best practice guidelines for the methodology of entomological studies should be developed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Distribution of essential medicines to primary care institutions in Hubei of China: effects of centralized procurement arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianping; Huang, Cunrui; Liu, Chaojie

    2017-11-14

    Poor distribution of essential medicines to primary care institutions has attracted criticism since China adopted provincial centralized regional tendering and procurement systems. This study evaluated the impact of new procurement arrangements that limit the number of distributors at the county level in Hubei province, China. Procurement ordering and distribution data were collected from four counties that pioneered a new distribution arrangement (commencing September 2012) compared with six counties that continued the existing arrangement over the period from August 2011 to September 2013. The new arrangement allowed primary care institutions and/or suppliers to select a local distributor from a limited panel (from 3 to 5) of government nominated distributors. Difference-in-differences analyses were performed to assess the impact of the new arrangements on delivery and receipt of essential medicines. Overall, the new distribution arrangement has not improved distribution of essential medicines to primary care institutions. On the contrary, we found a 7.78-19.85 percentage point (p Procurement arrangements need to consider the special characteristics of rural facilities. In a county, there are more rural primary care institutions than urban ones. On average, rural primary care institutions demand more and are more geographically dispersed compared to their urban counterparts, which may impose increased distribution costs.

  10. Impact of locus of control on health message effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ying; Shen, Fuyuan

    2011-10-01

    This article examined how individuals' locus of control might moderate the effect of health message frames. An experiment was conducted whereby participants read either individual- or social-responsibility message frames after their locus of control was primed. Results indicated that messages presented in individual-responsibility frames were more persuasive when people were primed with internal locus of control, whereas social-responsibility framed appeals were more persuasive when people were primed with external locus of control. These results were found for individuals in both high and low cognitive load conditions. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Activities at the electric power research institute to support the modernization of instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.

    1998-01-01

    Most nuclear power plants in the United States are operating with a vast majority of their original analog instrumentation and control (I and C) equipment. Many of the I and C systems in the plants need to be modernized in a reliable and cost-effective manner to replace obsolete equipment, to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, to improve plant performance, and to maintain safety. The major drivers for the replacement of the safety, control, and information systems in nuclear power plants are the obsolescence of the existing hardware and the need for more cost-effective power production. Competition between power producers is dictating the need for more cost-effective power production. The increasing O and M costs to maintain systems experiencing obsolescence problems is counter to the needs for more cost-effective power production and improved competitiveness. Modern technology, especially digital systems, offers improved functionality, performance, and reliability; solutions to obsolescence of equipment; reduction in O and M costs, and the potential to enhance safety. Digital I and C systems with their inherent advantages will be implemented only if reliable and cost-effective implementation and licensing acceptance is achieved and if the modernized system supports reduced power production costs. Increasing competition will continue to be a major factor in the operation of nuclear power plants. I will continue to dictate the need for improved productivity and cost-effectiveness. EPRI and its members utilities are working together on an industry-wide Instrumentation and Control Program to address I and C issues and to develop cost-effective solutions. (author)

  12. The Effect of Family Capital on the Academic Performance of College Students--A Survey at 20 Higher Education Institutions in Jiangsu Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gao; Zhimin, Liu; Peng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Based on survey data on college students from 20 higher education institutions in Jiangsu Province, the effects of family capital on the academic performances of college students is analyzed. The study finds that family capital, place of origin, and birthplace clearly affect the academic performance, the chances of being appointed student cadres,…

  13. Drugs and Pregnancy: The Effects of Nonmedical Use of Drugs on Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Neonates. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse presents this report as the fifth in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the the issues of drug use and abuse. Included in this volume are summaries of the major research findings concerning the effects of nonmedical drug use on pregnancy.…

  14. Barriers to overcome for effective cancer control in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Joe B

    2015-08-01

    Cancer control in Africa is complicated due to large differences in cancer incidence between countries caused by differences in exposure to known risk factors. For example, substantial differences are seen when selected cancers in north Africa are compared with those in sub-Saharan Africa. In the future, population growth and demographic shifts are likely to have profound effects on the prevalence of cancer across the continent. Likewise, many factors outside of health care such as language differences, conflict, and poverty can affect cancer control efforts. Although cooperation in cancer control efforts is desirable, differences in cultural and geopolitical factors that characterise African countries and their populations, together with the sheer size of the continent, present unique challenges to effective cancer control. This Series paper discusses factors related to the size, diversity, and conditions within Africa that present barriers to optimal collaboration in cancer control efforts across the continent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance effect of multiple control forms in a Lean organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades Lean has developed into a prominent management philosophy reaching beyond shop floor tools. However, substantial support of performance effects from Lean is still scarce and at best with mixed results. Recently, research has turned its focus towards perceiving Lean...... as a control package. In this paper we present statistical support for enhanced performance coming from Lean. Furthermore, our results strongly support the perception of Lean as a set of multiple control forms (output, behavioral, and social controls) that complement each other. Therefore, performance...... is increased if the average level of control forms is increased, and performance is further increased if the control forms are balanced at the same level representing a complementary effect between them. Our data are archival data spanning multiple years in a strong Lean organization. The dependent performance...

