WorldWideScience

Sample records for effective connectivity profiles

  1. The Romanian International Profile and the Trade Connections with Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to analyze the international profile of the Rumania and its trade connections with Mercosur Organization. It is also presented the Romanian infrastructure of business, the income level in Rumania, a cross cultural profile of the two regions, the national politics and the degree of openness to the European Union profile. The way to select foreign countries and markets involves a complex process in which each country is evaluated, the cross cultural study is the one who entice the importance of proximity as a key factor that can ensure the success of commercial activities between the exporting country and the country of the destination of the goods. The statistic hypotheses is: European Union membership affects the trade of Romania and its extremely high uncertainty avoidance is reflected in the reduced international competitiveness.

  2. TCP Throughput Profiles Using Measurements over Dedicated Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL; Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL; Towsley, Don [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Vardoyan, Gayane [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Foster, Ian [University of Chicago

    2017-06-01

    Wide-area data transfers in high-performance computing infrastructures are increasingly being carried over dynamically provisioned dedicated network connections that provide high capacities with no competing traffic. We present extensive TCP throughput measurements and time traces over a suite of physical and emulated 10 Gbps connections with 0-366 ms round-trip times (RTTs). Contrary to the general expectation, they show significant statistical and temporal variations, in addition to the overall dependencies on the congestion control mechanism, buffer size, and the number of parallel streams. We analyze several throughput profiles that have highly desirable concave regions wherein the throughput decreases slowly with RTTs, in stark contrast to the convex profiles predicted by various TCP analytical models. We present a generic throughput model that abstracts the ramp-up and sustainment phases of TCP flows, which provides insights into qualitative trends observed in measurements across TCP variants: (i) slow-start followed by well-sustained throughput leads to concave regions; (ii) large buffers and multiple parallel streams expand the concave regions in addition to improving the throughput; and (iii) stable throughput dynamics, indicated by a smoother Poincare map and smaller Lyapunov exponents, lead to wider concave regions. These measurements and analytical results together enable us to select a TCP variant and its parameters for a given connection to achieve high throughput with statistical guarantees.

  3. Measurement-based performance profiles and dynamics of UDT over dedicated connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian [University of Chicago; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wu, Qishi [University of Memphis; Yun, Daqing [Harrisburg University; Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL

    2016-11-01

    Wide-area data transfers in high-performance computing and big data scenarios are increasingly being carried over dedicated network connections that provide high capacities at low loss rates. UDP-based transport protocols are expected to be particularly well-suited for such transfers but their performance is relatively unexplored over a wide range of connection lengths, compared to TCP over shared connections. We present extensive throughput measurements of UDP-based Data Transfer (UDT) over a suite of physical and emulated 10 Gbps connections. In sharp contrast to current UDT analytical models, these measurements indicate much more complex throughput dynamics that are sensitive to the connection modality, protocol parameters, and round-trip times. Lyapunov exponents estimated from the Poincare maps of UDT traces clearly indicate regions of instability and complex dynamics. We propose a simple model based on the ramp-up and sustainment regimes of a generic transport protocol, which qualitatively illustrates the dominant monotonicity and concavity properties of throughput profiles and relates them to Lyapunov exponents. These measurements and analytical results together enable us to comprehensively evaluate UDT performance and select parameters to achieve high throughput, and they also provide guidelines for designing effective transport protocols for dedicated connections.

  4. Effect of ionizing radiations on connective tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, K.I.; Gerber, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiations on connective tissue in lung, heart, vasculature, kidney, skin, and skeletal tissues are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ionizing radiations on vasculo-connective tissue and fibrotic changes following radiation-induced injury to organs and tissues. In order to put the subject matter in proper prospective, the general biochemistry, physiology, and pathology of connective tissue is reviewed briefly together with the participation of connective tissue in disease. The review closes with an assessment of future problems and an enumeration and discussion of important, as yet unanswered questions

  5. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Courant algebroid connections and string effective actions

    OpenAIRE

    Jurčo, B.

    2017-01-01

    Courant algebroids are a natural generalization of quadratic Lie algebras, appearing in various contexts in mathematical physics. A connection on a Courant algebroid gives an analogue of a covariant derivative compatible with a given fiber-wise metric. Imposing further conditions resembling standard Levi-Civita connections, one obtains a class of connections whose curvature tensor in certain cases gives a new geometrical description of equations of motion of low energy effective action of str...

  7. Structural and effective connectivity in focal epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Parker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with medically-refractory focal epilepsy may be candidates for neurosurgery and some may require placement of intracranial EEG electrodes to localise seizure onset. Assessing cerebral responses to single pulse electrical stimulation (SPES may give diagnostically useful data. SPES produces cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs, which infer effective brain connectivity. Diffusion-weighted images and tractography may be used to estimate structural brain connectivity. This combination provides the opportunity to observe seizure onset and its propagation throughout the brain, spreading contiguously along the cortex explored with electrodes, or non-contiguously. We analysed CCEPs and diffusion tractography in seven focal epilepsy patients and reconstructed the effective and structural brain networks. We aimed to assess the inter-modal similarity of the networks at a large scale across the cortex, the effective and structural connectivity of the ictal-onset zone, and investigate potential mechanisms of non-contiguous seizure spread. We found a significant overlap between structural and effective networks. Effective network CCEP amplitude, baseline variation, and outward connectivity was higher at ictal-onset zones, while structural connection strength within the ictal-onset zone tended to be higher. These findings support the concept of hyperexcitable cortex being associated with seizure generation. The high prevalence of structural and effective connections from the ictal-onset zone to sites of non-contiguous spread suggests that macroscopic structural and effective connections are plausible routes for non-contiguous seizure spread.

  8. Transistor Effect in Improperly Connected Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzader, Stephen; Sanchez-Velasco, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the differences between the standard representation and a realistic representation of a transistor. Presents an experiment that helps clarify the explanation of the transistor effect and shows why transistors should be connected properly. (JRH)

  9. Reliability assessment of single-phase grid-connected PV microinverters considering mission profile and uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zare, Mohammad Hadi; Mohamadian, Mustafa; Wang, Huai

    2017-01-01

    Microinverters usually connect a PV panel to a Single-phase power grid. In such system, the input power is constant while the output power oscillates twice the line frequency. Thus, the input and output power differences should be stored in a storage component, which is typically an electrolytic ...... irritation of two different places on the micro inverter lifetime is studied....... capacitor. However, electrolytic capacitors are usually blamed for their short lifetime. Recently, some active power decoupling methods are introduced in the literature which can takes advantage of high reliable film capacitors. However, some extra switches and diodes are added to the microinverter which...... can influence the microinverter lifetime. This paper investigates the microinverter reliability according to mission profile where it is installed. To get more accurate results, uncertainties in both lifetime model and manufacturing process are considered. The effect of ambient temperature and solar...

  10. Increasing user value through professional identity profiles, profile-based connection agents and games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxwell, Katrina; Angehrn, Albert; Sereno, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Encouraging users of online communities to complete, maintain and improve their electronic profiles is a challenging task. Only if users see real value for themselves will they invest their time and energy in this activity, and become active contributing members of the online community. In this

  11. Forecast of solar proton flux profiles for well-connected events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Eun-Young; Moon, Yong-Jae; Park, Jinhye

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a forecast model of solar proton flux profiles (> 10 MeV channel) for well-connected events. Among 136 solar proton events (SPEs) from 1986 to 2006, we select 49 well-connected ones that are all associated with single X-ray flares stronger than M1 class and start to increase within 4 h after their X-ray peak times. These events show rapid increments in proton flux. By comparing several empirical functions, we select a modified Weibull curve function to approximate a SPE flux profile. The parameters (peak flux, rise time, and decay time) of this function are determined by the relationship between X-ray flare parameters (peak flux, impulsive time, and emission measure) and SPE parameters. For 49 well-connected SPEs, the linear correlation coefficient between the predicted and the observed proton peak fluxes is 0.65 with the RMS error of 0.55 log10(pfu). In addition, we determine another forecast model based on flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) parameters using 22 SPEs. The used CME parameters are linear speed and angular width. As a result, we find that the linear correlation coefficient between the predicted and the observed proton peak fluxes is 0.83 with the RMS error of 0.35 log10(pfu). From the relationship between error of model and CME acceleration, we find that CME acceleration is an important factor for predicting proton flux profiles.

  12. Developing a forecast model of solar proton flux profiles for well-connected events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, E. Y.; Moon, Y. J.; Park, J.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a forecast model of solar proton flux profile (> 10 MeV channel) for well-connected events. Among 136 solar proton events (SPEs) from 1986 to 2006, we select 49 well-connected ones that are all associated with single X-ray flares stronger than M1 class and start to increase within four hours after their X-ray peak times. These events show rapid increments in proton flux. By comparing several empirical functions, we select a modified Weibull curve function to approximate a SPE flux profile, which is similar to the particle injection rate. The parameters (peak value, rise time and decay time) of this function are determined by the relationship between X-ray flare parameters (peak flux, impulsive time, and emission measure) and SPE parameters. For 49 well-connected SPEs, the linear correlation between the predicted proton peak flux and the observed proton peak fluxes is 0.65 with the RMS error of 0.55 pfu in the log10. In addition, we have developed another forecast model based on flare and CME parameters using 22 SPEs. The used CME parameters are linear speed and angular width. As a result, we find that the linear correlation between the predicted proton peak flux and the observed proton peak fluxes is 0.83 with the RMS error of 0.35 pfu in the log10. From the relationship between the model error and CME acceleration, we find that CME acceleration is also an important factor for predicting proton flux profiles.

  13. The effects of psychosis risk variants on brain connectivity: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar eMothersill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In light of observed changes in connectivity in schizophrenia and the highly heritable nature of the disease, neural connectivity may serve as an important intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia. However, how individual variants confer altered connectivity and which measure of brain connectivity is more proximal to the underlying genetic architecture (i.e. functional or structural has not been well delineated. In this review we consider these issues and the relative sensitivity of imaging methodologies to schizophrenia-related changes in connectivity.We searched PubMed for studies considering schizophrenia risk genes AND functional or structural connectivity. Where data was available, summary statistics were used to determine an estimate of effect size (i.e. Cohen’s d. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to consider (1 the largest effect and (2 all significant effects between functional and structural studies. Schizophrenia risk variants involved in neurotransmission, neurodevelopment and myelin function were found to be associated with altered neural connectivity. On average, schizophrenia risk genes had a large effect on functional (mean d=0.76 and structural connectivity (mean d=1.04. The examination of the largest effect size indicated that the outcomes of functional and structural studies were comparable (Q=2.17, p>0.05. Conversely, consideration of effect size estimates for all significant effects suggest that reported effect sizes in structural connectivity studies were more variable than in functional connectivity studies, and that there was a significant lack of homogeneity across the modalities (Q=6.928, p=0.008.Given the more variable profile of effect sizes associated with structural connectivity, these data may suggest that structural imaging methods are more sensitive to a wider range of effects, as opposed to functional studies which may only be able to determine large effects. These conclusions are limited by

  14. Better models are more effectively connected models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bielders, Charles; Darboux, Frederic; Fiener, Peter; Finger, David; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Wainwright, John

    2016-04-01

    The concept of hydrologic and geomorphologic connectivity describes the processes and pathways which link sources (e.g. rainfall, snow and ice melt, springs, eroded areas and barren lands) to accumulation areas (e.g. foot slopes, streams, aquifers, reservoirs), and the spatial variations thereof. There are many examples of hydrological and sediment connectivity on a watershed scale; in consequence, a process-based understanding of connectivity is crucial to help managers understand their systems and adopt adequate measures for flood prevention, pollution mitigation and soil protection, among others. Modelling is often used as a tool to understand and predict fluxes within a catchment by complementing observations with model results. Catchment models should therefore be able to reproduce the linkages, and thus the connectivity of water and sediment fluxes within the systems under simulation. In modelling, a high level of spatial and temporal detail is desirable to ensure taking into account a maximum number of components, which then enables connectivity to emerge from the simulated structures and functions. However, computational constraints and, in many cases, lack of data prevent the representation of all relevant processes and spatial/temporal variability in most models. In most cases, therefore, the level of detail selected for modelling is too coarse to represent the system in a way in which connectivity can emerge; a problem which can be circumvented by representing fine-scale structures and processes within coarser scale models using a variety of approaches. This poster focuses on the results of ongoing discussions on modelling connectivity held during several workshops within COST Action Connecteur. It assesses the current state of the art of incorporating the concept of connectivity in hydrological and sediment models, as well as the attitudes of modellers towards this issue. The discussion will focus on the different approaches through which connectivity

  15. Dynamic effective connectivity of inter-areal brain circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Battaglia

    Full Text Available Anatomic connections between brain areas affect information flow between neuronal circuits and the synchronization of neuronal activity. However, such structural connectivity does not coincide with effective connectivity (or, more precisely, causal connectivity, related to the elusive question "Which areas cause the present activity of which others?". Effective connectivity is directed and depends flexibly on contexts and tasks. Here we show that dynamic effective connectivity can emerge from transitions in the collective organization of coherent neural activity. Integrating simulation and semi-analytic approaches, we study mesoscale network motifs of interacting cortical areas, modeled as large random networks of spiking neurons or as simple rate units. Through a causal analysis of time-series of model neural activity, we show that different dynamical states generated by a same structural connectivity motif correspond to distinct effective connectivity motifs. Such effective motifs can display a dominant directionality, due to spontaneous symmetry breaking and effective entrainment between local brain rhythms, although all connections in the considered structural motifs are reciprocal. We show then that transitions between effective connectivity configurations (like, for instance, reversal in the direction of inter-areal interactions can be triggered reliably by brief perturbation inputs, properly timed with respect to an ongoing local oscillation, without the need for plastic synaptic changes. Finally, we analyze how the information encoded in spiking patterns of a local neuronal population is propagated across a fixed structural connectivity motif, demonstrating that changes in the active effective connectivity regulate both the efficiency and the directionality of information transfer. Previous studies stressed the role played by coherent oscillations in establishing efficient communication between distant areas. Going beyond these early

  16. Triton burnup in JET - profile effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Conroy, S.W.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.J.; Belle, P. van

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the 14 MeV neutron emission from triton burnup show that the 14 MeV emission profile shadows closely the 2,5 MeV profile but after a delay corresponding to the triton slowing down time. The slightly greater width of the 14 MeV neutron profile is a consequence of the finite Larmor radius of the tritons. It has not so far been possible to identify unambiguously any effects on the triton burnup that are attributable to sawtooth crashes. Finally, the time dependence of the triton profile indicates that the triton diffusion coefficient is very small ( 2 /s). (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  17. Investigation of The Effects of Connective Tissue Mobilisation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Connective Tissue Massage (CTM) or Manipulation is a bodywork technique which lies at the interface between alternative approaches. The autonomic balancing responses to CTM can be useful in the treatment of anxiety. Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effects of connective tissue mobilization ...

  18. Effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on vibration control of connected building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi eKasagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The connection of two building structures with dampers is one of effective vibration control systems. In this vibration control system, both buildings have to possess different vibration properties in order to provide a higher vibration reduction performance. In addition to such condition of different vibration properties of both buildings, the connecting dampers also play an important role in the vibration control mechanism. In this paper, the effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on the vibration control of connected building structures is investigated in detail. A high-damping rubber damper and an oil damper with and without relief mechanism are treated. It is shown that, while the high-damping rubber damper is effective in a rather small deformation level, the linear oil damper is effective in a relatively large deformation level. It is further shown that, while the oil dampers reduce the response in the same phase as the case without dampers, the high-damping rubber dampers change the phase. The merit is that the high-damping rubber can reduce the damper deformation and keep the sufficient space between both buildings. This can mitigate the risk of building pounding.

  19. Effects of fueling profiles on plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.; Milora, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of cold particle fueling profiles on particle and energy transport in an ignition sized tokamak plasma are investigated in this study with a one-dimensional, multifluid transport model. A density gradient driven trapped particle microinstability model for plasma transport is used to demonstrate potential effects of fueling profiles on ignition requirements. Important criteria for the development of improved transport models under the conditions of shallow particle fueling profiles are outlined. A discrete pellet fueling model indicates that large fluctuations in density and temperature may occur in the outer regions of the plasma with large, shallowly penetrating pellets, but fluctuations in the pressure profile are small. The hot central core of the plasma remains unaffected by the large fluctuations near the plasma edge

  20. Effects of local and global network connectivity on synergistic epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder-Rodgers, David; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Taraskin, Sergei N.

    2015-12-01

    Epidemics in networks can be affected by cooperation in transmission of infection and also connectivity between nodes. An interplay between these two properties and their influence on epidemic spread are addressed in the paper. A particular type of cooperative effects (called synergy effects) is considered, where the transmission rate between a pair of nodes depends on the number of infected neighbors. The connectivity effects are studied by constructing networks of different topology, starting with lattices with only local connectivity and then with networks that have both local and global connectivity obtained by random bond-rewiring to nodes within a certain distance. The susceptible-infected-removed epidemics were found to exhibit several interesting effects: (i) for epidemics with strong constructive synergy spreading in networks with high local connectivity, the bond rewiring has a negative role in epidemic spread, i.e., it reduces invasion probability; (ii) in contrast, for epidemics with destructive or weak constructive synergy spreading on networks of arbitrary local connectivity, rewiring helps epidemics to spread; (iii) and, finally, rewiring always enhances the spread of epidemics, independent of synergy, if the local connectivity is low.

  1. The Connect Effect Building Strong Personal, Professional, and Virtual Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dulworth, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Entrepreneur and executive development expert Mike Dulworth's THE CONNECT EFFECT provides readers with a simple framework and practical tools for developing that crucial competitive advantage: a high-quality personal, professional/organizational and virtual network.

  2. Effects of Auxiliary-Source Connection in Multichip Power Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin-source connection does, owing to their involvement in the loop of the power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary-source connections are then analyzed, which are 1) the common source stray inductance reduction, 2) the transient drain......Auxiliary-source bond wires and connections are widely used in power modules with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the operation mechanism of the auxiliary-source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary-source connections cannot fully decouple......-source current imbalance mitigation, and 3) the influence on the steady-state current distribution. Lastly, simulations and experimental results validate the theoretical analysis....

  3. Laterality patterns of brain functional connectivity: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2012-06-01

    Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism).

  4. Triton burnup in JET - profile effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Conroy, S.W.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.J.; Belle, P. van (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking); Adams, J.M.; Watkins, N. (AEA Industrial Technology, Harwell Laboratory (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the 14 MeV neutron emission from triton burnup show that the 14 MeV emission profile shadows closely the 2,5 MeV profile but after a delay corresponding to the triton slowing down time. The slightly greater width of the 14 MeV neutron profile is a consequence of the finite Larmor radius of the tritons. It has not so far been possible to identify unambiguously any effects on the triton burnup that are attributable to sawtooth crashes. Finally, the time dependence of the triton profile indicates that the triton diffusion coefficient is very small (<<0.1 m[sup 2]/s). (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Functional connectivity profile of the human inferior frontal junction: involvement in a cognitive control network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundermann Benedikt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human inferior frontal junction area (IFJ is critically involved in three main component processes of cognitive control (working memory, task switching and inhibitory control. As it overlaps with several areas in established anatomical labeling schemes, it is considered to be underreported as a functionally distinct location in the neuroimaging literature. While recent studies explicitly focused on the IFJ's anatomical organization and functional role as a single brain area, it is usually not explicitly denominated in studies on cognitive networks. However based on few analyses in small datasets constrained by specific a priori assumptions on its functional specialization, the IFJ has been postulated to be part of a cognitive control network. Goal of this meta-analysis was to establish the IFJ’s connectivity profile on a high formal level of evidence by aggregating published implicit knowledge about its co-activations. We applied meta-analytical connectivity modeling (MACM based on the activation likelihood estimation (ALE method without specific assumptions regarding functional specialization on 180 (reporting left IFJ activity and 131 (right IFJ published functional neuroimaging experiments derived from the BrainMap database. This method is based on coordinates in stereotaxic space, not on anatomical descriptors. Results The IFJ is significantly co-activated with areas in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, medial frontal gyrus / pre-SMA, posterior parietal cortex, occipitotemporal junction / cerebellum, thalamus and putamen as well as language and motor areas. Results are corroborated by an independent resting-state fMRI analysis. Conclusions These results support the assumption that the IFJ is part of a previously described cognitive control network. They also highlight the involvement of subcortical structures in this system. A direct line is drawn from works on the functional

  6. The "Mozart Effect" and the Mathematical Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Judy M.; Rowe, Beverly J.

    2012-01-01

    Educators are always looking for ways to enhance the performance of students on outcome assessments. There is a growing body of research showing the benefits of music on educational performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if a "Mozart Effect" improves student performance on outcome assessments in mathematics. In this study, during…

  7. Connectivity effects in the dynamic model of neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J; Choi, M Y; Yoon, B-G

    2009-01-01

    We study, via extensive Monte Carlo calculations, the effects of connectivity in the dynamic model of neural networks, to observe that the Mattis-state order parameter increases with the number of coupled neurons. Such effects appear more pronounced when the average number of connections is increased by introducing shortcuts in the network. In particular, the power spectra of the order parameter at stationarity are found to exhibit power-law behavior, depending on how the average number of connections is increased. The cluster size distribution of the 'memory-unmatched' sites also follows a power law and possesses strong correlations with the power spectra. It is further observed that the distribution of waiting times for neuron firing fits roughly to a power law, again depending on how neuronal connections are increased

  8. Brain Connectivity Studies in Schizophrenia: Unravelling the Effects of Antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, A.B.; Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2012-01-01

    Impaired brain connectivity is a hallmark of schizophrenia brain dysfunction. However, the effect of drug treatment and challenges on the dysconnectivity of functional networks in schizophrenia is an understudied area. In this review, we provide an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging...... studies examining dysconnectivity in schizophrenia and discuss the few studies which have also attempted to probe connectivity changes with antipsychotic drug treatment. We conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for further investigation....

  9. Predicting the cumulative effect of multiple disturbances on seagrass connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Alana; Hanert, Emmanuel; McKenzie, Len; Rasheed, Michael; Thomas, Christopher; Tol, Samantha; Wang, Mingzhu; Waycott, Michelle; Wolter, Jolan; Coles, Rob

    2018-03-15

    The rate of exchange, or connectivity, among populations effects their ability to recover after disturbance events. However, there is limited information on the extent to which populations are connected or how multiple disturbances affect connectivity, especially in coastal and marine ecosystems. We used network analysis and the outputs of a biophysical model to measure potential functional connectivity and predict the impact of multiple disturbances on seagrasses in the central Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), Australia. The seagrass networks were densely connected, indicating that seagrasses are resilient to the random loss of meadows. Our analysis identified discrete meadows that are important sources of seagrass propagules and that serve as stepping stones connecting various different parts of the network. Several of these meadows were close to urban areas or ports and likely to be at risk from coastal development. Deep water meadows were highly connected to coastal meadows and may function as a refuge, but only for non-foundation species. We evaluated changes to the structure and functioning of the seagrass networks when one or more discrete meadows were removed due to multiple disturbance events. The scale of disturbance required to disconnect the seagrass networks into two or more components was on average >245 km, about half the length of the metapopulation. The densely connected seagrass meadows of the central GBRWHA are not limited by the supply of propagules; therefore, management should focus on improving environmental conditions that support natural seagrass recruitment and recovery processes. Our study provides a new framework for assessing the impact of global change on the connectivity and persistence of coastal and marine ecosystems. Without this knowledge, management actions, including coastal restoration, may prove unnecessary and be unsuccessful. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Connective processing by bilingual children and monolinguals with specific language impairment : distinct profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, W.M.; Tribushinina, E.; Lomako, Julia; Gagarina, N.; Abrosova, Ekaterina; Sanders, T.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Production studies show that both Russian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual children for whom Russian is a non-dominant language have difficulty distinguishing between the near-synonymous connectives i ‘and’ and a ‘and/but’. I is a preferred connective when

  11. Metabolic connectivity mapping reveals effective connectivity in the resting human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Valentin; Utz, Lukas; Castrillón, Gabriel; Grimmer, Timo; Rauschecker, Josef P; Ploner, Markus; Friston, Karl J; Drzezga, Alexander; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-12

    Directionality of signaling among brain regions provides essential information about human cognition and disease states. Assessing such effective connectivity (EC) across brain states using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) alone has proven difficult, however. We propose a novel measure of EC, termed metabolic connectivity mapping (MCM), that integrates undirected functional connectivity (FC) with local energy metabolism from fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET) data acquired simultaneously. This method is based on the concept that most energy required for neuronal communication is consumed postsynaptically, i.e., at the target neurons. We investigated MCM and possible changes in EC within the physiological range using "eyes open" versus "eyes closed" conditions in healthy subjects. Independent of condition, MCM reliably detected stable and bidirectional communication between early and higher visual regions. Moreover, we found stable top-down signaling from a frontoparietal network including frontal eye fields. In contrast, we found additional top-down signaling from all major clusters of the salience network to early visual cortex only in the eyes open condition. MCM revealed consistent bidirectional and unidirectional signaling across the entire cortex, along with prominent changes in network interactions across two simple brain states. We propose MCM as a novel approach for inferring EC from neuronal energy metabolism that is ideally suited to study signaling hierarchies in the brain and their defects in brain disorders.

  12. The effect of geometric scattering on the oscillatory magnetoconductance in multiply connected disordered mesoscopic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, C.; Gu Benyuan.

    1994-12-01

    We present the quantum mechanical calculations on the conductance of a quantum waveguide consisting of multiply connected mesoscopic rings with disordered ring-circumferences and ballistic lead connections between the rings with the transfer matrix approach. The profiles of the conductance as functions of the magnetic flux and the Fermi wave number of electrons depend on the number of rings as also on the geometric configuration of the system. The conductance spectrum of this system for disordered ring circumferences, disordered ring intervals and disordered magnetic flux is examined in detail. Studying the effect of geometric scattering and the two different length scales involved in the network, namely, the ring circumference and the ballistic lead connections on the conductance profile, we find that there exist two kinds of mini-bands, one originating from the bound states of the rings, i.e. the intrinsic mini-bands, and the other associated with the connecting leads between the adjacent rings, which are the extra mini-bands. These two kinds of mini-bands respond differently to external perturbations in parameters. Unlike the system of potential scatterers, this system of geometric scatterers show complete band formations at all energies even for finite systems and there is a preferential decay of the energy states depending upon the type of disorder introduced. The conductance band structures strongly depend on the geometric configuration of the network and so by controlling the geometric parameters, the conductance band structures can be artificially tailored. (author). 18 refs, 6 figs

  13. 26 CFR 1.996-6 - Effectively connected income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....996-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.996-6 Effectively connected income. In... permanent establishment of such shareholder within the United States, and shall be subject to tax in...

  14. Dynamic Metabolite Profiling in an Archaeon Connects Transcriptional Regulation to Metabolic Consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Todor

    Full Text Available Previous work demonstrated that the TrmB transcription factor is responsible for regulating the expression of many enzyme-coding genes in the hypersaline-adapted archaeon Halobacterium salinarum via a direct interaction with a cis-regulatory sequence in their promoters. This interaction is abolished in the presence of glucose. Although much is known about the effects of TrmB at the transcriptional level, it remains unclear whether and to what extent changes in mRNA levels directly affect metabolite levels. In order to address this question, here we performed a high-resolution metabolite profiling time course during a change in nutrients using a combination of targeted and untargeted methods in wild-type and ΔtrmB strain backgrounds. We found that TrmB-mediated transcriptional changes resulted in widespread and significant changes to metabolite levels across the metabolic network. Additionally, the pattern of growth complementation using various purines suggests that the mis-regulation of gluconeogenesis in the ΔtrmB mutant strain in the absence of glucose results in low phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP levels. We confirmed these low PRPP levels using a quantitative mass spectrometric technique and found that they are associated with a metabolic block in de novo purine synthesis, which is partially responsible for the growth defect of the ΔtrmB mutant strain in the absence of glucose. In conclusion, we show how transcriptional regulation of metabolism affects metabolite levels and ultimately, phenotypes.

  15. Dynamic Metabolite Profiling in an Archaeon Connects Transcriptional Regulation to Metabolic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Horia; Gooding, Jessica; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Schmid, Amy K

    2015-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that the TrmB transcription factor is responsible for regulating the expression of many enzyme-coding genes in the hypersaline-adapted archaeon Halobacterium salinarum via a direct interaction with a cis-regulatory sequence in their promoters. This interaction is abolished in the presence of glucose. Although much is known about the effects of TrmB at the transcriptional level, it remains unclear whether and to what extent changes in mRNA levels directly affect metabolite levels. In order to address this question, here we performed a high-resolution metabolite profiling time course during a change in nutrients using a combination of targeted and untargeted methods in wild-type and ΔtrmB strain backgrounds. We found that TrmB-mediated transcriptional changes resulted in widespread and significant changes to metabolite levels across the metabolic network. Additionally, the pattern of growth complementation using various purines suggests that the mis-regulation of gluconeogenesis in the ΔtrmB mutant strain in the absence of glucose results in low phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) levels. We confirmed these low PRPP levels using a quantitative mass spectrometric technique and found that they are associated with a metabolic block in de novo purine synthesis, which is partially responsible for the growth defect of the ΔtrmB mutant strain in the absence of glucose. In conclusion, we show how transcriptional regulation of metabolism affects metabolite levels and ultimately, phenotypes.

  16. Classification of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer by weighing gene expression profiles with connectivity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ao; Tian, Suyan

    2018-05-01

    Pathway-based feature selection algorithms, which utilize biological information contained in pathways to guide which features/genes should be selected, have evolved quickly and become widespread in the field of bioinformatics. Based on how the pathway information is incorporated, we classify pathway-based feature selection algorithms into three major categories-penalty, stepwise forward, and weighting. Compared to the first two categories, the weighting methods have been underutilized even though they are usually the simplest ones. In this article, we constructed three different genes' connectivity information-based weights for each gene and then conducted feature selection upon the resulting weighted gene expression profiles. Using both simulations and a real-world application, we have demonstrated that when the data-driven connectivity information constructed from the data of specific disease under study is considered, the resulting weighted gene expression profiles slightly outperform the original expression profiles. In summary, a big challenge faced by the weighting method is how to estimate pathway knowledge-based weights more accurately and precisely. Only until the issue is conquered successfully will wide utilization of the weighting methods be impossible. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Matter Density Profile Shape Effects at DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kevin J. [Northwestern U.; Parke, Stephen J. [Fermilab

    2018-02-19

    Quantum mechanical interactions between neutrinos and matter along the path of propagation, the Wolfenstein matter effect, are of particular importance for the upcoming long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, specifically the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). Here, we explore specifically what about the matter density profile can be measured by DUNE, considering both the shape and normalization of the profile between the neutrinos' origin and detection. Additionally, we explore the capability of a perturbative method for calculating neutrino oscillation probabilities and whether this method is suitable for DUNE. We also briefly quantitatively explore the ability of DUNE to measure the Earth's matter density, and the impact of performing this measurement on measuring standard neutrino oscillation parameters.

  18. Mission Profile Translation to Capacitor Stresses in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Ma, Ke; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    DC capacitors are widely adopted in grid-connected PhotoVoltaic(PV) systems for power stabilization and control decoupling. They have become one of the critical components in grid-connected PV inverters in terms of cost, reliability and volume. The electrical and thermal stresses of the DC...... stresses of the DC capacitors under both normal and abnormal grid conditions. As a consequence, this investigation provides new insights into the sizing and reliability prediction of those capacitors with respect to priorart studies. Two study cases on a single-stage PV inverter and a two-stage PV inverter...

  19. The role of connective tissue in late effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Connective tissues not only serve as support, but also filter and censor the physical and molecular information reaching cells. The late change in connective tissues, i.e. fibrosis several months or years after the irradiation with 1000 rad or more, has been well known, and the dreaded sequel of radiation therapy, but connective tissues are affected already at much earlier time. The change in irradiated connective tissues may be distinguished in 3 phases after irradiation, the change in permeability within hours, damage to cell replacement systems within days and months and the late change of fibrosis, vascular damage and parenchymal atrophy after months and years. Glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis after the excessive irradiation of kidneys, accompanied by renal failure and hypertension, are usually considered as the consequence of vascular or tubular damage, but recent investigation suggested that the change in blood flow is correlated also with the increase in collagen, so that fibrosis may represent an important factor in the pathogenesis of renal damage. Radiofibrosis is considered simply as a result of the vascular damage due to the deficient or abnormal replacement of endothelial cells and/or due to arteriolo-capillary fibrosis. The late effects depend on early ones, and the endothelial cells would be only one. Other possible paths could depend on low fibrinolytic activity and immunological reactions. (Yamashita, S.)

  20. Pore connectivity effects on solute transport in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    Retardation of nuclear contaminants in rock matrices can lead to long retention times, allowing substantial radionuclide decay prior to eventual release. Imbibition and diffusion into the rock matrix can move contaminants away from an active fracture, thereby contributing to their retardation. However, diffusive transport in some rocks may behave anomalously because of their sparsely connected porespace, in contrast to diffusion in rocks with denser pore connections. We examined imbibition of weakly sorbing tracers into welded tuff and Indiana sandstone, and water imbibition into metagraywacke and Berea sandstone. Tuff samples were initially equilibrated to 12% and 76% water (v/v) within controlled humidity chambers, while the other rocks were air-dried. For imbibition, one face was exposed to water, with or without tracer, and uptake was measured over time. Following imbibition, tracer concentration measurements were made at fine (1 mm) increments. Three anomalous results were observed: (1) Indiana sandstone and metagraywacke showed mass of imbibed water scaling as time 0.26 , while tuff and Berea sandstone showed the more classical scaling with time 0.5 ; (2) tracer movement into dry (2% initial saturation) Indiana sandstone showed a dispersion pattern similar to that expected during tracer movement into moist (76% initial saturation) tuff; and (3) tracer concentrations at the inlet face of the tuff sample were approximately twice those deeper inside the sample. The experiment was then modeled using random walk methods on a 3-D lattice with different values of pore coordination. Network model simulations that used a pore coordination of 1.49 for Indiana sandstone and 1.56 for metagraywacke showed similar temporal scaling, a result of their porespace being close to the percolation threshold. Tracer concentration profiles in Indiana sandstone and tuff were closely matched by simulations that used pore coordinations of 1.49 and 1.68, respectively, because of how low

  1. Pore Connectivity Effects on Solute Transport in Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oinhong Hu

    2001-01-01

    Retardation of nuclear contaminants in rock matrices can lead to long retention times, allowing substantial radionuclide decay prior to eventual release. Imbibition and diffusion into the rock matrix can move contaminants away from an active fracture, thereby contributing to their retardation. However, diffusive transport in some rocks may behave anomalously because of their sparsely connected porespace, in contrast to diffusion in rocks with denser pore connections. We examined imbibition of weakly sorbing tracers into welded tuff and Indiana sandstone, and water imbibition into metagraywacke and Berea sandstone. Tuff samples were initially equilibrated to 12% and 76% water (v/v) within controlled humidity chambers, while the other rocks were air-dried. For imbibition, one face was exposed to water, with or without tracer, and uptake was measured over time. Following imbibition, tracer concentration measurements were made at fine (1 mm) increments. Three anomalous results were observed: (1) Indiana sandstone and metagraywacke showed mass of imbibed water scaling as time 0.26 , while tuff and Berea sandstone showed the more classical scaling with time 0.05 ; (2) tracer movement into dry (2% initial saturation) Indiana sandstone showed a dispersion pattern similar to that expected during tracer movement into moist (76% initial saturation) tuft and (3) tracer concentrations at the inlet face of the tuff sample were approximately twice those deeper inside the sample. The experiment was then modeled using random walk methods on a 3-D lattice with different values of pore coordination. Network model simulations that used a pore coordination of 1.49 for Indiana sandstone and 1.56 for metagraywacke showed similar temporal scaling, a result of their porespace being close to the percolation threshold. Tracer concentration profiles in Indiana sandstone and tuff were closely matched by simulations that used pore coordinations of 1.49 and 1.68, respectively, because of how low

  2. Effect of Wells’ Connectivity Enhancement on the Performance of Vapor Extraction (VAPEX Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadpoor Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawbacks of the thermal recovery techniques such as excessive heat loss to the surrounding formations and carbon dioxide emissions during these processes have directed the interests of researchers towards more viable alternatives such as solvent-based recovery techniques (e.g. VAPEX. One of the key parameters to implement a successful VAPEX process is to control the profiles of vapour chamber and consequently improve the areal sweep efficiency. In this regard, an optimum well configuration and well connectivity establishment between the injection and production wells are desirable. The main focus of this research is to extensively conduct series of experiments to investigate the effect of injection/production wells connectivity on the performance of VAPEX process. For this purpose, two large-scale physical models were employed. Propane and propane/carbon dioxide mixtures were selected as the injection solvents in the visual sand-packed physical models saturated with heavy oil sample from Saskatchewan (Canada heavy oil. Various injection/production scenarios were followed and it was found that the initial connection path between the injector and producer had a significant impact on the vapour chamber profiles and consequently on the ultimate recovery performance of the VAPEX process.

  3. Functional Connectivity and Genetic Profile of a “Double-Cortex”-Like Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprugnoli, Giulia; Vatti, Giampaolo; Rossi, Simone; Cerase, Alfonso; Renieri, Alessandra; Mencarelli, Maria A.; Zara, Federico; Rossi, Alessandro; Santarnecchi, Emiliano

    2018-01-01

    Laminar heterotopia is a rare condition consisting in an extra layer of gray matter under properly migrated cortex; it configures an atypical presentation of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) or a double cortex (DC) syndrome. We conducted an original functional MRI (fMRI) analysis in a drug-resistant epilepsy patient with “double-cortex”-like malformation to reveal her functional connectivity (FC) as well as a wide genetic analysis to identify possible genetic substrates. Heterotopias were segmented into region of interests (ROIs), whose voxel-wise FC was compared to that of (i) its normally migrated counterpart, (ii) its contralateral homologous, and (iii) those of 30 age-matched healthy controls. Extensive genetic analysis was conducted to screen cortical malformations-associated genes. Compared to healthy controls, both laminar heterotopias and the overlying cortex showed significant reduction of FC with the contralateral hemisphere. Two heterozygous variants of uncertain clinical significance were found, involving autosomal recessive disease-causing genes, FAT4 and COL18A1. This first FC analysis of a unique case of “double-cortex”-like malformation revealed a hemispheric connectivity segregation both in the laminar cortex as in the correctly migrated one, with a new pattern of genes’ mutations. Our study suggests the altered FC could have an electrophysiological and functional impact on large-scale brain networks, and the involvement of not yet identified genes in “double-cortex”-like malformation with a possible role of rare variants in recessive genes as pathogenic cofactors. PMID:29946244

  4. Effects of fueling profiles on plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mense, A.T.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.; Milora, S.L.

    1978-04-01

    A one-dimensional (1-D), multifluid transport model is used to investigate the effects of particle fueling profiles on plasma transport in an ignition-sized tokamak (TNS). Normal diffusive properties of plasmas will likely maintain the density at the center of the discharge even if no active fueling is provided there. This significantly relaxes the requirements for fuel penetration. Not only is lower fuel penetration easier to achieve, but it may have the advantage of reducing or eliminating density gradient-driven trapped particle microinstabilities. Simulation of discrete pellet fueling indicates that relatively low velocity (approximately 10 3 m/sec) pellets may be sufficient to fuel a TNS-sized device (approximately 1.25-m minor radius), to produce a relatively broad, cool edge region of plasma which should reduce the potential for sputtering, and also to reduce the likelihood of trapped particle mode dominated transport. Low penetrating pellets containing up to 10 to 20 percent of the total plasma ions can produce fluctuations in density and temperature at the plasma edge, but the pressure profile and fusion alpha production remain almost constant

  5. Representing connectivity: quantifying effective habitat availability based on area and connectivity for conservation status assessment and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Maile; Tumas, Hayley R; Marsden, Brittany W

    2014-01-01

    We apply a comprehensive suite of graph theoretic metrics to illustrate how landscape connectivity can be effectively incorporated into conservation status assessments and in setting conservation objectives. These metrics allow conservation practitioners to evaluate and quantify connectivity in terms of representation, resiliency, and redundancy and the approach can be applied in spite of incomplete knowledge of species-specific biology and dispersal processes. We demonstrate utility of the graph metrics by evaluating changes in distribution and connectivity that would result from implementing two conservation plans for three endangered plant species (Erigeron parishii, Acanthoscyphus parishii var. goodmaniana, and Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum) relative to connectivity under current conditions. Although distributions of the species differ from one another in terms of extent and specific location of occupied patches within the study landscape, the spatial scale of potential connectivity in existing networks were strikingly similar for Erigeron and Eriogonum, but differed for Acanthoscyphus. Specifically, patches of the first two species were more regularly distributed whereas subsets of patches of Acanthoscyphus were clustered into more isolated components. Reserves based on US Fish and Wildlife Service critical habitat designation would not greatly contribute to maintain connectivity; they include 83-91% of the extant occurrences and >92% of the aerial extent of each species. Effective connectivity remains within 10% of that in the whole network for all species. A Forest Service habitat management strategy excluded up to 40% of the occupied habitat of each species resulting in both range reductions and loss of occurrences from the central portions of each species' distribution. Overall effective network connectivity was reduced to 62-74% of the full networks. The distance at which each CHMS network first became fully connected was reduced relative to the full

  6. Effective connectivity reveals strategy differences in an expert calculator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Minati

    Full Text Available Mathematical reasoning is a core component of cognition and the study of experts defines the upper limits of human cognitive abilities, which is why we are fascinated by peak performers, such as chess masters and mental calculators. Here, we investigated the neural bases of calendrical skills, i.e. the ability to rapidly identify the weekday of a particular date, in a gifted mental calculator who does not fall in the autistic spectrum, using functional MRI. Graph-based mapping of effective connectivity, but not univariate analysis, revealed distinct anatomical location of "cortical hubs" supporting the processing of well-practiced close dates and less-practiced remote dates: the former engaged predominantly occipital and medial temporal areas, whereas the latter were associated mainly with prefrontal, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate connectivity. These results point to the effect of extensive practice on the development of expertise and long term working memory, and demonstrate the role of frontal networks in supporting performance on less practiced calculations, which incur additional processing demands. Through the example of calendrical skills, our results demonstrate that the ability to perform complex calculations is initially supported by extensive attentional and strategic resources, which, as expertise develops, are gradually replaced by access to long term working memory for familiar material.

  7. Transcript profiling of Wilms tumors reveals connections to kidney morphogenesis and expression patterns associated with anaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenliang; Kessler, Patricia; Williams, Bryan R G

    2005-01-13

    Anaplasia (unfavorable histology) is associated with therapy resistance and poor prognosis of Wilms tumor, but the molecular basis for this phenotype is unclear. Here, we used a cDNA array with 9240 clones relevant to cancer biology and/or kidney development to examine the expression profiles of 54 Wilms tumors, five normal kidneys and fetal kidney. By linking genes differentially expressed between fetal kidney and Wilms tumors to kidney morphogenesis, we found that genes expressed at a higher level in Wilms tumors tend to be expressed more in uninduced metanephrogenic mesenchyme or blastema than in their differentiated structures. Conversely, genes expressed at a lower level in Wilms tumors tend to be expressed less in uninduced metanephrogenic mesenchyme or blastema. We also identified 97 clones representing 76 Unigenes or unclustered ESTs that clearly separate anaplastic Wilms tumors from tumors with favorable histology. Genes in this set provide insight into the nature of the abnormal nuclear morphology of anaplastic tumors and may facilitate identification of molecular targets to improve their responsiveness to treatment.

  8. Effective connectivity of visual word recognition and homophone orthographic errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Zarabozo-Hurtado, Daniel; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    The study of orthographic errors in a transparent language like Spanish is an important topic in relation to writing acquisition. The development of neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has enabled the study of such relationships between brain areas. The main objective of the present study was to explore the patterns of effective connectivity by processing pseudohomophone orthographic errors among subjects with high and low spelling skills. Two groups of 12 Mexican subjects each, matched by age, were formed based on their results in a series of ad hoc spelling-related out-scanner tests: a high spelling skills (HSSs) group and a low spelling skills (LSSs) group. During the f MRI session, two experimental tasks were applied (spelling recognition task and visuoperceptual recognition task). Regions of Interest and their signal values were obtained for both tasks. Based on these values, structural equation models (SEMs) were obtained for each group of spelling competence (HSS and LSS) and task through maximum likelihood estimation, and the model with the best fit was chosen in each case. Likewise, dynamic causal models (DCMs) were estimated for all the conditions across tasks and groups. The HSS group’s SEM results suggest that, in the spelling recognition task, the right middle temporal gyrus, and, to a lesser extent, the left parahippocampal gyrus receive most of the significant effects, whereas the DCM results in the visuoperceptual recognition task show less complex effects, but still congruent with the previous results, with an important role in several areas. In general, these results are consistent with the major findings in partial studies about linguistic activities but they are the first analyses of statistical effective brain connectivity in transparent languages. PMID:26042070

  9. Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected vegetables: okra fruit ( Abelmoshcus esculentus ), fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis ), African spinach ( Amarantus viridis ), and scent leaf ( Ocumum gratissimum.

  10. Different forms of effective connectivity in primate frontotemporal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Christopher I; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Mishkin, Mortimer; Rauschecker, Josef P; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2015-01-23

    It is generally held that non-primary sensory regions of the brain have a strong impact on frontal cortex. However, the effective connectivity of pathways to frontal cortex is poorly understood. Here we microstimulate sites in the superior temporal and ventral frontal cortex of monkeys and use functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the functional activity resulting from the stimulation of interconnected regions. Surprisingly, we find that, although certain earlier stages of auditory cortical processing can strongly activate frontal cortex, downstream auditory regions, such as voice-sensitive cortex, appear to functionally engage primarily an ipsilateral temporal lobe network. Stimulating other sites within this activated temporal lobe network shows strong activation of frontal cortex. The results indicate that the relative stage of sensory processing does not predict the level of functional access to the frontal lobes. Rather, certain brain regions engage local networks, only parts of which have a strong functional impact on frontal cortex.

  11. Analytical Study of Common Rigid Steel Connections under the Effect of Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohola Rahnavard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important members of steel structure’s connection region is beam-to-column connection. Rigid connection in steel moment frame has special role in the behavior of these structures and the fire resistance of these connections can be important. In this paper the behaviors of three common types of rigid connections in Iran under the effect of heat were studied by the use of numerical finite element methods through ABAQUS software. The models were verified by the use of an experimental model through elastic and plastic amplitudes up to collapse and during numerical results, and the effect of large deformation in the nonlinear region has also been considered. The results show that the connection with the end plate had a better performance against heat than other connections. Also reduced stiffness and lateral buckling in this connection were less than other connections.

  12. Comparative effectiveness of correction strategies in connected discourse tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunato, K E; Weisenberger, J M

    1994-10-01

    The effectiveness of four correction strategies commonly used in connected discourse tracking was investigated in the present study. The strategies were 1) verbatim repetition of a word or phrase; 2) use of antonyms or synonyms as cues; 3) use of phonemic cues, with no whole word repetition; and 4) going back or ahead in the text, with no repetition of the missed segment. Four normal-hearing adults served as listeners. Live-voice presentation of text by two female talkers was employed for all conditions. Listeners were tested in two stimulus presentation modes, speechreading alone and speechreading plus a multichannel tactile aid. Results indicated that strategy 1, repetition of the missed segment, produced the highest tracking rates, significantly higher than any of the other strategies. Strategy 2 produced the lowest tracking rates. Strategies 1 and 3 yielded the lowest percentage of initially missed words, or blockages, and strategy 4 the highest percentage. Significantly higher tracking rates were found under the speechreading plus tactile aid presentation mode, compared with speechreading alone. Further, tracking rates increased significantly from the beginning to the end of training. Data were compared with a more typical CDT task, in which all correction strategies were operative, and results showed little difference in tracking rates between this task and the constrained CDT employing only strategy 1. Overall, results suggest that simple repetition of missed segments is an effective correction strategy for CDT and argue for its inclusion in computer-assisted tracking implementations.

  13. Effect of age on changes in motor units functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    With age, there is a change in functional connectivity of motor units in muscle. This leads to reduced muscle strength. This study has investigated the effect of age on the changes in the motor unit recruitment by measuring the mutual information between multiple channels of surface electromyogram (sEMG) of biceps brachii muscle. It is hypothesised that with ageing, there is a reduction in number of motor units, which can lead to an increase in the dependency of remaining motor units. This increase can be observed in the mutual information between the multiple channels of the muscle activity. Two channels of sEMG were recorded during the maximum level of isometric contraction. 28 healthy subjects (Young: age range 20-35years and Old: age range - 60-70years) participated in the experiments. The normalized mutual information (NMI), a measure of dependency factor, was computed for the sEMG recordings. Statistical analysis was performed to test the effect of age on NMI. The results show that the NMI among the older cohort was significantly higher when compared with the young adults.

  14. Axial velocity profiles and secondary flows of developing laminar flows in a straight connected exit region of a 180 .deg. square curved duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Hyun Chull; Lee, Heang Nam; Park, Gil Moon [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-01

    In the present study, characteristics of steady state laminar flows of a straight duct connected to a 180 .deg. curved duct were examined in the entrance region through experimental and numerical analyses. For the analysis, the governing equations of laminar flows in the Cartesian coordinate system were applied. Flow characteristics such as velocity profiles and secondary flows were investigated numerically and experimentally in a square cross-sectional straight duct by the PIV system and a CFD code (STARCD). For the PIV measurement, smoke particles produced from mosquito coils. The experimental data were obtained at 9 points dividing the test sections by 400 mm. Experimental and numerical results can be summarized as follows. 1) Reynolds number, Re was increased, dimensionless velocity profiles at the outer wall were increased due to the effect of the centrifugal force and secondary flows. 2) The intensity of a secondary flow became stronger at the inner wall rather than the outer wall regardless of Reynolds number. Especially, fluid dynamic phenomenon called conner impact were observed at dimensionless axial position, x/D{sub h}=50.

  15. Rich-Club Organization in Effective Connectivity among Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Sunny; Shimono, Masanori; Ito, Shinya; Yeh, Fang-Chin; Timme, Nicholas; Myroshnychenko, Maxym; Lapish, Christopher C; Tosi, Zachary; Hottowy, Pawel; Smith, Wesley C; Masmanidis, Sotiris C; Litke, Alan M; Sporns, Olaf; Beggs, John M

    2016-01-20

    The performance of complex networks, like the brain, depends on how effectively their elements communicate. Despite the importance of communication, it is virtually unknown how information is transferred in local cortical networks, consisting of hundreds of closely spaced neurons. To address this, it is important to record simultaneously from hundreds of neurons at a spacing that matches typical axonal connection distances, and at a temporal resolution that matches synaptic delays. We used a 512-electrode array (60 μm spacing) to record spontaneous activity at 20 kHz from up to 500 neurons simultaneously in slice cultures of mouse somatosensory cortex for 1 h at a time. We applied a previously validated version of transfer entropy to quantify information transfer. Similar to in vivo reports, we found an approximately lognormal distribution of firing rates. Pairwise information transfer strengths also were nearly lognormally distributed, similar to reports of synaptic strengths. Some neurons transferred and received much more information than others, which is consistent with previous predictions. Neurons with the highest outgoing and incoming information transfer were more strongly connected to each other than chance, thus forming a "rich club." We found similar results in networks recorded in vivo from rodent cortex, suggesting the generality of these findings. A rich-club structure has been found previously in large-scale human brain networks and is thought to facilitate communication between cortical regions. The discovery of a small, but information-rich, subset of neurons within cortical regions suggests that this population will play a vital role in communication, learning, and memory. Significance statement: Many studies have focused on communication networks between cortical brain regions. In contrast, very few studies have examined communication networks within a cortical region. This is the first study to combine such a large number of neurons (several

  16. Rich-Club Organization in Effective Connectivity among Cortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Masanori; Ito, Shinya; Yeh, Fang-Chin; Timme, Nicholas; Myroshnychenko, Maxym; Lapish, Christopher C.; Tosi, Zachary; Hottowy, Pawel; Smith, Wesley C.; Masmanidis, Sotiris C.; Litke, Alan M.; Sporns, Olaf; Beggs, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of complex networks, like the brain, depends on how effectively their elements communicate. Despite the importance of communication, it is virtually unknown how information is transferred in local cortical networks, consisting of hundreds of closely spaced neurons. To address this, it is important to record simultaneously from hundreds of neurons at a spacing that matches typical axonal connection distances, and at a temporal resolution that matches synaptic delays. We used a 512-electrode array (60 μm spacing) to record spontaneous activity at 20 kHz from up to 500 neurons simultaneously in slice cultures of mouse somatosensory cortex for 1 h at a time. We applied a previously validated version of transfer entropy to quantify information transfer. Similar to in vivo reports, we found an approximately lognormal distribution of firing rates. Pairwise information transfer strengths also were nearly lognormally distributed, similar to reports of synaptic strengths. Some neurons transferred and received much more information than others, which is consistent with previous predictions. Neurons with the highest outgoing and incoming information transfer were more strongly connected to each other than chance, thus forming a “rich club.” We found similar results in networks recorded in vivo from rodent cortex, suggesting the generality of these findings. A rich-club structure has been found previously in large-scale human brain networks and is thought to facilitate communication between cortical regions. The discovery of a small, but information-rich, subset of neurons within cortical regions suggests that this population will play a vital role in communication, learning, and memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Many studies have focused on communication networks between cortical brain regions. In contrast, very few studies have examined communication networks within a cortical region. This is the first study to combine such a large number of neurons (several

  17. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Lipid Profile: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Mazidi; Peyman Rezaie; Ehsan Karimi; Mohsen Nematy

    2014-01-01

    Ramadan Fasting during the month of Ramadan is a religious obligation, practiced by millions of people around the world. Ramadan fasting is essentially a fundamental change in lifestyle for one lunar month. This type of fasting may have significant effects on lipid profile. Although there is no scientific consensus about the effects of fasting on cardiovascular risks such as changes in lipid profile, some studies have revealed the positive effects of Ramadan fasting (and similar religious fas...

  18. Chimeras in leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks: effects of reflecting connectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigkri-DeSmedt, Nefeli Dimitra; Hizanidis, Johanne; Schöll, Eckehard; Hövel, Philipp; Provata, Astero

    2017-07-01

    The effects of attracting-nonlocal and reflecting connectivity are investigated in coupled Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (LIF) elements, which model the exchange of electrical signals between neurons. Earlier investigations have demonstrated that repulsive-nonlocal and hierarchical network connectivity can induce complex synchronization patterns and chimera states in systems of coupled oscillators. In the LIF system we show that if the elements are nonlocally linked with positive diffusive coupling on a ring network, the system splits into a number of alternating domains. Half of these domains contain elements whose potential stays near the threshold and they are interrupted by active domains where the elements perform regular LIF oscillations. The active domains travel along the ring with constant velocity, depending on the system parameters. When we introduce reflecting coupling in LIF networks unexpected complex spatio-temporal structures arise. For relatively extensive ranges of parameter values, the system splits into two coexisting domains: one where all elements stay near the threshold and one where incoherent states develop, characterized by multi-leveled mean phase velocity profiles.

  19. Plant functional connectivity – integrating landscape structure and effective dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auffret, Alistair G.; Rico, Yessica; Bullock, James M.; Hooftman, Danny A.P.; Pakeman, Robin J.; Soons, Merel B.; Suárez-Esteban, Alberto; Traveset, Anna; Wagner, Helene H.; Cousins, Sara A.O.

    2017-01-01

    Dispersal is essential for species to survive the threats of habitat destruction and climate change. Combining descriptions of dispersal ability with those of landscape structure, the concept of functional connectivity has been popular for understanding and predicting species’ spatial responses to

  20. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  1. Personality Profiles of Effective Leadership Performance in Assessment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D; Lanza, Stephanie T; Bernthal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most research examining the relationship between effective leadership and personality has focused on individual personality traits. However, profiles of personality traits more fully describe individuals, and these profiles may be important as they relate to leadership. This study used latent class analysis to examine how personality traits combine and interact to form subpopulations of leaders, and how these subpopulations relate to performance criteria. Using a sample of 2,461 executive-level leaders, six personality profiles were identified: Unpredictable Leaders with Low Diligence (7.3%); Conscientious, Backend Leaders (3.6%); Unpredictable Leaders (8.6%); Creative Communicators (20.8%); Power Players (32.4%); and Protocol Followers (27.1%). One profile performed well on all criteria in an assessment center; remaining profiles exhibited strengths and weaknesses across criteria. Implications and future directions for research are highlighted.

  2. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  3. Distinctive Structural and Effective Connectivity Changes of Semantic Cognition Network across Left and Right Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotong Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of language impairment in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE patients is common and left mTLE patients always exhibit a primary problem with access to names. To explore different neuropsychological profiles between left and right mTLE patients, the study investigated both structural and effective functional connectivity changes within the semantic cognition network between these two groups and those from normal controls. We found that gray matter atrophy of left mTLE patients was more severe than that of right mTLE patients in the whole brain and especially within the semantic cognition network in their contralateral hemisphere. It suggested that seizure attacks were rather targeted than random for patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS in the dominant hemisphere. Functional connectivity analysis during resting state fMRI revealed that subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL in the left HS patients were no longer effectively connected. Further, we found that, unlike in right HS patients, increased causal linking between ipsilateral regions in the left HS epilepsy patients cannot make up for their decreased contralateral interaction. It suggested that weakened contralateral connection and disrupted effective interaction between subregions of the unitary, transmodal hub of the ATL may be the primary cause of anomia in the left HS patients.