  16. Ultrasonic control of ceramic membrane fouling: Effect of particle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Weavers, Linda K; Walker, Harold W

    2006-02-01

    In this study, the effect of particle characteristics on the ultrasonic control of membrane fouling was investigated. Ultrasound at 20 kHz was applied to a cross-flow filtration system with gamma-alumina membranes in the presence of colloidal silica particles. Experimental results indicated that particle concentration affected the ability of ultrasound to control membrane fouling, with less effective control of fouling at higher particle concentrations. Measurements of sound wave intensity and images of the cavitation region indicated that particles induced additional cavitation bubbles near the ultrasonic source, which resulted in less turbulence reaching the membrane surface and subsequently less effective control of fouling. When silica particles were modified to be hydrophobic, greater inducement of cavitation bubbles near the ultrasonic source occurred for a fixed concentration, also resulting in less effective control of fouling. Particle size influenced the cleaning ability of ultrasound, with better permeate recovery observed with larger particles. Particle size did not affect sound wave intensity, suggesting that the more effective control of fouling by large particles was due to greater lift and cross-flow drag forces on larger particles compared to smaller particles.

  17. Project Management Effectiveness: the choice - formal or informal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Heales

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Development failures and runaway projects in the information systems (IS area can result in substantial losses to organizations, either financially or to a company’s reputation. One important strategy in mitigating risk is the use of effective controls over IS projects. This research investigates the effectiveness of control mechanisms in IS projects, i.e., how they have been established, applied, and how they have evolved throughout the project. We conducted an in-depth study of six information systems projects with six different project managers. We found that formal controls were adopted on project elements with clearly defined project outcomes and informal controls were adopted mainly on project elements that were unclear and often related to people. Furthermore, formal controls were dominant at project initiation and in most cases these controls became less dominant over the project duration. These formal controls were more rigorously applied in external IS projects while informal controls increased in importance throughout the project duration in internally developed projects. We found the existence of informal controls to be very important in helping ensure successful project outcomes.

  18. The Informal Institutions and the Knowledge Sharing: The Mediating Effect of the Social Identity and the Organizational Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erendira Fierro Moreno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific paper is to determine the extent to which social identity and organizational trust mediate the relationship between informal institutions and the exchange of knowledge. Based on a review of literature and relying on the theoretical perspective of new institutionalism and on the resource based-view the research hypotheses were formulated. Using a cross-sectional and with Mexican public sector organizations and through the perceptions of 252 public servants the hypotheses were tested. Multivariate analysis (SEM was performed. The results confirm the importance of informal institutions that legitimize the performance of organizations but do not guarantee its real efficiency. However, research shows that intervening valuable resources management (social identity and organizational trust helps to exploit opportunities and neutralize threats from the environment generating new capabilities: the exchange of knowledge.

  19. Collaborative Russian-US work in nuclear material protection, control and accounting at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. 3: Emphasis on site-wide issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, V.V.; Pshakin, G.M.; Belov, A.P.

    1997-07-01

    During 1997, collaborative Russian-US nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) tasks at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk, Russia are focusing increasingly on site-wide issues, though there is continued work at several major facilities: the Fast Critical Facility, the Technological Laboratory for Fuel Fabrication, and the (new and existing) Central Storage Facility. The collaborative work is being done with US Department of Energy National Laboratories. IPPE's emphasis on site-wide issues has resulted in the formation of a separate division for MPC and A. This new division reports directly to the IPPE Chief Engineer. It is a separate scientific and engineering operating division responsible for coordination and harmonization of MPC and A at IPPE, as well as for audit, assessment and inspection. By virtue of the organizational independence of this new division, IPPE has significantly strengthened the role of MPC and A. Two specific site-wide accomplishments are the consolidation of nuclear material from many buildings to a smaller number, and, as a major part of this strategy, the construction of a nuclear island surrounding the Fast Critical Facility and the new Central Storage Facility. Most of IPPE's weapons-grade nuclear materials will be concentrated within the nuclear island. The paper summarizes the following technical elements: computerized accounting, bar coding, weight measurements, gamma-ray measurements, tamper indicating devices, procedures for physical inventory taking and material balance closure, and video monitoring systems for storage and critical assembly areas

  20. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African schools of public health: knowledge translation and effective communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayah, Richard; Jessani, Nasreen; Mafuta, Eric M

    2014-06-02

    Local health systems research (HSR) provides policymakers and practitioners with contextual, evidence-based solutions to health problems. However, producers and users of HSR rarely understand the complexities of the context within which each operates, leading to the "know-do" gap. Universities are well placed to conduct knowledge translation (KT) integrating research production with uptake. The HEALTH Alliance Africa Hub, a consortium of seven schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa, was formed to build capacity in HSR. This paper presents information on the capacity of the various SPHs to conduct KT activities. In 2011, each member of the Africa Hub undertook an institutional HSR capacity assessment using a context-adapted and modified self-assessment tool. KT capacity was measured by several indicators including the presence of a KT strategy, an organizational structure to support KT activities, KT skills, and institutional links with stakeholders and media. Respondents rated their opinions on the various indicators using a 5-point Likert scale. Averages across all respondents for each school were calculated. Thereafter, each school held a results validation workshop. A total of 123 respondents from all seven SPHs participated. Only one school had a clear KT strategy; more commonly, research was disseminated at scientific conferences and workshops. While most respondents perceived their SPH as having strong institutional ties with organizations interested in HSR as well as strong institutional leadership, the organizational structures required to support KT activities were absent. Furthermore, individual researchers indicated that they had little time or skills to conduct KT. Additionally, institutional and individual links with policymakers and media were reported as weak. Few SPHs in Africa have a clear KT strategy. Strengthening the weak KT capacity of the SPHs requires working with institutional leadership to develop KT strategies designed

  1. Research on the relationship of institutional innovation, organizational learning and synergistic effect: An empirical study of chineses university spin-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: At present, the Central Government of China pays more attention to the synergistic innovation, and the national strategy policy of “innovation driven development” are made to implementations. Thus, the university plays an important role in the national innovation system, so that how the university gets involved in innovative activities becomes the primary problem of innovation strategy. This paper utilizes Chinese university spin-offs survey data to identify the influence process from institutional innovation and organizational learning to synergistic effect of organization. Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, we found that following the procedural view, each one of these three elements can be divided into two parts. Then, we established structural equation modeling with the connections between these six subdivisions. Secondly, by taking 270 university Spin-offs in China as samples, we verified the fit of the model through statistical data on the questionnaire survey. Thirdly, we analyzed the relationship and influence path of the institutional innovation, organizational learning and synergistic effect. Findings: The results of empirical research show that institutional implementation process is positive correlation on both sides of synergistic effect, and, the intermediary role is obvious that external organizational learning played a regulatory role between institutional innovation synergistic effects. Research limitations/implications: A large-scale questionnaire survey showed that the influence path of “institutions -organization-innovation performance" are existed. Therefore, the system analysis framework should be introduced to the emergence and development of University spin-offs, and further explored the synergistic process of institutional change and organizational evolution. Practical implications: University spin-offs are a mode of university - industry cooperation, and it takes participation in market competition

  2. The effects of brief swaying on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, Sara; Maheu, Maxime; Landry, Simon P; Champoux, François

    2017-12-06

    Postural control can be improved with balance training. However, the nature and duration of the training required to enhance posture remains unclear. We studied the effects of 5 min of a self-initiated balance exercise along a single axis on postural control in healthy individuals. Postural control was measured before and after a 5-min period where members of the experimental group were asked to lean their entire body forward and backward and members of the control group were asked to remain seated. A significant improvement for sway velocity, a postural control variable significantly associated with an increased risk of falls, was found in the experimental group following the body sway exercise. These data suggest that a basic exercise can rapidly improve postural control and reduce the risk of falls.

  3. Investigating the effective factors on management internal controls applying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology plays an important role on increasing internal control in many organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of information technology, hiring high quality skilled management team, using high quality standards and increasing employees' awareness on managing internal control. The survey uses a questionnaire based on Likert scale and distributes among the people who work in either administration or financial sectors of governmental agencies in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results of the study indicate that the implementation of information technology positively influences management team to control their system, more effectively, using more skilled and specialized managers positively influences management internal control, an organization with suitable standard positively influences management internal control and increasing employees' awareness positively influences management internal control.

  4. Effect of political decentralization and female leadership on institutional births and child mortality in rural Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Prakash, Nishith

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impacts of political decentralization and women reservation in local governance on institutional births and child mortality in the state of Bihar, India. Using the difference-in-differences methodology, we find a significant positive association between political decentralization and institutional births. We also find that the increased participation of women at local governance led to an increased survival rate of children belonging to richer households. We argue that our results are consistent with female leaders having policy preference for women and child well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Institutions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Morawski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to

  6. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited, and inconclusive. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent...... cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries....... Separating different types of institutional quality, we find that in low-income countries the effects of economic-judicial institutions on happiness dominate those of political institutions, while analyses restricted to middle- and high-income countries show strong support for an additional beneficial effect...