  4. Distinctive Structural and Effective Connectivity Changes of Semantic Cognition Network across Left and Right Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaotong; Shang, Kun; Wang, Xiaocui; Wang, Peipei; Shan, Yongzhi; Lu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of language impairment in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients is common and left mTLE patients always exhibit a primary problem with access to names. To explore different neuropsychological profiles between left and right mTLE patients, the study investigated both structural and effective functional connectivity changes within the semantic cognition network between these two groups and those from normal controls. We found that gray matter atrophy of left mTLE patients was more severe than that of right mTLE patients in the whole brain and especially within the semantic cognition network in their contralateral hemisphere. It suggested that seizure attacks were rather targeted than random for patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in the dominant hemisphere. Functional connectivity analysis during resting state fMRI revealed that subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in the left HS patients were no longer effectively connected. Further, we found that, unlike in right HS patients, increased causal linking between ipsilateral regions in the left HS epilepsy patients cannot make up for their decreased contralateral interaction. It suggested that weakened contralateral connection and disrupted effective interaction between subregions of the unitary, transmodal hub of the ATL may be the primary cause of anomia in the left HS patients. PMID:28018680

  5. Effects of two teaching methods of connected speech in a Polish EFL classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Kul, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The results demonstrate that in general, NF proved more effective than NNF. With regard to individual processes of connected speech, NF was more effective in production, whereas no such effect was found for perception.

  6. RF slice profile effects in magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Taehwa; Han, Dongyeob; Kim, Min-Oh; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The radio frequency (RF) slice profile effects on T1 and T2 estimation in magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) are investigated with respect to time-bandwidth product (TBW), flip angle (FA) level and field inhomogeneities. Signal evolutions are generated incorporating the non-ideal slice selective excitation process using Bloch simulation and matched to the original dictionary with and without the non-ideal slice profile taken into account. For validation, phantom and in vivo experiments are performed at 3T. Both simulations and experiments results show that T1 and T2 error from non-ideal slice profile increases with increasing FA level, off-resonance, and low TBW values. Therefore, RF slice profile effects should be compensated for accurate determination of the MR parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of homeostatic constraints on associative memory storage and synaptic connectivity of cortical circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eChapeton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of learning and long-term memory storage on synaptic connectivity is not completely understood. In this study, we examine the effects of associative learning on synaptic connectivity in adult cortical circuits by hypothesizing that these circuits function in a steady-state, in which the memory capacity of a circuit is maximal and learning must be accompanied by forgetting. Steady-state circuits should be characterized by unique connectivity features. To uncover such features we developed a biologically constrained, exactly solvable model of associative memory storage. The model is applicable to networks of multiple excitatory and inhibitory neuron classes and can account for homeostatic constraints on the number and the overall weight of functional connections received by each neuron. The results show that in spite of a large number of neuron classes, functional connections between potentially connected cells are realized with less than 50% probability if the presynaptic cell is excitatory and generally a much greater probability if it is inhibitory. We also find that constraining the overall weight of presynaptic connections leads to Gaussian connection weight distributions that are truncated at zero. In contrast, constraining the total number of functional presynaptic connections leads to non-Gaussian distributions, in which weak connections are absent. These theoretical predictions are compared with a large dataset of published experimental studies reporting amplitudes of unitary postsynaptic potentials and probabilities of connections between various classes of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the cerebellum, neocortex, and hippocampus.

  8. Effects of mask imperfections on InP etching profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, D.T.C.; Yan, M.F.; Wynn, J.D.; Wilt, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated that the quality of etch masks has a significant effect on the InP etching profiles. In particular, the authors have shown that mask imperfections can cause defective etching profiles, such as vertical sidewalls and extra mask undercutting in InP. The authors also discovered that the geometry of these defective profiles is determined by the orientation of the substrate relative to the direction of the mask imperfections. Along a left-angle 110 right-angle line mask defect, the downward etching process changes the left-angle 110 right-angle v-grooves to vertical sidewalls without extra undercutting. For v-grooves aligned along the left-angle 110 right-angle direction, defects on the mask give a significant extra undercutting without changing the etching profile

  9. Effects of Pineal Proteins on Biochemical, Enzyme Profile and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Pineal Proteins on Biochemical, Enzyme Profile and Non-Specific Immune Response of Indian Goats under Thermal Stress. ... Total precipitated pineal proteins successfully and significantly relieved the animals from adverse effects of heat stress and metyrapone treatment. There is evidence that most of the ...

  10. Functional and effective whole brain connectivity using magnetoencephalography to identify monozygotic twin pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuru, M.; Gouw, A.; Hillebrand, A.; Stam, C J; van Dijk, B W; Scheltens, P.; Tijms, B.M.; Konijnenberg, E.; ten Kate-Booij, M.J.; den Braber, A; Smit, D J A; Boomsma, D I; Visser, P J

    2017-01-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity patterns are highly stable over time within subjects. This suggests that such 'functional fingerprints' may have strong genetic component. We investigated whether the functional (FC) or effective (EC) connectivity patterns of one monozygotic twin could be used

  11. No functionally relevant mechanical effects of epimuscular myofascial connections between rat ankle plantar flexors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijs, C.; van Dieen, J.H.; Maas, H.

    2015-01-01

    Triceps surae muscles are mechanically connected by the shared Achilles tendon and by epimuscular myofascial connections. We aimed to assess the effects of proximal lengthening of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles, imposed by changes in knee angle, on the magnitude and direction of the 3D ankle

  12. On the effects of rotation on interstellar molecular line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelson, L.M.; Chunming Leung

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are constructed to study the effects of systematic gas rotation on the emergent profiles of interstellar molecular lines, in particular the effects of optical depth and different velocity laws. Both rotational and radial motions (expansion or contraction) may produce similar asymmetric profiles, but the behaviour of the velocity centroid of the emergent profile over the whole cloud (iso-centroid maps) can be used to distinguish between these motions. Iso-centroid maps can also be used to determine the location and orientation of the rotation axis and of the equatorial axis. For clouds undergoing both radial and rotational motion, the component of the centroid due to the rotational motion can be separated from that due to the radial motion. Information on the form of the rotational velocity law can also be derived. (author)

  13. The effect of Gongronema latifolium extracts on serum lipid profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    3. Results. To evaluate the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from G. latifolium leaves on serum lipid profile and oxi- dative stress in diabetic rats, these extracts were adminis-. Table 1. Experimental design. Group. Number of rats. Treatment. Diabetic control (DC). 6. Saline solution. Diabetic (DA). 6. Aqueous extract.

  14. TPSS plasma engineering studies: profile effects and plasma power balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, S.K.; Strickler, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A computationally fast profile-averaged, steady-state plasma model has been developed to allow studies of radial effects in ignited and driven tokamak systems. This code was used to search for the smallest size tokamak consistent with power balance calculations

  15. Effect of Fermentation Methods on the Nutrient Profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of fermentation method on the nutrient profile and organoleptic characteristics of African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth). Materials and Methods: Dry and mature African oil bean seeds were cleaned, boiled, dehulled, cooked, sliced/pulverized and fermented to ugba ...

  16. Some important questions connected with non-targeted effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, Keith; Belyakov, Oleg V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the highlights of experimental evidence that led to the adoption of the term 'non-targeted' to describe new effects induced by ionising radiation that did not fit the classical radiobiological paradigm, principally genomic instability and bystander effect, identifying the reports that were most influential on the subsequent course of radiobiological research. The issue of appropriate terminology for the new effects is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the inheritance of genomic instability, where there are issues concerning which effects should be considered as transgenerational. Finally, in respect of the question as to whether these new effects are likely to have an impact on human health is addressed. It is concluded that there is a need for a clearer terminology to facilitate research progress, that real health effects cannot be ruled out and that therefore there is a need for new paradigms not only for radiobiology but also for risk assessment and radiological protection.

  17. Modelling baryonic effects on galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-06-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  18. Modelling Baryonic Effects on Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  19. Characterization of the fiber connectivity profile of the cerebral cortex in schizotypal personality disorder: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eLiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD is considered one of the classic disconnection syndromes. However, the specific cortical disconnectivity pattern has not been fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore significant alterations in whole-cortex structural connectivity in SPD individuals (SPDs by combining the techniques of brain surface morphometry and white matter (WM tractography. Diffusion and structural MR data were collected from twenty subjects with SPD (all males; age, 19.7 ± 0.9 yrs and eighteen healthy controls (all males; age, 20.3 ± 1.0 yrs. To measure the structural connectivity for a given unit area of the cortex, the fiber connectivity density (FiCD value was proposed and calculated as the sum of the fractional anisotropy of all the fibers connecting to that unit area in tractography. Then, the resultant whole-cortex FiCD maps were compared in a vertex-wise manner between SPDs and controls. Compared with normal controls, SPDs showed significantly decreased FiCD in the rostral middle frontal gyrus (crossing BA9 and BA10 and significantly increased FiCD in the anterior part of the fusiform/inferior temporal cortex (P < 0.05, Monte Carlo simulation corrected. Moreover, the gray matter volume extracted from the left rostral middle frontal cluster was observed to be significantly greater in the SPD group (P = 0.02. Overall, this study identifies a decrease in connectivity in the left middle frontal cortex as a key neural deficit at the whole-cortex level in SPD, thus providing insight into its neuropathological basis.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM ON HALO PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Erik W; Rosenberg, Leslie J [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Quinn, Thomas R, E-mail: lentze@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: ljrosenberg@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: trq@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N -body simulations proved to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. Here we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean ( λ ≲ 0.20) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large ( λ ≳ 0.20) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to λ ≲ 0.20. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.

  1. Effectively identifying user profiles in network and host metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John P.; Berk, Vincent H.; Gregorio-de Souza, Ian

    2010-04-01

    This work presents a collection of methods that is used to effectively identify users of computers systems based on their particular usage of the software and the network. Not only are we able to identify individual computer users by their behavioral patterns, we are also able to detect significant deviations in their typical computer usage over time, or compared to a group of their peers. For instance, most people have a small, and relatively unique selection of regularly visited websites, certain email services, daily work hours, and typical preferred applications for mandated tasks. We argue that these habitual patterns are sufficiently specific to identify fully anonymized network users. We demonstrate that with only a modest data collection capability, profiles of individual computer users can be constructed so as to uniquely identify a profiled user from among their peers. As time progresses and habits or circumstances change, the methods presented update each profile so that changes in user behavior can be reliably detected over both abrupt and gradual time frames, without losing the ability to identify the profiled user. The primary benefit of our methodology allows one to efficiently detect deviant behaviors, such as subverted user accounts, or organizational policy violations. Thanks to the relative robustness, these techniques can be used in scenarios with very diverse data collection capabilities, and data privacy requirements. In addition to behavioral change detection, the generated profiles can also be compared against pre-defined examples of known adversarial patterns.

  2. Intrinsic connectivity networks from childhood to late adolescence: Effects of age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on the effects of age and sex on intrinsic connectivity of networks underlying cognition during childhood and adolescence. Independent component analysis was conducted in 113 subjects aged 7–18; the default mode, executive control, anterior salience, basal ganglia, language and visuospatial networks were identified. The effect of age was examined with multiple regression, while sex and ‘age × sex’ interactions were assessed by dividing the sample according to age (7–12 and 13–18 years. As age increased, connectivity in the dorsal and ventral default mode network became more anterior and posterior, respectively, while in the executive control network, connectivity increased within frontoparietal regions. The basal ganglia network showed increased engagement of striatum, thalami and precuneus. The anterior salience network showed greater connectivity in frontal areas and anterior cingulate, and less connectivity of orbitofrontal, middle cingulate and temporoparietal regions. The language network presented increased connectivity of inferior frontal and decreased connectivity within the right middle frontal and left inferior parietal cortices. The visuospatial network showed greater engagement of inferior parietal and frontal cortices. No effect of sex, nor age by sex interactions was observed. These findings provide evidence of strengthening of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks across childhood and adolescence.

  3. Effects of Neuromodulation on Excitatory-Inhibitory Neural Network Dynamics Depend on Network Connectivity Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Scott; Zochowski, Michal; Booth, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), one of the brain's most potent neuromodulators, can affect intrinsic neuron properties through blockade of an M-type potassium current. The effect of ACh on excitatory and inhibitory cells with this potassium channel modulates their membrane excitability, which in turn affects their tendency to synchronize in networks. Here, we study the resulting changes in dynamics in networks with inter-connected excitatory and inhibitory populations (E-I networks), which are ubiquitous in the brain. Utilizing biophysical models of E-I networks, we analyze how the network connectivity structure in terms of synaptic connectivity alters the influence of ACh on the generation of synchronous excitatory bursting. We investigate networks containing all combinations of excitatory and inhibitory cells with high (Type I properties) or low (Type II properties) modulatory tone. To vary network connectivity structure, we focus on the effects of the strengths of inter-connections between excitatory and inhibitory cells (E-I synapses and I-E synapses), and the strengths of intra-connections among excitatory cells (E-E synapses) and among inhibitory cells (I-I synapses). We show that the presence of ACh may or may not affect the generation of network synchrony depending on the network connectivity. Specifically, strong network inter-connectivity induces synchronous excitatory bursting regardless of the cellular propensity for synchronization, which aligns with predictions of the PING model. However, when a network's intra-connectivity dominates its inter-connectivity, the propensity for synchrony of either inhibitory or excitatory cells can determine the generation of network-wide bursting.

  4. A Path to Alignment: Connecting K-12 and Higher Education via the Common Core and the Degree Qualifications Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, David T.; Gaston, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS), which aim to assure competency in English/language arts and mathematics through the K-12 curriculum, define necessary but not sufficient preparedness for success in college. The Degree Qualifications Profile (DQP), which describes what a college degree should signify, regardless of major, offers useful but…

  5. Profile of mathematical reasoning ability of 8th grade students seen from communicational ability, basic skills, connection, and logical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsih; Budiyono; Indriati, D.

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to understand the students’ weaknesses in mathematical reasoning ability in junior secondary school. A set of multiple choice tests were used to measure this ability involve components mathematical communication, basic skills, connection, and logical thinking. A total of 259 respondents were determined by stratified cluster random sampling. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova test with Fobs = 109.5760 and F = 3.0000. The results show that students’ ability from schools with high National Exam in mathematics category was the best and followed by medium and low category. Mathematical connection is the most difficult component performed by students. In addition, most students also have difficulty in expressing ideas and developing logical arguments.

  6. Heritability of the Effective Connectivity in the Resting-State Default Mode Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junhai; Yin, Xuntao; Ge, Haitao; Han, Yan; Pang, Zengchang; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Shuwei; Friston, Karl

    2017-12-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is thought to reflect endogenous neural activity, which is considered as one of the most intriguing phenomena in cognitive neuroscience. Previous studies have found that key regions within the DMN are highly interconnected. Here, we characterized the genetic influences on causal or directed information flow within the DMN during the resting state. In this study, we recruited 46 pairs of twins and collected fMRI imaging data using a 3.0 T scanner. Dynamic causal modeling was conducted for each participant, and a structural equation model was used to calculate the heritability of DMN in terms of its effective connectivity. Model comparison favored a full-connected model. Structural equal modeling was used to estimate the additive genetics (A), common environment (C) and unique environment (E) contributions to variance for the DMN effective connectivity. The ACE model was preferred in the comparison of structural equation models. Heritability of DMN effective connectivity was 0.54, suggesting that the genetic made a greater contribution to the effective connectivity within DMN. Establishing the heritability of default-mode effective connectivity endorses the use of resting-state networks as endophenotypes or intermediate phenotypes in the search for the genetic basis of psychiatric or neurological illnesses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Monitoring Effective Connectivity in the Preterm Brain: A Graph Approach to Study Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lavanga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, functional connectivity in the developmental science received increasing attention. Although it has been reported that the anatomical connectivity in the preterm brain develops dramatically during the last months of pregnancy, little is known about how functional and effective connectivity change with maturation. The present study investigated how effective connectivity in premature infants evolves. To assess it, we use EEG measurements and graph-theory methodologies. We recorded data from 25 preterm babies, who underwent long-EEG monitoring at least twice during their stay in the NICU. The recordings took place from 27 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA until 42 weeks PMA. Results showed that the EEG-connectivity, assessed using graph-theory indices, moved from a small-world network to a random one, since the clustering coefficient increases and the path length decreases. This shift can be due to the development of the thalamocortical connections and long-range cortical connections. Based on the network indices, we developed different age-prediction models. The best result showed that it is possible to predict the age of the infant with a root mean-squared error (MSE equal to 2.11 weeks. These results are similar to the ones reported in the literature for age prediction in preterm babies.

  8. Effects of matrix characteristics and interpatch distance on functional connectivity in fragmented temperate rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-04-01

    The connectivity of remnant patches of habitat may affect the persistence of species in fragmented landscapes. We evaluated the effects of the structural connectivity of forest patches (i.e., distance between patches) and matrix class (land-cover type) on the functional connectivity of 3 bird species (the White-crested Elaenia [Elaenia albiceps], the Green-backed Firecrown Hummingbird [Sephanoides sephaniodes], and the Austral Thrush [Turdus falklandii]). We measured functional connectivity as the rate at which each species crossed from one patch to another. We also evaluated whether greater functional connectivity translated into greater ecological connectivity (dispersal of fruit and pollen) by comparing among forest patches fruit set of a plant pollinated by hummingbirds and abundance of seedlings and adults of 2 plants with bird- and wind-dispersed seeds. Interpatch distance was strongly associated with functional connectivity, but its effect was not independent of matrix class. For one of the bird-dispersed plants, greater functional connectivity for White-crested Elaenias and Austral Thrushes (both frugivores) was associated with higher densities of this plant. The lack of a similar association for the wind-dispersed species suggests this effect is linked to the dispersal vector. The abundance of the hummingbird-pollinated species was not related to the presence of hummingbirds. Interpatch distance and matrix class affect animal movement in fragmented landscapes and may have a cascading effect on the distribution of some animal-dispersed species. On the basis of our results, we believe effort should be invested in optimizing patch configuration and modifying the matrix so as to mitigate the effects of patch isolation in fragmented landscapes. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Altered auditory processing and effective connectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kit Melissa; Mørup, Morten; Birknow, Michelle Rosgaard

    2018-01-01

    . Mismatch negativity (MMN), a brain marker of change detection, is reduced in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Using dynamic causal modelling (DCM), previous studies showed that top-down effective connectivity linking the frontal and temporal cortex is reduced in schizophrenia......11.2 deletion carriers. DCM showed reduced intrinsic connection within right primary auditory cortex as well as in the top-down, connection from the right inferior frontal gyrus to right superior temporal gyrus for 22q11.2 deletion carriers although not surviving correction for multiple comparison...

  10. From correlation to causation: Estimating effective connectivity from zero-lag covariances of brain signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefer, Jonathan; Niederbühl, Alexander; Pernice, Volker; Lennartz, Carolin; Hennig, Jürgen; LeVan, Pierre; Rotter, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    Knowing brain connectivity is of great importance both in basic research and for clinical applications. We are proposing a method to infer directed connectivity from zero-lag covariances of neuronal activity recorded at multiple sites. This allows us to identify causal relations that are reflected in neuronal population activity. To derive our strategy, we assume a generic linear model of interacting continuous variables, the components of which represent the activity of local neuronal populations. The suggested method for inferring connectivity from recorded signals exploits the fact that the covariance matrix derived from the observed activity contains information about the existence, the direction and the sign of connections. Assuming a sparsely coupled network, we disambiguate the underlying causal structure via L1-minimization, which is known to prefer sparse solutions. In general, this method is suited to infer effective connectivity from resting state data of various types. We show that our method is applicable over a broad range of structural parameters regarding network size and connection probability of the network. We also explored parameters affecting its activity dynamics, like the eigenvalue spectrum. Also, based on the simulation of suitable Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes to model BOLD dynamics, we show that with our method it is possible to estimate directed connectivity from zero-lag covariances derived from such signals. In this study, we consider measurement noise and unobserved nodes as additional confounding factors. Furthermore, we investigate the amount of data required for a reliable estimate. Additionally, we apply the proposed method on full-brain resting-state fast fMRI datasets. The resulting network exhibits a tendency for close-by areas being connected as well as inter-hemispheric connections between corresponding areas. In addition, we found that a surprisingly large fraction of more than one third of all identified connections were of

  11. Universal relationship connecting various two-body effective residual interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuepfer, W.; Huber, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    Starting from a momentum space analysis of the two-body matrix elements, a relation has been established between the size of the model space actually used in a specific calculation and the relevant properties of the effective residual interaction. It turns out that the two-body transition density acts like a filter function on the Fourier transform of the force; it exhibits a distinct structure which clearly reflects the size and the detailed properties of the configuration space actually used. From an investigation of this filter function an equivalence criterion for different effective residual two-body interactions has been established both for closed and open shell nuclei. This result can be used to construct simple although realistic effective forces. As an example, a model for a separable residual interaction is proposed in which the corresponding parameters are being clearly related to the nuclear radius (i.e., the mass number), to the quantum numbers (i.e., the angular momentum) of the state under consideration and to the size of the configuration space used. For a number of examples this force has been applied successfully for the description of low energy properties of both closed and open shell nuclei

  12. Conservation of connectivity of model-space effective interactions under a class of similarity transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Changkui; Gong Yungui; Dong Huining; Reid, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    Effective interaction operators usually act on a restricted model space and give the same energies (for Hamiltonian) and matrix elements (for transition operators, etc.) as those of the original operators between the corresponding true eigenstates. Various types of effective operators are possible. Those well defined effective operators have been shown to be related to each other by similarity transformation. Some of the effective operators have been shown to have connected-diagram expansions. It is shown in this paper that under a class of very general similarity transformations, the connectivity is conserved. The similarity transformation between Hermitian and non-Hermitian Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbative effective operators is one of such transformations and hence the connectivity can be deducted from each other

  13. Conservation of connectivity of model-space effective interactions under a class of similarity transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chang-Kui; Gong, Yungui; Dong, Hui-Ning; Reid, Michael F

    2004-09-15

    Effective interaction operators usually act on a restricted model space and give the same energies (for Hamiltonian) and matrix elements (for transition operators, etc.) as those of the original operators between the corresponding true eigenstates. Various types of effective operators are possible. Those well defined effective operators have been shown to be related to each other by similarity transformation. Some of the effective operators have been shown to have connected-diagram expansions. It is shown in this paper that under a class of very general similarity transformations, the connectivity is conserved. The similarity transformation between Hermitian and non-Hermitian Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbative effective operators is one of such transformations and hence the connectivity can be deducted from each other.

  14. [Is there a connection between biodiversity and the greenhouse effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, S I

    1998-01-01

    It was discussed the role of biodiversity in ecosystems capacity to control CO2 in atmosphere as the main reason not only of "greenhouse effect" but "greenhouse catastrophe". The necessity to perfect the preventive measures has been defined by time factor. This time may be so little for completing the evolution theory and models of biosphere management. The temps of contemporaneous species extinction exceed two orders as minimum ones how it has been known from planet history. It doesn't permit to discharge that evolutional process will be successful to create organisms which have been capable to stabilize biosphere in conditions of its changing status. It's possible that such change may be provocated with the crisis in civilization-biosphere interrelations.

  15. Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training Based on the Neuromuscular Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Xu, Yingying Y; Khoury, Jane; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-07-01

    The effects of targeted neuromuscular training (TNMT) on movement biomechanics associated with the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are currently unknown. Purpose/Hypotheses: To determine the effectiveness of TNMT specifically designed to increase trunk control and hip strength. The hypotheses were that (1) TNMT would decrease biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to an increased ACL injury risk and (2) TNMT would decrease these biomechanical and neuromuscular factors to a greater extent in athletes identified as being at a high risk for future ACL injuries. Controlled laboratory study. Female athletes who participated in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent 3-dimensional biomechanical testing before the season and after completing TNMT. During testing, athletes performed 3 different types of tasks: (1) drop vertical jump, (2) single-leg drop, and (3) single-leg cross drop. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the treatment effects of TNMT designed to enhance core and hip strength on biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. Differences were also evaluated by risk profile. Differences were considered statistically significant at P risk before the intervention (risk profile III) had a more significant treatment effect of TNMT than low-risk groups (risk profiles I and II). TNMT significantly improved proximal biomechanics, including increased hip external rotation moments and moment impulses, increased peak trunk flexion, and decreased peak trunk extension. TNMT that focuses exclusively on proximal leg and trunk risk factors is not, however, adequate to induce significant changes in frontal-plane knee loading. Biomechanical changes varied across the risk profile groups, with higher risk groups exhibiting greater improvements in their biomechanics.

  16. Effects of microgravity on rat bone, cartlage and connective tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, S.

    1990-01-01

    The response to hypogravity by the skeletal system was originally thought to be the result of a reduction in weight bearing. Thus a reduced rate of new bone formation in the weight-bearing bones was accepted, when found, as an obvious result of hypogravity. However, data on non-weight-bearing tissues have begun to show that other physiological changes can be expected to occur to animals during spaceflight. This overview of the Cosmos 1887 data discusses these results as they pertain to individual bones or tissues because the response seems to depend on the architecture and metabolism of each tissue under study. Various effects were seen in different tissues from the rats flown on Cosmos 1887. The femur showed a reduced bone mineral content but only in the central region of the diaphysis. This same region in the tibia showed changes in the vascularity of bone as well as some osteocytic cell death. The humerus demonstrated reduced morphometric characteristics plus a decrease in mechanical stiffness. Bone mineral crystals did not mature normally as a result of flight, suggesting a defect in the matrix mineralization process. Note that these changes relate directly to the matrix portion of the bone or some function of bone which slowly responds to changes in the environment. However, most cellular functions of bone are rapid responders. The stimulation of osteoblast precursor cells, the osteoblast function in collagen synthesis, a change in the proliferation rate of cells in the epiphyseal growth plate, the synthesis and secretion of osteocalcin, and the movement of water into or out of tissues, are all processes which respond to environmental change. These rapidly responding events produced results from Cosmos 1887 which were frequently quite different from previous space flight data.

  17. Effect of neural connectivity on autocovariance and cross covariance estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stecker Mark M

    2007-01-01

    important to interpret measured auto and cross covariance functions cautiously in light of the long range nature of the electric fields. Using recording electrodes that are bipolar or quadrupolar minimizes or eliminates these effects and hence these electrodes are preferred when electrical recordings are made for the purpose of auto and cross correlation analysis of local electrical activity.

  18. A two-dimensional statistical framework connecting thermodynamic profiles with filaments in the scrape off layer and application to experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, F.; Farley, T.; Mukhi, K.; Walkden, N.; Omotani, J. T.

    2018-05-01

    A statistical framework was introduced in Militello and Omotani [Nucl. Fusion 56, 104004 (2016)] to correlate the dynamics and statistics of L-mode and inter-ELM plasma filaments with the radial profiles of thermodynamic quantities they generate in the Scrape Off Layer. This paper extends the framework to cases in which the filaments are emitted from the separatrix at different toroidal positions and with a finite toroidal velocity. It is found that the toroidal velocity does not affect the profiles, while the toroidal distribution of filament emission renormalises the waiting time between two events. Experimental data collected by visual camera imaging are used to evaluate the statistics of the fluctuations, to inform the choice of the probability distribution functions used in the application of the framework. It is found that the toroidal separation of the filaments is exponentially distributed, thus suggesting the lack of a toroidal modal structure. Finally, using these measurements, the framework is applied to an experimental case and good agreement is found.

  19. Reading in dyslexia across literacy development: A longitudinal study of effective connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Turid; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Specht, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia is a literacy disorder affecting the efficient acquisition of reading and writing skills. The disorder is neurobiological in origin. Due to its developmental nature, longitudinal studies of dyslexia are of essence. They are, however, relatively scarce. The present study took a longitudinal approach to cortical connectivity of brain imaging data in reading tasks in children with dyslexia and children with typical reading development. The participants were followed with repeated measurements through Pre-literacy (6 years old), Emergent Literacy (8 years old) and Literacy (12 years old) stages, using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) when analysing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Even though there are a few longitudinal studies on effective connectivity in typical reading, to our knowledge, no studies have previously investigated these issues in relation to dyslexia. We set up a model of a brain reading network involving five cortical regions (inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal cortex). Using DCM, connectivity measures were calculated for each connection in the model. These measures were further analysed using factorial ANOVA. The results showed that the difference between groups centred on connections going to and from the inferior frontal gyrus (two connections) and the occipito-temporal cortex (three connections). For all five connections, the typical group showed stable or decreasing connectivity measures. The dyslexia group, on the other hand, showed a marked up-regulation (occipito-temporal connections) or down-regulation (inferior frontal gyrus connections) from 6 years to 8 years, followed by normalization from 8 years to 12 years. We interpret this as a delay in the dyslexia group in developing into the Pre-literacy and Emergent literacy stages. This delay could possibly be detrimental to literacy development. By age 12, there was no statistically

  20. Estimation of effective brain connectivity with dual Kalman filter and EEG source localization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabioun, Mehdi; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Bagher

    2017-09-01

    Effective connectivity is one of the most important considerations in brain functional mapping via EEG. It demonstrates the effects of a particular active brain region on others. In this paper, a new method is proposed which is based on dual Kalman filter. In this method, firstly by using a brain active localization method (standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography) and applying it to EEG signal, active regions are extracted, and appropriate time model (multivariate autoregressive model) is fitted to extracted brain active sources for evaluating the activity and time dependence between sources. Then, dual Kalman filter is used to estimate model parameters or effective connectivity between active regions. The advantage of this method is the estimation of different brain parts activity simultaneously with the calculation of effective connectivity between active regions. By combining dual Kalman filter with brain source localization methods, in addition to the connectivity estimation between parts, source activity is updated during the time. The proposed method performance has been evaluated firstly by applying it to simulated EEG signals with interacting connectivity simulation between active parts. Noisy simulated signals with different signal to noise ratios are used for evaluating method sensitivity to noise and comparing proposed method performance with other methods. Then the method is applied to real signals and the estimation error during a sweeping window is calculated. By comparing proposed method results in different simulation (simulated and real signals), proposed method gives acceptable results with least mean square error in noisy or real conditions.

  1. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Blood Pressure and Lipid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam sadat Amirkalali sijavandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is a holy month for Muslims during which avoid from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse for about 13-17 hours. The aim of this study was surveying the effects of Islamic fasting in Ramadan on lipid profile and blood pressure.Materials and Methods: we designed this study in two phases, a week before and a week after Ramadan month. Eighty nine healthy subjects with 20-50 years old were participated in this study. Blood sampling for lipid profile measurement was done in the morning and blood pressure was measured in the afternoon with digital sphygmomanometer. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 16.0 software.Results: In a week after Ramadan, body weight and body mass index (BMI decreased in both sexes, comparing with the week before Ramadan measurements (p

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic effects of current profile control in reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovinec, C.R.; Prager, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Linear and non-linear MHD computations are used to investigate reversed field pinch configurations with magnetic fluctuations reduced through current profile control. Simulations with reduced ohmic drive and moderate auxiliary current drive, represented generically with an electron force term, applied locally in radius near the plasma edge show magnetic fluctuation energies that are orders of magnitude smaller than those in simulations without profile control. The core of the improved configurations has reduced magnetic shear and closed flux surfaces in some cases, and reversal is sustained through the auxiliary current drive. Modes resonant near the edge may become unstable with auxiliary drive, but their saturation levels can be controlled. The space of auxiliary drive parameters is explored, and the ill effects of deviating far from optimal conditions is demonstrated in non-linear simulations. (author)

  3. Truncation effects in connected arrays: Analytical models to describe the edge-induced wave phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Cavallo, D.; Gerini, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Green's function based procedure to assess edge effects in finite wideband connected arrays. Truncation effects are more severe in broadband arrays, since the inter-element mutual coupling facilitates the propagation of edge-born waves that can become dominant over large

  4. EFFECTS OF LOCAL DISSIPATION PROFILES ON MAGNETIZED ACCRETION DISK SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Ted; Blaes, Omer

    2013-01-01

    We present spectral calculations of non-LTE accretion disk models appropriate for high-luminosity stellar mass black hole X-ray binary systems. We first use a dissipation profile based on scaling the results of shearing box simulations of Hirose et al. to a range of annuli parameters. We simultaneously scale the effective temperature, orbital frequency, and surface density with luminosity and radius according to the standard α-model. This naturally brings increased dissipation to the disk surface layers (around the photospheres) at small radii and high luminosities. We find that the local spectrum transitions directly from a modified blackbody to a saturated Compton scattering spectrum as we increase the effective temperature and orbital frequency while decreasing midplane surface density. Next, we construct annuli models based on the parameters of a L/L Edd = 0.8 disk orbiting a 6.62 solar mass black hole using two modified dissipation profiles that explicitly put more dissipation per unit mass near the disk surface. The new dissipation profiles are qualitatively similar to the one found by Hirose et al., but produce strong near power-law spectral tails. Our models also include physically motivated magnetic acceleration support based once again on scaling the Hirose et al. results. We present three full-disk spectra, each based on one of the dissipation prescriptions. Our most aggressive dissipation profile results in a disk spectrum that is in approximate quantitative agreement with certain observations of the steep power-law spectral states from some black hole X-ray binaries.

  5. Making Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

  6. Vertical profiles of droplet effective radius in shallow convective clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional satellite retrievals can only provide information on cloud-top droplet effective radius (re. Given the fact that cloud ensembles in a satellite snapshot have different cloud-top heights, Rosenfeld and Lensky (1998 used the cloud-top height and the corresponding cloud-top re from the cloud ensembles in the snapshot to construct a profile of re representative of that in the individual clouds. This study investigates the robustness of this approach in shallow convective clouds based on results from large-eddy simulations (LES for clean (aerosol mixing ratio Na = 25 mg−1, intermediate (Na = 100 mg−1, and polluted (Na = 2000 mg−1 conditions. The cloud-top height and the cloud-top re from the modeled cloud ensembles are used to form a constructed re profile, which is then compared to the in-cloud re profiles. For the polluted and intermediate cases where precipitation is negligible, the constructed re profiles represent the in-cloud re profiles fairly well with a low bias (about 10 %. The method used in Rosenfeld and Lensky (1998 is therefore validated for nonprecipitating shallow cumulus clouds. For the clean, drizzling case, the in-cloud re can be very large and highly variable, and quantitative profiling based on cloud-top re is less useful. The differences in re profiles between clean and polluted conditions derived in this manner are however, distinct. This study also investigates the subadiabatic characteristics of the simulated cumulus clouds to reveal the effect of mixing on re and its evolution. Results indicate that as polluted and moderately polluted clouds develop into their decaying stage, the subadiabatic fraction

  7. Sex differences in effective fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Ovidiu; Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2015-12-01

    In view of the greater prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in women than in men, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have examined sex-differences in brain activations during emotion processing. Comparatively, sex-differences in brain connectivity received little attention, despite evidence for important fronto-limbic connections during emotion processing across sexes. Here, we investigated sex-differences in fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing. Forty-six healthy individuals (25 women, 21 men) viewed negative, positive and neutral images during an fMRI session. Effective connectivity between significantly activated regions was examined using Granger causality and psychophysical interaction analyses. Sex steroid hormones and feminine-masculine traits were also measured. Subjective ratings of negative emotional images were higher in women than in men. Across sexes, significant activations were observed in the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the right amygdala. Granger connectivity from right amygdala was significantly greater than that from dmPFC during the 'high negative' condition, an effect driven by men. Magnitude of this effect correlated negatively with highly negative image ratings and feminine traits and positively with testosterone levels. These results highlight critical sex differences in brain connectivity during negative emotion processing and point to the fact that both biological (sex steroid hormones) and psychosocial (gender role and identity) variables contribute to them. As the dmPFC is involved in social cognition and action planning, and the amygdala-in threat detection, the connectivity results suggest that compared to women, men have a more evaluative, rather than purely affective, brain response during negative emotion processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple effects of hydrological connectivity on floodplain processes in human modified river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Preiner, Stefan; Reckendorfer, Walter; Tritthart, Michael; Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Welti, Nina

    2014-05-01

    Floodplain and riparian ecosystems provide multiple functions and services of importance for human well-being and are of strategic importance for different sectors at catchment scale. Especially floodplains in the vicinity of urban areas can be areas of conflicting interests ranging from different land use types, flood water retention, drinking water production and recreation to conservation of last remnants of former riverine landscape, as it is the case in floodplains in the Danube Nationalpark downstream Vienna. Many of these ecosystem functions and services are controlled by the exchange conditions between river main channel and floodplain systems, the hydrological connectivity. At the same time these systems have been highly altered and especially the connectivity has been severely impaired. Thus, far ranging effects of changes in hydrological connectivity at various levels can be expected in altered floodplain systems. The aim of this presentation is to explore the complex control of different ecosystem functions and associated services by different parameters of hydrological connectivity, ranging from nutrient, sediment and matter dynamics and biodiversity aspects. Increasing connectivity will be shown to impact microbial dynamics, sediment-water interactions, carbon dynamics and trophic conditions, thus affecting the fundamental functions of particular floodplain systems at various spatial and temporal scales. Based on these changes also the provision of ecosystem services of floodplains is affected. The results clearly show that hydrological connectivity needs to be considered in a sustainable management approach.

  9. The effects of habitat connectivity and regional heterogeneity on artificial pond metacommunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedruski, Michael T; Arnott, Shelley E

    2011-05-01

    Habitat connectivity and regional heterogeneity represent two factors likely to affect biodiversity across different spatial scales. We performed a 3 × 2 factorial design experiment to investigate the effects of connectivity, heterogeneity, and their interaction on artificial pond communities of freshwater invertebrates at the local (α), among-community (β), and regional (γ) scales. Despite expectations that the effects of connectivity would depend on levels of regional heterogeneity, no significant interactions were found for any diversity index investigated at any spatial scale. While observed responses of biodiversity to connectivity and heterogeneity depended to some extent on the diversity index and spatial partitioning formula used, the general pattern shows that these factors largely act at the β scale, as opposed to the α or γ scales. We conclude that the major role of connectivity in aquatic invertebrate communities is to act as a homogenizing force with relatively little effect on diversity at the α or γ levels. Conversely, heterogeneity acts as a force maintaining differences between communities.

  10. Evaluation the Effect Garlet Tablet on Serum Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Emami

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Some investigators reported significant effect of garlic on serum cholesterol reduction. In addition, Iranian culture has specific belief on herbs and garlic in this regard. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effect of garlet tablets on serum lipid profile.Materials & Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups for evaluation of the effect of garlic on their lipid profile. The first group was low fat regimen group and the second was garlet tablet regimen group. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in both groups. Then, after two months of these regimens administration, these items were measured again and were compared.Results: Mean age, sex and baseline initial lipid levels were similar in both groups. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were decreased significantly in the garlic regimen group (in spite of non significant reduction in the other group. Triglyceride and HDL levels were not changed significantly in both regimen groups. Conclusion: Garlet tablet administration has more significant reductive effect on cholestrol level than low cholesterol diet.

  11. Interhemispheric connectivity influences the degree of modulation of TMS-induced effects during auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila eAndoh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive TMS (rTMS has been shown to interfere with many components of language processing, including semantic, syntactic and phonologic. However, not much is known about its effects on primary auditory processing, especially its action on Heschl’s gyrus (HG. We aimed to investigate the behavioural and neural basis of rTMS during a melody processing task, while targeting the left HG, the right HG and the Vertex as a control site. Response Times (RT were normalized relative to the baseline-rTMS (Vertex and expressed as percentage change from baseline (%RT change. We also looked at sex differences in rTMS-induced response as well as in functional connectivity during melody processing using rTMS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI.Functional MRI results showed an increase in the right HG compared with the left HG during the melody task, as well as sex differences in functional connectivity indicating a greater interhemispheric connectivity between left and right HG in females compared with males. TMS results showed that 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG induced differential effects according to sex, with a facilitation of performance in females and an impairment of performance in males. We also found a differential correlation between the %RT change after 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG and the interhemispheric functional connectivity between right and left HG, indicating that an increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity was associated with a facilitation of performance. This is the first study to report a differential rTMS-induced interference with melody processing depending on sex. In addition, we showed a relationship between the interference induced by rTMS on behavioral performance and the neural activity in the network connecting left and right HG, suggesting that the interhemispheric functional connectivity could determine the degree of modulation of behavioral performance.

  12. Laterality effects in functional connectivity of the angular gyrus during rest and episodic retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellana, Buddhika; Liu, Zhongxu; Anderson, John A E; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl L

    2016-01-08

    The angular gyrus (AG) is consistently reported in neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval and is a fundamental node within the default mode network (DMN). Its specific contribution to episodic memory is debated, with some suggesting it is important for the subjective experience of episodic recollection, rather than retrieval of objective episodic details. Across studies of episodic retrieval, the left AG is recruited more reliably than the right. We explored functional connectivity of the right and left AG with the DMN during rest and retrieval to assess whether connectivity could provide insight into the nature of this laterality effect. Using data from the publically available 1000 Functional Connectome Project, 8min of resting fMRI data from 180 healthy young adults were analysed. Whole-brain functional connectivity at rest was measured using a seed-based Partial Least Squares (seed-PLS) approach (McIntosh and Lobaugh, 2004) with bilateral AG seeds. A subsequent analysis used 6-min of rest and 6-min of unconstrained, silent retrieval of autobiographical events from a new sample of 20 younger adults. Analysis of this dataset took a more targeted approach to functional connectivity analysis, consisting of univariate pairwise correlations restricted to nodes of the DMN. The seed-PLS analysis resulted in two Latent Variables that together explained ~86% of the shared cross-block covariance. The first LV revealed a common network consistent with the DMN and engaging the AG bilaterally, whereas the second LV revealed a less robust, yet significant, laterality effect in connectivity - the left AG was more strongly connected to the DMN. Univariate analyses of the second sample again revealed better connectivity between the left AG and the DMN at rest. However, during retrieval the left AG was more strongly connected than the right to non-medial temporal (MTL) nodes of the DMN, and MTL nodes were more strongly connected to the right AG. The multivariate

  13. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria; Escartí, Maria José; Molina-Mateo, Jose; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Gadea, Marien; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Aguilar García-Iturrospe, Eduardo J.; Robles, Montserrat; Biswal, Bharat B.; Sanjuan, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most frequent positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Hallucinations have been related to emotional processing disturbances, altered functional connectivity and effective connectivity deficits. Previously, we observed that, compared to healthy controls, the limbic network responses of patients with auditory hallucinations differed when the subjects were listening to emotionally charged words. We aimed to compare the synchrony patterns and effective connectivity of task-related networks between schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with AH (n = 27) and without AH (n = 14) were compared with healthy participants (n = 31). We examined functional connectivity by analyzing correlations and cross-correlations among previously detected independent component analysis time courses. Granger causality was used to infer the information flow direction in the brain regions. The results demonstrate that the patterns of cortico-cortical functional synchrony differentiated the patients with AH from the patients without AH and from the healthy participants. Additionally, Granger-causal relationships between the networks clearly differentiated the groups. In the patients with AH, the principal causal source was an occipital–cerebellar component, versus a temporal component in the patients without AH and the healthy controls. These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH. PMID:25379429

  14. Seismic Response of 3D Steel Buildings considering the Effect of PR Connections and Gravity Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Reyes-Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear seismic responses of 3D steel buildings with perimeter moment resisting frames (PMRF and interior gravity frames (IGF are studied explicitly considering the contribution of the IGF. The effect on the structural response of the stiffness of the beam-to-column connections of the IGF, which is usually neglected, is also studied. It is commonly believed that the flexibility of shear connections is negligible and that 2D models can be used to properly represent 3D real structures. The results of the study indicate, however, that the moments developed on columns of IGF can be considerable and that modeling buildings as plane frames may result in very conservative designs. The contribution of IGF to the lateral structural resistance may be significant. The contribution increases when their connections are assumed to be partially restrained (PR. The incremented participation of IGF when the stiffness of their connections is considered helps to counteract the no conservative effect that results in practice when lateral seismic loads are not considered in IGF while designing steel buildings with PMRF. Thus, if the structural system under consideration is used, the three-dimensional model should be used in seismic analysis and the IGF and the stiffness of their connections should be considered as part of the lateral resistance system.

  15. Altered effective connectivity within default mode network in major depression disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Baojuan; Bai, Yuanhan; Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Linchuan; Cui, Longbiao; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the neural basis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is important for the diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder. The default mode network (DMN) is considered to be highly involved in the MDD. To find directed interaction between DMN regions associated with the development of MDD, the effective connectivity within the DMN of the MDD patients and matched healthy controls was estimated by using a recently developed spectral dynamic causal modeling. Sixteen patients with MDD and sixteen matched healthy control subjects were included in this study. While the control group underwent the resting state fMRI scan just once, all patients underwent resting state fMRI scans before and after two months' treatment. The spectral dynamic causal modeling was used to estimate directed connections between four DMN nodes. Statistical analysis on connection strengths indicated that efferent connections from the medial frontal cortex (MFC) to posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and to right parietal cortex (RPC) were significant higher in pretreatment MDD patients than those of the control group. After two-month treatment, the efferent connections from the MFC decreased significantly, while those from the left parietal cortex (LPC) to MFC, PCC and RPC showed a significant increase. These findings suggest that the MFC may play an important role for inhibitory conditioning of the DMN, which was disrupted in MDD patients. It also indicates that disrupted suppressive function of the MFC could be effectively restored after two-month treatment.

  16. Seismic Response of 3D Steel Buildings considering the Effect of PR Connections and Gravity Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Achintya; López-Barraza, Arturo; Rivera-Salas, J. Luz

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear seismic responses of 3D steel buildings with perimeter moment resisting frames (PMRF) and interior gravity frames (IGF) are studied explicitly considering the contribution of the IGF. The effect on the structural response of the stiffness of the beam-to-column connections of the IGF, which is usually neglected, is also studied. It is commonly believed that the flexibility of shear connections is negligible and that 2D models can be used to properly represent 3D real structures. The results of the study indicate, however, that the moments developed on columns of IGF can be considerable and that modeling buildings as plane frames may result in very conservative designs. The contribution of IGF to the lateral structural resistance may be significant. The contribution increases when their connections are assumed to be partially restrained (PR). The incremented participation of IGF when the stiffness of their connections is considered helps to counteract the no conservative effect that results in practice when lateral seismic loads are not considered in IGF while designing steel buildings with PMRF. Thus, if the structural system under consideration is used, the three-dimensional model should be used in seismic analysis and the IGF and the stiffness of their connections should be considered as part of the lateral resistance system. PMID:24995357

  17. The Connections Between Team Emotional Intelligence and Team Effectiveness in Financial Services - Case X Oyj

    OpenAIRE

    Peltola, Maija

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need for growing effectiveness in companies dealing with challenges of globalized markets has heightened the need for research on what makes work groups or teams more effective. Since the 1990's the concept of emotional intelligence has intrigued researchers in the field of both psychology and business economics. Recently, there has been growing interest in studying the connections between emotional intelligence and effectiveness or performance. Emotional intelligence has been ...

  18. Assessment of T Regulatory Cells and Expanded Profiling of Autoantibodies May Offer Novel Biomarkers for the Clinical Management of Systemic Sclerosis and Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cordiali-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify disease biomarkers for the clinical and therapeutic management of autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc and undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD, we have explored the setting of peripheral T regulatory (T reg cells and assessed an expanded profile of autoantibodies in patients with SSc, including either limited (lcSSc or diffuse (dcSSc disease, and in patients presenting with clinical signs and symptoms of UCTD. A large panel of serum antibodies directed towards nuclear, nucleolar, and cytoplasmic antigens, including well-recognized molecules as well as less frequently tested antigens, was assessed in order to determine whether different antibody profiles might be associated with distinct clinical settings. Beside the well-recognized association between lcSSc and anti-centromeric or dcSSC and anti-topoisomerase-I antibodies, we found a significative association between dcSSc and anti-SRP or anti-PL-7/12 antibodies. In addition, two distinct groups emerged on the basis of anti-RNP or anti-PM-Scl 75/100 antibody production among UCTD patients. The levels of T reg cells were significantly lower in patients with SSc as compared to patients with UCTD or to healthy controls; in patients with lcSSc, T reg cells were inversely correlated to disease duration, suggesting that their levels may represent a marker of disease progression.

  19. The Effective Connectivity Between the Two Primary Motor Areas in the Brain during Bilateral Tapping of Hand Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, A. N.; Hamid, K. A.

    Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) was implemented on datasets obtained from an externally-triggered finger tapping functional MRI experiment performed by 5 male and female subjects. The objective was to model the effective connectivity between two significantly activated primary motor regions (M1). The left and right hemisphere M1s are found to be effectively and bidirectionally connected to each other. Both connections are modulated by the stimulus-free contextual input. These connectivities are however not gated (influenced) by any of the two M1s, ruling out the possibility of the non-linear behavior of connections between both M1s. A dynamic causal model was finally suggested.

  20. [Scale effect of Nanjing urban green infrastructure network pattern and connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ya Ping; Yin, Hai Wei; Kong, Fan Hua; Wang, Jing Jing; Xu, Wen Bin

    2016-07-01

    Based on ArcGIS, Erdas, GuidosToolbox, Conefor and other software platforms, using morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) and landscape connectivity analysis methods, this paper quantitatively analysed the scale effect, edge effect and distance effect of the Nanjing urban green infrastructure network pattern in 2013 by setting different pixel sizes (P) and edge widths in MSPA analysis, and setting different dispersal distance thresholds in landscape connectivity analysis. The results showed that the type of landscape acquired based on the MSPA had a clear scale effect and edge effect, and scale effects only slightly affected landscape types, whereas edge effects were more obvious. Different dispersal distances had a great impact on the landscape connectivity, 2 km or 2.5 km dispersal distance was a critical threshold for Nanjing. When selecting the pixel size 30 m of the input data and the edge wide 30 m used in the morphological model, we could get more detailed landscape information of Nanjing UGI network. Based on MSPA and landscape connectivity, analysis of the scale effect, edge effect, and distance effect on the landscape types of the urban green infrastructure (UGI) network was helpful for selecting the appropriate size, edge width, and dispersal distance when developing these networks, and for better understanding the spatial pattern of UGI networks and the effects of scale and distance on the ecology of a UGI network. This would facilitate a more scientifically valid set of design parameters for UGI network spatiotemporal pattern analysis. The results of this study provided an important reference for Nanjing UGI networks and a basis for the analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of medium-scale UGI landscape networks in other regions.

  1. Resting state functional MRI in Parkinson's disease: the impact of deep brain stimulation on 'effective' connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Joshua; Urner, Maren; Moran, Rosalyn; Flandin, Guillaume; Marreiros, Andre; Mancini, Laura; White, Mark; Thornton, John; Yousry, Tarek; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Limousin, Patricia; Friston, Karl; Foltynie, Tom

    2014-04-01

    Depleted of dopamine, the dynamics of the parkinsonian brain impact on both 'action' and 'resting' motor behaviour. Deep brain stimulation has become an established means of managing these symptoms, although its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Non-invasive characterizations of induced brain responses, and the effective connectivity underlying them, generally appeals to dynamic causal modelling of neuroimaging data. When the brain is at rest, however, this sort of characterization has been limited to correlations (functional connectivity). In this work, we model the 'effective' connectivity underlying low frequency blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in the resting Parkinsonian motor network-disclosing the distributed effects of deep brain stimulation on cortico-subcortical connections. Specifically, we show that subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation modulates all the major components of the motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop, including the cortico-striatal, thalamo-cortical, direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways, and the hyperdirect subthalamic nucleus projections. The strength of effective subthalamic nucleus afferents and efferents were reduced by stimulation, whereas cortico-striatal, thalamo-cortical and direct pathways were strengthened. Remarkably, regression analysis revealed that the hyperdirect, direct, and basal ganglia afferents to the subthalamic nucleus predicted clinical status and therapeutic response to deep brain stimulation; however, suppression of the sensitivity of the subthalamic nucleus to its hyperdirect afferents by deep brain stimulation may subvert the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation. Our findings highlight the distributed effects of stimulation on the resting motor network and provide a framework for analysing effective connectivity in resting state functional MRI with strong a priori hypotheses.

  2. The Effects of Taekwondo Training on Brain Connectivity and Body Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jae; Cha, Eun Joo; Kim, Sun Mi; Kang, Kyung Doo; Han, Doug Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have reported that Taekwondo training could improve body perception, control and brain activity, as assessed with an electroencephalogram. This study aimed to assess body intelligence and brain connectivity in children with Taekwondo training as compared to children without Taekwondo training. Fifteen children with Taekwondo training (TKD) and 13 age- and sex-matched children who had no previous experience of Taekwondo training (controls) were recruited. Body intelligence, clinical characteristics and brain connectivity in all children were assessed with the Body Intelligence Scale (BIS), self-report, and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The mean BIS score in the TKD group was higher than that in the control group. The TKD group showed increased low-frequency fluctuations in the right frontal precentral gyrus and the right parietal precuneus, compared to the control group. The TKD group showed positive cerebellum vermis (lobe VII) seed to the right frontal, left frontal, and left parietal lobe. The control group showed positive cerebellum seed to the left frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex. Relative to the control group, the TKD group showed increased functional connectivity from cerebellum seed to the right inferior frontal gyrus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the effect of Taekwondo training on brain connectivity in children. Taekwondo training improved body intelligence and brain connectivity from the cerebellum to the parietal and frontal cortex.

  3. Functional and effective whole brain connectivity using magnetoencephalography to identify monozygotic twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuru, M; Gouw, A A; Hillebrand, A; Stam, C J; van Dijk, B W; Scheltens, P; Tijms, B M; Konijnenberg, E; Ten Kate, M; den Braber, A; Smit, D J A; Boomsma, D I; Visser, P J

    2017-08-29

    Resting-state functional connectivity patterns are highly stable over time within subjects. This suggests that such 'functional fingerprints' may have strong genetic component. We investigated whether the functional (FC) or effective (EC) connectivity patterns of one monozygotic twin could be used to identify the co-twin among a larger sample and determined the overlap in functional fingerprints within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs using resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG). We included 32 cognitively normal MZ twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register who participate in the EMIF-AD preclinAD study (average age 68 years). Combining EC information across multiple frequency bands we obtained an identification rate over 75%. Since MZ twin pairs are genetically identical these results suggest a high genetic contribution to MEG-based EC patterns, leading to large similarities in brain connectivity patterns between two individuals even after 60 years of life or more.

  4. Effects of integration time on in-water radiometric profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, Davide; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Kajiyama, Tamito

    2018-03-05

    This work investigates the effects of integration time on in-water downward irradiance E d , upward irradiance E u and upwelling radiance L u profile data acquired with free-fall hyperspectral systems. Analyzed quantities are the subsurface value and the diffuse attenuation coefficient derived by applying linear and non-linear regression schemes. Case studies include oligotrophic waters (Case-1), as well as waters dominated by Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and Non-Algal Particles (NAP). Assuming a 24-bit digitization, measurements resulting from the accumulation of photons over integration times varying between 8 and 2048ms are evaluated at depths corresponding to: 1) the beginning of each integration interval (Fst); 2) the end of each integration interval (Lst); 3) the averages of Fst and Lst values (Avg); and finally 4) the values weighted accounting for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of water (Wgt). Statistical figures show that the effects of integration time can bias results well above 5% as a function of the depth definition. Results indicate the validity of the Wgt depth definition and the fair applicability of the Avg one. Instead, both the Fst and Lst depths should not be adopted since they may introduce pronounced biases in E u and L u regression products for highly absorbing waters. Finally, the study reconfirms the relevance of combining multiple radiometric casts into a single profile to increase precision of regression products.

  5. Common effects of amnestic mild cognitive impairment on resting-state connectivity across four independent studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eTam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional connectivity is a promising biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease. However, previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in Alzheimer’s disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have shown limited reproducibility as they have had small sample sizes and substantial variation in study protocol. We sought to identify functional brain networks and connections that could consistently discriminate normal aging from aMCI despite variations in scanner manufacturer, imaging protocol, and diagnostic procedure. We therefore combined four datasets collected independently, including 112 healthy controls and 143 patients with aMCI. We systematically tested multiple brain connections for associations with aMCI using a weighted average routinely used in meta-analyses. The largest effects involved the superior medial frontal cortex (including the anterior cingulate, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and middle temporal lobe. Compared with controls, patients with aMCI exhibited significantly decreased connectivity between default mode network nodes and between regions of the cortico-striatal-thalamic loop. Despite the heterogeneity of methods among the four datasets, we identified common aMCI-related connectivity changes with small to medium effect sizes and sample size estimates recommending a minimum of 140 to upwards of 600 total subjects to achieve adequate statistical power in the context of a multisite study with 5-10 scanning sites and about 10 subjects per group and per site. If our findings can be replicated and associated with other established biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (e.g. amyloid and tau quantification, then these functional connections may be promising candidate biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease.

  6. Climate effects on the distribution of wetland habitats and connectivity in networks of migratory waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisario, Bruno; Cerfolli, Fulvio; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    The establishment and maintenance of conservation areas are among the most common measures to mitigate the loss of biodiversity. However, recent advances in conservation biology have challenged the reliability of such areas to cope with variation in climate conditions. Climate change can reshuffle the geographic distribution of species, but in many cases suitable habitats become scarce or unavailable, limiting the ability to migrate or adapt in response to modified environments. In this respect, the extent to which existing protected areas are able to compensate changes in habitat conditions to ensure the persistence of species still remains unclear. We used a spatially explicit model to measure the effects of climate change on the potential distribution of wetland habitats and connectivity of Natura 2000 sites in Italy. The effects of climate change were measured on the potential for water accumulation in a given site, as a surrogate measure for the persistence of aquatic ecosystems and their associated migratory waterbirds. Climate impacts followed a geographic trend, changing the distribution of suitable habitats for migrants and highlighting a latitudinal threshold beyond which the connectivity reaches a sudden collapse. Our findings show the relative poor reliability of most sites in dealing with changing habitat conditions and ensure the long-term connectivity, with possible consequences for the persistence of species. Although alterations of climate suitability and habitat destruction could impact critical areas for migratory waterbirds, more research is needed to evaluate all possible long-term effects on the connectivity of migratory networks.

  7. Antidepressant Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy Correlate With Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Activity and Connectivity in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Du, Lian; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Haixia; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Dan; Zeng, Jinkun; Li, Xingbao; Fu, Yixiao; Qiu, Haitang; Li, Xirong; Qiu, Tian; Hu, Hua; Meng, Huaqing; Luo, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanisms underlying the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder (MDD) are not fully understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a new tool to study the effects of brain stimulation interventions, particularly ECT. The authors aim to investigate the mechanisms of ECT in MDD by rs-fMRI. They used rs-fMRI to measure functional changes in the brain of first-episode, treatment-naive MDD patients (n = 23) immediately before and then following 8 ECT sessions (brief-pulse square-wave apparatus, bitemporal). They also computed voxel-wise amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as a measure of regional brain activity and selected the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) to evaluate functional connectivity between the sgACC and other brain regions. Increased regional brain activity measured by ALFF mainly in the left sgACC following ECT. Functional connectivity of the left sgACC increased in the ipsilateral parahippocampal gyrus, pregenual ACC, contralateral middle temporal pole, and orbitofrontal cortex. Importantly, reduction in depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with increased ALFF in the left sgACC and left hippocampus, and with distant functional connectivity between the left sgACC and contralateral middle temporal pole. That is, across subjects, as depression improved, regional brain activity in sgACC and its functional connectivity increased in the brain. Eight ECT sessions in MDD patients modulated activity in the sgACC and its networks. The antidepressant effects of ECT were negatively correlated with sgACC brain activity and connectivity. These findings suggest that sgACC-associated prefrontal-limbic structures are associated with the therapeutic effects of ECT in MDD. PMID:26559309

  8. Predictive profiling and its legal limits : Effectiveness gone forever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; van der Sloot, B.; Broeders, D.; Schrijvers, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine predictive group profiling in the Big Data context as an instrument of governmental control and regulation. We first define profiling by drawing some useful distinctions (section 6.1). We then discuss examples of predictive group profiling from policing (such as parole prediction methods

  9. Quantum oscillation and the Aharonov-Bohm effect in a multiply connected normal-conductor loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Daisuke; Ohta, Kuniichi

    1994-12-01

    The magnetostatic and electrostatic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effects in multiply connected normal-conductor rings are studied. A previously developed model of a single mesoscopic ring is generalized to include an arbitrary number of rings, and the oscillatory behavior of the total transmission coefficients for the serially connected N (N is equal to integer) rings are derived as a function of the magnetic flux threading each ring and as a function of the electrostatic potential applied to the rings. It is shown that quantum oscillation of multiple rings exhibits greater variety of behavior than in periodic superlattices. We investigate the influence of the scattering at a junction and the number of atoms in the ring in both magnetostatic and electrostatic oscillation of multiring systems. For the electrostatic AB effects, when scattering occurs at the junctions between the connecting wire and the ring, the conductance in the AB oscillation is modified to an N-1 peaked shape. It is shown that this oscillatory behavior is greatly influenced by the number of atoms in the ring and is controlled by the electrostatic potential or magnetic flux that is applied to the ring. We discuss the behavior of the quantum oscillations upon varying the number of connected rings and the number of minibands.

  10. Effects of Early and Late Bilingualism on Resting-State Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Chai, Xiaoqian; Chen, Jen-Kai; Gracco, Vincent L; Klein, Denise

    2016-01-27

    Of current interest is how variations in early language experience shape patterns of functional connectivity in the human brain. In the present study, we compared simultaneous (two languages from birth) and sequential (second language learned after age 5 years) bilinguals using a seed-based resting-state MRI approach. We focused on the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) as our ROI, as recent studies have demonstrated both neurofunctional and neurostructural changes related to age of second language acquisition in bilinguals in this cortical area. Stronger functional connectivity was observed for simultaneous bilinguals between the left and right IFG, as well as between the inferior frontal gyrus and brain areas involved in language control, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. Functional connectivity between the left IFG and the right IFG and right inferior parietal lobule was also significantly correlated with age of acquisition for sequential bilinguals; the earlier the second language was acquired, the stronger was the functional connectivity. In addition, greater functional connectivity between homologous regions of the inferior frontal gyrus was associated with reduced neural activation in the left IFG during speech production. The increased connectivity at rest and reduced neural activation during task performance suggests enhanced neural efficiency in this important brain area involved in both speech production and domain-general cognitive processing. Together, our findings highlight how the brain's intrinsic functional patterns are influenced by the developmental timeline in which second language acquisition occurs. Of current interest is how early life experience leaves its footprint on brain structure and function. In this regard, bilingualism provides an optimal way to determine the effects of the timing of language learning because a second language can be learned from birth or later in life. We used resting

  11. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on Brain Connectivity Supporting Catastrophizing in Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Asimina; Kim, Jieun; Cahalan, Christine M; Loggia, Marco L; Franceschelli, Olivia; Berna, Chantal; Schur, Peter; Napadow, Vitaly; Edwards, Robert R

    2017-03-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic, common pain disorder characterized by hyperalgesia. A key mechanism by which cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) fosters improvement in pain outcomes is via reductions in hyperalgesia and pain-related catastrophizing, a dysfunctional set of cognitive-emotional processes. However, the neural underpinnings of these CBT effects are unclear. Our aim was to assess CBT's effects on the brain circuitry underlying hyperalgesia in FM patients, and to explore the role of treatment-associated reduction in catastrophizing as a contributor to normalization of pain-relevant brain circuitry and clinical improvement. In total, 16 high-catastrophizing FM patients were enrolled in the study and randomized to 4 weeks of individual treatment with either CBT or a Fibromyalgia Education (control) condition. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans evaluated functional connectivity between key pain-processing brain regions at baseline and posttreatment. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Catastrophizing correlated with increased resting state functional connectivity between S1 and anterior insula. The CBT group showed larger reductions (compared with the education group) in catastrophizing at posttreatment (PCBT produced significant reductions in both pain and catastrophizing at the 6-month follow-up (PCBT group also showed reduced resting state connectivity between S1 and anterior/medial insula at posttreatment; these reductions in resting state connectivity were associated with concurrent treatment-related reductions in catastrophizing. The results add to the growing support for the clinically important associations between S1-insula connectivity, clinical pain, and catastrophizing, and suggest that CBT may, in part via reductions in catastrophizing, help to normalize pain-related brain responses in FM.

  12. About Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S Rockland

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attention attracted by connectomics, one can lose sight of the very real questions concerning What are connections? In the neuroimaging community, structural connectivity is ground truth and underlying constraint on functional or effective connectivity. It is referenced to underlying anatomy; but, as increasingly remarked, there is a large gap between the wealth of human brain mapping and the relatively scant data on actual anatomical connectivity. Moreover, connections have typically been discussed as pairwise, point x projecting to point y (or: to points y and z, or more recently, in graph theoretical terms, as nodes or regions and the interconnecting edges. This is a convenient shorthand, but tends not to capture the richness and nuance of basic anatomical properties as identified in the classic tradition of tracer studies. The present short review accordingly revisits connectional weights, heterogeneity, reciprocity, topography, and hierarchical organization, drawing on concrete examples. The emphasis is on presynaptic long-distance connections, motivated by the intention to probe current assumptions and promote discussions about further progress and synthesis.

  13. The Direct Effect of Flexible Walls on Fontan Connection Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree, Mike; Fagan, Kiley; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2014-11-01

    The current standard treatment for sufferers of congenital heart defects is the palliative Fontan procedure. The Fontan procedure results in an anastomosis of major veins directly to the branched pulmonary arteries bypassing the dysfunctional ventricle. This total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) extends life past birth, but Fontan patients still suffer long-term complications like decreased exercise capacity, protein-losing enteropathy, and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). These complications have direct ties to fluid dynamics within the connection. Previous experimental and computation studies of Fontan connection fluid dynamics employed rigid vessel models. More recent studies utilize flexible models, but a direct comparison of the fundamental fluid dynamics between rigid and flexible vessels only exists for a computational model, without a direct experimental validation. Thus, this study was a direct comparison of fluid dynamics within a rigid and two compliant idealized TCPCs. 2D particle image velocimetry measurements were collected at the connection center plane. Results include power loss, hepatic flow distribution, fluid shear stress, and flow structure recognition. The effect of flexible walls on these values and clinical impact will be discussed.

  14. The Effect of English Verbal Songs on Connected Speech Aspects of Adult English Learners’ Speech Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Tayari Ashtiani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the impact of English verbal songs on connected speech aspects of adult English learners’ speech production. 40 participants were selected based on the results of their performance in a piloted and validated version of NELSON test given to 60 intermediate English learners in a language institute in Tehran. Then they were equally distributed in two control and experimental groups and received a validated pretest of reading aloud and speaking in English. Afterward, the treatment was performed in 18 sessions by singing preselected songs culled based on some criteria such as popularity, familiarity, amount, and speed of speech delivery, etc. In the end, the posttests of reading aloud and speaking in English were administered. The results revealed that the treatment had statistically positive effects on the connected speech aspects of English learners’ speech production at statistical .05 level of significance. Meanwhile, the results represented that there was not any significant difference between the experimental group’s mean scores on the posttests of reading aloud and speaking. It was thus concluded that providing the EFL learners with English verbal songs could positively affect connected speech aspects of both modes of speech production, reading aloud and speaking. The Findings of this study have pedagogical implications for language teachers to be more aware and knowledgeable of the benefits of verbal songs to promote speech production of language learners in terms of naturalness and fluency. Keywords: English Verbal Songs, Connected Speech, Speech Production, Reading Aloud, Speaking

  15. Variability in connectivity patterns of fish with ontogenetic migrations: Modelling effects of abiotic and biotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eva Tanner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Connectivity is a critical property of marine fish populations as it drives population replenishment, determines colonization patterns and the resilience of populations to harvest. Understanding connectivity patterns is particularly important in species that present ontogenetic migrations and segregated habitat use during their life history, such as marine species with estuarine nursery areas. Albeit challenging, fish movement can be estimated and quantified using different methodologies depending on the life history stages of interest (e.g. biophysical modelling, otolith chemistry, genetic markers. Relative contributions from estuarine nursery areas to the adult coastal populations were determined using otolith elemental composition and maximum likelihood estimation for four commercially important species (Dicentrarchus labrax, Plathichtys flesus, Solea senegalensis and Solea solea and showed high interannual variability. Here, the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on the observed variability in connectivity rates and extent between estuarine juvenile and coastal adult subpopulations are investigated using generalized linear models (GLM and generalized mixed models (GMM. Abiotic factors impacting both larval and juvenile life history stages are included in the models (e.g. wind force and direction, NAO, water temperature while biotic factors relative to the estuarine residency of juvenile fish are evaluated (e.g. juvenile density, food availability. Factors contributing most to the observed variability in connectivity rates are singled out and compared among species. General trends are identified and results area discussed in the general context of identifying potential management frameworks applicable to different life stages and which may prove useful for ontogenetically migrating species.

  16. Effects of aging on neural connectivity underlying selective memory for emotional scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Jill D; Addis, Donna Rose; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2013-02-01

    Older adults show age-related reductions in memory for neutral items within complex visual scenes, but just like young adults, older adults exhibit a memory advantage for emotional items within scenes compared with the background scene information. The present study examined young and older adults' encoding-stage effective connectivity for selective memory of emotional items versus memory for both the emotional item and its background. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants viewed scenes containing either positive or negative items within neutral backgrounds. Outside the scanner, participants completed a memory test for items and backgrounds. Irrespective of scene content being emotionally positive or negative, older adults had stronger positive connections among frontal regions and from frontal regions to medial temporal lobe structures than did young adults, especially when items and backgrounds were subsequently remembered. These results suggest there are differences between young and older adults' connectivity accompanying the encoding of emotional scenes. Older adults may require more frontal connectivity to encode all elements of a scene rather than just encoding the emotional item. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Structural and effective connectivity reveals potential network-based influences on category-sensitive visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eFurl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual category perception is thought to depend on brain areas that respond specifically when certain categories are viewed. These category-sensitive areas are often assumed to be modules (with some degree of processing autonomy and to act predominantly on feedforward visual input. This modular view can be complemented by a view that treats brain areas as elements within more complex networks and as influenced by network properties. This network-oriented viewpoint is emerging from studies using either diffusion tensor imaging to map structural connections or effective connectivity analyses to measure how their functional responses influence each other. This literature motivates several hypotheses that predict category-sensitive activity based on network properties. Large, long-range fiber bundles such as inferior fronto-occipital, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi are associated with behavioural recognition and could play crucial roles in conveying backward influences on visual cortex from anterior temporal and frontal areas. Such backward influences could support top-down functions such as visual search and emotion-based visual modulation. Within visual cortex itself, areas sensitive to different categories appear well-connected (e.g., face areas connect to object- and motion sensitive areas and their responses can be predicted by backward modulation. Evidence supporting these propositions remains incomplete and underscores the need for better integration of DTI and functional imaging.

  18. Effect of Explicit Evaluation on Neural Connectivity Related to Listening to Unfamiliar Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Brattico, Elvira; Abu-jamous, Basel; Pereira, Carlos S.; Jacobsen, Thomas; Nandi, Asoke K.

    2017-01-01

    People can experience different emotions when listening to music. A growing number of studies have investigated the brain structures and neural connectivities associated with perceived emotions. However, very little is known about the effect of an explicit act of judgment on the neural processing of emotionally-valenced music. In this study, we adopted the novel consensus clustering paradigm, called binarisation of consensus partition matrices (Bi-CoPaM), to study whether and how the conscious aesthetic evaluation of the music would modulate brain connectivity networks related to emotion and reward processing. Participants listened to music under three conditions – one involving a non-evaluative judgment, one involving an explicit evaluative aesthetic judgment, and one involving no judgment at all (passive listening only). During non-evaluative attentive listening we obtained auditory-limbic connectivity whereas when participants were asked to decide explicitly whether they liked or disliked the music excerpt, only two clusters of intercommunicating brain regions were found: one including areas related to auditory processing and action observation, and the other comprising higher-order structures involved with visual processing. Results indicate that explicit evaluative judgment has an impact on the neural auditory-limbic connectivity during affective processing of music. PMID:29311874

  19. The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Connected Speech Features on Iranian EFL Learners’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmadian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Listening comprehension has found its right place in the field of SLA in recent decades. For years, among all language skills, speaking and writing were of high significance in teaching and learning a new language as they were considered to be productive skills. Listening and reading, on the other hand, were neglected since they were regarded as passive skills, means to other ends, rather than ends in themselves. This study investigates possible effects of explicit instruction of connected speech features on listening comprehension of Iranian English language learners. Forty adult female Persian speaking homogeneous English learners, aged 18-30, participated in the study. They were divided into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received explicit instructions on connected speech features, while the control group followed the routine instructions designed by their institute. Tests of connected speech features were used in pre- and post tests. The participants’ scores on the pre-posttests were compared via the paired samples t-tests and independent samples t-tests. The results indicated the outperformance of the experimental group over the control group, thus, suggesting that explicit instructions of connected speech features have facilitative roles in improving EFL learners’ listening comprehension skill. Possible implications of the findings for teaching listening comprehension are discussed.

  20. Effects of Tightening Torque on Dynamic Characteristics of Low Pressure Rotors Connected by a Spline Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xi; Liao M ingfu; Li Quankun

    2017-01-01

    A rotor dynamic model is built up for investigating the effects of tightening torque on dynamic character-istics of low pressure rotors connected by a spline coupling .The experimental rotor system is established using a fluted disk and a speed sensor which is applied in an actual aero engine for speed measurement .Through simulating calculation and experiments ,the effects of tightening torque on the dynamic characteristics of the rotor system con-nected by a spline coupling including critical speeds ,vibration modes and unbalance responses are analyzed .The results show that when increasing the tightening torque ,the first two critical speeds and the amplitudes of unbal-ance response gradually increase in varying degrees while the vibration modes are essentially unchanged .In addi-tion ,changing axial and circumferential positions of the mass unbalance can lead to various amplitudes of unbalance response and even the rates of change .

  1. Effect of voltage sags on digitally controlled line connected switched-mode power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Different voltage disorders like voltage fluctuations, sags, frequency variations may occur in the power supply networks due to different fault conditions. These deviations from normal operation affects in different ways the line connected devices. Standards were developed to protect and ensure...... of voltage sags is analyzed. Fault tolerant control algorithm was designed, implemented and is discussed. The fault conditions and their effects were investigated at different power levels....

  2. The Effect of Hurricanes on Annual Precipitation in Maryland and the Connection to Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jackie; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Precipitation is a vital aspect of our lives droughts, floods and other related disasters that involve precipitation can cause costly damage in the economic system and general society. Purpose of this project is to determine what, if any effect do hurricanes have on annual precipitation in Maryland Research will be conducted on Marylands terrain, climatology, annual precipitation, and precipitation contributed from hurricanes Possible connections to climate change

  3. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform–amygdalar effective connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H.; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-01-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform–amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

  4. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform-amygdalar effective connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-11-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform-amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The effect of criticism on functional brain connectivity and associations with neuroticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Nadine Servaas

    Full Text Available Neuroticism is a robust personality trait that constitutes a risk factor for psychopathology, especially anxiety disorders and depression. High neurotic individuals tend to be more self-critical and are overly sensitive to criticism by others. Hence, we used a novel resting-state paradigm to investigate the effect of criticism on functional brain connectivity and associations with neuroticism. Forty-eight participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R to assess neuroticism. Next, we recorded resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI during two sessions. We manipulated the second session before scanning by presenting three standardized critical remarks through headphones, in which the subject was urged to please lie still in the scanner. A seed-based functional connectivity method and subsequent clustering were used to analyse the resting state data. Based on the reviewed literature related to criticism, we selected brain regions associated with self-reflective processing and stress-regulation as regions of interest. The findings showed enhanced functional connectivity between the clustered seed regions and brain areas involved in emotion processing and social cognition during the processing of criticism. Concurrently, functional connectivity was reduced between these clusters and brain structures related to the default mode network and higher-order cognitive control. Furthermore, individuals scoring higher on neuroticism showed altered functional connectivity between the clustered seed regions and brain areas involved in the appraisal, expression and regulation of negative emotions. These results may suggest that the criticized person is attempting to understand the beliefs, perceptions and feelings of the critic in order to facilitate flexible and adaptive social behavior. Furthermore, multiple aspects of emotion processing were found to be affected in individuals scoring higher on neuroticism during

  6. An investigation into the effects of pore connectivity on T2 NMR relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomeshi, Shahin; Kryuchkov, Sergey; Kantzas, Apostolos

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique used to characterize fluids and flow in porous media. The NMR relaxation curves are closely related to pore geometry, and the inversion of the NMR relaxometry data is known to give useful information with regards to pore size distribution (PSD) through the relative amplitudes of the fluids stored in the small and large pores. While this information is crucial, the main challenge for the successful use of the NMR measurements is the proper interpretation of the measured signals. Natural porous media patterns consist of complex pore structures with many interconnected or "coupled" regions, as well as isolated pores. This connectivity along the throats changes the relaxation distribution and in order to properly interpret this data, a thorough understanding of the effects of pore connectivity on the NMR relaxation distribution is warranted. In this paper we address two main points. The first pertains to the fact that there is a discrepancy between the relaxation distribution obtained from experiments, and the ones obtained from solving the mathematical models of diffusion process in the digitized images of the pore space. There are several reasons that may attribute to this such as the lack of a proper incorporation of surface roughness into the model. However, here we are more interested in the effects of pore connectivity and to understand why the typical NMR relaxation distribution obtained from experiments are wider, while the numerical simulations predict that a wider NMR relaxation distribution may indicate poor connectivity. Secondly, by not taking into account the pore coupling effects, from our experience in interpreting the data, we tend to underestimate the pore volume of small pores and overestimate the amplitudes in the large pores. The role of pore coupling becomes even more prominent in rocks with small pore sizes such as for example in shales, clay in sandstones, and in the microstructures of

  7. Effects of Large Wood on River-Floodplain Connectivity in a Headwater Appalachian Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, T.; Govenor, H.; Jones, C. N.; Hession, W. C.; Scott, D.; Hester, E. T.

    2017-12-01

    Large wood (LW) plays an important, yet often undervalued role in stream ecosystems. Traditionally, LW has been removed from streams for aesthetic, navigational, and flood mitigation purposes. However, extensive research over the last three decades has directly linked LW to critical ecosystem functions including habitat provisioning, stream geomorphic stability, and water quality improvements; and as such, LW has increasingly been implemented in stream restoration activities. One of the proposed benefits to this restoration approach is that LW increases river-floodplain connectivity, potentially decreasing downstream flood peaks and improving water quality. Here, we conducted two experiential floods (i.e., one with and one without LW) in a headwater, agricultural stream to explore the effect of LW on river-floodplain connectivity and resulting hydrodynamic processes. During each flood, we released an equal amount of water to the stream channel, measured stream discharge at upstream and downstream boundaries, and measured inundation depth at multiple locations across the floodplain. We then utilized a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model (HEC-RAS) to simulate floodplain hydrodynamics. We first calibrated the model using observations from the two experimental floods. Then, we utilized the calibrated model to evaluate differing LW placement strategies and effects under various flow conditions. Results show that the addition of LW to the channel decreased channel velocity and increased inundation extent, inundation depth, and floodplain velocity. Differential placement of LW along the stream impacted the levels of floodplain discharge, primarily due to the geomorphic characteristics of the stream. Finally, we examined the effects of LW on floodplain hydrodynamics across a synthetic flow record, and found that the magnitude of river-floodplain connectivity decreased as recurrence interval increased, with limited impacts on storm events with a recurrence interval of 25 years

  8. Personal summarization from profile networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongqing WANG; Shoushan LI; Guodong ZHOU

    2017-01-01

    Personal profile information on social media like Linkedln.com and Facebook.com is at the core of many interesting applications,such as talent recommendation and contextual advertising.However,personal profiles usually lack consistent organization confronted with the large amount of available information.Therefore,it is always a challenge for people to quickly find desired information from them.In this paper,we address the task of personal profile summarization by leveraging both textual information and social connection information in social networks from both unsupervised and supervised learning paradigms.Here,using social connection information is motivated by the intuition that people with similar academic,business or social background (e.g.,comajor,co-university,and co-corporation) tend to have similar experiences and should have similar summaries.For unsupervised learning,we propose a collective ranking approach,called SocialRank,to combine textual information in an individual profile and social context information from relevant profiles in generating a personal profile summary.For supervised learning,we propose a collective factor graph model,called CoFG,to summarize personal profiles with local textual attribute functions and social connection factors.Extensive evaluation on a large dataset from LinkedIn.com demonstrates the usefulness of social connection information in personal profile summarization and the effectiveness of our proposed unsupervised and supervised learning approaches.

  9. Species- and sex-specific connectivity effects of habitat fragmentation in a suite of woodland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Nevil; Harrisson, Katherine A; Radford, James Q; White, Matt; Newell, Graeme; Mac Nally, Ralph; Sunnucks, Paul; Pavlova, Alexandra

    2014-06-01

    Loss of functional connectivity following habitat loss and fragmentation could drive species declines. A comprehensive understanding of fragmentation effects on functional connectivity of an ecological assemblage requires investigation of multiple species with different mobilities, at different spatial scales, for each sex, and in different landscapes. Based on published data on mobility and ecological responses to fragmentation of 10 woodland-dependent birds, and using simulation studies, we predicted that (1) fragmentation would impede dispersal and gene flow of eight "decliners" (species that disappear from suitable patches when landscape-level tree cover falls below species-specific thresholds), but not of two "tolerant" species (whose occurrence in suitable habitat patches is independent of landscape tree cover); and that fragmentation effects would be stronger (2) in the least mobile species, (3) in the more philopatric sex, and (4) in the more fragmented region. We tested these predictions by evaluating spatially explicit isolation-by-landscape-resistance models of gene flow in fragmented landscapes across a 50 x 170 km study area in central Victoria, Australia, using individual and population genetic distances. To account for sex-biased dispersal and potential scale- and configuration-specific effects, we fitted models specific to sex and geographic zones. As predicted, four of the least mobile decliners showed evidence of reduced genetic connectivity. The responses were strongly sex specific, but in opposite directions in the two most sedentary species. Both tolerant species and (unexpectedly) four of the more mobile decliners showed no reduction in gene flow. This is unlikely to be due to time lags because more mobile species develop genetic signatures of fragmentation faster than do less mobile ones. Weaker genetic effects were observed in the geographic zone with more aggregated vegetation, consistent with gene flow being unimpeded by landscape

  10. Effects of Methylphenidate on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine Pathways in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2013-08-01

    Cocaine addiction is associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity among regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathways. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, an indirect dopamine agonist, normalizes task-related regional brain activity and associated behavior in cocaine users; however, the neural systems–level effects of methylphenidate in this population have not yet been described. To use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine changes in mesocorticolimbic connectivity with methylphenidate and how connectivity of affected pathways relates to severity of cocaine addiction.

  11. Profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Vackier, Isabelle

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates the profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat as a product category based on cross-sectional data collected in Belgium. Analyses confirm that involvement in meat is a multidimensional construct including four facets: pleasure value, symbolic value, risk importance and risk probability. Four involvement-based meat consumer segments are identified: straightforward, cautious, indifferent, and concerned. Socio-demographic differences between the segments relate to gender, age and presence of children. The segments differ in terms of extensiveness of the decision-making process, impact and trust in information sources, levels of concern, price consciousness, claimed meat consumption, consumption intention, and preferred place of purchase. The two segments with a strong perception of meat risks constitute two-thirds of the market. They can be typified as cautious meat lovers versus concerned meat consumers. Efforts aiming at consumer reassurance through quality improvement, traceability, labelling or communication may gain effectiveness when targeted specifically to these two segments. Whereas straightforward meat lovers focus mainly on taste as the decisive criterion, indifferent consumers are strongly price oriented.

  12. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Brain Functional Connectivity and Sensorimotor Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Castenada, R. Riascos; Kofman, I.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor functioning. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt (HDT) position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with behavior is largely unknown, but of importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. In the present study, we investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to HDT bed rest on resting state brain functional connectivity and its association with behavioral changes in 17 male participants. To validate that our findings were not due to confounding factors such as time or task practice, we also acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and behavioral measurements from 14 normative control participants at four time points. Bed rest participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Rs-fMRI and behavioral data were obtained at seven time points averaging around: 12 and 8 days prior to bed rest; 7, 50, and 70 days during bed rest; and 8 and 12 days after bed rest. 70 days of HDT bed rest resulted in significant increases in functional connectivity during bed rest followed by a reversal of changes in the post bed rest recovery period between motor cortical and somatosensory areas of the brain. In contrast, decreases in connectivity were observed between temporoparietal regions. Furthermore, post-hoc correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between motor-somatosensory network connectivity and standing balance performance changes; participants that exhibited the greatest increases in connectivity strength showed the least deterioration in postural

  13. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid connecting phospholipids on the lipid peroxidation of the brain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Seiichi; Ishihara, Kenji; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Wada, Shun; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2008-12-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) with two lipid types on lipid peroxidation of the brain was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Each group of female Balb/c mice was fed a diet containing DHA-connecting phospholipids (DHA-PL) or DHA-connecting triacylglycerols (DHA-TG) for 5 wk. Safflower oil was fed as the control. The lipid peroxide level of the brain was significantly lower in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet when compared to those fed the DHA-TG and safflower oil diets, while the alpha-tocopherol level was significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the DHA-TG and safflower oil diets. The DHA level of phosphatidylethanolamine in the brain was significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the safflower oil diet. The dimethylacetal levels were significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the safflower oil and DHA-TG diets. These results suggest that the dietary DHA-connecting phospholipids have an antioxidant activity on the brain lipids in mice, and the effect may be related to the brain plasmalogen.

  14. Altered Effective Connectivity of Hippocampus-Dependent Episodic Memory Network in mTBI Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs are generally recognized to affect episodic memory. However, less is known regarding how external force altered the way functionally connected brain structures of the episodic memory system interact. To address this issue, we adopted an effective connectivity based analysis, namely, multivariate Granger causality approach, to explore causal interactions within the brain network of interest. Results presented that TBI induced increased bilateral and decreased ipsilateral effective connectivity in the episodic memory network in comparison with that of normal controls. Moreover, the left anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG, the concept forming hub, left hippocampus (the personal experience binding hub, and left parahippocampal gyrus (the contextual association hub were no longer network hubs in TBI survivors, who compensated for hippocampal deficits by relying more on the right hippocampus (underlying perceptual memory and the right medial frontal gyrus (MeFG in the anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC. We postulated that the overrecruitment of the right anterior PFC caused dysfunction of the strategic component of episodic memory, which caused deteriorating episodic memory in mTBI survivors. Our findings also suggested that the pattern of brain network changes in TBI survivors presented similar functional consequences to normal aging.

  15. Estimation of effective connectivity using multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nasibeh; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie; Mohammad-Rezazadeh, Iman

    2018-02-01

    Studies on interactions between brain regions estimate effective connectivity, (usually) based on the causality inferences made on the basis of temporal precedence. In this study, the causal relationship is modeled by a multi-layer perceptron feed-forward artificial neural network, because of the ANN's ability to generate appropriate input-output mapping and to learn from training examples without the need of detailed knowledge of the underlying system. At any time instant, the past samples of data are placed in the network input, and the subsequent values are predicted at its output. To estimate the strength of interactions, the measure of " Causality coefficient " is defined based on the network structure, the connecting weights and the parameters of hidden layer activation function. Simulation analysis demonstrates that the method, called "CREANN" (Causal Relationship Estimation by Artificial Neural Network), can estimate time-invariant and time-varying effective connectivity in terms of MVAR coefficients. The method shows robustness with respect to noise level of data. Furthermore, the estimations are not significantly influenced by the model order (considered time-lag), and the different initial conditions (initial random weights and parameters of the network). CREANN is also applied to EEG data collected during a memory recognition task. The results implicate that it can show changes in the information flow between brain regions, involving in the episodic memory retrieval process. These convincing results emphasize that CREANN can be used as an appropriate method to estimate the causal relationship among brain signals.

  16. The Effects of Music Intervention on Functional Connectivity Strength of the Brain in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mi; He, Hui; Duan, Mingjun; Chen, Xi; Chang, Xin; Lai, Yongxiu; Li, Jianfu; Liu, Tiejun; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often associated with behavior abnormality in the cognitive and affective domain. Music intervention is used as a complementary treatment for improving symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. However, the neurophysiological correlates of these remissions remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of music intervention in neural circuits through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in schizophrenic subjects. Under the standard care, patients were randomly assigned to music and non-music interventions (MTSZ, UMTSZ) for 1 month. Resting-state fMRI were acquired over three time points (baseline, 1 month, and 6 months later) in patients and analyzed using functional connectivity strength (FCS) and seed-based functional connection (FC) approaches. At baseline, compared with healthy controls, decreased FCS in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was observed in patients. However, after music intervention, the functional circuitry of the right MTG, which was related with the function of emotion and sensorimotor, was improved in MTSZ. Furthermore, the FC increments were significantly correlated with the improvement of symptoms, while vanishing 6 months later. Together, these findings provided evidence that music intervention might positively modulate the functional connectivity of MTG in patients with schizophrenia; such changes might be associated with the observed therapeutic effects of music intervention on neurocognitive function. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-OPC-14005339.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Connected and Automated Vehicles: Sensing and Computing Subsystem and Vehicle Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, James H; Keoleian, Gregory A; De Kleine, Robert D; Wallington, Timothy J; Kim, Hyung Chul

    2018-03-06

    Although recent studies of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) have begun to explore the potential energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts from an operational perspective, little is known about how the full life cycle of the vehicle will be impacted. We report the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of Level 4 CAV sensing and computing subsystems integrated into internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) platforms. The results indicate that CAV subsystems could increase vehicle primary energy use and GHG emissions by 3-20% due to increases in power consumption, weight, drag, and data transmission. However, when potential operational effects of CAVs are included (e.g., eco-driving, platooning, and intersection connectivity), the net result is up to a 9% reduction in energy and GHG emissions in the base case. Overall, this study highlights opportunities where CAVs can improve net energy and environmental performance.

  18. Transuranium elements intake during works connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.I.; Kukhta, B.A.; Kononykhina, N.N.

    1992-01-01

    The materials of studies realized in 1989, 1990, 1991 and dealing with internal irradiation control caused by intake of transuranium elements (TUE) for the Chernobyl' NPP personnel and persons engaged in the accident effect elimination are generalized. the leading part of TUE inhalation intake in formation of internal irradiation doses is revealed. Evaluation of TUE inhalation intake hazards is made according to the results of measuring TUE activity in urine samples for the personnel examined (271 persons). The results of surveillance shows the effect of organism internal irradiation connected with TUE intake through respiratory organs. 23 refs.; 1 tab

  19. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state fMRI data to investigate the relationship between motor deficits and the intrinsic effective connectivity between brain regions involved in motor control and motor execution. An exploratory adaptation of SEM determined the optimal model of motor execution effective connectivity in healthy participants, and confirmatory SEM assessed stroke survivors’ fit to that model. We observed alterations in spontaneous resting-state effective connectivity from fronto-parietal guidance systems to the motor network in stroke survivors. More specifically, diminished connectivity was found in connections from the superior parietal cortex to primary motor cortex and supplementary motor cortex. Furthermore, the paths demonstrated large individual variance in stroke survivors but less variance in healthy participants. These findings suggest that characterizing the deficits in resting-state connectivity of top-down processes in stroke survivors may help optimize cognitive and physical rehabilitation therapies by individually targeting specific neural pathway. PMID:21839174

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of restoring longitudinal connectivity for stream fish communities: towards a more holistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummers, Jeroen S; Hudson, Steve; Lucas, Martyn C

    2016-11-01

    A more holistic approach towards testing longitudinal connectivity restoration is needed in order to establish that intended ecological functions of such restoration are achieved. We illustrate the use of a multi-method scheme to evaluate the effectiveness of 'nature-like' connectivity restoration for stream fish communities in the River Deerness, NE England. Electric-fishing, capture-mark-recapture, PIT telemetry and radio-telemetry were used to measure fish community composition, dispersal, fishway efficiency and upstream migration respectively. For measuring passage and dispersal, our rationale was to evaluate a wide size range of strong swimmers (exemplified by brown trout Salmo trutta) and weak swimmers (exemplified by bullhead Cottus perifretum) in situ in the stream ecosystem. Radio-tracking of adult trout during the spawning migration showed that passage efficiency at each of five connectivity-restored sites was 81.3-100%. Unaltered (experimental control) structures on the migration route had a bottle-neck effect on upstream migration, especially during low flows. However, even during low flows, displaced PIT tagged juvenile trout (total n=153) exhibited a passage efficiency of 70.1-93.1% at two nature-like passes. In mark-recapture experiments juvenile brown trout and bullhead tagged (total n=5303) succeeded in dispersing upstream more often at most structures following obstacle modification, but not at the two control sites, based on a Laplace kernel modelling approach of observed dispersal distance and barrier traverses. Medium-term post-restoration data (2-3years) showed that the fish assemblage remained similar at five of six connectivity-restored sites and two control sites, but at one connectivity-restored headwater site previously inhabited by trout only, three native non-salmonid species colonized. We conclude that stream habitat reconnection should support free movement of a wide range of species and life stages, wherever retention of such

  1. Illumination Profile & Dispersion Variation Effects on Radial Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil B.; Ma, Bo; Li, Rui; SDSS-III

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) measures radial velocities using a fiber-fed dispersed fixed-delay interferometer (DFDI) with a moderate dispersion spectrograph. This setup allows a unique insight into the 2D illumination profile from the fiber on to the dispersion grating. Illumination profile investigations show large changes in the profile over time and fiber location. These profile changes are correlated with dispersion changes and long-term radial velocity offsets, a major problem within the MARVELS radial velocity data. Characterizing illumination profiles creates a method to both detect and correct radial velocity offsets, allowing for better planet detection. Here we report our early results from this study including improvement of radial velocity data points from detected giant planet candidates. We also report an illumination profile experiment conducted at the Kitt Peak National Observatory using the EXPERT instrument, which has a DFDI mode similar to MARVELS. Using profile controlling octagonal-shaped fibers, long term offsets over a 3 month time period were reduced from ~50 m/s to within the photon limit of ~4 m/s.

  2. Profile of effective donors from organ and tissue procurement services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Simey de Lima Lopes; Ferraz Neto, Jose Ben-Hur de Escobar; Sardinha, Luiz Antonio da Costa; Araujo, Sebastião; Zambelli, Helder Jose Lessa; Boin, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira; Athayde, Maria Valeria de Omena; Montone, Eliete Bombarda Bachega; Panunto, Marcia Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize the profile of effective organ and tissue donors and to understand which organs and tissues were donated for transplantation. Methods This was a quantitative, descriptive, exploratory, retrospective study that analyzed clinical data from 305 donors between January 2006 to December 2010. The data were then analyzed using descriptive analyses, generating frequency tables, measures of position (mean, minimum and maximum) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation) for data that was social and clinical in nature. Results There was an overall predominance of white (72%) and male (55%) individuals between the ages of 41 and 60 years (44%). The primary cause of brain death was cerebrovascular accident (55%). In the patient history, 31% of the patients were classified as overweight, 27% as hypertensive and only 4.3% as having diabetes mellitus. Vasoactive drugs were used in 92.7% of the donors, and the main drug of choice was noradrenaline (81.6%). Hyperglycemia and hypernatremia were diagnosed in 78% and 71% of the donors, respectively. Conclusion Significant hemodynamic changes were found, and the results indicate that the use of vasoactive drugs was the main strategy used to control these changes. Furthermore, most donors presented with hyperglycemia and hypernatremia, which were frequently reported in association with brain death. The persistent nature of these findings suggests that the organ donors were inadequately maintained. PMID:24770685

  3. Effect of microstructure on the arsenic profile in implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coghlan, W.A.; Rhee, M.H.; Williams, J.M.; Streit, L.A.; Williams, P.

    1985-10-01

    According to an irradiation damage model, the profile of an implanted ion at temperature great enough for diffusion to occur will depend on the sink density in the material. To test this model, pure silicon wafers were prepared with high and low dislocation densities. These wafers were implanted with about 5 x 10 19 As +2 /m 2 at 77 0 K, 300 0 C, and 600 0 C. After implanting the profiles were measured using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The observed spreading of the As-profile contradicts initial theoretical predictions. Further speculation is presented to explain the differences

  4. Effective Connectivity Reveals Right-Hemisphere Dominance in Audiospatial Perception: Implications for Models of Spatial Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J.; Mattingley, Jason B.; Roepstorff, Andreas; Garrido, Marta I.

    2014-01-01

    Detecting the location of salient sounds in the environment rests on the brain's ability to use differences in sounds arriving at both ears. Functional neuroimaging studies in humans indicate that the left and right auditory hemispaces are coded asymmetrically, with a rightward attentional bias that reflects spatial attention in vision. Neuropsychological observations in patients with spatial neglect have led to the formulation of two competing models: the orientation bias and right-hemisphere dominance models. The orientation bias model posits a symmetrical mapping between one side of the sensorium and the contralateral hemisphere, with mutual inhibition of the ipsilateral hemisphere. The right-hemisphere dominance model introduces a functional asymmetry in the brain's coding of space: the left hemisphere represents the right side, whereas the right hemisphere represents both sides of the sensorium. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling of effective connectivity and Bayesian model comparison to adjudicate between these alternative network architectures, based on human electroencephalographic data acquired during an auditory location oddball paradigm. Our results support a hemispheric asymmetry in a frontoparietal network that conforms to the right-hemisphere dominance model. We show that, within this frontoparietal network, forward connectivity increases selectively in the hemisphere contralateral to the side of sensory stimulation. We interpret this finding in light of hierarchical predictive coding as a selective increase in attentional gain, which is mediated by feedforward connections that carry precision-weighted prediction errors during perceptual inference. This finding supports the disconnection hypothesis of unilateral neglect and has implications for theories of its etiology. PMID:24695717

  5. Aging Effects on Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity in Adults Free of Cognitive and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Regina, Ana Carolina Brocanello; Kovacevic, Natasa; Martin, Maria da Graça Morais; Santos, Pedro Paim; Carneiro, Camila de Godoi; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Amaro, Edson; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the default mode network (DMN), but most functional imaging studies have restricted the analysis to specific brain regions or networks, a strategy not appropriate to describe system-wide changes. Moreover, few investigations have employed operational psychiatric interviewing procedures to select participants; this is an important limitation since mental disorders are prevalent and underdiagnosed and can be associated with RSFC abnormalities. In this study, resting-state fMRI was acquired from 59 adults free of cognitive and psychiatric disorders according to standardized criteria and based on extensive neuropsychological and clinical assessments. We tested for associations between age and whole-brain RSFC using Partial Least Squares, a multivariate technique. We found that normal aging is not only characterized by decreased RSFC within the DMN but also by ubiquitous increases in internetwork positive correlations and focal internetwork losses of anticorrelations (involving mainly connections between the DMN and the attentional networks). Our results reinforce the notion that the aging brain undergoes a dedifferentiation processes with loss of functional diversity. These findings advance the characterization of healthy aging effects on RSFC and highlight the importance of adopting a broad, system-wide perspective to analyze brain connectivity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Anisotropy of the monomer random walk in a polymer melt: local-order and connectivity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernini, S; Leporini, D

    2016-01-01

    The random walk of a bonded monomer in a polymer melt is anisotropic due to local order and bond connectivity. We investigate both effects by molecular-dynamics simulations on melts of fully-flexible linear chains ranging from dimers (M  =  2) up to entangled polymers (M  =  200). The corresponding atomic liquid is also considered a reference system. To disentangle the influence of the local geometry and the bond arrangements, and to reveal their interplay, we define suitable measures of the anisotropy emphasising either the former or the latter aspect. Connectivity anisotropy, as measured by the correlation between the initial bond orientation and the direction of the subsequent monomer displacement, shows a slight enhancement due to the local order at times shorter than the structural relaxation time. At intermediate times—when the monomer displacement is comparable to the bond length—a pronounced peak and then decays slowly as t −1/2 , becoming negligible when the displacement is as large as about five bond lengths, i.e. about four monomer diameters or three Kuhn lengths. Local-geometry anisotropy, as measured by the correlation between the initial orientation of a characteristic axis of the Voronoi cell and the subsequent monomer dynamics, is affected at shorter times than the structural relaxation time by the cage shape with antagonistic disturbance by the connectivity. Differently, at longer times, the connectivity favours the persistence of the local-geometry anisotropy, which vanishes when the monomer displacement exceeds the bond length. Our results strongly suggest that the sole consideration of the local order is not enough to understand the microscopic origin of the rattling amplitude of the trapped monomer in the cage of the neighbours. (paper)

  7. Tractography-Based Score for Learning Effective Connectivity From Multimodal Imaging Data Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shilpa; Chaudhury, Santanu; Lall, Brejesh; Roy, Prasun K

    2018-05-01

    Effective connectivity (EC) is the methodology for determining functional-integration among the functionally active segregated regions of the brain. By definition EC is "the causal influence exerted by one neuronal group on another" which is constrained by anatomical connectivity (AC) (axonal connections). AC is necessary for EC but does not fully determine it, because synaptic communication occurs dynamically in a context-dependent fashion. Although there is a vast emerging evidence of structure-function relationship using multimodal imaging studies, till date only a few studies have done joint modeling of the two modalities: functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We aim to propose a unified probabilistic framework that combines information from both sources to learn EC using dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). DBNs are probabilistic graphical temporal models that learn EC in an exploratory fashion. Specifically, we propose a novel anatomically informed (AI) score that evaluates fitness of a given connectivity structure to both DTI and fMRI data simultaneously. The AI score is employed in structure learning of DBN given the data. Experiments with synthetic-data demonstrate the face validity of structure learning with our AI score over anatomically uninformed counterpart. Moreover, real-data results are cross-validated by performing classification-experiments. EC inferred on real fMRI-DTI datasets is found to be consistent with previous literature and show promising results in light of the AC present as compared to other classically used techniques such as Granger-causality. Multimodal analyses provide a more reliable basis for differentiating brain under abnormal/diseased conditions than the single modality analysis.

  8. Effects of Field-Map Distortion Correction on Resting State Functional Connectivity MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Togo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field inhomogeneities cause geometric distortions of echo planar images used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. To reduce this problem, distortion correction (DC with field map is widely used for both task and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI. Although DC with field map has been reported to improve the quality of task fMRI, little is known about its effects on rs-fMRI. Here, we tested the influence of field-map DC on rs-fMRI results using two rs-fMRI datasets derived from 40 healthy subjects: one with DC (DC+ and the other without correction (DC−. Independent component analysis followed by the dual regression approach was used for evaluation of resting-state functional connectivity networks (RSN. We also obtained the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency signal power (0.01–0.1 Hz and above 0.1 Hz, respectively; LFHF ratio to assess the quality of rs-fMRI signals. For comparison of RSN between DC+ and DC− datasets, the default mode network showed more robust functional connectivity in the DC+ dataset than the DC− dataset. Basal ganglia RSN showed some decreases in functional connectivity primarily in white matter, indicating imperfect registration/normalization without DC. Supplementary seed-based and simulation analyses supported the utility of DC. Furthermore, we found a higher LFHF ratio after field map correction in the anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, ventral striatum, and cerebellum. In conclusion, field map DC improved detection of functional connectivity derived from low-frequency rs-fMRI signals. We encourage researchers to include a DC step in the preprocessing pipeline of rs-fMRI analysis.

  9. How institutions matter for international business : Institutional distance effects vs institutional profile effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, Andre; Maseland, Robbert

    Extant institutional research has failed to make a distinction between the effects of institutional profile and institutional distance on MNEs. The problem stems from the fact that, due to the use of a single reference country, variation in institutional distance between the reference country and

  10. Functional localization and effective connectivity of cortical theta and alpha oscillatory activity during an attention task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kitaura

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate cortical electric neuronal activity as an indicator of brain function, in a mental arithmetic task that requires sustained attention, as compared to the resting state condition. The two questions of interest are the cortical localization of different oscillatory activities, and the directional effective flow of oscillatory activity between regions of interest, in the task condition compared to resting state. In particular, theta and alpha activity are of interest here, due to their important role in attention processing. Methods: We adapted mental arithmetic as an attention ask in this study. Eyes closed 61-channel EEG was recorded in 14 participants during resting and in a mental arithmetic task (“serial sevens subtraction”. Functional localization and connectivity analyses were based on cortical signals of electric neuronal activity estimated with sLORETA (standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography. Functional localization was based on the comparison of the cortical distributions of the generators of oscillatory activity between task and resting conditions. Assessment of effective connectivity was based on the iCoh (isolated effective coherence method, which provides an appropriate frequency decomposition of the directional flow of oscillatory activity between brain regions. Nine regions of interest comprising nodes from the dorsal and ventral attention networks were selected for the connectivity analysis. Results: Cortical spectral density distribution comparing task minus rest showed significant activity increase in medial prefrontal areas and decreased activity in left parietal lobe for the theta band, and decreased activity in parietal-occipital regions for the alpha1 band. At a global level, connections among right hemispheric nodes were predominantly decreased during the task condition, while connections among left hemispheric nodes were predominantly increased. At more

  11. Altered structural and effective connectivity in anorexia and bulimia nervosa in circuits that regulate energy and reward homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, G K W; Shott, M E; Riederer, J; Pryor, T L

    2016-11-01

    Anorexia and bulimia nervosa are severe eating disorders that share many behaviors. Structural and functional brain circuits could provide biological links that those disorders have in common. We recruited 77 young adult women, 26 healthy controls, 26 women with anorexia and 25 women with bulimia nervosa. Probabilistic tractography was used to map white matter connectivity strength across taste and food intake regulating brain circuits. An independent multisample greedy equivalence search algorithm tested effective connectivity between those regions during sucrose tasting. Anorexia and bulimia nervosa had greater structural connectivity in pathways between insula, orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum, but lower connectivity from orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala to the hypothalamus (Pbulimia nervosa effective connectivity was directed from anterior cingulate via ventral striatum to the hypothalamus. Across all groups, sweetness perception was predicted by connectivity strength in pathways connecting to the middle orbitofrontal cortex. This study provides evidence that white matter structural as well as effective connectivity within the energy-homeostasis and food reward-regulating circuitry is fundamentally different in anorexia and bulimia nervosa compared with that in controls. In eating disorders, anterior cingulate cognitive-emotional top down control could affect food reward and eating drive, override hypothalamic inputs to the ventral striatum and enable prolonged food restriction.

  12. Effective connectivity and gamma oscillations in a group at risk of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kit Melissa

    .2 deletion carriers and healthy controls. Both conventional analysis of the MMN responses as well as a more sophisticated approach by means of Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) were carried out. DCM is a technique to extract effective connectivity between pre-specified bran areas. With this technique we...... by employing a parametric DCM to study the underlying network of repetition suppression in 22q11.2 deletion carriers and healthy controls. While results for the control group indicated a processing in accordance with the predictive coding theory, this was not the case for the 22q11.2 deletion carriers. Finally...

  13. Quantum mechanics of relativistic particles in multiply connected spaces and the Aharonov-Bohm effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.

    1990-04-01

    We consider the motion of free relativistic particles in multiply connected spaces. We show that if one of the spatial dimensions has the topology of a circle then the D dimensional spacetime is compactified to D-1 dimensions and the particle mass increases by an amount which is proportional to a quantum phase factor and inversely proportional to the radius of the circle. We also consider the relativistic Aharonov-Bohm effect and we show that the interference pattern is a universal characteristic due only to the topological properties of the experimental situation and not to the intrinsic properties of the particle. The propagators are calculated in both situations. (author) [pt

  14. The Effect of Binaural Beats on Visuospatial Working Memory and Cortical Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Beauchene

    Full Text Available Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, have not been well studied. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the effects of binaural beats on brain connectivity during working memory tasks. In this study, we determined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions on participant response accuracy and cortical network topology, as measured by EEG recordings, during a visuospatial working memory task. Three acoustic stimulation control conditions and three binaural beat stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5Hz binaural beats, 10Hz binaural beats, and 15Hz binaural beats. We found that listening to 15Hz binaural beats during a visuospatial working memory task not only increased the response accuracy, but also modified the strengths of the cortical networks during the task. The three auditory control conditions and the 5Hz and 10Hz binaural beats all decreased accuracy. Based on graphical network analyses, the cortical activity during 15Hz binaural beats produced networks characteristic of high information transfer with consistent connection strengths throughout the visuospatial working memory task.

  15. The Effect of Binaural Beats on Visuospatial Working Memory and Cortical Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, have not been well studied. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the effects of binaural beats on brain connectivity during working memory tasks. In this study, we determined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions on participant response accuracy and cortical network topology, as measured by EEG recordings, during a visuospatial working memory task. Three acoustic stimulation control conditions and three binaural beat stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5Hz binaural beats, 10Hz binaural beats, and 15Hz binaural beats. We found that listening to 15Hz binaural beats during a visuospatial working memory task not only increased the response accuracy, but also modified the strengths of the cortical networks during the task. The three auditory control conditions and the 5Hz and 10Hz binaural beats all decreased accuracy. Based on graphical network analyses, the cortical activity during 15Hz binaural beats produced networks characteristic of high information transfer with consistent connection strengths throughout the visuospatial working memory task.

  16. HERMES: towards an integrated toolbox to characterize functional and effective brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niso, Guiomar; Bruña, Ricardo; Pereda, Ernesto; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; del-Pozo, Francisco

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of the interdependence between time series has become an important field of research in the last years, mainly as a result of advances in the characterization of dynamical systems from the signals they produce, the introduction of concepts such as generalized and phase synchronization and the application of information theory to time series analysis. In neurophysiology, different analytical tools stemming from these concepts have added to the 'traditional' set of linear methods, which includes the cross-correlation and the coherency function in the time and frequency domain, respectively, or more elaborated tools such as Granger Causality.This increase in the number of approaches to tackle the existence of functional (FC) or effective connectivity (EC) between two (or among many) neural networks, along with the mathematical complexity of the corresponding time series analysis tools, makes it desirable to arrange them into a unified-easy-to-use software package. The goal is to allow neuroscientists, neurophysiologists and researchers from related fields to easily access and make use of these analysis methods from a single integrated toolbox.Here we present HERMES ( http://hermes.ctb.upm.es ), a toolbox for the Matlab® environment (The Mathworks, Inc), which is designed to study functional and effective brain connectivity from neurophysiological data such as multivariate EEG and/or MEG records. It includes also visualization tools and statistical methods to address the problem of multiple comparisons. We believe that this toolbox will be very helpful to all the researchers working in the emerging field of brain connectivity analysis.

  17. Effects of VRK2 (rs2312147 on white matter connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyoung Sohn

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia reported a novel risk variant, rs2312147 at vaccinia-related kinase 2 gene (VRK2, in multiple Asian and European samples. However, its effect on the brain structure in schizophrenia is little known. We analyzed the brain structure of 36 schizophrenia patients and 18 healthy subjects with regard to rs2312147 genotype groups. Brain magnetic resonance scans for gray matter (GM and white matter (WM analysis, and genotype analysis for VRK2 rs2312147, were conducted. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Digit Symbol Test were assessed for schizophrenia patients. There was no significant difference in either GM volume or WM connectivity with regard to rs2312147 genotype in healthy subjects. In contrast, we found significant differences in the WM connectivity between rs2312147 CC and CT/TT genotype groups of schizophrenia patients. The related brain areas included the splenium of corpus callosum, the left occipital lobe WM, the internal capsule (left anterior limb and right retrolenticular part, the bilateral temporal lobe WM, the left fornix/stria terminalis, the left cingulate gyrus WM, and the left parietal lobe WM. Voxelwise correlation analysis revealed that the Digit Symbol Test scores (age corrected correlated with the fractional anisotropy in WM tracts that previously showed significant group differences between the CT/TT and CC genotypes in the rs2312147 CT/TT genotype group, while no significant correlation was found in the CC genotype group. Our data may provide evidence for the effect of VRK2 on WM connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Effect of tooth profile modification on wear in internal gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunalioglu, M. S.; Tuc, B.

    2018-05-01

    Internal gears are often used in the automotive industry when two gears are required to rotate in the same direction. Tooth shapes, slippage speeds at the beginning and end of meshing are different according to the external gears. Manufacturing of internal gears is more difficult than external gears. Thus, it is necessary to determine the working conditions and wear behavior of internal gears carefully. The profile modification method in terms of strength and surface tension of the gear mechanism are performed in order to increase the load-carrying capability. In this study, profile modification method was performed in the internal gears to reduce the wear on the teeth. For this purpose, the wear of the internal gears was theoretically investigated by adapting the Archard wear equation to the internal gears. Closed circuit power circulation system was designed and manufactured to experimentally investigate the wear in internal gears. With this system, wear tests of gears made of St 50 material without profile modification and different profile modifications were made and the results were compared. Experimental study was performed in the same loading and cycle time conditions to validate the theoretical results and it was seen that the results are compatible. According to the experimental results, it is seen that in the internal gears, when profile modification done the wear is decreased in the teeth tip region.

  19. Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Lipoprotein Profiles of Female Weight Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Robert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effects of resistance exercise and anabolic steroids on lipoprotein profiles of female weightlifters. The study found that women who participate in resistance training have better lipoprotein profiles than their sedentary counterparts, but these changes do not offset the deleterious effects of steroid use. (SM)

  20. Beam profile effects on NPB [neutral particle beam] performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClaire, R.J. Jr.

    1988-03-01

    A comparison of neutral particle beam brightness for various neutral beam profiles indicates that the widely used assumption of a Gaussian profile may be misleading for collisional neutralizers. An analysis of available experimental evidence shows that lower peaks and higher tails, compared to a Gaussian beam profile, are observed out of collisional neutralizers, which implies that peak brightness is over estimated, and for a given NPB platform-to-target range, the beam current (power), dwell time or some combination of such engagement parameters would have to be altered to maintain a fixed dose on target. Based on the present analysis, this factor is nominally about 2.4 but may actually be as low as 1.8 or as high as 8. This is an important consideration in estimating NPB constellation performance in SDI engagement contexts. 2 refs., 6 figs

  1. FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Baixiao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that the primary acupuncture effects are mediated by the central nervous system. However, specific brain networks underpinning these effects remain unclear. Results In the present study using fMRI, we employed a within-condition interregional covariance analysis method to investigate functional connectivity of brain networks involved in acupuncture. The fMRI experiment was performed before, during and after acupuncture manipulations on healthy volunteers at an acupuncture point, which was previously implicated in a neural pathway for pain modulation. We first identified significant fMRI signal changes during acupuncture stimulation in the left amygdala, which was subsequently selected as a functional reference for connectivity analyses. Our results have demonstrated that there is a brain network associated with the amygdala during a resting condition. This network encompasses the brain structures that are implicated in both pain sensation and pain modulation. We also found that such a pain-related network could be modulated by both verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture. Furthermore, compared with a sham acupuncture, the verum acupuncture induced a higher level of correlations among the amygdala-associated network. Conclusion Our findings indicate that acupuncture may change this amygdala-specific brain network into a functional state that underlies pain perception and pain modulation.

  2. Functional Activation and Effective Connectivity Differences in Adolescent Marijuana Users Performing a Simulated Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Acheson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescent marijuana use is associated with structural and functional differences in forebrain regions while performing memory and attention tasks. In the present study, we investigated neural processing in adolescent marijuana users experiencing rewards and losses. Fourteen adolescents with frequent marijuana use (>5 uses per week and 14 nonuser controls performed a computer task where they were required to guess the outcome of a simulated coin flip while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Results. Across all participants, “Wins” and “Losses” were associated with activations including cingulate, middle frontal, superior frontal, and inferior frontal gyri and declive activations. Relative to controls, users had greater activity in the middle and inferior frontal gyri, caudate, and claustrum during “Wins” and greater activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, insula, claustrum, and declive during “Losses.” Effective connectivity analyses revealed similar overall network interactions among these regions for users and controls during both “Wins” and “Losses.” However, users and controls had significantly different causal interactions for 10 out of 28 individual paths during the “Losses” condition. Conclusions. Collectively, these results indicate adolescent marijuana users have enhanced neural responses to simulated monetary rewards and losses and relatively subtle differences in effective connectivity.