  7. Acute alcohol effects on inhibitory control and implicit cognition: implications for loss of control over drinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Wiers, R.W.; Christiansen, P.; Fillmore, M.T.; Verster, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol impairs inhibitory control, and it alters implicit alcohol cognitions including attentional bias and implicit associations. These effects are seen after doses of alcohol which do not lead to global impairments in cognitive performance. We review studies which demonstrate that the effects of

  8. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Plasmodium vivax Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael T; Yeung, Shunmay; Patouillard, Edith; Cibulskis, Richard

    2016-12-28

    The continued success of efforts to reduce the global malaria burden will require sustained funding for interventions specifically targeting Plasmodium vivax The optimal use of limited financial resources necessitates cost and cost-effectiveness analyses of strategies for diagnosing and treating P. vivax and vector control tools. Herein, we review the existing published evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of interventions for controlling P. vivax, identifying nine studies focused on diagnosis and treatment and seven studies focused on vector control. Although many of the results from the much more extensive P. falciparum literature can be applied to P. vivax, it is not always possible to extrapolate results from P. falciparum-specific cost-effectiveness analyses. Notably, there is a need for additional studies to evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of radical cure with primaquine for the prevention of P. vivax relapses with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase testing. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Launching Effectiveness Research to Guide Practice in Neurosurgery: A National Institute Neurological Disorders and Stroke Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicke, Patricia; Abosch, Aviva; Asher, Anthony; Barker, Fred G.; Ghogawala, Zoher; Harbaugh, Robert; Jehi, Lara; Kestle, John; Koroshetz, Walter; Little, Roderick; Rubin, Donald; Valadka, Alex; Wisniewski, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This workshop addressed challenges of clinical research in neurosurgery. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have high internal validity, but often insufficiently generalize to real-world practice. Observational studies are inclusive but often lack sufficient rigor. The workshop considered possible solutions, such as (1) statistical methods for demonstrating causality using observational data; (2) characteristics required of a registry supporting effectiveness research; (3) trial designs combining advantages of observational studies and RCTs; and (4) equipoise, an identified challenge for RCTs. In the future, advances in information technology potentially could lead to creation of a massive database where clinical data from all neurosurgeons are integrated and analyzed, ending the separation of clinical research and practice and leading to a new “science of practice.” PMID:28362926

  10. Neighborhood Effects in a Behavioral Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; Leonard, Tammy; Murdoch, James; Hughes, Amy; McQueen, Amy; Gupta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions intended to modify health behaviors may be influenced by neighborhood effects which can impede unbiased estimation of intervention effects. Examining a RCT designed to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (N=5,628), we found statistically significant neighborhood effects: average CRC test use among neighboring study participants was significantly and positively associated with individual patient’s CRC test use. This potentially import...

  11. Enhancing Comparative Effectiveness Research With Automated Pediatric Pneumonia Detection in a Multi-Institutional Clinical Repository: A PHIS+ Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Stephane; Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Tieder, Joel; Simmons, Jeffrey; Srivastava, Rajendu; Shah, Samir

    2017-05-15

    Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity. Administrative data are often used to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) with sufficient sample sizes to enhance detection of important outcomes. However, such studies are prone to misclassification errors because of the variable accuracy of discharge diagnosis codes. The aim of this study was to develop an automated, scalable, and accurate method to determine the presence or absence of pneumonia in children using chest imaging reports. The multi-institutional PHIS+ clinical repository was developed to support pediatric CER by expanding an administrative database of children's hospitals with detailed clinical data. To develop a scalable approach to find patients with bacterial pneumonia more accurately, we developed a Natural Language Processing (NLP) application to extract relevant information from chest diagnostic imaging reports. Domain experts established a reference standard by manually annotating 282 reports to train and then test the NLP application. Findings of pleural effusion, pulmonary infiltrate, and pneumonia were automatically extracted from the reports and then used to automatically classify whether a report was consistent with bacterial pneumonia. Compared with the annotated diagnostic imaging reports reference standard, the most accurate implementation of machine learning algorithms in our NLP application allowed extracting relevant findings with a sensitivity of .939 and a positive predictive value of .925. It allowed classifying reports with a sensitivity of .71, a positive predictive value of .86, and a specificity of .962. When compared with each of the domain experts manually annotating these reports, the NLP application allowed for significantly higher sensitivity (.71 vs .527) and similar positive predictive value and specificity . NLP-based pneumonia information extraction of pediatric diagnostic imaging reports performed better than domain experts in this

  12. How trust in institutions and organizations builds general consumer confidence in the safety of food: A decomposition of effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Renes, R.J.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between general consumer confidence in the safety of food and consumer trust in institutions and organizations. More specifically, using a decompositional regression analysis approach, the extent to which the strength of the relationship between trust and

  13. The impact of generalized and institutional trust on donating to activist, leisure, and interest organizations: individual and contextual effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.B.; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we answer the question as to what extent donating to activist, interest, and leisure organizations is affected by both individual and national levels of generalized and institutional trust. We use the European Social Survey 2002 to estimate multilevel random intercept models, based on

  14. Academic Venturing in Higher Education: Institutional Effects on Performance of University Technology Transfer. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Joshua B.

    This study investigated institutional resource factors that may explain differential performance with university technology transfer--the process by which university research is transformed into marketable products. Using multi-source data on 108 research universities, a set of internal resources (financial, physical, human capital, and…

  15. Analyzing EFL Teachers' Initial Job Motivation and Factors Effecting Their Motivation in Fezalar Educational Institutions in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    Teacher motivation is one of the primary variables of students' high performance. It is experienced that students whose teachers are highly motivated are more engaged in the learning process. Therefore, it's mostly the teacher who determines the level of success or failure in achieving institution's goal in the educational process. Thus, teachers…

  16. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Sasse

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  17. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Laura K; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  18. Measuring Effectiveness of Persuasive Games Using an Informative Control Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Soekarjo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research about the effectiveness of persuasive games is still emerging. This article presents a literature review of studies that empirically evaluate the effectiveness of persuasive games. The review concluded that limited empirical evidence is currently available to prove their effectiveness in attitude change. It further revealed that almost no study employed an informative control condition, making it difficult to conclude that the game was more effective than a control condition. Next, in a pretest-posttest design an empirical study tested whether change in attitude was different for people playing the persuasive game "EnerCities" compared to a control condition where participants read a document with highly similar information. No significant differences in increase of attitude or knowledge between participants that played the game and participants in the informative control condition were found. Based on the results of the literature review and the empirical study presented, it hence cannot be concluded that playing a game leads to a greater change in attitude or knowledge acquisition than experiencing conventional media would. Future work should employ designs with proper control conditions and focus on which game features lead to significant effects.

  19. Study of Model Predictive Control for Path-Following Autonomous Ground Vehicle Control under Crosswind Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yakub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study of model predictive control approaches of two-wheel steering, four-wheel steering, and a combination of two-wheel steering with direct yaw moment control manoeuvres for path-following control in autonomous car vehicle dynamics systems. Single-track mode, based on a linearized vehicle and tire model, is used. Based on a given trajectory, we drove the vehicle at low and high forward speeds and on low and high road friction surfaces for a double-lane change scenario in order to follow the desired trajectory as close as possible while rejecting the effects of wind gusts. We compared the controller based on both simple and complex bicycle models without and with the roll vehicle dynamics for different types of model predictive control manoeuvres. The simulation result showed that the model predictive control gave a better performance in terms of robustness for both forward speeds and road surface variation in autonomous path-following control. It also demonstrated that model predictive control is useful to maintain vehicle stability along the desired path and has an ability to eliminate the crosswind effect.

  20. Social Capital, Institutions and Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relations between social capital, institutions and trust.These concepts are full of ambiguity and confusion.This paper attempts to dissolve some of the confusion, by distinguishing trust and control, and analyzing institutional and relational conditions of trust.It presents a

  1. Infection control and prevention practices implemented to reduce transmission risk of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus in a tertiary care institution in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Taimur S; Koutlakis-Barron, Irene; AlJumaah, Suliman; AlThawadi, Sahar; AlMofada, Saleh

    2016-05-01

    Transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among health care workers (HCWs) and patients has been documented with mortality rate approximating 36%. We propose advanced infection control measures (A-IC) used in conjunction with basic infection control measures (B-IC) help reduce pathogen transmission. B-IC include standard and transmission-based precautions. A-IC are initiatives implemented within our center to enhance effectiveness of B-IC. Study effectiveness of combining B-IC and A-IC to prevent transmission of MERS-CoV to HCWs. A retrospective observational study was undertaken. A-IC measures include administrative support with daily rounds; infection control risk assessment; timely screening, isolation, and specimen analysis; collaboration; epidemic planning; stockpiling; implementation of contingency plans; full personal protective equipment use for advanced airway management; use of a real-time electronic isolation flagging system; infection prevention and control team on-call protocols; pretransfer MERS-CoV testing; and education. A total of 874 real-time polymerase chain reaction MERS-CoV tests were performed during the period beginning July 1, 2013, and ending January 31, 2015. Six hundred ninety-four non-HCWs were tested, of these 16 tested positive for MERS-CoV and their infection was community acquired. Sixty-nine percent of the confirmed MERS-CoV-positive cases were men, with an average age of 56 years (range, 19-84 years). Of the total tested for MERS-CoV, 180 individuals were HCWs with zero positivity. Adhering to a combination of B-IC and A-IC reduces the risk of MERS-CoV transmission to HCWs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of RYGB on energy expenditure, appetite and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture

    2016-01-01

    the effect of RYGB on glycaemic control per se. Here, we investigated the effect of RYGB on EE, appetite, glycaemic control, and specific signalling molecules compared to a control group in comparable negative energy balance. Subjects/Methods:Obese normal glucose tolerant participants were randomized...... to receive RYGB after 8 (n=14) or 12 weeks (n=14). The protocol included a visit at week 0 and three visits (week 7, 11 and 78) where 24 h EE, appetite and blood parameters were assessed. Participants followed a low-calorie diet from week 0-11, with those operated at week 12 serving as a control group...... response of GLP-1, PYY, ghrelin, CCK, FGF-19 and bile acids (all Pappetite. None of HOMA-IR, Matsuda Index, the Insulinogenic Index, the Disposition Index and fasting hepatic insulin clearance were...