  3. A pooling-LiNGAM algorithm for effective connectivity analysis of fMRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele eXu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Independent Component Analysis - linear non-Gaussian acyclic model (LiNGAM, an algorithm that can be used to estimate the causal relationship among non-Gaussian distributed data, has the potential value to detect the effective connectivity of human brain areas. Under the assumptions that (a: the data generating process is linear, (b there are no unobserved confounders, and (c data have non-Gaussian distributions, LiNGAM can be used to discover the complete causal structure of data. Previous studies reveal that the algorithm could perform well when the data points being analyzed is relatively long. However, there are too few data points in most neuroimaging recordings, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, to allow the algorithm to converge. Smith’s study speculates a method by pooling data points across subjects may be useful to address this issue (Smith et al., 2011. Thus this study focus on validating Smith’s proposal of pooling data points across subjects for the use of LiNGAM, and this method is named as pooling-LiNGAM (pLiNGAM. Using both simulated and real fMRI data, our current study demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the pLiNGAM on the effective connectivity estimation.

  4. Effects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress profile of athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Creatine (Cr) supplementation has been widely used among athletes and physically active individuals. Secondary to its performance-enhancing ability, an increase in oxidative stress may occur, thus prompting concern about its use. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Cr monohydrate supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and oxidative stress profile in healthy athletes. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled method was used to assess twenty-six male elite Brazilian handball players divided into 3 groups: Cr monohydrate supplemented group (GC, N = 9), placebo group (GP, N = 9), no treatment group (COT, N = 8) for 32 days. All subjects underwent a resistance training program. Blood samples were drawn on 0 and 32 days post Cr supplementation to analyze the oxidative stress markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and uric acid. Creatine phosphokinase, urea, and creatinine were also analyzed, as well. Fitness tests (1 repetition maximum - 1RM and muscle endurance) were performed on the bench press. Body weight and height, body fat percentage (by measuring skin folds) and upper muscular area were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Results Only GC group showed increase in 1RM (54 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10 kg; p = 0.0356) and uric acid (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 7.4 ± 1.6 mg/dl; p = 0.025), with a decrease in TAS (1.11 ± 0.34 vs. 0.60 ± 0.19 mmol/l; p = 0.001). No differences (pre- vs. post-training) in TBARS, creatine phosphokinase, urea, creatinine, body weight and height, body fat percentage, or upper muscular area were observed in any group. When compared to COT, GC group showed greater decrease in TAS (−0.51 ± 0.36 vs. -0.02 ± 0.50 mmol/l; p = 0.0268), higher increase in 1RM (8.30 ± 2.26 vs. 5.29 ± 2.36 kg; p = 0.0209) and uric acid (2.77 ± 1.70 vs. 1.00 ± 1.03 mg/dl; p = 0.0276). Conclusion We conclude that Cr monohydrate

  5. Effects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress profile of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percário Sandro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creatine (Cr supplementation has been widely used among athletes and physically active individuals. Secondary to its performance-enhancing ability, an increase in oxidative stress may occur, thus prompting concern about its use. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Cr monohydrate supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and oxidative stress profile in healthy athletes. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled method was used to assess twenty-six male elite Brazilian handball players divided into 3 groups: Cr monohydrate supplemented group (GC, N = 9, placebo group (GP, N = 9, no treatment group (COT, N = 8 for 32 days. All subjects underwent a resistance training program. Blood samples were drawn on 0 and 32 days post Cr supplementation to analyze the oxidative stress markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS, total antioxidant status (TAS, and uric acid. Creatine phosphokinase, urea, and creatinine were also analyzed, as well. Fitness tests (1 repetition maximum - 1RM and muscle endurance were performed on the bench press. Body weight and height, body fat percentage (by measuring skin folds and upper muscular area were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Results Only GC group showed increase in 1RM (54 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10 kg; p = 0.0356 and uric acid (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 7.4 ± 1.6 mg/dl; p = 0.025, with a decrease in TAS (1.11 ± 0.34 vs. 0.60 ± 0.19 mmol/l; p = 0.001. No differences (pre- vs. post-training in TBARS, creatine phosphokinase, urea, creatinine, body weight and height, body fat percentage, or upper muscular area were observed in any group. When compared to COT, GC group showed greater decrease in TAS (−0.51 ± 0.36 vs. -0.02 ± 0.50 mmol/l; p = 0.0268, higher increase in 1RM (8.30 ± 2.26 vs. 5.29 ± 2.36 kg; p = 0.0209 and uric acid (2.77 ± 1.70 vs. 1.00 ± 1.03 mg/dl; p = 0.0276. Conclusion We conclude that Cr

  6. Effective connectivity between superior temporal gyrus and Heschl's gyrus during white noise listening: linear versus non-linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Ka; Yusoff, An; Rahman, Mza; Mohamad, M; Hamid, Aia

    2012-04-01

    This fMRI study is about modelling the effective connectivity between Heschl's gyrus (HG) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in human primary auditory cortices. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; Ten healthy male participants were required to listen to white noise stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to generate individual and group brain activation maps. For input region determination, two intrinsic connectivity models comprising bilateral HG and STG were constructed using dynamic causal modelling (DCM). The models were estimated and inferred using DCM while Bayesian Model Selection (BMS) for group studies was used for model comparison and selection. Based on the winning model, six linear and six non-linear causal models were derived and were again estimated, inferred, and compared to obtain a model that best represents the effective connectivity between HG and the STG, balancing accuracy and complexity. Group results indicated significant asymmetrical activation (p(uncorr) Model comparison results showed strong evidence of STG as the input centre. The winning model is preferred by 6 out of 10 participants. The results were supported by BMS results for group studies with the expected posterior probability, r = 0.7830 and exceedance probability, ϕ = 0.9823. One-sample t-tests performed on connection values obtained from the winning model indicated that the valid connections for the winning model are the unidirectional parallel connections from STG to bilateral HG (p model comparison between linear and non-linear models using BMS prefers non-linear connection (r = 0.9160, ϕ = 1.000) from which the connectivity between STG and the ipsi- and contralateral HG is gated by the activity in STG itself. We are able to demonstrate that the effective connectivity between HG and STG while listening to white noise for the respective participants can be explained by a non-linear dynamic causal model with

  7. Altered auditory processing and effective connectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kit Melissa; Mørup, Morten; Birknow, Michelle Rosgaard; Fischer, Elvira; Hulme, Oliver; Vangkilde, Anders; Schmock, Henriette; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Didriksen, Michael; Olsen, Line; Werge, Thomas; Siebner, Hartwig R; Garrido, Marta I

    2018-01-30

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most common copy number variants and confers a markedly increased risk for schizophrenia. As such, 22q11.2DS is a homogeneous genetic liability model which enables studies to delineate functional abnormalities that may precede disease onset. Mismatch negativity (MMN), a brain marker of change detection, is reduced in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Using dynamic causal modelling (DCM), previous studies showed that top-down effective connectivity linking the frontal and temporal cortex is reduced in schizophrenia relative to healthy controls in MMN tasks. In the search for early risk-markers for schizophrenia we investigated the neural basis of change detection in a group with 22q11.2DS. We recorded high-density EEG from 19 young non-psychotic 22q11.2 deletion carriers, as well as from 27 healthy non-carriers with comparable age distribution and sex ratio, while they listened to a sequence of sounds arranged in a roving oddball paradigm. Despite finding no significant reduction in the MMN responses, whole-scalp spatiotemporal analysis of responses to the tones revealed a greater fronto-temporal N1 component in the 22q11.2 deletion carriers. DCM showed reduced intrinsic connection within right primary auditory cortex as well as in the top-down, connection from the right inferior frontal gyrus to right superior temporal gyrus for 22q11.2 deletion carriers although not surviving correction for multiple comparison. We discuss these findings in terms of reduced adaptation and a general increased sensitivity to tones in 22q11.2DS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The Potential Connectivity of Waterhole Networks and the Effectiveness of a Protected Area under Various Drought Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Farrill, Georgina; Gauthier Schampaert, Kim; Rayfield, Bronwyn; Bodin, Örjan; Calmé, Sophie; Sengupta, Raja; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Landscape connectivity is considered a priority for ecosystem conservation because it may mitigate the synergistic effects of climate change and habitat loss. Climate change predictions suggest changes in precipitation regimes, which will affect the availability of water resources, with potential consequences for landscape connectivity. The Greater Calakmul Region of the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) has experienced a 16% decrease in precipitation over the last 50 years, which we hypothesise has affected water resource connectivity. We used a network model of connectivity, for three large endangered species (Baird’s tapir, white-lipped peccary and jaguar), to assess the effect of drought on waterhole availability and connectivity in a forested landscape inside and adjacent to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. We used reported travel distances and home ranges for our species to establish movement distances in our model. Specifically, we compared the effects of 10 drought scenarios on the number of waterholes (nodes) and the subsequent changes in network structure and node importance. Our analysis revealed that drought dramatically influenced spatial structure and potential connectivity of the network. Our results show that waterhole connectivity and suitable habitat (area surrounding waterholes) is lost faster inside than outside the reserve for all three study species, an outcome that may drive them outside the reserve boundaries. These results emphasize the need to assess how the variability in the availability of seasonal water resource may affect the viability of animal populations under current climate change inside and outside protected areas. PMID:24830392

  9. The potential connectivity of waterhole networks and the effectiveness of a protected area under various drought scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina O'Farrill

    Full Text Available Landscape connectivity is considered a priority for ecosystem conservation because it may mitigate the synergistic effects of climate change and habitat loss. Climate change predictions suggest changes in precipitation regimes, which will affect the availability of water resources, with potential consequences for landscape connectivity. The Greater Calakmul Region of the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico has experienced a 16% decrease in precipitation over the last 50 years, which we hypothesise has affected water resource connectivity. We used a network model of connectivity, for three large endangered species (Baird's tapir, white-lipped peccary and jaguar, to assess the effect of drought on waterhole availability and connectivity in a forested landscape inside and adjacent to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. We used reported travel distances and home ranges for our species to establish movement distances in our model. Specifically, we compared the effects of 10 drought scenarios on the number of waterholes (nodes and the subsequent changes in network structure and node importance. Our analysis revealed that drought dramatically influenced spatial structure and potential connectivity of the network. Our results show that waterhole connectivity and suitable habitat (area surrounding waterholes is lost faster inside than outside the reserve for all three study species, an outcome that may drive them outside the reserve boundaries. These results emphasize the need to assess how the variability in the availability of seasonal water resource may affect the viability of animal populations under current climate change inside and outside protected areas.

  10. Effect of Equilibrium Current Profiles on External Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Liu Yue; Ma Zhaoshuai

    2014-01-01

    Based on a linearized MHD model, the effect of equilibrium current profiles on external kink modes in tokamaks is studied by MARS code. Three types of equilibrium current profiles are adopted in this work. Firstly, a set of parabolic equilibrium current profiles are chosen. In these profiles the maximum current values in the center of the plasma are fixed, and the currents have different gradient and jump at the plasma boundary. The effects of the current gradient and jump on the growth rate of external kink mode are investigated. It is found that the current jump which causes the q profiles to change plays an important role in the external kink modes in tokamaks. Secondly, a set of step equilibrium current profiles with different jump positions are chosen. The effect of jump position on external kink modes is discussed. Thirdly, a set of parabolic equilibrium current profiles with current bumps are chosen for the case of off-axis heating. The effects of height, width and position of the current bumps on external kink modes are analyzed. The flat equilibrium current profiles are disadvantageous for the MHD stabilities of tokamaks, because of the large current jump at the plasma edge. The peaked equilibrium current profiles and a large and localized current bump near the plasma edge benefit the MHD stabilities of tokamaks

  11. Wheel set run profile renewing method effectiveness estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Somov, Dmitrij; Bazaras, Žilvinas; Žukauskaite, Orinta

    2010-01-01

    At all the repair enterprises, despite decreased rim wear-off resistance, after every grinding only geometry wheel profile parameters are renewed. Exploit wheel rim work edge decrease tendency is noticed what induces acquiring new wheels. This is related to considerable axle load and train speed increase and also because of wheel work edge repair method imperfection.

  12. Using faecal profiling to assess the effects of different management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used faecal profiling to assess diet quality of animals under three different management types in a semi-arid savanna, northwest of Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. The levels of faecal crude protein (FCP) and faecal phosphorus (FP) of freeranging springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and blue wildebeest ...

  13. Metabolite profiling of CHO cells: Molecular reflections of bioprocessing effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellick, C.A.; Croxford, A.S.; Maqsood, A.R.; Stephens, G.M.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Goodacre, R.; Dickson, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Whilst development of medium and feeds has provided major advances in recombinant protein production in CHO cells, the fundamental understanding is limited. We have applied metabolite profiling with established robust (GC-MS) analytics to define the molecular loci by which two yield-enhancing feeds

  14. Transient stability with grid connection and wind turbine drive-train effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajardo-R, Luis A.; Medina, Aurelio; Iov, Florin

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses transient stability of grid-connected wind turbines, combining grid-connection, wind turbine flexibility, and induction generator stability features. Through a grid-connected 2 MW wind turbine cage-generator, the investigation is conducted to identify the critical clearing time...

  15. Decoding the different states of visual attention using functional and effective connectivity features in fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizi, Behdad; Daliri, Mohammad Reza; Behroozi, Mehdi

    2018-04-01

    The present paper concentrates on the impact of visual attention task on structure of the brain functional and effective connectivity networks using coherence and Granger causality methods. Since most studies used correlation method and resting-state functional connectivity, the task-based approach was selected for this experiment to boost our knowledge of spatial and feature-based attention. In the present study, the whole brain was divided into 82 sub-regions based on Brodmann areas. The coherence and Granger causality were applied to construct functional and effective connectivity matrices. These matrices were converted into graphs using a threshold, and the graph theory measures were calculated from it including degree and characteristic path length. Visual attention was found to reveal more information during the spatial-based task. The degree was higher while performing a spatial-based task, whereas characteristic path length was lower in the spatial-based task in both functional and effective connectivity. Primary and secondary visual cortex (17 and 18 Brodmann areas) were highly connected to parietal and prefrontal cortex while doing visual attention task. Whole brain connectivity was also calculated in both functional and effective connectivity. Our results reveal that Brodmann areas of 17, 18, 19, 46, 3 and 4 had a significant role proving that somatosensory, parietal and prefrontal regions along with visual cortex were highly connected to other parts of the cortex during the visual attention task. Characteristic path length results indicated an increase in functional connectivity and more functional integration in spatial-based attention compared with feature-based attention. The results of this work can provide useful information about the mechanism of visual attention at the network level.

  16. Effects of land use on lake nutrients: The importance of scale, hydrologic connectivity, and region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary Tate

    2015-01-01

    Catchment land uses, particularly agriculture and urban uses, have long been recognized as major drivers of nutrient concentrations in surface waters. However, few simple models have been developed that relate the amount of catchment land use to downstream freshwater nutrients. Nor are existing models applicable to large numbers of freshwaters across broad spatial extents such as regions or continents. This research aims to increase model performance by exploring three factors that affect the relationship between land use and downstream nutrients in freshwater: the spatial extent for measuring land use, hydrologic connectivity, and the regional differences in both the amount of nutrients and effects of land use on them. We quantified the effects of these three factors that relate land use to lake total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in 346 north temperate lakes in 7 regions in Michigan, USA. We used a linear mixed modeling framework to examine the importance of spatial extent, lake hydrologic class, and region on models with individual lake nutrients as the response variable, and individual land use types as the predictor variables. Our modeling approach was chosen to avoid problems of multi-collinearity among predictor variables and a lack of independence of lakes within regions, both of which are common problems in broad-scale analyses of freshwaters. We found that all three factors influence land use-lake nutrient relationships. The strongest evidence was for the effect of lake hydrologic connectivity, followed by region, and finally, the spatial extent of land use measurements. Incorporating these three factors into relatively simple models of land use effects on lake nutrients should help to improve predictions and understanding of land use-lake nutrient interactions at broad scales.

  17. FUNCTIONAL AND EFFECTIVE CONNECTIVITY OF VISUAL WORD RECOGNITION AND HOMOPHONE ORTHOGRAPHIC ERRORS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAN eGUÀRDIA-OLMOS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of orthographic errors in a transparent language like Spanish is an important topic in relation to writing acquisition. The development of neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, has enabled the study of such relationships between brain areas. The main objective of the present study was to explore the patterns of effective connectivity by processing pseudohomophone orthographic errors among subjects with high and low spelling skills. Two groups of 12 Mexican subjects each, matched by age, were formed based on their results in a series of ad-hoc spelling-related out-scanner tests: a High Spelling Skills group (HSS and a Low Spelling Skills group (LSS. During the fMRI session, two experimental tasks were applied (spelling recognition task and visuoperceptual recognition task. Regions of Interest (ROIs and their signal values were obtained for both tasks. Based on these values, SEMs (Structural Equation Models were obtained for each group of spelling competence (HSS and LSS and task through ML (Maximum Likelihood estimation, and the model with the best fit was chosen in each case. Likewise, DCM (Dynamic Causal Models were estimated for all the conditions across tasks and groups. The HSS group’s SEM results suggest that, in the spelling recognition task, the right middle temporal gyrus, and, to a lesser extent, the left parahippocampal gyrus receive most of the significant effects, whereas the DCM results in the visuoperceptual recognition task show less complex effects, but still congruent with the previous results, with an important role in several areas. In general, these results are consistent with the major findings in partial studies about linguistic activities but they are the first analyses of statistical effective brain connectivity in transparent languages.

  18. Effect of tree thinning and skidding trails on hydrological connectivity in two Japanese forest catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Sun, Xinchao; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2017-09-01

    Land use composition and patterns influence the hydrological response in mountainous and forest catchments. In plantation forest, management operations (FMO) modify the spatial and temporal dynamics of overland flow processes. However, we found a gap in the literature focussed on modelling hydrological connectivity (HC) in plantation forest under different FMO. In this study, we simulated HC in two steep paired forest subcatchments (K2 and K3, 33.2 ha), composed of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations (59% of the total area) against a tree thinning intensity of 50% at different time. Additionally, construction of new skidding trails and vegetation recovery was simulated on five thinning-based scenarios that covered a 40-month test period (July 2010 - October 2013). As a future scenario, six check-dams located in the main streams were proposed to reduce sediment and radionuclide delivery. An updated version of Borselli's index of runoff and sediment connectivity was run, using the D-infinity flow accumulation algorithm and exploiting three 0.5-m resolution digital elevation models. On the basis of the pre-FMO scenario, HC increased at catchment scale owing to tree thinning and the new skidding trails. This change was more noticeable within the area affected by the FMO, where HC increased by 11.4% and 10.5% in the cypress and cedar plantations in K2 respectively and by 8.8% in the cedar plantation in K3. At hillslope plot and stream scales, the evolution in the values of HC was less evident, except the increment (by 5.4%) observed in the streams at K2 after the FMO. Progressive vegetation recovery after the FMO triggered a slight reduction of connectivity in all compartments of both subcatchments. Forest roads and especially skidding trails presented the highest values of HC, appearing as the most efficient features connecting the different vegetation patches with the stream network. The spatial

  19. Larval connectivity of pearl oyster through biophysical modelling; evidence of food limitation and broodstock effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Andréfouët, Serge

    2016-12-01

    The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that experiences spatial and temporal variability and needs to be optimized by understanding which factors influence recruitment. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Coupling a validated 3D larval dispersal model, a bioenergetics larval growth model following the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, and a population dynamics model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity patterns and recruitment potential is investigated. The relative contribution of reared and wild broodstock to the lagoon-scale recruitment potential is also investigated. Sensitivity analyses pointed out the major effect of the broodstock population structure as well as the sensitivity to larval mortality rate and inter-individual growth variability to larval supply and to the subsequent settlement potential. The application of the growth model clarifies how trophic conditions determine the larval supply and connectivity patterns. These results provide new cues to understand the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, their recruitment, and discuss how to take advantage of these findings and numerical models for pearl oyster management.

  20. Effective connectivity gateways to the Theory of Mind network in processing communicative intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettamanti, Marco; Vaghi, Matilde M; Bara, Bruno G; Cappa, Stefano F; Enrici, Ivan; Adenzato, Mauro

    2017-07-15

    An Intention Processing Network (IPN), involving the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus, and temporoparietal junctions, plays a fundamental role in comprehending intentions underlying action goals. In a previous fMRI study, we showed that, depending on the linguistic or extralinguistic (gestural) modality used to convey the intention, the IPN is complemented by activation of additional brain areas, reflecting distinct modality-specific input gateways to the IPN. These areas involve, for the linguistic modality, the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), and for the extralinguistic modality, the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG). Here, we tested the modality-specific gateway hypothesis, by using DCM to measure inter-regional functional integration dynamics between the IPN and LIFG/RIFG gateways. We found strong evidence of a well-defined effective connectivity architecture mediating the functional integration between the IPN and the inferior frontal cortices. The connectivity dynamics indicate a modality-specific propagation of stimulus information from LIFG to IPN for the linguistic modality, and from RIFG to IPN for the extralinguistic modality. Thus, we suggest a functional model in which the modality-specific gateways mediate the structural and semantic decoding of the stimuli, and allow for the modality-specific communicative information to be integrated in Theory of Mind inferences elaborated through the IPN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Advice taking from humans and machines: an fMRI and effective connectivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Goodyear

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With new technological advances, advice can come from different sources such as machines or humans, but how individuals respond to such advice and the neural correlates involved need to be better understood. We combined functional MRI and multivariate Granger causality analysis with an X-ray luggage-screening task to investigate the neural basis and corresponding effective connectivity involved with advice utilization from agents framed as experts. Participants were asked to accept or reject good or bad advice from a human or machine agent with low reliability (high false alarm rate. We showed that unreliable advice decreased performance overall and participants interacting with the human agent had a greater depreciation of advice utilization during bad advice compared to the machine agent. These differences in advice utilization can be perceivably due to reevaluation of expectations arising from association of dispositional credibility for each agent. We demonstrated that differences in advice utilization engaged brain regions that may be associated with evaluation of personal characteristics and traits (precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, temporoparietal junction and interoception (posterior insula. We found that the right posterior insula and left precuneus were the drivers of the advice utilization network that were reciprocally connected to each other and also projected to all other regions. Our behavioral and neuroimaging results have significant implications for society because of progressions in technology and increased interactions with machines.

  2. Spatial localization of the first and last enzymes effectively connects active metabolic pathways in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Pablo; Cecchi, Guillermo; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2014-12-14

    Although much is understood about the enzymatic cascades that underlie cellular biosynthesis, comparatively little is known about the rules that determine their cellular organization. We performed a detailed analysis of the localization of E.coli GFP-tagged enzymes for cells growing exponentially. We found that out of 857 globular enzymes, at least 219 have a discrete punctuate localization in the cytoplasm and catalyze the first or the last reaction in 60% of biosynthetic pathways. A graph-theoretic analysis of E.coli's metabolic network shows that localized enzymes, in contrast to non-localized ones, form a tree-like hierarchical structure, have a higher within-group connectivity, and are traversed by a higher number of feed-forward and feedback loops than their non-localized counterparts. A Gene Ontology analysis of these enzymes reveals an enrichment of terms related to essential metabolic functions in growing cells. Given that these findings suggest a distinct metabolic role for localization, we studied the dynamics of cellular localization of the cell wall synthesizing enzymes in B. subtilis and found that enzymes localize during exponential growth but not during stationary growth. We conclude that active biochemical pathways inside the cytoplasm are organized spatially following a rule where their first or their last enzymes localize to effectively connect the different active pathways and thus could reflect the activity state of the cell's metabolic network.

  3. Important non-parental adults and positive youth development across mid- to late-adolescence: the moderating effect of parenting profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Edmond P; Johnson, Sara K; Buckingham, Mary H; Gasca, Santiago; Warren, Daniel J A; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-06-01

    Both parents and important non-parental adults have influential roles in promoting positive youth development (PYD). Little research, however, has examined the simultaneous effects of both parents and important non-parental adults for PYD. We assessed the relationships among youth-reported parenting profiles and important non-parental adult relationships in predicting the Five Cs of PYD (competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring) in four cross-sectional waves of data from the 4-H Study of PYD (Grade 9: N = 975, 61.1% female; Grade 10: N = 1,855, 63.4% female; Grade 11: N = 983, 67.9% female; Grade 12: N = 703, 69.3% female). The results indicated the existence of latent profiles of youth-reported parenting styles based on maternal warmth, parental school involvement, and parental monitoring that were consistent with previously identified profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) as well as reflecting several novel profiles (highly involved, integrative, school-focused, controlling). Parenting profile membership predicted mean differences in the Five Cs at each wave, and also moderated the relationships between the presence of an important non-parental adult and the Five Cs. In general, authoritative and highly involved parenting predicted higher levels of PYD and a higher likelihood of being connected to an important non-parental adult. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research on adult influences of youth development and for programs that involve adults in attempts to promote PYD.

  4. Acquisition, Analyses and Interpretation of fMRI Data: A Study on the Effective Connectivity in Human Primary Auditory Cortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nazlim Yusoff; Mazlyfarina Mohamad; Khairiah Abdul Hamid

    2011-01-01

    A study on the effective connectivity characteristics in auditory cortices was conducted on five healthy Malay male subjects with the age of 20 to 40 years old using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), statistical parametric mapping (SPM5) and dynamic causal modelling (DCM). A silent imaging paradigm was used to reduce the scanner sound artefacts on functional images. The subjects were instructed to pay attention to the white noise stimulus binaurally given at intensity level of 70 dB higher than the hearing level for normal people. Functional specialisation was studied using Matlab-based SPM5 software by means of fixed effects (FFX), random effects (RFX) and conjunction analyses. Individual analyses on all subjects indicate asymmetrical bilateral activation between the left and right auditory cortices in Brodmann areas (BA)22, 41 and 42 involving the primary and secondary auditory cortices. The three auditory areas in the right and left auditory cortices are selected for the determination of the effective connectivity by constructing 9 network models. The effective connectivity is determined on four out of five subjects with the exception of one subject who has the BA22 coordinates located too far from BA22 coordinates obtained from group analysis. DCM results showed the existence of effective connectivity between the three selected auditory areas in both auditory cortices. In the right auditory cortex, BA42 is identified as input centre with unidirectional parallel effective connectivities of BA42→BA41and BA42→BA22. However, for the left auditory cortex, the input is BA41 with unidirectional parallel effective connectivities of BA41→BA42 and BA41→BA22. The connectivity between the activated auditory areas suggests the existence of signal pathway in the auditory cortices even when the subject is listening to noise. (author)

  5. Social comparison 2.0: examining the effects of online profiles on social-networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Nina; Krämer, Nicole C

    2011-05-01

    Through their features--such as profile photographs or the personal vita--online profiles on social-networking sites offer a perfect basis for social comparison processes. By looking at the profile photograph, the user gains an impression of a person's physical attractiveness, and the user's vita shows which career path the person is pursuing. Against the background of Festinger's Social Comparison Theory, the focus of this research is on the effects of online profiles on their recipients. Therefore, qualitative interviews (N = 12) and two online experiments were conducted in which virtual online profiles of either physically attractive or unattractive persons (N = 93) and profiles of users with either high or low occupational attainment (N = 103) were presented to the participants. Although qualitative interviews did not initially give reason to expect online profiles to constitute a basis for comparison processes, results of the experiments proved otherwise. The first study indicates that recipients have a more negative body image after looking at beautiful users than persons who were shown the less attractive profile pictures. Male participants of the second study, who were confronted with profiles of successful males, showed a higher perceived discrepancy between their current career status and an ideal vita than male participants who looked at profiles of less successful persons.

  6. The effective fragment molecular orbital method for fragments connected by covalent bonds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Steinmann

    Full Text Available We extend the effective fragment molecular orbital method (EFMO into treating fragments connected by covalent bonds. The accuracy of EFMO is compared to FMO and conventional ab initio electronic structure methods for polypeptides including proteins. Errors in energy for RHF and MP2 are within 2 kcal/mol for neutral polypeptides and 6 kcal/mol for charged polypeptides similar to FMO but obtained two to five times faster. For proteins, the errors are also within a few kcal/mol of the FMO results. We developed both the RHF and MP2 gradient for EFMO. Compared to ab initio, the EFMO optimized structures had an RMSD of 0.40 and 0.44 Å for RHF and MP2, respectively.

  7. Investigating the effects of streamline-based fiber tractography on matrix scaling in brain connective network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Hengtai; Chao, Yi-Ping; Cho, Kuan-Hung; Kuo, Li-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the brain connective network using the modern graph theory has been widely applied in cognitive and clinical neuroscience research. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of streamline-based fiber tractography on the change of network properties and established a systematic framework to understand how an adequate network matrix scaling can be determined. The network properties, including degree, efficiency and betweenness centrality, show similar tendency in both left and right hemispheres. By employing the curve-fitting process with exponential law and measuring the residuals, the association between changes of network properties and threshold of track numbers is found and an adequate range of investigating the lateralization of brain network is suggested. The proposed approach can be further applied in clinical applications to improve the diagnostic sensitivity using network analysis with graph theory.

  8. Effects of resveratrol on memory performance, hippocampal functional connectivity, and glucose metabolism in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Margulies, Daniel S; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-06-04

    Dietary habits such as caloric restriction or nutrients that mimic these effects may exert beneficial effects on brain aging. The plant-derived polyphenol resveratrol has been shown to increase memory performance in primates; however, interventional studies in older humans are lacking. Here, we tested whether supplementation of resveratrol would enhance memory performance in older adults and addressed potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Twenty-three healthy overweight older individuals that successfully completed 26 weeks of resveratrol intake (200 mg/d) were pairwise matched to 23 participants that received placebo (total n = 46, 18 females, 50-75 years). Before and after the intervention/control period, subjects underwent memory tasks and neuroimaging to assess volume, microstructure, and functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus, a key region implicated in memory functions. In addition, anthropometry, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, neurotrophic factors, and vascular parameters were assayed. We observed a significant effect of resveratrol on retention of words over 30 min compared with placebo (p = 0.038). In addition, resveratrol led to significant increases in hippocampal FC, decreases in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body fat, and increases in leptin compared with placebo (all p memory performance in association with improved glucose metabolism and increased hippocampal FC in older adults. Our findings offer the basis for novel strategies to maintain brain health during aging. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347862-09$15.00/0.

  9. Enhanced heat rectification effect in a quantum dot connected to ferromagnetic leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Feng, E-mail: chifeng@semi.ac.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Huhehaote 010023 (China); College of Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Sun, Lian-Liang [College of Science, North China University of Technology, Beijing 100041 (China); Zheng, Jun; Guo, Yu [College of Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China)

    2015-06-15

    We study theoretically the heat generation by electric current in an interacting single level quantum-dot connected to ferromagnetic leads. The heat is transferred between the dot and the lattice vibration of its host material (phonon reservoir). Particular attention is paid on the heat's rectification effect achieved by properly arranging the dot level and the bias voltage. We find that this effect is remarkably enhanced when the two leads' magnetic moments are in antiparallel configuration, i.e., the magnitude of the heat generation is reduced (amplified) in the negative (positive) bias regime as compared to the cases of parallel configuration and nonmagnetic leads. The rectification effect is even enhanced when one of the lead's spin polarization approaches to unit, during which the negative differential of the heat generation is weakened due to the change of the spin-dependent electron occupation numbers on the dot. The found results may be used for thermal transistor in the newly emerged research subject of phononics. - Highlights: • Heat flow between electrons and phonons is controlled by interaction between them. • A thermal diode or rectifier is proposed to work under electrical bias. • The heat rectification effect can be enhanced by the leads' ferromagnetism.

  10. Relative effects of road risk, habitat suitability, and connectivity on wildlife roadkills: the case of tawny owls (Strix aluco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Lourenço, Rui; Mira, António; Beja, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance for reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions, there is still incomplete understanding of factors responsible for high road mortality. In particular, few empirical studies examined the idea that spatial variation in roadkills is influenced by a complex interplay between road-related factors, and species-specific habitat quality and landscape connectivity. In this study we addressed this issue, using a 7-year dataset of tawny owl (Strix aluco) roadkills recorded along 37 km of road in southern Portugal. We used a multi-species roadkill index as a surrogate of intrinsic road risk, and we used a Maxent distribution model to estimate habitat suitability. Landscape connectivity was estimated from least-cost paths between tawny owl territories, using habitat suitability as a resistance surface. We defined 10 alternative scenarios to compute connectivity, based on variation in potential movement patterns according to territory quality and dispersal distance thresholds. Hierarchical partitioning of a regression model indicated that independent variation in tawny owl roadkills was explained primarily by the roadkill index (70.5%) and, to a much lesser extent, by landscape connectivity (26.2%), while habitat suitability had minor effects (3.3%). Analysis of connectivity scenarios suggested that owl roadkills were primarily related to short range movements (habitat quality and landscape connectivity are globally high for the study species. Nevertheless, the study supported the view that functional connectivity should be incorporated whenever possible in roadkill models, as it may greatly increase their power to predict the location of roadkill hotspots.

  11. Finiteness effects in wideband connected arrays: Analytical models to highlight the effects of the loading impedances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Cavallo, D.; Gerini, G.

    2011-01-01

    Most phased arrays are designed using infinite array theory, which does not account for edge effects. However, this approximation might not be adequate for the design of wideband arrays, for which truncation effects are more significant than in traditional narrow-band arrays. In particular, edge

  12. Geometrical effects determinant of the Compton profile shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Renzo; Mainardi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the influence of the experimental set up on the shape of the Compton line. In any scattering experiment, the scattering angle is not well defined due to the collimators aperture and thus, a distribution of angles is found for each set up. This, in turn, produces the energies' distribution of the scattered photons around a mean value. This contribution has been evaluated and found it to be significant for several cases. In order to do this evaluation, a response function, that is numerically generated for each experimental set up and convoluted with the Compton profile, was defined. (Author) [es

  13. Effects of gratitude meditation on neural network functional connectivity and brain-heart coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeong, Sunghyon; Kim, Joohan; Kim, Dae Jin; Kim, Hesun Erin; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-07-11

    A sense of gratitude is a powerful and positive experience that can promote a happier life, whereas resentment is associated with life dissatisfaction. To explore the effects of gratitude and resentment on mental well-being, we acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging and heart rate (HR) data before, during, and after the gratitude and resentment interventions. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was conducted to identify the modulatory effects of gratitude on the default mode, emotion, and reward-motivation networks. The average HR was significantly lower during the gratitude intervention than during the resentment intervention. Temporostriatal FC showed a positive correlation with HR during the gratitude intervention, but not during the resentment intervention. Temporostriatal resting-state FC was significantly decreased after the gratitude intervention compared to the resentment intervention. After the gratitude intervention, resting-state FC of the amygdala with the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were positively correlated with anxiety scale and depression scale, respectively. Taken together, our findings shed light on the effect of gratitude meditation on an individual's mental well-being, and indicate that it may be a means of improving both emotion regulation and self-motivation by modulating resting-state FC in emotion and motivation-related brain regions.

  14. The effect of binaural beats on verbal working memory and cortical connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A.; Leonessa, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain’s frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain’s response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations. Neural synchrony is particularly important for working memory processes, the system controlling online organization and retention of information for successful goal-directed behavior. Therefore, manipulation of synchrony via binaural beats provides a unique window into working memory and associated connectivity of cortical networks. Approach. In this study, we examined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions during an N-back working memory task, and we measured participant response accuracy and cortical network topology via EEG recordings. Six acoustic stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5 Hz binaural beats, 10 Hz binaural beats, and 15 Hz binaural beats. Main results. We determined that listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during an N-Back working memory task increased the individual participant’s accuracy, modulated the cortical frequency response, and changed the cortical network connection strengths during the task. Only the 15 Hz binaural beats produced significant change in relative accuracy compared to the None condition. Significance. Listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during the N-back task activated salient frequency bands and produced networks characterized by higher information transfer as compared to other auditory stimulation conditions.

  15. The effect of binaural beats on verbal working memory and cortical connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A; Leonessa, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain's frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain's response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations. Neural synchrony is particularly important for working memory processes, the system controlling online organization and retention of information for successful goal-directed behavior. Therefore, manipulation of synchrony via binaural beats provides a unique window into working memory and associated connectivity of cortical networks. In this study, we examined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions during an N-back working memory task, and we measured participant response accuracy and cortical network topology via EEG recordings. Six acoustic stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5 Hz binaural beats, 10 Hz binaural beats, and 15 Hz binaural beats. We determined that listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during an N-Back working memory task increased the individual participant's accuracy, modulated the cortical frequency response, and changed the cortical network connection strengths during the task. Only the 15 Hz binaural beats produced significant change in relative accuracy compared to the None condition. Listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during the N-back task activated salient frequency bands and produced networks characterized by higher information transfer as compared to other auditory stimulation conditions.

  16. Effect of the collector tube profile on Pitot pump performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, K.; Kanemoto, T.; Sagara, K.; Umekage, T.

    2013-12-01

    The pitot pump is composed of the rotating casing with the impeller channel and the pitot tube type collector as the discharge line. The radial impeller feeds water to the rotating casing. The water rotating together with the casing is caught by the stationary pitot tube type collector, and then discharges to the outside. This type pump, as the extra high head pump, is provided mainly for boiler feed systems, and has been designed by trial and error. To optimize the pump profiles, it is desirable to investigate not only performances but also internal flow conditions. This paper discusses experimentally and numerically the relation between the pump performances and the flow conditions in the rotating casing. The moderately larger dimensions of the collector make the pump head and the discharge high with the higher hydraulic efficiency. The flow in the casing is almost the forced vortex type whose velocity is in proportion to the radius but the core velocity is affected with the drag force of the stationary collector. Based upon the above results, the profile of the pitot tube type collector was optimized with the numerical simulation.

  17. Effect of the collector tube profile on Pitot pump performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, K; Sagara, K; Kanemoto, T; Umekage, T

    2013-01-01

    The pitot pump is composed of the rotating casing with the impeller channel and the pitot tube type collector as the discharge line. The radial impeller feeds water to the rotating casing. The water rotating together with the casing is caught by the stationary pitot tube type collector, and then discharges to the outside. This type pump, as the extra high head pump, is provided mainly for boiler feed systems, and has been designed by trial and error. To optimize the pump profiles, it is desirable to investigate not only performances but also internal flow conditions. This paper discusses experimentally and numerically the relation between the pump performances and the flow conditions in the rotating casing. The moderately larger dimensions of the collector make the pump head and the discharge high with the higher hydraulic efficiency. The flow in the casing is almost the forced vortex type whose velocity is in proportion to the radius but the core velocity is affected with the drag force of the stationary collector. Based upon the above results, the profile of the pitot tube type collector was optimized with the numerical simulation

  18. Grid-connected photovoltaic systems for Malaysian residential sector: Effects of component costs, feed-in tariffs, and carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.; Muhamad, N.A.; Arief, Y.Z.; Tan, C.W.; Yatim, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Blessed with abundant solar radiation, Malaysia has a huge potential for grid-connected PV (photovoltaic) installations, particularly for its fast-growing residential sector. Nevertheless, Malaysia's PV installation capacity is relatively small compared with the global PV capacity. Significantly, the pricing mechanisms for grid-connected PV projects need to be appropriately assessed to build up the public's confidence to invest in PV projects. In this paper, we analyze the effects of component costs, FiTs (feed-in tariffs), and carbon taxes on grid-connected PV systems in Malaysian residential sector using the HOMER (Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources) software. Results demonstrate that the implementation of grid-connected PV systems is highly feasible with PV array costs of $ 1120/kW or lower. For higher PV array costs up to $ 2320/kW, introducing an FiT rate three times higher ($ 0.30/kWh) than the grid tariff for a 100 kW grid sale capacity will, NPC-wise, prioritize grid-connected PV systems over the utility grid. By implementing the FiT ($ 0.50/kWh) and the carbon tax ($ 36/metric ton) schemes simultaneously, grid-connected PV systems will remain as the optimal systems even for costly PV arrays (up to $ 4000/kW). The findings are of paramount importance as far as PV pricing variability is concerned. - Highlights: • Grid-connected PV for Malaysian residential sector has been analyzed using HOMER. • Component costs, feed-in tariffs, and carbon taxes affect optimal system types. • Grid-connected PV projects are feasible for low PV array costs ($ 1120/kW or lower). • For higher PV array and inverter costs, feed-in tariffs should be implemented. • Combining feed-in tariffs with carbon taxes are effective for further lowering NPCs.

  19. Connections rigidity effect on probability of fracture in steel moment frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Connections in steel moment frames are idealized in full pinned and full rigid conditions. Because with this assumption, in spite of real behavior of connection, real story drifts are less anticipated and maybe frame is designed without performance of bracing. There are several methods for modeling actual behavior of semi rigid connections. In this method a connection with certain rigidity is modeled by a rotational spring with corresponding stiffness. This stiffness is achieved by certain formula. In other words, each percent of rigidity corresponds to one rotational spring stiffness. In this research in order to evaluate the real behavior of connection in analysis and designing process and fracture probability one frame including four stories and one bay with three types of connection has been modeled and designed in ETABS. Each model has an individual rigidity which is equal to 10, 75 and 90 percent. With respect to maximum drift and different PGA in roof, probabilities of low, medium, high and complete fracture were calculated. For this purpose, with applying different PGA to modeled frames, amounts of drift in the roof are achieved. Then these values are compared with given values in American code. Finally, investigation showed that when rigidity in frame connections increases, the probability of frame fracture decreases. In other words, fully rigid assumption of connection in analysis process leads to decreasing in real probability of fracture in frames which is a noticeable risk in building designing processes.

  20. Effect of fiberglass reinforcement on the behavior of bolted wood connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence A. Soltis; Robert J. Ross; Daniel E. Windorski

    1997-01-01

    Bolted connections often fail by a shear plug or by splitting beneath the bolt caused by tension perpendicular-to-grain stress as the bolt wedges its way through the wood. Preventing this type of failure enhances both the capacity and reliability of bolted connections. This research investigated the use of fiberglass reinforcement to enhance the load-carrying capacity...

  1. Emotional face expression modulates occipital-frontal effective connectivity during memory formation in a bottom-up fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiming eXiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of bottom-up and top-down neural mechanisms in the processing of emotional face expression during memory formation. Functional brain imaging data was acquired during incidental learning of positive (‘happy’, neutral and negative (‘angry’ or ‘fearful’ faces. Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM was applied on the fMRI data to characterize effective connectivity within a brain network involving face perception (inferior occipital gyrus and fusiform gyrus and successful memory formation related areas (hippocampus, superior parietal lobule, amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. The bottom-up models assumed processing of emotional face expression along feed forward pathways to the orbitofrontal cortex. The top-down models assumed that the orbitofrontal cortex processed emotional valence and mediated connections to the hippocampus. A subsequent recognition memory test showed an effect of negative emotion on the response bias, but not on memory performance. Our DCM findings showed that the bottom-up model family of effective connectivity best explained the data across all subjects and specified that emotion affected most bottom-up connections to the orbitofrontal cortex, especially from the occipital visual cortex and superior parietal lobule. Of those pathways to the orbitofrontal cortex the connection from the inferior occipital gyrus correlated with memory performance independently of valence. We suggest that bottom-up neural mechanisms support effects of emotional face expression and memory formation in a parallel and partially overlapping fashion.

  2. Plasma density profiles and finite bandwidth effects on electron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, R.B.; Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Bollen, W.M.; Woo, W.

    1980-01-01

    Intense, p-polarized microwaves are incident on an inhomogeneous plasma in a cylindrical waveguide. Microwaves are mainly absorbed by resonant absorption near the critical surface (where the plasma frequency, ω/sub pe/, equals the microwave frequency, ω/sub o/). The localized plasma waves strongly modify the plasma density. Step-plateau density profiles or a cavity are created depending on the plasma flow speed. Hot electron production is strongly affected by the microwave bandwidth. The hot electron temperature varies as T/sub H/ is proportional to (Δ ω/ω) -0 25 . As the hot electron temperature decreases with increasing driver bandwidth, the hot electron density increases. This increase is such that the heat flux into the overdense region (Q is proportional to eta/sub H/T/sub H/ 3 2 ) is nearly constant

  3. EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC STIMULATION ON BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE TESTING TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourissa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Biophysical profile (BPP test is the most commonly used antenatal test of fetal well-being. Purpose of this study is determining the influence of acoustic stimulation (AS on BPP testing time. About 55 pregnant women at 35 to 42 weeks who referred to department of Obstetric & Gynecology at university of medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran, were selected randomly. We used abdominal ultrasound guidance to place buzzer like device with power of 110 dB at the skin surface of the maternal abdomen, close to the fetal head. BPP test performed and BPP mean testing time calculated before and after AS. Data compared and analyzed by paired t-test. The results showed that fetal AS reduces the overall mean testing time from 24 minutes to 5 minutes. This clinical application can be helpful in busy clinics when rapid assessment of fetal health is required.

  4. Age-related difference in the effective neural connectivity associated with probabilistic category learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Hee Jung; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well known that explicit memory is affected by the deleterious changes in brain with aging, but effect of aging in implicit memory such as probabilistic category learning (PCL) is not clear. To identify the effect of aging on the neural interaction for successful PCL, we investigated the neural substrates of PCL and the age-related changes of the neural network between these brain regions. 23 young (age, 252 y; 11 males) and 14 elderly (673 y; 7 males) healthy subjects underwent FDG PET during a resting state and 150-trial weather prediction (WP) task. Correlations between the WP hit rates and regional glucose metabolism were assessed using SPM2 (P diff (37) = 142.47, P<0.005), Systematic comparisons of each path revealed that frontal crosscallosal and the frontal to parahippocampal connection were most responsible for the model differences (P<0.05). For the successful PCL, the elderly recruits the basal ganglia implicit memory system but MTL recruitment differs from the young. The inadequate MTL correlation pattern in the elderly is may be caused by the changes of the neural pathway related with explicit memory. These neural changes can explain the decreased performance of PCL in elderly subjects

  5. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation on the rat spinal cord: intramedullary connective tissue formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, S.A.

    1973-01-01

    Light microscopy was used to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on spinal cords of rats irradiated when three days of age and killed at intervals up to 28 months after irradiation. The amounts of x-rays administered (2,000 R; 1,000 R; 500 R) were those which had been demonstrated by short-term studies to cause either no histopathologic changes or only transient, reparable alterations. The most significant and previously unreported finding was the development, usually restricted to the gray matter, of elongated, spindle-shaped cells that produce prodigious amounts of fibers clearly demonstrated by the Wilder's reticular stain. In cases where extensive cellular development had occurred, these cells were oriented around the perikarya of the large ventral motor neurons and formed a well-developed capsule of reticular fibers. This phenomenon occurred more frequently in rats receiving the greater amounts of radiation and killed 12 months or more after exposure. The other observation of interest was the development of lesser amounts of connective tissue-producing cells in the dorsal gray matter, where these cells were seen initially in the substantia gelatinosa. The significance of these changes is discussed in relation to previously reported long-term effects of ionizing radiation on the central nervous system

  6. Disrupted Thalamus White Matter Anatomy and Posterior Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alderson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD and its prodromal state amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI are characterized by widespread abnormalities in inter-areal white matter fiber pathways and parallel disruption of default mode network (DMN resting state functional and effective connectivity. In healthy subjects, DMN and task positive network interaction are modulated by the thalamus suggesting that abnormal task-based DMN deactivation in aMCI may be a consequence of impaired thalamo-cortical white matter circuitry. Thus, this article uses a multimodal approach to assess white matter integrity between thalamus and DMN components and associated effective connectivity in healthy controls (HCs relative to aMCI patients. Twenty-six HC and 20 older adults with aMCI underwent structural, functional and diffusion MRI scanning using the high angular resolution diffusion-weighted acquisition protocol. The DMN of each subject was identified using independent component analysis (ICA and resting state effective connectivity was calculated between thalamus and DMN nodes. White matter integrity changes between thalamus and DMN were investigated with constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD tractography. Significant structural deficits in thalamic white matter projection fibers to posterior DMN components posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and lateral inferior parietal lobe (IPL were identified together with significantly reduced effective connectivity from left thalamus to left IPL. Crucially, impaired thalamo-cortical white matter circuitry correlated with memory performance. Disrupted thalamo-cortical structure was accompanied by significant reductions in IPL and PCC cortico-cortical effective connectivity. No structural deficits were found between DMN nodes. Abnormal posterior DMN activity may be driven by changes in thalamic white matter connectivity; a view supported by the close anatomical and functional association of thalamic nuclei effected by AD pathology and

  7. Lasting modulation effects of rTMS on neural activity and connectivity as revealed by resting-state EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Shou, Guofa; Yuan, Han; Urbano, Diamond; Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2014-07-01

    The long-lasting neuromodulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are of great interest for therapeutic applications in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, due to which functional connectivity among brain regions is profoundly disturbed. Classic TMS studies selectively alter neural activity in specific brain regions and observe neural activity changes on nonperturbed areas to infer underlying connectivity and its changes. Less has been indicated in direct measures of functional connectivity and/or neural network and on how connectivity/network alterations occur. Here, we developed a novel analysis framework to directly investigate both neural activity and connectivity changes induced by rTMS from resting-state EEG (rsEEG) acquired in a group of subjects with a chronic disorder of imbalance, known as the mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS). Resting-state activity in multiple functional brain areas was identified through a data-driven blind source separation analysis on rsEEG data, and the connectivity among them was characterized using a phase synchronization measure. Our study revealed that there were significant long-lasting changes in resting-state neural activity, in theta, low alpha, and high alpha bands and neural networks in theta, low alpha, high alpha and beta bands, over broad cortical areas 4 to 5 h after the last application of rTMS in a consecutive five-day protocol. Our results of rsEEG connectivity further indicated that the changes, mainly in the alpha band, over the parietal and occipital cortices from pre- to post-TMS sessions were significantly correlated, in both magnitude and direction, to symptom changes in this group of subjects with MdDS. This connectivity measure not only suggested that rTMS can generate positive treatment effects in MdDS patients, but also revealed new potential targets for future therapeutic trials to improve treatment effects. It is promising that the new connectivity measure

  8. Lithium monotherapy associated clinical improvement effects on amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex resting state connectivity in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinay, Murat; Karne, Harish; Anand, Amit

    2018-01-01

    This study, for the first time, investigated lithium monotherapy associated effects on amygdala- ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) resting-state functional connectivity and correlation with clinical improvement in bipolar disorder (BP) METHODS: Thirty-six medication-free subjects - 24 BP (12 hypomanic BPM) and 12 depressed (BPD)) and 12 closely matched healthy controls (HC), were included. BP subjects were treated with lithium and scanned at baseline, after 2 weeks and 8 weeks. HC were scanned at same time points but were not treated. The effect of lithium was studied for the BP group as a whole using two way (group, time) ANOVA while regressing out effects of state. Next, correlation between changes in amygdala-vMPFC resting-state connectivity and clinical global impression (CGI) of severity and improvement scale scores for overall BP illness was calculated. An exploratory analysis was also conducted for the BPD and BPM subgroups separately. Group by time interaction revealed that lithium monotherapy in patients was associated with increase in amygdala-medial OFC connectivity after 8 weeks of treatment (p = 0.05 (cluster-wise corrected)) compared to repeat testing in healthy controls. Increased amygdala-vMPFC connectivity correlated with clinical improvement at week 2 and week 8 as measured with the CGI-I scale. The results pertain to open-label treatment and do not account for non-treatment related improvement effects. Only functional connectivity was measured which does not give information regarding one regions effect on the other. Lithium monotherapy in BP is associated with modulation of amygdala-vMPFC connectivity which correlates with state-independent global clinical improvement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effect of the channel electron multiplier connection diagram on its parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajnbund, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    Basic alternatives of connection of a channel electron multiplier are described. A dependence of a gain factor and amplitude resolution of the channel electron multiplier upon its connection diagram is studied. The studies have shown that the maximum gain factor is typical of an open-output circuit where the signal is recorded from the anode of the channel electron multiplier at a potential with respect to the channel outlet. The highest amplitude resolution is inherent in a separate-anode circuit where the loading resistance is connected directly to the channel outlet

  10. Learning effective connectivity from fMRI using autoregressive hidden Markov model with missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shilpa; Chaudhury, Santanu; Lall, Brejesh; Roy, Prasun Kumar

    2017-02-15

    Effective connectivity (EC) analysis of neuronal groups using fMRI delivers insights about functional-integration. However, fMRI signal has low-temporal resolution due to down-sampling and indirectly measures underlying neuronal activity. The aim is to address above issues for more reliable EC estimates. This paper proposes use of autoregressive hidden Markov model with missing data (AR-HMM-md) in dynamically multi-linked (DML) framework for learning EC using multiple fMRI time series. In our recent work (Dang et al., 2016), we have shown how AR-HMM-md for modelling single fMRI time series outperforms the existing methods. AR-HMM-md models unobserved neuronal activity and lost data over time as variables and estimates their values by joint optimization given fMRI observation sequence. The effectiveness in learning EC is shown using simulated experiments. Also the effects of sampling and noise are studied on EC. Moreover, classification-experiments are performed for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder subjects and age-matched controls for performance evaluation of real data. Using Bayesian model selection, we see that the proposed model converged to higher log-likelihood and demonstrated that group-classification can be performed with higher cross-validation accuracy of above 94% using distinctive network EC which characterizes patients vs. The full data EC obtained from DML-AR-HMM-md is more consistent with previous literature than the classical multivariate Granger causality method. The proposed architecture leads to reliable estimates of EC than the existing latent models. This framework overcomes the disadvantage of low-temporal resolution and improves cross-validation accuracy significantly due to presence of missing data variables and autoregressive process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cosmic Connections

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    2003-01-01

    A National Research Council study on connecting quarks with the cosmos has recently posed a number of the more important open questions at the interface between particle physics and cosmology. These questions include the nature of dark matter and dark energy, how the Universe began, modifications to gravity, the effects of neutrinos on the Universe, how cosmic accelerators work, and whether there are new states of matter at high density and pressure. These questions are discussed in the context of the talks presented at this Summer Institute.

  12. Hydrogeomorphic connectivity on roads crossing in rural headwaters and its effect on stream dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Edivaldo L; Peretto, Gustavo T

    2016-04-15

    Unpaved roads are ubiquitous features that have been transforming the landscape through human history. Unpaved roads affect the water and sediment pathways through a catchment and impacts the aquatic ecosystem. In this study, we describe the effect of unpaved road on the hydrogeomorphic connectivity at the rural headwater scale. Measurement was based on the stream crossing approach, i.e., road superimposing the drainage system. We installed a Parshall flume coupled with single-stage suspended sediment sampler at each stream crossing. In addition, we displayed our monitoring scheme with an upscaling perspective from second-order to third-order stream. We concluded that the road-stream coupling dramatically changed the stream dynamic. The increase of discharge caused by roads at the headwater was 50% larger compared to unaffected streams. Additionally, suspended sediment concentration enhancement at stream crossings ranged from to 413% at second-order streams to 145% at third-order streams. The landform characteristics associated with the road network produced an important hydrogeomorphic disruption in the landscape. As a result, the sediment filter function of the riparian zone was reduced dramatically. Therefore, we recommend that projects for aquatic system restoration or conservation in rural landscape consider the role of the road network on stream dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective connectivity within the default mode network: dynamic causal modeling of resting-state fMRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim eSharaev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Default Mode Network (DMN is a brain system that mediates internal modes of cognitive activity, showing higher neural activation when one is at rest. Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between its key regions, but in the majority of studies only association of BOLD (Blood-oxygen-level dependent activation patterns is measured, so it is impossible to identify causal influences. There are some studies of causal interactions (i.e. effective connectivity, however often with inconsistent results. The aim of the current work is to find a stable pattern of connectivity between four DMN key regions: the medial prefrontal cortex mPFC, the posterior cingulate cortex PCC, left and right intraparietal cortex LIPC and RIPC. For this purpose fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 30 healthy subjects (1000 time points from each one was acquired and spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM on a resting-state fMRI data was performed. The endogenous brain fluctuations were explicitly modeled by Discrete Cosine Set at the low frequency band of 0.0078–0.1 Hz. The best model at the group level is the one where connections from both bilateral IPC to mPFC and PCC are significant and symmetrical in strength (p<0.05. Connections between mPFC and PCC are bidirectional, significant in the group and weaker than connections originating from bilateral IPC. In general, all connections from LIPC/RIPC to other DMN regions are much stronger. One can assume that these regions have a driving role within the DMN. Our results replicate some data from earlier works on effective connectivity within the DMN as well as provide new insights on internal DMN relationships and brain’s functioning at resting state.

  14. The effect of seasonal variation on the performances of grid connected photovoltaic system in southern of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghba, L.; Khennane, M.; Terki, N.; Borni, A.; Bouchakour, A.; Fezzani, A.; Mahamed, I. Hadj; Oudjana, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents modeling, simulation, and analysis evaluation of the grid-connected PV generation system performance under MATLAB/Simulink. The objective is to study the effect of seasonal variation on the performances of grid connected photovoltaic system in southern of Algeria. This system works with a power converter. This converter allows the connection to the network and extracts maximum power from photovoltaic panels with the MPPT algorithm based on robust neuro-fuzzy sliding approach. The photovoltaic energy produced by the PV generator will be completely injected on the network. Simulation results show that the system controlled by the neuro-fuzzy sliding adapts to changing external disturbances and show their effectiveness not only for continued maximum power point but also for response time and stability.

  15. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de la Iglesia-Vaya

    2014-01-01

    These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH.

  16. Characterizing the Connectivity and Cumulative Effects of Wetlands on Downstream Hydrology: A Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are depressional landscape features entirely surrounded by uplands. While “GIW” may imply functional isolation from other surface waters, these systems exhibit a gradient of hydrologic, biological, and/or chemical connectivity. ...

  17. The Effects of rTMS Combined with Motor Training on Functional Connectivity in Alpha Frequency Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing-Na; Wang, Xin; Li, Ying; Jin, Fang; Liu, Zhi-Peng; Yin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    It has recently been reported that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with motor training (rTMS-MT) could improve motor function in post-stroke patients. However, the effects of rTMS-MT on cortical function using functional connectivity and graph theoretical analysis remain unclear. Ten healthy subjects were recruited to receive rTMS immediately before application of MT. Low frequency rTMS was delivered to the dominant hemisphere and non-dominant hand performed MT over 14 days. The reaction time of Nine-Hole Peg Test and electroencephalography (EEG) in resting condition with eyes closed were recorded before and after rTMS-MT. Functional connectivity was assessed by phase synchronization index (PSI), and subsequently thresholded to construct undirected graphs in alpha frequency band (8-13 Hz). We found a significant decrease in reaction time after rTMS-MT. The functional connectivity between the parietal and frontal cortex, and the graph theory statistics of node degree and efficiency in the parietal cortex increased. Besides the functional connectivity between premotor and frontal cortex, the degree and efficiency of premotor cortex showed opposite results. In addition, the number of connections significantly increased within inter-hemispheres and inter-regions. In conclusion, this study could be helpful in our understanding of how rTMS-MT modulates brain activity. The methods and results in this study could be taken as reference in future studies of the effects of rTMS-MT in stroke patients.

  18. Broadening of ICRH produced fast ion profiles due to orbit effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.-G.; Porcelli, F.

    1991-01-01

    In the JET tokamak, minority ions accelerated by ICRH reach energies in the MeV range. Near the plasma magnetic axis, the standard trapped particle ''banana'' orbit is distorted into a ''potato'' or ''fat banana'' orbit. The zero banana width approximation which is used in most Fokker-Planck calculations of velocity distributions of resonating ions is often not valid in JET. The inclusion of finite banana width effects will, in general, lead to a lowering of the averaged tail energy and a broadening of pressure profiles, power transfer profiles etc. A model for calculating orbit broadened profiles is presented. (Author)

  19. Shaping the composition profiles in heteroepitaxial quantum dots: Interplay of thermodynamic and kinetic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Georgiou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomistic Monte Carlo simulations, coupling thermodynamic and kinetic effects, resolve a longstanding controversy regarding the origin of composition profiles in heteroepitaxial SiGe quantum dots. It is shown that profiles with cores rich in the unstrained (Si component derive from near-equilibrium processes and intraisland diffusion. Profiles with cores rich in the strained (Ge component are of nonequilibrium nature, i.e., they are strain driven but kinetically limited. They are shaped by the distribution of kinetic barriers of atomic diffusion in the islands. The diffusion pathways are clearly revealed for the first time. Geometrical kinetics play a minor role.

  20. Single-trial effective brain connectivity patterns enhance discriminability of mental imagery tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Dheeraj; Cecotti, Hubert; Prasad, Girijesh

    2017-10-01

    Objective. The majority of the current approaches of connectivity based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems focus on distinguishing between different motor imagery (MI) tasks. Brain regions associated with MI are anatomically close to each other, hence these BCI systems suffer from low performances. Our objective is to introduce single-trial connectivity feature based BCI system for cognition imagery (CI) based tasks wherein the associated brain regions are located relatively far away as compared to those for MI. Approach. We implemented time-domain partial Granger causality (PGC) for the estimation of the connectivity features in a BCI setting. The proposed hypothesis has been verified with two publically available datasets involving MI and CI tasks. Main results. The results support the conclusion that connectivity based features can provide a better performance than a classical signal processing framework based on bandpass features coupled with spatial filtering for CI tasks, including word generation, subtraction, and spatial navigation. These results show for the first time that connectivity features can provide a reliable performance for imagery-based BCI system. Significance. We show that single-trial connectivity features for mixed imagery tasks (i.e. combination of CI and MI) can outperform the features obtained by current state-of-the-art method and hence can be successfully applied for BCI applications.

  1. The Potential Development Effect of ASEAN Connectivity: The Case of Riau Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiwan Aritenang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Masterplan on ASEAN Connectivity (MPAC presented the ASEAN transportation and connectivity plans to connect the member countries. Despite the clear define objectives, the MPAC implementation remains to be limited. Until 2015, transportation and connectivity projects in Indonesia are scattered in regions without integration under the MPAC scheme. This paper examines the issues and potential role of ASEAN Connectivity implementation in Indonesia. The paper conducts qualitative analysis on literature study, policy content analysis and interviews allowing detail information on the MPAC implementation in Indonesia.  The paper findings are as follows; (i The lack of MPAC implementation at both ASEAN and Indonesia levels. The ASEAN lacks a designated authority and leadership to carry MPAC forward within the member countries, whilst in Indonesia there is no institution to lead the MPAC delivery. (ii The importance role of a leading institution in Indonesia government to define and determine the strategic projects with higher value added. The paper concludes that the national government should regulate and lead the MPAC projects to ensure regional-wide connectivity with ASEAN, whilst at the same time integrate local development in Indonesia.

  2. Effect of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression on radiation pulmonary fibrosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shanying; Song Liangwen; Zhang Yong; Sun Li; Li Yang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) on initiation of radiation pulmonary fibrosis (RPF) and the relation to α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Methods: The promotive effect of CTGF on proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF) by 5 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays was determined by MTT colorimetry. The expressions of CTGF and α-SMA in HLF were observed by Western blot. Changes of collagen I and III in rat lungs were determined by Sirius red staining and polarization microscopy. Expressions of CTGF and α-SMA in RPF were observed with immunohisto-chemistry and analysis. Results: Expressions of CTGF and α-SMA were increased. CTGF reached its peak at 24 h after irradiation, whereas α-SMA still kept at a high level 72 h after irradiation. A small amount of collagen was produced in rat lung one month after irradiation, in which type III collagen was the primary component. However, a large amount of collagen was produced in rat lung 3-6 months after irradiation, in which type I was dominant. CTGF began to expression 1 week after irradiation in proliferative fibroblasts of rat lung, and it was most evident 3 months after irradiation. α-SMA began to express in proliferative myofibroblasts 1 week after irradiation, and the high peek was reached at 3 months after irradiation. Conclusion: Irradiation can induce expression of CTGF in pulmonary tissue and the later can promote the transformation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, strengthen the ability of synthesis and secretion of type I and III collagen. (authors)

  3. Age-related difference in the effective neural connectivity associated with probabilistic category learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Hee Jung; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Although it is well known that explicit memory is affected by the deleterious changes in brain with aging, but effect of aging in implicit memory such as probabilistic category learning (PCL) is not clear. To identify the effect of aging on the neural interaction for successful PCL, we investigated the neural substrates of PCL and the age-related changes of the neural network between these brain regions. 23 young (age, 252 y; 11 males) and 14 elderly (673 y; 7 males) healthy subjects underwent FDG PET during a resting state and 150-trial weather prediction (WP) task. Correlations between the WP hit rates and regional glucose metabolism were assessed using SPM2 (P<0.05 uncorrected). For path analysis, seven brain regions (bilateral middle frontal gyri and putamen, left fusiform gyrus, anterior cingulate and right parahippocampal gyri) were selected based on the results of the correlation analysis. Model construction and path analysis processing were done by AMOS 5.0. The elderly had significantly lower total hit rates than the young (P<0.005). In the correlation analysis, both groups showed similar metabolic correlation in frontal and striatal area. But correlation in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) was found differently by group. In path analysis, the functional networks for the constructed model was accepted (X(2) =0.80, P=0.67) and it proved to be significantly different between groups (X{sub diff}(37) = 142.47, P<0.005), Systematic comparisons of each path revealed that frontal crosscallosal and the frontal to parahippocampal connection were most responsible for the model differences (P<0.05). For the successful PCL, the elderly recruits the basal ganglia implicit memory system but MTL recruitment differs from the young. The inadequate MTL correlation pattern in the elderly is may be caused by the changes of the neural pathway related with explicit memory. These neural changes can explain the decreased performance of PCL in elderly subjects.

  4. SU-F-T-478: Effect of Deconvolution in Analysis of Mega Voltage Photon Beam Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthukumaran, M [Apollo Speciality Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Manigandan, D [Fortis Cancer Institute, Mohali, Punjab (India); Murali, V; Chitra, S; Ganapathy, K [Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Vikraman, S [JAYPEE HOSPITAL- RADIATION ONCOLOGY, Noida, UTTAR PRADESH (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study and compare the penumbra of 6 MV and 15 MV photon beam profiles after deconvoluting different volume ionization chambers. Methods: 0.125cc Semi-Flex chamber, Markus Chamber and PTW Farmer chamber were used to measure the in-plane and cross-plane profiles at 5 cm depth for 6 MV and 15 MV photons. The profiles were measured for various field sizes starting from 2×2 cm till 30×30 cm. PTW TBA scan software was used for the measurements and the “deconvolution” functionality in the software was used to remove the volume averaging effect due to finite volume of the chamber along lateral and longitudinal directions for all the ionization chambers. The predicted true profile was compared and the change in penumbra before and after deconvolution was studied. Results: After deconvoluting the penumbra decreased by 1 mm for field sizes ranging from 2 × 2 cm till 20 x20 cm. This is observed for along both lateral and longitudinal directions. However for field sizes from 20 × 20 till 30 ×30 cm the difference in penumbra was around 1.2 till 1.8 mm. This was observed for both 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams. The penumbra was always lesser in the deconvoluted profiles for all the ionization chambers involved in the study. The variation in difference in penumbral values were in the order of 0.1 till 0.3 mm between the deconvoluted profile along lateral and longitudinal directions for all the chambers under study. Deconvolution of the profiles along longitudinal direction for Farmer chamber was not good and is not comparable with other deconvoluted profiles. Conclusion: The results of the deconvoluted profiles for 0.125cc and Markus chamber was comparable and the deconvolution functionality can be used to overcome the volume averaging effect.

  5. Mitochondrial Profiles and the Anticonvulsant Effect of the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the anticonvulsant effect of the ketogenic diet (KD in adolescent rats, at Emory University and other centers, found that the hippocampus responds by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, enhancing metabolic gene expression, and increasing energy reserves.

  6. Effect of mid-thickness rebar mesh on the behavior and punching shear strength of interior slab–column connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    The obtained results indicate that, the proposed shear reinforcement system has a positive effect in the enhancement of both the punching shear capacity and the strain energy of interior slab–column connection of both normal and high strength concrete. The general finite element software ANSYS can be used successfully to simulate the punching shear behavior of reinforced concrete flat plates.

  7. 26 CFR 1.1446-2 - Determining a partnership's effectively connected taxable income allocable to foreign partners...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 754 (see § 1.743-1(j)). The character of effectively connected partnership items (capital versus... of a partner's basis in the partnership, see section 704(d)) or any capital loss carrybacks or... A's allocable share of partnership ECTI, the amount of the long-term capital loss that may be taken...

  8. Learning Networks: connecting people, organizations, autonomous agents and learning resources to establish the emergence of effective lifelong learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Sloep, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Koper, E.J.R., Sloep, P.B. (2002) Learning Networks connecting people, organizations, autonomous agents and learning resources to establish the emergence of effective lifelong learning. RTD Programma into Learning Technologies 2003-2008. More is different… Heerlen, Nederland: Open Universiteit

  9. 26 CFR 1.937-3 - Income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in a possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operates an active financing business from offices in, Possession I. Interests in G are owned by D, a bona... of a trade or business in a possession. 1.937-3 Section 1.937-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... United States § 1.937-3 Income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in a...

  10. Effects of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: assess the effect of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and their energy intake. Methods Participants (n¼103; M age¼13.6 years) were either ostracized or included when playing a computer game, Cyberball. Next, they wrote about their friend...

  11. Effect of connective tissue grafting on peri-implant tissue in single immediate implant sites : A RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; Meijer, Henny J A; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    AimTo assess the effect of connective tissue grafting on the mid-buccal mucosal level (MBML) of immediately placed and provisionalized single implants in the maxillofacial aesthetic zone. Materials and methodsSixty patients with a failing tooth were provided with an immediately placed and

  12. Children with reading disability show brain differences in effective connectivity for visual, but not auditory word comprehension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous literature suggests that those with reading disability (RD have more pronounced deficits during semantic processing in reading as compared to listening comprehension. This discrepancy has been supported by recent neuroimaging studies showing abnormal activity in RD during semantic processing in the visual but not in the auditory modality. Whether effective connectivity between brain regions in RD could also show this pattern of discrepancy has not been investigated.Children (8- to 14-year-olds were given a semantic task in the visual and auditory modality that required an association judgment as to whether two sequentially presented words were associated. Effective connectivity was investigated using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. Bayesian Model Selection (BMS was used separately for each modality to find a winning family of DCM models separately for typically developing (TD and RD children. BMS yielded the same winning family with modulatory effects on bottom-up connections from the input regions to middle temporal gyrus (MTG and inferior frontal gyrus(IFG with inconclusive evidence regarding top-down modulations. Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA was thus conducted across models in this winning family and compared across groups. The bottom-up effect from the fusiform gyrus (FG to MTG rather than the top-down effect from IFG to MTG was stronger in TD compared to RD for the visual modality. The stronger bottom-up influence in TD was only evident for related word pairs but not for unrelated pairs. No group differences were noted in the auditory modality.This study revealed a modality-specific deficit for children with RD in bottom-up effective connectivity from orthographic to semantic processing regions. There were no group differences in connectivity from frontal regions, suggesting that the core deficit in RD is not in top-down modulation.

  13. Connecting Grammaticalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens; Heltoft, Lars; Schøsler, Lene

    morphological, topological and constructional paradigms often connect to form complex paradigms. The book introduces the concept of connecting grammaticalisation to describe the formation, restructuring and dismantling of such complex paradigms. Drawing primarily on data from Germanic, Romance and Slavic...

  14. The effects of age on resting state functional connectivity of the basal ganglia from young to middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manza, Peter; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Chao, Herta H; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2015-02-15

    The basal ganglia nuclei are critical for a variety of cognitive and motor functions. Much work has shown age-related structural changes of the basal ganglia. Yet less is known about how the functional interactions of these regions with the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum change throughout the lifespan. Here, we took advantage of a convenient sample and examined resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 250 adults 18 to 49 years of age, focusing specifically on the caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen, and ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN). There are a few main findings to report. First, with age, caudate head connectivity increased with a large region of ventromedial prefrontal/medial orbitofrontal cortex. Second, across all subjects, pallidum and putamen showed negative connectivity with default mode network (DMN) regions such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, in support of anti-correlation of the "task-positive" network (TPN) and DMN. This negative connectivity was reduced with age. Furthermore, pallidum, posterior putamen and VTA/SN connectivity to other TPN regions, such as somatomotor cortex, decreased with age. These results highlight a distinct effect of age on cerebral functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum and VTA/SN from young to middle adulthood and may help research investigating the etiologies or monitoring outcomes of neuropsychiatric conditions that implicate dopaminergic dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Index to Measure Effects of a Declining Area of Set-aside Land on Habitat-connectivity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    In Denmark, agriculture occupies 28,000 km² or 65% of the land. As a consequence, habitats for wild species are mainly characterized by small patches, surrounded by intensive agriculture. Due to extensive agricultural management, set-aside land can spatially connect habitats and thus positively...... affect habitat connectivity, which is of importance to the survival of wild species. In 2008 set-aside schemes were abolished, leading to a considerable re-cultivation of former set-aside land and consequently to a decline in the area of set-aside land from 6% of all agricultural land in 2007 to 3...... to natural habitats, would typically not be re-cultivated. I developed an indicator aiming to measure the effect of the reduced area of set-aside land on habitat-connectivity. For a raster-map with a resolution of 25x25 meters, the indicator combines the distance to habitats with the area percentage of set...

  16. Effect of sensory and motor connectivity on hand function in pediatric hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Disha; Barachant, Alexandre; Gordon, Andrew M; Ferre, Claudio; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Carmel, Jason B; Friel, Kathleen M

    2017-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that somatosensory system injury would more strongly affect movement than motor system injury in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (USCP). This hypothesis was based on how somatosensory and corticospinal circuits adapt to injury during development; whereas the motor system can maintain connections to the impaired hand from the uninjured hemisphere, this does not occur in the somatosensory system. As a corollary, cortical injury strongly impairs sensory function, so we hypothesized that cortical lesions would impair hand function more than subcortical lesions. Twenty-four children with unilateral cerebral palsy had physiological and anatomical measures of the motor and somatosensory systems and lesion classification. Motor physiology was performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation and somatosensory physiology with vibration-evoked electroencephalographic potentials. Tractography of the corticospinal tract and the medial lemniscus was performed with diffusion tensor imaging, and lesions were classified by magnetic resonance imaging. Anatomical and physiological results were correlated with measures of hand function using 2 independent statistical methods. Children with disruptions in the somatosensory connectivity and cortical lesions had the most severe upper extremity impairments, particularly somatosensory function. Motor system connectivity was significantly correlated with bimanual function, but not unimanual function or somatosensory function. Both sensory and motor connectivity impact hand function in children with USCP. Somatosensory connectivity could be an important target for recovery of hand function in children with USCP. Ann Neurol 2017;82:766-780. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  17. Effects of different cooking methods on fatty acid profiles in four freshwater fishes from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Margaret R; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Braekevelt, Eric; Arts, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    Fish is often promoted as a healthy part of the human diet due its high content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Previous studies have shown that cooked fish can have different fatty acid profiles than raw fillets, depending on the cooking method and fish species. In this study, the fatty acid content of broiled, baked or fried skinless, boneless fillets of four fish species from the tributaries of the Great Lakes, or connecting rivers, was compared to fatty acid profiles in raw sections from the same fillet. Cooking treatments had little effect on n-3 fatty acid content; however, fried treatments generally had higher n-6 and MUFA content, which is likely a result of the cooking oil used (canola). Broiling or baking is generally the most healthy option presented in this study, as these methods result in lower levels of less-favourable fatty acids; however, the choice of cooking oil may also influence the overall fatty acid content in cooked fish. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls and the effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of freshwater as a point source of PCBs contributing to a marine outfall region. Inflowing and outflowing water from the North End Lake, Port Elizabeth, was collected to determine the contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Mussels at the outflow to the sea were also ...

  19. Effective Connectivity within the Default Mode Network: Dynamic Causal Modeling of Resting-State fMRI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaev, Maksim G; Zavyalova, Viktoria V; Ushakov, Vadim L; Kartashov, Sergey I; Velichkovsky, Boris M

    2016-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) is a brain system that mediates internal modes of cognitive activity, showing higher neural activation when one is at rest. Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between its key regions, but in the majority of studies only association of Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation patterns is measured, so it is impossible to identify causal influences. There are some studies of causal interactions (i.e., effective connectivity), however often with inconsistent results. The aim of the current work is to find a stable pattern of connectivity between four DMN key regions: the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), left and right intraparietal cortex (LIPC and RIPC). For this purpose functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 30 healthy subjects (1000 time points from each one) was acquired and spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM) on a resting-state fMRI data was performed. The endogenous brain fluctuations were explicitly modeled by Discrete Cosine Set at the low frequency band of 0.0078-0.1 Hz. The best model at the group level is the one where connections from both bilateral IPC to mPFC and PCC are significant and symmetrical in strength (p bidirectional, significant in the group and weaker than connections originating from bilateral IPC. In general, all connections from LIPC/RIPC to other DMN regions are much stronger. One can assume that these regions have a driving role within the DMN. Our results replicate some data from earlier works on effective connectivity within the DMN as well as provide new insights on internal DMN relationships and brain's functioning at resting state.

  20. Effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile in vertical bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study of upward air-water bubbly two-phase flow in an entry region was performed with various rough wall test tubes. The objective of the work is to clarify the effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile. The fluid flows in the vertical circular test tube of 25 mm I.D. under nearly atmospheric pressure, at room temperature. The void profile changes from a pattern similar in appearance to the saddle shape which has local void peaks near the wall, into the power law shape whose curve is approximated by a power law formula, with increasing wall roughness and/or entry length. That is, wall roughness and entry length have a similar effect upon void profile. There are two patterns in the power law shape, a pattern with sharp center peak and a pattern with obtuse center peak. As wall roughness and/or entry length increase, the void profile changes from the former pattern to the latter pattern. At enough long entry length (L/D ≅ 150), every void profile has almost the same power law shape independent of wall roughness. Some void profiles are asymmetric to the axis. (author)

  1. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  2. MINERAL PROFILE EVOLUTION OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pasca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual minerals and antibacterial activity were investigated in 5 medicinal plants (pot marigold - Calendula officinalis, burdock - Arctium lappa, celandine - Chelidonium majus, basil- Ocimum basilicum, thyme - Thymus vulgaris using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS technique and antibiogram  method. The antibacterial susceptibility has been evaluated over 12 strains isolated from milk microflora, belonging to Staphylococcus, Vibrio, Serratia and Bacillus genera. The obtained results show the best antibacterial effect with  Arctium lappa ethanol extracts, having inhibition areas of 6.3 to 17.5 mm, with an average of 9.0 mm and the highest determined mineral being Calcium. The results obtained open the prospect of using these medicinal plants as an alternative to be used for the control and cure of some mineral deficiencies or for preventing various diseases of the animals.

  3. Effect of MELT method on thoracolumbar connective tissue: The full study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjana, Faria; Chaudhry, Hans; Findley, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Altered connective tissue structure has been identified in adults with chronic low back pain (LBP). A self-care treatment for managing LBP is the MELT method. The MELT method is a hands-off, self-treatment that is said to alleviate chronic pain, release tension and restore mobility, utilizing specialized soft treatments balls, soft body roller and techniques mimicking manual therapy. The objective of this study was to determine whether thickness of thoracolumbar connective tissue and biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of myofascial tissue in the low back region change in subjects with chronic LBP as a result of MELT. This study was designed using a quasi experimental pre-post- design that analyzed data from subjects who performed MELT. Using ultrasound imaging and an algorithm developed in MATLAB, thickness of thoracolumbar connective tissue was analyzed in 22 subjects. A hand-held digital palpation device, called the MyotonPRO, was used to assess biomechanical properties such as stiffness, elasticity, tone and mechanical stress relaxation time of the thoracolumbar myofascial tissue. A forward bending test assessing flexibility and pain scale was added to see if MELT affected subjects with chronic LBP. A significant decrease in connective tissue thickness and pain was observed in participants. Significant increase in flexibility was also recorded. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Long-Term Cannabis Use on Axonal Fibre Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesky, Andrew; Solowij, Nadia; Yucel, Murat; Lubman, Dan I.; Takagi, Michael; Harding, Ian H.; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wang, Ruopeng; Searle, Karissa; Pantelis, Christos; Seal, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis use typically begins during adolescence and early adulthood, a period when cannabinoid receptors are still abundant in white matter pathways across the brain. However, few studies to date have explored the impact of regular cannabis use on white matter structure, with no previous studies examining its impact on axonal connectivity. The…

  5. Effects of exercise and respiration on blood flow in total cavopulmonary connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, V E; Emmertsen, K; Stenbøg, E

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about blood flow and its relationship to respiration during exercise in patients with total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 11 patients 12.4+/-4.6 years (mean+/-SD) of age 5.9+/-2.8 years (mean+/-SD) after TCPC operation. Real-time MRI...

  6. Differences in atypical resting-state effective connectivity distinguish autism from schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mastrovito

    Full Text Available Autism and schizophrenia share overlapping genetic etiology, common changes in brain structure and common cognitive deficits. A number of studies using resting state fMRI have shown that machine learning algorithms can distinguish between healthy controls and individuals diagnosed with either autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia. However, it has not yet been determined whether machine learning algorithms can be used to distinguish between the two disorders. Using a linear support vector machine, we identify features that are most diagnostic for each disorder and successfully use them to classify an independent cohort of subjects. We find both common and divergent connectivity differences largely in the default mode network as well as in salience, and motor networks. Using divergent connectivity differences, we are able to distinguish autistic subjects from those with schizophrenia. Understanding the common and divergent connectivity changes associated with these disorders may provide a framework for understanding their shared cognitive deficits. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Autism, Resting state, Classification, Connectivity, fMRI, Default mode network

  7. Small words, big effects? Subjective versus objective causal connectives in discourse processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canestrelli, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Coherence relations and their linguistic markers play a significant role in the study of discourse processing and comprehension. A number of studies have shown that the presence of coherence markers, such as connectives, in a text facilitates the processing and representation of discourse.

  8. Effect of DEM resolution and comparison between different weighting factors for hydrologic connectivity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantreul, Vincent; Cavalli, Marco; Degré, Aurore

    2016-04-01

    The emerging concept of hydrological connectivity is difficult to quantify. Some indices have been proposed. The most cited is Borselli's one. It mainly uses the DEM as input. The pixel size may strongly impacts the result of the calculation. It has not been studied yet in silty areas. Another important aspect is the choice of the weighting factor which strongly influences the index value. The objective of this poster is so to compare 8 different DEM's resolutions (12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 204, 504 and 996cm) and 3 different weighting factors (factor C of Wischmeier, Manning's factor and rugosity index) in the Borselli's index calculation. The IC was calculated in a 124ha catchment (Hevillers), in the loess belt, in Belgium. The DEM used is coming from a UAV with a maximum resolution of 12 cm. Permanent covered surfaces are not considered in order to avoid artefact due to the vegetation (2% of the surface). Regarding the DEM pixel size, the IC increases for a given pixel when the pixel size decreases. That confirms some results observed in the Alpine region by Cavalli (2014). The mean difference between 12 cm and 10 m resolution is 35% with higher values up to 100% for higher connectivity zones (flow paths). Another result is the lower impact of connections in the watershed (grass strips…) at lower pixel sizes. This is linked to the small width of some connections which are sometimes comparing to cell size. Furthermore, a great loss of precision is observed from the 500 cm pixel size and upper. That remark is quite intuitive. Finally, some very well disconnected zones appear for the highest resolutions. Regarding the weighting factor, IC values calculated using C factor are lower than with the rugosity index which is only a topographic factor. With very high resolution DEM, it permits to represent the fine topography. For the C factor, the zones up to very well disconnected areas (grass strips, wood…) are well represented with lower index values than downstream

  9. Effect of electrocardiogram interference on cortico-cortical connectivity analysis and a possible solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, R B; Kota, Srinivas; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Massaro, An N; Chang, Taeun; du Plessis, Adre

    2016-09-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are often contaminated by the electrocardiogram (ECG) interference, which affects quantitative characterization of EEG. We propose null-coherence, a frequency-based approach, to attenuate the ECG interference in EEG using simultaneously recorded ECG as a reference signal. After validating the proposed approach using numerically simulated data, we apply this approach to EEG recorded from six newborns receiving therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. We compare our approach with an independent component analysis (ICA), a previously proposed approach to attenuate ECG artifacts in the EEG signal. The power spectrum and the cortico-cortical connectivity of the ECG attenuated EEG was compared against the power spectrum and the cortico-cortical connectivity of the raw EEG. The null-coherence approach attenuated the ECG contamination without leaving any residual of the ECG in the EEG. We show that the null-coherence approach performs better than ICA in attenuating the ECG contamination without enhancing cortico-cortical connectivity. Our analysis suggests that using ICA to remove ECG contamination from the EEG suffers from redistribution problems, whereas the null-coherence approach does not. We show that both the null-coherence and ICA approaches attenuate the ECG contamination. However, the EEG obtained after ICA cleaning displayed higher cortico-cortical connectivity compared with that obtained using the null-coherence approach. This suggests that null-coherence is superior to ICA in attenuating the ECG interference in EEG for cortico-cortical connectivity analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A profile of effective leadership in some South African high-poverty schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Kamper

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The struggle of high-poverty schools for survival is well documented. Some have overcome poverty-related odds and performed exceptionally well, prompting the following research question: What elements constitute a profile of effective leadership in high-poverty schools? Investigations conducted at six successful high-poverty schools revealed the contribution of invitational leadership to this success. I look at the personal traits and capabilities of effective leaders in high-poverty schools, as presented in a leadership profile.

  11. Effect of extrusion stem speed on extrusion process for a hollow aluminum profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cunsheng; Zhao, Guoqun; Chen, Zhiren; Chen, Hao; Kou, Fujun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Extrusion stem speed has significant effects on extrusion process. ► An optimum value of stem speed exists for uniform metal flow distribution. ► A higher stem speed leads to a higher required extrusion force. ► A high stem speed leads to an improved welding quality of aluminum profile. - Abstract: Extrusion stem speed is one of important process parameters during aluminum profile extrusion, which directly influences the profile quality and choice of extrusion equipments. In this paper, the extrusion process of a thin-walled hollow aluminum profile was simulated by means of the HyperXtrude commercial software. Through a serial of numerical simulation, the effects of stem speed on extrusion process, such as metal flow behavior at die exit, temperature distribution, extrusion force, and welding pressure, have been investigated. The numerical results showed that there existed an optimum value of stem speed for flow velocity distribution. With the increasing stem speed, the temperature of the extrudate and required extrusion force increased, and the welding quality of extrudate would be improved. Through comprehensive comparison and analysis, the appropriate stem speed could be determined for practical extrusion production. Thus, the research results could give effective guideline for determining initial billet and die temperature and choosing the proper extrusion press in aluminum profile industry.

  12. Molecular profiles of finasteride effects on prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Kim, Jeri

    2009-06-01

    Our inability to distinguish between low-grade prostate cancers that pose no threat and those that can kill compels newly diagnosed early prostate cancer patients to make decisions that may negatively affect their lives needlessly for years afterward. To reliably stratify patients into different risk categories and apply appropriate treatment, we need a better molecular understanding of prostate cancer progression. Androgen ablation therapy and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors reduce dihydrotestosterone levels and increase apoptosis. Because of the differing biological potentials of tumor cells, however, these treatments may, in some cases, worsen outcome by selecting for or inducing adaptation of stronger androgen receptor signaling pathways. Reduced dihydrotestosterone also may be associated with altered survival pathways. Complicating treatment effects further, molecular adaptation may be accelerated by interactions between epithelial and stromal cells. The hypothesis that early prostate cancer cells with differing biological potential may respond differently to finasteride treatment is worth testing. Ongoing studies using a systems biology approach in a preoperative prostate cancer setting are testing this hypothesis toward developing more-rational clinical interventions.

  13. Effective Connectivity from Early Visual Cortex to Posterior Occipitotemporal Face Areas Supports Face Selectivity and Predicts Developmental Prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Michael; Garrido, Lucia; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J; Duchaine, Bradley C; Furl, Nicholas

    2016-03-30

    Face processing is mediated by interactions between functional areas in the occipital and temporal lobe, and the fusiform face area (FFA) and anterior temporal lobe play key roles in the recognition of facial identity. Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a lifelong face recognition impairment, have been shown to have structural and functional neuronal alterations in these areas. The present study investigated how face selectivity is generated in participants with normal face processing, and how functional abnormalities associated with DP, arise as a function of network connectivity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic causal modeling, we examined effective connectivity in normal participants by assessing network models that include early visual cortex (EVC) and face-selective areas and then investigated the integrity of this connectivity in participants with DP. Results showed that a feedforward architecture from EVC to the occipital face area, EVC to FFA, and EVC to posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) best explained how face selectivity arises in both controls and participants with DP. In this architecture, the DP group showed reduced connection strengths on feedforward connections carrying face information from EVC to FFA and EVC to pSTS. These altered network dynamics in DP contribute to the diminished face selectivity in the posterior occipitotemporal areas affected in DP. These findings suggest a novel view on the relevance of feedforward projection from EVC to posterior occipitotemporal face areas in generating cortical face selectivity and differences in face recognition ability. Areas of the human brain showing enhanced activation to faces compared to other objects or places have been extensively studied. However, the factors leading to this face selectively have remained mostly unknown. We show that effective connectivity from early visual cortex to posterior occipitotemporal face areas gives rise to face

  14. The effect of epoch length on estimated EEG functional connectivity and brain network organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschini, Matteo; Demuru, Matteo; Crobe, Alessandra; Marrosu, Francesco; Stam, Cornelis J.; Hillebrand, Arjan

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Graph theory and network science tools have revealed fundamental mechanisms of functional brain organization in resting-state M/EEG analysis. Nevertheless, it is still not clearly understood how several methodological aspects may bias the topology of the reconstructed functional networks. In this context, the literature shows inconsistency in the chosen length of the selected epochs, impeding a meaningful comparison between results from different studies. Approach. The aim of this study was to provide a network approach insensitive to the effects that epoch length has on functional connectivity and network reconstruction. Two different measures, the phase lag index (PLI) and the amplitude envelope correlation (AEC) were applied to EEG resting-state recordings for a group of 18 healthy volunteers using non-overlapping epochs with variable length (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 s). Weighted clustering coefficient (CCw), weighted characteristic path length (L w) and minimum spanning tree (MST) parameters were computed to evaluate the network topology. The analysis was performed on both scalp and source-space data. Main results. Results from scalp analysis show a decrease in both mean PLI and AEC values with an increase in epoch length, with a tendency to stabilize at a length of 12 s for PLI and 6 s for AEC. Moreover, CCw and L w show very similar behaviour, with metrics based on AEC more reliable in terms of stability. In general, MST parameters stabilize at short epoch lengths, particularly for MSTs based on PLI (1-6 s versus 4-8 s for AEC). At the source-level the results were even more reliable, with stability already at 1 s duration for PLI-based MSTs. Significance. The present work suggests that both PLI and AEC depend on epoch length and that this has an impact on the reconstructed network topology, particularly at the scalp-level. Source-level MST topology is less sensitive to differences in epoch length, therefore enabling the comparison of brain

  15. Activation and integration are not the same: Changing effective connectivity in recovery from acute aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Gow

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between BOLD activation and processing in recovering aphasics is complex. Patterns of shifting upregulation of perilesional and contralesional task-related BOLD response have been widely observed in patients during subacute and chronic phases of recovery (c.f. Saur et al., 2006. However, a number of studies have found a relatively weak relationship between these changes and performance in language tasks (e.g. Heiss et al., 1999; Cornelissen et al., 2003. In this work, we explore the evolving relationship between activation and effective connectivity in a patient with aphasia. The patient, a 53 year old left handed woman, presented with frequent phonemic paraphasias and word-finding difficulty following a patchy right-hemispheric ischemic stroke affecting the temporo-parietal region, basal ganglia, and portions of occipital cortex. These results suggest she showed right hemisphere linguistic dominance premorbidly. Screening using the PAL (Caplan& Bub, 1990 revealed deficits in phoneme discrimination and auditory word-picture matching with preserved auditory lexical decision. She was tested twice on a go/no-go auditory word picture matching task one month post-onset, and again six months later while simultaneous MEG and EEG data were acquired. She achieved 59% accuracy at the initial testing, and 85% accuracy on retest. Source space reconstructions of activity between 100-400 msec after the onset of the spoken word (before the visual probe stimulus showed strong perilesional activation with moderate activation of left hemisphere language areas. When tested 6 months later perilesional activation was significantly reduced, but left hemisphere activation was stronger. Kalman-filter enabled Granger analyses (Gow & Caplan, 2012 of the same MR-constrained MEG/EEG data showed little evidence of interaction or either intra- or interhemispheric interactions between activated regions at one month post onset. At seven months, the network

  16. THE PRIMACY EFFECT IN AMNESTIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: ASSOCIATIONS WITH HIPPOCAMPAL FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Brueggen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe primacy effect, i.e., increased memory recall for the first items of a series compared to the following items, is reduced in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Memory task-fMRI studies showed that primacy recall is associated with higher activation of the hippocampus and temporo-parietal and frontal cortical regions in healthy subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at resting state showed that hippocampus functional connectivity (FC with neocortical brain areas, including regions of the default mode network (DMN, is altered in aMCI. The present study aimed to investigate whether resting state fMRI FC between the hippocampus and cortical brain regions, especially the DMN, is associated with primacy recall performance in aMCI. MethodsA number of 87 aMCI patients underwent resting state fMRI and verbal episodic memory assessment. FC between the left or right hippocampus, respectively, and all other voxels in grey matter was mapped voxel-wise and used in whole-brain regression analyses, testing whether FC values predicted delayed primacy recall score. The delayed primacy score was defined as the number of the first four words recalled on the California Verbal Learning Test. Additionally, a partial least squares analysis (PLS was performed, using DMN regions as seeds to identify the association of their functional interactions with delayed primacy recall.ResultsVoxel-based analyses showed that delayed primacy recall was mainly (positively associated with higher FC between the left and right hippocampus. Additionally, significant associations were found for higher FC between the left hippocampus and bilateral temporal cortex, frontal cortical regions, and for higher FC between the right hippocampus and right temporal cortex, right frontal cortical regions, left medial frontal cortex and right amygdala (p < 0.01, uncorr.. PLS analysis revealed positive associations of delayed primacy recall with FC between regions of

  17. Effect of limiter recycling on measured poloidal impurity emission profiles in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.; DeMichelis, C.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Becoulet, M.; Bush, C.; Ghendrih, P.; Guirlet, R.; Hess, W.; Mattioli, M.; Vallet, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Poloidal impurity emission profiles measured with the Tore Supra grazing incidence duochromator exhibit a complex spatial structure during ergodic divertor operation with an outboard poloidal guard limiter. As previous measurements with inboard-wall limited plasmas have shown that these profiles give important information about the ergodic field structure, so the contribution of local neon recycling from the limiter-induced plume has been modeled. This permits a discrimination of edge and core transport effects. The BBQ 3D scrape-off layer code calculates the asymmetric contribution to the emission and MIST 1D simulation gives the symmetric part. A systematic increase is observed in the decay rate of neon emission after injection as the ergodic divertor strength is increased. The calculations permit identification of the limiter plume contribution to the profile structure, and, with this identification, the effect of the divertor to enhance impurity efflux can be seen from the decay data

  18. Dynamic causal modeling of hippocampal links within the human default mode network: Lateralization and computational stability of effective connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Leonidovich Ushakov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to study causal relationships between left and right hippocampal regions (LHIP and RHIP, respectively within the default mode network (DMN as represented by its key structures: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and the inferior parietal cortex of left (LIPC and right (RIPC hemispheres. Furthermore, we were interested in testing the stability of the connectivity patterns when adding or deleting regions of interest. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from a group of 30 healthy right-handed subjects in the resting state were collected and a connectivity analysis was performed. To model the effective connectivity, we used the spectral Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM. Three DCM analyses were completed. Two of them modeled interaction between five nodes that included four DMN key structures in addition to either LHIP or RHIP. The last DCM analysis modeled interactions between four nodes whereby one of the main DMN structures, PCC, was excluded from the analysis. The results of all DCM analyses indicated a high level of stability in the computational method: those parts of the winning models that included the key DMN structures demonstrated causal relations known from recent research. However, we discovered new results as well. First of all, we found a pronounced asymmetry in LHIP and RHIP connections. LHIP demonstrated a high involvement of DMN activity with preponderant information outflow to all other DMN regions. Causal interactions of LHIP were bidirectional only in the case of LIPC. On the contrary, RHIP was primarily affected by inputs from LIPC, RIPC and LHIP without influencing these or other DMN key structures. For the first time, an inhibitory link was found from MPFC to LIPC, which may indicate the subjects’ effort to maintain a resting state. Functional connectivity data echoed these results, though they also showed links not reflected in the patterns of

  19. The effect of regulatory mode on procrastination: Bi-stable parahippocampus connectivity with dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyan; Ni, Yan; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-06-30

    Previous research has elucidated that procrastination can be influenced by regulatory mode orientations. However, the neural mechanism of regulatory modes affecting procrastination is not well understood. To address this question, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) to test the influence of two regulatory modes (assessment and locomotion) on procrastination. The behavioral results showed that procrastination was positively correlated with assessment orientation but negatively correlated with locomotion orientation. Neuroimaging results indicated that the functional connectivity between parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) was negatively correlated with assessment scores, while the functional connectivity between anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) and parahippocampal cortex (PHC) was negatively correlated with locomotion scores. Critically, mediation analysis showed that the different effects of two distinct regulatory modes on procrastination were mediated by PHC-dACC and aPFC-PHC functional connectivity respectively. These results suggested that people's procrastination could be predicted by regulatory mode orientations, which is mediated by PHC connectivity with dACC and aPFC respectively. The present study extends our knowledge on procrastination and provides neural mechanism for understanding the link between regulatory mode orientations and procrastination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The Effects of Body Acupuncture on Obesity: Anthropometric Parameters, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory and Immunologic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized controlled clinical trial in 196 obese subjects was performed to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, lipid profile and immunogenic and inflammatory markers. Subjects received authentic (cases or sham (controls acupuncture for 6 weeks in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the following 6 weeks, they received the low-calorie diet alone. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, 6 and 12 weeks later. Heat shock protein (Hsps-27, 60, 65, 70 antibody titers and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels were also assessed. A significant reduction in measures of adiposity and improvement in lipid profile were observed in both groups, but the levels of anti-Hsp-antibodies decreased in cases only. A reduction in anthropometric and lipid profile in cases were sustained in the second period, however, only changes in lipid profile were observed in the control group. Anti-Hsp-antibodies and hs-CRP levels continued to be reduced in cases but in controls only the reduction in hs-CRP remained. Changes in anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and anti-Hsp-antibodies were more evident in cases. Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective in enhancing weight loss and improving dyslipidemia.

  1. The Effects of Body Acupuncture on Obesity: Anthropometric Parameters, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory and Immunologic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Hamid; Zhao, Baixiao; Darbandi, Mahsa; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Tavallaie, Shima; Rahsepar, Amir Ali; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Safariyan, Mohammad; Nemati, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Maryam; Abbasi-Parizad, Parisa; Darbandi, Sara; Akhlaghi, Saeed; Ferns, Gordon A. A.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled clinical trial in 196 obese subjects was performed to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, lipid profile and immunogenic and inflammatory markers. Subjects received authentic (cases) or sham (controls) acupuncture for 6 weeks in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the following 6 weeks, they received the low-calorie diet alone. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, 6 and 12 weeks later. Heat shock protein (Hsps)-27, 60, 65, 70 antibody titers and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also assessed. A significant reduction in measures of adiposity and improvement in lipid profile were observed in both groups, but the levels of anti-Hsp-antibodies decreased in cases only. A reduction in anthropometric and lipid profile in cases were sustained in the second period, however, only changes in lipid profile were observed in the control group. Anti-Hsp-antibodies and hs-CRP levels continued to be reduced in cases but in controls only the reduction in hs-CRP remained. Changes in anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and anti-Hsp-antibodies were more evident in cases. Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective in enhancing weight loss and improving dyslipidemia. PMID:22649299

  2. Passive advection-dispersion in networks of pipes: Effect of connectivity and relationship to permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, Y.; Wang, Y.; Qi, T.; Li, M.

    2016-02-01

    The main purpose of this work is to investigate the relationship between passive advection-dispersion and permeability in porous materials presumed to be statistically homogeneous at scales larger than the pore scale but smaller than the reservoir scale. We simulated fluid flow through pipe network realizations with different pipe radius distributions and different levels of connectivity. The flow simulations used periodic boundary conditions, allowing monitoring of the advective motion of solute particles in a large periodic array of identical network realizations. In order to simulate dispersion, we assumed that the solute particles obeyed Taylor dispersion in individual pipes. When a particle entered a pipe, a residence time consistent with local Taylor dispersion was randomly assigned to it. When exiting the pipe, the particle randomly proceeded into one of the pipes connected to the original one according to probabilities proportional to the outgoing volumetric flow in each pipe. For each simulation we tracked the motion of at least 6000 solute particles. The mean fluid velocity was 10-3 ms-1, and the distance traveled was on the order of 10 m. Macroscopic dispersion was quantified using the method of moments. Despite differences arising from using different types of lattices (simple cubic, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic), a number of general observations were made. Longitudinal dispersion was at least 1 order of magnitude greater than transverse dispersion, and both strongly increased with decreasing pore connectivity and/or pore size variability. In conditions of variable hydraulic radius and fixed pore connectivity and pore size variability, the simulated dispersivities increased as power laws of the hydraulic radius and, consequently, of permeability, in agreement with previously published experimental results. Based on these observations, we were able to resolve some of the complexity of the relationship between dispersivity and permeability.

  3. Market Efficiency and Real Efficiency: The Connect and Disconnect via Feedback Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Liyan Yang; Itay Goldstein

    2014-01-01

    We study a model to explore the (dis)connect between market efficiency and real efficiency when real decision makers learn information from the market to guide their actions. We emphasize two channels that determine whether the two efficiency concepts are aligned. The "externality channel" says that individual learning outcomes may not always map into real efficiency because the presence of externality causes real decision makers to overuse the price information. The "(mis)match channel" emph...

  4. Effects of connection of electrical and mechanical potentials in inverse osmosis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Farid; Chejne, Farid; Chejne, David; Velez, Fredy; Londono, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical dissertation and experimental assays of the irreversible phenomena applied to electro-kinetics and inverse osmosis is presented. Experimental assays were made on simple equipment to evidence the occurrence of connected irreversible phenomena between electric current flow and global mass flow. The coupling of these two phenomena allowed us to make conclusions about the possibility of reducing operation costs of the inverse osmosis equipment due to increasing the saline solution flow between 12% and 20%.

  5. Effects of connection of electrical and mechanical potentials in inverse osmosis processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Farid; Chejne, Farid; Chejne, David; Velez, Fredy; Londono, Carlos [Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas - TAYEA, Instituto de Energia, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Antigua (Colombia)

    2009-07-15

    A theoretical dissertation and experimental assays of the irreversible phenomena applied to electro-kinetics and inverse osmosis is presented. Experimental assays were made on simple equipment to evidence the occurrence of connected irreversible phenomena between electric current flow and global mass flow. The coupling of these two phenomena allowed us to make conclusions about the possibility of reducing operation costs of the inverse osmosis equipment due to increasing the saline solution flow between 12% and 20%. (author)

  6. Performance of IBS Precast Concrete Beam-Column Connections Under Earthquake Effects: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick T.L. Yee; Azlan B. Adnan; Abdul K. Mirasa; Ahmad B.A. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Despite demonstrating rather much benefits comparing to the conventional cast-in-place construction, the acceptance level of precast concrete building is still reportedly low in Malaysia. The implication imposed by stricter seismic design provisions would only worsen the matter. Approach: The main objective of this study was to identify the most appropriate type of beam-column connections to be introduced to precast concrete industry, particularly for re...

  7. The effects of patch shape and connectivity on nest site selection and reproductive success of the Indigo Bunting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldon, Aimee Jean

    2004-07-01

    Description – Ph.D Dissertation. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, North Carolina. 135 pp. Abatract - Habitat fragmentation and its associated effects have been blamed for the recent population declines of many Neotropical migratory bird species. Increased predation and parasitism resulting from edge-related effects have been implicated for poor nesting success in many studies, mostly of forest interior species. However, little attention has been devoted to disturbance-dependent birds. In this study, I examine how patch shape and connectivity in fragmented landscapes affects the reproductive success of disturbance-dependent bird species, specifically the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea). I conducted my study in a landscape-scale experimental system of similar-area habitat patches that differed in connectivity and in shape. Shapes differed between edgy and rectangular forms, where edgy patches contained 50% more edge than rectangular patches. I tested whether edgy patches function as ecological traps for species with strong edge preferences, by leading them to select dangerous habitats. Indigo Buntings preferentially selected edgy patches over rectangular patches, but experienced significantly lower reproductive success in edgy patches early in the season. Although predation pressure intensified in rectangular patches late in the season, seasonal fecundity was still significantly lower in edgy patches, providing the first empirical evidence that edges can function as ecological traps for Indigo Buntings. A second objective of my study was to evaluate the efficacy of conservation corridors for disturbance-dependent bird species. Conservation corridors have become a popular strategy to preserve biodiversity and promote gene flow in fragmented landscapes, but corridors may also have negative consequences. I tested the hypothesis that corridors can increase nest predation risk in connected patches relative to unconnected patches. Nest predation rates

  8. Network science and the effects of music preference on functional brain connectivity: from Beethoven to Eminem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, R W; Hodges, D A; Laurienti, P J; Steen, M; Burdette, J H

    2014-08-28

    Most people choose to listen to music that they prefer or 'like' such as classical, country or rock. Previous research has focused on how different characteristics of music (i.e., classical versus country) affect the brain. Yet, when listening to preferred music--regardless of the type--people report they often experience personal thoughts and memories. To date, understanding how this occurs in the brain has remained elusive. Using network science methods, we evaluated differences in functional brain connectivity when individuals listened to complete songs. We show that a circuit important for internally-focused thoughts, known as the default mode network, was most connected when listening to preferred music. We also show that listening to a favorite song alters the connectivity between auditory brain areas and the hippocampus, a region responsible for memory and social emotion consolidation. Given that musical preferences are uniquely individualized phenomena and that music can vary in acoustic complexity and the presence or absence of lyrics, the consistency of our results was unexpected. These findings may explain why comparable emotional and mental states can be experienced by people listening to music that differs as widely as Beethoven and Eminem. The neurobiological and neurorehabilitation implications of these results are discussed.

  9. Effects of internal and external vividness on hippocampal connectivity during memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Successful memory for an image can be supported by retrieval of one's personal reaction to the image (i.e., internal vividness), as well as retrieval of the specific details of the image itself (i.e., external vividness). Prior research suggests that memory vividness relies on regions within the medial temporal lobe, particularly the hippocampus, but it is unclear whether internal and external vividness are supported by the hippocampus in a similar way. To address this open question, the current study examined hippocampal connectivity associated with enhanced internal and external vividness ratings during retrieval. Participants encoded complex visual images paired with verbal titles. During a scanned retrieval session, they were presented with the titles and asked whether each had been seen with an image during encoding. Following retrieval of each image, participants were asked to rate internal and external vividness. Increased hippocampal activity was associated with higher vividness ratings for both scales, supporting prior evidence implicating the hippocampus in retrieval of memory detail. However, different patterns of hippocampal connectivity related to enhanced external and internal vividness. Further, hippocampal connectivity with medial prefrontal regions was associated with increased ratings of internal vividness, but with decreased ratings of external vividness. These findings suggest that the hippocampus may contribute to increased internal and external vividness via distinct mechanisms and that external and internal vividness of memories should be considered as separable measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceptual decision-making difficulty modulates feedforward effective connectivity to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhan eLamichhane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverse cortical structures are known to coordinate activity as a network in relaying and processing of visual information to discriminate visual objects. However, how this discrimination is achieved is still largely unknown. To contribute to answering this question, we used face-house categorization tasks with three levels of noise in face and house images in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments involving thirty-three participants. The behavioral performance error and response time (RT were correlated with noise in face-house images. We then built dynamical causal models (DCM of fMRI blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals from the face and house category-specific regions in ventral temporal cortex, the fusiform face area (FFA and parahippocampal place area (PPA, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC. We found a strong feed-forward intrinsic connectivity pattern from FFA and PPA to dlPFC. Importantly, the feed-forward connectivity to dlPFC was significantly modulated by the perception of both faces and houses. The dlPFC-BOLD activity, the connectivity from FFA and PPA to the dlPFC all increased with noise level. These results suggest that the FFA-PPA-dlPFC network plays an important role for relaying and integrating competing sensory information to arrive at perceptual decisions.

  11. Functional connectivity in task-negative network of the Deaf: effects of sign language experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie Malaia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies investigating cortical processing in Deaf signers suggest that life-long experience with sign language and/or auditory deprivation may alter the brain’s anatomical structure and the function of brain regions typically recruited for auditory processing (Emmorey et al., 2010; Pénicaud et al., 2013 inter alia. We report the first investigation of the task-negative network in Deaf signers and its functional connectivity—the temporal correlations among spatially remote neurophysiological events. We show that Deaf signers manifest increased functional connectivity between posterior cingulate/precuneus and left medial temporal gyrus (MTG, but also inferior parietal lobe and medial temporal gyrus in the right hemisphere- areas that have been found to show functional recruitment specifically during sign language processing. These findings suggest that the organization of the brain at the level of inter-network connectivity is likely affected by experience with processing visual language, although sensory deprivation could be another source of the difference. We hypothesize that connectivity alterations in the task negative network reflect predictive/automatized processing of the visual signal.

  12. Effects of Adhesive Connection on Composite Action between FRP Bridge Deck and Steel Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The FRP-steel girder composite bridge system is increasingly used in new constructions of bridges as well as rehabilitation of old bridges. However, the understanding of composite action between FRP decks and steel girders is limited and needs to be systematically investigated. In this paper, depending on the experimental investigations of FRP to steel girder system, the Finite Element (FE models on experiments were developed and analyzed. Comparison between experiments and FE results indicated that the FE models were much stiffer for in-plane shear stiffness of the FRP deck panel. To modify the FE models, rotational spring elements were added between webs and flanges of FRP decks, to simulate the semirigid connections. Numerical analyses were also conducted on four-point bending experiments of FRP-steel composite girders. Good agreement between experimental results and FE analysis was achieved by comparing the load-deflection curves at midspan and contribution of composite action from FRP decks. With the validated FE models, the parametric studies were conducted on adhesively bonded connection between FRP decks and steel girders, which indicated that the loading transfer capacity of adhesive connection was not simply dependent on the shear modulus or thickness of adhesive layer but dominated by the in-plane shear stiffness K.

  13. EEG-MEG Integration Enhances the Characterization of Functional and Effective Connectivity in the Resting State Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mideksa, Kidist Gebremariam; Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Stephani, Ulrich; Deuschl, Günther; Freitag, Christine M.; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    At the sensor level many aspects, such as spectral power, functional and effective connectivity as well as relative-power-ratio ratio (RPR) and spatial resolution have been comprehensively investigated through both electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite this, differences between both modalities have not yet been systematically studied by direct comparison. It remains an open question as to whether the integration of EEG and MEG data would improve the information obtained from the above mentioned parameters. Here, EEG (64-channel system) and MEG (275 sensor system) were recorded simultaneously in conditions with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) in 29 healthy adults. Spectral power, functional and effective connectivity, RPR, and spatial resolution were analyzed at five different frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma). Networks of functional and effective connectivity were described using a spatial filter approach called the dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) followed by the renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC). Absolute mean power at the sensor level was significantly higher in EEG than in MEG data in both EO and EC conditions. At the source level, there was a trend towards a better performance of the combined EEG+MEG analysis compared with separate EEG or MEG analyses for the source mean power, functional correlation, effective connectivity for both EO and EC. The network of coherent sources and the spatial resolution were similar for both the EEG and MEG data if they were analyzed separately. Results indicate that the combined approach has several advantages over the separate analyses of both EEG and MEG. Moreover, by a direct comparison of EEG and MEG, EEG was characterized by significantly higher values in all measured parameters in both sensor and source level. All the above conclusions are specific to the resting state task and the specific analysis used in this study to have general

  14. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING CLUSTER CONNECTION TOWARDS STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY AT THE EIGHTH GRADE OF MTs DARUL IHSAN DURI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to know The Effectiveness of Using Cluster Connection Towards The Students’ VocabularyMastery at The Eighth Graders at MTs Darul Ihsan Duri. Related to the object of the research, the researcher used experimental method. The design of the research was control and experiment group; pretest – posttest design. The research was conducted at MTs. Daru lIhsan Duri in the academic year 2015/2016. The population of this research was the eighth grade students of MTs Darul Ihsan Duri. The total population was 62 students. The sample of the research was class VIII.A as control class and class VIII.B as experimental class. Class VIII.A consisted of 31 students. Class VIII.B consisted of 31 students. In analyzing the research data, the researcher used Independent sampleT-Test. T-Test was used to know whether cluster connection technique is effective toward the students’ vocabulary mastery. The result of the research showed that using cluster connection technique was effective toward the students’ vocabulary mastery. Based on statistical calculation in data analysis, the researcher gave interpretation of posttest score in experiment class and the control class. From the calculation, t-test value was 2.627 and t-table was 2.00. Because t-test value (2.627 was higher than t-table (2.00, it could be concluded that alternative hypothesis (Ha was accepted and the null hypothesis (Ho was rejected. It means that teaching vocabulary by using cluster connection is effective

  15. Mapping effective connectivity in the human brain with concurrent intracranial electrical stimulation and BOLD-fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Magnotta, Vincent A; Kruger, Anton; Griffiths, Timothy D; Lemieux, Louis; Carmichael, David W; Petkov, Christopher I; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Kovach, Christopher K; Sutterer, Matthew J; Adolphs, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain function requires knowledge of how one brain region causally influences another. This information is difficult to obtain directly in the human brain, and is instead typically inferred from resting-state fMRI. Here, we demonstrate the safety and scientific promise of a novel and complementary approach: concurrent electrical stimulation and fMRI (es-fMRI) at 3T in awake neurosurgical patients with implanted depth electrodes. We document the results of safety testing, actual experimental setup, and stimulation parameters, that safely and reliably evoke activation in distal structures through stimulation of amygdala, cingulate, or prefrontal cortex. We compare connectivity inferred from the evoked patterns of activation with that estimated from standard resting-state fMRI in the same patients: while connectivity patterns obtained with each approach are correlated, each method produces unique results. Response patterns were stable over the course of 11min of es-fMRI runs. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD: es-fMRI in awake humans yields unique information about effective connectivity, complementing resting-state fMRI. Although our stimulations were below the level of inducing any apparent behavioral or perceptual effects, a next step would be to use es-fMRI to modulate task performances. This would reveal the acute network-level changes induced by the stimulation that mediate the behavioral and cognitive effects seen with brain stimulation. es-fMRI provides a novel and safe approach for mapping effective connectivity in the human brain in a clinical setting, and will inform treatments for psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders that use deep brain stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N.; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25–P30, ≥50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  17. Effects of small-world connectivity on noise-induced temporal and spatial order in neural media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perc, Matjaz

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of possible effects of small-world connectivity on noise-induced temporal and spatial order in a two-dimensional network of excitable neural media with FitzHugh-Nagumo local dynamics. Small-world networks are characterized by a given fraction of so-called long-range couplings or shortcut links that connect distant units of the system, while all other units are coupled in a diffusive-like manner. Interestingly, already a small fraction of these long-range couplings can have wide-ranging effects on the temporal as well as spatial noise-induced dynamics of the system. Here we present two main effects. First, we show that the temporal order, characterized by the autocorrelation of a firing-rate function, can be greatly enhanced by the introduction of small-world connectivity, whereby the effect increases with the increasing fraction of introduced shortcut links. Second, we show that the introduction of long-range couplings induces disorder of otherwise ordered, spiral-wave-like, noise-induced patterns that can be observed by exclusive diffusive connectivity of spatial units. Thereby, already a small fraction of shortcut links is sufficient to destroy coherent pattern formation in the media. Although the two results seem contradictive, we provide an explanation considering the inherent scale-free nature of small-world networks, which on one hand, facilitates signal transduction and thus temporal order in the system, whilst on the other hand, disrupts the internal spatial scale of the media thereby hindering the existence of coherent wave-like patterns. Additionally, the importance of spatially versus temporally ordered neural network functioning is discussed

  18. Effect of wind generation system types on Micro-Grid (MG) fault performance during both standalone and grid connected modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, Rashad M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper evaluated the effects of different wind system types on fault performance of Micro-Grid. • Both standalone and grid connected modes are considered. • The MG earthing system configuration is taken in consideration. - Abstract: Recently, there are three wind generation (WG) system types. The first type is called Fixed Speed Wind Generation (FSWG) system, which employs squirrel cage induction generators. Double Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is utilized in the second type. The third type is called Full Converter Wind Generation (FCWG) system, which is interfaced with Micro-Grid (MG) through a back to back converter. During fault occurrence, each WG has its performance and characteristics which are determined by the generator physical characteristics and the MG earthing system configuration. For some WG types, the fault current depends also on the control algorithm of the power converter. The main target of this paper is to investigate and estimate how the fault performance of MG during both standalone and grid-connected modes is influenced by the type of WG. It is found during standalone mode that the type of the employed WG has a dominant impact on the MG performance under fault disturbance. On the contrary, the type of the employed WG has a negligible effect on the MG fault performance during grid-connected mode. This is because the main grid contributes most of the fault current. Effects of earthing system type on MG performance are highlighted

  19. Effects of breed on milk fatty acid profile in dairy ewes, with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine and compare the fatty acid profile of milk fat, with particular reference to cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), in two indigenous Romanian sheep breeds (Spanca and Turcana), irrespective of the effects of diet and season. The ewes (n = 25 for each breed) received the ...