  3. Steam Turbine Control Valve Stiction Effect on Power System Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in power system dynamic stability is low frequency oscillations. This kind of oscillation has significant effects on the stability and security of the power system. In some previous papers, a fact was introduced that a steam pressure continuous fluctuation in turbine steam inlet pipeline may lead to a kind of low frequency oscillation of power systems. Generally, in a power generation plant, steam turbine system composes of some main components, i.e. a boiler or steam generator, stop valves, control valves and turbines that are connected by piping. In the conventional system, the turbine system is composed with a lot of stop and control valves. The steam is provided by a boiler or steam generator. In an abnormal case, the stop valve shuts of the steal flow to the turbine. The steam flow to the turbine is regulated by controlling the control valves. The control valves are provided to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine for starting, increasing or decreasing the power, and also maintaining speed control with the turbine governor system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherent static friction (stiction) nonlinearity characteristics. Industrial surveys indicated that about 20-30% of all control loops oscillate due to valve problem caused by this nonlinear characteristic. In this paper, steam turbine control valve stiction effect on power system oscillation is presented. To analyze the stiction characteristic effect, firstly a model of control valve and its stiction characteristic are derived by using Newton's laws. A complete tandem steam prime mover, including a speed governing system, a four-stage steam turbine, and a shaft with up to for masses is adopted to analyze the performance of the steam turbine. The governor system consists of some important parts, i.e. a proportional controller, speed relay, control valve with its stiction characteristic, and stem lift position of control valve controller. The steam turbine has

  4. How effective are family-based and institutional nutrition interventions in improving children's diet and health? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andrew P; D'Onise, Katina; McDermott, Robyn; Vally, Hassan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2017-10-17

    Effective strategies to improve dietary intake in young children are a priority to reduce the high prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases in adulthood. This study aimed to assess the impact of family-based and school/preschool nutrition programs on the health of children aged 12 or younger, including the sustainability of these impacts and the relevance to socio-economic inequalities. A systematic review of literature published from 1980 to December 2014 was undertaken. Randomised controlled trials involving families with children aged up to 12 years in high income countries were included. The primary outcomes were dietary intake and health status. Results were presented in a narrative synthesis due to the heterogeneity of the interventions and outcomes. The systematic search and assessment identified 39 eligible studies. 82% of these studies were set in school/preschools. Only one school study assessed the impact of involving parents systematically. The family-based programs which provided simple positive dietary advice to parents and regular follow-up reduced fat intake significantly. School and family-based studies, if designed and implemented well, increased F&V intake, particularly fruit. Effective school-based programs have incorporated role-models including peers, teachers and heroic figures, rewards and increased access to healthy foods. School nutrition programs in disadvantaged communities were as effective as programs in other communities. Family and school nutrition programs can improve dietary intake, however evidence of the long-term sustainability of these impacts is limited. The modest overall impact of even these successful programs suggest complementary nutrition interventions are needed to build a supportive environment for healthy eating generally.

  5. Effective and Robust Generalized Predictive Speed Control of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patxi Alkorta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and validates a new proposal for effective speed vector control of induction motors based on linear Generalized Predictive Control (GPC law. The presented GPC-PI cascade configuration simplifies the design with regard to GPC-GPC cascade configuration, maintaining the advantages of the predictive control algorithm. The robust stability of the closed loop system is demonstrated by the poles placement method for several typical cases of uncertainties in induction motors. The controller has been tested using several simulations and experiments and has been compared with Proportional Integral Derivative (PID and Sliding Mode (SM control schemes, obtaining outstanding results in speed tracking even in the presence of parameter uncertainties, unknown load disturbance, and measurement noise in the loop signals, suggesting its use in industrial applications.

  6. Effectiveness Of Security Controls On Electronic Health Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everleen Wanyonyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Health Record EHR systems enhance efficiency and effectiveness in handling patients information in healthcare. This study focused on the EHR security by initially establishing the nature of threats affecting the system and reviewing the implemented security safeguards. The study was done at a referral hospital level 6 government facility in Kenya. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample of 196 out of 385 staff and a questionnaire designed for qualitative data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. Correlations and binary logistic regression were obtained. Binary Logistic Regression BLR was used to establish the effect of the safeguards predictors on EHR security. It was established that physical security contributes more to the security of an information system than administrative controls and technical controls in that order. BLR helped in predicting effective safeguards to control EHR security threats in limited resourced public health facilities.