  20. Effect of dietary fat source on fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of supplementary dietary lipid sources on the fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of eggs. Five isoenergetic (12.6 MJ AME/kg DM) and isonitrogenous (170 g CP/kg DM) diets were formulated, using a control diet (50 : 50 blend of fish- and linseed oil), fish oil, sunflower oil, high oleic acid ...

  1. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  2. A simple method to minimize orientation effects in a profiling radiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; SrinivasaKumar, T.; Lotlikar, A.

    -fall radiometer is found to be a better option for measuring underwater light parameters as it avoids the effects of ship shadow and is easy to operate, the measurements demand profiling the radiometer vertical in water with minimum tilt. Here we present...

  3. The effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers on release profiles of diclofenac sodium from matrix tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Imamul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that Diclofenac could be successfully prepared using an appropriate amount of Methocel K15 MCR® and CA in the form of matrix tablets with similar dissolution profile of patent product Voltaren SR® . The type of polymers used was found to induce a profound effect on release rate and mechanism.

  4. Effect of aquatic exercise training on lipids profile and glycaemia: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Delevatti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aquatic exercise training on glycaemia and lipids profile. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed assessing the effects of aquatic exercise and/or training in upright position on lipids profile and glycaemic index. Two raters independently assessed the eligibility criteria and the methodological quality of the studies using the PEDro scale. Average and standard deviation of all variables significantly altered by the interventions were extracted for calculating percentage alterations. Three studies involving the acute effect of aquatic aerobic exercise on the variables of interest were analysed, with two of them demonstrating the efficacy of this type of training in improving lipids profile. Nine studies involving the chronic effects of aquatic training on the same variables were also analysed; eight of them, which assessed different training interventions for different populations, reported benefits of exercise regarding these variables. In conclusion, the improvements found in response to aquatic exercise training in upright position in glycaemia and lipids profile indicate the aquatic environment as a favourable environment for conducting exercise programmes.

  5. Effect of Cassia hirsuta (L) extract on DNA profile of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ethanol extract of leaf of Cassia hirsute (L) on the DNA profile of some selected pathogenic microorganisms were investigated using PCR-RAPD analysis to generate DNA fingerprint. The change in molecular configuration of organisms with and without extract shows a wide disparity between the sensitive and ...

  6. Effect of soy protein on serum lipid profile and some lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of soy protein on serum lipid profile and some lipid metabolizing enzymes in rats fed with cholesterol diets was examined in this study. Rats were subjected to feeding trial over a period of six weeks on formulated diets containing: 20% soy protein with 0% cholesterol (group A), 20% soy protein with 5% cholesterol ...

  7. A profile of effective leadership in some South African high-poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The struggle of high-poverty schools for survival is well documented. Some have overcome poverty-related odds and performed exceptionally well, prompting the following research question: What elements constitute a profile of effective leadership in high-poverty schools? Investigations conducted at six successful

  8. Effects of DTM resolution on slope steepness and soil loss prediction on hillslope profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder Paulo Moreira; William J. Elliot; Andrew T. Hudak

    2011-01-01

    Topographic attributes play a critical role in predicting erosion in models such as the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). The effects of four different high resolution hillslope profiles were studied using four different DTM resolutions: 1-m, 3-m, 5-m and 10-m. The WEPP model used a common scenario encountered in the forest environment and the selected hillslope...

  9. Effects of tetracycline administration on the proteomic profile of pig muscle samples (L. dorsi)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gratacos-Cubarsi, M.; Castellari, M.; Hortos, M.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of tetracycline (TC) administration on the proteomic profile of pig muscle was evaluated by 2D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The TC content at slaughter was determined in L. dorsi samples by HPLC-DAD. Mean residual concentration of TC in the muscle of treated animals, ca...

  10. A Profile Analysis on the Effectiveness of Two kinds of Feeds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Profile Analysis on the Effectiveness of Two kinds of Feeds on Poultry. Birds. Onuoha, Desmond O+. and Opara Pius N*. +Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal ... birds using chicken from Michika Farm in Igwuruta in Port Harcourt, Rivers State as a case study. .... easy to manage, regularly lay eggs, disease.

  11. Novel Profiling Model and Side Effects of Helical Scan Silicon Heads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hozoi, A.; Groenland, J.P.J.; Albertini, J.B.; Lodder, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Partial erasure of track edges was directly measured from triple-track patterns using a novel model to interpret the output profiles. The model is based on representing the read head as the sum of a reference width, wavelength independent, and two side reading effective widths that are wavelength

  12. The effect of mandrel configuration on the warpage in pultrusion of rectangular hollow profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    pultrusion company. In addition, the predicted warpage behaviour is further analysed by adjusting the mandrel length as well as including the mandrel heating. Using the proposed process model, the effect of the mandrel configurations on the quality of the pultrusion is investigated in terms of temperature......, degree of cure and distortions.These unwanted residual distortions may lead to not meeting the desired geometrical tolerances e.g. warpage of pultruded window frames and hollow profiles as well as spring-in of L-shaped profiles, etc....

  13. Impaired functional connectivity of brain reward circuitry in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use disorder: Effects of cannabis and THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Adina S; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Roth, Robert M; Brunette, Mary F; Green, Alan I

    2014-09-01

    Cannabis use disorder (CUD) occurs in up to 42% of patients with schizophrenia and substantially worsens disease progression. The basis of CUD in schizophrenia is unclear and available treatments are rarely successful at limiting cannabis use. We have proposed that a dysregulated brain reward circuit (BRC) may underpin cannabis use in these patients. In the present pilot study, we used whole-brain seed-to-voxel resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) to examine the BRC of patients with schizophrenia and CUD, and to explore the effects of smoked cannabis and orally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the BRC. 12 patients with schizophrenia and CUD and 12 control subjects each completed two fMRI resting scans, with patients administered either a 3.6% THC cannabis cigarette (n=6) or a 15 mg THC capsule (n=6) prior to their second scan. Results revealed significantly reduced connectivity at baseline in patients relative to controls, with most pronounced hypoconnectivity found between the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortical BRC regions (i.e., anterior prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex). Both cannabis and THC administration increased connectivity between these regions, in direct correlation with increases in plasma THC levels. This study is the first to investigate interregional connectivity of the BRC and the effects of cannabis and THC on this circuit in patients with schizophrenia and CUD. The findings from this pilot study support the use of rs-fc as a means of measuring the integrity of the BRC and the effects of pharmacologic agents acting on this circuit in patients with schizophrenia and CUD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Mission profile resolution effects on lifetime estimation of doubly-fed induction generator power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guanguan; Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    , and the corresponding thermal modeling of power semiconductors are discussed. Accordingly, effects of different mission profiles on the consumed lifetime of the power converter are evaluated. In the above three thermal cycles, the IGBT of the grid-side converter and the diode of the rotor-side converter are more...... fragile, and the total consumed lifetimes are higher. Moreover, the short-term thermal cycles with milliseconds resolution induce the unbalance of the lifetime between the diode and IGBT of the grid-side converter, while thermal cycles with hour, second, and millisecond resolution consumes the similar......In the wind energy generation system, mission profiles are complicated, which range from seconds to years. In order to estimate the consumed lifetime of the power converter, wind speed profiles with the time resolution of 1 hour, 1 second and 0.5 millisecond are studied in this paper...

  15. Density profile effects on confinement and MHD stability of currentless NBI plasmas in Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Shigeru; Zushi, Hideki; Kondo, Katsumi

    1993-01-01

    Density profile effects on confinement and MHD stability of currentless NBI plasmas in Heliotron E are studied. The peaked density profile produced by pellet injection increases the stored energy by 20-30% compared to the gas puffed plasmas which obey the empirical stellarator/heliotron scaling in a moderate density range. In contrast to confinement, the peaked pressure profile tends to destabilize the plasma. By limiter insertion, MHD instability occurs (seems to locate near ι/2π=1) even in case of low β (β 0 ≤1%, where β 0 is the central β value) plasmas. On the other hand, the mode of m/n=3/2 at ι/2π=2/3, seems to be a key parameter to the major MHD instability in case of high β (β 0 ≥2%) plasmas. (author)

  16. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-08-18

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. {bar P}), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g.

    ).

  17. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. (bar P)), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g. ).

  18. Effective Connectivity of Cortical Sensorimotor Networks During Finger Movement Tasks: A Simultaneous fNIRS, fMRI, EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, A R; Muthalib, M; Perrey, S; Galka, A; Granert, O; Wolff, S; Heute, U; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J; Muthuraman, Muthuraman

    2016-09-01

    Recently, interest has been growing to understand the underlying dynamic directional relationship between simultaneously activated regions of the brain during motor task performance. Such directionality analysis (or effective connectivity analysis), based on non-invasive electrophysiological (electroencephalography-EEG) and hemodynamic (functional near infrared spectroscopy-fNIRS; and functional magnetic resonance imaging-fMRI) neuroimaging modalities can provide an estimate of the motor task-related information flow from one brain region to another. Since EEG, fNIRS and fMRI modalities achieve different spatial and temporal resolutions of motor-task related activation in the brain, the aim of this study was to determine the effective connectivity of cortico-cortical sensorimotor networks during finger movement tasks measured by each neuroimaging modality. Nine healthy subjects performed right hand finger movement tasks of different complexity (simple finger tapping-FT, simple finger sequence-SFS, and complex finger sequence-CFS). We focused our observations on three cortical regions of interest (ROIs), namely the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC), the contralateral premotor cortex (PMC) and the contralateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We estimated the effective connectivity between these ROIs using conditional Granger causality (GC) analysis determined from the time series signals measured by fMRI (blood oxygenation level-dependent-BOLD), fNIRS (oxygenated-O2Hb and deoxygenated-HHb hemoglobin), and EEG (scalp and source level analysis) neuroimaging modalities. The effective connectivity analysis showed significant bi-directional information flow between the SMC, PMC, and DLPFC as determined by the EEG (scalp and source), fMRI (BOLD) and fNIRS (O2Hb and HHb) modalities for all three motor tasks. However the source level EEG GC values were significantly greater than the other modalities. In addition, only the source level EEG showed a

  19. Effective connectivity within the frontoparietal control network differentiates cognitive control and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Ian H; Yücel, Murat; Harrison, Ben J; Pantelis, Christos; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive control and working memory rely upon a common fronto-parietal network that includes the inferior frontal junction (IFJ), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), pre-supplementary motor area/dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (pSMA/dACC), and intraparietal sulcus (IPS). This network is able to flexibly adapt its function in response to changing behavioral goals, mediating a wide range of cognitive demands. Here we apply dynamic causal modeling to functional magnetic resonance imaging data to characterize task-related alterations in the strength of network interactions across distinct cognitive processes. Evidence in favor of task-related connectivity dynamics was accrued across a very large space of possible network structures. Cognitive control and working memory demands were manipulated using a factorial combination of the multi-source interference task and a verbal 2-back working memory task, respectively. Both were found to alter the sensitivity of the IFJ to perceptual information, and to increase IFJ-to-pSMA/dACC connectivity. In contrast, increased connectivity from the pSMA/dACC to the IPS, as well as from the dlPFC to the IFJ, was uniquely driven by cognitive control demands; a task-induced negative influence of the dlPFC on the pSMA/dACC was specific to working memory demands. These results reflect a system of both shared and unique context-dependent dynamics within the fronto-parietal network. Mechanisms supporting cognitive engagement, response selection, and action evaluation may be shared across cognitive domains, while dynamic updating of task and context representations within this network are potentially specific to changing demands on cognitive control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on preloaded abutment screw using three-dimensional finite element analysis: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Chaitanya Kanneganti; Dileep Nag Vinnakota; Srinivas Rao Pottem; Mahesh Pulagam

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on screw loosening (SL) of preloaded abutment using three dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: 3D models of implants (conical connection with hex/trilobed connections), abutments (straight/angulated), abutment screws (short/long), and crown and bone were designed using software Parametric Technology Corporation Creo and assembled t...

  1. Effects of bleomycin and x irradiation on the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in selected connective tissue diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, W.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Whole blood lymphocytes from 28 patients with selected connective tissue disorders (6 progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 6 anti-nuclear antibody positive rheumatoid arthritis, 6 anti-nuclear antibody negative rheumatoid arthritis, 6 systemic lupus erythematosus, and 4 mixed connective tissue disease) and 17 controls matched for sex, age, and race were studied to determine the frequency of spontaneous as well as bleomycin and/or x-irradiation induced chromosomal aberrations. The effects of bleomycin on cultured lymphocytes were tested, but differential susceptibilities to this clastogen were not demonstrated among the disease groups and controls investigated. However, the combined effect of bleomycin and x irradiation were found to be additive in control lymphocytes, nearly additive in PSS, RA+, and SLE cultures, but reduced considerably from the expected additive value in Ra- cultures. This study indicated that peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with connective tissue disease, as a whole, possess greater frequencies of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations than matched controls and that x rays can produce greater frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in whole blood lymphocytes of PSS patients than in suitably matched control individuals

  2. An investigation on the effect of gusset plate connection rigidity on the seismic behavior of special concentrically braced frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Esnaashari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs are commonly used to resist lateral loads in buildings. The bracing system sustains large deformations due to inelastic behavior in bracing members (buckling and yielding in tension. Generally, in the conventional modeling strategy, the effect of gusset plates in providing beam-column connections rigidity and hence, improving the post-buckling performance of these frames is not taken into account. This paper deals with the effect of gusset plate rigidity on the seismic behavior of SCBFs using Roeder’s proposed model in the literature. In this paper, four 3, 6, 9 and 12-story SCBFs were designed and modeled using two distinct methods: conventional method with hinged connections and Roeder’s method with semi-rigid connections. Then, the models behavior was investigated with both pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analysis using OpenSees software. The results showed that lateral load capacity of the frames modeled with the Roeder’s proposed model are about 10% larger than the conventional method’s capacity. Also, it was found that the semi-rigid model leads to a less drift ratios and more overstrength factors.

  3. Abnormal resting state effective connectivity within the default mode network in major depressive disorder: A spectral dynamic causal modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Baojuan; Bai, Yuanhan; Liu, Wenlei; Wang, Huaning; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Tian, Ping; Zhang, Linchuan; Guo, Fan; Cui, Long-Biao; Yin, Hong; Lu, Hongbing; Tan, Qingrong

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the neural basis underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder. Aberrant activation and functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) have been consistently found in patients with MDD. It is not known whether effective connectivity within the DMN is altered in MDD. The primary object of this study is to investigate the effective connectivity within the DMN during resting state in MDD patients before and after eight weeks of antidepressant treatment. We defined four regions of the DMN (medial frontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, left parietal cortex, and right parietal cortex) for each participant using a group independent component analysis. The coupling parameters reflecting the causal interactions among the DMN regions were estimated using spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM). Twenty-seven MDD patients and 27 healthy controls were included in the statistical analysis. Our results showed declined influences from the left parietal cortex to other DMN regions in the pre-treatment patients as compared with healthy controls. After eight weeks of treatment, the influence from the right parietal cortex to the posterior cingulate cortex significantly decreased. These findings suggest that the reduced excitatory causal influence of the left parietal cortex is the key alteration of the DMN in patients with MDD, and the disrupted causal influences that parietal cortex exerts on the posterior cingulate cortex is responsive to antidepressant treatment.

  4. Beneficial effects of recreational football on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, P. R.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiovascular health effects of 16 weeks of recreational football training in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with continuous running training. Fifty healthy women were matched and randomized to a football (FG, n=25) or a running (RG, n=25) group......, regular recreational football training has significant favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women and is at the least as efficient as continuous running....

  5. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING CLUSTER CONNECTION TOWARDS STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY AT THE EIGHTH GRADE OF MTs DARUL IHSAN DURI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    setiawati setiawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keefektifan penggunaan cluster connection terhadap penguasaan kosakata siswa pada siswa kelas 8 MTs Darul Ihsan Duri. Behubungan dengan objek penelitian, peneliti menggunakan metode eksperimen. Model penelitiannya adalah kelompok pretest--post test untuk kelas control dan eksperimen. Penelitian ini diadakan pada MTs Darul Ihsan Duri pada tahun akademik 2015/2016. Populasi penelitian ini adalah kelas 8 MTs Darul Ihsan Duri pada tahun akademik 2015/2016. Total populasi penelitian adalah 62 siswa. Sampel penelitian ini adalah kelas VIII.A sebagai kelas kontrol, dan VIII.B sebagai kelas eksperimen. Kelas VIII.A terdiri atas 31 siswa. Kelas VIII.B terdiri atas 31 siswa. Dalam menganalisis data peneliti menggunakan Independent Sample T-Test. T-Test digunakan untuk mengetahui apakah teknik cluster connection effektif terhadap penguasaaan kosakata siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa penggunaan teknik cluster connection efektif terhadap penguasaaan kosakata siswa. Berdasarkan perhitungan statistic dalam menganalisis data peneliti memberikan tafsiran skor postest pada kelas eksperimen dan kelas kontrol. Dari perhitungan, t-test adalah 2.627 dan t-table adalah 2.00. karena nilai t-test (2.627 lebih tinggi dari pada t-table (2.00. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa alternative hipotesis (Ha diterima dan hipotesis null (Ho ditolak. Ini berarti pengajaran kosakata dengan teknik cluster connection adalah efektif.   This study aimed to know The Effectiveness of Using Cluster Connection Towards The Students’ VocabularyMastery at The Eighth Graders at MTs Darul Ihsan Duri. Related to the object of the research, the researcher used experimental method. The design of the research was control and experiment group; pretest – posttest design. The research was conducted at MTs. Daru lIhsan Duri in the academic year 2015/2016. The population of this research was the eighth grade students of MTs Darul Ihsan

  6. Effect of administration of oral contraceptives in vivo on collagen synthesis in tendon and muscle connective tissue in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Miller, B F; Holm, L

    2009-01-01

    concentrations of estradiol and progesterone (control, n = 12). Subjects performed 1 h of one-legged kicking exercise. The next day collagen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) in tendon and muscle connective tissue were measured after a flooding dose of [(13)C]proline followed by biopsies from the patellar tendon......, body composition, and exercise-training status were included. The two groups were either habitual users of oral contraceptives exposed to a high concentration of synthetic estradiol and progestogens (OC, n = 11), or non-OC-users tested in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle characterized by low...... bioavailability of IGF-I in OC. In conclusion, synthetic female sex hormones administered as OC had an inhibiting effect on collagen synthesis in tendon, bone, and muscle connective tissue, which may be related to a lower bioavailability of IGF-I....

  7. Effect of residual stress on the integrity of a branch connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.; Kirstein, O.; Luzin, V.

    2012-01-01

    A new connection to an existing gas pipeline was made by hot-tapping, welding directly onto a pressurised pipeline. The welds were not post-weld heat treated, causing significant residual stresses. The critical weld had residual stresses determined by neutron diffraction using ANSTO's residual stress diffractometer, Kowari. The maximum measured residual stress (290 MPa) was 60% of the yield strength. The magnitudes of errors from a number of sources were estimated. An integrity assessment of the welded branch connection was performed with the measured residual stress values and with residual stress distributions from the BS 7910 and API 579 analysis codes. Analysis using estimates of residual stress from API 579 overestimated the critical crack size. Highlights: ► Residual stresses were measured by neutron diffraction in a thick section, non post-weld heat treated ferritic weld. ► There is little published data on these welds. ► The work compares the measured residual stresses with code-based residual stress distributions.

  8. Effects of neck and circumoesophageal connective lesions on posture and locomotion in the cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgel, Angela L; Ritzmann, Roy E

    2005-06-01

    Few studies in arthropods have documented to what extent local control centers in the thorax can support locomotion in absence of inputs from head ganglia. Posture, walking, and leg motor activity was examined in cockroaches with lesions of neck or circumoesophageal connectives. Early in recovery, cockroaches with neck lesions had hyper-extended postures and did not walk. After recovery, posture was less hyper-extended and animals initiated slow leg movements for multiple cycles. Neck lesioned individuals showed an increase in walking after injection of either octopamine or pilocarpine. The phase of leg movement between segments was reduced in neck lesioned cockroaches from that seen in intact animals, while phases in the same segment remained constant. Neither octopamine nor pilocarpine initiated changes in coordination between segments in neck lesioned individuals. Animals with lesions of the circumoesophageal connectives had postures similar to intact individuals but walked in a tripod gait for extended periods of time. Changes in activity of slow tibial extensor and coxal depressor motor neurons and concomitant changes in leg joint angles were present after the lesions. This suggests that thoracic circuits are sufficient to produce leg movements but coordinated walking with normal motor patterns requires descending input from head ganglia.

  9. GC-MS metabolic profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars during grapevine berry development and network analysis reveals a stage- and cultivar-dependent connectivity of primary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros-Inostroza, Alvaro; Ruíz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique; Eckardt, Aenne; Willmitzer, Lothar; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    Information about the total chemical composition of primary metabolites during grape berry development is scarce, as are comparative studies trying to understand to what extent metabolite modifications differ between cultivars during ripening. Thus, correlating the metabolic profiles with the changes occurring in berry development and ripening processes is essential to progress in their comprehension as well in the development of new approaches to improve fruit attributes. Here, the developmental metabolic profiling analysis across six stages from flowering to fully mature berries of two cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, is reported at metabolite level. Based on a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry untargeted approach, 115 metabolites were identified and relative quantified in both cultivars. Sugars and amino acids levels show an opposite behaviour in both cultivars undergoing a highly coordinated shift of metabolite associated to primary metabolism during the stages involved in growth, development and ripening of berries. The changes are characteristic for each stage, the most pronounced ones occuring at fruit setting and pre-Veraison. They are associated to a reduction of the levels of metabolites present in the earlier corresponding stage, revealing a required catabolic activity of primary metabolites for grape berry developmental process. Network analysis revealed that the network connectivity of primary metabolites is stage- and cultivar-dependent, suggesting differences in metabolism regulation between both cultivars as the maturity process progresses. Furthermore, network analysis may represent an appropriate method to display the association between primary metabolites during berry developmental processes among different grapevine cultivars and for identifying potential biologically relevant metabolites.

  10. Method of improving heterogeneous oil reservoir polymer flooding effect by positively-charged gel profile control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Xia, Huifen

    2018-01-01

    The project of polymer flooding has achieved great success in Daqing oilfield, and the main oil reservoir recovery can be improved by more than 15%. But, for some strong oil reservoir heterogeneity carrying out polymer flooding, polymer solution will be inefficient and invalid loop problem in the high permeability layer, then cause the larger polymer volume, and a significant reduction in the polymer flooding efficiency. Aiming at this problem, it is studied the method that improves heterogeneous oil reservoir polymer flooding effect by positively-charged gel profile control. The research results show that the polymer physical and chemical reaction of positively-charged gel with the residual polymer in high permeability layer can generate three-dimensional network of polymer, plugging high permeable layer, and increase injection pressure gradient, then improve the effect of polymer flooding development. Under the condition of the same dosage, positively-charged gel profile control can improve the polymer flooding recovery factor by 2.3∼3.8 percentage points. Under the condition of the same polymer flooding recovery factor increase value, after positively-charged gel profile control, it can reduce the polymer volume by 50 %. Applying mechanism of positively-charged gel profile control technology is feasible, cost savings, simple construction, and no environmental pollution, therefore has good application prospect.

  11. Effect of dactyloscopic powders on DNA profiling from enhanced fingerprints: results from an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, Pamela; Giuliodori, Alice; Rodriguez, Daniele; Caenazzo, Luciana

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a study on the effect of fingerprint enhancement methods on subsequent short tandem repeat profiling. First, we performed a study typing blood traces deposited on 5 different surfaces, treated with 8 types of dactyloscopic powders. Three different DNA extraction methods were used. Subsequently, we analyzed latent fingerprints on the same 5 surfaces enhanced with the 8 different powders used in the first part of the study. This study has demonstrated that DNA profiling can be performed on fingerprints left on different substrates, and the substrate will affect the amount of DNA that can be recovered for DNA typing. In the first phase of the study, a profile was obtained in 92% of the 120 samples analyzed; in the second part, in 55% of the 80 samples analyzed, we obtained a profile complete in 32.5% of the cases. From the results obtained, it seems that the powders used in latent fingerprints enhancement, rather than having a direct inhibitory effect on extraction and amplification of DNA, may cause partial degradation of DNA, reducing the efficiency of amplification reaction. It should not be forgotten that these results were obtained under laboratory conditions, and in real caseworks, there may still be different problems involved.

  12. Effect of masticatory stimulation on the quantity and quality of saliva and the salivary metabolomic profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Okuma

    Full Text Available This study characterized the changes in quality and quantity of saliva, and changes in the salivary metabolomic profile, to understand the effects of masticatory stimulation.Stimulated and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 55 subjects and salivary hydrophilic metabolites were comprehensively quantified using capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.In total, 137 metabolites were identified and quantified. The concentrations of 44 metabolites in stimulated saliva were significantly higher than those in unstimulated saliva. Pathway analysis identified the upregulation of the urea cycle and synthesis and degradation pathways of glycine, serine, cysteine and threonine in stimulated saliva. A principal component analysis revealed that the effect of masticatory stimulation on salivary metabolomic profiles was less dependent on sample population sex, age, and smoking. The concentrations of only 1 metabolite in unstimulated saliva, and of 3 metabolites stimulated saliva, showed significant correlation with salivary secretion volume, indicating that the salivary metabolomic profile and salivary secretion volume were independent factors.Masticatory stimulation affected not only salivary secretion volume, but also metabolite concentration patterns. A low correlation between the secretion volume and these patterns supports the conclusion that the salivary metabolomic profile may be a new indicator to characterize masticatory stimulation.

  13. Sensing coral reef connectivity pathways from space

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Zhan, Peng; Dreano, Denis; Pradhan, Yaswant; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs rely on inter-habitat connectivity to maintain gene flow, biodiversity and ecosystem resilience. Coral reef communities of the Red Sea exhibit remarkable genetic homogeneity across most of the Arabian Peninsula coastline, with a genetic break towards the southern part of the basin. While previous studies have attributed these patterns to environmental heterogeneity, we hypothesize that they may also emerge as a result of dynamic circulation flow; yet, such linkages remain undemonstrated. Here, we integrate satellite-derived biophysical observations, particle dispersion model simulations, genetic population data and ship-borne in situ profiles to assess reef connectivity in the Red Sea. We simulated long-term (>20 yrs.) connectivity patterns driven by remotely-sensed sea surface height and evaluated results against estimates of genetic distance among populations of anemonefish, Amphiprion bicinctus, along the eastern Red Sea coastline. Predicted connectivity was remarkably consistent with genetic population data, demonstrating that circulation features (eddies, surface currents) formulate physical pathways for gene flow. The southern basin has lower physical connectivity than elsewhere, agreeing with known genetic structure of coral reef organisms. The central Red Sea provides key source regions, meriting conservation priority. Our analysis demonstrates a cost-effective tool to estimate biophysical connectivity remotely, supporting coastal management in data-limited regions.

  14. Sensing coral reef connectivity pathways from space

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.

    2017-08-18

    Coral reefs rely on inter-habitat connectivity to maintain gene flow, biodiversity and ecosystem resilience. Coral reef communities of the Red Sea exhibit remarkable genetic homogeneity across most of the Arabian Peninsula coastline, with a genetic break towards the southern part of the basin. While previous studies have attributed these patterns to environmental heterogeneity, we hypothesize that they may also emerge as a result of dynamic circulation flow; yet, such linkages remain undemonstrated. Here, we integrate satellite-derived biophysical observations, particle dispersion model simulations, genetic population data and ship-borne in situ profiles to assess reef connectivity in the Red Sea. We simulated long-term (>20 yrs.) connectivity patterns driven by remotely-sensed sea surface height and evaluated results against estimates of genetic distance among populations of anemonefish, Amphiprion bicinctus, along the eastern Red Sea coastline. Predicted connectivity was remarkably consistent with genetic population data, demonstrating that circulation features (eddies, surface currents) formulate physical pathways for gene flow. The southern basin has lower physical connectivity than elsewhere, agreeing with known genetic structure of coral reef organisms. The central Red Sea provides key source regions, meriting conservation priority. Our analysis demonstrates a cost-effective tool to estimate biophysical connectivity remotely, supporting coastal management in data-limited regions.

  15. Behavior of hybrid high-strength fiber reinforced concrete slab-column connections under the effect of high tempera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham H. Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concrete can be modified to perform in a more ductile form by the addition of randomly distributed discrete fibers in the concrete matrix. The combined effect of the addition of two types of fibers (steel fiber and polypropylene fiber with different percentages to concrete matrix, which is called hybrid effect is currently under investigation worldwide. The current research work presents the conducted experimental program to observe the behavior of hybrid high strength reinforced concrete slab-column connections under the effect of high temperature. For this purpose, ten slab-column connections were casted and tested. The experimental program was designed to investigate the effect of different variables such as concrete mixture, column location and temperature fighting system. All specimens were exposed to a temperature of 500 °C for duration of two hours. To observe the effect of each variable, specimens were divided into four groups according to the studied parameters. The test results revealed that using hybrid high strength concrete HFHSC produced more strength in punching failure compared with high strength concrete HSC when exposed to elevated temperature. Fighting by air had higher initial crack load compared with that for without fighting and fighting by water. On the other hand, fighting by water decreased the ultimate load.

  16. The effectiveness of community-based cycling promotion: findings from the Cycling Connecting Communities project in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encouraging cycling is an important way to increase physical activity in the community. The Cycling Connecting Communities (CCC Project is a community-based cycling promotion program that included a range of community engagement and social marketing activities, such as organised bike rides and events, cycling skills courses, the distribution of cycling maps of the area and coverage in the local press. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this program designed to encourage the use of newly completed off-road cycle paths through south west Sydney, Australia. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design that consisted of a pre- and post-intervention telephone survey (24 months apart of a cohort of residents (n = 909 in the intervention area (n = 520 (Fairfield and Liverpool and a socio-demographically similar comparison area (n = 389 (Bankstown. Both areas had similar bicycle infrastructure. Four bicycle counters were placed on the main bicycle paths in the intervention and comparison areas to monitor daily bicycle use before and after the intervention. Results The telephone survey results showed significantly greater awareness of the Cycling Connecting Communities project (13.5% vs 8.0%, p Conclusion Despite relatively modest resources, the Cycling Connecting Communities project achieved significant increases in bicycle path use, and increased cycling in some sub-groups. However, this community based intervention with limited funding had very limited reach into the community and did not increase population cycling levels.

  17. Effects of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents' motivation to eat and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie C; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Germeroth, Lisa J; Roemmich, James N

    2012-01-01

    Assess the effect of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents' motivation to eat and their energy intake. Participants (n = 103; M age = 13.6 years) were either ostracized or included when playing a computer game, Cyberball. Next, they wrote about their friend (social-connection), watched television (distraction), or completed Sudoku puzzles (cognitive-load), and then completed a task to earn points toward snack food and/or socializing. Afterwards, participants were given access to food and social activities. Ostracized adolescents were more motivated to earn food than adolescents who were in the included/control condition. Follow-up contrasts indicated that ostracized adolescents who wrote about friends worked more for food points and consumed more food than other adolescents. Results suggest that social connection-related activities following ostracism may further deplete self-regulatory resources, thereby resulting in increased unhealthy food patterns. Study limitations as well as clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Attentional control underlies the perceptual load effect: Evidence from voxel-wise degree centrality and resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shouhang; Liu, Lu; Tan, Jinfeng; Ding, Cody; Yao, Dezhong; Chen, Antao

    2017-10-24

    The fact that interference from peripheral distracting information can be reduced in high perceptual load tasks has been widely demonstrated in previous research. The modulation from the perceptual load is known as perceptual load effect (PLE). Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on perceptual load have reported the brain areas implicated in attentional control. To date, the contribution of attentional control to PLE and the relationship between the organization of functional connectivity and PLE are still poorly understood. In the present study, we used resting-state fMRI to explore the association between the voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) and PLE in an individual differences design and further investigated the potential resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) contributing to individual's PLE. DC-PLE correlation analysis revealed that PLE was positively associated with the right middle temporal visual area (MT)-one of dorsal attention network (DAN) nodes. Furthermore, the right MT functionally connected to the conventional DAN and the RSFCs between right MT and DAN nodes were also positively associated with individual difference in PLE. The results suggest an important role of attentional control in perceptual load tasks and provide novel insights into the understanding of the neural correlates underlying PLE. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Internet Connectivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Internet Connectivity. BSNL, SIFY, HCL in Guwahati; only BSNL elsewhere in NE (local player in Shillong). Service poor; All vendors lease BW from BSNL.

  20. Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum topromote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seekto enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of theeducational system are welcome.

  1. HR Connect

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — HR Connect is the USAID HR personnel system which allows HR professionals to process HR actions related to employee's personal and position information. This system...

  2. Altered effective connectivity contributes to micrographia in patients with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Evelien; Nieuwboer, Alice; Broeder, Sanne; Swinnen, Stephan; Vandenberghe, Wim; Heremans, Elke

    2018-02-01

    Recently, it was shown that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) can also experience freezing episodes during handwriting and present writing problems outside these episodes. So far, the neural networks underlying increased handwriting problems in subjects with FOG are unclear. This study used dynamic causal modeling of fMRI data to investigate neural network dynamics underlying freezing-related handwriting problems and how these networks changed in response to visual cues. Twenty-seven non-freezers and ten freezers performed a pre-writing task with and without visual cues in the scanner with their right hand. The results showed that freezers and non-freezers were able to recruit networks involved in cued and uncued writing in a similar fashion. Whole group analysis also revealed a trend towards altered visuomotor integration in patients with FOG. Next, we controlled for differences in disease severity between both patient groups using a sensitivity analysis. For this, a subgroup of ten non-freezers matched for disease severity was selected by an independent researcher. This analysis further exposed significantly weaker coupling in mostly left hemispheric visuo-parietal, parietal - supplementary motor area, parietal - premotor, and premotor-M1 pathways in freezers compared to non-freezers, irrespective of cues. Correlation analyses revealed that these impairments in connectivity were related to writing amplitude and quality. Taken together, these findings show that freezers have reduced involvement of the supplementary motor area in the motor network, which explains the impaired writing amplitude regulation in this group. In addition, weaker supportive premotor connectivity may have contributed to micrographia in freezers, a pattern that was independent of cueing.

  3. Modeling the Effects of Connecting Side Channels to the Long Tom River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, C.; McDowell, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    The lower Long Tom River is a heavily managed, highly modified stream in the southwestern Willamette Valley with many opportunities for habitat improvements and river restoration. In the 1940s and 1950s, the US Army Corps of Engineers dramatically altered this river system by constructing the Fern Ridge Dam and three, large drop structures, converting the River from a highly sinuous channel to a straight, channelized stream that is interrupted by these grade control structures, and removed the majority of the riparian vegetation. As a result, juvenile spring Chinook salmon are no longer found in the Watershed and the local population of coastal cutthroat trout face limited aquatic habitat. When the river was channelized, long sections of the historical channel were left abandoned on the floodplain. Reconnecting these historical channels as side channels may improve the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat and could allow fish passage around current barriers. However, such construction may also lead to undesirable threats to infrastructure and farmland. This study uses multiple HEC-RAS models to determine the impact of reconnecting two historical channels to the lower Long Tom River by quantifying the change in area of flood inundation and identifying infrastructure in jeapordy given current and post-restoration conditions for 1.5, 5, 10, and 25-year flood discharges. Bathymetric data from ADCP and RTK-GPS surveys has been combined with LiDAR-derived topographic data to create continuous elevation models. Several types of side channel connections are modeled in order to determine which type of connection will result in both the greatest quantity of accessible habitat and the fewest threats to public and private property. In the future, this study will also consider the change in the quantity of physical salmonid habitat and map the areas prone to sedimentation and erosion using CEASAR and PHABSIM tools.

  4. Deterministic influences exceed dispersal effects on hydrologically-connected microbiomes: Deterministic assembly of hyporheic microbiomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Emily B. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Crump, Alex R. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Resch, Charles T. [Geochemistry Department, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Fansler, Sarah [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Arntzen, Evan [Environmental Compliance and Emergency Preparation, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Kennedy, David W. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Fredrickson, Jim K. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Stegen, James C. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-03-28

    Subsurface zones of groundwater and surface water mixing (hyporheic zones) are regions of enhanced rates of biogeochemical cycling, yet ecological processes governing hyporheic microbiome composition and function through space and time remain unknown. We sampled attached and planktonic microbiomes in the Columbia River hyporheic zone across seasonal hydrologic change, and employed statistical null models to infer mechanisms generating temporal changes in microbiomes within three hydrologically-connected, physicochemically-distinct geographic zones (inland, nearshore, river). We reveal that microbiomes remain dissimilar through time across all zones and habitat types (attached vs. planktonic) and that deterministic assembly processes regulate microbiome composition in all data subsets. The consistent presence of heterotrophic taxa and members of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum nonetheless suggests common selective pressures for physiologies represented in these groups. Further, co-occurrence networks were used to provide insight into taxa most affected by deterministic assembly processes. We identified network clusters to represent groups of organisms that correlated with seasonal and physicochemical change. Extended network analyses identified keystone taxa within each cluster that we propose are central in microbiome composition and function. Finally, the abundance of one network cluster of nearshore organisms exhibited a seasonal shift from heterotrophic to autotrophic metabolisms and correlated with microbial metabolism, possibly indicating an ecological role for these organisms as foundational species in driving biogeochemical reactions within the hyporheic zone. Taken together, our research demonstrates a predominant role for deterministic assembly across highly-connected environments and provides insight into niche dynamics associated with seasonal changes in hyporheic microbiome composition and metabolism.

  5. Impaired consciousness is linked to changes in effective connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex within the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Julia Sophia; Schurz, Matthias; Höller, Yvonne; Bergmann, Jürgen; Monti, Martin; Schmid, Elisabeth; Trinka, Eugen; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-04-15

    The intrinsic connectivity of the default mode network has been associated with the level of consciousness in patients with severe brain injury. Especially medial parietal regions are considered to be highly involved in impaired consciousness. To better understand what aspect of this intrinsic architecture is linked to consciousness, we applied spectral dynamic causal modeling to assess effective connectivity within the default mode network in patients with disorders of consciousness. We included 12 controls, 12 patients in minimally conscious state and 13 in vegetative state in this study. For each subject, we first defined the four key regions of the default mode network employing a subject-specific independent component analysis approach. The resulting regions were then included as nodes in a spectral dynamic causal modeling analysis in order to assess how the causal interactions across these regions as well as the characteristics of neuronal fluctuations change with the level of consciousness. The resulting pattern of interaction in controls identified the posterior cingulate cortex as the main driven hub with positive afferent but negative efferent connections. In patients, this pattern appears to be disrupted. Moreover, the vegetative state patients exhibit significantly reduced self-inhibition and increased oscillations in the posterior cingulate cortex compared to minimally conscious state and controls. Finally, the degree of self-inhibition and strength of oscillation in this region is correlated with the level of consciousness. These findings indicate that the equilibrium between excitatory connectivity towards posterior cingulate cortex and its feedback projections is a key aspect of the relationship between alterations in consciousness after severe brain injury and the intrinsic functional architecture of the default mode network. This impairment might be principally due to the disruption of the mechanisms underlying self-inhibition and neuronal

  6. Mis-estimation and bias of hyperpolarized apparent diffusion coefficient measurements due to slice profile effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeremy W; Milshteyn, Eugene; Marco-Rius, Irene; Ohliger, Michael; Vigneron, Daniel B; Larson, Peder E Z

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the impact of slice profile effects on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping of hyperpolarized (HP) substrates. Slice profile effects were simulated using a Gaussian radiofrequency (RF) pulse with a variety of flip angle schedules and b-value ordering schemes. A long T 1 water phantom was used to validate the simulation results, and ADC mapping of HP [ 13 C, 15 N 2 ]urea was performed on the murine liver to assess these effects in vivo. Slice profile effects result in excess signal after repeated RF pulses, causing bias in HP measurements. The largest error occurs for metabolites with small ADCs, resulting in up to 10-fold overestimation for metabolites that are in more-restricted environments. A mixed b-value scheme substantially reduces this bias, whereas scaling the slice-select gradient can mitigate it completely. In vivo, the liver ADC of hyperpolarized [ 13 C, 15 N 2 ]urea is nearly 70% lower (0.99 ± 0.22 vs 1.69 ± 0.21 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s) when slice-select gradient scaling is used. Slice profile effects can lead to bias in HP ADC measurements. A mixed b-value ordering scheme can reduce this bias compared to sequential b-value ordering. Slice-select gradient scaling can also correct for this deviation, minimizing bias and providing more-precise ADC measurements of HP substrates. Magn Reson Med 78:1087-1092, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Utilization of ACL Injury Biomechanical and Neuromuscular Risk Profile Analysis to Determine the Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Xu, Yingying Y; Khoury, Jane; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-12-01

    The widespread use of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention interventions has not been effective in reducing the injury incidence among female athletes who participate in high-risk sports. The purpose of this study was to determine if biomechanical and neuromuscular factors that contribute to the knee abduction moment (KAM), a predictor of future ACL injuries, could be used to characterize athletes by a distinct factor. Specifically, we hypothesized that a priori selected biomechanical and neuromuscular factors would characterize participants into distinct at-risk profiles. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 624 female athletes who participated in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent testing before their competitive season. During testing, athletes performed drop-jump tasks from which biomechanical measures were captured. Using data from these tasks, latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to identify distinct profiles based on preintervention biomechanical and neuromuscular measures. As a validation, we examined whether the profile membership was a significant predictor of the KAM. LPA using 6 preintervention biomechanical measures selected a priori resulted in 3 distinct profiles, including a low (profile 1), moderate (profile 2), and high (profile 3) risk for ACL injuries. Athletes with profiles 2 and 3 had a significantly higher KAM compared with those with profile 1 (P risk profiles. Three distinct risk groups were identified based on differences in the peak KAM. These findings demonstrate the existence of discernable groups of athletes that may benefit from injury prevention interventions. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT identifier: NCT01034527. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Bupropion Shows Different Effects on Brain Functional Connectivity in Patients With Internet-Based Gambling Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sujin; Hong, Ji Sun; Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and gambling disorder (GD) share similar clinical characteristics but show different brain functional connectivity patterns. Bupropion is known to be effective for the treatment of patients with IGD and GD. We hypothesized that bupropion may be effective for the treatment of Internet-based gambling disorder (ibGD) and IGD and that the connections between the default mode network (DMN) and cognitive control network (CCN) would be different between ibGD and IGD patients after 12 weeks of bupropion treatment. 16 patients with IGD, 15 patients with ibGD, and 15 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. At baseline and after 12 weeks of bupropion treatment, the clinical symptoms of patients with IGD or ibGD were assessed, and brain activity was evaluated using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. After the 12-week bupropion treatment, clinical symptoms, including the severity of IGD or GD, depressive symptoms, attention, and impulsivity improved in both groups. In the IGD group, the functional connectivity (FC) within the posterior DMN as well as the FC between the DMN and the CCN decreased following treatment. Moreover, the FC within the DMN in the IGD group was positively correlated with changes in Young Internet Addiction Scale scores after the bupropion treatment period. In the ibGD group, the FC within the posterior DMN decreased while the FC within the CCN increased after the bupropion treatment period. Moreover, the FC within the CCN in the ibGD group was significantly greater than that in the IGD group. Bupropion was effective in improving clinical symptoms in patients with IGD and ibGD. However, there were differences in the pharmacodynamics between the two groups. After 12 weeks of bupropion treatment, the FC within the DMN as well as between the DMN and CCN decreased in patients with IGD, whereas the FC within the CCN increased in patients with ibGD.

  9. Effect of opium addiction on lipid profile and atherosclerosis formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Darabi, Maryam; Nasry, Mohammad; Saabet-Jahromi, Mohammad-Javad; Malek-Pour-Afshar, Reza; Sheibani, Hassan

    2009-03-01

    In some Asian and Middle Eastern societies, opium consumption has traditionally been regarded as a way to lower blood lipids and to prevent heart diseases. This could eventually lead to addiction. In this study, the effect of oral opium consumption on serum lipids and atherogenesis in rabbits was investigated. Twenty-eight male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into control, hypercholesterolemic, addicted, and hypercholesterolemic-addicted groups and were studied for 3 months. Serum lipid profile was determined at the beginning of the study and at 1 month intervals thereafter. At the end of the study period, aortic plaque formation was assessed. Compared with control, in the hypercholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic-addicted groups, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased (Popium consumption can have aggravating effects in atherosclerosis formation related with hypercholesterolemia, mainly affecting lipid profile.

  10. Effects of Organic and Conventional Crop Nutrition on Profiles of Polar Metabolites in Grain of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter; Rakszegi, Marianna; Lovegrove, Alison; Amos, Dominic; Corol, Delia-Irina; Tawfike, Ahmed; Mikó, Péter; Ward, Jane L

    2018-05-16

    The profiles of polar metabolites were determined in wholemeal flours of grain from the Broadbalk wheat experiment and from plants grown under organic and low-input systems to study the effects of nutrition on composition. The Broadbalk samples showed increased amino acids, acetate, and choline and decreased fructose and succinate with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Samples receiving farm yard manure had similar grain nitrogen to those receiving 96 kg of N/ha but had higher contents of amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. A comparison of the profiles of grain from organic and low-input systems showed only partial separation, with clear effects of climate and agronomy. However, supervised multivariate analysis showed that the low-input samples had higher contents of many amino acids, raffinose, glucose, organic acids, and choline and lower sucrose, fructose, and glycine. Consequently, although differences between organic and conventional grain occur, these cannot be used to confirm sample identity.

  11. [Effect of oral administration of ascorbic acid on insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in obese individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abundis, E; Pascoe-González, S; González-Ortiz, M; Mora-Martínez, J M; Cabrera-Pivaral, C E

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effect of an oral ascorbic acid (AA) supplement on lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in obese people. A randomized double-blind clinical trial placebo controlled was performed in 16 obese male volunteers [body mass index (BMI) 30-40 kg/m2]. Eight received orally 1 g of AA daily for four weeks and the other eight volunteers received placebo by the same scheme and period of time. Before and after the pharmacological intervention were measured total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and uric acid. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides were calculated using formulas. In order to assess insulin sensitivity before and after the intervention, the steady-state glucose (SSG) was calculated from the insulin suppression test modified with octreotide. There were not significant differences in clinical characteristics between both groups. Basal metabolic profile and SSG were similar between both groups. There were not significant differences in both groups between before and after the intervention in metabolic profile and insulin sensitivity. AA did not modify the lipid profile nor insulin sensitivity in the group of obese people studied.

  12. Spatial profile of thermoelectric effects during Peltier pulsing in Bi and Bi/MnBi eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, R. P.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The spatial profile of the thermal transients that occur during and following the current pulsing associated with Peltier Interface Demarcation during directional solidification is studied. Results for pure Bi are presented in detail and compared with corresponding results for the Bi/MnBi eutectic. Significant thermal transients occur throughout the sample that can be accounted for by the Peltier effect, the Thomson effect, and Joule heating. These effects are separated and their behavior is studied as a function of time, current density, and position with respect to the solid/liquid interface.

  13. Investigation of the sideband effect for the LCL-type grid-connected inverter with high LCL resonance frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    The LCL-type grid connected inverter has been widely used as the intelligent power interface between the distributed generation unit and the power grid. To reduce the cost and volume of the filter, it is desirable to design the LCL filter with higher resonance frequency provided that the quality...... of injected grid current is not compromised. Actually, it is the typical case for the T-type or NPC three-level inverter to design its LCL resonance frequency close to half of the switching frequency. In this case, however, the sideband effect of SPWM modulation can impose a significant impact on the system...

  14. Molecular profiling techniques as tools to detect potential unintended effects in genetically engineered maize

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Profiling Techniques as Tools to Detect Potential Unintended Effects in Genetically Engineered Maize Eugenia Barros Introduction In the early stages of production and commercialization of foods derived from genetically engineered (GE) plants... systems. In a recent paper published in Plant Biotechnology Journal,4 we compared two transgenic white maize lines with the non-transgenic counterpart to investigate two possible sources of variation: genetic engineering and environmental variation...

  15. Effect of rifampicin on the lipid profile of albino rats | Peters | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of rifampicin on the lipid profile and histopathology of the heart of albino rats. Albino rats (42) were used and rifampicin was administered at 1.10mg/120g body weight (BW) and 0.55mg/120g BW for intervals of 20, 40 and 60days. Result from the study revealed that there was ...

  16. Effect of Oral Administration of “Gadagi” Tea on Lipid Profile in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Effect of oral administration of “Gadagi” tea on lipid profile was assessed in 50 healthy male albino rats which were grouped and administered with different doses(mg/kg) i.e low dose (380mg/kg, 415mg/kg, 365mg/kg,. 315mg/kg for “sak”, ”sada” and “magani” respectively), standard dose (760mg/kg, 830mg/kg, ...

  17. Comparative Effects of Injectable and Oral Hormonal Contraceptives on Lipid Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayor Adegoke; Pascal C. Eneh; Roseanne Okafor; Benjamin N. Okolonkwo; Solomon A. Braide; Chukwubike U.Okeke; Holy Brown; Ngozika B. Okwandu

    2012-01-01

    Background and AimsThe continual use of hormonal contraceptives among women within reproductive age has been on the increase. The effects of these contraceptives on lipid metabolism vary depending on the type of hormonal contraceptive. This study was carried out among Nigerian women, to compare theeffects of injectable hormonal contraceptives to that of combined oral contraceptives on lipid profile (triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipo-pro...

  18. Novel Anticonvulsant Analogs of Dextromethorphan: Improved Efficacy, Potency, Duration and Side-Effect Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    dextromethorphan (014, [+J-3-aethyl-l7-methylmorphinan) may be, in part, due to its ____________________metabolism to the PCP-like compound... Dextromethorphan : Improved Efficacy, Potency, Duration and Side-Effect Profile1 FRANK C. TORTELLA, LYDIA ROBLES, JEFFREY M. WITKIN and AMY HAUCK NEWMAN... dextromethorphan ; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; PCP, phencyclidine hydrochloride; DX, dextrorphan; AHN649, [(+)-3- amino-1 7-methylmorphinan]; AHN1 -036

  19. The effects of acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on glucose and lipid profile in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rabie P; Namjoo AR

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Ovariectomy is a standard experimental model of menopause in rodent to investigate postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on lipid profile and glucose serum in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: In this experimental study, Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight rats. The first group: sham-control, Second group: ovariectomized rats (for five weeks), Third group: Ova...

  20. Ion solvation in polymer blends and block copolymer melts: effects of chain length and connectivity on the reorganization of dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Issei

    2014-05-29

    We studied the thermodynamic properties of ion solvation in polymer blends and block copolymer melts and developed a dipolar self-consistent field theory for polymer mixtures. Our theory accounts for the chain connectivity of polymerized monomers, the compressibility of the liquid mixtures under electrostriction, the permanent and induced dipole moments of monomers, and the resultant dielectric contrast among species. In our coarse-grained model, dipoles are attached to the monomers and allowed to rotate freely in response to electrostatic fields. We demonstrate that a strong electrostatic field near an ion reorganizes dipolar monomers, resulting in nonmonotonic changes in the volume fraction profile and the dielectric function of the polymers with respect to those of simple liquid mixtures. For the parameter sets used, the spatial variations near an ion can be in the range of 1 nm or larger, producing significant differences in the solvation energy among simple liquid mixtures, polymer blends, and block copolymers. The solvation energy of an ion depends substantially on the chain length in block copolymers; thus, our theory predicts the preferential solvation of ions arising from differences in chain length.

  1. Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Metabolic Profiles in Brain and Liver of Mouse Revealed by a High-throughput Targeted Metabolomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanyang; Wei, Si; Li, Meiying; Yang, Jingping; Li, Kan; Jin, Ling; Xie, Yuwei; Giesy, John P.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a perfluoroalkyl acid, can result in hepatotoxicity and neurobehavioral effects in animals. The metabolome, which serves as a connection among transcriptome, proteome and toxic effects, provides pathway-based insights into effects of PFOA. Since understanding of changes in the metabolic profile during hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity were still incomplete, a high-throughput targeted metabolomics approach (278 metabolites) was used to investigate effects of exposure to PFOA for 28 d on brain and liver of male Balb/c mice. Results of multivariate statistical analysis indicated that PFOA caused alterations in metabolic pathways in exposed individuals. Pathway analysis suggested that PFOA affected metabolism of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates and energetics. Ten and 18 metabolites were identified as potential unique biomarkers of exposure to PFOA in brain and liver, respectively. In brain, PFOA affected concentrations of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and glutamate in brain, which provides novel insights into mechanisms of PFOA-induced neurobehavioral effects. In liver, profiles of lipids revealed involvement of β-oxidation and biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity, while alterations in metabolism of arachidonic acid suggesting potential of PFOA to cause inflammation response in liver. These results provide insight into the mechanism and biomarkers for PFOA-induced effects.

  2. "I feel more connected to the physically ideal mini me than the mirror-image mini me": theoretical implications of the "malleable self" for speculations on the effects of avatar creation on avatar-self connection in Wii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2010-10-01

    What are the impacts of creating an avatar replicating the actual self versus an avatar projecting the ideal self on game players' avatar-self connection? This study leveraged an avatar-creating game (Mii Channel) within a video-game console (Wii) in a controlled, randomized study. The results of a two-group comparison (actual self-priming vs. ideal self-priming) between-subjects study (N = 76) demonstrated the significant main effect of self-priming via avatar (Mii) creation on avatar-self connection. Game players who were primed to create a Mii reflecting the ideal self felt greater avatar-self connection than those primed to create a replica Mii mirroring the actual self. Theoretical values and implications for a burgeoning body of research on the "malleable self" and the multidimensionality of the self-concept in avatar-based interactive media are discussed.

  3. Risø 1978: Further Investigations into the Effects of Local Terrain Irregularties on Tower-Measured Wind Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, E. W.; Taylor, P. A.; Højstrup, Jørgen

    1980-01-01

    Observations of flow over complex terrain taken at Risø during June–July 1978 and numerical studies confirm earlier findings that small variations in surface elevation have significant effects on mean wind profiles. Measured shear stresses in the nonequilibrium region of the flow are consistent w...... with theory but quite different from those obtained assuming simple flux-profile relationships. These findings imply that flux-profile relationships can be quite complicated over other than simple homogeneous terrain....

  4. Lateral energy band profile modulation in tunnel field effect transistors based on gate structure engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing novel materials and structures is important for enhancing the on-state current in tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs. In this paper, we reveal that the on-state performance of TFETs is mainly determined by the energy band profile of the channel. According to this interpretation, we present a new concept of energy band profile modulation (BPM achieved with gate structure engineering. It is believed that this approach can be used to suppress the ambipolar effect. Based on this method, a Si TFET device with a symmetrical tri-material-gate (TMG structure is proposed. Two-dimensional numerical simulations demonstrated that the special band profile in this device can boost on-state performance, and it also suppresses the off-state current induced by the ambipolar effect. These unique advantages are maintained over a wide range of gate lengths and supply voltages. The BPM concept can serve as a guideline for improving the performance of nanoscale TFET devices.

  5. Effects of training strategies implemented in a complex videogame on functional connectivity of attentional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Neider, Mark B; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-01-02

    We used the Space Fortress videogame, originally developed by cognitive psychologists to study skill acquisition, as a platform to examine learning-induced plasticity of interacting brain networks. Novice videogame players learned Space Fortress using one of two training strategies: (a) focus on all aspects of the game during learning (fixed priority), or (b) focus on improving separate game components in the context of the whole game (variable priority). Participants were scanned during game play using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), both before and after 20 h of training. As expected, variable priority training enhanced learning, particularly for individuals who initially performed poorly. Functional connectivity analysis revealed changes in brain network interaction reflective of more flexible skill learning and retrieval with variable priority training, compared to procedural learning and skill implementation with fixed priority training. These results provide the first evidence for differences in the interaction of large-scale brain networks when learning with different training strategies. Our approach and findings also provide a foundation for exploring the brain plasticity involved in transfer of trained abilities to novel real-world tasks such as driving, sport, or neurorehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential and distributed effects of dopamine neuromodulations on resting-state network connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, D.M.; Beckmann, Christian; Oei, N.Y.L.; Both, S.; van Gerven, J.M.A.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Dopaminergic medications, used to treat neurochemical pathology and resultant symptoms in neuropsychiatric disorders, are of mixed efficacy and regularly associated with behavioural side effects. The possibility that dopamine exerts both linear and nonlinear ('inverted U-shaped') effects on

  7. Differential and distributed effects of dopamine neuromodulations on resting-state network connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, D.M.; Beckmann, C.F.; Oei, N.Y.L.; Both, S.; van Gerven, J.M.A.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.