  7. Effective control of complex turbulent dynamical systems through statistical functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Andrew J; Qi, Di

    2017-05-30

    Turbulent dynamical systems characterized by both a high-dimensional phase space and a large number of instabilities are ubiquitous among complex systems in science and engineering, including climate, material, and neural science. Control of these complex systems is a grand challenge, for example, in mitigating the effects of climate change or safe design of technology with fully developed shear turbulence. Control of flows in the transition to turbulence, where there is a small dimension of instabilities about a basic mean state, is an important and successful discipline. In complex turbulent dynamical systems, it is impossible to track and control the large dimension of instabilities, which strongly interact and exchange energy, and new control strategies are needed. The goal of this paper is to propose an effective statistical control strategy for complex turbulent dynamical systems based on a recent statistical energy principle and statistical linear response theory. We illustrate the potential practical efficiency and verify this effective statistical control strategy on the 40D Lorenz 1996 model in forcing regimes with various types of fully turbulent dynamics with nearly one-half of the phase space unstable.

  8. Effect of intermittent feedback control on robustness of human-like postural control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2016-03-01

    Humans have to acquire postural robustness to maintain stability against internal and external perturbations. Human standing has been recently modelled using an intermittent feedback control. However, the causality inside of the closed-loop postural control system associated with the neural control strategy is still unknown. Here, we examined the effect of intermittent feedback control on postural robustness and of changes in active/passive components on joint coordinative structure. We implemented computer simulation of a quadruple inverted pendulum that is mechanically close to human tiptoe standing. We simulated three pairs of joint viscoelasticity and three choices of neural control strategies for each joint: intermittent, continuous, or passive control. We examined postural robustness for each parameter set by analysing the region of active feedback gain. We found intermittent control at the hip joint was necessary for model stabilisation and model parameters affected the robustness of the pendulum. Joint sways of the pendulum model were partially smaller than or similar to those of experimental data. In conclusion, intermittent feedback control was necessary for the stabilisation of the quadruple inverted pendulum. Also, postural robustness of human-like multi-link standing would be achieved by both passive joint viscoelasticity and neural joint control strategies.

  9. Effects on employees of controlling working hours and working schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, T; Takahashi, M; Togo, F; Liu, X; Shimazu, A; Tanaka, K; Takaya, M

    2013-03-01

    High levels of control over working time and low variability in working hours have been associated with improved health-related outcomes. The potential mechanisms for this association remain unclear. To examine how work-time control and variability of working times are associated with fatigue recovery, sleep quality, work-life balance, and 'near misses' at work. Manufacturing sector employees completed a questionnaire that assessed work-time control, work-time variability, fatigue recovery, sleep quality, work-life balance and the frequency of near misses in the past 6 months. Mixed model analysis of covariance and multiple logistic regression analysis tested the main effects of work-time control and variability and their interaction, while adjusting for age, sex, work schedules, and overtime work in the past month. Subscales of work-time control were also investigated (control over daily working hours and over days off). One thousand three hundred and seventy-two completed questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 69%. A significantly higher quality of sleep and better work-life balance were found in the 'high control with low variability' reference group than in the other groups. Significantly better recovery of fatigue was also observed in the group having control over days off with low variability. While near misses were more frequent in the group with high control over daily working hours coupled with high variability compared with the reference group this was not significant. High work-time control and low variability were associated with favourable outcomes of health and work-life balance. This combined effect was not observed for the safety outcome addressed here.

  10. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Preparation, design, and enrollment of cases and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R; Baqui, Abdullah H; Broome, Claire V; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L; Feikin, Daniel R; Groome, Michelle J; Hajjeh, Rana A; Johnson, Hope L; Madhi, Shabir A; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J Anthony; Smith, Peter G; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E; Victor, J Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G; Zaidi, Anita K; Zell, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-05

    Case-control studies are commonly used to evaluate effectiveness of licensed vaccines after deployment in public health programs. Such studies can provide policy-relevant data on vaccine performance under 'real world' conditions, contributing to the evidence base to support and sustain introduction of new vaccines. However, case-control studies do not measure the impact of vaccine introduction on disease at a population level, and are subject to bias and confounding, which may lead to inaccurate results that can misinform policy decisions. In 2012, a group of experts met to review recent experience with case-control studies evaluating the effectiveness of several vaccines; here we summarize the recommendations of that group regarding best practices for planning, design and enrollment of cases and controls. Rigorous planning and preparation should focus on understanding the study context including healthcare-seeking and vaccination practices. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies are best carried out soon after vaccine introduction because high coverage creates strong potential for confounding. Endpoints specific to the vaccine target are preferable to non-specific clinical syndromes since the proportion of non-specific outcomes preventable through vaccination may vary over time and place, leading to potentially confusing results. Controls should be representative of the source population from which cases arise, and are generally recruited from the community or health facilities where cases are enrolled. Matching of controls to cases for potential confounding factors is commonly used, although should be reserved for a limited number of key variables believed to be linked to both vaccination and disease. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies can provide information useful to guide policy decisions and vaccine development, however rigorous preparation and design is essential. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. AsthmaVent – Effect of Ventilation on Asthma Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne

    sensitive towards. Reducing this exposure may improve the asthma control in these children. Previous studies give conflicting information on the effect of mechanical ventilation on asthma control in children. Objectives We aim at investigating whether mechanical ventilation is capable of improving indoor...... air quality in the home and health outcomes in the outpatient clinic every three months. Fig. 1 and 2. Primary outcome is reduction in minimal effective dose of inhalation steroid. Secondary endpoints….. Perspectives Asthma patients and their families rely on good evidence-based advice on behavior...

  12. Black Hats and White Hats: The Effect of Organizational Culture and Institutional Identity on the Twenty-third Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    the two communities, their institutional histories have played a significant role in their organizational development. According to Col Ken Pribyla...Low IIIs, UH-60 Blackhawks (the Army’s first operational company of UH-60s), CH-47C Chi- nooks from the 101st Airborne Division, and OH-6 Loach ...Blackhawks (the Army’s first operational company of UH-60s), CH-47C Chinooks from the 101st Airborne Division, and OH-6 Loach helicopters that could

  13. Effects of Rural Mutual Health Care on outpatient service utilization in Chinese village medical institutions: evidence from panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Gao, Jianmin; Xue, Qinxiang; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e

    2009-07-01

    To solve the problem of 'Kan bing nan, kan bing gui' (medical treatment is difficult to access and expensive), a Harvard-led research team implemented a community-based health insurance scheme known as Rural Mutual Health Care (RMHC) in Chinese rural areas from 2004 to 2006. Two major policies adopted by RMHC included insurance coverage of outpatient services (demand-side policy) and drug policy (supply-side policy). This paper focuses on the effects of these two policies on outpatient service utilization in Chinese village clinics. The data used in this study are from 3-year household follow-up surveys. A generalized negative binomial regression model and a Heckman selection model were constructed using panel data from 2005 to 2007. The results indicate that the price elasticities of demand for outpatient visits and per-visit outpatient expenses were -1.5 and -0.553, respectively. After implementing the supply-side policy, outpatient visits and per-visit outpatient expenses decreased by 94.7 and 55.9%, respectively, controlling for insurance coverage. These findings can be used to make recommendations to the Chinese government on improving the health care system.

  14. The effect of improved hand hygiene on nosocomial MRSA control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Kalisvar; Pittet, Didier; Harbarth, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine studies that have assessed the association between hand hygiene enhancement and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates and to explore controversies surrounding this association. Many studies have been published confirming the link between improved hand hygiene compliance and reduction in MRSA acquisition and infections, including bacteremia. These studies have also shown the cost-beneficial nature of these programmes. Despite considerable research some issues remain unanswered still, including the temporal relationship between hand hygiene enhancement strategies and decrease in MRSA rates, association between hand hygiene enhancement and MRSA-related surgical site infections, diminishing effect of hand hygiene compliance on MRSA rates after reaching a threshold and the role of instituting contact precautions in the setting of low MRSA rates and sufficient hand hygiene compliance. In conclusion, enhancement of hand hygiene compliance has been shown to reduce MRSA rates; however, some open issues warrant further investigation.

  15. Costs, health effects and cost-effectiveness of alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian

  16. Effect of the crone suspension control system on braking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, X.; Oustaloup, A. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (France). Lab. d' Automatique et de Productique; Nouillant, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (France). Lab. d' Automatique et de Productique]|[DRIA-PSA Peugeot Citroen, Velizy - Villacoublay (France)

    2001-07-01

    Semi-active or active suspensions not only increase driving comfort, but also permit the control system to be switched over if required in order to improve the transmission of forces at the points of contact between tire and road surface by minimizing the dynamic wheel loads. It may also be possible to use these systems to control wheel load distribution and, thus, influence braking or steering performance by changing the distribution of normal forces between the front and rear axles. This article examines the effect of the CRONE suspension control system on braking. The central idea is to use continuously variable dampers and fast load levelling devices to distribute the normal forces of tire between the front and rear axles. The basis principle is explained using known dynamic properties of active suspension, vehicles and tires. The effect of active suspension on vehicle response during braking is then evaluated using computer simulations from a two-wheel vehicle model. (orig.)

  17. Effects of Corporal Punishment on Disciplinary Control of Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administration of corporal punishment in secondary schools tends to be cruel, inhuman and could result in child abuse. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the use of corporal punishment on the disciplinary control of secondary education students in Calabar Metropolis of Nigeria. The study ...

  18. The effectiveness of Doppler controlled hemorrhoidal artery ligation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, we discuss the preliminary results of the effectiveness of the hemorrhoidal artery ligation under control Doppler as a new technique for the treatment of hemorrhoids. We report the results of patients with hemorrhoids we have followed over a period of one year who were treated with HAL Doppler. The intra-and ...

  19. Effect of Varying Controller Parameters on the Performance of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of computer simulation studies designed to isolate the effects of the major parameters of a fuzzy logic controller namely the range of the universe of discourse, the extent of overlap of the fuzzy sets, the rules in the rule base and the modes of the output fuzzy sets on the performance of a fuzzy ...

  20. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…