    Dopaminergic medications, used to treat neurochemical pathology and resultant symptoms in neuropsychiatric disorders, are of mixed efficacy and regularly associated with behavioural side effects. The possibility that dopamine exerts both linear and nonlinear ('inverted U-shaped') effects on

  8. Establishing Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    Global law settings are characterised by a structural pre-eminence of connectivity norms, a type of norm which differs from coherency or possibility norms. The centrality of connectivity norms emerges from the function of global law, which is to increase the probability of transfers of condensed ...... and human rights can be understood as serving a constitutionalising function aimed at stabilising and facilitating connectivity. This allows for an understanding of colonialism and contemporary global governance as functional, but not as normative, equivalents.......Global law settings are characterised by a structural pre-eminence of connectivity norms, a type of norm which differs from coherency or possibility norms. The centrality of connectivity norms emerges from the function of global law, which is to increase the probability of transfers of condensed...... social components, such as economic capital and products, religious doctrines and scientific knowledge, from one legally structured context to another within world society. This was the case from colonialism and colonial law to contemporary global supply chains and human rights. Both colonial law...

  9. Vegetation Cover Dynamics and Resilience to Climatic and Hydrological Disturbances in Seasonal Floodplain: The Effects of Hydrological Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlu Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Floodplain wetlands are valuable ecosystems for maintaining biodiversity, but are vulnerable to hydrological modification and climatic extremes. The floodplain wetlands in the middle Yangtze region are biodiversity hotspots, particularly important for wintering migratory waterbirds. In recent years, extremely low winter water level events frequently occurred in the middle Yangtze River. The hydrological droughts greatly impacted the development and distribution of the wet meadows, one of the most important ecological components in the floodplains, which is vital for the survival of many migratory waterbirds wintering in the Yangtze region. To effectively manage the wet meadows, it is critical to pinpoint the drivers for their deterioration. In this study, we assessed the effects of hydrological connectivity on the ecological stability of wet meadow in Poyang Lake for the period of 2000 to 2016. We used the time series of MODIS EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index as a proxy for productivity to infer the ecological stability of wet meadows in terms of resistance and resilience. Our results showed that (1 the wet meadows developed in freely connected lakes had significantly higher resilience; (2 wet meadows colonizing controlled lakes had higher resistance to water level anomalies; (3 there was no difference in the resistance to rainfall anomaly between the two types of lakes; (4 the wet meadow in freely connected lakes might approach a tipping point and a regime shift might be imminent. Our findings suggest that adaptive management at regional- (i.e., operation of Three Gorges Dam and site-scale (e.g., regulating sand mining are needed to safeguard the long-term ecological stability of the system, which in term has strong implications for local, regional and global biodiversity conservation.

  10. Effects of x-ray irradiation on mast cells and mastocalcergy in the connective tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, H. Y.; Rhee, S. J.; Son, M. H.; Choi, K. C. [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-09-15

    Experiments were performed to observe the influence of x-ray irradiation on mast cells and mastocalcergy in rats. Animals were irradiated single dose of x-ray. X-ray irradiation was applied to the whole body in doses either 100 rads or 150 rads (Cobalt-60 Teletherapy Unit). One day after irradiation the rats were injected lead acetate intravenously, followed by injection of compound 48/80 in the back subcutaneously. Animals were killed by decapitation at intervals, 1 hour, 5 hours, 1 day and 6 day after subcutaneous injection. Specimens of the abdominal and back skin were fixed in alcohol formol solution and stained with the following methods; H-E for observation of pathological changes of tissues, toluidine blue for demonstration of mast cells, von Kossa-azure A for demonstration of carbonate and phosphate, and chloranilic acid for demonstration of calcium. The following conclusions were obtained. Calciphylatic wheals are large size in the control group, medium size in 100 rads irradiation group and small size in 150 rads irradiation group. In x-ray irradiation groups the number of mast cells decreases more in the 150 rads than in the 100 rads irradiation. In the 100 rads x-ray irradiation group, histochemical study of the injection sites showed that calcium impregnated to mast cell granules and connective tissue fibers in 1 days after subcutaneous injection. The morphogenesis of this calcinosis was the same in the rat of 5 hour after subcutaneous injection of the control group. Whereas, 1 day after subcutaneous injection in 150 rads x-ray irradiation group calcium deposited more slightly than other groups.

  11. Graph theoretical analysis of EEG effective connectivity in vascular dementia patients during a visual oddball task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Songzhen; Lou, Wutao

    2016-01-01

    The study was dedicated to investigating the change in information processing in brain networks of vascular dementia (VaD) patients during the process of decision making. EEG was recorded from 18 VaD patients and 19 healthy controls when subjects were performing a visual oddball task. The whole task was divided into several stages by using global field power analysis. In the stage related to the decision-making process, graph theoretical analysis was applied to the binary directed network derived from EEG signals at nine electrodes in the frontal, central, and parietal regions in δ (0.5-3.5Hz), θ (4-7Hz), α1 (8-10Hz), α2 (11-13Hz), and β (14-30Hz) frequency bands based on directed transfer function. A weakened outgoing information flow, a decrease in out-degree, and an increase in in-degree were found in the parietal region in VaD patients, compared to healthy controls. In VaD patients, the parietal region may also lose its hub status in brain networks. In addition, the clustering coefficient was significantly lower in VaD patients. Impairment might be present in the parietal region or its connections with other regions, and it may serve as one of the causes for cognitive decline in VaD patients. The brain networks of VaD patients were significantly altered toward random networks. The present study extended our understanding of VaD from the perspective of brain functional networks, and it provided possible interpretations for cognitive deficits in VaD patients. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  13. Effectiveness of Chain Link Turtle Fence and Culverts in Reducing Turtle Mortality and Providing Connectivity along U.S. Hwy 83, Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of existing turtle fences through collecting and analyzing turtle mortality data along U.S. Hwy 83, in and around Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, Nebraska, USA. We also investigated the level of connectivity for tur...

  14. Comparative effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on preloaded abutment screw using three-dimensional finite element analysis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Chaitanya Kanneganti

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study suggests selecting appropriate implant-abutment connection based on the abutment angulation, as well as preferring long screws with more number of threads for effective preload retention by the screws.

  15. Context-specific differences in fronto-parieto-occipital effective connectivity during short-term memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Chang, Jui-Yang; Postle, Bradley R; Van Veen, Barry D

    2015-07-01

    Although visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance has been hypothesized to rely on two distinct mechanisms, capacity and filtering, the two have not been dissociated using network-level causality measures. Here, we hypothesized that behavioral tasks challenging capacity or distraction filtering would both engage a common network of areas, namely dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), superior parietal lobule (SPL), and occipital cortex, but would do so according to dissociable patterns of effective connectivity. We tested this by estimating directed connectivity between areas using conditional Granger causality (cGC). Consistent with our prediction, the results indicated that increasing mnemonic load (capacity) increased the top-down drive from dlPFC to SPL, and cGC in the alpha (8-14Hz) frequency range was a predominant component of this effect. The presence of distraction during encoding (filtering), in contrast, was associated with increased top-down drive from dlPFC to occipital cortices directly and from SPL to occipital cortices directly, in both cases in the beta (15-25Hz) range. Thus, although a common anatomical network may serve VSTM in different contexts, it does so via specific functions that are carried out within distinct, dynamically configured frequency channels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON EMISSION LINE PROFILES: KERR BLACK HOLES AND WARPED ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-01

    If an accretion disk around a black hole is illuminated by hard X-rays from non-thermal coronae, fluorescent iron lines will be emitted from the inner region of the accretion disk. The emission line profiles will show a variety of strong field effects, which may be used as a probe of the spin parameter of the black hole and the structure of the accretion disk. In this paper, we generalize the previous relativistic line profile models by including both the black hole spinning effects and the non-axisymmetries of warped accretion disks. Our results show different features from the conventional calculations for either a flat disk around a Kerr black hole or a warped disk around a Schwarzschild black hole by presenting, at the same time, multiple peaks, rather long red tails, and time variations of line profiles with the precession of the disk. We show disk images as seen by a distant observer, which are distorted by the strong gravity. Although we are primarily concerned with the iron K-shell lines in this paper, the calculation is general and is valid for any emission lines produced from a warped accretion disk around a black hole.

  17. Effect of moderate walnut consumption on lipid profile, arterial stiffness and platelet activation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, J N; Aftab, S M; Jubb, A W; Carnegy, F H; Lyall, K; Sarma, J; Newby, D E; Flapan, A D

    2011-02-01

    A large intake of walnuts may improve lipid profile and endothelial function. The effect of moderate walnut consumption is not known. We investigated whether a moderate intake of walnuts would affect lipid profile, arterial stiffness and platelet activation in healthy volunteers. A total of 30 healthy males were recruited into a single-blind randomized controlled crossover trial of 4 weeks of dietary walnut supplementation (15 g/day) and 4 weeks of control (no walnuts). Arterial stiffness was assessed using pulse waveform analysis to determine the augmentation index and augmented pressure. Platelet activation was determined using flow cytometry to measure circulating platelet-monocyte aggregates. There were no differences in lipid profile after 4 weeks of walnut supplementation compared with control. Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid was increased during the walnut diet (2.1±0.4 g/day versus 0.7±0.4 g/day, Pprofile, arterial stiffness or platelet activation in man. Our results suggest that the potentially beneficial cardiac effects of walnuts may not be apparent at lower and more practical levels of consumption.

  18. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rabbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated (n = 10) groups. After diabetes induction, the animals were investigated for daily glucose measurements for 35 days. Serum lipid profile and haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) were assayed at the baseline (before induction of diabetes) and at 35-day follow-up. The glycaemia levels in the rats treated with opium were similar to the levels measured in the control rats (544.8 +/- 62.2 mg/dl v. 524.6 +/- 50.0 mg/dl, P = 0.434). In addition, there was no difference between the opium-treated rats and control rats in HbA(1c) (6.5 +/- 0.5% v. 6.6 +/- 0.2%, P = 0.714). Compared to the control rats, the serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and lipoprotein (a) in the test animals were similar. Opium use has no significant effect on glucose metabolism and serum lipid profile in rats with induced diabetes.

  19. Effects of international football matches on ambulance call profiles and volumes during the 2006 World Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Thompson, Fizz; Gibson, Caroline; Green, Mark

    2007-06-01

    Prompt ambulance attendance is aimed at improving patient care. With finite resources struggling to meet performance targets, unforeseen demand precludes the ability to tailor resources to cope with increased call volumes, and can have a marked detrimental effect on performance and hence patient care. The effects of the 2006 World Cup football matches on call volumes and profiles were analysed to understand how public events can influence demands on the ambulance service. All emergency calls to the Hampshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust (currently the Hampshire Division of South Central Ambulance Service, Winchester, UK) during the first weekend of the 2006 World Cup football matches were analysed by call volume and classification of call (call type). On the day of the first football match, call volume was over 50% higher than that on a typical Saturday, with distinct peaks before and after the inaugural match. Call profile analysis showed increases in alcohol-related emergencies, including collapse, unconsciousness, assault and road traffic accidents. The increase in assaults was particularly marked at the end of each match and increased again into the late evening. A detailed mapping of call volumes and profiles during the World Cup football shows a significant increase in overall emergency calls, mostly alcohol related. Mapping of limited resources to these patterns will allow improved responses to emergency calls.

  20. Environmental profile and critical temperature effects on milk production of Holstein cows in desert climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igono, M. O.; Bjotvedt, G.; Sanford-Crane, H. T.

    1992-06-01

    The environmental profile of central Arizona is quantitatively described using meteorological data between 1971 and 1986. Utilizing ambient temperature criteria of hours per day less than 21° C, between 21 and 27° C, and more than 27° C, the environmental profile of central Arizona consists of varying levels of thermoneutral and heat stress periods. Milk production data from two commercial dairy farms from March 1990 to February 1991 were used to evaluate the seasonal effects identified in the environmental profile. Overall, milk production is lower during heat stress compared to thermoneutral periods. During heat stress, the cool period of hours per day with temperature less than 21° C provides a margin of safety to reduce the effects of heat stress on decreased milk production. Using minimum, mean and maximum ambient temperatures, the upper critical temperatures for milk production are 21, 27 and 32° C, respectively. Using the temperature-humidity index as the thermal environment indicator, the critical values for minimum, mean and maximum THI are 64, 72 and 76, respectively.

  1. "There is a chain of connections": using syndemics theory to understand HIV treatment side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou

    2018-07-01

    Side effects are central to the experience of living longer with HIV but rarely have they been studied alone. Unlike other aspects of that experience, like quality of life, treatment adherence, chronicity, episodic disability, aging, health, and viral load suppression, side effects have not benefited from the same level of empirical and theoretical engagement from qualitative researchers. In this paper, we draw on syndemics theory and 50 qualitative interviews to better understand the experience of HIV treatment side effects. Two main categories were identified in the data: side effects as a product and side effects as a risk factor. The first category suggests that side effects are not just the product of taking antiretroviral drugs. They are also the product of particular conditions and tend to cluster with other health problems. The second category puts forward the idea that side effects can act as a syndemic risk factor by exposing PLWH to a greater risk of developing health problems and creating conditions in which psychosocial issues are more likely to emerge. The paper concludes by calling for more research on the complex nature of side effects and for the development of comprehensive approaches for the assessment and management of side effects.

  2. Scrape-off profiles and effects of limiter pumping in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.

    1986-11-01

    A one dimensional plasma scrape-off model was used to simulate Tore Supra discharges which are limited by various combinations of the pumped and inner limiters. Scrape-off profiles of the electron density and temperature, ion temperature, and neutral density are given. For each case, various fractions of the ion flux to the neutralizers were assumed to be pumped. Modifications of the scrap-off profiles caused by pumping are predicted. Pumping efficiencies are calculated including the effects of flux amplification caused by recycling. The pumping efficiency is estimated to be 8% for low-power discharges formed on the outer pumped limiter, 7.5% for intermediate-power discharges formed on the seven-module pumped-limiter system, and 5% for full-power discharges formed on both the inner limiter and the pumped-limiter system. The maximum particle removal rate is estimated to be 150 Tl/s

  3. Landscape Distance and Connectivity Effects on Pollination of Passiflora incarnata L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, A.F.

    2000-05-05

    To test the effect of landscape distance and habitat corridors on pollen-mediated gene flow between fragmentary plant populations, principle investigator used fluorescent dye as a pollen analog, unique tags on pollinators and known allozyme markers using experimental and wildtype Passiflora incarnata at Savannah River Site. Results indicate no significant effect of a corridor on pollen-mediated gene flow.

  4. EFFECT OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakoor. H. I., M. L. Khan, Z. Nasir, N. Mukhtar and M. S. Rehman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola oil and soybean oil on production performance and serum lipid profile in layers. In this study 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 different dietary treatments viz control (A. containing 2.5 % canola oil (B, 5% canola oil (C, 2.5% soybean oil (D and 5% soybean oil (E for a period of 9 weeks. Effects of five treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg quality, weight gain and serum lipid profile, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were monitored. Serum lipid profile was determined 0.31 and 63 days from start of experiment. Significantly (P<0.05 less serum cholesterol was found in treatment C (295.1 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (321 mg/dl. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL was significantly (P<0.01 , less in treatment C ( 131.7 mg/dl as compared with treatment A. ( 161 mg/dl and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL was significantly (P<0.01 high in treatment C (31.76 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (25.42 mg/dl and triglyceride (TG was found significantly (P<0.01 less in treatment E ( 907.3 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (960 mg/dl. The results suggested that as the percentage of oils increased in the diet, serum lipid profile showed a positive trend.

  5. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CHROMIUM ON LIPID PROFILE AND SOME HORMONES IN OBESE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GABR, S.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; GHAREIB, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the long term effect of chromium picolinate (intake 30 and 60 days) on lipid profile, testosterone, thyroid hormones, corticosterone and insulin was studied in obese male rats. A total of 48 male albino rats were arranged into four equal groups. The rats were distributed into four equal main groups: 1- Normal rats left without any treatment and served as a control group. 2- Normal rats treated with chromium picolinate at a dose of 40 μg/kg/day. 3-Obese rats (after the induction of obesity) using fed high fat diet. 4- Obese rats treated with chromium picolinate. The results obtained showed that normal rats treated with chromium picolinate for 30 or 60 days had no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) when compared with the control group. The testosterone and corticosterone levels were significantly decreased in rats treated with chromium picolinate for 60 days. Insulin level was significantly increased in treated rats for 60 days when compared with the control ones. In obese rats, the lipid profile and corticosterone were significantly increased at 30 and 60 days, while the insulin levels were increased in obese rats fed on high fat diet for 30 days as compared with the control rats. The administration of chromium picolinate to obese rats succeeded to decrease the lipid profile, corticosterone (at 60 days) and insuline (at 30 days) when compared with the obese rats. It could be concluded from this study that chromium picolinate possess beneficial effects in decreasing lipid profile in obese rats. Therefore, additional of chromium picolinate may be useful in obese rats to burn excess body fat and in treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Since it cause decrease in testosterone level, its use was advised to restrict to relatively old age

  6. Connection between effective-range expansion and nuclear vertex constant or asymptotic normalization coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmukhamedov, R.; Baye, D.

    2011-01-01

    Explicit relations between the effective-range expansion and the nuclear vertex constant or asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for the virtual decay B→A+a are derived for an arbitrary orbital momentum together with the corresponding location condition for the (A+a) bound-state energy. They are valid both for the charged case and for the neutral case. Combining these relations with the standard effective-range function up to order six makes it possible to reduce to two the number of free effective-range parameters if an ANC value is known from experiment. Values for the scattering length, effective range, and form parameter are determined in this way for the 16 O+p, α+t, and α+ 3 He collisions in partial waves where a bound state exists by using available ANCs deduced from experiments. The resulting effective-range expansions for these collisions are valid up to energies larger than 5 MeV.

  7. Effects of enhanced hydrological connectivity on Mediterranean salt marsh fish assemblages with emphasis on the endangered Spanish toothcarp (Aphanius iberus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Prado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological connectivity between the salt marsh and the sea was partially restored in a Mediterranean wetland containing isolated ponds resulting from former salt extraction and aquaculture activities. A preliminary assessment provided evidence that ponds farther from the sea hosted very large numbers of the endangered Spanish toothcarp, Aphanius iberus, suggesting that individuals had been trapped and consequently reach unnaturally high densities. In order to achieve both habitat rehabilitation and toothcarp conservation, efforts were made to create a gradient of hydrologically connected areas, including isolated fish reservoirs, semi-isolated, and connected salt marsh-sea areas that could allow migratory movements of fish and provide some protection for A. iberus. The fish community was monitored prior to, and for three years after rehabilitation. Results showed an increase in the number of fish species within semi-isolated areas (Zone A, whereas areas adjacent to the sea (Zone B increased the number of marine species and decreased that of estuarine species (ES. Yet overall differences in fish assemblages were much higher between zones than among study years. Generalized linear models (GLMs evidenced that distance to the sea was the most important variable explaining the local diversity of the fish community after restoration, with occasional influence of other factors such as temperature, and depth. The abundance of A. iberus was consistently higher in semi-isolated areas at greater distances from the sea, but a decline occurred in both zones and in isolated reservoir ponds after restoration efforts, which may be attributable to interannual differences in recruitment success and, to a lesser extent, to dispersal into adjacent habitats. A negative effect of restoration works on fish population cannot be excluded, but the final outcome of the intervention likely needs a longer period.

  8. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Functional Mobility and Balance: Relationship to Resting State Motor Cortex Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, B.; Koppelmans, V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA offers researchers from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to study bed rest as an experimental analog for space flight. Extended exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble many of the effects of a low-gravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The aim of our study is to a) identify changes in brain function that occur with prolonged bed rest and characterize their recovery time course; b) assess whether and how these changes impact behavioral and neurocognitive performance. Thus far, we completed data collection from six participants that include task based and resting state fMRI. The data have been acquired through the bed rest facility located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Subjects remained in bed with their heads tilted down 6 degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Behavioral measures and neuroimaging assessments were obtained at seven time points: a) 7 and 12 days before bed rest; b) 7, 30, and 65 days during bed rest; and c) 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (FcMRI) analysis was performed to assess the connectivity of motor cortex in and out of bed rest. We found a decrease in motor cortex connectivity with vestibular cortex and the cerebellum from pre bed rest to in bed rest. We also used a battery of behavioral measures including the functional mobility test and computerized dynamic posturography collected before and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary results of analyses relating brain and behavior changes. Furthermore, we will also report the preliminary results of a spatial working memory task and vestibular stimulation during in and out of bed rest.

  9. Effect of brain- and tumor-derived connective tissue growth factor on glioma invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lincoln A; Woolard, Kevin; Son, Myung Jin; Li, Aiguo; Lee, Jeongwu; Ene, Chibawanye; Mantey, Samuel A; Maric, Dragan; Song, Hua; Belova, Galina; Jensen, Robert T; Zhang, Wei; Fine, Howard A

    2011-08-03

    Tumor cell invasion is the principal cause of treatment failure and death among patients with malignant gliomas. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been previously implicated in cancer metastasis and invasion in various tumors. We explored the mechanism of CTGF-mediated glioma cell infiltration and examined potential therapeutic targets. Highly infiltrative patient-derived glioma tumor-initiating or tumor stem cells (TIC/TSCs) were harvested and used to explore a CTGF-induced signal transduction pathway via luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting. Treatment of TIC/TSCs with small-molecule inhibitors targeting integrin β1 (ITGB1) and the tyrosine kinase receptor type A (TrkA), and short hairpin RNAs targeting CTGF directly were used to reduce the levels of key protein components of CTGF-induced cancer infiltration. TIC/TSC infiltration was examined in real-time cell migration and invasion assays in vitro and by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in TIC/TSC orthotopic xenograft mouse models (n = 30; six mice per group). All statistical tests were two-sided. Treatment of TIC/TSCs with CTGF resulted in CTGF binding to ITGB1-TrkA receptor complexes and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activation as measured by luciferase reporter assays (mean relative luciferase activity, untreated vs CTGF(200 ng/mL): 0.53 vs 1.87, difference = 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69 to 2, P < .001). NF-κB activation resulted in binding of ZEB-1 to the E-cadherin promoter as demonstrated by ChIP analysis with subsequent E-cadherin suppression (fold increase in ZEB-1 binding to the E-cadherin promoter region: untreated + ZEB-1 antibody vs CTGF(200 ng/mL) + ZEB-1 antibody: 1.5 vs 6.4, difference = 4.9, 95% CI = 4.8 to 5.0, P < .001). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that TrkA is selectively expressed in the most infiltrative glioma cells in situ

  10. The Salience Network and Its Functional Architecture in a Perceptual Decision: An Effective Connectivity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Bidhan; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2015-08-01

    The anterior insulae (INSs) are involved in accumulating sensory evidence in perceptual decision-making independent of the motor response, whereas the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is known to play a role in choosing appropriate behavioral responses. Recent evidence suggests that INSs and dACC are part of the salience network (SN), a key network known to be involved in decision-making and thought to be important for the coordination of behavioral responses. However, how these nodes in the SN contribute to the decision-making process from segregation of stimuli to the generation of an appropriate behavioral response remains unknown. In this study, the authors scanned 33 participants in functional magnetic resonance imaging and asked them to decide whether the presented pairs of audio (a beep of sound) and visual (a flash of light) stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. Participants reported their perception with a button press. Stimuli were presented in block of eight pairs with a temporal lag (ΔT) between the first (audio) and the second (visual) stimulus in each pair. They used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and the Bayesian model evidence technique to elucidate the functional architecture between the nodes of SN. Both the synchrony and the asynchrony perception resulted in strong activation in the SN. Most importantly, the DCM analyses demonstrated that the INSs were integrating as well as driving hubs in the SN. The INSs were found to a play an important role in the integration of sensory information; input to the SN is most likely through INSs. Furthermore, significant INSs to dACC intrinsic connectivity established by these task conditions help us conclude that INSs drive the dACC to guide the behavior of choosing the appropriate response. The authors therefore argue that the dACC and INS are part of a system involved in the decision-making process from perception to planning of a motor response, and that this observed functional mechanism might

  11. Making connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marion Duimel

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Verbinding maken; senioren en internet. More and more older people are finding their way to the Internet. Many people aged over 50 who have only recently gone online say that a new world has opened up for them. By connecting to the Internet they have the feeling that they

  12. CMS Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcas, J.; Bockelman, B.; Gardner, R., Jr.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jayatilaka, B.; Aftab Khan, F.; Lannon, K.; Larson, K.; Letts, J.; Marra Da Silva, J.; Mascheroni, M.; Mason, D.; Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Tiradani, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment collects and analyzes large amounts of data coming from high energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This involves a huge amount of real and simulated data processing that needs to be handled in batch-oriented platforms. The CMS Global Pool of computing resources provide +100K dedicated CPU cores and another 50K to 100K CPU cores from opportunistic resources for these kind of tasks and even though production and event processing analysis workflows are already managed by existing tools, there is still a lack of support to submit final stage condor-like analysis jobs familiar to Tier-3 or local Computing Facilities users into these distributed resources in an integrated (with other CMS services) and friendly way. CMS Connect is a set of computing tools and services designed to augment existing services in the CMS Physics community focusing on these kind of condor analysis jobs. It is based on the CI-Connect platform developed by the Open Science Grid and uses the CMS GlideInWMS infrastructure to transparently plug CMS global grid resources into a virtual pool accessed via a single submission machine. This paper describes the specific developments and deployment of CMS Connect beyond the CI-Connect platform in order to integrate the service with CMS specific needs, including specific Site submission, accounting of jobs and automated reporting to standard CMS monitoring resources in an effortless way to their users.

  13. Semi-empirical procedures for correcting detector size effect on clinical MV x-ray beam profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Narayan; Kazi, Abdul M.; Hoffman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The measured radiation beam profiles need to be corrected for the detector size effect to derive the real profiles. This paper describes two new semi-empirical procedures to determine the real profiles of high-energy x-ray beams by removing the detector size effect from the measured profiles. Measured profiles are corrected by shifting the position of each measurement point by a specific amount determined from available theoretical and experimental knowledge in the literature. The authors developed two procedures to determine the amount of shift. In the first procedure, which employs the published analytical deconvolution procedure of other investigators, the shift is determined from the comparison of the analytical fit of the measured profile and the corresponding analytical real profile derived from the deconvolution of the fitted measured profile and the Gaussian detector response function. In the second procedure, the amount of shift at any measurement point is considered to be proportional to the value of an analytical function related to the second derivative of the real profile at that point. The constant of proportionality and a parameter in the function are obtained from the values of the shifts at the 90%, 80%, 20%, and 10% dose levels, which are experimentally known from the published results of other investigators to be approximately equal to half of the radius of the detector. These procedures were tested by correcting the profiles of 6 and 18 MV x-ray beams measured by three different ionization chambers and a stereotactic field diode detector with 2.75, 2, 1, and 0.3 mm radii of their respective active cylindrical volumes. The corrected profiles measured by different detectors are found to be in close agreement. The detector size corrected penumbra widths also agree with the expected values based on the results of an earlier investigation. Thus, the authors concluded that the proposed procedures are accurate and can be used to derive the real

  14. Profile of capillary bridges between two vertically stacked cylindrical fibers under gravitational effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaohang; Lee, Hoon Joo; Michielsen, Stephen; Wilusz, Eugene

    2018-05-01

    Although profiles of axisymmetric capillary bridges between two cylindrical fibers have been extensively studied, little research has been reported on capillary bridges under external forces such as the gravitational force. This is because external forces add significant complications to the Laplace-Young equation, making it difficult to predict drop profiles based on analytical approaches. In this paper, simulations of capillary bridges between two vertically stacked cylindrical fibers with gravitational effect taken into consideration are studied. The asymmetrical structure of capillary bridges that are hard to predict based on analytical approaches was studied via a numerical approach based on Surface Evolver (SE). The axial and the circumferential spreading of liquids on two identical fibers in the presence of gravitational effects are predicted to determine when the gravitational effects are significant or can be neglected. The effect of liquid volume, equilibrium contact angle, the distance between two fibers and fiber radii. The simulation results were verified by comparing them with experimental measurements. Based on SE simulations, curves representing the spreading of capillary bridges along the two cylindrical fibers were obtained. The gravitational effect was scaled based on the difference of the spreading on upper and lower fibers.

  15. Effects of mechanical massage, manual lymphatic drainage and connective tissue manipulation techniques on fat mass in women with cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakci Tunay, V; Akbayrak, T; Bakar, Y; Kayihan, H; Ergun, N

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of three different noninvasive treatment techniques on fat mass and regional fat thickness of the patients with cellulites. Sixty subjects were randomized into three groups. Group 1 (n = 20) treated with mechanical massage (MM), group 2 (n = 20) treated with manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) and group 3 (n = 20) treated with connective tissue manipulation (CTM) techniques. Subjects were evaluated by using standardized photographs, body composition analyzer (TBF 300) (body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), fat %, fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW)), circumference measurement from thigh, waist-hip ratio (WHR), fat thickness measurements from abdomen, suprailium and thigh regions with skin fold caliper. All groups had an improvement in thinning of the subcutaneous fat after the treatment (P techniques are effective in decreasing the regional fat values of the patients with cellulites.

  16. 78 FR 55684 - ConnectED Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... tools move everything from homework assignments to testing into the cloud. The workshop will explore possible strategies to connect virtually all of our students to next-generation broadband in a timely, cost-effective way. It will also share promising practices, from NTIA's Broadband Technology Opportunities...

  17. Effects of silicon carbide MOSFETs on the efficiency and power quality of a microgrid-connected inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feida; Du, Min; Guo, Hong; Ren, Suping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The characteristics comparison between SiC-inverter and Si-inverter is implemented, considering thermal effects. •The voltage distortion of inverters is modeling from the perspective of the behaviors of the device. •The efficiency of the microgrid-connected inverter has been greatly increased by replacing Si with SiC. •The SiC microgrid-connected inverter has smaller voltage distortion and less harmonic current than those of Si-inverter. •The proposed analytical model has been validated by the experimental test. -- Abstract: With the expanding power demands and increasing use of renewable energy resources, microgrids have been widely supported. Wide bandgap semiconductor devices with higher blocking voltage capabilities and higher switching speeds, such as silicon carbide (SiC) devices, will become a critical component in building microgrids. This paper describes a comprehensive investigation of the effects of SiC Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) on the efficiency and power quality of the inverters used in low voltage microgrids compared with conventional inverters based on silicon (Si) Insulated-gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). First, the characteristics of both SiC and Si are measured by a double pulse test (DPT), considering thermal effects. Then, conduction and switching losses under different temperatures are calculated based on DPT results. Second, phase voltage distortions are modeled and calculated according to the tested switching and conduction characteristics of SiC, resulting in harmonic components in the phase current. Finally, an experiment is implemented. The experimental results show that the SiC-inverter greatly increases the energy efficiency and improves the power quality in the microgrid; these results are consistent with the analytical results.

  18. Effect of differences in gas-dynamic behaviour on the separation performance of ultracentrifuges connected in parallel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portoghese, C.C.P.; Buchmann, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the degradation of separation factors occurred when groups of ultracentrifuges having different gas-dynamic behaviour are connected in parallel arrangements. Differences in the gas-dynamic behavior were traduced in terms of different tails pressures for the same operational conditions, that are feed flow rate, product pressure and cut number. A mathematical model describing the ratio of the tails flow rates as a function of the tails pressure ratios and the feed flow rate was developed using experimental data collected from a pair of different ultracentrifuges connected in parallel. The optimization of model parameters was made using Marquardt's algorithm. The model developed was used to simulate the separation factors degradation in some parallel arrangements containing more than two centrifuges. Te obtained results were compared with experimental data collected from different groups of ultracentrifuges. It was observed that the calculated results were in good agreement with experimental data. This mathematical model, which parameters were determined in a two-centrifuges parallel arrangement, is useful to simulate the effect of quantified gas-dynamic differences in the separation factors of groups containing any number of different ultracentrifuges and, consequently, to analyze cascade losses due to this kind of occurrence. (author)

  19. Activity in dlPFC and its effective connectivity to vmPFC are associated with temporal discounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A Hare

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread interest in identifying computational and neurobiological mechanisms that influence the ability to choose long-term benefits over more proximal and readily available rewards in domains such as dietary and economic choice. We present the results of a human fMRI study that examines how neural activity relates to observed individual differences in the discounting of future rewards during an intertemporal monetary choice task. We found that a region of left dlPFC BA-46 was more active in trials where subjects chose delayed rewards, after controlling for the subjective value of those rewards. We also found that the connectivity from dlPFC BA-46 to a region of vmPFC widely associated with the computational of stimulus values, increased at the time of choice, and especially during trials in which subjects chose delayed rewards. Finally, we found that estimates of effective connectivity between these two regions played a critical role in predicting out-of-sample, between-subject differences in discount rates. Together with previous findings in dietary choice, these results suggest that a common set of computational and neurobiological mechanisms facilitate choices in favor of long- term reward in both settings.

  20. Mode of effective connectivity within a putative neural network differentiates moral cognitions related to care and justice ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Ely, Timothy D; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D

    2011-02-25

    Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses.

  1. Mode of Effective Connectivity within a Putative Neural Network Differentiates Moral Cognitions Related to Care and Justice Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G. Andrew; Ely, Timothy D.; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Methodology/Principal Findings Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. Conclusions/Significance These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses. PMID:21364916

  2. Mode of effective connectivity within a putative neural network differentiates moral cognitions related to care and justice ethics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cáceda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC and posterior (PCC cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses.

  3. Sample heterogeneity in unipolar depression as assessed by functional connectivity analyses is dominated by general disease effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Stephan; Sundermann, Benedikt; Wersching, Heike; Teuber, Anja; Kugel, Harald; Teismann, Henning; Heindel, Walter; Berger, Klaus; Pfleiderer, Bettina

    2017-11-01

    Combinations of resting-state fMRI and machine-learning techniques are increasingly employed to develop diagnostic models for mental disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological heterogeneity of depression and diagnostic machine learning has mainly been tested in homogeneous samples. Our main objective was to explore the inherent structure of a diverse unipolar depression sample. The secondary objective was to assess, if such information can improve diagnostic classification. We analyzed data from 360 patients with unipolar depression and 360 non-depressed population controls, who were subdivided into two independent subsets. Cluster analyses (unsupervised learning) of functional connectivity were used to generate hypotheses about potential patient subgroups from the first subset. The relationship of clusters with demographical and clinical measures was assessed. Subsequently, diagnostic classifiers (supervised learning), which incorporated information about these putative depression subgroups, were trained. Exploratory cluster analyses revealed two weakly separable subgroups of depressed patients. These subgroups differed in the average duration of depression and in the proportion of patients with concurrently severe depression and anxiety symptoms. The diagnostic classification models performed at chance level. It remains unresolved, if subgroups represent distinct biological subtypes, variability of continuous clinical variables or in part an overfitting of sparsely structured data. Functional connectivity in unipolar depression is associated with general disease effects. Cluster analyses provide hypotheses about potential depression subtypes. Diagnostic models did not benefit from this additional information regarding heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of eslicarbazepine acetate on lipid profile and sodium levels in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulitano, Patrizia; Franco, Valentina; Mecarelli, Oriano; Brienza, Marianna; Davassi, Chiara; Russo, Emilio

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that treatment with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs is associated with increased serum lipid levels. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel antiepileptic drug specifically designed with the objective to identify carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine analogues with favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. The present study aimed to assess the changes in lipid profile and sodium levels in patients with epilepsy taking ESL as adjunctive therapy. This report describes a retrospective cohort study of 36 adult patients with epilepsy, taking ESL as an add-on treatment. The laboratory values assessed prior and after (range 6-18 months) ESL treatment were sodium levels, total cholesterol (TC), low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins and triglycerides. TC and LDL values were significantly decreased already after at least six months of therapy with ESL (191.3±29.6 vs 179.7±29.2mg/dl, p ESL treatment were significantly increased (57.5± 9.1 vs 63.9±8.3mg/dl; pESL, in contrast to the negative effects observed with traditional older carboxamides, positively affects lipid metabolism profile in patients with epilepsy over an average follow-up of 11 months. Further research is needed to confirm the obtained results with a focus on a comprehensive assessment of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of longitudinal profile on the seismic anaysis of concrete gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nady, A.; Ghobarah, A.; Aziz, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    The traditional three-dimensional analysis of concrete gravity dams is expensive and very difficult. An alternate approach is to divide the dam into substructures. Each monolith is considered as a substructure and its degrees of freedom are reduced to those on the contact surfaces with the adjacent monoliths as well as a few Ritz vectors. Using this procedure high accuracy was achieved using a reasonable number of degrees of freedom. The analysis is carried out in the frequency domain to account for the frequency dependent parameters in the reservoir substructure. The procedure was tested and compared to typical three-dimensional analysis and was found to give high accuracy. A simplified cross section of gravity dams with different longitudinal profiles was studied using the substructuring procedure as well as a typical two-dimensional analysis. The results obtained show a significant variation in dynamic properties of the dam from that calculated assuming two-dimensional analysis. Furthermore, the response of the dam varies significantly when including the effect of longitudinal profile of the structure. It is concluded that the two-dimensional representation of the structure may substantially overestimate the response of the dam, depending on its longitudinal profile, especially when keyed joints are used in the construction. 13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  6. What are the effects of psychological stress and physical work on blood lipid profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2017-05-01

    Blood lipids disorders are prevalent in the world. Some of their risk factors are modifiable such as mental and physical stress which existed in some places such as work environment.Objective of this study was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on the lipid profiles. It was a historical cohort study. The people who were employed as general worker were participated. The study was conducted with flexible interview for getting history, lipid profile examination, and a checklist including occupational and nonoccupational risk factors and using the health issues. According to the type of stress exposures, the study population was divided into 5 groups. Groups were followed for lipid profiles. These groups were exposed to psychological stress, physical stress or both of them; mild psychological stress (group 1), mild physical work without psychological stress (group 2), mild psychological stress and mild physical work (group 3), moderate physical work without psychological stress (group 4), and heavy physical work without psychological stress (group 5). Data were analyzed with SPSS 16. ANOVA, χ, and exact test were calculated with considering P less than 45 mg/dL was 14.61 (8.31-25.68) in group 1 and 16.00 (8.30-30.83) in group 3. After multinomial logistic regression they had significant differences. Psychological stress was a risk factor for lipid disorders, and suitable physical activity was protective in this situation.

  7. Sediment mixing and accumulation rate effects on radionuclide depth profiles in Hudson estuary sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.R.; Simpson, H.J.; Peng, T.; Bopp, R.F.; Trier, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Measured anthropogenic radionuclide profiles in sediment cores from the Hudson River estuary were compared with profiles computed by using known input histories of radionuclides to the estuary and mixing coefficients which decreased exponentially with depth in the sediment. Observed 134 Cs sediment depth profiles were used in the mixing rate computation because reactor releases were the only significant source for this nuclide, whereas the inputs of 137 Cs and /sup 239.240/Pu to the estuary were complicated by runoff or erosion in upstream areas, in addition to direct fallout from precipitation. Our estimates for the rates of surface sediment mixing in the low salinity reach of the estuary range from 0.25 to 1 cm 2 /yr, or less. In some areas of the harbor adjacent to New York City, were fine-particle accumulation rates are generally >3 cm/yr, and often as high as 10 to 20 cm/yr, sediment mixing rates as high as 10 cm 2 /yr would have little effect on radionuclide peak distributions. Consequently, anthropogenic radionuclide maximum activities in subsurface sediments of the Hudson appear to be useful as time-stratigraphic reference levels, which can be correlated with periods of maximum radionuclide inputs for estimating rates and patterns of sediment accumulation

  8. Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

    Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

  9. Effects of Holder pasteurization on the protein profile of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Cavaletto, Maria; Spertino, Stefano; Icardi, Sara; Tortone, Claudia; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2016-04-07

    The most widespread method for the treatment of donor milk is the Holder pasteurization (HoP). The available literature data show that HoP may cause degradation of some bioactive components. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HoP on the protein profile of human milk (HM) using a GeLC-MS method, a proteomic approach and a promising technique able to offer a qualitative HM protein profile. HM samples were collected by standardized methods from 20 mothers carrying both preterm and term newborns. A aliquot of each sample was immediately frozen at -80 °C, whilst another one was Holder pasteurized and then frozen. All samples were then analyzed by GeLC-MS. The protein bands of interest were excised from the gel, digested with trypsin and identified by nano-HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The protein profile before and after HoP showed qualitative differences only in 6 samples out of 20, while in the remaining 14 no detectable differences were found. The differences interested only colostrums and transitional milk samples and regarded the decrease of the electrophoretic bands corresponding to alpha and beta-casein, tenascin, lactoferrin and immunoglobulin. In the majority of samples, HoP did not cause any modification, thereby preserving the biological activity of HM proteins.

  10. Molecular Profiling of Glatiramer Acetate Early Treatment Effects in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Feldman, Anna; Gurevich, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Glatiramer acetate (GA, Copaxone®) has beneficial effects on the clinical course of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, the exact molecular mechanisms of GA effects are only partially understood. Objective: To characterized GA molecular effects in RRMS patients within 3 months of treatment by microarray profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods: Gene-expression profiles were determined in RRMS patients before and at 3 months after initiation of GA treatment using Affimetrix (U133A-2) microarrays containing 14,500 well-characterized human genes. Most informative genes (MIGs) of GA-induced biological convergent pathways operating in RRMS were constructed using gene functional annotation, enrichment analysis and pathway reconstruction bioinformatic softwares. Verification at the mRNA and protein level was performed by qRT-PCR and FACS. Results: GA induced a specific gene expression molecular signature that included altered expression of 480 genes within 3 months of treatment; 262 genes were up-regulated, and 218 genes were down-regulated. The main convergent mechanisms of GA effects were related to antigen-activated apoptosis, inflammation, adhesion, and MHC class-I antigen presentation. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that GA treatment induces alternations of immunomodulatory gene expression patterns that are important for suppression of disease activity already at three months of treatment and can be used as molecular markers of GA activity. PMID:19893201

  11. Effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cinnamon has been shown to potentiate the hypoglycaemic effect of insulin through up regulation of the glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes of rats. This study tried to find out the effect of Cinnamon alone or in combination with Insulin in diabetic albino rats. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups, A and B. Group A were given cinnamon extract 200 mg/Kg body weight daily orally and group B rats were given cinnamon extract 400 mg/Kg body weight daily. After six weeks blood glucose and lipid profile levels were evaluated in all the groups. Results: Group of rats given 200 mg cinnamon extract showed significant decrease of blood glucose concentration but there was slight or no change in the level of lipid parameters including serum cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL-chol). On the other hand group of rats given 400 mg extract of cinnamon showed a better but non significant change in level of lipid related parameter while blood glucose level was significantly decreased. Conclusion: The cinnamon at a dose of 400 mg showed same effects on blood glucose level but better effects on lipid profiles especially of serum cholesterol level of group of rats compared to 200 mg of cinnamon extract. Cinnamon may be recommended as hypoglycaemic herb but not as hypolipidaemic herb. (author)

  12. Aflatoxin effect on erythrocyte profile and histopathology of broilers given different additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, M. F.; Sutrisno, B.; Agus, A.; Suryani, A. E.; Istiqomah, L.; Damayanti, E.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate erythrocyte profile and microscopic changes effect of AF induces by low level (57.18 ppb) and chronic exposure (34 days) with administration of additive (Lactobacillus plantarum G7 and methionine). Aflatoxin-contaminated corn was prepared by inoculate Aspergillus flavus FNCC 6002 on corn. Total number of 576 broiler Lohman strain (MB202) unsexed DOC were allocated completely randomized into four treatments and 12 replicates, with 12 broiler chicks each. The treatments as follows: T1 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet, T2 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 1% of LAB (w/w), T3 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 0.8% of methionine (w/w), and T4 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 1% of LAB + 0.8% of methionine (w/w). The effect of treatments was evaluated using ANOVA and the difference among mean treatments were analyzed using DMRT. The result showed that administration of additives had no significant effect (P>0.05) on erythrocyte profile, liver, and bursa of Fabricius. The dose of additive in each treatment (T2, T3, T4) were insufficient to reduce adverse effect of chronic aflatoxicosis. It was concluded that the LAB dose for binding AF (57.18%) should be evaluated and the dose for methionine should be reduced for chronic treatment of aflatoxicosis.

  13. Effects of Shear Fracture on In-depth Profile Modification of Weak Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xianjie; Song Xinwang; Yue Xiang'an; Hou Jirui; Fang Lichun; Zhang Huazhen

    2007-01-01

    Two sand packs were filled with fine glass beads and quartz sand respectively. The characteristics of crosslinked polymer flowing through the sand packs as well as the influence of shear fracture of porous media on the in-depth profile modification of the weak gel generated from the crosslinked polymer were investigated. The results indicated that under the dynamic condition crosslinking reaction happened in both sand packs,and the weak gels in these two cases became small gel particles after water flooding. The differences were:the dynamic gelation time in the quartz sand pack was longer than that in the glass bead pack. Residual resistance factor (FRR) caused by the weak gel in the quartz sand pack was smaller than that in the glass bead pack. The weak gel became gel particles after being scoured by subsequent flood water. A weak gel with uniform apparent viscosity and sealing characteristics was generated in every part of the glass bead pack,which could not only move deeply into the sand pack but also seal the high capacity channels again when it reached the deep part. The weak gel performed in-depth profile modification in the glass bead pack,while in the quartz sand pack,the weak gel was concentrated with 100 cm from the entrance of the sand pack. When propelled by the subsequent flood water,the weak gel could move towards the deep part of the sand pack but then became tiny gel particles and could not effectively seal the high capacity channels there. The in-depth profile modification of the weak gel was very weak in the quartz sand pack. It was the shear fracture of porous media that mainly affected the properties and weakened the in-depth profile modification of the weak gel.

  14. Effect of cofermentation of grape varieties on aroma profiles of la mancha red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carpintero, Eva Gómez; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Gómez Gallego, Manuel A; González-Viñas, Miguel A

    2011-10-01

    The effect of winemaking using blends of red grape varieties cultivated in La Mancha region (Spain) on the aroma profile of wines was researched by chemical characterization. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction using dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, respectively, as solvents in elution and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Free and bound volatile compounds were analyzed in Cencibel, Bobal, and Moravia Agria monovarietal wines, and in 3 wines obtained with the blending of grapes: Cencibel (50%) + Bobal (50%); Cencibel (50%) + Moravía Agria (50%); Cencibel (33%) + Bobal (33%) + Moravía Agria (33%). Aroma compounds were studied in terms of odor activity values (OAVs). Ninety free aroma compounds and sixty-five bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified. The odor activity values for the different compounds were classified into 7 odorant series. The fruity and sweet series contributed most strongly to the aroma profile of all wines, independently of the winemaking technique used. In general, co-winemaking wines present a more complex chemical profile than monovarietal wines. Practical Application: Some grape varieties could benefit from this process with the presence of other varieties that might have an excess of aroma compounds. In this study, the wines were elaborated by blending different grape varieties together; this process implies co-maceration and co-fermentation steps. The co-winemaking technique could benefit from additional molecules provided by the other varieties, which results in a more complex formation than in the case of monovarietal wines. This technique provides a viable alternative to traditional winemaking methods for improving and enhancing the sensory profile of elaborated wines. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Link Data to Learning Goals: Common District Assessments Connect Teaching Effectiveness to Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…

  16. Effect of temperature on microbial growth rate - thermodynamic analysis, the arrhenius and eyring-polanyi connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work is to develop a new thermodynamic mathematical model for evaluating the effect of temperature on the rate of microbial growth. The new mathematical model is derived by combining the Arrhenius equation and the Eyring-Polanyi transition theory. The new model, suitable for ...

  17. Cortical chemoarchitecture shapes macroscale effective functional connectivity patterns in macaque cerebral cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turk, Elise; Scholtens, Lianne H.; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.

    The mammalian cortex is a complex system of-at the microscale level-interconnected neurons and-at the macroscale level-interconnected areas, forming the infrastructure for local and global neural processing and information integration. While the effects of regional chemoarchitecture on local

  18. Effects of dopaminergic treatment on functional cortico-cortical connectivity in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zittel, S; Heinbokel, C; van der Vegt, J P M

    2015-01-01

    under chronic dopaminergic stimulation, but not in de novo PD patients at low stimulus intensities at an ISI of 4 ms. First-time exposure to levodopa exerts different effects on cortico-cortical pathways than chronic dopaminergic stimulation in PD, suggesting a change in the responsiveness of cortico...

  19. Bupropion Shows Different Effects on Brain Functional Connectivity in Patients With Internet-Based Gambling Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Bae

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionInternet gaming disorder (IGD and gambling disorder (GD share similar clinical characteristics but show different brain functional connectivity patterns. Bupropion is known to be effective for the treatment of patients with IGD and GD. We hypothesized that bupropion may be effective for the treatment of Internet-based gambling disorder (ibGD and IGD and that the connections between the default mode network (DMN and cognitive control network (CCN would be different between ibGD and IGD patients after 12 weeks of bupropion treatment.Methods16 patients with IGD, 15 patients with ibGD, and 15 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. At baseline and after 12 weeks of bupropion treatment, the clinical symptoms of patients with IGD or ibGD were assessed, and brain activity was evaluated using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging.ResultsAfter the 12-week bupropion treatment, clinical symptoms, including the severity of IGD or GD, depressive symptoms, attention, and impulsivity improved in both groups. In the IGD group, the functional connectivity (FC within the posterior DMN as well as the FC between the DMN and the CCN decreased following treatment. Moreover, the FC within the DMN in the IGD group was positively correlated with changes in Young Internet Addiction Scale scores after the bupropion treatment period. In the ibGD group, the FC within the posterior DMN decreased while the FC within the CCN increased after the bupropion treatment period. Moreover, the FC within the CCN in the ibGD group was significantly greater than that in the IGD group.ConclusionBupropion was effective in improving clinical symptoms in patients with IGD and ibGD. However, there were differences in the pharmacodynamics between the two groups. After 12 weeks of bupropion treatment, the FC within the DMN as well as between the DMN and CCN decreased in patients with IGD, whereas the FC within the CCN increased in patients with ibGD.

  20. How art changes your brain: differential effects of visual art production and cognitive art evaluation on functional brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwerk, Anne; Mack-Andrick, Jessica; Lang, Frieder R; Dörfler, Arnd; Maihöfner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Visual art represents a powerful resource for mental and physical well-being. However, little is known about the underlying effects at a neural level. A critical question is whether visual art production and cognitive art evaluation may have different effects on the functional interplay of the brain's default mode network (DMN). We used fMRI to investigate the DMN of a non-clinical sample of 28 post-retirement adults (63.71 years ±3.52 SD) before (T0) and after (T1) weekly participation in two different 10-week-long art interventions. Participants were randomly assigned to groups stratified by gender and age. In the visual art production group 14 participants actively produced art in an art class. In the cognitive art evaluation group 14 participants cognitively evaluated artwork at a museum. The DMN of both groups was identified by using a seed voxel correlation analysis (SCA) in the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC/preCUN). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to relate fMRI data to psychological resilience which was measured with the brief German counterpart of the Resilience Scale (RS-11). We observed that the visual art production group showed greater spatial improvement in functional connectivity of PCC/preCUN to the frontal and parietal cortices from T0 to T1 than the cognitive art evaluation group. Moreover, the functional connectivity in the visual art production group was related to psychological resilience (i.e., stress resistance) at T1. Our findings are the first to demonstrate the neural effects of visual art production on psychological resilience in adulthood.

  1. How Art Changes Your Brain: Differential Effects of Visual Art Production and Cognitive Art Evaluation on Functional Brain Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwerk, Anne; Mack-Andrick, Jessica; Lang, Frieder R.; Dörfler, Arnd; Maihöfner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Visual art represents a powerful resource for mental and physical well-being. However, little is known about the underlying effects at a neural level. A critical question is whether visual art production and cognitive art evaluation may have different effects on the functional interplay of the brain's default mode network (DMN). We used fMRI to investigate the DMN of a non-clinical sample of 28 post-retirement adults (63.71 years ±3.52 SD) before (T0) and after (T1) weekly participation in two different 10-week-long art interventions. Participants were randomly assigned to groups stratified by gender and age. In the visual art production group 14 participants actively produced art in an art class. In the cognitive art evaluation group 14 participants cognitively evaluated artwork at a museum. The DMN of both groups was identified by using a seed voxel correlation analysis (SCA) in the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC/preCUN). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to relate fMRI data to psychological resilience which was measured with the brief German counterpart of the Resilience Scale (RS-11). We observed that the visual art production group showed greater spatial improvement in functional connectivity of PCC/preCUN to the frontal and parietal cortices from T0 to T1 than the cognitive art evaluation group. Moreover, the functional connectivity in the visual art production group was related to psychological resilience (i.e., stress resistance) at T1. Our findings are the first to demonstrate the neural effects of visual art production on psychological resilience in adulthood. PMID:24983951

  2. Comparative effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on preloaded abutment screw using three-dimensional finite element analysis: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Krishna Chaitanya; Vinnakota, Dileep Nag; Pottem, Srinivas Rao; Pulagam, Mahesh

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on screw loosening (SL) of preloaded abutment using three dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. 3D models of implants (conical connection with hex/trilobed connections), abutments (straight/angulated), abutment screws (short/long), and crown and bone were designed using software Parametric Technology Corporation Creo and assembled to form 8 simulations. After discretization, the contact stresses developed for 150 N vertical and 100 N oblique load applications were analyzed, using ABAQUS. By assessing damage initiation and shortest fatigue load on screw threads, the SL for 2.5, 5, and 10 lakh cyclic loads were estimated, using fe-safe program. The obtained values were compared for influence of connection design, abutment angulation, and screw length. In straight abutment models, conical connection showed more damage (14.3%-72.3%) when compared to trilobe (10.1%-65.73%) at 2.5, 5, and 10 lakh cycles for both vertical and oblique loads, whereas in angulated abutments, trilobe (16.1%-76.9%) demonstrated more damage compared to conical (13.5%-70%). Irrespective of the connection type and abutment angulation, short screws showed more percentage of damage compared to long screws. The present study suggests selecting appropriate implant-abutment connection based on the abutment angulation, as well as preferring long screws with more number of threads for effective preload retention by the screws.

  3. Analysis of effects of laser profiles on fast electron generation by two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, M.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A cone-guided target is used in the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment project phase-I (FIREX-I) and optimization of its design is performed. However a laser profile is not optimized much, because the laser profile that is the best for core heating is not known well. To find that, it is useful to investigate characteristics of generated fast electrons in each condition of different laser profiles. In this research, effects of laser profiles on fast electron generation are investigated on somewhat simple conditions by two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations. In these simulations, a target is made up of Au pre-plasma and Au plasma. The Au pre-plasma has the exponential profile in the x direction with the scale length L = 4.0 μm and the density from 0.10 n cr to 20 n cr . The Au plasma has the flat profile in the x direction with 10 μm width and 20 n cr . Plasma profiles are uniform in the y direction. The ionization degree and the mass number of plasmas are 40 and 197, where the ionization degree is determined by PINOCO simulations. PINOCO is a two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulation code, which simulates formation of the high-density plasma during the compression phase in the fast ignition. A laser is assumed to propagate as plane wave from the negative x direction to the positive x direction. Laser profiles are supposed to be uniform in the y direction. Three different laser profiles, namely flat one with t flat = 100 fs, Gaussian one with t rise/fall = 47.0 fs and flat + Gaussian one with t rise/fall = 23.5 fs and t flat = 50 fs are used. The energy and the peak intensity are constant with E = 10 7 J/cm 2 and I L = 10 20 W/cm 2 in all cases of different laser profiles. We compare results in each condition of three different laser profiles and investigate effects of laser profiles on fast electron generation. Time-integrated energy spectra are similar in all cases of three different laser profiles. In the

  4. Refraction in the lower troposphere: Higher order image distortion effects due to refractive profile curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel J.

    There are many applications that rely on the propagation of light through the atmosphere - all of which are subject to atmospheric conditions. While there are obvious processes such as scattering due to particulates like clouds and dust that affect the received intensity of the radiation, the clear atmosphere can also cause significant effects. Refraction is a clear air effect that can cause a variety of phenomena such as apparent relocation, stretching and compression of objects when viewed through the atmosphere. Recently, there has been significant interest in studying the refractive effects for low angle paths within the troposphere, and in particular, near-horizontal paths in the Earth's boundary layer, which is adjacent to the ground. Refractive effects in this case become problematic for many terrestrial optical applications. For example, the pointing of a free space optical communication or a remote sensing system can suffer wandering effects, high-resolution imagery can present distorted and/or dislocated targets, optical tracking of targets can be inaccurate, and optical geodetic surveying accuracy is also very sensitive to the effects of refraction. The work in this dissertation was inspired by data from a time-lapse camera system that collects images of distant targets over a near-horizontal path along the ground. This system was used previously to study apparent diurnal image displacement and this dissertation extends that work by exploring the higher order effects that result from curvature in the vertical refractive index profile of the atmosphere. There are surprisingly few experiments involving atmospheric refractive effects that carefully correlate field data to analytical expressions and other factors such as meteorological data. In working with the time-lapse data, which is comprised of sequences of hundreds or thousands of images collected over durations of weeks or months, it is important to develop straightforward analysis techniques that can

  5. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  6. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... by drawing on and operationalizing violent, male networks — from struggle activists' networks, to vigilante groups and gangs, to the police. The fact that they were women helped them to tap into and exploit these networks. At the same time, they were restricted by their sex, as their ability to navigate...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...

  7. Effects of growth conditions on thermal profiles during Czochralski silicon crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwang Su; Stefani, Jerry A.; Dettling, Theodore B.; Tien, John K.; Wallace, John P.

    1991-01-01

    An eddy current testing method was used to continuously monitor crystal growth process and investigate the effects of growth conditions on thermal profiles during Czochralski silicon crystal growth. The experimental concept was to monitor the intrinsic electrical conductivities of the growing crystal and deduce temperature values from them. In terms of the experiments, the effects of changes in growth parameters, which include the crystal and crucible rotation rates, crucible position, and pull rate, and hot-zone geometries were investigated. The results show that the crystal thermal profile could shift significantly as a function of crystal length if the closed-loop control fails to maintain a constant thermal condition. As a direct evidence to the effects of the melt flow on heat transfer processes, a thermal gradient minimum was observed when the crystal/crucible rotation combination was 20/-10 rpm cw. The thermal gradients in the crystal near the growth interface were reduced most by decreasing the pull rate or by reducing the radiant heat loss to the environment; a nearly constant axial thermal gradient was achieved when either the pull rate was decreased by half, the height of the exposed crucible wall was doubled, or a radiation shield was placed around the crystal. Under these conditions, the average axial thermal gradient along the surface of the crystal was about 4-5°C/mm. When compared to theoretical results found in literature, the axial profiles correlated well with the results of the models which included radiant interactions. However, the radial gradients estimated from three-frequency data were much higher than what were predicted by known theoretical models. This discrepancy seems to indicate that optical phenomenon within the crystal is significant and should be included in theoretical modeling.

  8. Detailed investigation on the effect of wall spring stiffness on velocity profile in molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namvar, S; Karimian, S M H

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, motion of 576 monatomic argon molecules is studied in a channel with two 2-layered wall molecules. The effect of wall spring stiffness (K) on maximum value of velocity profile is investigated in the channel. It was observed that for K −2 , there is a decrease in the maximum value of velocity profile with an increase in K. This observation has been already reported by Sofos et al. To investigate a wider range of spring stiffness, in this paper the value of K was increased to more than 500εσ −2 . In this range of wall spring stiffness the behavior of maximum value of velocity profile changed; it increased with an increase in K. In a separate simulation the external force applied to the molecules was also increased and the same non-monotonic behavior of maximum value of velocity was observed. To clarify the reason of this behavior, the concepts of original and effective wall are introduced and through several test it is inferred that the mentioned concepts are not successful to demonstrate the reason of such behavior. It is suggested to obtain non-dimensional parameters governing the simulation in order to investigate the effect of every involved parameter on such a behavior. It is finally concluded that while wall spring stiffness affects the maximum velocity magnitude within the flow, the interaction of the two has not been clearly shown yet. The behavior of the maximum velocity is non-monotonic with the change of K. This is why no specific criterion has been reported for suitable value of wall spring stiffness in molecular dynamics simulation.

  9. Cost-effective smoke-free multiunit housing media campaigns: connecting with local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modayil, Mary V; Consolacion, Theodora B; Isler, Jonathan; Soria, Sandra; Stevens, Colleen

    2011-11-01

    Presented are cost-effective paid media strategies to educate Californians to advocate for stronger smoke-free multiunit housing (SF-MUH) policies between 2006 and 2008. Included is a summary of general market and specific ethnic market costs that correspond to SF-MUH attitudes and home smoking bans. Statewide questionnaires indicated that half of the intended general market saw an antitobacco TV ad and half of the intended ethnic markets heard radio ads. Analyses indicated that it cost $0.67 and $0.78 per person to see Caution Tape and Apartment TV ads, respectively. Slightly higher per capita costs corresponded with positive attitudes toward SF-MUH: $0.87 for Caution Tape and $1.00 for Apartment. Lessons learned from this campaign included effectiveness of specific ads in ethnic markets, impact on SF-MUH work plan policy objectives, and the need for collaborations among state and local partners throughout the message development process.

  10. The Effect of Binaural Beats on Visuospatial Working Memory and Cortical Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A.; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, hav...

  11. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Gryka; Wanda Pilch; Marta Szarek; Zbigniew Szygula; Łukasz Tota

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mas...

  12. Effect of actions promoting healthy eating on students' lipid profile: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita De Cássia Ribeiro-Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nutrition intervention actions on the lipid profile of children and adolescents enrolled in public elementary schools. METHODS: This nine-month, controlled, intervention study included 202 students aged 7 to 14 years attending two schools (intervention/control located in a poor neighborhood of the municipality of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Actions were implemented in the intervention school to promote healthy eating habits, presented as "Ten steps to healthy eating". The effect of these actions was assessed by subjecting the students at baseline and end of the follow-up to biochemical, maturation, and anthropometric measurements and a produce intake survey. The dependent variables were the changes in the study biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of covariance assessed the changes that occurred over the study period. RESULTS: The mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides of the intervention students decreased 13.18 mg/dL (p=0.001, 7.41 mg/dL (p=0.038, and 12.37 mg/dL (p=0.029, respectively, compared with the control students. CONCLUSION: Actions of this nature have a positive impact on lipid profile. This study adds to those that use effective and viable public health strategies implementable at the primary care level.

  13. Effects of excitation spectral width on decay profile of weakly confined excitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, O.; Isu, T.; Ishi-Hayase, J.; Kanno, A.; Katouf, R.; Sasaki, M.; Tsuchiya, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report the effect due to a simultaneous excitation of several exciton states on the radiative decay profiles on the basis of the nonlocal response of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films. In the case of excitation of single exciton state, the transient grating signal has two decay components. The fast decay component comes from nonlocal response, and the long-lived component is attributed to free exciton decay. With an increase of excitation spectral width, the nonlocal component becomes small in comparison with the long-lived component, and disappears under irradiation of a femtosecond-pulse laser with broader spectral width. The transient grating spectra clearly indicates the contribution of the weakly confined excitons to the signal, and the exciton line width hardly changes by excitation spectral width. From these results, we concluded that the change of decay profile is attributed not to the many-body effect but to the effect of simultaneous excitation of several exciton states

  14. Effect of Olanzapine on Clinical and Polysomnography Profiles in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zia Ul Haq Katshu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and short-term administration of olanzapine has a favorable effect on sleep in schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to clarify the effect of olanzapine on polysomnographic profiles of schizophrenia patients during the acute phase of illness after controlling for previous drug exposure. Twenty-five drug-naïve or drug-free schizophrenia patients were assessed at baseline and after six weeks of olanzapine treatment on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU side-effect rating scale and a whole-night polysomnography; fifteen patients completed the study. There was a significant reduction in all psychopathological variables with maximum reduction in PANSS total, BPRS total, and PANSS positive scores. A significant increase in total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, nonrapid eye movement (NREM stage 1 duration, stage 3 duration, stage 4 duration, and stage 4 percentage of TST, number of rapid eye movement (REM periods, REM duration, and REM percentage of TST was observed. REM latency at baseline inversely predicted the reduction in BPRS total and PANSS total and positive scores. In summary, short-term treatment with olanzapine produced significant improvement in clinical and polysomnography profiles of patients with schizophrenia with shorter REM latency predicting a good clinical response.

  15. Effect of age, gender and exercise on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone circadian rhythm profile in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turk, Walid; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S

    2016-02-01

    There has been a lot of effort by scientists to elucidate the multi functions of the naturally occurring hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). However, to plan research experiments optimally, it is important first to characterize the diurnal rhythm in healthy individuals. The aim of this research was to investigate the daily circadian rhythms of DHEA among the 2 genders, and the effect of age and exercise on salivary DHEA circadian rhythms. Volunteers (20-39 and 40-60 years) were recruited for 2 studies investigating the salivary DHEA circadian rhythm. The first study looked at the effect of gender and age on DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days, and the second study explored the effect of exercise on DHEA circadian rhythm in males. DHEA levels were estimated by a sensitive and specific ELISA method. The results showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants groups, however the profile was flatter in the older female group. There was a significant difference between age and gender groups particularly at 8.00 h. In young males DHEA reduced from 541.1 ± 101.3 (mean ± sd) at 8.00 h to 198.9 ± 90.7 pg/mL at 18.00 h; pcircadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants was observed, but the profile was flatter in the older groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Effect of Kombucha Tea on Blood Sugar and Blood Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malekaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kombucha tea is made through fermentation of sweet tea by Kombucha fungus. It has beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. The present study aimed at examining the effect of Kombucha tea extract on blood sugar and blood lipid profiles in diabetes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats weighing about 250g were divided into 4 equal groups and then injected intraperitoneally (IP with alloxan to induce diabetes. The administered concentrations were 20 and 80 mg/kg of Kombucha tea and 20 mg/kg of black ordinary tea for one month. The rats’ blood sugar and weight were tested before and after the intervention period but blood lipid parameters per either administration were also assessed at the end of the period. Results: Mean blood sugar in the diabetic rats receiving Kombucha tea was reduced. Maximum reduction in blood sugar was observed in the group receiving Kombucha tea with concentration of 80 mg/kg. However, black tea significantly reduced blood sugar. Conclusion: Kombucha tea consumption for a month only reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. But increased the weight and not have favorable effects on lipid profile.

  17. The effects of classic ketogenic diet on serum lipid profile in children with refractory seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Gholam Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Karimi, Parviz; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Badv, Reza Shervin; Tavassoli, Ali Reza; Azizi Malamiri, Reza

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 % of children with epilepsy develop refractory seizures unresponsive to both old and new generation anticonvulsants. Since such seizures have a serious negative impact on the quality of life, other treatment options are considered. The ketogenic diet is a well-known treatment for managing refractory seizures, although its mechanism of action is unknown. Studies have shown that this diet is as good as, or better than, any of the newer medications in reducing seizure frequency. However, concerns about adverse effects have been raised. We conducted an open label trial to show the effects of this diet on serum lipid profile. Thirty-three children with refractory epilepsy were treated with the ketogenic diet and were followed for 6 months. Their serum lipid profile was assessed at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after initiating the diet. Seizure frequency was reduced in 63 % of children (no seizures in 2/33 and reduced >50 % in 19/33). However, after 6 months of administering the diet, median triglyceride was significantly increased (from 84 to 180 mg/dl, P ketogenic diet in children with refractory seizures is effective in seizure reduction, but leads to development of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  18. Pharmacologically Induced Sex Hormone Fluctuation Effects on Resting-State Functional Connectivity in a Risk Model for Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Larsen, Camilla Borgsted; Beliveau, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Women are at relatively greater lifetime risk for depression than men. This elevated risk in women is partly due to heightened risk during time periods characterized by marked fluctuations in sex hormones, including postpartum and perimenopausal periods. How sex hormone fluctuations contribute...... to heightened risk is not fully understood but may involve intrinsic functional connectivity. We induced a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin to determine, with a randomized placebo-controlled design, intervention effects on or Gn....... Considering the GnRHa group only, the emergence of depressive symptoms following intervention was positively associated with amygdala-right temporal cortex and negatively associated with hippocampus-cingulate rs-FC. A test for mediation suggested that rs-FC changes in these networks marginally mediated...

  19. Immunogenicity of influenza H1N1 vaccination in mixed connective tissue disease: effect of disease and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Miossi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential acute effects regarding the immunogenicity and safety of non-adjuvanted influenza A H1N1/2009 vaccine in patients with mixed connective tissue disease and healthy controls. METHODS: Sixty-nine mixed connective tissue disease patients that were confirmed by Kasukawa's classification criteria and 69 age- and gender-matched controls participated in the study; the participants were vaccinated with the non-adjuvanted influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1 virus-like strain. The percentages of seroprotec-tion, seroconversion, geometric mean titer and factor increase in the geometric mean titer were calculated. The patients were clinically evaluated, and blood samples were collected pre- and 21 days post-vaccination to evaluate C-reactive protein, muscle enzymes and autoantibodies. Anti-H1N1 titers were determined using an influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01151644. RESULTS: Before vaccination, no difference was observed regarding the seroprotection rates (p = 1.0 and geometric mean titer (p = 0.83 between the patients and controls. After vaccination, seroprotection (75.4% vs. 71%, (p = 0.7, seroconversion (68.1% vs. 65.2%, (p = 1.00 and factor increase in the geometric mean titer (10.0 vs. 8.0, p = 0.40 were similar in the two groups. Further evaluation of seroconversion in patients with and without current or previous history of muscle disease (p = 0.20, skin ulcers (p = 0.48, lupus-like cutaneous disease (p = 0.74, secondary Sjogren syndrome (p = 0.78, scleroderma-pattern in the nailfold capillaroscopy (p = 1.0, lymphopenia #1000/mm³ on two or more occasions (p = 1.0, hypergammaglobulinemia $1.6 g/d (p = 0.60, pulmonary hypertension (p = 1.0 and pulmonary fibrosis (p = 0.80 revealed comparable rates. Seroconversion rates were also similar in patients with and without immunosuppressants. Disease parameters, such as C-reactive protein (p = 0.94, aldolase (p = 0.73, creatine

  20. Connecting anomaly and tunneling methods for the Hawking effect through chirality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    The role of chirality is discussed in unifying the anomaly and the tunneling formalisms for deriving the Hawking effect. Using the chirality condition and starting from the familiar form of the trace anomaly, the chiral (gravitational) anomaly, manifested as a nonconservation of the stress tensor, near the horizon of a black hole, is derived. Solution of this equation yields the stress tensor whose asymptotic infinity limit gives the Hawking flux. Finally, use of the same chirality condition in the tunneling formalism gives the Hawking temperature that is compatible with the flux obtained by anomaly method.

  1. THE MAXIMUM EFFECT OF DEEP LAKES ON TEMPERATURE PROFILES – DETERMINATION OF THE GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eppelbaum L. V.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the climate change processes on the basis of geothermal observations in boreholes is an important and at the same time high-intricate problem. Many non-climatic effects could cause changes in ground surface temperatures. In this study we investigate the effects of deep lakes on the borehole temperature profilesobserved within or in the vicinity of the lakes. We propose a method based on utilization of Laplace equation with nonuniform boundary conditions. The proposed method makes possible to estimate the maximum effect of deep lakes (here the term "deep lake" means that long term mean annual temperature of bottom sediments can beconsidered as a constant value on the borehole temperature profiles. This method also allows one to estimate an accuracy of the determination of the geothermal gradient.

  2. Dose and temporal effects on gene expression profiles of urothelial cells from rats exposed to diuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihlaseh-Catalano, Shadia M.; Bailey, Kathryn A.; Cardoso, Ana Paula F.; Ren, Hongzu; Fry, Rebecca C.; Camargo, João Lauro V.de; Wolf, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that at high dietary levels (2500 ppm) induces rat urinary bladder hyperplasia after 20 weeks of exposure and neoplasia after 2 years. The effects on the urothelium after short-term exposure have not been described. The present 7-day study evaluated the dose-dependency of urothelial alterations in the urinary bladder using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Male Wistar rats were fed 0, 125, 500, 2500 ppm diuron for 7 days. The urinary bladder and isolated urothelial cells of these animals were processed for microscopic examination and gene expression profiling, respectively. No significant treatment-related morphologic effects were observed. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the exposed groups increased with diuron levels. Diuron-altered genes involved in cell-to-cell interactions and tissue organization were identified in all treatment groups. After 7 days of diuron exposure, transcriptional responses were observed in the urothelium in the absence of clear morphologic changes. These morphological findings are different from those observed in a previous study in which 20 weeks of diuron exposure was associated with simple hyperplasia secondary to the persistent cytotoxicity and necrosis associated with continuous cellular regeneration. Comparison of the gene expression profiles of rats exposed to the 2500 ppm carcinogenic diuron dose for 7 days versus 20 weeks revealed few similarities between these two time points at the gene or pathway level. Taken together, these data provide insight into the dose- and temporal-dependent morphological and transcriptional changes associated with diuron exposure that may lead to the development of tumors in the rat urinary bladder

  3. Dose and temporal effects on gene expression profiles of urothelial cells from rats exposed to diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlaseh-Catalano, Shadia M; Bailey, Kathryn A; Cardoso, Ana Paula F; Ren, Hongzu; Fry, Rebecca C; de Camargo, João Lauro V; Wolf, Douglas C

    2014-11-05

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that at high dietary levels (2500 ppm) induces rat urinary bladder hyperplasia after 20 weeks of exposure and neoplasia after 2 years. The effects on the urothelium after short-term exposure have not been described. The present 7-day study evaluated the dose-dependency of urothelial alterations in the urinary bladder using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Male Wistar rats were fed 0, 125, 500, 2500 ppm diuron for 7 days. The urinary bladder and isolated urothelial cells of these animals were processed for microscopic examination and gene expression profiling, respectively. No significant treatment-related morphologic effects were observed. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the exposed groups increased with diuron levels. Diuron-altered genes involved in cell-to-cell interactions and tissue organization were identified in all treatment groups. After 7 days of diuron exposure, transcriptional responses were observed in the urothelium in the absence of clear morphologic changes. These morphological findings are different from those observed in a previous study in which 20 weeks of diuron exposure was associated with simple hyperplasia secondary to the persistent cytotoxicity and necrosis associated with continuous cellular regeneration. Comparison of the gene expression profiles of rats exposed to the 2500 ppm carcinogenic diuron dose for 7 days versus 20 weeks revealed few similarities between these two time points at the gene or pathway level. Taken together, these data provide insight into the dose- and temporal-dependent morphological and transcriptional changes associated with diuron exposure that may lead to the development of tumors in the rat urinary bladder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  5. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  6. Metabolite Profiling of Feces and Serum in Hemodialysis Patients and the Effect of Medicinal Charcoal Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sixiu; Liang, Shanshan; Liu, Hua; Chen, Lei; Sun, Lingshuang; Wei, Meng; Jiang, Hongli; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-22

    Recently, the colon has been recognized as an important source of various uremic toxins in patients with end stage renal disease. Medicinal charcoal tablets are an oral adsorbent that are widely used in patients with chronic kidney disease in China to remove creatinine and urea from the colon. A parallel fecal and serum metabolomics study was performed to determine comprehensive metabolic profiles of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). The effects of medicinal charcoal tablets on the fecal and serum metabolomes of HD patients were also investigated. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate the fecal and serum metabolic profiles of 20 healthy controls and 31 HD patients before and after taking medicinal charcoal tablets for 3 months. There were distinct metabolic variations between the HD patients and healthy controls both in the feces and serum according to multivariate data analysis. Metabolic disturbances of alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism figured prominently in the serum. However, in the feces, alterations of tryptophan metabolism, lysine degradation and beta-alanine metabolism were pronounced, and the levels of several amino acids (leucine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, methionine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) were increased dramatically. Nineteen fecal metabolites and 21 serum metabolites were also identified as biomarkers that contributed to the metabolic differences. Additionally, medicinal charcoal treatment generally enabled the serum and fecal metabolomes of the HD patients to draw close to those of the control subjects, especially the serum metabolic profile. Parallel fecal and serum metabolomics uncovered the systematic metabolic variations of HD patients, especially disturbances in amino acid metabolism in the colon. Medicinal charcoal tablets had an impact on the serum and fecal metabolomes of HD patients, but their exact effects still need to be studied further

  7. Temporal expression profiling identifies pathways mediating effect of causal variant on phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Even with identification of multiple causal genetic variants for common human diseases, understanding the molecular processes mediating the causal variants' effect on the disease remains a challenge. This understanding is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat disease. While static profiling of gene expression is primarily used to get insights into the biological bases of diseases, it makes differentiating the causative from the correlative effects difficult, as the dynamics of the underlying biological processes are not monitored. Using yeast as a model, we studied genome-wide gene expression dynamics in the presence of a causal variant as the sole genetic determinant, and performed allele-specific functional validation to delineate the causal effects of the genetic variant on the phenotype. Here, we characterized the precise genetic effects of a functional MKT1 allelic variant in sporulation efficiency variation. A mathematical model describing meiotic landmark events and conditional activation of MKT1 expression during sporulation specified an early meiotic role of this variant. By analyzing the early meiotic genome-wide transcriptional response, we demonstrate an MKT1-dependent role of novel modulators, namely, RTG1/3, regulators of mitochondrial retrograde signaling, and DAL82, regulator of nitrogen starvation, in additively effecting sporulation efficiency. In the presence of functional MKT1 allele, better respiration during early sporulation was observed, which was dependent on the mitochondrial retrograde regulator, RTG3. Furthermore, our approach showed that MKT1 contributes to sporulation independent of Puf3, an RNA-binding protein that steady-state transcription profiling studies have suggested to mediate MKT1-pleiotropic effects during mitotic growth. These results uncover interesting regulatory links between meiosis and mitochondrial retrograde signaling. In this study, we highlight the advantage

  8. Effect of hot dip galvanization on the fatigue strength of steel bolted connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.J. Razavi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hot dip galvanized steel bolted joints has been tested under fatigue loading to evaluate the effect of galvanizing coating on the fatigue strength of S355 structural steel. The experimental results showed that the decrease of the fatigue life of coated specimens in comparison with that of uncoated joints is very limited and the results are in good agreement with Eurocode detail category, without substantial reductions. The procedure for coating and preparation of the bolted joints is described in detail in this paper providing a useful tool for engineers involved in similar practical applications. The experimental results are compared with the previously published data on central hole notched galvanized and not treated specimens characterized by the same geometry.

  9. Assessment of factors connected with radiotherapy influencing the cosmetic effect in breast conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaszczyk, P.; Roszkowski, K.; Blaszczyk, E.; Kowalewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To compare cosmetic results of different radiotherapy schedules used in the treatment of breast cancer after breast radiotherapy and to identify factors affecting cosmetic outcomes. Material and methods: Ninety-four patients irradiated. Median follow-up of 29 months (range 18-154 mo.). Patients were treated with standard fractionation 45-50 Gy/20-25 fx/4-5 weeks. Boost up to 10 Gy. Late effects were evaluated using the LENT-SOMA scoring scale. The cosmetic results were assessed on a four-point scale and presence of concomitant chemotherapy. Results: LENT-SOMA grade 3 toxicity was observed only in 8 (8,5%) patients. The factor associated with hyperpigmentation is large breast size. The significant risk factors for teleangiectasia are high dose and use photon energy 1,33 MeV beam. Factors found to impact significantly cosmetics adversely fibrosis was large breast size. Breast fibrosis were more frequent observed in woman after whole dose 50 Gy. There were no differences in breast skin thick between analysed factors. Conclusions: After irradiating large breasts more often than one observes the fibrosis of the breast in the case of small and average breasts and discolour of the skin. Irradiating photons from the cobalt source in the comparison with photons about higher energy at women with large breasts, there is the reason more frequent occurrence of the skin angioma. For the final cosmetic effect of radiotherapy in saving treatment, they do not have the impact: tumor size, boost method, chemical treatment, patients age. (authors)

  10. Altered effective connectivity network of the basal ganglia in low-grade hepatic encephalopathy: a resting-state fMRI study with Granger causality analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfeng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basal ganglia often show abnormal metabolism and intracranial hemodynamics in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE. Little is known about how the basal ganglia affect other brain system and is affected by other brain regions in HE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effective connectivity network associated with the basal ganglia is disturbed in HE patients by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty five low-grade HE patients and thirty five age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The effective connectivity networks associated with the globus pallidus, the primarily affected region within basal ganglia in HE, were characterized by using the Granger causality analysis and compared between HE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the abnormal effective connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels and neuropsychological performances of all HE patients. Compared with the healthy controls, patients with low-grade HE demonstrated mutually decreased influence between the globus pallidus and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, cuneus, bi-directionally increased influence between the globus pallidus and the precuneus, and either decreased or increased influence from and to the globus pallidus in many other frontal, temporal, parietal gyri, and cerebellum. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that the blood ammonia levels in HE patients negatively correlated with effective connectivity from the globus pallidus to ACC, and positively correlated with that from the globus pallidus to precuneus; and the number connectivity test scores in patients negatively correlated with the effective connectivity from the globus pallidus to ACC, and from superior frontal gyrus to globus pallidus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low-grade HE patients had disrupted effective

  11. Effect of Contact Pressure on the Resistance Contact Value and Temperature Changes in Copper Busbar Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Risdiyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed the influence of tightness or contacts pressure on copper busbar joints to determine changes in the value of the initial contact resistance and the maximum temperature at the joint due to high current load. The test sample was copper busbar 3 x 30 mm with configuration of bolted overlapping joint. Increasing contact pressure at the joint was measured to find out its effect on the value of contact resistance. The applied pressure was 6 to 36 MPa. Procedure of contact resistance measurement refer to the ASTM B539 standard using four-wire method. The sample subsequently loaded with the current of 350 A for 60 minutes and the maximum temperature at the joint was measured. The result showed that increasing contact pressure at the busbar joint will reduce the contact resistance and maximum temperature. The increase of contact pressure from 6 to 30 MPa causes decreasing contact resistance from 16 μΩ to 11 μΩ. Further increasing of contact pressure more than 30 MPa did not affect the contact resistance significantly. The lowest temperatur of busbar joint of 54°C was reached at a contact pressure of 36 Mpa.

  12. Morphological changes connected with irradiation of large fields in dogs and with the effect of automyelotransplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klestova, O.V.; Sil'chenko, N.N.; Stanzhevskaya, T.I.; Strelin, G.S.; Vishnyakov, Yu.S.; Gubareva, A.V.; Skripkina, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Dogs have been used to study the effect of automyelotransplantation on processes of post-radiation recovery of hemopoietic organs in large-field fractionated irradiation and morphological changes in some internal organs irradiated with different doses. Dogs of both sexes were irradiated in the gamma device twice a week alternately from the back and from the stomach with fractions of 8 Gy for the radiation field. The integral dose for all irradiated sections is 48 Gy. Automyelotransplantation of bone marrow is done after irradiation of the upper part of the body of the animal. Morphological changes in bone marrow, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, liver, heart and lungs, are found. It is shown that automyelotransplantation from non-irradiated section in the case of large-field radiation promotes the recovery of bone marrow and other homopoietic organs which is expressed in the intensification of repopulation of bone marrow of breast bone and lymphoid hemopoiesis in spleen. It is noted that such reparation of bone marrow can play a positive role in the recovery of bone marrow syndrome of radiation disease

  13. Digital Technology: the Effect of Connected World to Computer Ethic and Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benfano Soewito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of digital technology such as smartphones, tablets and other gadgets grows very rapidly in the last decade so does the development of mobile applications for those mobile systems or smartphones. Unfortunately, those applications often do not specify the age range for their users. This is actually a problem in the world of digital technology and software development. It is not yet known whether the applications is good be used for children or not. Nowadays, parents are faced with the dilemma of allowing their children to use these modern gadgets, which often lead to serious addiction or keeping them in the dark and risk raising ignorant kids. This research shows 80% of respondents agree or strongly agree that the gadget will affect to the development of children social skill. Therefore, in this research, the framework for ethical assessment is introduced and it can be applied to digital technology included gadget and its application in order to mitigate the negative effect of digital technology and gadgets.

  14. Effects of stress on memory in children and adolescents: testing causal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, Jodi A; Rush, Elizabeth B; Yim, Ilona S; Nikolayev, Mariya

    2014-01-01

    Although a sizeable body of research has examined children's memory for stressful prior experiences, relatively few studies have experimentally manipulated stress during a to-be-remembered event to draw causal inferences about the effects of stress, especially across wide age ranges. We exposed children and adolescents to a more or a less arousing version of the Trier Social Stress Test-Modified (TSST-M), a widely used laboratory stress task. Two weeks later, we tested their memory for what happened. Interviewers behaved in a supportive or non-supportive manner. In adolescents, those who completed the high-arousal TSST-M provided fewer correct responses to recognition questions and fewer incorrect responses to misleading questions for which any answer would have been incorrect, compared to those who completed the lower-arousal TSST-M. Thus, arousal seemed to have reduced the adolescents' willingness to answer questions rather than having influenced their memory per se. In children, across TSST-M conditions, greater physiological arousal during the TSST-M predicted enhanced recall. Finally, interviewer support reduced the amount of factual information provided in free recall but increased correct responses to misleading questions. Results highlight the complex ways in which event stress and interviewer demeanour shape recounting of prior experiences across development.

  15. A simple and robust method for connecting small-molecule drugs using gene-expression signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gant Timothy W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of a drug or chemical with a biological system can result in a gene-expression profile or signature characteristic of the event. Using a suitably robust algorithm these signatures can potentially be used to connect molecules with similar pharmacological or toxicological properties by gene expression profile. Lamb et al first proposed the Connectivity Map [Lamb et al (2006, Science 313, 1929–1935] to make successful connections among small molecules, genes, and diseases using genomic signatures. Results Here we have built on the principles of the Connectivity Map to present a simpler and more robust method for the construction of reference gene-expression profiles and for the connection scoring scheme, which importantly allows the valuation of statistical significance of all the connections observed. We tested the new method with two randomly generated gene signatures and three experimentally derived gene signatures (for HDAC inhibitors, estrogens, and immunosuppressive drugs, respectively. Our testing with this method indicates that it achieves a higher level of specificity and sensitivity and so advances the original method. Conclusion The method presented here not only offers more principled statistical procedures for testing connections, but more importantly it provides effective safeguard against false connections at the same time achieving increased sensitivity. With its robust performance, the method has potential use in the drug development pipeline for the early recognition of pharmacological and toxicological properties in chemicals and new drug candidates, and also more broadly in other 'omics sciences.

  16. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royland, Joyce E.; Wu, Jinfang; Zawia, Nasser H.; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2008-01-01

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive development, causes psychomotor difficulties, and contributes to attention deficits in children, all of which seem to be associated with altered patterns of neuronal connectivity. In the present study, we examined gene expression profiles in the rat nervous system following PCB developmental exposure. Pregnant rats (Long-Evans) were dosed perinatally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of Aroclor 1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Gene expression in cerebellum and hippocampus from PND7 and PND14 animals was analyzed with an emphasis on developmental aspects. Changes in gene expression (≥ 1.5 fold) in control animals identified normal developmental changes. These basal levels of expression were compared to data from Aroclor 1254-treated animals to determine the impact of gestational PCB exposure on developmental parameters. The results indicate that the expression of a number of developmental genes related to cell cycle, synaptic function, cell maintenance, and neurogenesis is significantly altered from PND7 to PND14. Aroclor 1254 treatment appears to dampen the overall growth-related gene expression levels in both regions with the effect being more pronounced in the cerebellum. Functional analysis suggests that Aroclor 1254 delays maturation of the developing nervous system, with the consequences dependent on the ontological state of the brain area and the functional role of the individual gene. Such changes may underlie learning and memory deficits observed in PCB exposed animals and humans

  17. THE EFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES ON CHANGE IN BLOOD PROFILE IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Estiyani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postpartum anemia among mothers is a health problem in Indonesia. Consuming Moringa Oleifera is assumed as one of the efforts to deal with anemia. However, lack of the study conducted in the working in the working area of health center of Tlogosari Wetan. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of Moringa Oleifera on blood profile in postpartum mothers. Methods: The study was quasy experimental study with pretest posttest control group design. The sample in this study were all postpartum mothers in the working area of the health center of Tlogosari Wetan. It was 30 respondents recruited by purposive sampling, divided into intervention group (15 respondents who received Moringa leaf capsule and iron tablet; and control group (15 respondents were given iron tablet. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test. Results: Findings showed a significant difference in the mean of hemoglobin level (Intervention group 11.9467; control group 11.0600, hematocrit (Intervention group 38.3867; Control group 33.8133, thrombocyte (Intervention group 3.02536; Control group 2.35805, and erythrocyte (Intervention group 4.30137; Control group 3.78206 with p-value < 0.05. Conclusion: there was a significant effect of Moringa Oleifera on changes in blood profile (hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte, thrombocyte in postpartum mothers in the working area of the health center of Tlogosari Wetan. Thus, it is suggested that Moringa leaves could be used to prevent anemia in postpartum mothers.

  18. Finding evidence for density fluctuation effects on electron cyclotron heating deposition profiles on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, M. W.; Austin, M. E.; Petty, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T e measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D

  19. Effects of coronatine elicitation on growth and metabolic profiles of Lemna paucicostata culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young Kim

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of coronatine treatment on the growth, comprehensive metabolic profiles, and productivity of bioactive compounds, including phenolics and phytosterols, in whole plant cultures of Lemna paucicostata were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. To determine the optimal timing of coronatine elicitation, coronatine was added on days 0, 23, and 28 after inoculation. The total growth of L. paucicostata was not significantly different between the coronatine treated groups and the control. The coronatine treatment in L. paucicostata induced increases in the content of hydroxycinnamic acids, such as caffeic acid, isoferulic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, and phytosterols, such as campesterol and β-sitosterol. The productivity of these useful metabolites was highest when coronatine was added on day 0 and harvested on day 32. These results suggest that coronatine treatment on day 0 activates the phenolic and phytosterol biosynthetic pathways in L. paucicostata to a greater extent than in the control. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the effects of coronatine on the alteration of metabolism in L. paucicostata based on GC-MS profiling. The results of this research provide a foundation for designing strategies for enhanced production of useful metabolites for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries by cultivation of L. paucicostata.

  20. Effect of motivational climate profiles on motivational indices in team sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommundsen, Y; Roberts, G C

    1999-12-01

    Contemporary perspectives of achievement motivation have been based on social cognitive theories which give motivational climate a central place in the regulation of subsequent affective states, cognitions and behaviour in achievement contexts. This study examined the relationship between different profiles of the motivational climate in teamsport and achievement, and socially related cognitions among Norwegian team sport athletes. Players (N= 148) assessed their perception of the motivational climate using the Norwegian version of the Motivational climate in sport questionnaire, sources of satisfaction in team sport, achievement strategies, perceived purposes of sport, and conceptions of ability. Multivariate analysis of variance (2x2) showed both main effects for profiles of the motivational climate and an interaction effect. Athletes perceiving the climate as high in mastery and high in performance oriented criteria reported psychological responses that were more adaptative than those perceiving the climate as low in mastery and high in performance criteria. With one exception, the findings showed that those high in mastery and low in performance were more likely to emphasise self-referenced criteria when judging perceived ability in team sport. For both social responsibility and lifetime skills as purposes in sport, it was the high performance and low mastery athletes who were least likely to endorse these purposes. And importantly, the high mastery climate seemed to moderate the impact of being in a high performance climate. The pattern of findings suggests that perceiving the motivational climate as performance oriented may not be motivationally maladaptive when accompanied by mastery oriented situational cues.

  1. Milk progesterone profiles and the effect of the buck during the anoestrous period in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dazhi; Liu Xianyi; Chen Faju; Song Xuehua; Wang Kairong; Liu Xiangmo; Xu Gongyi

    1991-01-01

    Milk progesterone profiles in Chengdu Mah (CM), Saanen (S) and crossbred (CM x S, F1) goats were determined using radioimmunoassay throughout the period from kidding to the beginning of the next breeding season. Different patterns of progesterone profiles were recorded in these does. When milk progesterone concentrations were elevated above 6 ng/mL for at least 6 days they were regarded as signs of ovarian activity. The frequencies of such rises during anoestrus were 4.0, 1.8 and 2.5 per animal in CM, S and F1 goats respectively. The frequencies of progesterone rise were higher than that of behavioural oestrus in the does. After exposing the does to the buck three times during the anoestrus period, no significant 'male effect' was observed on the milk progesterone level or behavioural oestrus during the first six months after kidding. The male effect on behavioural oestrus became apparent only in the seventh month after kidding, while milk progesterone levels did not change markedly compared with those of the control does. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  2. Effect of dietary lipid, carnitine and exercise on lipid profile in rat blood, liver and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Jyothsna; Jeevaratnam, K

    2009-09-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise on effects of the daily intake of vegetarian diet of either vegetable hydrogenated fat (HF) or peanut oil (PO) with or without carnitine on the lipid profile. Eight groups of male Wistar rats were fed HF-diet (4 groups) or PO-diet (4 groups), with or without carnitine for 24 weeks. One group for each diet acted as sedentary control while the other groups were allowed swimming for 1 hr a day, 6 days/week, for 24 weeks. Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA), liver and thigh muscle glycogen, total fat (TF), TG, TC and FFA were analyzed. HF-fed rats showed significantly increased plasma TC, VLDL+LDL-cholesterol and TG compared to PO-fed rats, wherein a lowered plasma TC, TG levels in all the groups with significantly increased liver cholesterol and decreased muscle cholesterol was observed. Physical exercise of moderate intensity reduced plasma TC and TG accompanied by significantly reduced tissue TG and cholesterol while FFA and glycogen increased in all the groups. The influence of exercise was less pronounced in carnitine supplemented rats since carnitine could significantly reduce TG in plasma and tissues of sedentary rats. Results from the present study showed that the intake of HF diet significantly increased the plasma and tissue lipid profile and MUFA-rich diet or carnitine supplementation and/or exercise may ameliorate the deleterious effects of HF.

  3. Effects of ultrasonic assisted cooking on the chemical profiles of taste and flavor of spiced beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunhe; Kang, Dacheng; Liu, Rui; Qi, Jun; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Wangang

    2018-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of ultrasonic assisted cooking on the chemical profiles of spiced beef taste and flavor. Ultrasound power with 0 W, 400 W, 600 W, 800 W and 1000 W (frequency of 20 kHz) were used for cooking 120 min. The sodium chloride, sugar, free amino acids (FAAs), 5'-ribonucleotides, lipid oxidation, volatile flavor substance contents and electronic nose of spiced beef were determined. Results showed that ultrasonic treatment could significantly increase the content of sodium chloride in beef sample (P  0.05). With the ultrasonic treatment, the types and relative content of volatile flavor substances were significantly increased (P alcohols and ketones. However, there was no significant variation among the different ultrasound power groups (P > 0.05). This result was consistent with the measurement of electronic nose. Data points of control samples were away from ultrasonic treatment groups, while data points of different ultrasonic treatment groups were flock together. The results indicate that the application of ultrasound during cooking has a positive effect on chemical profiles of spiced beef taste and flavor, particularly for the power of 800 W. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of apple consumption on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic and overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafa, Mohammad Reza; Haghighatjoo, Elham; Shidfar, Farzad; Afshari, Shirin; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Ziaee, Amir

    2011-04-01

    Fruits and vegetables may be beneficial on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic subjects. The present study was aimed to verify the effect of golden delicious apple on Lipid Profile in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. Forty six hyperlipidemic and overweight men were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group received 300g golden delicious apple per day for 8 weeks. Control group had the regular dietary regimen for the same period of time. Blood samples were analyzed for serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp a) and LDL/HDL ratio at baseline and after intervention. Total polyphenols and fibers were 485 mg/kg and 4.03 g/100g in fresh apple respectively. After 8 weeks, significant statistical differences were observed considering the TG and VLDL levels between two groups, but no significant differences were observed regarding TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio. Consumption of Golden delicious apple may be increased serum TG and VLDL in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. We need more studies to assay the effect of apple consumption on serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio.

  5. Is there a “Mourinho” effect over the psychological performance profile of elite soccer players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO GUEDES DE CARVALHO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: When a team achieves success, how much of it depends on the coach and/or of the playersprofiles. In this paper we identify the performance psychological profile of elite soccer players from Chelsea andBenfica, assessing their profiles to discover a Mourinho effect, while he is a nowadays special coach and coachedmost of these players.Approach: We applied an international and national validated questionnaire to the players and we complement theanalysis with a qualitative approach with data collected through specific interviews (29 professional players - 21from Chelsea and 8 from Benfica. Statistical procedures consider descriptive, comparative and correlationanalysis.Results: The overall sample values are: Motivation (27.55+2.097, Self-confidence (26.83+2.494, CompetitiveAttitude (26.03+2.758, Positive Thoughts (25.10+2.160, Attention (25.07+3.046, Visualization (23.55+3.429and Negative Thoughts (22.24+2.824. Concerning the comparative analysis between the players that were trainedby Mourinho and other, we could not identify significant statistical differences; however, some of the phenomenaindexes emerge showing that Mourinho players present higher levels in self confidence, attention, motivation andweaker effect of the negative thoughts.Conclusions and recommendations: As the success of the teams where Mourinho coached is an evidence, wesuspect that the main reasons for success should rely upon collective either than individual characteristics of theplayers. This will be the next step in our research on the coaching process.

  6. Seasonal effect on physiological, reproductive and fertility profiles in breeding mithun bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the seasonal effect on physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility in breeding mithun bulls.Methods: A total of ten adult mithun bulls age of 5 to 6 years old with good body condition (score 5-6 were selected from ICAR-NRC on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. The seasons were categorised into winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons based on the meteorological data and sunshine hours. The physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility parameters were assessed during different seasons in mithun under the semi-intensive system of management.Results: The statistical analysis revealed that these experimental parameters were differed significantly (P<0.05 among the seasons and in overall spring and winter seasons were more beneficial in mithun breeding programme, although, the breeding in mithun occurred throughout the year with variation.Conclusions: It is concluded that collection & preservation of mithun semen and artificial insemination in mithun species during the season of spring and winter has significant beneficial effect in terms of semen production, freezability and fertility for artificial breeding programme in mithun under the semi-intensive system.

  7. Effect of plasma density profile of tokamak on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fulin

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of radial distribution of plasma density profile of tokamak on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability caused by toroidal rotation. The effect of radial distribution of plasma rotational velocity on stability is also examine for comparison. It is found that within the range of tokamak parameters the only radial distribution of plasma rotational velocity cannot induce Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. On the contrary, when there is a radial distribution of plasma density, i.e. P 01 =P 0 e -tx and V 0 1 = const, plasma becomes unstable, and instability will increase proportionally to the value of t. Meanwhile when the value of t remains constant, the instability growth rate will decrease if P 0 grows or the distance between plasma and wall of container decreases too. It shows that the Kelvin-Helmoltz instability is not only influenced by the steepness of density profile but also by the inertia of plasma in central region, which is helpful for depressing the instability. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Finding evidence for density fluctuation effects on electron cyclotron heating deposition profiles on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookman, M. W., E-mail: brookmanmw@fusion.gat.com; Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, MS 13-505, 3483 Dunhill St, San Diego, CA 92121-1200 (United States); Petty, C. C. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T{sub e} measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D.

  9. Effects of intense magnetic fields on sedimentation pattern and gene expression profile in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Masateru; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Miyakoshi, Junji; Ueno, Shoogo; Koana, Takao

    2003-05-01

    Effects of magnetic fields (MFs) on biological systems are usually investigated using biological indices such as gene expression profiles. However, to precisely evaluate the biological effects of MF, the effects of intense MFs on systematic material transport processes including experimental environment must be seriously taken into consideration. In this study, a culture of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was used as a model for an in vitro biological test system. After exposure to 5 T static vertical MF, we found a difference in the sedimentation pattern of cells depending on the location of the dish in the magnet bore. Sedimented cells were localized in the center of the dish when they were placed in the lower part of the magnet bore while the sedimentation of the cells was uniform in dishes placed in the upper part of the bore because of the diamagnetic force. Genome wide gene expression profile of the yeast cells after exposure to 5 T static MF for 2 h suggested that the MF did not affect the expression level of any gene in yeast cells although the sedimentation pattern was altered. In addition, exposure to 10 T for 1 h and 5 T for 24 h also did not affect the gene expression. On the other hand, a slight change in expressions of several genes which are related to respiration was observed by exposure to a 14 T static MF for 24 h. The necessity of estimating the indirect effects of MFs on a study of its biological effect of MF in vitro will be discussed.

  10. The relative phases of basal ganglia activities dynamically shape effective connectivity in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnan, Hayriye; Duff, Eugene Paul; Brown, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Optimal phase alignment between oscillatory neural circuits is hypothesized to optimize information flow and enhance system performance. This theory is known as communication-through-coherence. The basal ganglia motor circuit exhibits exaggerated oscillatory and coherent activity patterns in Parkinson's disease. Such activity patterns are linked to compromised motor system performance as evinced by bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor, suggesting that network function might actually deteriorate once a certain level of net synchrony is exceeded in the motor circuit. Here, we characterize the processes underscoring excessive synchronization and its termination. To this end, we analysed local field potential recordings from the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus of five patients with Parkinson's disease (four male and one female, aged 37-64 years). We observed that certain phase alignments between subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus amplified local neural synchrony in the beta frequency band while others either suppressed it or did not induce any significant change with respect to surrogates. The increase in local beta synchrony directly correlated with how long the two nuclei locked to beta-amplifying phase alignments. Crucially, administration of the dopamine prodrug, levodopa, reduced the frequency and duration of periods during which subthalamic and pallidal populations were phase-locked to beta-amplifying alignments. Conversely ON dopamine, the total duration over which subthalamic and pallidal populations were aligned to phases that left beta-amplitude unchanged with respect to surrogates increased. Thus dopaminergic input shifted circuit dynamics from persistent periods of locking to amplifying phase alignments, associated with compromised motoric function, to more dynamic phase alignment and improved motoric function. This effect of dopamine on local circuit resonance suggests means by which novel electrical interventions might prevent resonance

  11. Diffusion of responsibility attenuates altruistic punishment: A functional magnetic resonance imaging effective connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Liu, Chao; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Humans altruistically punish violators of social norms to enforce cooperation and pro-social behaviors. However, such altruistic behaviors diminish when others are present, due to a diffusion of responsibility. We investigated the neural signatures underlying the modulations of diffusion of responsibility on altruistic punishment, conjoining a third-party punishment task with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate Granger causality mapping. In our study, participants acted as impartial third-party decision-makers and decided how to punish norm violations under two different social contexts: alone (i.e., full responsibility) or in the presence of putative other third-party decision makers (i.e., diffused responsibility). Our behavioral results demonstrated that the diffusion of responsibility served as a mediator of context-dependent punishment. In the presence of putative others, participants who felt less responsible also punished less severely in response to norm violations. Our neural results revealed that underlying this behavioral effect was a network of interconnected brain regions. For unfair relative to fair splits, the presence of others led to attenuated responses in brain regions implicated in signaling norm violations (e.g., AI) and to increased responses in brain regions implicated in calculating values of norm violations (e.g., vmPFC, precuneus) and mentalizing about others (dmPFC). The dmPFC acted as the driver of the punishment network, modulating target regions, such as AI, vmPFC, and precuneus, to adjust altruistic punishment behavior. Our results uncovered the neural basis of the influence of diffusion of responsibility on altruistic punishment and highlighted the role of the mentalizing network in this important phenomenon. Hum Brain Mapp 37:663-677, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Modeling the effect of dune sorting on the river long profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, A.

    2012-12-01

    River dunes, which occur in low slope sand bed and sand-gravel bed rivers, generally show a downward coarsening pattern due to grain flows down their avalanche lee faces. These grain flows cause coarse particles to preferentially deposit at lower elevations of the lee face, while fines show a preference for its upper elevations. Before considering the effect of this dune sorting mechanism on the river long profile, let us first have a look at some general trends along the river profile. Tributaries increasing the river's water discharge in streamwise direction also cause a streamwise increase in flow depth. As under subcritical conditions mean dune height generally increases with increasing flow depth, the dune height shows a streamwise increase, as well. This means that also the standard deviation of bedform height increases in streamwise direction, as in earlier work it was found that the standard deviation of bedform height linearly increases with an increasing mean value of bedform height. As a result of this streamwise increase in standard deviation of dune height, the above-mentioned dune sorting then results in a loss of coarse particles to the lower elevations of the bed that are less and even rarely exposed to the flow. This loss of coarse particles to lower elevations thus increases the rate of fining in streamwise direction. As finer material is more easily transported downstream than coarser material, a smaller bed slope is required to transport the same amount of sediment downstream. This means that dune sorting adds to river profile concavity, compared to the combined effect of abrasion, selective transport and tributaries. A Hirano-type mass conservation model is presented that deals with dune sorting. The model includes two active layers: a bedform layer representing the sediment in the bedforms and a coarse layer representing the coarse and less mobile sediment underneath migrating bedforms. The exposure of the coarse layer is governed by the rate

  13. The effects of psilocybin and MDMA on between-network resting state functional connectivity in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leor eRoseman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Perturbing a system and observing the consequences is a classic scientific strategy for understanding a phenomenon. Psychedelic drugs perturb consciousness in a marked and novel way and thus are powerful tools for studying its mechanisms. In the present analysis, we measured changes in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC between a standard template of different independent components analysis (ICA-derived resting state networks (RSNs under the influence of two different psychoactive drugs, the stimulant/psychedelic hybrid, MDMA, and the classic psychedelic, psilocybin. Both were given in placebo-controlled designs and produced marked subjective effects, although reports of more profound changes in consciousness were given after psilocybin. Between-network RSFC was generally increased under psilocybin, implying that networks become less differentiated from each other in the psychedelic state. Decreased RSFC between visual and sensorimotor RSNs was also observed. MDMA had a notably less marked effect on between-network RSFC, implying that the extensive changes observed under psilocybin may be exclusive to classic psychedelic drugs and related to their especially profound effects on consciousness. The novel analytical approach applied here may be applied to other altered states of consciousness to improve our characterization of different conscious states and ultimately advance our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying them.

  14. The effects of psilocybin and MDMA on between-network resting state functional connectivity in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Leor; Leech, Robert; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2014-01-01

    Perturbing a system and observing the consequences is a classic scientific strategy for understanding a phenomenon. Psychedelic drugs perturb consciousness in a marked and novel way and thus are powerful tools for studying its mechanisms. In the present analysis, we measured changes in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between a standard template of different independent components analysis (ICA)-derived resting state networks (RSNs) under the influence of two different psychoactive drugs, the stimulant/psychedelic hybrid, MDMA, and the classic psychedelic, psilocybin. Both were given in placebo-controlled designs and produced marked subjective effects, although reports of more profound changes in consciousness were given after psilocybin. Between-network RSFC was generally increased under psilocybin, implying that networks become less differentiated from each other in the psychedelic state. Decreased RSFC between visual and sensorimotor RSNs was also observed. MDMA had a notably less marked effect on between-network RSFC, implying that the extensive changes observed under psilocybin may be exclusive to classic psychedelic drugs and related to their especially profound effects on consciousness. The novel analytical approach applied here may be applied to other altered states of consciousness to improve our characterization of different conscious states and ultimately advance our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying them.

  15. Strengthened effective connectivity underlies transfer of working memory training to tests of short-term memory and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Sutterer, David W; Emrich, Stephen M; Postle, Bradley R

    2013-05-15

    Although long considered a natively endowed and fixed trait, working memory (WM) ability has recently been shown to improve with intensive training. What remains controversial and poorly understood, however, are the neural bases of these training effects and the extent to which WM training gains transfer to other cognitive tasks. Here we present evidence from human electrophysiology (EEG) and simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and EEG that the transfer of WM training to other cognitive tasks is supported by changes in task-related effective connectivity in frontoparietal and parieto-occipital networks that are engaged by both the trained and transfer tasks. One consequence of this effect is greater efficiency of stimulus processing, as evidenced by changes in EEG indices of individual differences in short-term memory capacity and in visual search performance. Transfer to search-related activity provides evidence that something more fundamental than task-specific strategy or stimulus-specific representations has been learned. Furthermore, these patterns of training and transfer highlight the role of common neural systems in determining individual differences in aspects of visuospatial cognition.

  16. Patterns of effective connectivity during memory encoding and retrieval differ between patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampstead, B M; Khoshnoodi, M; Yan, W; Deshpande, G; Sathian, K

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that there is considerable overlap in the neural networks mediating successful memory encoding and retrieval. However, little is known about how the relevant human brain regions interact during these distinct phases of memory or how such interactions are affected by memory deficits that characterize mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition that often precedes dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Here we employed multivariate Granger causality analysis using autoregressive modeling of inferred neuronal time series obtained by deconvolving the hemodynamic response function from measured blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) time series data, in order to examine the effective connectivity between brain regions during successful encoding and/or retrieval of object location associations in MCI patients and comparable healthy older adults. During encoding, healthy older adults demonstrated a left hemisphere dominant pattern where the inferior frontal junction, anterior intraparietal sulcus (likely involving the parietal eye fields), and posterior cingulate cortex drove activation in most left hemisphere regions and virtually every right hemisphere region tested. These regions are part of a frontoparietal network that mediates top-down cognitive control and is implicated in successful memory formation. In contrast, in the MCI patients, the right frontal eye field drove activation in every left hemisphere region examined, suggesting reliance on more basic visual search processes. Retrieval in the healthy older adults was primarily driven by the right hippocampus with lesser contributions of the right anterior thalamic nuclei and right inferior frontal sulcus, consistent with theoretical models holding the hippocampus as critical for the successful retrieval of memories. The pattern differed in MCI patients, in whom the right inferior frontal junction and right anterior thalamus drove successful memory retrieval, reflecting the

  17. Selecting Effective Means to Any End: Futures and Ethics of Persuasion Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Maurits; Eckles, Dean

    Interactive persuasive technologies can and do adapt to individuals. Existing systems identify and adapt to user preferences within a specific domain: e.g., a music recommender system adapts its recommended songs to user preferences. This paper is concerned with adaptive persuasive systems that adapt to individual differences in the effectiveness of particular means, rather than selecting different ends. We give special attention to systems that implement persuasion profiling - adapting to individual differences in the effects of influence strategies. We argue that these systems are worth separate consideration and raise unique ethical issues for two reasons: (1) their end-independence implies that systems trained in one context can be used in other, unexpected contexts and (2) they do not rely on - and are generally disadvantaged by - disclosing that they are adapting to individual differences. We use examples of these systems to illustrate some ethically and practically challenging futures that these characteristics make possible.

  18. EFFECT OF FERMENTED Sauropus androgynus LEAVES ON BLOOD LIPID FRACTION AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effect of fermented Sauropus androgynus leaves on blood lipid fractions and haematological profiles in broilers. One hundred and twelve broilers were distributed to 7 treatment groups. One group was fed diets without Sauropus androgynus leaves as the control, and other six groups were fed Sauropus androgynus leaves fermented by Neurospora crassa, Lactobacillus sp. or Saccharomyces cerevisiae at level of 25 g or 50 g/kg diet. Experimental results showed that the treatments had no effect on cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and atherogenic index, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c and triglyceride concentration (P>0.05. It was shown that fermented Sauropus androgynus leaves significantly affected red blood count (RBC, white blood count (WBC, packed cell volume (PCV, trombosit dan erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR (P

  19. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers

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    CARVAJAL OCTAVIO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05 reduction of triglycerides and significant (p< 0.01 elevation of high density lipoproteins. The hypercholesterolemic group reduced significantly the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides; high density lipoproteins were augmented by 11.6%. Conclusions. The hipolipidemic effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was manifest in the Mexican volunteers under the conditions here evaluated.

  20. Discussion about effecting of stiffener in four bolts in a row end plate connection for long span and heavy load steel structures in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Khang T.; Nguyen, Cung H.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, steel structure industry in Vietnam is in strong development. The construction of steel structure becomes larger span and heavier load. The issue spawned a number of issues arise from optimizing connections. Typical of steel connections in prefabricated steel structure that is an end plate (face plate) bolted connection. When the connection carried a heavy load, then the number of bolts is required much more. Increasing the number of rows bolts will less effective because can still not enough strength requirements, the bolts in row near rotational center will level arm reduction, then it cannot carry heavy loads. The current solution is doing multiple bolts in a row. Current standards such as EN [1], AISC [2] are no specific guidelines for calculating the connection four bolts in a row that primarily assumes the way works like a T-stub of the two bolts a row. Some articles studied T-stub four bolts in a row [3], [4], [5], [6] by component method but it has some components which weren’t considered. In this paper, in order to provide a contribution to improve the T-stub four bolts in a row, the stiffener component in T-stub will be added and compared with T-stub without stiffener by the finite element model to demonstrate effectiveness in reducing stress and displacement of T-stub. It gives ideas for the economic design of four bolts in a row end plate connection in Vietnam for future.

  1. Bioenergetic profile of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and effect of metabolic intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Yang

    Full Text Available Bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is critical in cardiovascular health and disease. An acute rise in metabolic demand causes vasodilation in systemic circulation while a chronic shift in bioenergetic profile may lead to vascular diseases. A decrease in intracellular ATP level may trigger physiological responses while dedifferentiation of contractile smooth muscle cells to a proliferative and migratory phenotype is often observed during pathological processes. Although it is now possible to dissect multiple building blocks of bioenergetic components quantitatively, detailed cellular bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is still largely unknown. Thus, we profiled cellular bioenergetics of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and effects of metabolic intervention. Mitochondria and glycolysis stress tests utilizing Seahorse technology revealed that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation accounted for 54.5% of ATP production at rest with the remaining 45.5% due to glycolysis. Stress tests also showed that oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis can increase to a maximum of 3.5 fold and 1.25 fold, respectively, indicating that the former has a high reserve capacity. Analysis of bioenergetic profile indicated that aging cells have lower resting oxidative phosphorylation and reduced reserve capacity. Intracellular ATP level of a single cell was estimated to be over 1.1 mM. Application of metabolic modulators caused significant changes in mitochondria membrane potential, intracellular ATP level and ATP:ADP ratio. The detailed breakdown of cellular bioenergetics showed that proliferating human coronary artery smooth muscle cells rely more or less equally on oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis at rest. These cells have high respiratory reserve capacity and low glycolysis reserve capacity. Metabolic intervention influences both intracellular ATP concentration and ATP:ADP ratio, where subtler changes may be detected by the latter.

  2. Subacute effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on hepatic gene expression profiles in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canton, Rocio F.; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Ven, Leo T.M. van der; Berg, Martin van den; Heneweer, Marjoke

    2008-01-01

    Hexabromoyclododecane (HBCD), used as flame retardant (FR) mainly in textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacture, has been identified as a contaminant at levels comparable to other brominated FRs (BFRs). HBCD levels in biota are increasing slowly and seem to reflect the local market demand. The toxicological database of HBCD is too limited to perform at present a solid risk assessment, combining data from exposure and effect studies. In order to fill in some gaps, a 28-day HBCD repeated dose study (OECD407) was done in Wistar rats. In the present work liver tissues from these animals were used for gene expression profile analysis. Results show clear gender specificity with females having a higher number of regulated genes and therefore being more sensitive to HBCD than males. Several specific pathways were found to be affected by HBCD exposure, like PPAR-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism, triacylglycerol metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, and phase I and II pathways. These results were corroborated with quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Cholesterol biosynthesis and lipid metabolism were especially down-regulated in females. Genes involved in phase I and II metabolism were up-regulated predominantly in males, which could explain the observed lower HBCD hepatic disposition in male rats in this 28-day study. These sex-specific differences in gene expression profiles could also underlie sex-specific differences in toxicity (e.g. decreased thyroid hormone or increased serum cholesterol levels). To our knowledge, this is the fist study that describes the changes in rat hepatic gene profiles caused by this commonly used flame retardant

  3. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation