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Sample records for effective colorectal cancer

  1. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); H. Brenner (Hermann)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is an important public health problem. Several screening methods have been shown to be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality. The objective of this review was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the different colorectal cancer screening methods and to

  2. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... possible. Research will help us better understand whether chemotherapy can benefit elderly colorectal cancer patients. Such patients often do not receive chemotherapy due to concerns about side effects. We will ...

  3. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  4. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  6. [Aspirin and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancher, Adrien; Michel, Pierre; Di Fiore, Frédéric; Sefrioui, David

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a worldwide public health problem. Aspirin has been identified as a protective factor against the apparition of colorectal cancer. There are several mechanisms about the actions by aspirin on colorectal tumorogenesis. These are not perfectly known nowadays. On one hand, there are direct mechanisms on colorectal mucosa, on the other hand there are indirect mechanisms through platelet functions. Aspirin also plays a role by its anti-inflammatory action and the stimulation of antitumor immunity. Several studies show that long-term treatment with low-doses of aspirin decreases the incidence of adenomas and colorectal cancers. In the United States, aspirin is currently recommended for primary prevention of the risk of colorectal cancer in all patients aged 50 to 59, with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular event greater than 10 %. However, primary prevention with aspirin should not be a substitute for screening in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, aspirin seems to be beneficial when used in post-diagnosis of colorectal cancer. It could actually decrease the risk of metastasis in case of a localized colorectal cancer, and increase the survival in particular, concerning PIK3CA mutated tumors. The association of aspirin with neoadjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer by radiochimiotherapy seems to have beneficial effects. French prospective randomized study is currently being conducted to investigate postoperative aspirin in colorectal cancers with a PIK3CA mutation. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Combination Effect of Nimotuzumab with Radiation in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hye Kyung; Kim, Mi Sook; Jeong, Jae Hoon

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of the selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor nimotuzumab in human colorectal cancer cell lines. Four human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT-8, LoVo, WiDr, and HCT-116 were treated with nimotuzumab and/or radiation. The effects on cell proliferation, viability, and cell cycle progression were measured by MTT, clonogenic survival assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot. An immunoblot analysis revealed that EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by nimotuzumab in colorectal cancer cell lines. Under these experimental conditions, pre-treatment with nimotuzumab increased radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cell lines, except for cell line HCT-116. However, cell proliferation or cell cycle progression was not affected by the addition of nimotuzumab, irrespective of irradiation. Nimotuzumab enhanced the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells in vitro by inhibiting EGFR-mediated cell survival signaling. This study provided a rationale for the clinical application of the selective EGFR inhibitor, nimotuzumab in combination with radiation in colorectal cancer cells.

  8. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes colorectal cancer risk in relation to A-bomb radiation. The RERF Life Span Study has revealed the incidence of colorectal cancer to be significantly high in the group of A-bomb survivors than the control group. With regard to relative risk or excess relative risk, there is no definitive difference among sites in the colon. Risk for colon cancer is found to be linearly increased with increasing radiation doses, and in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Risk associated with one Gy is estimated to be increased by double. There is no definitive variation between sex and between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Excess relative risk would be increased rapidly with aging in the whole group of A-bomb survivors and with the cancer-prone age in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. (N.K.)

  9. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Regorafenib for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Ahmad, Bilal B; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H; Lipscomb, Joseph; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Flowers, Christopher R

    2015-11-10

    Regorafenib is a standard-care option for treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer that increases median overall survival by 6 weeks compared with placebo. Given this small incremental clinical benefit, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of regorafenib in the third-line setting for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the US payer perspective. We developed a Markov model to compare the cost and effectiveness of regorafenib with those of placebo in the third-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Drug costs were based on Medicare reimbursement rates in 2014. Model robustness was addressed in univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provided an additional 0.04 QALYs (0.13 life-years) at a cost of $40,000, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $900,000 per QALY. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for regorafenib was > $550,000 per QALY in all of our univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provides minimal incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY in the third-line management of metastatic colorectal cancer. The cost-effectiveness of regorafenib could be improved by the use of value-based pricing. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  12. Snake Venom As An Effective Tool Against Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzair, Bushra; Atlas, Nagina; Malik, Sidra Batool; Jamil, Nazia; Salaam, Temitope Ojuolape; Rehman, Mujaddad Ur; Khan, Barkat Ali

    2018-06-13

    Cancer is considered one of the most predominant causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world and colorectal cancer is the most common fatal cancers, triggering the second cancer related death. Despite progress in understanding carcinogenesis and development in chemotherapeutics, there is an essential need to search for improved treatment. More than the half a century, cytotoxic and cytostatic agents have been examined as a potential treatment of cancer, among these agents; remarkable progresses have been reported by the use of the snake venom. Snake venoms are secreting materials of lethal snakes are store in venomous glands. Venoms are composite combinations of various protein, peptides, enzymes, toxins and non proteinaceous secretions. Snake venom possesses immense valuable mixtures of proteins and enzymes. Venoms have potential to combat with the cancerous cells and produce positive effect. Besides the toxicological effects of venoms, several proteins of snake venom e.g. disintegrins, phospholipases A2, metalloproteinases, and L-amino acid oxidases and peptides e.g. bradykinin potentiators, natriuretic, and analgesic peptides have shown potential as pharmaceutical agents, including areas of diagnosis and cancer treatment. In this review we have discussed recent remarkable research that has involved the dynamic snake venoms compounds, having anticancer bustle especially in case of colorectal cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Hereditary colorectal cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Holck, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) subset of tumours can broadly be divided into tumours caused by an underlying mismatch-repair gene mutation, referred to as Lynch syndrome, and those that develop in families with similar patterns of heredity but without disease......-predisposing germline mismatch repair mutations, referred to as familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Recognition of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers is central since surveillance programmes effectively reduce morbidity and mortality. The characteristic morphological features linked to Lynch syndrome can aid...... in the identification of this subset, whereas the possibility to use morphological features as an indicator of FCCTX is uncertain.Objective and methodsTo perform a detailed morphological evaluation of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and demonstrate significant differences between tumours associated with FCCTX...

  14. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  15. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview What to Expect ... section Overview 2 of 6 sections The Basics: Colorectal Cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a ...

  16. Joint effects of colorectal cancer susceptibility loci, circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda T Hiraki

    Full Text Available Genome wide association studies (GWAS have identified several SNPs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC susceptibility. Vitamin D is also inversely associated with CRC risk.We examined main and joint effects of previously GWAS identified genetic markers of CRC and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD on CRC risk in three prospective cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, and the Physicians' Health Study (PHS. We included 1895 CRC cases and 2806 controls with genomic DNA. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for CRC associated with additive genetic risk scores (GRSs comprised of all CRC SNPs and subsets of these SNPs based on proximity to regions of increased vitamin D receptor binding to vitamin D response elements (VDREs, based on published ChiP-seq data. Among a subset of subjects with additional prediagnostic 25(OHD we tested multiplicative interactions between plasma 25(OHD and GRS's. We used fixed effects models to meta-analyze the three cohorts.The per allele multivariate OR was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.06-1.19 for GRS-proximalVDRE; and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.06-1.14 for GRS-nonproxVDRE. The lowest quartile of plasma 25(OHD compared with the highest, had a multivariate OR of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.48-0.82 for CRC. We did not observe any significant interactions between any GRSs and plasma 25(OHD.We did not observe evidence for the modification of genetic susceptibility for CRC according to vitamin D status, or evidence that the effect of common CRC risk alleles differed according to their proximity to putative VDR binding sites.

  17. Effect of onion flavonoids on colorectal cancer with hyperlipidemia: an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yongshan He,1,* Heiying Jin,1,* Wei Gong,2,* Chunxia Zhang,1 Acheng Zhou1 1National Center of Colorectal Surgery, Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Surgery, Jiangyin Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jiangyin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: This study aims to find the effect of onion's extraction on the colorectal cancer with hyperlipidemia. Method: We established a hyperlipidemia-subcutaneously heterotopic colorectal cancer orthotopic transplant model and fed mice a high fat diet and performing transplantation. Animal models were treated with capecitabine and/or simvastatin and low-, middle-, high- dose of onion's extraction and both tumor growth rate and blood lipid levels were monitored. Results: We found that colorectal cancer in onion's extraction groups was significantly inhibited, and the effect of high dose of onion's extraction was equivalent to capecitabine. Onion's extraction effectively decreased levels of apoB and TC. Conclusion: Our study established a hyperlipidemia colon tumor model involving subcutaneous colon translocation and orthotopic transplantation, this model was an ideal research model for mutual influence of hyperlipidemia and colorectal cancer. Onion's extraction could inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer; the function of the high-dose of onion's extraction was fairly to capecitabine, which provided a new direction in protecting and treating colorectal cancer. Keywords: colorectal cancer, hyperlipidemia, onion flavonoids, capecitabine, simvastatin

  18. Effect of New Water-Soluble Dendritic Phthalocyanines on Human Colorectal and Liver Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru YABAŞ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma (DLD-1 cells were treated with the synthesized water soluble phthalocyanine derivatives to understand the effect of the compounds both on colorectal and liver cancer cells. The compounds inhibited cell proliferation and displayed cytotoxic effect on these cancer cell lines however; the effect of the compounds on healthy control fibroblast cell line was comparatively lower. The compounds can be employed for cancer treatment as anticancer agents.

  19. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells that transforms them into adenocarcinomas. There have been major advances in our understanding of cancer epigenetics over the last decade, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation. Assessment of the colon cancer epigenome has revealed that virtually all colorectal cancers have aberrantly methylated genes and the average colorectal cancer methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these methylated genes, called driver genes, is presumed to play a functional role in colorectal cancer. The assessment of methylated genes in colorectal cancers has also revealed a unique molecular subgroup of colorectal cancers called CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) cancers; these tumors have a particularly high frequency of methylated genes. The advances in our understanding of aberrant methylation in colorectal cancer has led to epigenetic alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in the assessment of epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer and their clinical applications has shown that these alterations will be commonly used in the near future as molecular markers to direct the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22009203

  20. Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table ... Carmen Marc Valvo is an outspoken voice for colorectal cancer screening. Photo Courtesy of: Phil Fisch Photography Designer ...

  1. Long-term effect of resistant starch on cancer risk in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathers, John C; Movahedi, Mohammad; Macrae, Finlay

    2012-01-01

    have been done. We assessed the effect of resistant starch on the incidence of colorectal cancer. METHODS: In the CAPP2 study, individuals with Lynch syndrome were randomly assigned in a two-by-two factorial design to receive 600 mg aspirin or aspirin placebo or 30 g resistant starch or starch placebo...

  2. The radiosensitizing effect of doranidazole on human colorectal cancer cells exposed to high doses of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Gong, Aimin; Ji, Jun; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Lv, Suqing; Lv, Hongzhu; Sun, Xizhuo

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of a new radiosensitizer, doranidazole, and enhancing irradiation on colorectal cancer cells. The radiosensitizing effect of doranidazole was determined using colony formation and propidium iodide (PI) assays to measure cell growth inhibition and the cell killing effect of human colorectal cancer cell lines exposed to high doses of γ-ray irradiation under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Fluorescence staining and cell migration assays were also used to assess the radiosensitizing effect. Cell proliferation evaluated by clonogenic survival curves was significantly inhibited by 5 mmol/L doranidazole, particularly at doses ranging from 10 to 30 Gy of irradiation. The radiosensitizing effect of doranidazole on colorectal cancer cells occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Doranidazole also inhibited the mobility of cell invasion and migration. Doranidazole can enhance the killing effect and the cell growth inhibition of colorectal cancer after high-dose irradiation in a time and dose-dependent manner

  3. Health Effects and Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Wilschut (Janneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health problem, with over a million newly diagnosed cases per year worldwide. CRC occurs especially frequently in established market economies like Europe, the United States (US), Canada, Australia and Japan. The lifetime incidence in average

  4. Management of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in the treatment of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, FGA; Sleijfer, DT; de Graaf, JC; Coenen, JLLM; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2001-01-01

    The anticancer agents fluorouracil, raltitrexed, irinotecan and oxaliplatin show limited efficacy in the treatment of colorectal cancer and may be associated with substantial toxicity. Therefore, the prevention and reduction of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects is of major significance, in

  5. Potential Protective Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics Against Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsopp, Philip; Rowland, Ian

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer related mortality in the world. Approximately 944,000 new cases were diagnosed globally in 2000 and this accounts for 9.2% of all new cancer cases (IARC, 2000). In Western societies namely Europe, North America and Australasia, it is the second most prevalent cancer after lung/breast (Boyle and Langman, 2000). About 363,000 new cases were reported in Europe in 2000 and it affects 6% of men and women by age 75, in almost equal proportion.

  6. Evaluation of Effective Factors in Incidence of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Pourfarzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Colorectal cancer is considered as the third prevalent malignancy worldwide. Investigation of information on cancers in Iran during 1985-1996 showed an increase in the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer. Its rank in Iran has increased from 9 to 5th during 10 years. It was reported as high prevalent cancer in Iranian people aged less than 40 years among Asian countries.   Methods: In this cases-control study patients with a pathologic report of colorectal cancer were recruited among those cases registered in Ardabil Cancer Registry. Control group were selected from neighbors, frequency matched for age and gender. Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire consisting information on age, gender, smoking, drugs and alcohol consuming, diet, family history of cancer and serum IgM and IgG level for H. pylori. Data were analyzed using SPSS v16.   Results: In the current study, 43 persons (53.8% were male and 37 (46.2% were female. In the case group, 10 persons (12.5% were under 40, 34 cases (42.5% in age group of 41- 60 and 36 persons (45% were more than 61 years. In the control group 12 persons (15% were under 40, 36 persons (45.5% in age group of 41-60 and 40 persons (68% were more than 61 years. In the control group 3 cases had BMI less than 19, 36 cases (45% between 19-24.9, 31 cases (38.8% between 25-29.9 and 10 cases (12.5% were more than 30, whereas this variable was 2.5, 32.5, 46.2 and 18.8% respectively in the case group.   Positive history of smoking found to increase the risk of cancer around 1.8 times (OR= 1.78 CI: 0.91- 5.85. However, significant difference was not observed between two groups regarding alcoholic beverage consumption (p=0.385 . There were significant differences between two groups in terms of vegetables and carbohydrates intake. Difference was also significant between two groups regarding positive level of IgG. Among studied persons, 19 and 13 patients in case and control group had

  7. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  8. [Obesity and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Soo-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Obesity worldwide is constantly increasing. Obesity acts as an independent significant risk factor for malignant tumors of various organs including colorectal cancer. Visceral adipose tissue is physiologically more important than subcutaneous adipose tissue. The relative risk of colorectal cancer of obese patients is about 1.5 times higher than the normal-weight individuals, and obesity is also associated with premalignant colorectal adenoma. The colorectal cancer incidence of obese patients has gender-specific and site-specific characteristics that it is higher in men than women and in the colon than rectum. Obesity acts as a risk factor of colorectal carcinogenesis by several mechanisms. Isulin, insulin-like growth factor, leptin, adiponectin, microbiome, and cytokines of chronic inflammation etc. have been understood as its potential mechanisms. In addition, obesity in patients with colorectal cancer negatively affects the disease progression and response of chemotherapy. Although the evidence is not clear yet, there are some reports that weight loss as well as life-modification such as dietary change and physical activity can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. It is very important knowledge in the point that obesity is a potentially modifiable risk factor that can alter the incidence and outcome of the colorectal cancer.

  9. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  10. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship........59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...

  11. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing...... with a well-established register of familial adenomatous polyposis and a recently founded register for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, both with major international relationships. The Danish tradition of epidemiology and clinical trials has also been demonstrated in population screening trials...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  12. Pitfalls and Opportunities in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. van Putten (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of death from cancer in the Western world. Screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality. The first evidence that colorectal cancer screening could effectively reduce mortality dates

  13. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Data have been accumulating to support an increased role for combined radiation therapy and surgery in the initial treatment of many rectal and some colonic carcinomas. These include the following findings: 1. Improvements in surgical survival rates have been minimal in the past 25 to 30 years and are the result of an increase in operability with little change by stage of disease in those patients who have survived a ''curative resection.'' 2. The incidence of local recurrence after potentially curative surgery is high in more advanced stages of disease for both rectal and colon cancer. Although palliation of local recurrence can frequently be obtained, its duration is often limited and the curative potential is low. Therefore, prevention of local recurrence with adjuvant radiation with or without chemotherapy is imperative. 3. When patients present with fixed, unresectable tumors, aggressive treatment combinations appear to improve both local control and survival. Close interaction is required between the surgeon and the radiation oncologist to achieve these results with an acceptable risk of complications

  14. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, A. A.; Halligan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide. There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use. Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing. The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests. In addition, their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can...

  15. [Effect of blood transfusions on the survival of patients with colorectal cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, K; Zhang, X; Menghini, T; Metzger, U; Largiadèr, F

    1989-01-01

    Blood transfusion is reported to cause immunosuppression. An adverse relationship between perioperative blood transfusions and the risk of subsequent recurrence of cancer was reported recently. We reviewed the records of 282 patients and analyzed the interaction between blood tranfusion and the outcome of Dukes stages A, B and C colorectal cancers treated by radical resection during the years 1978-1985. 53 of these patients did not receive any blood transfusions. The actuarial survival analysis (Cutler and Ederer) showed no significant difference for the overall and recurrence-free survival. This study did not support the hypothesis that blood transfusions had an adverse effect on survival of patients with colorectal cancer.

  16. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... at the National Cancer Institute, shared developments in colorectal cancer screening methods with NIH MedlinePlus magazine. What ...

  17. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing with a w......Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing...... with a well-established register of familial adenomatous polyposis and a recently founded register for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, both with major international relationships. The Danish tradition of epidemiology and clinical trials has also been demonstrated in population screening trials...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  18. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, Monica Ramona

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden and is the most common cause of mortality from cancer in Europe. Over the last two decades robust evidence from randomised clinical trials and case-control series have confirmed that the mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by screening. The challenge over the next decade is how to implement this in clinical practice. This is what we set out to answer with this thesis. Not all individuals are equal when it comes to screening and tho...

  19. An apple oligogalactan potentiates the growth inhibitory effect of celecoxib on colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Niu, Yinbo; Sun, Yang; Mei, Lin; Zhang, Bangle; Li, Qian; Liu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Jianfa; Mei, Qibing

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have indicated that selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors possess clinically chemopreventive and preclinically anticancer activities. Their long-term use, however, may be limited by the cardiovascular toxicity. This study tried to investigate whether an apple oligogalactan (AOG) could enhance the growth inhibitory effect of celecoxib on colorectal cancer. Caco-2 and HT-29 cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of AOG (0-1 g/L), celecoxib (0-25 μmol/L), and their combination. COX-2 levels were assessed by reverse transcription PCR and Western blot. COX-2 activity was evaluated by measuring prostaglandin E2 concentration. A colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CACC) mouse model was used to determine the effect of the combination in vivo. AOG (0.1-0.5 g/L) could potentiate the inhibitory effect of physiologic doses of celecoxib (5 μmol/L) on cell growth and decrease COX-2 expressions both at RNA and protein levels. In vivo, the combination (2.5% AOG plus 0.04% celecoxib, w/w) prevented against CACC in mice effectively. Our data indicate that AOG could potentiate the growth inhibitory effect of celecoxib on colorectal cancer both in vitro and in vivo through influencing the expression and function of COX-2 and phosphorylation of MAPKs, which suggests a new possible combinatorial strategy in colorectal cancer therapy.

  20. Cost Effectiveness of Screening Individuals With Cystic Fibrosis for Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gini, A. (Andrea); A. Zauber (Ann); D.R. Cenin (Dayna R.); Omidvari, A.-H. (Amir-Houshang); Hempstead, S.E. (Sarah E.); Fink, A.K. (Aliza K.); Lowenfels, A.B. (Albert B.); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground & Aims: Individuals with cystic fibrosis are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with the general population, and risk is higher among those who received an organ transplant. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine optimal CRC screening

  1. Effective colorectal cancer education for Asian Americans: a Michigan program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsu-Yin; Kao, John Y; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Tang, Yu-Ying; Chen, Judy; Lee, Janilla; Oakley, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    Asian Americans are among the fastest growing population groups in the USA. Despite the fact that colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer for this group, Asian Americans have low CRC screening rates. An established health promotion program, Healthy Asian Americans Project (HAAP), expanded to include community-based CRC education during 2005-2006. Using Asian-language media, HAAP promoted awareness throughout local Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese American communities and recruited men and women over 50 years to attend health fairs at local community/cultural centers. Evaluation data from 304 participants in an evidence-based educational intervention showed significantly increased knowledge and attitudes about the importance of screening. Follow-up conducted between 6 and 12 months showed that 78% of those receiving the educational intervention had been screened in the last 12 months, compared with the 37% who had ever been screened with any of the tests prior to the study. This community-based health promotion program reached underserved populations and the educational intervention improved CRC screening rates. This and similar programs may help lower CRC mortality among Asian Americans.

  2. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, fo...

  3. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...

  4. Effect of MLH1 -93G>A on gene expression in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck, Alexandre; Santos, Juliana C; Silva-Fernandes, Isabelle J L; Rabenhorst, Silvia H B; Martinez, Carlos A R; Ribeiro, Marcelo L

    2014-09-01

    The DNA repair machinery plays a key role in maintaining genomic stability by preventing the emergence of mutations. Furthermore, the -93G>A polymorphism in the MLH1 gene has been associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the expression pattern and effect of this polymorphism in normal and tumour samples from patients with colorectal cancer. The MLH1 -93G>A (rs1800734) polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP in 49 cases of colorectal cancer. MLH1 expression was investigated using real-time quantitative PCR. The results indicate a significant decrease in MLH1 expression in tumour samples compared to their normal counterparts. The MLH1 gene was also significantly repressed in samples from patients who had some degree of tumour invasion into other organs. Similarly, those patients who were in a more advanced tumour stage (TNM III and IV) exhibited a significant reduction in MLH1 gene expression. Finally, the mutant genotype AA of MLH1 was associated with a significant decrease in the expression of this gene. This finding suggests that this polymorphism could increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer by a defective mismatch repair system, particularly through the loss of MLH1 expression in an allele-specific manner.

  5. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.H.; Casper, S.; Corgan, R.L.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with 131 I at a total dose of at least 1.0 μCi. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the 131 I-labeled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with 131 I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the apparent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures

  6. Wnt/β-catenin signaling mediates the suppressive effects of diallyl trisulfide on colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiao-Ting; Chen, Yue; Chen, Jia-Qi; Zhu, Jian-Yun; Meng, Yu; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Li, Yuan; Geng, Shan-Shan; Xie, Chun-Feng; Wu, Jie-Shu; Zhong, Cai-Yun; Han, Hong-Yu

    2018-06-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation, growth, and metastasis. Garlic-derived organosulfur compound diallyl trisulfide (DATS) possesses cancer suppressive properties. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a key target for CSCs inhibition. However, the interventional effect of DATS on colorectal CSCs has not been clarified. We aimed to illustrate the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin in DATS-induced colorectal CSCs inhibition. Serum-free medium culture was used to enrich colorectal CSCs. SW480 and DLD-1 sphere-forming cells were treated with different concentrations of DATS for 5 days; LiCl and β-catenin plasmids were used to stimulate the activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The size and number of colonspheres were detected by tumorsphere formation assay; the expression of colorectal CSCs-related genes was detected by Western blotting and qRT-PCR; the capacities of colorectal CSCs proliferation and apoptosis were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8, Hoechst 33258 cell staining and flow cytometry, respectively. The levels of colorectal CSCs markers were elevated in the tumorspheres cells. DATS efficiently suppressed the activity of colorectal CSCs, as evidenced by reducing the size and number of colonspheres, decreasing the expression of colorectal CSCs markers, promoting apoptosis and inhibiting the proliferation of colorectal CSCs. Moreover, DATS suppressed the activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, while upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin diminished the inhibitory effect of DATS on colorectal CSCs. Wnt/β-catenin pathway mediates DATS-induced colorectal CSCs suppression. These findings support the use of DATS for targeting colorectal CSCs.

  7. Effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening among Iranian health club members: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Eftekhar, Hassan; Majdzadeh, Reza; Montazeri, Ali; Delavari, Alireza

    2014-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of death in the world. There are few published studies that have used theory-based interventions designed to increase colorectal cancer screening in community lay health organizations. The present study was guided by the theoretical concepts of the preventive health model. Twelve health clubs of a municipal district in Tehran were randomized to two study groups with equal ratio. The control group received usual services throughout the study while the intervention group also received a theory-based educational program on colorectal cancer screening plus a reminder call. Screening behavior, the main outcome, was assessed 4 months after randomization. A total of 360 members aged 50 and older from 12 health clubs completed a baseline survey. Participants in the intervention group reported increased knowledge of colorectal cancer and screening tests at 4 months follow-up (p's theory-based intervention significantly improved self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, efficacy of screening, social support, and intention to be screened for colorectal cancer, from baseline to 4 months follow-up (p's theory-based intervention was found to have a significant effect on colorectal cancer screening use as measured by self-report. The findings could have implications for colorectal cancer screening program development and implementation in primary health care settings and through other community organizations.

  8. Lysyl oxidase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent form of cancer worldwide and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, leading to ~600,000 deaths annually, predominantly affecting the developed world. Lysyl oxidase is a secreted, extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme previously suggested...... to act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence has rapidly implicated lysyl oxidase in promoting metastasis of solid tumors and in particular colorectal cancer at multiple stages, affecting tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. This emerging research has...... advancements in the field of colorectal cancer....

  9. Advances in immunotherapeutic strategies for colorectal cancer commentary on: tumoral immune cell exploitation in colorectal cancer metastases can be targeted effectively by anti-CCR5 therapy in cancer patients by Halama et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Dustin A

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, despite recent advances in treatment strategies. The immune system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, with numerous studies identifying either antagonistic or pro-tumorigenic effects of infiltrating immune cells. Therapeutic strategies harnessing the immune system to target cancers have evolved expediently over the last 5 years, especially the use of checkpoint inhibitors. Recently, a subset of patients whose colorectal cancers harbor a deficiency in mismatch repair proteins have demonstrated dramatic and durable response to checkpoint blockade. Unfortunately, the vast majority of colorectal cancers are mismatch repair proficient and resistant to these inhibitors. The tumor microenvironment has been implicated in the resistance to checkpoint block and ways to overcome these resistance mechanisms would be a major advance for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Here we provide commentary on a manuscript from Halama et al. examining CCL5/CCR5 as an immune biomarker and the potential role of anti-CCR5 agents for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer.

  10. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Enrique; Saito, Yutaka; Hassan, Cessare; Senore, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the leading cancer in Singapore, can be prevented by increased use of screening and polypectomy. A range of screening strategies such as stool-based tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography are available, each with different strengths and limitations. Primary care physicians should discuss appropriate screening modalities with their patients, tailored to their individual needs. Physicians, patients and the government should wo...

  11. Long-term effect of aspirin on cancer risk in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer: an analysis from the CAPP2 randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Macrae, Finlay

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies report reduced colorectal cancer in regular aspirin consumers. Randomised controlled trials have shown reduced risk of adenomas but none have employed prevention of colorectal cancer as a primary endpoint. The CAPP2 trial aimed to investigate the antineoplastic effects of as...

  12. Microbiota, Inflammation and Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécily Lucas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, is a multifactorial disease involving genetic, environmental and lifestyle risk factors. In addition, increased evidence has established a role for the intestinal microbiota in the development of colorectal cancer. Indeed, changes in the intestinal microbiota composition in colorectal cancer patients compared to control subjects have been reported. Several bacterial species have been shown to exhibit the pro-inflammatory and pro-carcinogenic properties, which could consequently have an impact on colorectal carcinogenesis. This review will summarize the current knowledge about the potential links between the intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer, with a focus on the pro-carcinogenic properties of bacterial microbiota such as induction of inflammation, the biosynthesis of genotoxins that interfere with cell cycle regulation and the production of toxic metabolites. Finally, we will describe the potential therapeutic strategies based on intestinal microbiota manipulation for colorectal cancer treatment.

  13. Libidibia ferrea presents antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant effects in a colorectal cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Andreza Conceição Véras de Aguiar; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Araújo, Aurigena Antunes de; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira; Medeiros, Juliana Silva de; Cavalcante, Rômulo Dos Santos; Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo

    2017-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is noted for being one of the most frequent of tumors, with expressive morbidity and mortality rates. In new drug discovery, plants stand out as a source capable of yielding safe and high-efficiency products. Well known in Brazilian popular medicine, Libidibia ferrea (Mart. Ex Tul.) L.P. Queiroz var. ferrea (better known as "ironwood" or "jucá"), has been used to treat a wide spectrum of conditions and to prevent cancer. Using methodologies that involved flow cytometry, spectrophotometry and RT-qPCR assays, crude extracts of the fruits of L. ferrea (20T, 40T, 60T and 80T) were evaluated at 24h and/or 48h for: their ability to inhibit cell proliferation; induce apoptosis through Bcl-2, caspase-3 and Apaf-1; their antioxidant activity and effects on important targets related to cell proliferation (EGFR and AKT) in the HT-29 human colorectal cancer lineage. The results revealed high antiproliferative potential as compared to the controls, induction of apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway, and probable tumor inhibition activity under the mediation of important targets in tumorigenesis. In addition, L. ferrea revealed antioxidant, lipid peroxidation and chemoprotective effects in healthy cells. Thus, L. ferrea derivatives have important anticancer effects, and may be considered promising candidate for colorectal cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost Effectiveness of Screening Individuals With Cystic Fibrosis for Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gini, A. (Andrea); Zauber, Ann; Cenin, Dayna R.; Omidvari, A.-H. (Amir-Houshang); Hempstead, S.E. (Sarah E.); Fink, A.K. (Aliza K.); Lowenfels, A.B. (Albert B.); Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground & Aims: Individuals with cystic fibrosis are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with the general population, and risk is higher among those who received an organ transplant. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine optimal CRC screening strategies for patients with cystic fibrosis. Methods: We adjusted the existing Microsimulation Screening Analysis-Colon model to reflect increased CRC risk and lower life expectancy in patients with cys...

  15. Downregulation of microRNA-498 in colorectal cancers and its cellular effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A.; Lam, Alfred K.-Y., E-mail: a.lam@griffith.edu.au

    2015-01-15

    miR-498 is a non-coding RNA located intergenically in 19q13.41. Due to its predicted targeting of several genes involved in control of cellular growth, we examined the expression of miR-498 in colon cancer cell lines and a large cohort of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Two colon cancer cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW48) and one normal colonic epithelial cell line (FHC) were recruited. The expression of miR-498 was tested in these cell lines by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Tissues from 80 patients with surgical resection of colorectum (60 adenocarcinomas and 20 non-neoplastic tissues) were tested for miR-498 expression by qRT-PCR. In addition, an exogenous miR-498 (mimic) was used to detect the miRNA's effects on cell proliferation and cell cycle events in SW480 using MTT calorimetric assay and flow cytometry respectively. The colon cancer cell lines showed reduced expression of miR-498 compared to a normal colonic epithelial cell line. Mimic driven over expression of miR-498 in the SW480 cell line resulted in reduced cell proliferation and increased proportions of G2-M phase cells. In tissues, miR-498 expression was too low to be detected in all colorectal adenocarcinoma compared to non-neoplastic tissues. This suggests that the down regulation of miR-498 in colorectal cancer tissues and the direct suppressive cellular effect noted in cancer cell lines implies that miR-498 has some direct or indirect role in the pathogenesis of colorectal adenocarcinomas. - Highlights: • miR-498 is a non-coding RNA located in 19q13.41. • Colon cancer cell lines showed reduced expression of miR-498. • Mimic driven over expression of miR-498 in colon cancer cells resulted in lower cell proliferation. • miR-498 expression was down regulated in all colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues.

  16. Effect of gender on psychosocial adjustment of colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sital; Poudel, Anju

    2016-12-01

    Stoma can pose extensive challenges for colorectal cancer survivors. Identifying the psychological and social adjustment among them and how it differs by gender will aid in identifying those particularly at risk of having poor adjustment and in planning programs to improve their adjustment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of gender on psychosocial adjustment of colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in the stoma clinic of B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal. A purposive sample of 122 patients with ostomy was taken from the above mentioned setting. Selection criteria included colorectal cancer survivors having ostomy for at least 6 months. Data on socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected. Psychosocial adjustment was measured using Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 (OAI-23). A total of 122 patients were included in the study. Mean time since ostomy surgery was 2.53 and 1.98 years for men and women respectively. Both men and women had significant impairment in the psychosocial adjustment, however, men had significantly lower psychosocial adjustment score (37.68±12.96 vs . 43.45±12.81, t=-2.47, P=0.015) at 95% CI as compared to women and they reported more negative emotions. Furthermore, men significantly predicted low acceptance {β=-3.078, P=0.023, ΔR 2 =0.036, F [4,117] =7.90, Postomy should be monitored for psychosocial concerns in regular basis and health care providers should tailor care based on their need. Approaches of survivorship care and psychosocial interventions in colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy should take into account gender specific concerns and requirements to aid adjustment.

  17. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an awareness campaign for colorectal cancer: a mathematical modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Sophie; Harnan, Susan

    2014-06-01

    A campaign to increase the awareness of the signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer (CRC) and encourage self-presentation to a GP was piloted in two regions of England in 2011. Short-term data from the pilot evaluation on campaign cost and changes in GP attendances/referrals, CRC incidence, and CRC screening uptake were available. The objective was to estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a CRC awareness campaign by using a mathematical model which extrapolates short-term outcomes to predict long-term impacts on cancer mortality, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs. A mathematical model representing England (aged 30+) for a lifetime horizon was developed. Long-term changes to cancer incidence, cancer stage distribution, cancer mortality, and QALYs were estimated. Costs were estimated incorporating costs associated with delivering the campaign, additional GP attendances, and changes in CRC treatment. Data from the pilot campaign suggested that the awareness campaign caused a 1-month 10 % increase in presentation rates. Based on this, the model predicted the campaign to cost £5.5 million, prevent 66 CRC deaths and gain 404 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio compared to "no campaign" was £13,496 per QALY. Results were sensitive to the magnitude and duration of the increase in presentation rates and to disease stage. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a cancer awareness campaign can be estimated based on short-term data. Such predictions will aid policy makers in prioritizing between cancer control strategies. Future cost-effectiveness studies would benefit from campaign evaluations reporting as follows: data completeness, duration of impact, impact on emergency presentations, and comparison with non-intervention regions.

  19. An apple oligogalactan enhances the growth inhibitory effect of 5-fluorouracil on colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Fan, Lei; Niu, Yinbo; Mian, Wenguang; Zhang, Feng; Xie, Ming; Sun, Yang; Mei, Qibing

    2017-06-05

    Treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a clinical challenge, since current therapies are associated with obvious side effects and high expenses. These limitations highlight an urgent need for developing novel and safe treatment strategies. It is suggested that combinatorial strategies could be more effective and much safer than monotherapy in cancer treatment. In our previous study, an apple oligogalactan (AOG) has been found to show beneficial effect on treating CRC. This study tried to investigate whether AOG could enhance the growth inhibitory effect of 5-FU in human CRC cells (HT-29 and SW-620), a mouse model of colitis associated colorectal cancer and a murine model of xenograft tumor. The IC 50 values of 5-FU were 26.70±0.21μM in HT-29 cells and 26.71±2.06μM in SW-620 cells. Pretreatment with 0.05 or 0.1mM AOG down-regulated IC 50 values of 5-FU to 22.44±1.01 or 18.67±1.16μM in HT-29 and 21.21±1.49 or 17.99±1.42μM in SW-620 cells. AOG enhanced 5-FU-induced cell apoptosis and S phase arrest. The combination not only protected ICR mice against intestinal toxicities and carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and dextran sodium sulfate, but also decreased the xenograft tumor size, triggered apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of tumor cells in nude mice. The mechanisms of AOG on enhancing the growth inhibitory effect of 5-FU may be through the influence of TLR-4/NF-κB pathway. Taken together, the combinatorial therapy using AOG and 5-FU is a promising strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reporting colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, P; Morris, E

    2007-01-01

    The management of colorectal cancer is a team process. High-quality reporting of colorectal cancer is very important as the whole team relies upon the skill of the pathologist. Failure to report key features can lead to undertreatment of this disease. The use of a proforma has been demonstrated to be beneficial and we recommend staying with TNM5 due to scientific and reproducibility issues with TNM6. Important features in stage II/Dukes' B cases are extramural vascular invasion, peritoneal involvement, extent of extramural spread, incomplete resection and perforation. All of these may lead to adjuvant therapy being administered. The surgically created circumferential resection margin (CRM) and the mode of its creation are important features and the CRM retains its value after preoperative therapy. Regression grading should be applied only to fully resected tumours and the dissection and sampling must be standardized to allow comparison of results between trials and centres. When reporting local resections of early-stage cancers we need to look for features that predict spread to local lymph nodes to allow a full resection to be considered.

  1. Growth and progression of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Ushio, K.; Hirota, T.

    1988-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the natural history of colorectal carcinoma, now that small polypoid lesions of the large intestine can be detected effectively by radiology and endoscopy. The problems of this histo- and morphogenesis of colorectal cancer have, however, remained unsettled because the observation of the sequential change of a lesion with time by follow-up radiology and/or endoscopy is impossible once its malignancy is proved. Clinically the retrospective review of radiographic findings in overlooked cases is the only means to evaluate the natural history of colorectal cancer. This paper attempts to estimate the growth rate of colorectal cancer, based on a retrospective review of radiographic findings of overlooked cases, and analyses of the radiographic features of small polypoid lesions which may develop into advanced cancers

  2. The effect of education on the improvement of fruits and vegetables consumption aiming to preventing colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Elahe; Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzad, Seyed Homamodin; Gharli Pour, Zabiholah; Gilasi, Hamid Reza; Ghasemi, Sima; Hafez, Asghar Ashrafi

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of health education on the improvement of intake of fruits and vegetables aiming at preventing colorectal cancer among high school girls in the city of Shahr-e-kord. Colorectal cancer is one of the most important and most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Every year, nearly one million new cases of colorectal cancer are recognized around the world and nearly half of them lose their lives due to the disease. 130 students were randomly divided to two groups, which experimental (65) and controls (65) were chosen from the city of Shahr-e-kord for this experimental study. The instruments for data collecting were self-made questionnaire health belief model based and food frequency questionnaire. The HBM FFQ questionnaires were completed before, immediately and two months after education by participants. After pre-test, 5 educational session classes in experimental group were performed. Finally, data collected and analyzed by SPSS16 computer software (T- test, T-Paired, repeated measure ANOVA). Findings of the study showed that before the intervention there was no significant differences between the scores of different structures of HBM model in two groups (P > 0.05), after the intervention there was significant differences between experimental and control groups in the levels of knowledge, structures of HBM model and performance for preventing colorectal cancer (p colorectal cancer.

  3. Exercise and Low-Dose Ibuprofen for Cognitive Impairment in Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    Cognitive Impairment; Stage 0 Colorectal Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage II Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage III Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  4. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

  5. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2010-06-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and postmenopausal hormones for women are associated with substantial reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence.

  6. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention....

  7. Effects of interactions between common genetic variants and alcohol consumption on colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Shin, Aesun; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2018-01-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 40 common genetic loci associated with colorectal cancer risk. To investigate possible gene-environment interactions (GEIs) between GWAS-identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcohol consumption with respect to colorectal cancer, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted. Higher levels of alcohol consumption as calculated based on a standardized definition of a drink (1 drink=12.5g of ethanol) were associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.62-3.76 for heavy drinkers [>50g/day] compared to never drinkers; p trend colorectal cancer associated with the G allele of rs6687758 tended to increase among individuals in the heavier alcohol consumption strata. A statistically significant association between rs6687758 and colorectal cancer risk was observed among moderate alcohol drinkers who consumed between >12.5 and ≤50g of alcohol per day (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.01-2.11). A total of 2,109 subjects (703 colorectal cancer patients and 1,406 healthy controls) were recruited from the Korean National Cancer Center. For genotyping, 30 GWAS-identified SNPs were selected. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate associations of SNPs and alcohol consumption with colorectal cancer risk. We also tested GEIs between SNPs and alcohol consumption using a logistic model with multiplicative interaction terms. Our results suggest that SNP rs6687758 at 1q41 may interact with alcohol consumption in the etiology of colorectal cancer.

  8. Colorectal Cancer: Prognostic Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Manxhuka-Kerliu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available After lung cancer colorectal cancer (Cc is ranked the second, as a cause of cancer-related death. The purpose of this study was to analyze the Cc cases in our material with respect to all prognostic values including histological type and grade, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, and tumor border features. There were investigated 149 cases of resection specimen with colorectal cancer, which were fixed in buffered neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. Tissue sections (4(µm thick were cut and stained with H&E. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type found in 85,90% of cases, in 60,94% of males and 39,06% of females; squamous cell carcinoma in 7,38%, in 63,63% of males and 36,36% of females; mucinous carcinoma in 4,68%, in 57,15% of males and 42,85% of females; while adenosquamous carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma and carcinoma in situ in 0,71% of cases each. Dukes' classification was used in order to define the depth of invasion. Dukes B was found in 68,45% of cases, whereas in 31,54% of cases Dukes C was found. As far as histological grading is concerned, Cc was mostly with moderate differentiation (75,16% with neither vascular nor perineural invasion. Resection margins were in all cases free of tumor. Our data indicate that the pathologic features of the resection specimen constitute the most powerful predictors of postoperative outcome in Cc. Dukes' stage and degree of differentiation provide independent prognostic information in Cc. However, differentiation should be assessed by the worst pattern.

  9. Cetuximab Plus Oxaliplatin May Not Be Effective Primary Treatment for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a randomized phase III trial, the addition of the targeted therapy cetuximab to oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy did not prolong survival or time to disease progression of patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

  10. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed......, and other pathological risk factors. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal...... diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long...

  11. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hano Garcia, Olga Marina; Wood Rodriguez, Lisette; Villa Jimenez, Oscar Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  12. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  13. Colorectal Cancer: What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Colorectal Cancer: What You Should Know Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... with—and more than 50,000 died from—colorectal cancer, according to the National Cancer Institute. It is ...

  14. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARYBackground and purpose Colorectal cancer is a common disease in Denmark with considerable morbidity and mortality. Although survival in recent years has improved, Denmark still has the lowest 5-year survival compared to the other Nordic countries. The treatment of patients depends on local...... the potential to contribute to the staging of colorectal cancer. The purpose of these studies was to determine the usefulness of ultrasound diagnostics in patients with colorectal cancer.The purpose of the TRUS studies was to compare staging of rectal carcinomas using digital rectal exploration...... of 295 patients with primary colorectal cancer we found a sensitivity of preoperative ultrasound, surgical exploration, and intraoperative ultrasound of 70%, 84%, and 97%, respectively, based on a patient-by-patient comparison (p

  15. Effects of interactions between common genetic variants and alcohol consumption on colorectal cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Shin, Aesun; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2018-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 40 common genetic loci associated with colorectal cancer risk. To investigate possible gene-environment interactions (GEIs) between GWAS-identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcohol consumption with respect to colorectal cancer, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted. Results Higher levels of alcohol consumption as calculated based on a standardized definition of a drink (1 drink=12.5g of ethanol) were associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.62-3.76 for heavy drinkers [>50g/day] compared to never drinkers; ptrendcolorectal cancer associated with the G allele of rs6687758 tended to increase among individuals in the heavier alcohol consumption strata. A statistically significant association between rs6687758 and colorectal cancer risk was observed among moderate alcohol drinkers who consumed between >12.5 and ≤50g of alcohol per day (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.01-2.11). Methods A total of 2,109 subjects (703 colorectal cancer patients and 1,406 healthy controls) were recruited from the Korean National Cancer Center. For genotyping, 30 GWAS-identified SNPs were selected. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate associations of SNPs and alcohol consumption with colorectal cancer risk. We also tested GEIs between SNPs and alcohol consumption using a logistic model with multiplicative interaction terms. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNP rs6687758 at 1q41 may interact with alcohol consumption in the etiology of colorectal cancer. PMID:29464080

  16. Cost effectiveness of FDG-PET: rapid evaluation in recurrent colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, B.B.; Miles, K.A.; Keith, C.J.; Wong, D.C.; Griffiths, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Intensive patient follow-up in assessments of the cost-effectiveness of a new imaging modality is associated with time-delays, ethical difficulties and increased costs. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of FDG-PET in recurrent colorectal cancer using Australian data whilst avoiding intensive patient follow-up. The study population comprised patients with recurrent colorectal under consideration for resection of apparently isolated hepatic metastasis in whom demonstration of extra-hepatic tumour would preclude surgery. The results of FDG-PET in a consecutive series of 75 such patients referred to the Wesley PET centre were used to determine the range of possible values for disease prevalence and specificity, assuming the value for PET sensitivity as reported in the federal government's PET review. These values, along with the diagnostic accuracy of CT and Australian costs for procedures (PET = $ 1200), were entered into decision trees modelling a diagnostic strategy comprising CT only and an alternative strategy where patients without extra-hepatic tumour on CT also undergo FDG-PET. The cost per patient, accuracy and Incremental Cost-Accuracy Ratio (ICAR) were determined for each strategy. The PET strategy is cheaper for all possible values of disease prevalence and PET specificity ($306-328/patient) and is more cost-effective for values of disease prevalence above 0.18 or PET specificity above 0.86. At a typical disease prevalence of 0.3 (PET specificity 0.92), the ICAR for the PET strategy is $9700 versus $11,200 for CT. PET remains cost saving even if the best reported values for sensitivity of CT and worse values for PET are used, FDG-PET for recurrent colorectal cancer in Australia would be cost-saving and most probably cost-effective. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC): From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56), 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most com...

  18. Computed tomographic colonography to screen for colorectal cancer, extracolonic cancer, and aortic aneurysm: model simulation with cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Cesare; Pickhardt, Perry J; Pickhardt, Perry; Laghi, Andrea; Kim, Daniel H; Kim, Daniel; Zullo, Angelo; Iafrate, Franco; Di Giulio, Lorenzo; Morini, Sergio

    2008-04-14

    In addition to detecting colorectal neoplasia, abdominal computed tomography (CT) with colonography technique (CTC) can also detect unsuspected extracolonic cancers and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of this combined abdominal CT screening strategy are unknown. A computerized Markov model was constructed to simulate the occurrence of colorectal neoplasia, extracolonic malignant neoplasm, and AAA in a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 subjects from the United States who were 50 years of age. Simulated screening with CTC, using a 6-mm polyp size threshold for reporting, was compared with a competing model of optical colonoscopy (OC), both without and with abdominal ultrasonography for AAA detection (OC-US strategy). In the simulated population, CTC was the dominant screening strategy, gaining an additional 1458 and 462 life-years compared with the OC and OC-US strategies and being less costly, with a savings of $266 and $449 per person, respectively. The additional gains for CTC were largely due to a decrease in AAA-related deaths, whereas the modeled benefit from extracolonic cancer downstaging was a relatively minor factor. At sensitivity analysis, OC-US became more cost-effective only when the CTC sensitivity for large polyps dropped to 61% or when broad variations of costs were simulated, such as an increase in CTC cost from $814 to $1300 or a decrease in OC cost from $1100 to $500. With the OC-US approach, suboptimal compliance had a strong negative influence on efficacy and cost-effectiveness. The estimated mortality from CT-induced cancer was less than estimated colonoscopy-related mortality (8 vs 22 deaths), both of which were minor compared with the positive benefit from screening. When detection of extracolonic findings such as AAA and extracolonic cancer are considered in addition to colorectal neoplasia in our model simulation, CT colonography is a dominant screening strategy (ie, more clinically effective and more cost-effective

  19. Rapid evaluation of the cost-effectiveness o FDG-PET in recurrent colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.; Keith, C.J.; Wong, D.C.; Griffiths, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of FDG-PET in recurrent colorectal cancer using Australian data whilst avoiding the time delays, costs and ethical difficulties associated with intensive patient follow-up. A decision tree sensitivity analysis was used. The study population comprised patients with recurrent colorectal under consideration for resection of apparently isolated hepatic metastasis in whom demonstration of extra-hepatic tumour would preclude surgery.The results of FDG-PET in a consecutive series of 75 such patients referred to the Wesley PET centre were used to determine the range of possible values for disease prevalence and specificity, assuming the value for PET sensitivity as reported in the federal government's PET review. These values, along with the diagnostic accuracy of CT and Australian costs for procedures (PET = $1200), were entered into decision trees modelling a diagnostic strategy comprising CT only and an alternative strategy where patients without extrahepatic tumour on CT also undergo FDG-PET. The cost per patient, accuracy and Incremental Cost-Accuracy Ratio (ICAR) were determined for each strategy. The PET strategy is cheaper for all possible values of disease prevalence and PET specificity ($306-328 / patient) and is more cost-effective for values of disease prevalence above 0.18 or PET specificity above 0.86. At a typical disease prevalence of 0.3 (PET specificity 0.92), the ICAR for the PET strategy is $9700 versus $11,200 for CT. PET remains cost saving even if the best reported values for sensitivity of CT and worse values for PET are used. FDG-PET for recurrent colorectal cancer in Australia would be cost saving and most probably cost-effective. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  20. Clinical Implication of Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Regorafenib in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoojoo Lim

    Full Text Available Regorafenib induces distinct radiological changes that represent its anti-angiogenic effect. However, clinical implication of the changes is unclear.Tumor attenuation as measured by Hounsfield units (HU in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT and cavitary changes of lung metastases were analyzed in association with treatment outcome of metastatic colorectal cancer patients (N = 80 treated with regorafenib in a prospective study.141 lesions in 72 patients were analyzed with HU. After 2 cycles of regorafenib, 87.5% of patients showed decrease of HU (Median change -23.9%, range -61.5%-20.7%. Lesional attenuation change was modestly associated with metabolic changes of 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT (Pearson's r = 0.37, p = 0.002. Among 53 patients with lung metastases, 17 (32.1% developed cavitary changes. There were no differences in disease control rate, progression-free survival, or overall survival according to the radiological changes. At the time of progressive disease (PD according to RECIST 1.1, HU was lower than baseline in 86.0% (43/50 and cavitary change of lung metastasis persisted without refilling in 84.6% (11/13.Regorafenib showed prominent anti-angiogenic effect in colorectal cancer, but the changes were not associated with treatment outcome. However, the anti-angiogenic effects persisted at the time of PD, which suggests that we may need to develop new treatment strategies.

  1. Clinical Implication of Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Regorafenib in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jung Min; Paeng, Jin Chul; Won, Jae-Kyung; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Tae-You

    2015-01-01

    Background Regorafenib induces distinct radiological changes that represent its anti-angiogenic effect. However, clinical implication of the changes is unclear. Methods Tumor attenuation as measured by Hounsfield units (HU) in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and cavitary changes of lung metastases were analyzed in association with treatment outcome of metastatic colorectal cancer patients (N = 80) treated with regorafenib in a prospective study. Results 141 lesions in 72 patients were analyzed with HU. After 2 cycles of regorafenib, 87.5% of patients showed decrease of HU (Median change -23.9%, range -61.5%–20.7%). Lesional attenuation change was modestly associated with metabolic changes of 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT (Pearson’s r = 0.37, p = 0.002). Among 53 patients with lung metastases, 17 (32.1%) developed cavitary changes. There were no differences in disease control rate, progression-free survival, or overall survival according to the radiological changes. At the time of progressive disease (PD) according to RECIST 1.1, HU was lower than baseline in 86.0% (43/50) and cavitary change of lung metastasis persisted without refilling in 84.6% (11/13). Conclusion Regorafenib showed prominent anti-angiogenic effect in colorectal cancer, but the changes were not associated with treatment outcome. However, the anti-angiogenic effects persisted at the time of PD, which suggests that we may need to develop new treatment strategies. PMID:26671465

  2. Colorectal cancer complicating Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H J

    2001-04-01

    Some earlier studies have indicated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially those with long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis, have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Moreover, others in tertiary care centres have suggested that patients with Crohn's disease also have a higher risk of colorectal cancer. Canadian data on colorectal cancer in Crohn's disease appear to be limited. For this investigation, a single clinician database of 877 patients with Crohn's disease was used. Altogether, there were six patients with colorectal cancer (ie, overall rate of 0.7%). All of these patients were men with an initial diagnosis of Crohn's disease established at a mean age of approximately 28 years, with either ileocolonic disease or colonic disease alone, but not with ileal disease alone. Although there was a predominance of women in the overall study population (ie, 56.1%), no women developed colorectal cancer. The clinical behaviour of Crohn's disease was classified as nonstricturing in all six patients with colorectal cancer, but in two patients, Crohn's disease was complicated by a perirectal abscess or a fistula. All cancers were located in the rectum and were diagnosed 30 years, 22 years, seven years, 18 years, 20 years and 40 years after Crohn's disease was initially diagnosed. In three patients, the cancer was detected in a residual rectal stump after a partial colon resection at least 10 years earlier. In five patients, localized extension of disease through the serosa, nodal or distant metastases (ie, liver, lung) was found at the time of cancer diagnosis; two patients have since died. The present study confirms that Crohn's disease involving the colon may be a possible risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, at least in younger men, but, in this study, not in women. However, part of this increased risk in men may have been related to the presence of a rectal stump, rather than to Crohn's disease per se.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Complicating Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier studies have indicated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially those with long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis, have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Moreover, others in tertiary care centres have suggested that patients with Crohn's disease also have a higher risk of colorectal cancer. Canadian data on colorectal cancer in Crohn's disease appear to be limited. For this investigation, a single clinician database of 877 patients with Crohn's disease was used. Altogether, there were six patients with colorectal cancer (ie, overall rate of 0.7%. All of these patients were men with an initial diagnosis of Crohn's disease established at a mean age of approximately 28 years, with either ileocolonic disease or colonic disease alone, but not with ileal disease alone. Although there was a predominance of women in the overall study population (ie, 56.1%, no women developed colorectal cancer. The clinical behaviour of Crohn's disease was classified as nonstricturing in all six patients with colorectal cancer, but in two patients, Crohn's disease was complicated by a perirectal abscess or a fistula. All cancers were located in the rectum and were diagnosed 30 years, 22 years, seven years, 18 years, 20 years and 40 years after Crohn's disease was initially diagnosed. In three patients, the cancer was detected in a residual rectal stump after a partial colon resection at least 10 years earlier. In five patients, localized extension of disease through the serosa, nodal or distant metastases (ie, liver, lung was found at the time of cancer diagnosis; two patients have since died. The present study confirms that Crohn's disease involving the colon may be a possible risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, at least in younger men, but, in this study, not in women. However, part of this increased risk in men may have been related to the presence of a rectal stump, rather than to Crohn's disease per se.

  4. Effects of radiation on levels of DNA damage in normal non-adjacent mucosa from colorectal cancer cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, Juliette

    2013-03-01

    Defects in DNA repair pathways have been linked with colorectal cancer (CRC). Adjuvant radiotherapy has become commonplace in the treatment of rectal cancer however it is associated with a higher rate of second cancer formation. It is known that radiation results in DNA damage directly or indirectly by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) by causing double-strand breaks (DSBs). The majority of work in RIBE has been performed in cell lines and limited studies have been in or ex vivo.

  5. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment.

  6. The effect of geriatric intervention in frail elderly patients receiving chemotherapy for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, C M; Vistisen, K K; Dehlendorff, C

    2017-01-01

    patients are offered inclusion and are then randomized to two groups (the intervention group and the control group). Patients in the intervention group receive a full geriatric assessment of comorbidity, medication, psycho-cognitive function, physical, functional and nutrition status, and interventions......BACKGROUND: Better surgical techniques, chemotherapy and biological therapy have improved survival in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), most markedly in younger patients. About half of patients over 70 years receive dose reductions or early treatment discontinuation of the planned adjuvant...... or first-line treatment due to side effects. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is a multidisciplinary evaluation of an elderly individual's health status. This assessment in older patients with cancer can predict survival, chemotherapy toxicity and morbidity. METHODS: This randomized phase II...

  7. An Association Map on the Effect of Flavonoids on the Signaling Pathways in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosha, Sanaz; Alshawsh, Mohammed A; Looi, Chung Yeng; Seyedan, Atefehalsadat; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer in the world, causing thousands of deaths annually. Although chemotherapy is known to be an effective treatment to combat colon cancer, it produces severe side effects. Natural products, on the other hand, appear to generate fewer side effects than do chemotherapeutic drugs. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in various fruits and vegetables known to possess antioxidant activities, and the literature shows that several of these flavonoids have anti-CRC propertiesFlavonoids are classified into five main subclasses: flavonols, flavanones, flavones, flavan-3-ols, and flavanonols. Of these subclasses, the flavanonols have a minimum effect against CRC, whereas the flavones play an important role. The main targets for the inhibitory effect of flavonoids on CRC signaling pathways are caspase; nuclear factor kappa B; mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9; p53; β-catenin; cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2 and CDK4; and cyclins A, B, D, and E. In this review article, we summarize the in vitro and in vivo studies that have been performed since 2000 on the anti-CRC properties of flavonoids. We also describe the signaling pathways affected by flavonoids that have been found to be involved in CRC. Some flavonoids have the potential to be an effective alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of colon cancer; well-controlled clinical studies should, however, be conducted to support this proposal.

  8. Undefined familial colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambirinis, Constantinos Pantelis; Theodoropoulos, George; Gazouli, Maria

    2009-10-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most common cancers of the world, is actually a spectrum of several subtypes, with different molecular profiles, clinico-pathological characteristics and possibly separate pathways of progression. It is estimated that in approximately 25%-35% of cases, a familial component exists, so they are classified as familial CRC (fCRC). However the known hereditary CRC syndromes justify only up to 5%. The rest are attributed to some inherited genetic predisposition passed to offspring through low-penetrance genes, which in the proper environmental setting can bring on tumorigenesis. Furthermore, part of the familial clustering may be attributed to chance. Because of the complexity regarding the etiology of CRC, the clinician is sometimes faced with obscure patient data, and cannot be sure if they are dealing with fCRC or sporadic CRC. The elucidation of what is going on with the as yet "undefined" portion of CRC will aid not only in the diagnosis, classification and treatment of CRC, but more importantly in the proper adjustment of the screening guidelines and in genetic counselling of patients.

  9. Effects of Colorectal Cancer Screening on Population Health: a modeling assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the Netherlands and other developed countries. Each year, more than 10,000 cases are newly diagnosed in the Netherlands and over 1 million worldwide. About half of these patients die of the disease. CRC is most

  10. Genetic Testing for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before 50). Dave has Lynch syndrome and had colorectal cancer at 28. Amy found out she has Lynch syndrome when she was diagnosed with colorectal cancer days after turning 47. Why is it Important ...

  11. Psychological effects of the intensified follow-up of the CEAwatch trial after treatment for colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhan, Zhuozhao; Verberne, Charlotte J.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Grossmann, Irene; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Wiggers, Theo; de Bock, Geertruida H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate psychological effects of the state-of-art intensified follow-up protocol for colorectal cancer patients in the CEAwatch trial. Method: At two time points during the CEAwatch trial questionnaires regarding patients' attitude towards follow-up,

  12. Colorectal cancer with venous tumor thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kensuke Otani; Soichiro Ishihara; Keisuke Hata; Koji Murono; Kazuhito Sasaki; Koji Yasuda; Takeshi Nishikawa; Toshiaki Tanaka; Tomomichi Kiyomatsu; Kazushige Kawai; Hiroaki Nozawa; Hironori Yamaguchi; Toshiaki Watanabe

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Colorectal cancer is seldom accompanied by venous tumor thrombosis, and little is known about the features of venous tumor thrombosis in colorectal cancer. However, some reports show that colorectal cancer patients can develop venous tumor thrombosis and warn clinicians not to overlook this complication. In this report, we perform a review of 43 previously reported cases and investigate the characteristics of colorectal cancer accompanied by venous tumor thrombosis. The histological ...

  13. Brain metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Brain metastases from colorectal cancer are rare. The prognosis for patients with even a single resectable brain metastasis is poor. A case of surgically treated cerebral metastasis from a rectal carcinoma is reported. The brain tumour was radically resected. However, cerebral, as well...... as extracerebral, disease recurred 12 months after diagnosis. Surgical removal of colorectal metastatic brain lesions in selected cases results in a longer survival time....

  14. Do the benefits outweigh the side effects of colorectal cancer surveillance? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augestad, Knut Magne; Rose, Johnie; Crawshaw, Benjamin; Cooper, Gregory; Delaney, Conor

    2014-05-15

    Most patients treated with curative intent for colorectal cancer (CRC) are included in a follow-up program involving periodic evaluations. The survival benefits of a follow-up program are well delineated, and previous meta-analyses have suggested an overall survival improvement of 5%-10% by intensive follow-up. However, in a recent randomized trial, there was no survival benefit when a minimal vs an intensive follow-up program was compared. Less is known about the potential side effects of follow-up. Well-known side effects of preventive programs are those of somatic complications caused by testing, negative psychological consequences of follow-up itself, and the downstream impact of false positive or false negative tests. Accordingly, the potential survival benefits of CRC follow-up must be weighed against these potential negatives. The present review compares the benefits and side effects of CRC follow-up, and we propose future areas for research.

  15. Subnuclear proteomics in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C; Piersma, Sander R

    2010-01-01

    for early cancer detection. Here we evaluate a proteomics work flow for profiling protein constituents in subnuclear domains in colorectal cancer tissues and apply this work flow to a comparative analysis of the nuclear matrix fraction in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissue samples. First, we......Abnormalities in nuclear phenotype and chromosome structure are key features of cancer cells. Investigation of the protein determinants of nuclear subfractions in cancer may yield molecular insights into aberrant chromosome function and chromatin organization and in addition may yield biomarkers...... with statistics, we identified proteins that are significantly enriched in the nuclear matrix fraction relative to two earlier fractions (the chromatin-binding and intermediate filament fractions) isolated from six colorectal tissue samples. The total data set contained 2,059 non-redundant proteins. Gene ontology...

  16. Environmental Factors and Colorectal Tumor Risk in Individuals With Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Vasen, H.F.; Nagengast, F.M.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Environmental factors might play a role in HNPCC-associated carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the effects of environmental factors on

  17. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardwick, James C.; Kodach, Liudmila L.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the current understanding of colorectal cancer stems from the study of rare, inherited colorectal cancer syndromes. Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway have been found in juvenile polyposis, an inherited polyposis syndrome that predisposes to colorectal cancer. The

  18. Aspirin Metabolomics in Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for cancer chemoprevention in addition to its well-established role in cardiovascular protection. In recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in humans, daily aspirin use reduced incidence, metastasis and mortality from several common types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. The mechanism(s) by which

  19. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...

  20. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-06

    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  2. Optimisation of colorectal cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Colette Bernadine Maria-Theresia van den

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Although there have been several improvements in screening, staging, and treatment in the past decades, survival differences remain. For example among certain subgroups of patients, such as elderly patients and patients with

  3. Brain metastasis from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Yoshiko; Itabashi, Michio; Hirosawa, Tomoichiro; Ogawa, Shinpei; Noguchi, Eiichiro; Takemoto, Kaori; Shirotani, Noriyasu; Kameoka, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    The present study was performed to clarify the clinical characteristics of brain metastasis from colorectal cancer. Five patients with brain metastasis from colorectal cancer treated at our institute between 2001 and 2005 were included in the study. Clinical findings and survival time were determined and an appropriate system for follow-up in such cases was considered. Brain metastasis was found after surgery for colorectal cancer in 4 cases. In addition, colorectal cancer was found after diagnosis of brain metastasis in 1 case. At the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis, all patients had lung metastasis and 3 had liver metastasis. The mean periods between surgery for colorectal cancer and lung and brain metastases were 19.5 and 38.2 months, respectively. In all cases, brain metastasis was diagnosed by imaging after the appearance of neurological symptoms. Brain metastases were multiple in 1 case and focal in 4 cases. We performed gamma knife radiation therapy, and the symptoms disappeared or decreased in all cases. Mean survival time after brain metastasis was 3.0 months. Prognosis after brain metastasis is poor, but gamma knife radiation therapy contributed to patients' quality of life. (author)

  4. Modeling the Effect of APC Truncation on Destruction Complex Function in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Dipak; Hlavacek, William S.

    2013-01-01

    In colorectal cancer cells, APC, a tumor suppressor protein, is commonly expressed in truncated form. Truncation of APC is believed to disrupt degradation of β—catenin, which is regulated by a multiprotein complex called the destruction complex. The destruction complex comprises APC, Axin, β—catenin, serine/threonine kinases, and other proteins. The kinases and , which are recruited by Axin, mediate phosphorylation of β—catenin, which initiates its ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. The mechanism of regulation of β—catenin degradation by the destruction complex and the role of truncation of APC in colorectal cancer are not entirely understood. Through formulation and analysis of a rule-based computational model, we investigated the regulation of β—catenin phosphorylation and degradation by APC and the effect of APC truncation on function of the destruction complex. The model integrates available mechanistic knowledge about site-specific interactions and phosphorylation of destruction complex components and is consistent with an array of published data. We find that the phosphorylated truncated form of APC can outcompete Axin for binding to β—catenin, provided that Axin is limiting, and thereby sequester β—catenin away from Axin and the Axin-recruited kinases and . Full-length APC also competes with Axin for binding to β—catenin; however, full-length APC is able, through its SAMP repeats, which bind Axin and which are missing in truncated oncogenic forms of APC, to bring β—catenin into indirect association with Axin and Axin-recruited kinases. Because our model indicates that the positive effects of truncated APC on β—catenin levels depend on phosphorylation of APC, at the first 20-amino acid repeat, and because phosphorylation of this site is mediated by , we suggest that is a potential target for therapeutic intervention in colorectal cancer. Specific inhibition of is predicted to limit binding of β—catenin to truncated

  5. Effect of darbepoetin alfa on physical function in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørager, C B; Jensen, M B; Madsen, M R

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether perioperative treatment with darbepoetin alfa (DA) improves physical performance following colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Patients admitted for planned colorectal cancer surgery were randomized to receive either weekly placebo or DA 300 or 150 microg depending...... on the hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Patients were assessed 10 days before, as well as 7 and 30 days after surgery for work capacity, postural sway, muscle strength, fatigue and quality of life (QoL). The primary outcome measure were the changes in patients' physical performance from preoperative to postoperative...... differences between the 2 groups on days 7 or 30 for fatigue, postural sway and QoL. DA treatment significantly (p

  6. Cancer immunology and colorectal cancer recurrence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vannucci, Luca

    -, č. 3 (2011), s. 1421-1431 ISSN 1945-0524 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : colorectal cancer * inflammation * tumor Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  7. Effect of diet, life style, and other environmental/chemopreventive factors on colorectal cancer development, and assessment of the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid E

    2004-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive, evenhanded evaluation of the evidence from experimental, in vitro and human studies associating environmental and therapeutic factors with risk of colorectal cancer. Life styles correlated with the greatest increase in colorectal cancer risk are the ones that typify a diet rich in fat and calories, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking, and low intake of vegetable, fruits and fibers, referred to as a "western diet," as well as sedentary style (i.e., no- or low-exercise). This kind of life style has also been associated with other chronic diseases (other cancers, obesity, dyslipedemia, diabetes, hypertension cardiovascular, and hypertension). The evidence does not implicated red meat as a risk factor, and fiber has been shown to protect against colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Calcium, vitamin D, folate, and some antioxidant vitamins and minerals (gamma-tocopherol and selenium) have protective effects, and daily exercise for > or =30 min results in a significant decrease in risk. Estrogen use (hormone replacement therapy) substantially reduces colorectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., aspirin) in excessive doses is protective, especially in high risk populations, but the side effects of its use and cost incurred due to its continued intake over long periods must be carefully scrutinized before any recommendations are made for the general public.

  8. Reduction of NANOG Mediates the Inhibitory Effect of Aspirin on Tumor Growth and Stemness in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cancer stem cells (CSCs are considered to be responsible for tumor relapse and metastasis, which serve as a potential therapeutic target for cancer. Aspirin has been shown to reduce cancer risk and mortality, particularly in colorectal cancer. However, the CSCs-suppressing effect of aspirin and its relevant mechanisms in colorectal cancer remain unclear. Methods: CCK8 assay was employed to detect the cell viability. Sphere formation assay, colony formation assay, and ALDH1 assay were performed to identify the effects of aspirin on CSC properties. Western blotting was performed to detect the expression of the stemness factors. Xenograft model was employed to identify the anti-cancer effects of aspirin in vivo. Unpaired Student t test, ANOVA test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for the statistical comparisons. Results: Aspirin attenuated colonosphere formation and decreased the ALDH1 positive cell population of colorectal cancer cells. Aspirin inhibited xenograft tumor growth and reduced tumor cells stemness in nude mice. Consistently, aspirin decreased the protein expression of stemness-related transcription factors, including c-Myc, OCT4 and NANOG. Suppression of NANOG blocked the effect of aspirin on sphere formation. Conversely, ectopic expression of NANOG rescued the aspirin-repressed sphere formation, suggesting that NANOG is a key downstream target. Moreover, we found that aspirin repressed NANOG expression in protein level by decreasing its stability. Conclusion: We have provided new evidence that aspirin attenuates CSC properties through down-regulation of NANOG, suggesting aspirin as a promising therapeutic agent for colorectal cancer treatment.

  9. Effect of β,β-Dimethylacrylshikonin on Inhibition of Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth in Vitro and in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yingying; Jin, Shaoju; He, Jun; Shao, Zhenjun; Yan, Jiao; Feng, Ting; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, shikonin and its derivatives, has been used in East Asia for several years for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, including cancer. We previously identified that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin (DA) could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of DA on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line HCT-116 in vitro and in vivo. A viability assay showed th...

  10. The comparative cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening using faecal immunochemical test vs. colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor C W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2015-09-04

    Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and colonoscopy are two common screening tools for colorectal cancer(CRC). Most cost-effectiveness studies focused on survival as the outcome, and were based on modeling techniques instead of real world observational data. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of these two tests to detect colorectal neoplastic lesions based on data from a 5-year community screening service. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was assessed based on the detection rates of neoplastic lesions, and costs including screening compliance, polypectomy, colonoscopy complications, and staging of CRC detected. A total of 5,863 patients received yearly FIT and 4,869 received colonoscopy. Compared with FIT, colonoscopy detected notably more adenomas (23.6% vs. 1.6%) and advanced lesions or cancer (4.2% vs. 1.2%). Using FIT as control, the ICER of screening colonoscopy in detecting adenoma, advanced adenoma, CRC and a composite endpoint of either advanced adenoma or stage I CRC was US$3,489, US$27,962, US$922,762 and US$23,981 respectively. The respective ICER was US$3,597, US$439,513, -US$2,765,876 and US$32,297 among lower-risk subjects; whilst the corresponding figure was US$3,153, US$14,852, US$184,162 and US$13,919 among higher-risk subjects. When compared to FIT, colonoscopy is considered cost-effective for screening adenoma, advanced neoplasia, and a composite endpoint of advanced neoplasia or stage I CRC.

  11. Effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on patients with a positive fecal occult blood test result for colorectal cancer screening: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Chuan; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Shu-Ching

    2017-10-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer and screening and the psychological impact of positive screening results. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 2 groups using a pretest and posttest measures design. Patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 51) or control (n = 51) group. Subjects in the experimental group received a health education and telephone counseling program, while the control group received routine care only. Patients were assessed pretest before intervention (first visit to the outpatient) and posttest at 4 weeks after intervention (4 weeks after first visit to the outpatient). Patients in the experimental group had a significantly better level of knowledge about colorectal cancer and the psychological impact of a positive screening result than did the control group. Analysis of covariance revealed that the health education and telephone counseling program had a significant main effect on colorectal cancer knowledge. A health education and telephone counseling program can improve knowledge about colorectal cancer and about the psychological impact in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results. The health education and telephone counseling program is an easy, simple, and convenient method of improving knowledge, improving attitudes, and alleviating psychological distress in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results, and this program can be expanded to other types of cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zedan, Ahmed; Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent effective against advanced colorectal cancer. Unlike with other platinum-based agents, the main side effect of oxaliplatin is polyneuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced polyneuropathy (OIPN) has a unique profile, which can be divided into acute and chronic...

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC: From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56, 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most common site and moderately differentiated carcinoma was considered as the main common histopathological variety. In conclusion, increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in younger Iranian population, below 30 and late admission and diagnosis were the main findings in the present study necessitating screening programs with annual fecal occult blood tests in high risk families.

  14. Metabolic Effects of Hypoxia in Colorectal Cancer by 13C NMR Isotopomer Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Abrantes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 13C NMR isotopomer analysis was used to characterize intermediary metabolism in three colorectal cancer cell lines (WiDr, LS1034, and C2BBe1 and determine the “metabolic remodeling” that occurs under hypoxia. Under normoxia, the three colorectal cancer cell lines present high rates of lactate production and can be seen as “Warburg” like cancer cells independently of substrate availability, since such profile was dominant at both high and low glucose media contents. The LS1034 was the less glycolytic of the three cell lines and was the most affected by the event of hypoxia, raising abruptly glucose consumption and lactate production. The other two colorectal cell lines, WiDr and C2BBe1, adapted better to hypoxia and were able to maintain their oxidative fluxes even at the very low levels of oxygen. These differential metabolic behaviors of the three colorectal cell lines show how important an adequate knowledge of the “metabolic remodeling” that follows a given cancer treatment is towards the correct (redesign of therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  15. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, H.; Ezaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  16. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Ezaki, Haruo.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occurring in A-bomb survivors. (author)

  17. Effects of smoking and antioxidant micronutrients on risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rikke Dalgaard; Albieri, Vanna; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-04-01

    Antioxidant intake has been reported to increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) for smokers, yet reduce the risk for nonsmokers. We investigated the association between tobacco smoking and risk of colon or rectal cancer, and whether dietary and supplemental intake of the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, β-carotene, selenium, zinc, and manganese affects the risk of CRC among smokers. Data on smoking habits and antioxidant intake were analyzed for 54,208 participants in the Danish Prospective Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Of these participants, 642 were diagnosed with colon cancer and 348 were diagnosed with rectal cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Principal components were used to analyze intake of combinations of antioxidants. Ever smoking increased the risk for CRC (hazard ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.37), especially for rectal cancer. Smoking for at least 20 years was associated with a 26% increase in risk of CRC, compared with never smokers, and smoking 20 g tobacco or more each day was associated with a 30% increase in risk. Smoking for more than 30 years, or more than 20 g tobacco each day, was associated with a 48% increase in risk of rectal cancer. We did not observe an interaction between smoking and antioxidant consumption on risk of CRC. Tobacco smoking increases the risk for CRC. We did not observe that consumption of antioxidant micronutrients modulates the effects of smoking on CRC risk. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of Lay Health Worker Outreach in Reducing Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in Vietnamese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Susan L.; Nguyen, Tung T.; Bui-Tong, Ngoc; McPhee, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled study of a lay health worker (LHW) intervention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates among Vietnamese Americans, who typically have lower rates than do non-Hispanic Whites. Methods. We randomized 64 LHWs to 2 arms. Each LHW recruited 10 male or female participants who had never had CRC screening (fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy). Intervention LHWs led 2 educational sessions on CRC screening. Control LHWs led 2 sessions on healthy eating and physical activity. The main outcome was self-reported receipt of any CRC screening at 6 months after the intervention. We conducted the study from 2008 to 2013 in Santa Clara County, California. Results. A greater proportion of intervention participants (56%) than control participants (19%) reported receiving CRC screening (P Vietnamese Americans. Randomized controlled trials are needed to test the effectiveness of LHW outreach for other populations and other health outcomes. PMID:26270306

  19. Cost-effectiveness of computed tomographic colonography screening for colorectal cancer in the medicare population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Knudsen (Amy); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); C.M. Rutter (Carolyn); J.E. Savarino (James); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A. Zauber (Ann)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) considered whether to reimburse computed tomographic colonography (CTC) for colorectal cancer screening of Medicare enrollees. To help inform its decision, we evaluated the reimbursement rate at which CTC screening could be

  20. Workload and surgeon's specialty for outcome after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archampong, David; Borowski, David; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has focused on investigating the effects of healthcare provider volume and specialization on patient outcomes including outcomes of colorectal cancer surgery. However there is conflicting evidence about the role of such healthcare provider characteristics in the management...... of colorectal cancer....

  1. Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Moriyama, Kaho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classified by color, on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in order to investigate whether the maple syrup is suitable as a phytomedicine for cancer treatment. CRC cells that were administered maple syrup showed significantly lower growth rates than cells that were administered sucrose. In addition, administration of maple syrup to CRC cells caused inhibition of cell invasion, while there was no effect on cell migration. Administration of maple syrup clearly inhibited AKT phosphorylation, while there was no effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data suggest that maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion through suppression of AKT activation and be suitable as a phytomedicine for CRC treatment, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy.

  2. Molecular Classification and Correlates in Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ogino, Shuji; Goel, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Molecular classification of colorectal cancer is evolving. As our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis improves, we are incorporating new knowledge into the classification system. In particular, global genomic status [microsatellite instability (MSI) status and chromosomal instability (CIN) status] and epigenomic status [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status] play a significant role in determining clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of colorectal cancer. In thi...

  3. Effect of Tribal Language Use on Colorectal Cancer Screening among American Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Angela A.; Garroutte, Eva; Ton, Thanh G.N.; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2012-01-01

    American Indians have one of the lowest colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates for any racial/ethnic group in the U.S., yet reasons for their low screening participation are poorly understood. Limited English language use may create barriers to cancer screening in Hispanic and other ethnic minority immigrant populations; the extent to which this hypothesis is generalizable to American Indians is unknown. We examine whether tribal (indigenous) language use is associated with knowledge and use...

  4. Linking Gut Microbiota to Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical data produce mounting evidence that the microbiota is strongly associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Dysbiosis may change the course of carcinogenesis as microbial actions seem to impact genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to dysplasia, clonal expansion...... and malignant transformation. Initiation and promotion of colorectal cancer may result from direct bacterial actions, bacterial metabolites and inflammatory pathways. Newer aspects of microbiota and colorectal cancer include quorum sensing, biofilm formation, sidedness and effects/countereffects of microbiota...... and probiotics on chemotherapy. In the future, targeting the microbiota will probably be a powerful weapon in the battle against CRC as gut microbiology, genomics and metabolomics promise to uncover important linkages between microbiota and intestinal health....

  5. Effect of extra virgin olive oil components on the arachidonic acid cascade, colorectal cancer and colon cancer cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storniolo, C.E.; Moreno, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The mediterranean diet (MD) reduced the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and olive oil, the primary source of fat in the MD, has also been found to have a protective effect. However, animals fed with oleic acid present a high number of intestinal tumours, suggesting that oleic acid and olive oil consumption can exert different effects on CRC. Considering that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a complex mix of fatty acids and minor compounds such as polyphenols, hydrocarbons, phytosterols and triterpenes; and that these compounds have antioxidant activity and consequently they can modulate the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade and eicosanoid synthesis. This review analyzes the state of the art of olive oil components on the AA cascade and cellular mechanism involved in CRC such as intestinal epithelial cell growth/apoptosis, to understand the fact that the consumption of seed oils with high oleic content or EVOO will probably have different effects on CRC development. [es

  6. Effect of extra virgin olive oil components on the arachidonic acid cascade, colorectal cancer and colon cancer cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Storniolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mediterranean diet (MD reduced the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and olive oil, the primary source of fat in the MD, has also been found to have a protective effect. However, animals fed with oleic acid present a high number of intestinal tumours, suggesting that oleic acid and olive oil consumption can exert different effects on CRC. Considering that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is a complex mix of fatty acids and minor compounds such as polyphenols, hydrocarbons, phytosterols and triterpenes; and that these compounds have antioxidant activity and consequently they can modulate the arachidonic acid (AA cascade and eicosanoid synthesis. This review analyzes the state of the art of olive oil components on the AA cascade and cellular mechanism involved in CRC such as intestinal epithelial cell growth/apoptosis, to understand the fact that the consumption of seed oils with high oleic content or EVOO will probably have different effects on CRC development.

  7. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  8. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2000-01-01

    affects the prognosis. METHODS: Patient risk variables, variables related to operation technique, blood transfusion and the development of infectious complications were recorded prospectively in 740 patients undergoing elective resection for primary colorectal cancer. Endpoints were overall survival (n......BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... = 740) and time to diagnosis of recurrent disease in the subgroup of patients operated on with curative intention (n = 532). The patients were analysed in four groups divided with respect to administration or not of perioperative blood transfusion and development or non-development of postoperative...

  9. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... affects the prognosis. METHODS: Patient risk variables, variables related to operation technique, blood transfusion and the development of infectious complications were recorded prospectively in 740 patients undergoing elective resection for primary colorectal cancer. Endpoints were overall survival (n...... = 740) and time to diagnosis of recurrent disease in the subgroup of patients operated on with curative intention (n = 532). The patients were analysed in four groups divided with respect to administration or not of perioperative blood transfusion and development or non-development of postoperative...

  10. Chemopreventive Effects of Oplopantriol A, a Novel Compound Isolated from Oplopanax horridus, on Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oplopanax horridus is a North American botanical that has received limited investigations. We previously isolated over a dozen of the constituents from O. horridus, and among them oplopantriol A (OPT A is a novel compound. In this study, we firstly evaluated the in vivo chemoprevention activities of OPT A using the xenograft colon cancer mouse model. Our data showed that this compound significantly suppressed tumor growth with dose-related effects (p < 0.01. Next, we characterized the compound’s growth inhibitory effects in human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT-116 and SW-480. With OPT A treatment, these malignant cells were significantly inhibited in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner (both p < 0.01. The IC50 was approximately 5 µM for HCT-116 and 7 µM for SW-480 cells. OPT A significantly induced apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. From further mechanism explorations, our data showed that OPT A significantly upregulated the expression of a cluster of genes, especially the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and caspase family, suggesting that the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptotic pathway plays a key role in OPT A induced apoptosis.

  11. Syncytin immunoreactivity in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Mou; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    monoclonal syncytin antibody we have assessed syncytin expression in a retrospective series of 140 colorectal cancer patients. Variable degrees of syncytin expression were detected in both colonic and rectal tumors and the prognostic impact of such expression was analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method...... and the Cox proportional hazard model. Interestingly, increased syncytin expression was associated with decreased overall survival in rectal but not in colonic cancer patients. Thus, the prognostic impact of syncytin expression appears to vary with the tumor type....

  12. Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC...... and presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along...

  13. Attributable causes of colorectal cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Meng-Jia; Huang, Qiu-Chi; Bao, Cheng-Zhen; Li, Ying-Jun; Li, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Ding; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Kun; Wang, Jian-Bing

    2018-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the 4th common cancer in China. Most colorectal cancers are due to modifiable lifestyle factors, but few studies have provided a systematic evidence-based assessment of the burden of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality attributable to the known risk factors in China. Methods We estimated the population attributable faction (PAF) for each selected risk factor in China, based on the prevalence of exposure around 2000 and relative risks from cohort studies a...

  14. Management of colorectal cancer and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Caroline; Nash, Guy F; Hickish, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is associated with diabetes mellitus and both of these common conditions are often managed together by a surgeon. The surgical focus is usually upon cancer treatment rather than diabetes management. The relationship between colorectal cancer and diabetes is a complex one and can raise problems in both diagnosis and the management of patients with both conditions. This literature review explores the relationship between diabetes, diabetic treatment and colorectal cancer and a...

  15. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  16. [Oligometastasized colorectal cancer-modern treatment strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnebösel, M; Lambertz, A; Dejong, K; Neumann, U P

    2018-06-05

    The prognosis of colorectal cancer in UICC stage IV has been improved in the last decades by improvements in interdisciplinary treatment. Treatment strategies for oligometastasized colorectal cancer are developing more and more into an individualized treatment. An overview of the current literature of modern treatment concepts in oligometastasized colorectal cancer UICC stage IV is given. Surgery still has the supreme mandate in resectable colorectal liver metastases, as neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment strategies to not provide any benefits for these patients. In marginal or non-resectable stages systemic treatment is superior in these patients depending on the prognostic parameters. Also in curative settings local treatment options should be considered as a reasonable additive tool. An interesting treatment approach for isolated liver metastases and non-resectable colorectal cancer is liver transplantation. Irrespective of new developments in treatment strategies for metastasized colorectal cancer, resection of colorectal liver metastases remains the gold standard whenever possible.

  17. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226...

  18. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long

  19. Proneoplastic effects of PGE2 mediated by EP4 receptor in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doherty, Glen A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the major product of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to assess PGE2 cell surface receptors (EP 1-4) to examine the mechanisms by which PGE2 regulates tumour progression. METHODS: Gene expression studies were performed by quantitative RT-PCR. Cell cycle was analysed by flow cytometry with cell proliferation quantified by BrdU incorporation measured by enzyme immunoassay. Immunohistochemistry was employed for expression studies on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumour tissue. RESULTS: EP4 was the most abundant subtype of PGE2 receptor in HT-29 and HCA7 cells (which show COX-2 dependent PGE2 generation) and was consistently the most abundant transcript in human colorectal tumours (n = 8) by qRT-PCR (ANOVA, p = 0.01). G0\\/G1 cell cycle arrest was observed in HT-29 cells treated with SC-236 5 microM (selective COX-2 inhibitor) for 24 hours (p = 0.02), an effect abrogated by co-incubation with PGE2 (1 microM). G0\\/G1 arrest was also seen with a specific EP4 receptor antagonist (EP4A, L-161982) (p = 0.01). Treatment of HT-29 cells with either SC-236 or EP4A caused reduction in intracellular cAMP (ANOVA, p = 0.01). Early induction in p21WAF1\\/CIP1 expression (by qRT-PCR) was seen with EP4A treatment (mean fold increase 4.4, p = 0.04) while other genes remained unchanged. Similar induction in p21WAF1\\/CIP1 was also seen with PD153025 (1 microM), an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suggesting EGFR transactivation by EP4 as a potential mechanism. Additive inhibition of HCA7 proliferation was observed with the combination of SC-236 and neutralising antibody to amphiregulin (AR), a soluble EGFR ligand. Concordance in COX-2 and AR localisation in human colorectal tumours was noted. CONCLUSION: COX-2 regulates cell cycle transition via EP4 receptor and altered p21WAF1\\/CIP1 expression. EGFR pathways appear important. Specific targeting of the EP4 receptor or downstream targets may offer a safer alternative

  20. Dual Functional Capability of Dendritic Cells - Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells in Improving Side Effects of Colorectal Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosińska, Paula; Gabryelska, Agata; Zasada, Malwina; Fichna, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    The aim of cancer therapy is to eradicate cancer without affecting healthy tissues. Current options available for treating colorectal cancer (CRC), including surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy, usually elicit multiple adverse effects and frequently fail to completely remove the tumor cells. Thus, there is a constant need for seeking cancer cell-specific therapeutics to improve the course of cancer therapy and reduce the risk of relapse. In this review we elaborate on the mechanisms underlying the immunotherapy with dendritic cells (DCs) and cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, and summarize their effectiveness and tolerability available clinical studies. Finally, we discuss the up-to-date combinatorial adoptive anti-cancer immunotherapy with CIK cells co-cultured with DCs that recently showed encouraging efficacy and usefulness in treating malignant disease, including CRC.

  1. Warburg effect regulated by amphiregulin in the development of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sung Ouk; Yotsumoto, Fusanori; Miyata, Kohei; Fukagawa, Satoshi; Yamada, Hiromi; Kuroki, Masahide; Miyamoto, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently occurring cancers with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Amphiregulin (AREG), a member of the epidermal growth factor family and a rational target for CRC therapy, is essential for the three-dimensional structure of tumor formation. To clone the genes associated with increased AREG expression, we performed a cDNA microarray analysis in two CRC cell lines undergoing two-dimensional (2DC) and three-dimensional culture (3DC). Upregulated (>2.0-fold) and downregulated (<0.5-fold) genes in 3DC compared with 2DC were selected. Pathway analysis using DAVID based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway databases revealed a number of genes involved in glycolysis. In CRC cells, glucose elevated the expression of GLUT1 and AREG as well as the activity of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) luciferase reporter promoter. The suppression of AREG expression reduced the uptake of glucose and production of lactate. Luciferase assay identified a critical regulatory region for AREG expression between −130 and −180 bp upstream of the start site, which contained a carbohydrate response element (ChoRE). Max-like protein X (MLX) bound to ChoRE and enhanced the expression of AREG. Together these data suggest that AREG plays a pivotal role in the development of CRC through activation of the Warburg effect

  2. 53BP1 loss suppresses the radiosensitizing effect of icotinib hydrochloride in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ai; Yao, Jing; Liu, Tao; Lin, Zhenyu; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Hong

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of the expression of P53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), a key component in DNA damage repair pathways, on the radiosensitizing effect of icotinib hydrochloride in colorectal cancer and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this influence. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to verify the gene-knockout effect of 53BP1 small hairpin RNA (ShRNA), and colony formation assay was employed to investigate the influence of 53BP1 downregulation on the radiosensitizing effect of icotinib hydrochloride in HCT116 cells. Cell apoptosis, cell cycle distributions, and histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) fluorescence foci after 53BP1 knockdown were evaluated. Relative protein expression in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM)-checkpoint kinase-2 (CHK2)-P53 pathway was measured by Western blot analysis to unravel the molecular mechanisms linking the pathway to the above phenomena. Icotinib hydrochloride increased the radiosensitivity of HCT116 cells; however, this effect was suppressed by the downregulation of 53BP1 expression, a change that inhibited cell apoptosis, increased the percentage of HCT116 cells arrested in S-phase and inhibited the protein expression of key molecules in the ATM-CHK2-P53 apoptotic pathway. Our studies confirmed that the loss of 53BP1 serves as a negative regulator of the radiosensitizing effect of icotinib in part by suppressing the ATM-CHK2-P53 apoptotic pathway.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of cetuximab and panitumumab for chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Adriana Camargo; Leal, Frederico; Sasse, Andre Deeke

    2017-01-01

    Cetuximab and panitumumab are monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor. Both drugs are active against RAS wild type metastatic colorectal cancer after chemotherapy failure, with similar efficacy and toxicity profiles. However, their cost and limited survival benefits may compromise incorporation in the Brazilian public healthcare system, the Unified Heath System (Sistema Único de Saúde) (SUS). A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a Markov model from the Brazilian Public health perspective and a lifetime horizon in patients with RAS -wt mCRC. Transition probabilities and mortality rates were extracted from randomized studies. Treatment costs were obtained from price tables regulated by the Brazilian Health Ministry. The World Health Organization recommendation of three times GDP per capita was used to define the cost-effectiveness threshold. The use of cetuximab or panitumumab for chemotherapy-refractory mCRC patients resulted in 0.22 additional life-years relative to BSC, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of $58,240 and $52,772 per LY, respectively. That exceeds the pre-specified threshold for cost-effectiveness. Acquisition of biological agents was the major driver of increased costs. Our economic evaluation demonstrates that both cetuximab and panitumumab are not a cost-effective approach in RAS-wt mCRC patients. Discussion about drug price should be prioritized to enable incorporation of these monoclonal antibodies in the SUS.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the optimal threshold of an automated immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening: performances of immunochemical colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchi, Célia; Guittet, Lydia; Bouvier, Véronique; Launoy, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Most industrialized countries, including France, have undertaken to generalize colorectal cancer screening using guaiac fecal occult blood tests (G-FOBT). However, recent researches demonstrate that immunochemical fecal occult blood tests (I-FOBT) are more effective than G-FOBT. Moreover, new generation I-FOBT benefits from a quantitative reading technique allowing the positivity threshold to be chosen, hence offering the best balance between effectiveness and cost. We aimed at comparing the cost and the clinical performance of one round of screening using I-FOBT at different positivity thresholds to those obtained with G-FOBT to determine the optimal cut-off for I-FOBT. Data were derived from an experiment conducted from June 2004 to December 2005 in Calvados (France) where 20,322 inhabitants aged 50-74 years performed both I-FOBT and G-FOBT. Clinical performance was assessed by the number of advanced tumors screened, including large adenomas and cancers. Costs were assessed by the French Social Security Board and included only direct costs. Screening using I-FOBT resulted in better health outcomes and lower costs than screening using G-FOBT for thresholds comprised between 75 and 93 ng/ml. I-FOBT at 55 ng/ml also offers a satisfactory alternative to G-FOBT, because it is 1.8-fold more effective than G-FOBT, without increasing the number of unnecessary colonoscopies, and at an extra cost of 2,519 euros per advanced tumor screened. The use of an automated I-FOBT at 75 ng/ml would guarantee more efficient screening than currently used G-FOBT. Health authorities in industrialized countries should consider the replacement of G-FOBT by an automated I-FOBT test in the near future.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of computed tomography colonography in colorectal cancer screening: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Skally, Mairead; Fenlon, Helen; Sharp, Linda

    2012-10-01

    The European Code Against Cancer recommends individuals aged ≥ 50 should participate in colorectal cancer screening. CT-colonography (CTC) is one of several screening tests available. We systematically reviewed evidence on, and identified key factors influencing, cost-effectiveness of CTC screening. PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane library were searched for cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analyses of CTC-based screening, published in English, January 1999 to July 2010. Data was abstracted on setting, model type and horizon, screening scenario(s), comparator(s), participants, uptake, CTC performance and cost, effectiveness, ICERs, and whether extra-colonic findings and medical complications were considered. Sixteen studies were identified from the United States (n = 11), Canada (n = 2), and France, Italy, and the United Kingdom (1 each). Markov state-transition (n = 14) or microsimulation (n = 2) models were used. Eleven considered direct medical costs only; five included indirect costs. Fourteen compared CTC with no screening; fourteen compared CTC with colonoscopy-based screening; fewer compared CTC with sigmoidoscopy (8) or fecal tests (4). Outcomes assessed were life-years gained/saved (13), QALYs (2), or both (1). Three considered extra-colonic findings; seven considered complications. CTC appeared cost-effective versus no screening and, in general, flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal occult blood testing. Results were mixed comparing CTC to colonoscopy. Parameters most influencing cost-effectiveness included: CTC costs, screening uptake, threshold for polyp referral, and extra-colonic findings. Evidence on cost-effectiveness of CTC screening is heterogeneous, due largely to between-study differences in comparators and parameter values. Future studies should: compare CTC with currently favored tests, especially fecal immunochemical tests; consider extra-colonic findings; and conduct comprehensive sensitivity analyses.

  6. The cost-effectiveness of training US primary care physicians to conduct colorectal cancer screening in family medicine residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwardson, Nicholas; Bolin, Jane N; McClellan, David A; Nash, Philip P; Helduser, Janet W

    2016-04-01

    Demand for a wide array of colorectal cancer screening strategies continues to outpace supply. One strategy to reduce this deficit is to dramatically increase the number of primary care physicians who are trained and supportive of performing office-based colonoscopies or flexible sigmoidoscopies. This study evaluates the clinical and economic implications of training primary care physicians via family medicine residency programs to offer colorectal cancer screening services as an in-office procedure. Using previously established clinical and economic assumptions from existing literature and budget data from a local grant (2013), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are calculated that incorporate the costs of a proposed national training program and subsequent improvements in patient compliance. Sensitivity analyses are also conducted. Baseline assumptions suggest that the intervention would produce 2394 newly trained residents who could perform 71,820 additional colonoscopies or 119,700 additional flexible sigmoidoscopies after ten years. Despite high costs associated with the national training program, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios remain well below standard willingness-to-pay thresholds under base case assumptions. Interestingly, the status quo hierarchy of preferred screening strategies is disrupted by the proposed intervention. A national overhaul of family medicine residency programs offering training for colorectal cancer screening yields satisfactory incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. However, the model places high expectations on primary care physicians to improve current compliance levels in the US. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  8. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  9. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symer, Matthew M; Wong, Natalie Z; Abelson, Jonathan S; Milsom, Jeffrey W; Yeo, Heather L

    2018-06-01

    Hormone replacement therapy has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer incidence, but its effect on colorectal cancer mortality is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hormone replacement therapy on survival from colorectal cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a large multicenter randomized trial run from 1993 to 2001, with follow-up data recently becoming mature. Participants were women aged 55 to 74 years, without recent colonoscopy. Data from the trial were analyzed to evaluate colorectal cancer incidence, disease-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality based on subjects' use of hormone replacement therapy at the time of randomization: never, current, or former users. A total of 75,587 women with 912 (1.21%) incident colorectal cancers and 239 associated deaths were analyzed, with median follow-up of 11.9 years. Overall, 88.6% were non-Hispanic white, and colorectal cancer incidence in current users compared to never-users was lower (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-0.94; P = .005), as was death from colorectal cancer (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.85; P = .002) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72-0.80; P colorectal cancer incidence and improved colorectal cancer-specific survival, as well as all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Pedro Lopes; Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso Pereira; Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar Vicente; Alexandra Bernardo; María Fernanda de Mesquita

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery...

  11. Radiologic evaluation of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Joong; Kang, Hee Tae; Kim, Jong Deok; Rhee, Hak Song

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer of Korea is much lower than that of Western countries, but has shown a tendency to a slight increase recently. Barium enema is the most valuable, noninvasive and inexpensive method available to evaluate the size, shape and site of colorectal cancer. The authors reviewed and radiologically classified barium enema studies of 232 cases of colorectal cancer from Aug. 1967 to July 1982 at Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Confirmed clinically, operatively and pathologically. The results were as follows; 1. The ratio of male and female was 1.3:1, and youngest was 13 year-old and the oldest 86 year-old. 2. The peak incidence occurred from 5th to 7th decades, accounting for 78% of all cases (181/232), and there was a relatively high incidence of the disease in patients below 30 years of age at 7.8% (18/232). 3. Rectum and rectosigmoid region are the most frequently involved regions (127/232:54.8%). 4. The positivity of barium enema examination was 4.0% (232/5807), and its accuracy was 96.5% (224/232). 5. The radiologic findings were classified into 4 groups, and they were annular encircling 62.9% (146/232). polypoid fungating 26.8% (62/232), infiltrating 8.6% (20/232), and primary ulcerating 1.7% (4/232) in order of frequency. 6. The linear length of the cancer ranged from 1.5 Cm to 15 Cm, and the average length was 5.5 Cm. 7. There was no statistical correlation between the length of lesion, the site, and the radiologic findings, and stages of the lesion (P:0.750-0.250). 8. The majority of colorectal cancers was adenocarcinoma (217/232:93.6%)

  12. Optimizing Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.S. Meester (Reinier)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractColorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Screening for colorectal cancer is implemented in an increasing number of settings, but performance of programs is often suboptimal. In this thesis, advanced modeling, informed by empirical data, was used to identify areas for

  13. Microsatellite instability and B-type Raf proto-oncogene mutation in colorectal cancer: Clinicopathological characteristics and effects on survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Batur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prognostic significance of microsatellite instability (MSI status and B-type Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF mutation in colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and pathological characteristics associated with microsatellite stability and the effect of MSI and BRAF mutation on the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. The study included 145 colorectal cancer cases. All the patients were examined for DNA mismatch repair (MMR proteins with an immunohistochemical method. Molecular assessment of MSI was available in a subset of 41 patients. In addition, BRAF mutation analysis was performed in 30 cases. Immunohistochemically, MMR deficiency was present in 28 (19.3% patients. Female gender (p = 0.001, lesion size ≥5 cm (p = 0.013, Crohn-like response (p = 0.035, and right-sided localization (p < 0.001 were significantly more frequent among MMR-deficient patients. The overall survival was 44.1 ± 5.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.7-54.4. Multivariate analyses identified only high tumor grade as an independent predictor of poor overall survival: odd ratio, 6.7 (95% CI 2.1-21.7, p = 0.002. In the subset of patients with available BRAF assessment (n = 30, a negative BRAF status was associated with better survival when compared to a positive BRAF status (36.7 ± 2.1 vs. 34.1 ± 7.2 months, p = 0.048. The sensitivity and specificity of the immunohistochemical method in predicting positive MSI status, with the molecular method as a reference, were 85.7% (95% CI: 56.2%-97.5% and 88.9% (95% CI: 69.7%-97.1%, respectively. BRAF appears to be a significant predictor of a worse outcome in patients with colorectal cancer. Further studies with a large spectrum of clinical and biological variables are warranted.

  14. Participation and barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Harmy Mohamed; Daud, Norwati; Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Rahim, Amry Abdul

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in males and the third most common in females. Mortality due to colorectal cancer can be effectively reduced with early diagnosis. This study was designed to look into colorectal cancer screening participation and its barriers among average risk individuals in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2009 till April 2010 involving average risk individuals from 44 primary care clinics in West Malaysia. Each individual was asked whether they have performed any of the colorectal cancer screening methods in the past five years. The barrier questions had three domains: patient factors, test factors and health care provider factors. Descriptive analysis was achieved using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12.0. A total of 1,905 average risk individuals responded making a response rate of 93.8%. Only 13 (0.7%) respondents had undergone any of the colorectal cancer screening methods in the past five years. The main patient and test factors for not participating were embarrassment (35.2%) and feeling uncomfortable (30.0%), respectively. There were 11.2% of respondents who never received any advice to do screening. The main reason for them to undergo screening was being advised by health care providers (84.6%). The study showed that participation in colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia is extremely low and multiple factors contribute to this situation. Given the importance of the disease, efforts should be made to increase colorectal cancer screening activities in Malaysia.

  15. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  16. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  17. Bergenin suppresses the growth of colorectal cancer cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate anticancer effects of bergenin on human colorectal cancer cell lines. Methods: Human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HCT116 was treated with various concentrations of bergenin for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were analyzed ...

  18. Bevacizumab for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Global Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Chan, Kelvin K W; Virik, Kiran; Hammerman, Ariel; Brenner, Baruch; Flowers, Christopher R; Hall, Peter S

    2017-06-01

    In the U.S., the addition of bevacizumab to first-line chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has been demonstrated to provide 0.10 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $571,000/QALY. Due to variability in pricing, value for money may be different in other countries. Our objective was to establish the cost-effectiveness of bevacizumab in mCRC in the U.S., U.K., Canada, Australia, and Israel. We performed the analysis using a previously established Markov model for mCRC. Input data for efficacy, adverse events, and quality of life were considered to be generalizable and therefore identical for all countries. We used country-specific prices for medications, administration, and other health service costs. All costs were converted from local currency to U.S. dollars at the exchange rates in March 2016. We conducted one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) to assess the model robustness across parameter uncertainties. Base case results demonstrated that the highest ICER was in the U.S. ($571,000/QALY) and the lowest was in Australia ($277,000/QALY). In Canada, the U.K., and Israel, ICERs ranged between $351,000 and $358,000 per QALY. PSA demonstrated 0% likelihood of bevacizumab being cost-effective in any country at a willingness to pay threshold of $150,000 per QALY. The addition of bevacizumab to first-line chemotherapy for mCRC consistently fails to be cost-effective in all five countries. There are large differences in cost-effectiveness between countries. This study provides a framework for analyzing the value of a cancer drug from the perspectives of multiple international payers. The cost-effectiveness of bevacizumab varies significantly between multiple countries. By conventional thresholds, bevacizumab is not cost-effective in metastatic colon cancer in the U.S., the U.K., Australia, Canada, and Israel. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  19. Effects of zinc supplementation on fatigue and quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sofia Miranda de Figueiredo; Braga, Camila Bitu Moreno; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, José Joaquim Ribeiro da; Cunha, Selma Freire Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of oral zinc supplementation on fatigue intensity and quality of life of patients during chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 24 patients on chemotherapy for colorectal adenocarcinoma in a tertiary care public hospital. The study patients received zinc capsules 35mg (Zinc Group, n=10) or placebo (Placebo Group, n=14) orally, twice daily (70mg/day), for 16 weeks, from the immediate postoperative period to the fourth chemotherapy cycle. Approximately 45 days after surgical resection of the tumor, all patients received a chemotherapeutic regimen. Before each of the four cycles of chemotherapy, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale was completed. We used a linear mixed model for longitudinal data for statistical analysis. The scores of quality of life and fatigue questionnaires were similar between the groups during the chemotherapy cycles. The Placebo Group presented worsening of quality of life and increased fatigue between the first and fourth cycles of chemotherapy, but there were no changes in the scores of quality of life or fatigue in the Zinc Group. Zinc supplementation prevented fatigue and maintained quality of life of patients with colorectal cancer on chemotherapy. Investigar os efeitos da suplementação oral de zinco sobre a intensidade da fadiga e a qualidade de vida de pacientes durante a quimioterapia para neoplasia colorretal. Estudo prospectivo, randomizado, controlado e duplo-cego conduzido em um hospital universitário público terciário, com 24 pacientes em regime quimioterápico para adenocarcinoma colorretal. Os pacientes receberam cápsulas de zinco 35mg (Grupo Zinco, n=10) ou placebo (Grupo Placebo, n=14) por via oral, duas vezes ao dia (70mg/dia), durante 16 semanas, desde o período pós-operatório imediato até o quarto ciclo de quimioterapia. Todos os pacientes receberam quimioterapia por

  20. Systems Support Mapping in Guiding Self-Management in Stage I-III Colorectal Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    Cancer Survivor; Stage I Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage II Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8

  1. Immunogenomic Classification of Colorectal Cancer and Therapeutic Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelands, Jessica; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Vermeulen, Louis; Maccalli, Cristina; Decock, Julie; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Bedognetti, Davide; Hendrickx, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    The immune system has a substantial effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Additionally, the response to immunotherapeutics and conventional treatment options (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies) is influenced by the immune system. The molecular characterization of

  2. Chemotherapy, bevacizumab, and cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, J.; Koopman, M.; Cats, A.; Rodenburg, C.J.; Creemers, G.J.M.; Schrama, J.G.; Erdkamp, F.L.G.; Vos, A.H.; van Groeningen, C.J.; Sinnige, H.A.M.; Richel, D.J.; Voest, E.E.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Vink-Börger, M.E.; Antonini, N.F.; Mol, L.; van Krieken, J.H.J.M.; Dalesio, O.; Punt, C.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fluoropyrimidine- based chemotherapy plus the anti - vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab is standard first- line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. We studied the effect of adding the anti - epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody cetuximab to

  3. Chemotherapy, Bevacizumab, and Cetuximab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Jolien; Koopman, Miriam; Cats, Annemieke; Rodenburg, Cees J.; Creemers, Geert J. M.; Schrama, Jolanda G.; Erdkamp, Frans L. G.; Vos, Allert H.; van Groeningen, Cees J.; Sinnige, Harm A. M.; Richel, Dirk J.; Voest, Emile E.; Dijkstra, Jeroen R.; Vink-Börger, Marianne E.; Antonini, Ninja F.; Mol, Linda; van Krieken, Johan H. J. M.; Dalesio, Otilia; Punt, Cornelis J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fluoropyrimidine- based chemotherapy plus the anti - vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) antibody bevacizumab is standard first- line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. We studied the effect of adding the anti - epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) antibody cetuximab

  4. Lower or Standard Dose Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-22

    Colon Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

  5. Screening of colorectal early cancer by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Usui, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been gradually increasing in Japan, and if the present rate of increase is maintained it has been estimated that it will become the most common of all malignant neoplasms by the year 2000. It has been proved that colorectal cancer can be completely cured, if it is treated in its early phase. Early cancer of the large bowel is defined as a cancer which is limited to the mucosal membrane or submucosal layer, regardless of lymph node and distant metastases. Detection of early cancer improves the overall curability of colorectal cancer. The greatest number of early cancers of the large bowel are polypoid lesions in their macroscopic form, and depressed lesions are rarely encountered. Accordingly, the first step in the detection of early cancer starts with the screening of polypoid lesion by radiology and endoscopy. This paper is concerned with diagnostic accuracy of radiology in the screening of colorectal cancer with endoscopic correlation

  6. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Colorectal Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and specific radiological and clinical characteristics that predict malignancy of these at initial staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with colorectal cancer. A considerable number of indeterminate...... pulmonary nodules, which cannot readily be classified as either benign or malignant, are detected at initial staging chest CT in colorectal cancer patients....

  7. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment and follow up were included. Patient ... and recurrence and the associated patient and disease ... The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the devel- ... therapy, disease stage and curative intent (table 3). ... through genetic and family analyses (4,6). ... Polite BN, Dignam JJ: A colorectal cancer model of health.

  8. Vitamin D, inflammation, and colorectal cancer progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harten-Gerritsen, van Suzanne; Balvers, Michiel G.J.; Witkamp, Renger F.; Kampman, Ellen; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Survival from colorectal cancer is positively associated with vitamin D status. However, whether this association is causal remains unclear. Inflammatory processes may link vitamin D to colorectal cancer survival, and therefore investigating inflammatory markers as potential mediators may be a

  9. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schootman Mario

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Methods Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas, which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas. Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. Results An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with ≥ 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with Conclusion Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on CRC screening. Future studies should identify other area- and individual-level characteristics associated with CRC screening in Missouri.

  10. Cost Effectiveness of Screening Individuals With Cystic Fibrosis for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, Andrea; Zauber, Ann G; Cenin, Dayna R; Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Hempstead, Sarah E; Fink, Aliza K; Lowenfels, Albert B; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with the general population, and risk is higher among those who received an organ transplant. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine optimal CRC screening strategies for patients with cystic fibrosis. We adjusted the existing Microsimulation Screening Analysis-Colon model to reflect increased CRC risk and lower life expectancy in patients with cystic fibrosis. Modeling was performed separately for individuals who never received an organ transplant and patients who had received an organ transplant. We modeled 76 colonoscopy screening strategies that varied the age range and screening interval. The optimal screening strategy was determined based on a willingness to pay threshold of $100,000 per life-year gained. Sensitivity and supplementary analyses were performed, including fecal immunochemical test (FIT) as an alternative test, earlier ages of transplantation, and increased rates of colonoscopy complications, to assess if optimal screening strategies would change. Colonoscopy every 5 years, starting at an age of 40 years, was the optimal colonoscopy strategy for patients with cystic fibrosis who never received an organ transplant; this strategy prevented 79% of deaths from CRC. Among patients with cystic fibrosis who had received an organ transplant, optimal colonoscopy screening should start at an age of 30 or 35 years, depending on the patient's age at time of transplantation. Annual FIT screening was predicted to be cost-effective for patients with cystic fibrosis. However, the level of accuracy of the FIT in this population is not clear. Using a Microsimulation Screening Analysis-Colon model, we found screening of patients with cystic fibrosis for CRC to be cost effective. Because of the higher risk of CRC in these patients, screening should start at an earlier age with a shorter screening interval. The findings of this study (especially those on FIT

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Screening Individuals With Cystic Fibrosis for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, Andrea; Zauber, Ann G; Cenin, Dayna R; Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Hempstead, Sarah E; Fink, Aliza K; Lowenfels, Albert B; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2017-12-27

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to the general population, and risk is higher among those who received an organ transplant. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine optimal CRC screening strategies for patients with cystic fibrosis. We adjusted the existing Microsimulation Screening Analysis-Colon microsimulation model to reflect increased CRC risk and lower life expectancy in patients with cystic fibrosis. Modeling was performed separately for individuals who never received an organ transplant and patients who had received an organ transplant. We modeled 76 colonoscopy screening strategies that varied the age range and screening interval. The optimal screening strategy was determined based on a willingness to pay threshold of $100,000 per life-year gained. Sensitivity and supplementary analyses were performed, including fecal immunochemical test (FIT) as an alternative test, earlier ages of transplantation, and increased rates of colonoscopy complications, to assess whether optimal screening strategies would change. Colonoscopy every 5 years, starting at age 40 years, was the optimal colonoscopy strategy for patients with cystic fibrosis who never received an organ transplant; this strategy prevented 79% of deaths from CRC. Among patients with cystic fibrosis who had received an organ transplant, optimal colonoscopy screening should start at an age of 30 or 35 years, depending on the patient's age at time of transplantation. Annual FIT screening was predicted to be cost-effective for patients with cystic fibrosis. However, the level of accuracy of the FIT in population is not clear. Using a Microsimulation Screening Analysis-Colon microsimulation model, we found screening of patients with cystic fibrosis for CRC to be cost-effective. Due to the higher risk in these patients for CRC, screening should start at an earlier age with a shorter screening interval. The findings of this study

  12. An effect from anticipation also in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families without identified mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timshel, Susanne; Therkildsen, Christina; Bendahl, Pär-Ola

    2009-01-01

    Optimal prevention of hereditary cancer is central and requires initiation of surveillance programmes and/or prophylactic measures at a safe age. Anticipation, expressed as an earlier age at onset in successive generations, has been demonstrated in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC......). We specifically addressed anticipation in phenotypic HNPCC families without disease-predisposing mismatch repair (MMR) defects since risk estimates and age at onset are particularly difficult to determine in this cohort. The national Danish HNPCC register was used to identify families who fulfilled...... the Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC and showed normal MMR function and/or lack of disease-predisposing MMR gene mutation. In total, 319 cancers from 212 parent-child pairs in 99 families were identified. A paired t-test and a bivariate statistical model were used to assess anticipation. Both methods demonstrated...

  13. Colorectal Cancer Awareness for Women via Facebook: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Pennings Kamp, Kendra J; Salaysay, Zachary

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death among U.S. women. Women report being screened for colorectal cancer less often than men, and if colorectal cancer screening guidelines were routinely followed, approximately 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented. Many colorectal cancer screening interventions have not used Facebook, which is the most popular social media site among women. Little is known about engaging women in colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction information using Facebook. The "Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women" Facebook page was created to promote colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction awareness among women. Facebook posts targeted women aged 45-64 years and highlighted colorectal cancer screening methods, guidelines, and colorectal cancer risk reduction strategies. Demographics and data about the women's interactions with the page were collected using Facebook analytics and analyzed. The majority of the 391 users of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women Facebook page were women aged 45-54 years (56.5%). The most "liked" posts were related to colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors. In an effort to increase routine colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors, gastroenterology nurses and practices should consider Facebook as a good method to regularly engage women in colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction information.

  14. Cytotoxic Effect of Luteolin on Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line (HCT-15: Crucial Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Pandurangan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer, a major health concern worldwide, is the third mostcommon form of cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Theflavonoids are naturally occurring diphenylpropanoids ubiquitous in plant foods andimportant components of the human diet. Luteolin, a bioflavonoid, possesses manybeneficial effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic activities. Methods:We used the HCT-15 colon adenocarcinoma cell line in this study. Cellswere treated with luteolin (100 µM. Results: Membrane damage markers such as alkaline phosphatase and lactatedehydrogenase were analyzed in a time-dependent manner. Luteolin increased reactiveoxygen species in a time-dependent manner. DNA damage, a hallmark of apoptosis,was induced by luteolin as analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Conclusion: Luteolin acts as a potential cytotoxic agent that can be used to treatcolorectal cancer.

  15. Colorectal cancer, diabetes and survival : Epidemiological insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanders, M. M. J.; Vissers, P. A. J.; Haak, H. R.; van de Poll-Franse, L.

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with pre-existing diabetes have significantly lower rates of overall survival compared with patients without diabetes. Against this backdrop, the American Diabetes Association and American Cancer Society in 2010 reviewed the scientific literature concerning diabetes

  16. Andrographolide enhanced 5-fluorouracil-induced antitumor effect in colorectal cancer via inhibition of c-MET pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Meng Su,1 Baoli Qin,1 Fang Liu,2 Yuze Chen,2 Rui Zhang2 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Colorectal Surgery, Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute, Liaoning, China Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu is the most important chemotherapeutic drug used for the treatment of CRC. However, resistance to 5-Fu therapies is a growing concern in CRC clinical practice recently. Andrographolide (Andro is a main bioactive constituent of the herb Andrographis paniculata, which has various biological effects including anti-inflammation and antitumor activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of combined Andro with 5-Fu against CRC HCT-116 cells. In vitro studies showed that Andro synergistically enhanced the anti-proliferation effect of 5-Fu on HCT-116 cells due to increased apoptotic cells. Meanwhile, results of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay indicated that the level of phosphorylated cellular-mesenchymal to epithelial transition factor (p-MET was decreased by the combination treatment. Further study suggested that Andro promoted the antitumor effect of 5-Fu by downregulating the level of p-MET. In conclusion, these results confirmed the synergistic antitumor activity of Andro on CRC and provide evidence for possible clinical application of Andro for enhancing the antitumor effect of 5-Fu in CRC treatment. Keywords: Andro, 5-Fu, HCT-116 cells, apoptosis, p-MET

  17. Effectiveness of three interventions to improve participation in colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús López-Torres-Hidalgo

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Participation in colorectal cancer (CRC screening varies widely among different countries and different socio-demographic groups. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of three primary-care interventions to increase CRC screening participation among persons over the age of 50 years and to identify the health and socio-demographic-related factors that determine greater participation. Methods: We conducted a randomized experimental study with only one post-test control group. A total of 1,690 subjects were randomly distributed into four groups: written briefing; telephone briefing; an invitation to attend a group meeting; and no briefing. Subjects were evaluated 2 years post-intervention, with the outcome variable being participation in CRC screening. Results: A total of 1,129 subjects were interviewed. Within the groups, homogeneity was tested in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and health-related variables. The proportion of subjects who participated in screening was: 15.4% in the written information group (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.2-19.7; 28.8% in the telephone information group (95% CI: 23.6-33.9; 8.1% in the face-to-face information group (95% CI: 4.5-11.7; and 5.9% in the control group (95% CI: 2.9-9.0, with this difference proving statistically significant (p < 0.001. Logistic regression showed that only interventions based on written or telephone briefing were effective. Apart from type of intervention, number of reported health problems and place of residence remained in the regression model. Conclusions: Both written and telephone information can serve to improve participation in CRC screening. This preventive activity could be optimized by means of simple interventions coming within the scope of primary health-care professionals.

  18. Curable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hochster, Howard S.

    2010-01-01

    Colon cancer, though already metastatic, may still be curable through multi-modality approaches, which require combined planning between medical and surgical oncologists. Retrospective surgical series have historically shown 5-year survival or “cures” for 30% to 50% of patients with solitary or a few resectable liver metastases. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting has been poorly defined. A recent European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study randomize...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of surveillance programs for families at high and moderate risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kim R.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie M.

    2007-01-01

    for the group at high risk. The aim of the present study is to determine cost-effectiveness of surveillance programs where families at both high and moderate risk of HNPCC participate. METHODS: A decision analytic model (Markov model) is developed to assess surveillance programs where families at high......OBJECTIVES: Surveillance programs are recommended to both families at high risk (Amsterdam-positive families with known- and unknown mutation) and moderate risk (families not fulfilling all Amsterdam criteria) of colorectal cancer (CRC). Cost-effectiveness has so far only been estimated...

  20. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.

  1. Fish consumption and markers of colorectal cancer risk: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, G.K.; Majsak-Newman, G.; Geelen, A.; Harvey, L.; Nagengast, F.M.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Meeberg, van de P.C.; Timmer, R.; Tan, A.; Wahab, P.J.; Hart, A.R.; Williams, M.P.; Przybylska-Philips, K.; Dainty, J.R.; Schaafsma, G.; Kampman, E.; Lund, E.K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diet is a major factor in the etiology of colorectal cancer, with high fish consumption possibly decreasing colorectal cancer risk, as was shown in several observational studies. To date, no intervention trials have examined the possible beneficial effects of fish intake on colorectal

  2. Psychological distress following fecal occult blood test in colorectal cancer screening--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Ladelund, Steen; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program.......To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program....

  3. Effects of changes in dietary habits on colorectal cancer incidence in twenty countries from four continents during the period 1971-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar, Luis M; Gili, Miguel; Infantes, Beatriz; Marcott, Pamela F

    2011-10-01

    the incidence of colorectal cancer is one of the highest on a global level. Many epidemiological studies have identified risk and protective factors, many of which have a behavioral component and, therefore, are potentially avoidable or subject to modification. This study investigated the incidence rates of colorectal cancer by gender in twenty different countries, taking into account the dietary habits of the habitants of each country. adjusted incidence rates, according to gender, were obtained for each country from the International Agency for Research on Cancer during the period 1971-2002.Annual per capita consumption data of the different dietary variables were obtained for the period 1961-2007 from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated comparing incidence rates according to gender with different dietary variable using ten-year delay intervals. there is an important variation in trends of colorectal cancer incidence worldwide which were found to be related with the dietary habits of each country. based on the trends observed, each country was classified into one of four different situations based on the range of values of their incidence rates and linear trends observed. Due to the potential of primary prevention programs for colorectal cancer and to the delay between changes in the exposure to risk and protective factors and the effects on the incidence of this tumor, the application of legislative and educational measures promoting a healthy diet has become an urgent issue to stop the increasing tendency of colorectal cancer reported worldwide.

  4. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Personalizing therapy for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ashley; Ma, Brigette B Y

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Several important scientific discoveries in the molecular biology of CRC have changed clinical practice in oncology. These included the comprehensive genome-wide profiling of CRC by the Cancer Genome Atlas Network, the discovery of mutations along the RAS-RAF signaling pathway as major determinants of response to antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor, the elucidation of new molecular subsets of CRC or gene signatures that may predict clinical outcome after adjuvant chemotherapy, and the innovative targeting of the family of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors. These new data have allowed oncologists to individualize drug therapy on the basis of a patient's tumor's unique molecular profile, especially in the management of metastatic CRC. This review article will discuss the progress of personalized medicine in the contemporary management of CRC. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictive effects of bilirubin on response of colorectal cancer to irinotecan-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian-Qian; Qiu, Hong; Zhang, Ming-Sheng; Hu, Guang-Yuan; Liu, Bo; Huang, Liu; Liao, Xin; Li, Qian-Xia; Li, Zhi-Huan; Yuan, Xiang-Lin

    2016-04-28

    To examine the predictive effects of baseline serum bilirubin levels and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1*28 polymorphism on response of colorectal cancer to irinotecan-based chemotherapy. The present study was based on a prospective multicenter longitudinal trial of Chinese metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with irinotecan-based chemotherapy (NCT01282658). Baseline serum bilirubin levels, including total bilirubin (TBil) and unconjugated bilirubin (UBil), were measured, and genotyping of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism was performed. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine cutoff values of TBil and UBil. The TBil values were categorized into > 13.0 or ≤ 13.0 groups; the UBil values were categorized into > 4.1 or ≤ 4.1 groups. Combining the cutoff values of TBil and UBil, which was recorded as CoBil, patients were classified into three groups. The classifier's performance of UGT1A1*28 and CoBil for predicting treatment response was evaluated by ROC analysis. Associations between response and CoBil or UGT1A1*28 polymorphism were estimated using simple and multiple logistic regression models. Among the 120 mCRC patients, the serum bilirubin level was significantly different between the UGT1A1*28 wild-type and mutant genotypes. Patients with the mutant genotype had an increased likelihood of a higher TBil (P = 0.018) and a higher UBil (P = 0.014) level compared with the wild-type genotype. Patients were stratified into three groups based on CoBil. Group 1 was patients with TBil > 13.0 and UBil > 4.1; Group 2 was patients with TBil ≤ 13.0 and UBil > 4.1; and Group 3 was patients with TBil ≤ 13.0 and UBil ≤ 4.1. Patients in Group 3 had more than a 10-fold higher likelihood of having a response in the simple (OR = 11.250; 95%CI: 2.286-55.367; P = 0.003) and multiple (OR = 16.001; 95%CI: 2.802 -91.371; P = 0.002) analyses compared with the Group 1 individuals. Patients carrying the UGT1A1*28 (TA)7 allele were 4

  7. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  8. Management of colorectal cancer and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Caroline; Nash, Guy F; Hickish, Tamas

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is associated with diabetes mellitus and both of these common conditions are often managed together by a surgeon. The surgical focus is usually upon cancer treatment rather than diabetes management. The relationship between colorectal cancer and diabetes is a complex one and can raise problems in both diagnosis and the management of patients with both conditions. This literature review explores the relationship between diabetes, diabetic treatment and colorectal cancer and addresses the issues that arise in diagnosing and treating this patient group. By highlighting these difficulties, this review aims to improve understanding and to provide clearer insight into both surgical and non-surgical management.

  9. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, H. F.; Wijnen, J. T.; Menko, F. H.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Taal, B. G.; Griffioen, G.; Nagengast, F. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, E. H.; Bertario, L.; Varesco, L.; Bisgaard, M. L.; Mohr, J.; Fodde, R.; Khan, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers. The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of carriers within

  10. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, HFA; Wijnen, JT; Menko, FH; Kleibeuker, JH; Taal, BG; Griffioen, G; Nagengast, FM; MeijersHeijboer, EH; Bertario, L; Varesco, L; Bisgaard, ML; Mohr, J; Fodde, R; Khan, PM

    Background & Aims: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers, The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of

  11. The potential usefulness of the Response Index in positron emission tomography assessing the therapeutic effect of pre-operative chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Nishimura, Junichi; Hata, Taishi; Matsuda, Chu; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Murata, Kohei; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Mizushima, Tsunekazu

    2017-12-01

    Pre-operative chemotherapy is an option for patients with local advanced rectal cancer, but the response rate to pre-operative chemotherapy with oxaliplatin is still low. If the therapeutic effect of pre-operative chemotherapy could be assessed, we may be able to convert to surgery early. The purpose of the present study was to validate the correlation between the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) of the primary tumor and the therapeutic effect of pre-operative chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer. Retrospective cohort study from January 2011 to October 2015. We examined 28 patients with pathologically confirmed sigmoid or rectal cancer that underwent pre-operative chemotherapy and surgery. The correlation between Response Index (RI), calculated as (SUV max after chemotherapy)/(SUV max before chemotherapy), and the therapeutic effect on the primary tumor in advanced colorectal cancer. The degree of differentiation (p = 0.04), SUV max in the primary tumor after chemotherapy (p = 0.02), and RI (p = 0.008) were significant predictors of the therapeutic effect in univariate analysis. The areas under the ROC curve constructed with RI and therapeutic effect was 0.77. The optimal cut-off values for the RI in the responder group was effect of chemotherapy on advanced colorectal cancer. Thus, RI is potentially useful for predicting the therapeutic effect in advanced colorectal cancer.

  12. Immune reaction and colorectal cancer: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Vincenzo; Cereda, Vittore; Nardecchia, Antonella; Tesauro, Manfredi; Roselli, Mario

    2014-09-21

    The potential clinical impact of enhancing antitumor immunity is increasingly recognized in oncology therapeutics for solid tumors. Colorectal cancer is one of the most studied neoplasms for the tumor-host immunity relationship. Although immune cell populations involved in such a relationship and their prognostic role in colorectal cancer development have clearly been identified, still no approved therapies based on host immunity intensification have so far been introduced in clinical practice. Moreover, a recognized risk in enhancing immune reaction for colitis-associated colorectal cancer development has limited the emphasis of this approach. The aim of the present review is to discuss immune components involved in the host immune reaction against colorectal cancer and analyze the fine balance between pro-tumoral and anti-tumoral effect of immunity in this model of disease.

  13. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact analysis of a population-based screening program for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pil, L; Fobelets, M; Putman, K; Trybou, J; Annemans, L

    2016-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in Belgium. In Flanders (Belgium), a population-based screening program with a biennial immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) in women and men aged 56-74 has been organised since 2013. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of the colorectal population-based screening program in Flanders (Belgium). A health economic model was conducted, consisting of a decision tree simulating the screening process and a Markov model, with a time horizon of 20years, simulating natural progression. Predicted mortality and incidence, total costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) with and without the screening program were calculated in order to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CRC screening. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted, taking into account uncertainty of the model parameters. Mortality and incidence were predicted to decrease over 20years. The colorectal screening program in Flanders is found to be cost-effective with an ICER of 1681/QALY (95% CI -1317 to 6601) in males and €4,484/QALY (95% CI -3254 to 18,163). The probability of being cost-effective given a threshold of €35,000/QALY was 100% and 97.3%, respectively. The budget impact analysis showed the extra cost for the health care payer to be limited. This health economic analysis has shown that despite the possible adverse effects of screening and the extra costs for the health care payer and the patient, the population-based screening program for CRC in Flanders is cost-effective and should therefore be maintained. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of aromatherapy with light thai massage for cellular immunity improvement in colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiewkhern, Santisith; Promthet, Supannee; Sukprasert, Aemkhea; Eunhpinitpong, Wichai; Bradshaw, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Patients with colorectal cancer are usually treated with chemotherapy, which reduces the number of blood cells, especially white blood cells, and consequently increases the risk of infections. Some research studies have reported that aromatherapy massage affects the immune system and improves immune function by, for example, increasing the numbers of natural killer cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes. However, there has been no report of any study which provided good evidence as to whether aromatherapy with Thai massage could improve the immune system in patients with colorectal cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the use of aromatherapy with light Thai massage in patients with colorectal cancer, who have received chemotherapy, can result in improvement of the cellular immunity and reduce the severity of the common symptoms of side effects. Sixty-six patients with colorectal cancer in Phichit Hospital, Thailand, were enrolled in a single-blind, randomised-controlled trial. The intervention consisted of three massage sessions with ginger and coconut oil over a 1-week period. The control group received standard supportive care only. Assessments were conducted at pre-assessment and at the end of one week of massage or standard care. Changes from pre-assessment to the end of treatment were measured in terms of white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 cells and the CD4/CD8 ratio and also the severity of self-rated symptom scores. The main finding was that after adjusting for pre-assessment values the mean lymphocyte count at the post-assessment was significantly higher (P=0.04) in the treatment group than in the controls. The size of this difference suggested that aromatherapy with Thai massage could boost lymphocyte numbers by 11%. The secondary outcomes were that at the post assessment the symptom severity scores for fatigue, presenting symptom, pain and stress were significantly lower in the massage group than in the

  15. Oestrogen receptor beta isoform expression in sporadic colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis and progressive stages of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanato Filho, Paulo Roberto; Aguiar Júnior, Samuel; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Kuasne, Hellen; Spencer, Ranyell Matheus; Nakagawa, Wilson Toshihiko; Bezerra, Tiago Santoro; Kupper, Bruna Catin; Takahashi, Renata Maymi; Barros Filho, Mateus; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Lopes, Ademar

    2017-11-13

    Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas are poorly described. This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of the ERβ1, ERβ2, ERβ4 and ERβ5 isoform variants using quantitative RT-PCR (921 analyses) in FAP, normal mucosa, adenomatous polyps and sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Decreased expression of ERβ isoforms was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p colorectal carcinomas were compared to normal mucosa tissues. These findings suggest an association of the ERβ isoform variants in individuals affected by germline mutations of the APC gene. Progressively decreased expression of ERβ was found in polyps at early stages of low-grade dysplasia, followed by T1-T2 and T3-T4 tumours (p colorectal cancer, the loss of expression was an independent predictor of recurrence, and ERβ1 and ERβ5 expression levels were associated with better disease-free survival (p = 0.002). These findings may provide a better understanding of oestrogens and their potential preventive and therapeutic effects on sporadic colorectal cancer and cancers associated with FAP syndrome.

  16. Update on Sporadic Colorectal Cancer Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Karin M

    2018-05-01

    Our understanding of the genetics of colorectal cancer has changed dramatically over recent years. Colorectal cancer can be classified in multiple different ways. Along with the advent of whole-exome sequencing, we have gained an understanding of the scale of the genetic changes found in sporadic colorectal cancer. We now know that there are multiple pathways that are commonly involved in the evolution of colorectal cancer including Wnt/β-catenin, RAS, EGFR, and PIK3 kinase. Another recent leap in our understanding of colorectal cancer genetics is the recognition that many, if not all tumors, are actually genetically heterogeneous within individual tumors and also between tumors. Recent research has revealed the prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications of various specific mutations, including specific mutations in BRAF and KRAS . There is increasing interest in the use of mutation testing for screening and surveillance through stool and circulating DNA testing. Recent advances in translational research in colorectal cancer genetics are dramatically changing our understanding of colorectal cancer and will likely change therapy and surveillance in the near future.

  17. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Yun, Shumei

    2008-10-16

    With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas), which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas). Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with > or = 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with poverty rate (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.58-0.81; adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98). Persons who resided in ZIP3 areas with > or = 20% poverty rate also had lower odds of following CRC screening guidelines than those residing in ZIP3 areas with poverty rate (unadjusted OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.83; adjusted OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.83). Obesity, history of depression/anxiety and access to care were associated with CRC screening, but did not mediate the effect of area-level poverty on CRC screening. Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on

  18. Genetic prognostic markers in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Houlston, R S; Tomlinson, I P

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of molecular genetics to colorectal cancer has been restricted largely to relatively rare inherited tumours and to the detection of germline mutations predisposing to these cancers. However, much is now also known about somatic events leading to colorectal cancer. A number of studies has been undertaken examining possible relations between genetic features and prognostic indices. While many of these studies are small and inconclusive, it is clear that a number of different pa...

  19. The Association Between Molecular Markers in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Polyps and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0273 TITLE: The Association between Molecular Markers in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Polyps and Colorectal Cancer ... Colorectal Cancer Risk 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0273 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrea Burnett-Hartman 5d... cancer in patients with sessile serrated colorectal polyps (SSPs). The project’s specific aims are as follows: 1) Estimate the risk of colorectal

  20. Perceived religiousness is protective for colorectal cancer: data from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kune, G A; Kune, S; Watson, L F

    1993-01-01

    The perceived or self-reported degree of 'religiousness' was obtained by interview from 715 colorectal cancer patients and 727 age/sex matched community controls, as part of a large, comprehensive population-based study of colorectal cancer incidence, aetiology and survival (The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study) conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Self-reported or perceived 'religiousness', as defined in the study, was a statistically significant protective factor [relative risk (RR) = 0.70, ...

  1. Cytotoxic and pro-oxidative effects of Imperata cylindrica aerial part ethyl acetate extract in colorectal cancer in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Amy Ho Yan; Wang, Yan; Ho, Wing Shing

    2016-05-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer. Its global incidence and mortality have been on the rise. Recent strategy of therapies has involved the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and cyclooxygenase-selective inhibitors. Aerial parts of Imperata cylindrical L. Raeusch (IMP) have been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in traditional Chinese medicine. Asarachidonate acid cascadeis often involved in inflammation-related malignancy and IMP is an anti-inflammatory agent, hence it is hypothesized that IMP aerial part ethyl acetate extract exerts cytotoxic effects on colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The HT-29 adenocarcinoma cell line was used to elucidate its pro-apoptotic activities. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy were performed to assess cell cycle arrest and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The mRNA and hormone levels of arachidonate acid pathways were studied via quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and ELISA. The 50% growth inhibitory effect (GI50) of the IMP extract on HT-29 was measured with a value of 14.5 µg/ml. Immuno-blot and caspase-3/7 activity assay showed the pro-apoptotic effect of IMP on the activation of caspase cascade. G2/M arrest was observed via flow cytometry. The ROS activity was modulated by the IMP extraction a concentration-dependent manner in HT-29 cells. The IMP extract increased PGE2 and PGF2α levels qRT-PCR revealed that transcripts of rate-limiting PGE2- and PGF2α-biosynthetic enzymes - COX-1, mPGES1 and AKR1C3 were notably up-regulated. Among the prostanoid receptors, EP1 and FP transcripts were up-regulated while EP4 transcripts decreased. The findings suggest that the proliferative effect of PGE2, which is generally believed to associate with heightened DNA synthesis and cross-talk with MAPK pathways, is likely triggered by the pro-apoptotic or -oxidative effects exerted by IMP extract in HT-29 cells. Concurring with this notion, indomethacin (COX-1/2-inhibitor) was

  2. Pneumatosis Coli Mimicking Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatosis coli (PC is a rare condition of the gastrointestinal tract involving extraluminal gas confined within the bowel wall. We report the case of a 40-year-old gentleman presenting clinically and endoscopically with suspected colorectal cancer. In light of the patient’s red flag symptoms, and carpet of polyps seen endoscopically, surgical management by an anterior resection was performed with the patient making a successful recovery. Histological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed pneumatosis coli with no evidence of colonic neoplasia. Although PC can be an incidental finding in asymptomatic patients and considered a benign condition, it can also present as a life-threatening emergency with bowel necrosis and obstruction requiring emergency surgical intervention. Also, when PC mimics malignancy, surgical management is the most appropriate step to ensure that the diagnosis of cancer is not missed.

  3. The effectiveness of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and evaluation of angiogenesis in the model of experimental colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Hilal; Ilhan, Nevin; Eroksuz, Hatice

    2018-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment of CRCs are of importance for improving the survival. In the present study, we studied the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced chemopreventive effects on tumor development incidence and angiogenesis in experimental CRC rats. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) was used as cancer-inducing agent and two NSAIDs (celecoxib and diclofenac) were given orally as chemopreventive agents. Histopathological and immuno histochemical evaluations were performed in colorectal tissue samples, whereas angiogenesis parameters were studied in blood samples. Histopathological examination showed that adenocarcinoma (62.5%), dysplastic changes (31.25%) and inflammattory changes (6.25%) were detected in DMH group, whereas no pathological change was observed in control rats. In treatment groups, there was marked decrease in adenocarcinoma rate (30% and 10%, respectively). A significant increase was detected in MMP-2, MMP-9 levels and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio in DMH group as compared with controls and treatment groups. In immunohistochemical evaluations, there was an increase in intensity and extent of staining of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in DMH group as compared to controls and treatment groups. The decrease in celecoxib group was more prominent. Overall, it was concluded that NSAIDs, particularly cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, might have a protective effect on CRC development and slow down progression of tumor in a DMH-induced experimental cancer model. One of the possible mechanisms in the chemoprevention of colon cancer seems to be inhibition of angiogenesis by diclofenac and celecoxib. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessl, E. J.; Allison, M. A.; Ho, S. B.; Groessl, E. J.; Allison, M. A.; Ho, S. B.; Larson, J. C.; Snetslaar, L. G.; Lane, D. S.; Tharp, K. M.; Stefanick, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample ( N = 83,778 women) was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0-<4 cups), and high (4+ cups). Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53%) new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02-1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93-1.38). Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05-1.36) and high non drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01-2.02) were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  5. Meat and colo-rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M J

    1999-05-01

    In early epidemiological studies of diet and cancer the stress was on the search for causal factors. Population (ecological) studies tended to show a strong correlation between meat intake, particularly red meat, and the risk of colo-rectal cancer. They also tended to show meat to be strongly inversely correlated with cancers of the stomach and oesophagus and liver. Early case-control studies tended to support the postulated role for red meat in colo-rectal carcinogenesis, although more recent case-control studies, particularly those from Europe, have tended to show no relationship. The cohort studies in general failed to detect any relationship between meat intake and colo-rectal cancer risk. The available evidence points to the intake of protective factors such as vegetables and whole-grain cereals being the main determinants of colo-rectal cancer risk, with meat intake only coincidentally related.

  6. Effects of Promotional Materials on Attitudes and Fear towards Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese Older Adults: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris Y P; Chen, Joanne M T; Lou, Vivian W Q; Wong, Eliza M L; Chan, Aileen W K; So, Winnie K W; Chan, Carmen W H

    2017-07-13

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy. However, the promotion of CRC screening for older adults may be difficult because reading CRC prevention information may evoke embarrassment, fear, and anxiety towards the screening procedure and cancer diagnosis. This study aims to (1) examine the effects of three promotional materials for CRC screening on the attitudes toward CRC screening tests (screening interest, screening effectiveness, and trust in the screening results) and cancer fear, and (2) to explore the interaction effect of cancer fear with screening effectiveness and trust in the screening results on screening interest of the three screening tests (fecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy) among Chinese older adults. A total of 114 community-dwelling older adults were asked to look at the corresponding promotional materials (pamphlet, cartoon, and video) of one of the three study groups. The pamphlet and video represent convention strategies and the cartoon represents an innovative strategy. No significant difference was observed in the screening interest and cancer fear across groups. FOBT was the most preferred screening modality. The video group has a large proportion agreed screening effectiveness of flexible sigmoidoscopy than pamphlet and cartoon groups and trusted in the screening results for FOBT and flexible sigmoidoscopy than the pamphlet group. Logistic regression results showed that the effect of trust in the screening results on screening interest for colonoscopy was greater among participants with higher cancer fear than those with lower cancer fear level. In conclusion, the three promotional groups had produced similar results in their attitudes toward CRC screening and cancer fear. The use of cartoons may be a comparable approach with conventional methods in the promotion of CRC screening. Additional components that can arouse fear and boost response efficacy

  7. Effectiveness of bevacizumab and cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer across selected public hospitals in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Suzannah J; McKavanagh, Daniel; Burge, Matthew E; McPherson, Ian; Walpole, Euan; Hollingworth, Samantha A

    2017-10-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer has a large burden of disease in Australia. Medical therapy is fundamental to extending survival and improving quality of life. The benefits of two costly medicines, bevacizumab and cetuximab, used in Australia remain unclear. The aim of this study was to retrospectively examine the use of these two medicines in metastatic colorectal cancer across five public hospitals in south east Queensland and to compare clinical outcomes to those of published clinical trials. We extracted data from the chemotherapy prescribing database for patients planned for bevacizumab or cetuximab therapy between 2009 and 2013. Median overall survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. There were 490 bevacizumab-containing protocols planned and 292 patients received at least one dose of bevacizumab. Median overall survival was 17.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.4-19.3). Of 208 planned cetuximab-containing protocols, 134 patients received at least one dose of cetuximab. Median overall survival was 9.1 months (95% CI, 7.6-12.0). Thirty-day mortality rates from date of first dose were 0.7% for bevacizumab and 7.5% for cetuximab. Overall survival of patients receiving bevacizumab and cetuximab was consistent with clinical trials, providing some assurance that benefits seen in trials are observed in usual practice. This study provides a methodology of using routinely collected health data for clinical monitoring and research. Because of the high cost of these medicines and the lack of toxicity data in this study, further analysis in the postmarketing setting should be explored. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. The effect of exercise on the severity of the fatigue in colorectal cancer patients who received chemotherapy in Ahwaz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Abdolali; Haghighi, Shayesteh; Fayyazi, Seddigheh; Tabesh, Hamed; Kalboland, Mehrnaz Moradi

    2010-01-01

    One of the common side effects of cancer is fatigue that affects patients' life quality and leads to disability. Exercise has an important role in improving these patients' life quality and can be used as a complementary treatment. Moreover, there are few studies on the impact of exercise on fatigue among patients with colon cancer. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of exercise on the severity of fatigue in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent chemotherapy in Ahwaz. In a quasi-experimental study, the adults with colorectal cancer were enrolled. The sample included 36 people. The study environment included adult hematology and chemotherapy wards of Shefa Hospital in Ahwaz. Data were collected using a demographic form and a questionnaire in order to measure the severity of fatigue. Then, the patients had 40 minutes of exercise, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The effect of exercise versus fatigue intensity was measured at the end of every week. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The mean of the fatigue severity in the weeks after exercise was significantly different from the week before it. Friedman test showed significant differences between all the weeks before and after the exercise. The mean of the fatigue severity was 3.69 on the week 0 (before the exercise), and decreased to 3.57 on the first week after exercise, 3.46 on the second week, 2.58 on the third week, and 1.69 on the forth week. Considering the results of this study, exercise and work-out can be an effective factor in reducing fatigue in patients.

  9. Pathological and Biological Aspects of Colorectal Cancer Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, M.J.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. This thesis describes several pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. Different patient populations were investigated including patients with mobile rectal cancer enrolled in the Dutch TME trial, patients

  10. Effect of intravenous contrast agent volume on colorectal cancer vascular parameters as measured by perfusion computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, V.; Bartram, C.; Halligan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of two different contrast agent volumes on quantitative and semi-quantitative vascular parameters as measured by perfusion computed tomography (CT) in colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: Following ethical approval and informed consent, eight prospectively recruited patients with proven colorectal adenocarcinoma underwent two separate perfusion CT studies on the same day after (a) 100 ml and (b) 50 ml of a 340 mg/ml iodinated contrast medium, respectively. Quantitative (blood volume, blood flow, permeability surface area product) and semi-quantitative (peak enhancement, time to peak enhancement) tumour vascular parameters were determined using commercial software based on distributed parameter analysis and compared using t-testing. Results: Tumour blood volume, blood flow, and permeability surface area product were not substantially different following the injection of 100 ml and 50 ml contrast medium: 6.12 versus 6.23 ml/100 g tissue; 73.4 versus 71.3 ml/min/100 g tissue; 15.6 versus 15.3 ml/min/100 g tissue for 100 and 50 ml, respectively; p > 0.05. Tumour peak enhancement and time to peak were significantly greater following the injection of 100 ml versus 50 ml contrast medium: 41.2 versus 28.5 HU; 16.1 versus 11.8 s for 100 ml and 50 ml, respectively; p = 0.002; p = 0.0003. Conclusion: Quantitative parameters do not appear to change substantially with a higher contrast agent volume suggesting a combined diagnostic staging-perfusion CT study following a single injection is feasible for colorectal cancer

  11. Colorectal cancer presenting as bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Suresh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, the patients of colorectal cancer presenting with bone metastasis were of male sex and younger age. The factors that were associated with reduced survival were extraosseous and liver involvement.

  12. [Effects of individualized nutritional education programs on the level of nutrient intake and nutritional status of colorectal cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Ock; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an individualized nutritional education programs on nutrient intake and nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer who are undergoing palliative chemotherapy. Forty patients with colorectal cancer (19 experimental and 21 control patients) were recruited from a chemotherapy ward at S University Hospital in Seoul, Korea. The experimental group received two individualized nutritional counseling sessions and two telephone counseling sessions over 6 weeks. The control group received nutritional counseling after completion of data collection. Nutritional education included general guidelines for food intake while receiving chemotherapy, dietary guidelines for patients with colorectal cancer, daily meal schedules to overcome cancer, and dietary guideline for each chemotherapy side effect. Data were analyzed using χ²-test and t-test with the SPSS program 17.0. Two group comparison revealed that the experimental group had significantly improved calorie (p=.038) and total protein intake (p=.001), and serum albumin percentage change (p=.040). Body weight did not increase but remained the same as the baseline in both groups. Study results indicate that this individualized nutritional education programs are effective in enhancing nutrient intake and nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer who are undergoing palliative chemotherapy.

  13. Effects of flurbiprofen axetil on postoperative serum IL-2 and IL-6 levels in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W W; Wang, Q H; Peng, P; Liao, Y J; Duan, H X; Xu, M; Li, Y; Zhang, P B

    2015-12-09

    We explored the effects of flurbiprofen axetil on interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 levels in postoperative patients with colorectal cancer. A total of 120 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II) scheduled to undergo colorectal cancer surgery were randomly divided into 3 groups (N = 40 in each group): flurbiprofen axetil group (group F), morphine group (group M), and tramadol group (group T). Group M received 0.1 mg/kg morphine, group T received 1.5 mg/kg tramadol, and group F received 1.5 mg/kg flurbiprofen axetil. Patients in the 3 groups were administered treatments through intravenous injection 10 min before surgery. Serum IL-2 and IL-6 levels were detected. Postoperative adverse reactions were recorded, such as nausea, vomiting, and pruritus. The serum IL-6 level of the 3 groups increased 3 h after surgery. Compared with group M, IL-6 level was higher in group T and group F at 1 day after the surgery, and the differences between group M and the other groups were significant (P Flurbiprofen axetil promoted the secretion of IL-2 and inhibited IL-6; additionally, flurbiprofen axetil may have a lower incidence of adverse reactions compared to other treatments.

  14. HIV Nef-M1 Effects on Colorectal Cancer Growth in Tumor-induced Spleens and Hepatic Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Willie; Bond, Vincent; Huang, Ming Bo; Powell, Michael; Lillard, James; Manne, Upender; Bumpers, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    CXCR4 receptors have been implicated in tumorigenesis and proliferation, making it a potential target for colorectal cancer therapy. Expression of this chemokine receptor on cellular surfaces appears to promote metastasis by directly stimulating tumor cell migration and invasion. The receptor/ligand, CXCR4/SDF-1α, pair are critically important to angiogenesis and vascular remodeling which supports cancer proliferation. Our work has shown that a novel apoptotic peptide of HIV-1, Nef-M1, can act as a CXCR4 antagonist, inducing apoptosis in CXCR4 containing cells. Four colorectal tumor cell lines (HT-29, LS174t, SW480, WiDr), were evaluated for their response to Nef-M1 peptide via in vivo and in vitro. The presence of CXCR4 receptors on tumor cells was determined using immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analyses. Solid xenografts derived from tumor cell lines grown in SCID mice, were evaluated for the persistence of the receptor. Xenografts propagated in SCID mice from each of the four cell lines demonstrated high levels of receptor expression as well. The effects of Nef-M1 in vivo via splenic injected mice and subsequent hepatic metastasis also demonstrated dramatic reduction of primary tumor growth in the spleen and secondary invasion of the liver. We concluded that Nef-M1 peptide, through physical interaction(s) with CXCR4, drives apoptotic reduction in in vivo primary tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:20383296

  15. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer; Epidemiologie kolorektaler Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Colorectal tumors are among the most frequently encountered forms of cancer worldwide. With approximately 57,000 new cases every year, they represent the most frequent type of cancer in Germany, ranking before breast cancer (approximately 46,000) and lung cancer (approximately 37,000). Although global incidence is on the rise, in Germany it is only increasing among men, but not among women. The mortality rate (approximately 26,500 deaths annually) in Germany has declined among men for about the past 10 years and among women for about the past 20 years.The most important risk factors are familial history of colorectal and other tumors as well as lifestyle factors such as nutrition, obesity, inactivity,and smoking.Lifestyle-related risks offer a broad area for implementing primary preventive measures, which have not yet been adequately exhausted. Several proven (fecal occult blood test) and probably effective (endoscopic) methods are available for secondary prevention. Consistent encouragement of these possibilities for prevention could reduce incidence and mortality substantially and render colorectal tumors less frequent. (orig.) [German] Kolorektale Tumoren gehoeren weltweit zu den haeufigsten Krebsarten und sind mit jaehrlich ca.57000 Neuerkrankungsfaellen vor Brustkrebs (ca. 46000) und Lungenkrebs (ca. 37000) die haeufigste Krebsart in Deutschland.Waehrend die Inzidenz weltweit steigt, nimmt sie in Deutschland nur bei Maennern,nicht aber bei Frauen zu.Die Mortalitaet (jaehrlich ca.26500 Todesfaelle) geht hierzulande bei Maennern seit ca.10 Jahren, bei Frauen seit ca.20 Jahren zurueck. Die bedeutendsten Risikofaktoren sind familiaere Vorgeschichte an kolorektalen und anderen Tumoren sowie Lebensstilfaktoren wie Ernaehrung, Uebergewicht,Bewegungsmangel und Rauchen.Die lebensstilbedingten Risiken bieten breiten Raum fuer primaere Praevention, der bisher nur unzureichend ausgeschoepft ist.Auch fuer sekundaere Praevention stehen mehrere nachgewiesenermassen (Test auf

  16. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  17. The significance of extended lymphadenectomy for colorectal cancer with isolated synchronous extraregional lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Ogura

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Findings from our study suggest that extended lymphadenectomy for colorectal cancer with synchronous isolated extraregional lymph node metastasis might be effective in carefully selected patients.

  18. The effect of the 2-week wait referral system on the detection of and mortality from colorectal cancer: protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Mozdiak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer represents the fourth most common cancer in England and Wales; survival is high for early stage disease but declines sharply with advanced stage. UK figures suggest that cancer survival rates are lower than those of other Western European countries. Current 5-year survival is around 50 %. A rapid access strategy was introduced through the Department of Health in 2000. This 2-week wait (TWW referral pathway was devised to streamline referral for suspected cancer, allow diagnosis at an earlier stage, reduce cancer survival inequality and reduce cancer-related mortality. However, only around half of patients with colorectal cancer have symptoms that fit the TWW criteria plus there is a fourfold difference in referral rates across England and Wales. High-quality evidence of TWW outcome measures for colorectal cancer is lacking. This systematic review will collate and evaluate the latest evidence on colorectal cancer detection rate, stage at diagnosis and mortality. Methods English-language publications from 2000 reporting outcomes on the TWW referral system for suspected colorectal cancer will be eligible for inclusion. Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE via PubMed, NHS Evidence, Trip and the British Library Catalogue databases will be searched. Two paired reviewers will independently screen all titles/abstracts and full text for eligibility, then extract data and assess for bias using standardised formats. They will hand review reference lists of eligible articles. Disagreement will be resolved via third party adjudication. Summary effect measures for post-referral diagnosis and mortality rates will be calculated and expressed as relative risk, hazard rate ratio or risk difference with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals. Where possible summary effect measures will be pooled, heterogeneity and its extent for pooled estimates will be assessed via visual inspection of forest plots and explored via sub-group analysis

  19. Effect of More vs Less Frequent Follow-up Testing on Overall and Colorectal Cancer-Specific Mortality in Patients With Stage II or III Colorectal Cancer: The COLOFOL Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille-Jørgensen, Peer; Syk, Ingvar; Smedh, Kenneth; Laurberg, Søren; Nielsen, Dennis T; Petersen, Sune H; Renehan, Andrew G; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Påhlman, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2018-05-22

    Intensive follow-up of patients after curative surgery for colorectal cancer is common in clinical practice, but evidence of a survival benefit is limited. To examine overall mortality, colorectal cancer-specific mortality, and colorectal cancer-specific recurrence rates among patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer who were randomized after curative surgery to 2 alternative schedules for follow-up testing with computed tomography and carcinoembryonic antigen. Unblinded randomized trial including 2509 patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer treated at 24 centers in Sweden, Denmark, and Uruguay from January 2006 through December 2010 and followed up for 5 years; follow-up ended on December 31, 2015. Patients were randomized either to follow-up testing with computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen and serum carcinoembryonic antigen at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months after surgery (high-frequency group; n = 1253 patients) or at 12 and 36 months after surgery (low-frequency group; n = 1256 patients). The primary outcomes were 5-year overall mortality and colorectal cancer-specific mortality rates. The secondary outcome was the colorectal cancer-specific recurrence rate. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were performed. Among 2555 patients who were randomized, 2509 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (mean age, 63.5 years; 1128 women [45%]) and 2365 (94.3%) completed the trial. The 5-year overall patient mortality rate in the high-frequency group was 13.0% (161/1253) compared with 14.1% (174/1256) in the low-frequency group (risk difference, 1.1% [95% CI, -1.6% to 3.8%]; P = .43). The 5-year colorectal cancer-specific mortality rate in the high-frequency group was 10.6% (128/1248) compared with 11.4% (137/1250) in the low-frequency group (risk difference, 0.8% [95% CI, -1.7% to 3.3%]; P = .52). The colorectal cancer-specific recurrence rate was 21.6% (265/1248) in the high-frequency group compared with 19

  20. Epifluorescent imaging study of the effect of anti-diabetic drug metformin on colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramani P

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug, has recently been associated with inhibition of cell proliferation in multiple cancers. However, it is not clear if the reduction in proliferation on treatment with metformin is a result of cell death or slowdown in the rate of growth of cancer cells, because cell viability assays measure only the number of cells at the beginning and end of the experiment. The aim of this study is to utilize a fluorescent imaging technique to directly follow cell death overtime in order to investigate the effect of metformin on colorectal cancer cells HCT116 and SW480. Epifluorescent imaging analysis carried out using ImageXpress Micro XLS High-Content Imaging System show that there is no significant change in cell death observed in the cancer cell lines, as compared to the control, over multiple closely spaced time points, suggesting that metformin in pharmacological doses may not be an effective inducer of cell death in these colon cancer cell lines.

  1. Profile of colorectal cancer in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Snigdha; Mukherjee, Ramanuj; Paira, Susil Kumar; Roy, Bipradas; Banerjee, Shubhabrata; Mukherjee, Saibal Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Although colorectal cancer is a major cause of concern in the western population, recent studies are showing the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer to be rapidly rising in Asia. The present study is an insight into the epidemiological profile of colorectal cancer of a representative Eastern Indian population. Over a period of three years, all histologically proved patients with colorectal cancer were assessed for age, sex, body mass index, dietary habits, socioeconomic status and stage of disease. Of a total of 168 patients male to female ratio was 1.7:1.The mean age of presentation was 47.01 years. Although colorectal cancer has been known as a disease of sedentary obese men, 41.66% of the patients were from a low socioeconomic rural set-up and 40.47% were involved in heavy physical labour with only 15% of being obese; 62% patients were harbouring a locally advanced disease at the time of presentation. The epidemiological pattern of colorectal cancer in India is different from that of the west as regards to earlier age of presentation, prevalence in low socio economic class with low fat diet and scanty meat intake.

  2. Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Timothy A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Results A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test. However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis.

  3. An inverse association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuetong; Wu, Yuan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Lingjun; Tong, Na; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Dongying; Chen, Jinfei

    2017-06-06

    It is well known that the tea extracts, mainly polyphenols as chemo-preventive elements, could act as cancer progression blockers. Although the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk has been widely investigated, the results still remain inconsistent. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate their relationships by enrolling qualified 29 literatures. The summary odds ratio (OR) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was 0.93 with 0.87-1.00 of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among all studies with modest heterogeneity (P = 0.001, I2 = 43.4%). Stratified analysis revealed that tea, especially green tea, had a protective effect among female and rectal cancer patients. Particularly, the dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant inverse association between an increment of 1 cup/day of tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the subgroup of the green tea drinking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.01, Pnonlinear = 0.003) and female (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56-0.81, Pnonlinear colorectal cancer risk, which may have significant public health implications in the prevention of colorectal cancer and further similar researches.

  4. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F; Beeson, W Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L; Herring, R Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96,354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77,659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.65-1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59-1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62-1.37) compared with nonvegetarians. Effect estimates were similar for men and women and for black and nonblack individuals. Vegetarian diets are

  5. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J.; Singh, Pramil N.; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L.; Herring, R. Patti; Fraser, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    nonvegetarians. Effect estimates were similar for men and women and for black and nonblack individuals. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Vegetarian diets are associated with an overall lower incidence of colorectal cancers. Pescovegetarians in particular have a much lower risk compared with nonvegetarians. If such associations are causal, they may be important for primary prevention of colorectal cancers. PMID:25751512

  6. Effect of HK2, PKM2 and LDHA on Cetuximab efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haohua; Peng, Roujun; Chen, Xiuxing; Jia, Rui; Huang, Chunyue; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xia, Liangping; Guo, Guifang

    2018-04-01

    Although hexokinase (HK) 2, pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM) isozyme 2 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) A predict the efficacy of medicines in various solid tumors, their ability to predict the efficacy of cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remains unclear. mCRC patients with pathological specimens who received cetuximab and chemotherapy from 2005 to 2015 in the present institution were enrolled. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect HK2, PKM2 and LDHA expression. SPSS20 was used for statistical analysis. A total of 68 patients were included; 33 received cetuximab plus chemotherapy as first-line therapy, and the rest, as second- or later-line therapy. HK2 expression levels were increased in cancer compared with normal tissue (75.4% vs. 40%; P<0.001), however PKM2 (P=0.243) and LDHA (P=0.067) expression levels were not. For progression-free survival (PFS) with first-line cetuximab plus chemotherapy, patients with high HK2 expression exhibited longer PFS compared with those with low HK2 expression (23.9 months vs. 6.9 months; P=0.021). However, this positive association was absent in 35 cases administered first-line chemotherapy alone (13.4 months vs. 13.5 months; P=0.539). LDHA expression was associated with the PFS of patients receiving first-line chemotherapy (18.3 and 10.1 months for high and low expression, respectively; P=0.005), whereas this association was absent in cetuximab plus chemotherapy cases (19.9 months vs. 12 months; P=0.522). Furthermore, high LDHA expression correlated with high overall response rate (ORR) (72.2% vs. 15.4%, P=0.006) for chemotherapy, however not disease control rate (DCR) (P=0.074). Neither DCR nor ORR were associated with HK2 expression. PKM2 expression did not affect PFS, DCR or ORR. LDHA expression (P=0.005), pathological differentiation (P=0.019) and synchronous/metachronous metastasis (P=0.014) were independent predictive factors of PFS for all first-line patients, and tumor differentiation (P=0.002) was associated

  7. Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Roock, Wendy; Claes, Bart; Bernasconi, David

    2010-01-01

    with KRAS wild-type tumours still do not respond. We studied the effect of other downstream mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab in, to our knowledge, the largest cohort to date of patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab plus chemotherapy in the pre...

  8. The effect of individualized nutritional counseling on muscle mass and treatment outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer undergoing chemotherapy: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Anne; Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, Susanne; Langius, Jacqueline A. E.; Berkhof, Johannes; Verheul, Henk M. W.; de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.

    2015-01-01

    A low muscle mass is prevalent in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and has been associated with poor treatment outcome. Chemotherapeutic treatment has an additional unfavorable effect on muscle mass. Sufficient protein intake and physical activity are known to induce muscle protein

  9. Precancerous Lesions in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez Sandouk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer death in the world. The incidence rate (ASR and age distribution of this disease differ between most of African-Middle-Eastern (AMAGE and North America and Europe for many reasons. However, in all areas, “CRC” is considered as one of the most preventable cancers, because it might develop from variant processes like polyps and IBD in addition to the genetic pathogenesis which became very well known in this disease. We tried in this paper to review all the possible reasons of the differences in incidence and age between the west and AMAGE. Also we reviewed all the mutations that lead to the hereditary and familiar clustering of this disease with the correlations with the surrounding food and environment of different areas. Then, we focused on the precancerous pathology of this disease with special focusing on early detection depending on new endoscopy technology and most important genetic studies. We lastly reviewed the evidence of some of the surveillance and put suggestions about future surveillance programs and how important those programs are on the psychological aspect of the patients and their families.

  10. Epigenetic prognostic biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benard, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common diagnosed cancers worldwide, and is the second most important cause of cancer mortality in Europe. The current TNM staging system used at the time of diagnosis is insufficient, as patients with the same tumor stage show wide variations in survival and

  11. Outcome of colorectal cancer resection in octogenarians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer is predominantly a disease of the elderly. It is the second most common cancer in the UK and the third most common cause of cancer-related death.[1] Surgical resection, either for cure or palliation, remains the mainstay of treatment.[1,2]. Long-term survival is related to the extent of disease at diagnosis.

  12. Oxidative stress triggered by naturally occurring flavone apigenin results in senescence and chemotherapeutic effect in human colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacoli Banerjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies involving phytochemical polyphenolic compounds have suggested flavones often exert pro-oxidative effect in vitro against wide array of cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro pro-oxidative activity of apigenin, a plant based flavone against colorectal cancer cell lines and investigate cumulative effect on long term exposure. In the present study, treatment of colorectal cell lines HT-29 and HCT-15 with apigenin resulted in anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects characterized by biochemical and morphological changes, including loss of mitochondrial membrane potential which aided in reversing the impaired apoptotic machinery leading to negative implications in cancer pathogenesis. Apigenin induces rapid free radical species production and the level of oxidative damage was assessed by qualitative and quantitative estimation of biochemical markers of oxidative stress. Increased level of mitochondrial superoxide suggested dose dependent mitochondrial oxidative damage which was generated by disruption in anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic protein balance. Continuous and persistent oxidative stress induced by apigenin at growth suppressive doses over extended treatment time period was observed to induce senescence which is a natural cellular mechanism to attenuate tumor formation. Senescence phenotype inducted by apigenin was attributed to changes in key molecules involved in p16-Rb and p53 independent p21 signaling pathways. Phosphorylation of retinoblastoma was inhibited and significant up-regulation of p21 led to simultaneous suppression of cyclins D1 and E which indicated the onset of senescence. Pro-oxidative stress induced premature senescence mediated by apigenin makes this treatment regimen a potential chemopreventive strategy and an in vitro model for aging research.

  13. Immediately modifiable risk factors attributable to colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Lai, Pei Kuan; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-08-04

    This study aimed to estimate potential reductions in case incidence of colorectal cancer attributable to the modifiable risk factors such as alcohol consumption, overweight and physical inactivity amongst the Malaysian population. Gender specific population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for colorectal cancer in Malaysia were estimated for the three selected risk factors (physical inactivity, overweight, and alcohol consumptions). Exposure prevalence were sourced from a large-scale national representative survey. Risk estimates of the relationship between the exposure of interest and colorectal cancer were obtained from published meta-analyses. The overall PAF was then estimated, using the 2013 national cancer incidence data from the Malaysian Cancer Registry. Overall, the mean incidence rate for colorectal cancer in Malaysia from 2008 to 2013 was 21.3 per 100,000 population, with the mean age of 61.6 years (±12.7) and the majority were men (56.6%). Amongst 369 colorectal cancer cases in 2013, 40 cases (20 men, 20 women), 10 cases (9 men, 1 woman) or 20 cases (16 men,4 women) would be prevented, if they had done physical exercises, could reduce their body weight to normal level or avoided alcohol consumption, assuming that these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. It was estimated that 66 (17.8%;66/369) colorectal cancer cases (42 men, 24 women) who had all these three risk factors for the last 10 years would have been prevented, if they could control these three risk factors through effective preventive measures. Findings suggest that approximately 18% of colorectal cancer cases in Malaysia would be prevented through appropriate preventive measures such as doing regular physical exercises, reducing their body weight to normal level and avoiding alcohol consumption, if these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. Scaling-up nationwide public health campaigns tailored to increase physical activity, controlling body weight within normal

  14. Sulindac treatment in hereditary non-pollyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, Fleur E. M.; Hollema, Harry; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; van der Sluis, Tineke; Ek, Wytske Boersma-van; Kleibeuker, Jan H.

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, e.g. sulindac have been extensively studied for chemoprevention in familial adenomatous polyposis, but not in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). We evaluated these effects in HNPCC using surrogate end-points for cancer risk. In a randomised

  15. The effect of 3-bromopyruvate on human colorectal cancer cells is dependent on glucose concentration but not hexokinase II expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Nelson; Morrison, Jodi; Silva, Andreza; Coomber, Brenda L

    2016-01-06

    Cancer cells heavily rely on the glycolytic pathway regardless of oxygen tension. Hexokinase II (HKII) catalyses the first irreversible step of glycolysis and is often overexpressed in cancer cells. 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) has been shown to primarily target HKII, and is a promising anti-cancer compound capable of altering critical metabolic pathways in cancer cells. Abnormal vasculature within tumours leads to heterogeneous microenvironments, including glucose availability, which may affect drug sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which 3BP acts on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells with focus on the HKII/Akt signalling axis. High HKII-expressing cell lines were more sensitive to 3BP than low HKII-expressing cells. 3BP-induced rapid Akt phosphorylation at site Thr-308 and cell death via both apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms. Cells grown under lower glucose concentrations showed greater resistance towards 3BP. Cells with HKII knockdown showed no changes in 3BP sensitivity, suggesting the effects of 3BP are independent of HKII expression. These results emphasize the importance of the tumour microenvironment and glucose availability when considering therapeutic approaches involving metabolic modulation. © 2016 Authors.

  16. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses of a colorectal cancer screening programme in a high adenoma prevalence scenario using MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrospide, Arantzazu; Idigoras, Isabel; Mar, Javier; de Koning, Harry; van der Meulen, Miriam; Soto-Gordoa, Myriam; Martinez-Llorente, Jose Miguel; Portillo, Isabel; Arana-Arri, Eunate; Ibarrondo, Oliver; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2018-04-25

    The Basque Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme began in 2009 and the implementation has been complete since 2013. Faecal immunological testing was used for screening in individuals between 50 and 69 years old. Colorectal Cancer in Basque country is characterized by unusual epidemiological features given that Colorectal Cancer incidence is similar to other European countries while adenoma prevalence is higher. The object of our study was to economically evaluate the programme via cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses with microsimulation models. We applied the Microsimulation Screening Analysis (MISCAN)-Colon model to predict trends in Colorectal Cancer incidence and mortality and to quantify the short- and long-term effects and costs of the Basque Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme. The model was calibrated to the Basque demographics in 2008 and age-specific Colorectal Cancer incidence data in the Basque Cancer Registry from 2005 to 2008 before the screening begun. The model was also calibrated to the high adenoma prevalence observed for the Basque population in a previously published study. The multi-cohort approach used in the model included all the cohorts in the programme during 30 years of implementation, with lifetime follow-up. Unit costs were obtained from the Basque Health Service and both cost-effectiveness analysis and budget impact analysis were carried out. The goodness-of-fit of the model adaptation to observed programme data was evidence of validation. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, the savings from treatment were larger than the added costs due to screening. Thus, the Basque programme was dominant compared to no screening, as life expectancy increased by 29.3 days per person. The savings in the budget analysis appeared 10 years after the complete implementation of the programme. The average annual budget was €73.4 million from year 2023 onwards. This economic evaluation showed a screening intervention with a major health gain

  17. The Association of Cholelithiasis and Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sărăcuț

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the literature there are a number of studies that suggest a possible correlation between cholelithiasis/cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer. The exposure of the colon mucosa to the action of bile acids that potentially have a carcinogenic effect due to the change in anatomy after cholecystectomy, seems to be the explanation of this association. The purpose of this paper was to search for such a correlation in our study group. Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study, analyzing the patients admitted to the First Surgical Clinic of the County Emergency Clinical Hospital Tîrgu Mureș, between January 1st, 2005 - December 31st, 2010. Analyzing the medical records, operation protocols and histopathological results, we paid attention to demographics, location of neoplasia, the time elapsed since the cholecystectomy to the discovery of neoplasia, histological types, trying to perform correlations between these parameters and the lithiasic factor. Results: Out of the 534 patients admitted and operated with the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, 15.6% (n = 83 showed a history of gallbladder stone affection. Most patients came from urban areas, the average age was 67.2 (range 39-88 years, females were more affected. The most common locations were: the sigmoid colon (26.5%, rectum (36.3% and the most common histological form was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: Similar to other studies, our work suggests a slight increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer in patients that underwent a cholecystectomy, without drawing a firm conclusion. We deem it necessary to see if diet changes of the Romanian population affect this relationship

  18. The role of biliverdin reductase in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the effects of biliverdin and bilirubin have been studied extensively, and an inhibitory effect of bile pigments in cancer progression has been proposed. In this study we focused on the effects of biliverdin reductase, the enzyme that converts biliverdin to bilirubin, in colorectal cancer. For in vitro experiments we used a human colorectal carcinoma cell line and transfected it with an expression construct of shRNA specific for biliverdin reductase, to create cells with stable knock-down of enzyme expression. Cell proliferation was analyzed using the CASY model TT cell counting device. Western blot protein analysis was performed to study intracellular signaling cascades. Samples of human colorectal cancer were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. We were able to confirm the antiproliferative effects of bile pigments on cancer cells in vitro. However, this effect was attenuated in biliverdin reductase knock down cells. ERK and Akt activation seen under biliverdin and bilirubin treatment was also reduced in biliverdin reductase deficient cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples from patients with colorectal cancer showed elevated biliverdin reductase levels. High enzyme expression was associated with lower overall and disease free patient survival. We conclude that BVR is required for bile pigment mediated effects regarding cancer cell proliferation and modulation of intracellular signaling cascades. The role of BVR overexpression in vivo and its exact influence on cancer progression and patient survival need to be further investigated. (author) [de

  19. GSTT2 promoter polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Sun-A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione S-transferases are a group of enzymes that participate in detoxification and defense mechanisms against toxic carcinogens and other compounds. These enzymes play an important role in human carcinogenesis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether GSTT2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with colorectal cancer risk. Methods A total of 436 colorectal cancer patients and 568 healthy controls were genotyped for three GSTT2 promoter SNPs (-537G>A, -277T>C and -158G>A, using real-time TaqMan assay and direct sequencing. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA was performed to determine the effects of polymorphisms on protein binding to the GSTT2 promoter. Results The -537A allele (-537G/A or A/A was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.373, p = 0.025, while the -158A allele (-158G/A or A/A was involved in protection against colorectal cancer (OR = 0.539, p = 0.032. Haplotype 2 (-537A, -277T, -158G was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.386, p = 0.021, while haplotype 4 (-537G, -277C, -158A protected against colorectal cancer (OR = 0.539, p = 0.032. EMSA data revealed lower promoter binding activity in the -537A allele than its -537G counterpart. Conclusion Our results collectively suggest that SNPs and haplotypes of the GSTT2 promoter region are associated with colorectal cancer risk in the Korean population.

  20. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-05

    This podcast is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 7/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/5/2011.

  1. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin, E-mail: Kliu@gru.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, and Cancer Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  3. Epigenetics and colorectal cancer pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-06-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  4. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy

  5. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebin Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Circle of Health for Alaskans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the colon and rectum is often called colorectal cancer. But in this brochure we use the term ... tests can be used to find polyps or colorectal cancer. Each can be used alone. Sometimes they are ...

  7. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer prevention strategies can include avoiding known risk factors, having a healthy lifestyle, taking aspirin, and removing polyps. Learn more about preventing colorectal cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  8. Effect of evodiamine and berberine on miR-429 as an oncogene in human colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu H

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hong Liu, Chao Huang, Liyun Wu, Bin Wen Institute of Spleen and Stomach, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Loss of epithelial organization and deregulated microRNAs are hallmarks of malignant carcinomas, but the relationship between them has been poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the changes in the expression of E-cadherin, Par3, and miR-429 during the development of human colorectal cancer (CRC. E-cadherin and Par3 levels were quantitatively detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. An in vitro culture of colorectal tissue was established to analyze the effect of berberine (BER and evodiamine (EVO on the level of miR-429. Our results suggested that E-cadherin and Par3 were remarkably decreased in tumor tissues compared with those in normal tissues, and miR-429 was upregulated in tumor tissues. After treatment of BER and EVO, the level of miR-429 was lower in tumor tissues than in normal tissues. This study investigated the potential relationship between miR-429, E-cadherin, and Par3 in CRC. The data suggested that BER and EVO can be potential therapeutic agents for CRC, as they downregulated the expression level of miR-429. Keywords: microRNAs, tissue culture

  9. Effectiveness of a primary care practice intervention for increasing colorectal cancer screening in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignan, Mark; Shelton, Brent; Slone, Stacey A; Tolle, Cheri; Mohammad, Sohail; Schoenberg, Nancy; Pearce, Kevin; Van Meter, Emily; Ely, Gretchen

    2014-01-01

    This report describes findings from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in primary care practices in Appalachian Kentucky. Sixty-six primary care practices were randomized to early or delayed intervention groups. The intervention was provided at practices using academic detailing, a method of education where providers receive information on a specific topic through personal contact. Data were collected in cross-sectional surveys of medical records at baseline and six months post-intervention. A total of 3844 medical records were reviewed at baseline and 3751 at the six-month follow-up. At baselines, colonoscopy was recommended more frequently (43.4%) than any other screening modality, followed by fecal occult blood testing (18.0%), flexible sigmoidoscopy (0.4%), and double-contrast barium enema (0.3%). Rates of documented screening results were higher for all practices at the six-month follow-up for colonoscopy (31.8% vs 29.6%) and fecal occult blood testing (12.2% vs 11.2%). For early intervention practices that recommended screening, colonoscopy rates increased by 15.7% at six months compared to an increase of 2.4% in the delayed intervention practices (p=.01). Using academic detailing to reach rural primary care providers with a CRC screening intervention was associated with an increase in colonoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of crude saponins from Gaultheria trichophylla extract on growth inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiaz Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria also comprised of species with reported cytotoxic activities. Current research work was carried out to evaluate G. trichophylla crude extract and respective saponins fraction against human colorectal cancer cell line (Caco-2 based on cell viability assays. Caco-2 cells treated with the crude extract showed significant growth inhibition (p< 0.001 in a dose dependent manner with apparent IC50 value of 200 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in MTT and NRU assays respectively. The fractioned crude saponins showed an enhanced response and inhibited the growth of Caco-2 by 93.6 and 97.4% in MTT and NRU assays respectively, with compared to actinomycin-D (65%. The DAPI staining of cell treated with crude saponins observed under confocal microscope showed shrunken nuclei with apparent nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation indicating apoptosis mode of cell death. The study exhibited that the G. Trichophylla saponins induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cell lines. This study provides new evidences to further explore this plant for the novel targets in anticancer drug development.

  11. Effect of tribal language use on colorectal cancer screening among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Angela A; Garroutte, Eva; Ton, Thanh G N; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2012-12-01

    American Indians have one of the lowest colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates for any racial/ethnic group in the U.S., yet reasons for their low screening participation are poorly understood. We examine whether tribal language use is associated with knowledge and use of CRC screening in a community-based sample of American Indians. Using logistic regression to estimate the association between tribal language use and CRC test knowledge and receipt we found participants speaking primarily English were no more aware of CRC screening tests than those speaking primarily a tribal language (OR = 1.16 [0.29, 4.63]). Participants who spoke only a tribal language at home (OR = 1.09 [0.30, 4.00]) and those who spoke both a tribal language and English (OR = 1.74 [0.62, 4.88]) also showed comparable odds of receipt of CRC screening. Study findings failed to support the concept that use of a tribal language is a barrier to CRC screening among American Indians.

  12. Chemoprevention, chemotherapy, and chemoresistance in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Jose J G; Sanchez de Medina, Fermin; Castaño, Beatriz; Bujanda, Luis; Romero, Marta R; Martinez-Augustin, Olga; Moral-Avila, Rosario Del; Briz, Oscar

    2012-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in industrialized countries. Chemoprevention is a promising approach, but studies demonstrating their usefulness in large populations are still needed. Among several compounds with chemopreventive ability, cyclooxygenase inhibitors have received particular attention. However, these agents are not without side effects, which must be weighed against their beneficial actions. Early diagnosis is critical in the management of CRC patients, because, in early stages, surgery is curative in >90% of cases. If diagnosis occurs at stages II and III, which is often the case, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy before surgery are, in a few cases, recommended. Because of the high risk of recurrence in advanced cancers, chemotherapy is maintained after tumor resection. Chemotherapy is also indicated when the patient has metastases and in advanced cancer located in the rectum. In the last decade, the use of anticancer drugs in monotherapy or in combined regimens has markedly increased the survival of patients with CRC at stages III and IV. Although the rate of success is higher than in other gastrointestinal tumors, adverse effects and development of chemoresistance are important limitations to pharmacological therapy. Genetic profiling regarding mechanisms of chemoresistance are needed to carry out individualized prediction of the lack of effectiveness of pharmacological regimens. This would minimize side effects and prevent the selection of aggressive, cross-resistant clones, as well as avoiding undesirable delays in the use of the most efficient therapeutic approaches to treat these patients.

  13. Self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tianhui; Xu, Jinghong; Zhu, Yongliang

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth facto...

  14. Effect of colorectal cancer on the number of normal stem cells circulating in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlicz, Wojciech; Sielatycka, Katarzyna; Serwin, Karol; Kubis, Ewa; Tkacz, Marta; Głuszko, Rafał; Białek, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2016-12-01

    Bone marrow (BM) residing stem cells are mobilized from their BM niches into peripheral blood (PB) in several pathological situations including tissue organ injury and systemic inflammation. We recently reported that the number of BM-derived stem cells (SCs) increases in patients with pancreatic and stomach cancer. Accordingly, we observed higher numbers of circulating very small embryonic/epiblast‑like stem cells (VSELs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that were associated with the activation of pro-mobilizing complement cascade and an elevated level of sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) in PB plasma. We wondered if a similar correlation occurs in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 46 patients were enrolled in this study: 17 with CRC, 18 with benign colonic adenomas (BCA) and 11 healthy individuals. By employing fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) we evaluated the number of BM-derived SCs circulating in PB: i) CD34+/Lin-/CD45- and CD133-/Lin-/CD45- VSELs; ii) CD45-/CD105+/CD90+/CD29+ MSCs; iii) CD45-/CD34+/CD133+/KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs); and iv) CD133+/Lin-/CD45+ or CD34+/Lin-/CD45+ cells enriched for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). In parallel, we measured in the PB parameters regulating the egress of SCs from BM into PB. In contrast to pancreatic and gastric cancer patients, CRC subjects presented neither an increase in the number of circulating SCs nor the activation of pro-mobilizing factors such as complement, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascade, circulating stromal derived factor 1 (SDF‑1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intestinal permeability marker (zonulin). In conclusion, mobilization of SCs in cancer patients depends on the type of malignancy and its ability to activate pro-mobilization cascades.

  15. Iranian dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Hosein; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham; Mirzapoor, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC. This case-control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35-75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases). Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method;"Healthy pattern"and "Iranian pattern". Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI)=1.05-2.19) while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47). Iranian dietary pattern (IDP) seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern.

  16. Iranian Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Azizi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC.Methods: This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35–75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases. Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA method;“Healthy pattern”and “Iranian pattern”. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI=1.05–2.19 while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47.Conclusion: Iranian dietary pattern (IDP seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern.

  17. Cytogenetic findings in metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardi, G; Parada, L A; Bomme, L

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen tumor samples from 11 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were cytogenetically analyzed after short-term culturing. Of the 13 metastases examined, 11 were from lymph nodes, 1 from the peritoneum and 1 from the lung. In 5 of the 11 patients, matched samples from the primary tumor...... colorectal carcinomas, and del(10)(q22) and add(16)(p13), which so far have not been associated with primary tumors and which may play a particular pathogenetic role in the metastatic process....

  18. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  19. Effects of a telephone-delivered multiple health behavior change intervention (CanChange) on health and behavioral outcomes in survivors of colorectal cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Anna L; Chambers, Suzanne K; Pakenham, Kenneth I; Patrao, Tania A; Baade, Peter D; Lynch, Brigid M; Aitken, Joanne F; Meng, Xingqiong; Courneya, Kerry S

    2013-06-20

    Colorectal cancer survivors are at risk for poor health outcomes because of unhealthy lifestyles, but few studies have developed translatable health behavior change interventions. This study aimed to determine the effects of a telephone-delivered multiple health behavior change intervention (CanChange) on health and behavioral outcomes among colorectal cancer survivors. In this two-group randomized controlled trial, 410 colorectal cancer survivors were randomly assigned to the health coaching intervention (11 theory-based telephone-delivered health coaching sessions delivered over 6 months focusing on physical activity, weight management, dietary habits, alcohol, and smoking) or usual care. Assessment of primary (ie, physical activity [Godin Leisure Time Index], health-related quality of life [HRQoL; Short Form-36], and cancer-related fatigue [Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale]) and secondary outcomes (ie, body mass index [kg/m(2)], diet and alcohol intake [Food Frequency Questionnaire], and smoking) were conducted at baseline and 6 and 12 months. At 12 months, significant intervention effects were observed for moderate physical activity (28.5 minutes; P = .003), body mass index (-0.9 kg/m(2); P = .001), energy from total fat (-7.0%; P = .006), and energy from saturated fat (-2.8%; P = .016). A significant intervention effect was reported for vegetable intake (0.4 servings per day; P = .001) at 6 months. No significant group differences were found at 6 or 12 months for HRQoL, cancer-related fatigue, fruit, fiber, or alcohol intake, or smoking. The CanChange intervention was effective for improving physical activity, dietary habits, and body mass index in colorectal cancer survivors. The intervention is translatable through existing telephone cancer support and information services in Australia and other countries.

  20. Ziv-aflibercept in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anuj Patel, Weijing Sun Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic agents has become a conventional treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ziv-aflibercept is a fusion protein which acts as a decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor (PlGF; it was approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after an oxaliplatin-containing fluoropyrimidine-based regimen. Herein we review the role of tumor angiogenesis as the rationale for antiangiogenic therapy, the clinical data associated with ziv-aflibercept, and its current role as a treatment option compared to other antiangiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab and regorafenib. Keywords: aflibercept, angiogenesis, colorectal cancer

  1. Predictors of advanced colorectal neoplasia for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Lam, Thomas Y T; Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Chan, Victor C W; Hirai, Hoyee W; Ching, Jessica Y L; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2014-05-01

    The Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) score based on age, gender, family history, and smoking is useful to predict advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) in asymptomatic Asian subjects. To evaluate the factors in addition to those of APCS associated with ACN colonoscopic findings. Data from 5,220 asymptomatic subjects aged between 50 and 70 years who underwent screening colonoscopy in a community center between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed. One binary logistic regression analysis was conducted in 2013 with the presence of ACN or cancer as the outcome, controlling for APCS score, alcohol consumption, BMI, hypertension, and other chronic diseases as independent variables. The average participant age was 57.7 years (SD=4.9) and 47.5% were men. Advanced neoplasms or cancers were identified at colonoscopy in 5.6% of all screening participants. From multivariate regression analysis, APCS score≥4 (adjusted OR [AOR]=1.74, 95% CI=1.34, 2.25, pstatistic of APCS score alone was 0.560 (95% CI=0.524, 0.595, p=0.001) and that of APCS score plus BMI, hypertension, and alcohol consumption was 0.613 (95% CI=0.578, 0.648, p<0.001). Alcohol consumption, hypertension, and BMI are independent predictors of ACN, which could be incorporated into the APCS for prioritizing Asian asymptomatic subjects for colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effectiveness and efficiency of CT-colonography compared to conventional colonoscopy for the early detection and diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiebinger, Cora

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: Colorectal cancer (CC is the second most common cancer and cause of cancer death for both men and women in Germany. Various methods for early detection of CC exist, including conventional coloscopy which is reimbursed within the scope of cancer screening, as well as computertomography-coloscopy (CTC which is currently not reimbursed. Scientific background: CTC is a mere diagnostic procedure which has a lower risk of perforation than conventional coloscopy. However, as it is an x-ray procedure, it exposes the patient to radiation. Conventional coloscopy is considered the gold standard due to its high sensitivity and specificity for locating adenomas. Furthermore, it offers the advantage that in addition to extended diagnostic measures therapeutic measures can be undertaken during the procedure. Research questions: This HTA-report aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of CTC in comparison to conventional coloscopy in the early detection and diagnosis of colorectal cancer and/or its precursors and which ethical and legal aspects have to be considered. Methods: The systematic literature search (27 international literature data bases yielded a total of 1,713 abstracts. After a two-step selection process 36 publications remained to be assessed. Results: The results regarding the effectivity of CTC in diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer and/or its precursors are partly promising, however, they are very heterogeneous. Therefore, regarding its sensitivity and specificity, CTC cannot be considered an equivalent alternative to conventional coloscopy for diagnosis and screening. The heterogeneity of results is due to technical (device type, settings, patient dependent (preparation and operator dependent (training factors. No economic results for a comparison of the procedures for diagnosis exist. Regarding the cost-effectiveness of a CTC-screening, international model calculations are available. According

  3. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  4. Does the 'Scottish effect' apply to all ethnic groups? All-cancer, lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer in the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Raj S; Bansal, Narinder; Steiner, Markus; Brewster, David H

    2012-01-01

    Although ethnic group variations in cancer exist, no multiethnic, population-based, longitudinal studies are available in Europe. Our objectives were to examine ethnic variation in all-cancer, and lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. DESIGN, SETTING, POPULATION, MEASURES AND ANALYSIS: This retrospective cohort study of 4.65 million people linked the 2001 Scottish Census (providing ethnic group) to cancer databases. With the White Scottish population as reference (value 100), directly age standardised rates and ratios (DASR and DASRR), and risk ratios, by sex and ethnic group with 95% CI were calculated for first cancers. In the results below, 95% CI around the DASRR excludes 100. Eight indicators of socio-economic position were assessed as potential confounders across all groups. For all cancers the White Scottish population (100) had the highest DASRRs, Indians the lowest (men 45.9 and women 41.2) and White British (men 87.6 and women 87.3) and other groups were intermediate (eg, Chinese men 57.6). For lung cancer the DASRRs for Pakistani men (45.0), and women (53.5), were low and for any mixed background men high (174.5). For colorectal cancer the DASRRs were lowest in Pakistanis (men 32.9 and women 68.9), White British (men 82.4 and women 83.7), other White (men 77.2 and women 74.9) and Chinese men (42.6). Breast cancer in women was low in Pakistanis (62.2), Chinese (63.0) and White Irish (84.0). Prostate cancer was lowest in Pakistanis (38.7), Indian (62.6) and White Irish (85.4). No socio-economic indicator was a valid confounding variable across ethnic groups. The 'Scottish effect' does not apply across ethnic groups for cancer. The findings have implications for clinical care, prevention and screening, for example, responding appropriately to the known low uptake among South Asian populations of bowel screening might benefit from modelling of cost-effectiveness of screening, given comparatively low cancer rates.

  5. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, S; Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Antikainen, R; Pukkala, E; Hakulinen, T; Tuomilehto, J

    2010-09-01

    The possible association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied in the many populations. The aim of this study is to examine this relationship among Finns, who are the heaviest coffee consumers in the world. A total of 60 041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Their coffee consumption and other study characteristics were determined at baseline, and they were prospectively followed up for onset of colon and rectal cancer, emigration, death or until 30 June 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 538 cases of colorectal cancer (304 cases of colon cancer and 234 cases of rectal cancer) were diagnosed. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of colorectal cancer incidence for > or =10 cups of coffee per day compared with non-drinkers was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.47-2.03) for men (P for trend=0.86), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.49-3.14) for women (p for trend=0.83) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.58-1.83) for men and women combined (P for trend=0.61). In this study, we found no association between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer.

  6. App Improves Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer screening reduces deaths from the disease, yet about one-third of Americans aren’t up to date with screening. In this Cancer Currents blog post, learn what happened when people waiting for routine checkups could order their own screening test using a computer app.

  7. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) are subjected to a preoperative thoraco-abdominal CT scan to determine the cancer stage. This staging is of relevance with regard to treatment and prognosis. About 20% of the patients have distant metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis, i...

  8. Colorectal cancer screening | Schneider | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the Western world, with an estimated incidence of 148 810 cases in the USA in 2008, and about 50 000 deaths from this disease. If detected early, patients with disease localised to the colonic wall have a 5-year survival of 90%. The 5-year survival for patients ...

  9. Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation/International Digestive Cancer Alliance Practice Guidelines. S Winawer, M Classen, R Lambert, M Fried, P Dite, K L Goh, F Guarner, D Lieberman, R Eliakim, B Levin, R Saenz, A G Khan, I Khalif, A Lanas, G Lindberg, M J O'Brien, G Young, J Krabshuis ...

  10. Effect of DNA methylation profile on OATP3A1 and OATP4A1 transcript levels in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawłuszko-Wieczorek, Agnieszka Anna; Horst, Nikodem; Horbacka, Karolina; Bandura, Artur Szymon; Świderska, Monika; Krokowicz, Piotr; Jagodziński, Paweł Piotr

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that 17β-estradiol (E2) prevents colorectal cancer (CRC). Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are involved in the cellular uptake of various endogenous and exogenous substrates, including hormone conjugates. Because transfer of estrone sulfate (E1-S) can contribute to intra-tissue conversion of estrone to the biologically active form -E2, it is evident that the expression patterns of OATPs may be relevant to the analysis of CRC incidence and therapy. We therefore evaluated DNA methylation and transcript levels of two members of the OATP family, OATP3A1 and OATP4A1, that may be involved in E1-S transport in colorectal cancer patients. We detected a significant reduction in OATP3A1 and a significant increase in OATP4A1 mRNA levels in cancerous tissue, compared with histopathologically unchanged tissue (n=103). Moreover, we observed DNA hypermethylation in the OATP3A1 promoter region in a small subset of CRC patients and in HCT116 and Caco-2 colorectal cancer cell lines. We also observed increased OATP3A1 transcript following treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and sodium butyrate. The OATP4A1 promoter region was hypomethylated in analyzed tissues and CRC cell lines and was not affected by these treatments. Our results suggest a potential mechanism for OATP3A1 downregulation that involves DNA methylation during colorectal carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The Green Acres Effect: The Need for a New Colorectal Cancer Screening Campaign Tailored to Rural Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Shelly; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Routsong, Tracy; Graaf, Lorrie J.; Losch, Mary; Smith, Holly

    2008-01-01

    National health communication campaign developers have ignored rural audiences in campaign development and testing, despite the health disparities that exist for this group. Researchers in a rural Midwestern state tested the appropriateness of CDC's national colorectal cancer screening campaign, Screen for Life. Based on focus groups and a…

  12. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Guide to the Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas K Rex

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most recent guidelines for colorectal cancer screening are those of the Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, and the American Cancer Society. The guidelines are similar in many regards and reflect current literature, consensus opinion and compromise between members of multidisciplinary panels. The emphasis of both guidelines is to increase the options available for colorectal cancer screening. Increasing choice should expand the attractiveness of colorectal cancer screening to more patients and physicians, and the development of guidelines should help compel payers to provide reimbursement for colorectal cancer screening. These guidelines are summarized and evaluated as they pertain to colorectal cancer screening.

  13. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

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    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths by cancer. Modifiable risk factors of CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, being overweight and obesity, eating processed meat, and drinking alcohol excessively. CRC screening programs are possible only in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographical areas with ageing populations and a western lifestyle. 19 , 20 Sigmoidoscopy screening done with people aged 55-64 years has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of CRC by 33% and mortality by CRC by 43%. Objective To assess the effect on the incidence and mortality of CRC diet and lifestyle and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology A comprehensive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC and subsequently, a meta-analysis of the same blocks are performed. Results 225 articles related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were retrieved. Of these 145 were considered valid on meta-analysis: 12 on epidemiology, 56 on diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different screenings for early detection of CRC. Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no doubt whatsoever which environmental factors, probably diet, may account for these cancer rates. Excessive alcohol consumption and cholesterol-rich diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet poor in folic acid and vitamin

  14. Screening for colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Fayyaz; Quyn, Aaron; Steele, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Population-based colorectal (bowel) cancer screening using faecal occult blood tests leads to a reduction in cause-specific mortality. However, in people where the colon is defunctioned, the use of standard faecal occult blood test is not appropriate. The aim of this study was to examine the current trends of clinical practice for colorectal cancer screening in people with defunctioned colons. Methods An online survey was performed using SurveyMonkey. All members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland were invited by email to participate. Reminders were sent to non-responders and partial responders till six weeks. All responses were included in our analysis. Results Of the 206 (34.59%) questionnaires completed, all questions were answered in 110 (55.8%). Among responders, 94 (85.4%) were colorectal consultant surgeons, 72% had worked in their current capacity for more than five years, and 105 (50.9%) had encountered colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons during their career. Some 72.2% of responders stated that a screening test for colorectal cancer in patients with defunctioned colons was currently not offered, or that they did not know whether or not it was offered in their area. Conclusions Bowel screening in the United Kingdom is currently not offered to 72.2% of the age appropriate population with defunctioned colons. Among responding colorectal surgeons, 50% had encountered colorectal cancer in such patients. There is considerable variability in clinical practice regarding the optimal age for onset of screening, time interval, and the optimal modality to offer for screening in such cases.

  15. Geographic Variations of Colorectal and Breast Cancer Late-Stage Diagnosis and the Effects of Neighborhood-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Wimberly, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the geographic variations of late-stage diagnosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer as well as to investigate the effects of 3 neighborhood-level factors-socioeconomic deprivation, urban/rural residence, and spatial accessibility to health care-on the late-stage risks. This study used population-based South Dakota cancer registry data from 2001 to 2012. A total of 4,878 CRC cases and 6,418 breast cancer cases were included in the analyses. Two-level logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk of late-stage CRC and breast cancer. For CRC, there was a small geographic variation across census tracts in late-stage diagnosis, and residing in isolated small rural areas was significantly associated with late-stage risk. However, this association became nonsignificant after adjusting for census-tract level socioeconomic deprivation. Socioeconomic deprivation was an independent predictor of CRC late-stage risk, and it explained the elevated risk among American Indians. No relationship was found between spatial accessibility and CRC late-stage risk. For breast cancer, no geographic variation in the late-stage diagnosis was observed across census tracts, and none of the 3 neighborhood-level factors was significantly associated with late-stage risk. Results suggested that socioeconomic deprivation, rather than spatial accessibility, contributed to CRC late-stage risks in South Dakota as a rural state. CRC intervention programs could be developed to target isolated small rural areas, socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, as well as American Indians residing in these areas. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  16. Toward standardizing and reporting colorectal cancer screening indicators on an international level: The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Victoria S.; Atkin, Wendy S.; Green, Jane; Nadel, Marion R.; Patnick, Julietta; Smith, Robert A.; Villain, Patricia; Patnick, J.; Atkin, W. S.; Altenhofen, L.; Ancelle-Park, R.; Benson, V. S.; Green, J.; Levin, T. R.; Moss, S. M.; Nadel, M.; Ransohoff, D.; Segnan, N.; Smith, R. A.; Villain, P.; Weller, D.; Koukari, A.; Young, G.; López-Kostner, F.; Antoljak, N.; Suchánek, S.; Zavoral, M.; Holten, I.; Malila, N.; Salines, E.; Brenner, G.; Herszényi, L.; Tulassay, Z.; Rennert, G.; Senore, C.; Zappa, M.; Zorzi, M.; Saito, H.; Leja, M.; Dekker, E.; Jansen, J.; Hol, L.; Kuipers, E.; Kaminski, M. F.; Regula, J.; Sfarti, C.; Trifan, A.; Tang, C.-L.; Hrcka, R.; Binefa, G.; Espinàs, J. A.; Peris, M.; Chen, T. H.; Steele, R.; Pou, G.; Bisges, D.; Dwyer, D.; Groves, C.; Courteau, S.; Kramer, R.; Siegenthaler, K.; Lane, D.; Herrera, C.; Rogers, J.; Rojewski, M.; Wolf, Holly; Sung, J. J.; Ling, K.; Bryant, H.; Rabeneck, L.; Dale, J.; Sware, L.; Yang, H.; Viguier, J.; Von Karsa, L.; Kupcinskas, L.; Deutekom, M.; Törnberg, S.; Austoker, J.; Beral, V.; Monk, C.; Valori, R.; Watson, J.; Kobrin, S.; Pignone, M.; Taplin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network was established in 2003 to promote best practice in the delivery of organized colorectal cancer screening programs. To facilitate evaluation of such programs, we defined a set of universally applicable colorectal cancer screening measures and

  17. The effect of health literacy on knowledge and receipt of colorectal cancer screening: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pignone Michael P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated one-half of Americans have limited health literacy skills. Low literacy has been associated with less receipt of preventive services, but its impact on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is unclear. We sought to determine whether low literacy affects patients' knowledge or receipt of CRC screening. Methods Pilot survey study of patients aged 50 years and older at a large, university-affiliated internal medicine practice. We assessed patients' knowledge and receipt of CRC screening, basic sociodemographic information, and health literacy level. We defined limited literacy as reading below the ninth grade level as determined by the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Bivariate analyses and exact logistic regression were used to determine the association of limited health literacy with knowledge and receipt of CRC screening. Results We approached 105 patients to yield our target sample of 50 completing the survey (recruitment rate 48%. Most subjects were female (72%, African-American (58%, and had household incomes less than $25,000 (87%. Overall, 48% of patients had limited literacy skills (95% CI 35% to 61%. Limited literacy patients were less likely than adequate literacy patients to be able to name or describe any CRC screening test (50% vs. 96%, p Conclusion Patients with limited literacy skills are less likely to be knowledgeable of CRC screening compared to adequate literacy patients. Primary care providers should ensure patients' understanding of CRC screening when discussing screening options. Further research is needed to determine if educating low literacy patients about CRC screening can increase screening rates.

  18. Effect of fisetin supplementation on inflammatory factors and matrix metalloproteinase enzymes in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad-Naeimi, Alireza; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Esfahani, Ali; Darvish Aminabad, Esmaeil

    2018-04-25

    A growing body of evidence indicates that inflammation is associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis and chemotherapeutic resistance in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Natural flavonoids are promising agents for inflammation-related tumor progression in patients with CRC. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of flavonoid fisetin supplementation on the inflammatory status and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels in these patients. In this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, 37 CRC patients undergoing chemotherapy were assigned to receive either 100 mg fisetin (n = 18) or placebo (n = 19) for seven consecutive weeks. The supplementation began one week before chemotherapy and continued until the end of the second chemotherapy cycle. Levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), MMP-7, and MMP-9 were measured in plasma using ELISA, before and after the intervention. The trial was registered at http://www.irct.ir (code: IRCT2015110511288N9). The participants were 55.59 ± 15.46 years old with 62.16% being male. After the intervention, the plasma levels of IL-8 and hs-CRP reduced significantly in the fisetin group (p < 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, fisetin supplementation suppressed the values of MMP-7 levels (p < 0.02). However, significant changes were observed only in IL-8 concentrations in the fisetin group when compared with the placebo group (p < 0.03). The changes in the levels of other metabolic factors were not statistically significant. According to the results, fisetin could improve the inflammatory status in CRC patients, suggesting it as a novel complementary antitumor agent for these patients and warranting further studies.

  19. Radiological and clinical evaluation of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, O. J.; Chin, S. Y.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred thirty two cases of the pathologically proven colorectal cancer at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Hospital in the period from January 1973 to June 1980 were analyzed radiologically and clinically. The results were as follows: 1. The colorectal cancer was prevalent in rectosigmoid area and in the fourth to seventh decade of life. 2. The clinical pictures were classified into two groups. The one was rectosigmoid cancer with bowel habit changes. The other was one with no specific symptoms or signs. The clinical pictures of the right colon cancer were rather indirected, chronic and systemic than those of the left one. 3. The roentgenological findings were classified into two groups. The one was rectum and left colon cancer with symmetrical annular narrowing and the other showed trumpet-like proximal dilatation. 4. The most frequent complication was intestinal obstruction. 5. The majority of colorectal cancer was adenocarcinoma. The squamous cell carcinoma and atypical cell carcinoma were most prevalent in rectum, but malignantly lymphoma often occurred in right colon. The rarest colorectal cancer was atypical cell carcinoma in rectum

  20. Colorectal cancer stages transcriptome analysis.

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    Tianyao Huo

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression differences in different stages of CRC. Gene expression data on 433 CRC patient samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Gene expression differences were evaluated across CRC stages using linear regression. Genes with p≤0.001 in expression differences were evaluated further in principal component analysis and genes with p≤0.0001 were evaluated further in gene set enrichment analysis. A total of 377 patients with gene expression data in 20,532 genes were included in the final analysis. The numbers of patients in stage I through IV were 59, 147, 116 and 55, respectively. NEK4 gene, which encodes for NIMA related kinase 4, was differentially expressed across the four stages of CRC. The stage I patients had the highest expression of NEK4 genes, while the stage IV patients had the lowest expressions (p = 9*10-6. Ten other genes (RNF34, HIST3H2BB, NUDT6, LRCh4, GLB1L, HIST2H4A, TMEM79, AMIGO2, C20orf135 and SPSB3 had p value of 0.0001 in the differential expression analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that the patients from the 4 clinical stages do not appear to have distinct gene expression pattern. Network-based and pathway-based gene set enrichment analyses showed that these 11 genes map to multiple pathways such as meiotic synapsis and packaging of telomere ends, etc. Ten of these 11 genes were linked to Gene Ontology terms such as nucleosome, DNA packaging complex and protein-DNA interactions. The protein complex-based gene set analysis showed that four genes were involved in H2AX complex II. This study identified a small number of genes that might be associated with clinical stages of CRC. Our analysis was not able to find a molecular basis for the current clinical staging for CRC based on the gene expression patterns.

  1. Use of positron emission tomography in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez E, Patricio; Jofre E, Josefina; Massardo V, Teresa; Humeres, Pamela; Canessa G, Jose; Sierralta C, Paulina

    2002-01-01

    The value of PET (Positron Emission Tomography) in colorectal cancer is presented. PET is a novel technique that uses F-18-FDG (fluorodeoxiglucose) to assess glucose metabolism by whole body imaging. It has been demonstrated that malignant cells have both increase of glucose uptake and utilization. In colorectal cancer, PET is indicated for staging, assess recurrence, liver metastasis and treatment follow-up. PET is more sensitive and specific than CT (Computed Tomography) and is cost effective. In 30% of cases PET may change patient management, avoiding unnecessary procedures (au)

  2. Sugars, sucrose and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka colorectal cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Morita, Makiko; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2014-05-01

    A diet high in sugars may promote colorectal carcinogenesis, but it remains uncertain whether high intake of sugars or sucrose confers increased risk of colorectal cancer. The authors investigated the associations of sugars and sucrose intake with colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study in Japan. The study subjects comprised 816 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 815 community controls. Consumption frequencies and portion sizes of 148 food and beverage items were ascertained by a computer-assisted interview. The authors used the consumption of 29 food items to estimate sugars and sucrose intake. The odds ratios of colorectal cancer risk according to intake categories were obtained using a logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Overall, intakes of sugars and sucrose were not related to colorectal cancer risk either in men or women. The association between sugars intake and colorectal cancer risk differed by smoking status and alcohol use in men, but not in women. In men, sugars intake tended to be associated with colorectal cancer risk inversely among never-smokers and positively among male ever-smokers (interaction p=0.01). Sugars intake was associated with an increased risk among men with no alcohol consumption, but was unrelated to the risk among male alcohol drinkers (interaction p=0.02). Body mass index did not modify the association with sugars intake in either men or women. Sugars intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among smokers and non-alcohol drinkers in men selectively.

  3. Molecular alterations and biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William M.; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer genetics is leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers). PMID:24178577

  4. The Effects of NDRG2 Overexpression on Cell Proliferation and Invasiveness of SW48 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestan, Ali; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Hamidinia, Maryam; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in the world. The expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is down-regulated in CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell proliferation and invasive potential of SW48 cells. SW48 cells were transfected with a plasmid overexpressing NDRG2. After stable transfection, the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. The effects of NDRG2 overexpression on cell migration, invasion and cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) activities were also investigated using matrigel transwell assay, wound healing assay and gelatin zymography, respectively. MTT assay showed that overexpression of NDRG2 caused attenuation of SW48 cell proliferation. Transwell and wound healing assay revealed that NDRG2 overexpression led to inhibition of migration, invasion, and motility of SW48 cells. The overexpression of NDRG2 also reduced the activity of secreted MMP-9. The results of this study suggest that NDRG2 overexpression inhibits proliferation and invasive potential of SW48 cells, which likely occurs via suppression of MMP-9 activity.

  5. Biological and Molecular Effects of Small Molecule Kinase Inhibitors on Low-Passage Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Lange

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-passage cancer cell lines are versatile tools to study tumor cell biology. Here, we have employed four such cell lines, established from primary tumors of colorectal cancer (CRC patients, to evaluate effects of the small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMI vemurafenib, trametinib, perifosine, and regorafenib in an in vitro setting. The mutant BRAF (V600E/V600K inhibitor vemurafenib, but also the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib efficiently inhibited DNA synthesis, signaling through ERK1/2 and expression of genes downstream of ERK1/2 in BRAF mutant cells only. In case of the AKT inhibitor perifosine, three cell lines showed a high or intermediate responsiveness to the drug while one cell line was resistant. The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib inhibited proliferation of all CRC lines with similar efficiency and independent of the presence or absence of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutations. Regorafenib action was associated with broad-range inhibitory effects at the level of gene expression but not with a general inhibition of AKT or MEK/ERK signaling. In vemurafenib-sensitive cells, the antiproliferative effect of vemurafenib was enhanced by the other SMI. Together, our results provide insights into the determinants of SMI efficiencies in CRC cells and encourage the further use of low-passage CRC cell lines as preclinical models.

  6. Effects of Human Development Index and Its Components on Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality: a Global Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Somayeh; Mansori, Kamyar; Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Ayubi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    Geographic disparity for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality according to the human development index (HDI) might be expected. This study aimed at quantifying the effect measure of association HDI and its components on the CRC incidence and mortality. In this ecological study, CRC incidence and mortality was obtained from GLOBOCAN, the global cancer project for 172 countries. Data were extracted about HDI 2013 for 169 countries from the World Bank report. Linear regression was constructed to measure effects of HDI and its components on CRC incidence and mortality. A positive trend between increasing HDI of countries and age-standardized rates per 100,000 of CRC incidence and mortality was observed. Among HDI components education was the strongest effect measure of association on CRC incidence and mortality, regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) being 2.8 (2.4, 3.2) and 0.9 (0.8, 1), respectively. HDI and its components were positively related with CRC incidence and mortality and can be considered as targets for prevention and treatment intervention or tracking geographic disparities.

  7. Effects of foot massage applied in two different methods on symptom control in colorectal cancer patients: Randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Neşe; Kutlutürkan, Sevinç; Uğur, Işıl

    2017-06-01

    This randomized controlled clinical study aimed to determine the effect of 2 foot massage methods on symptom control in people with colorectal cancer who received chemoradiotherapy. Data were collected between June 16, 2015, and February 10, 2016, in the Department of Radiation Oncology of an oncology training and research hospital. The sample comprised 60 participants. Data were collected using an introductory information form, common terminology criteria for adverse events and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires C30 and CR29. Participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups: classical foot massage, reflexology, and standard care control. The classical massage group received foot massage using classical massage techniques, and the reflexology group received foot reflexology focusing on symptom-oriented reflexes twice a week during a 5-week chemoradiotherapy treatment schedule. The control group received neither classical massage nor reflexology. All patients were provided with the same clinic routine care. The classical massage was effective in reducing pain level and distension incidence while foot reflexology was effective in reducing pain and fatigue level, lowering incidence of distension and urinary frequency and improving life quality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Surveying the effect of a self-care education program on severity of nausea and emesis in colorectal cancer patients under chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saba Karimi,1 Behnam Reza Makhsosi,2 Seyed Jalil Seyedi-Andi,3 Maryam Behzadi,4 Yasaman Moghofeh,5 Kourosh Mohammadinasrabadi,1 Alireza Abdi,1 Pegah Ahmadi1 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, 2Surgical Department, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, 4Taleghani Hospital, 5Imam Khomeini Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Background and objective: Colorectal cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in both developed and developing countries, including Iran. One of the treatments available for colorectal cancer is chemotherapy, of which nausea and emesis are the side effects. Owing to problems in controlling the side effects, a combination of medicine and non-medicine interventions is usually used. Self-care is one of the non-medicine interventions in this regard. The present study was aimed at surveying the effect of a self-care education program on severity of nausea and emesis in colorectal cancer patients under chemotherapy.Methods: A semi-experimental study was carried out in Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran. The sample group comprised 52 patients with colorectal cancer under chemotherapy. Data gathering tools included a demographics questionnaire and Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Emesis. To control intensity of nausea and emesis, a package of self-care measures including muscular progressive relaxation, music, and education on nutrition was used. Afterward, the collected data were analyzed using statistical tests such as Shapiro–Wilk test (to check normal distribution of the data, Mann–Whitney U test, Wilcoxon test, and chi-square test with the help of SPSS 20.Results: The results showed a considerable decrease in intensity and frequency of nausea and emesis after the intervention. The p-value of Mann–Whitney U test results with regard to intensity of nausea in

  9. Involvement of hyaluronidases in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouga, Helen; Tsouros, Isidoros; Bounias, Dimitrios; Kyriakopoulou, Dora; Stavropoulos, Michael S; Papageorgakopoulou, Nikoletta; Theocharis, Dimitrios A; Vynios, Demitrios H

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronidases belong to a class of enzymes that degrade, predominantly, hyaluronan. These enzymes are known to be involved in physiological and pathological processes, such as tumor growth, infiltration and angiogenesis, but their exact role in tumor promotion or suppression is not clear yet. Advanced colorectal cancer is associated with elevated amounts of hyaluronan of varying size. The aim of the present study was therefore to illuminate the importance of hyaluronidases in colon carcinoma progression. The patients' samples (macroscopically normal and cancerous) were subjected to sequential extraction with PBS, 4 M GdnHCl and 4 M GdnHCl - 1% Triton X-100. The presence of the various hyaluronidases in the extracts was examined by zymography and western blotting. Their expression was also examined by RT-PCR. Among hyaluronidases examined, Hyal-1, -2, -3 and PH-20 were detected. Their activity was higher in cancerous samples. Hyal-1 and Hyal-2 were overexpressed in cancerous samples, especially in advanced stages of cancer. Both isoforms were mainly extracted with PBS. Hyal-3 was observed only in the third extract of advanced stages of cancer. PH-20 was abundant in all three extracts of all stages of cancer. The expression of only Hyal-1 and PH-20 was verified by RT-PCR. A high association of hyaluronidases in colorectal cancer was observed. Each hyaluronidase presented different tissue distribution, which indicated the implication of certain isoforms in certain cancer stages. The results provided new evidence on the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer

  10. Cost of illness in colorectal cancer: an international review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriza, Christine; Emmert, Martin; Wahlster, Philip; Niederländer, Charlotte; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Given the current-and increasing-pressure to limit expenditure on health care provision in many countries, a better understanding of the cost burden of colorectal cancer is needed. Cost-of-illness studies and reviews thereof can be a useful tool for analysing and critically evaluating the cost-related development of colorectal cancer, and they highlight important cost drivers. A systematic review was conducted from 2002 to 2012 to identify cost-of-illness studies related to colorectal cancer, searching the Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and the York CRD databases. Among the 10 studies (from France, the US, Ireland and Taiwan) included in the review, 6 studies reported prevalence-based estimates and 4 studies focussed on incidence-based data. In the studies included in the review, long-term costs for colorectal cancer of up to $50,175 per patient (2008 values) were estimated. Most of the studies in the review showed that the initial and terminal phases of colorectal cancer care are the most expensive, with continuing treatment being the least costly phase. One study also highlighted that stage I CRC disease was the least costly and stage III the most costly of all 4 stages, due to the high cost impact of biological agents. This review has highlighted a trend for rising costs associated with CRC, which is linked to the increasing use of targeted biological therapies. COI studies in colorectal cancer can identify specific components and areas of care that are especially costly, thereby focussing attention on more cost-effective approaches, which is especially relevant to the increased use of biological agents in the field of personalised medicine. COI studies are an important tool for further health economic evaluations of personalised medicine.

  11. Investigating the effect of pixel size of high spatial resolution FTIR imaging for detection of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, G. R.; Nallala, J.; Stone, N.

    2016-03-01

    FTIR is a well-established technique and there is significant interest in applying this technique to medical diagnostics e.g. to detect cancer. The introduction of focal plane array (FPA) detectors means that FTIR is particularly suited to rapid imaging of biopsy sections as an adjunct to digital pathology. Until recently however each pixel in the image has been limited to a minimum of 5.5 µm which results in a comparatively low magnification image or histology applications and potentially the loss of important diagnostic information. The recent introduction of higher magnification optics gives image pixels that cover approx. 1.1 µm. This reduction in image pixel size gives images of higher magnification and improved spatial detail can be observed. However, the effect of increasing the magnification on spectral quality and the ability to discriminate between disease states is not well studied. In this work we test the discriminatory performance of FTIR imaging using both standard (5.5 µm) and high (1.1 µm) magnification for the detection of colorectal cancer and explore the effect of binning to degrade high resolution images to determine whether similar diagnostic information and performance can be obtained using both magnifications. Results indicate that diagnostic performance using high magnification may be reduced as compared to standard magnification when using existing multivariate approaches. Reduction of the high magnification data to standard magnification via binning can potentially recover some of the lost performance.

  12. Colorectal cancer heterogeneity and targeted therapy: a case for molecular disease subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnekamp, Janneke F.; Wang, Xin; Medema, Jan Paul; Vermeulen, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Personalized cancer medicine is becoming increasingly important in colorectal cancer treatment. Especially for targeted therapies, large variations between individual treatment responses exist. Predicting therapy response is of utmost significance, as it prevents overtreatment and adverse effects in

  13. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bo In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  14. CALCIUM AND VITAMIN-D - POSSIBLE PROTECTIVE AGENTS AGAINST COLORECTAL-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; DEVRIES, EGE

    1995-01-01

    Nutritional factors are important determinants of colorectal cancer risk. Diets high in fat and/or low in fibre are especially recognised to increase risk. Dietary calcium and vitamin D have been suggested to be protective against colorectal cancer. With respect to calcium, its possible effect is

  15. An audit of colorectal cancer histopathology reports in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To audit the completeness of histopathologic reports of Colorectal Cancer for prognostic information in a tertiary care hospital in the light of the minimum reporting standards for colorectal cancer resections recently proposed for use in Nigeria. Material and Methods: Twenty–five histopathology reports of colorectal ...

  16. A Framework for Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of Patient Decision Aids: A Case Study Using Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Scott B.; Rajan, Tanya; Linder, Suzanne K.; Volk, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patient decision aids are important tools for facilitating balanced, evidence-based decision making. However, the potential of decision aids to lower health care utilization and costs is uncertain; few studies have investigated the cost-effectiveness of decision aids that change patient behavior. Using an example of a decision aid for colorectal cancer screening, we provide a framework for analyzing the cost-effectiveness of decision aids. Methods A decision-analytic model with two strategies (decision aid or no decision aid) was used to calculate expected costs in U.S. dollars and benefits measured in life-years saved (LYS). Data from a systematic review of ten studies about decision aid effectiveness was used to calculate the percentage increase in the number of people choosing screening instead of no screening. We then calculated the incremental cost per LYS with the use of the decision aid. Results The no decision aid strategy had an expected cost of $3,023 and yielded 18.19 LYS. The decision aid strategy cost $3,249 and yielded 18.20 LYS. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the decision aid strategy was $36,126 per LYS. Results were sensitive to the cost of the decision aid and the percentage change in behavior caused by the decision aid. Conclusions This study provides proof-of-concept evidence for future studies examining the cost-effectiveness of decision aids. The results suggest that decision aids can be beneficial and cost-effective. PMID:25979678

  17. The combination effect of sodium butyrate and 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine on radiosensitivity in RKO colorectal cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Seong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall level of chromatin compaction is an important mechanism of radiosensitivity, and modification of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation may increase radiosensitivity by altering chromatin compaction. In this study, we investigated the effect of a demethylating agent, a histone deacetylase(HDAC inhibitor, and the two agents combined on radiosensitivity in human colon and breast cancer cell lines. Methods In this study, we used RKO colorectal cancer cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and normal colon cell lines. On each of the cell lines, we used three different agents: the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate(SB, the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine(5-aza-DC, and radiation. We then estimated the percentage of the cell survival using the XTT method and experimented to determine if there was an augmentation in the therapeutic effect by using different combinations of the two or three of the treatment methods. Results After treatment of each cell lines with 5-aza-DC, SB and 6 grays of radiation, we observed that the survival fraction was lower after the treatment with 5-aza-DC or SB than with radiation alone in RKO and MCF-7 cell lines(p Conclusion In conclusion, 5-aza-DC and SB can enhance radiosensitivity in both MCF-7 and RKO cell lines. The combination effect of a demethylating agent and an HDAC inhibitor is more effective than that of single agent treatment in both breast and colon cancer cell lines.

  18. Synergistic Effect of Simvastatin Plus Radiation in Gastric Cancer and Colorectal Cancer: Implications of BIRC5 and Connective Tissue Growth Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Taekyu; Lee, Inkyoung; Kim, Jungmin; Kang, Won Ki

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the synergistic effect of simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor plus radiation therapy, on the proliferation and survival of gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We also studied several genes involved in the simvastatin/radiation-induced effects. Gastric cancer (AGS, SNU601, MKN1, and MKN28) and CRC (CoLo320, SW48, HT29, and HCT8) cell lines were treated with 0.2 μM simvastatin alone, or in combination with 0 to 4 Gy of radiation, and subjected to clonogenic survival and proliferation assays in vitro. To assess the molecular mechanism of the combination treatment, we performed microarray analysis, immunoblot assays, small interfering RNA knockdown experiments, and plasmid rescue assays. The antitumoral effects of simvastatin and radiation were evaluated in vivo using xenograft models. The combination therapy of simvastatin plus radiation inhibited basal clonogenic survival and proliferation of GC and CRC cells in vitro. Simvastatin suppressed the expression of BIRC5 and CTGF genes in these cancer cells. In vivo, the combined treatment with simvastatin and radiation significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumors compared with treatment with radiation alone. We suggest that simvastatin has a synergistic effect with radiation on GC and CRC through the induction of apoptosis, which may be mediated by a simultaneous inhibition of BIRC5 and CTGF expression. A clinical trial of simvastatin in combination with radiation in patients with GC or CRC is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Workload and surgeon's specialty for outcome after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archampong, David; Borowski, David; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has focused on investigating the effects of healthcare provider volume and specialization on patient outcomes including outcomes of colorectal cancer surgery. However there is conflicting evidence about the role of such healthcare provider characteristics in the management...

  20. Unique insight into microenvironmental changes in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Nicholas; Bager, Cecilie L; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-mediated tissue remodeling is one of the malignant changes driving colorectal cancer. Measurement of altered MMP expression/activity is not sufficient to fully understand the effect of MMP-mediated tissue remodeling. Biomarkers are required that specifically reflect t...

  1. Immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masami; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Hata, Jotaro; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Tahara, Eiichi.

    1987-01-01

    In order to elucidate the biological characteristics of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, a total of 159 cases of colorectal cancers comprising 73 cases in exposed atomic bomb survivors and 86 cases in non-exposed individuals were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for various functioning proteins. No statistical differences could be demonstrated in the incidence of various marker expressions of colorectal cancers between the exposed group and control group. However, comparison by the site of colorectal cancer showed that sigmoid colon cancers in the exposed group or high dose group showed a significantly higher frequency of glycoproteins such as α 1 -antichymotrypsin (ACT), secretory component (SC), α 1 -antitrypsin (AAT), and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) when compared with the control group. These results correlated well with the epidemiological data that the radiation effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors was most remarkable in the sigmoid colon. (author)

  2. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  3. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...... population). RAS was mutated in 46% and BRAF in 12% of the tumours. RAS and BRAF, if mutated, were negative prognostic factors. The updated analyses confirmed the finding of the primary report that cetuximab did not provide any additional benefit when added to FLOX in patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type tumours......, neither on progression-free nor overall survival. However, the outcomes in a subset of patients, which, after the first eight treatment cycles, received cetuximab alone, suggested a beneficial effect of cetuximab monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Adding cetuximab to Nordic FLOX did not provide any clinical...

  4. Family history of prostate and colorectal cancer and risk of colorectal cancer in the Women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L; Yee, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra; Schwartz, Ann G; Lane, Dorothy; Palmer, Nynikka R A; Bock, Cathryn H; Nassir, Rami; Simon, Michael S

    2017-12-13

    Evidence suggests that risk of colorectal and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease, particularly among first-degree relatives. However, the aggregation of colorectal and prostate cancer within families has not been well investigated. Analyses were conducted among participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort, free of cancer at the baseline examination. Subjects were followed for colorectal cancer through August 31st, 2009. A Cox-proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate risk of colorectal cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and both cancers among first-degree relatives of all participants and stratified by race (African American vs. White). Of 75,999 eligible participants, there were 1122 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed over the study period. A family history of prostate cancer alone was not associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for confounders (aHR =0.94; 95% CI =0.76, 1.15). Separate analysis examining the joint impact, a family history of both colorectal and prostate cancer was associated with an almost 50% increase in colorectal cancer risk (aHR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.10), but similar to those with a family history of colorectal cancer only (95% CI = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.54). Our findings suggest risk of colorectal cancer is increased similarly among women with colorectal cancer only and among those with both colorectal and prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contribution of genes and shared environment to the risk of both cancers.

  5. Systematic review and quality assessment of cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmaceutical therapies for advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Henry W C; Chan, Agnes L F; Leung, Matthew S H; Lu, Chin-Li

    2013-04-01

    To systematically review and assess the quality of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of pharmaceutical therapies for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and EconLit databases were searched for the Medical Subject Headings or text key words quality-adjusted, QALY, life-year gained (LYG), and cost-effectiveness (January 1, 1999-December 31, 2009). Original CEAs of mCRC pharmacotherapy published in English were included. CEAs that measured health effects in units other than quality-adjusted life years or LYG and letters to the editor, case reports, posters, and editorials were excluded. Each article was independently assessed by 2 trained reviewers according to a quality checklist created by the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Twenty-four CEA studies pertaining to pharmaceutical therapies for mCRC were identified. All studies showed a wide variation in methodologic approaches, which resulted in a different range of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios reported for each regimen. We found common methodologic flaws in a significant number of CEA studies, including lack of clear description for critique of data quality; lack of method for adjusting costs for inflation and methods for obtaining expert judgment; no results of model validation; wide differences in the types of perspective, time horizon, study design, cost categories, and effect outcomes; and no quality assessment of data (cost and effectiveness) for the interventions evaluation. This study has shown a wide variation in the methodology and quality of cost-effectiveness analysis for mCRC. Improving quality and harmonization of CEA for cancer treatment is needed. Further study is suggested to assess the quality of CEA methodology outside the mCRC disease state.

  6. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in a Japanese population: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Kayo; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Joshi, Amit Man; Yin, Guang; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Mibu, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the relation between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in Japan. We investigated dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study. The association with dietary patterns was also examined for different sites of colorectal cancer. Data were derived from the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study, including 800 cases and 775 controls interviewed from September 2000 to December 2003. The cases were admitted to one of the participating hospitals for the first surgical treatment during this period. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of intakes of twenty-nine items of food groups and specific foods. Quartile categories of each dietary pattern were used, and non-dietary lifestyle factors and total energy intake were adjusted for in the analysis. We identified three dietary patterns: prudent, high-fat and light-meal patterns. The prudent dietary pattern characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, seafoods and soya foods showed a nearly significant protective association with the overall risk of colorectal cancer (trend P = 0.054), and it was statistically significantly related to a decreased risk of distal colon cancer (trend P = 0.002), but not to that of either proximal colon or rectal cancer. The high-fat and light-meal dietary patterns were not materially related to the overall or site-specific risk of colorectal cancer. In summary, a prudent dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, especially with that of distal colon cancer, in a fairly large case-control study in Japan.

  7. Effects of preoperative ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block on pain after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Yim, Jiyeon; Kim, Jaehyun; Eom, Woosik; Lee, Soon Ae; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Park, Ji Won; Park, Boram; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Although laparoscopic colorectal surgery decreases postoperative pain and facilitates a speedier recovery compared with laparotomy, postoperative pain at trocar insertion sites remains a clinical concern. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a preoperative ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block on pain after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. In total, 58 patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic surgery following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer were included in this study. The patients were randomized into TAP and control groups; the TAP group patients received a preoperative ultrasound-guided bilateral TAP block with 0.5 mL/kg of 0.25 % bupivacaine, while the control patients received the block with an equal amount of saline. Pain on coughing and at rest was assessed during postanesthetic recovery (PAR; 1 h after surgery) and on postoperative days (PODs) 1 (24 h), 2 (48 h), and 3 (72 h) by an investigator blinded to group allocations using the numeric rating scale (NRS). The primary outcome was pain on coughing on postoperative day (POD) 1. Fifty-five patients were included in the final analysis, including 28 in the TAP and 27 in the control groups. The pain intensity on coughing and at rest during PAR and on PODs 1, 2, and 3 showed no significant differences between groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in postoperative opioid consumption, sedation scores, nausea scores at the four time points, complication rates, and length of hospital stay between groups. In colorectal cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery, a TAP block did not offer enough benefit for clinical efficacy in terms of postoperative pain or analgesic consumption.

  8. Decision tree analysis to assess the cost-effectiveness of yttrium microspheres for treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, B.B.; Walker, G.D.; Miles, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim is to determine the cost-effectiveness of yttrium microsphere treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer, with and without FDG-PET for detection of extra-hepatic disease. A decision tree was created comparing two strategies for yttrium treatment with chemotherapy, one incorporating PET in addition to CT in the pre-treatment work-up, to a strategy of chemotherapy alone. The sensitivity and specificity of PET and CT were obtained from the Federal Government PET review. Imaging costs were obtained from the Medicare benefits schedule with an additional capital component added for PET (final cost $1200). The cost of yttrium treatment was determined by patient-tracking. Previously published reports indicated a mean gain in life-expectancy from treatment of 0.52 years. Patients with extra-hepatic metastases were assumed to receive no survival benefit. Cost effectiveness was expressed as incremental cost per life-year gained (ICER). Sensitivity analysis determined the effect of prior probability of extra-hepatic disease on cost-savings and cost-effectiveness. The cost of yttrium treatment including angiography, particle perfusion studies and bed-stays, was $10530. A baseline value for prior probability of extra-hepatic disease of 0.35 gave ICERs of $26,378 and $25,271 for the no-PET and PET strategies respectively. The PET strategy was less expensive if the prior probability of extra-hepatic metastases was greater than 0.16 and more cost-effective if above 0.28. Yttrium microsphere treatment is less cost-effective than other interventions for colon cancer but comparable to other accepted health interventions. Incorporating PET into the pre-treatment assessment is likely to save costs and improve cost-effectiveness. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano-Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668, already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls, Latvia (81 cases and controls, Lithuania (123 cases and controls, and Poland (795 cases and controls. Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample. Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers.

  10. Hereditary & familial colorectal cancer : Identification, characteristics, surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, 15-20% is related to familial or hereditary factors. Diagnosing familial and hereditary CRC syndromes is important for several reasons. One of these is that surveillance colonoscopies can reduce CRC incidence and mortality importantly. A complete family history

  11. Parameters of biological activity in colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Š.; Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Levý, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Svačina, Š.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 373-378 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : colorectal cancer * biological activity * prognosis * tumor markers * angiogenetic factors * metalloproteinases * adhesion molecules Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  12. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three...

  13. Systemic therapy for patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Per; Qvortrup, Camilla; Tabernero, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Recent modalities and strategies have increased the complexity of treatment choice in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and therefore all cases should be assessed at a multidisciplinary conference. Adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months increases the chance of cure by absolutely 5 % in stage II...

  14. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  15. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...

  16. Why I Got Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-29

    CDC’s Dr. Lisa Richardson explains why she got tested for colorectal cancer when she turned 50 years old. .  Created: 2/29/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/29/2016.

  17. Cetuximab: clinical results in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, E; Giuliani, F; Gebbia, V; Piano, A; Agueli, R; Colucci, G

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, the introduction of targeted therapies into clinical practice seems to offer incremental benefits in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), mainly when they are employed in combination with optimal chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In this paper, we focus on Cetuximab and its role in the treatment of mCRC.

  18. Metalloproteinases and their regulators in colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, M.F.P. van der; Wobbes, T.; Strobbe, L.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Span, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    Metalloproteinases (MPs) such as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and adamalysins (ADAMs and ADAMTS) are expressed in various stages of colorectal cancer (CRC), and some correlate with survival and prognosis. The MPs are regulated by various factors including EMMPRIN, TIMPs, and RECK. In

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Ocepek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in developed countries and Slovenia, and the incidence is still rising. Groups of people with higher risk for colorectal cancer are well defined. Among them are patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk is highest in patients in whom whole large bowel is affected by inflammation, it rises after 8 to 10 years and increases with the duration of the disease. Precancerous lesion is a displastic, chronically inflammed mucosa and not an adenoma as in cases of sporadic colorectal carcinoma.Conclusions: Many studies suggest that the influence of genetic factors differs between sporadic and inflammatory bowel disease related colorectal cancer. Symptomatic patients at the time of diagnosis have a much worse prognosis. The goal of prevention programes is therefore discovering early precancerous lesions. Established screening protocols are based on relatively frequent colonoscopies which are inconvinient for the patient as well as the endoscopist. Use of specific genetic markers, mutations of candidate genes, as a screening method and a prognostic predictor could greatly lighten therapeutic decisions.

  20. Status of colorectal cancer devices: present scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Shammy; Akhtar, Reyhan; Sarotra, Pooja; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the colonoscopic detection and removal of neoplasia from the colorectum to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Various online medical databases were searched such as PubMed, ACS, NCI, NIH, WHO, etc. for relevant publications and clinical trials for new developments in colonoscopic devices that are intended for diagnostic visualization and therapeutic interventions of the digestive tract. HD colon and I-Scan both has shown to increase the detection of sporadic adenomas with high quality. Third Eye Retroscope confers the backward view of colon, but aeroscope screens the entire colon in 30-60 min. Narrow-band imaging enhances mucosal and vascular details through the color differentiation of precancerous or cancerous polyp, compared to white light colonoscopy. The PillCam Colon Capsule is another new technique which is easily inserted and painless. In case of chemotherapy, Therasphere with Yttrium-90 has good results in the treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma metastasis. Radiofrequency ablation is a good technique for tumors ablation and Staple Line Reinforcement prevents the leak during and post-surgery of colon. FOBT is much more sensitive and cheaper test for colorectal cancer screening. Registered clinical trials have shown promising results for neoplasia detection by I-Scan, TER, and NBI imaging techniques will change current colonoscopic practice in colorectal cancer screening. However, more studies and inventions are required for improving the patient safety and efficacy.

  1. [Multiple primary colorectal cancer: Clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatkina, N V; Kit, O I; Gevorkyan, Yu A; Milakin, A G

    to define some clinical characteristics of synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC). The investigation was concerned with the data of 150 patients with T1-4N0-2M0-1 multiple primary CRC. The clinical, biological, and morphological characteristics of synchronous and metachronous tumors were analyzed. Multiple primary tumors were 6.01% of all the cases of CRC. There was a preponderance of synchronous CRC (63.75%) with the tumor localized in the sigmoid colon and rectum. In women, synchronous colorectal tumors were more often concurrent with breast tumors; metachronous ones were detected after treatment for genital tumors. In men, synchronous colorectal tumors were more frequently concurrent with kidney cancer; metachronous ones were identified after treatment for gastric cancer. The found characteristics of multiple primary colorectal tumors may be taken in account in programs for both primary diagnosis and follow-up after treatment for malignant tumors, which will be able to improve the early detection of cancer patients and their treatment results.

  2. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  3. Combination effect of epigenetic regulation and ionizing radiation in colorectal cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Gook Kim

    Full Text Available Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation (IR induces, not only, activation of multiple signaling pathways that play critical roles in cell fate determination, but also alteration of molecular pathways involved in cell death or survival. Recently, DNA methylation has been established as a critical epigenetic process involved in the regulation of gene expression in cancer cells, suggesting that DNA methylation inhibition may be an effective cancer treatment strategy. Because alterations of gene expression by DNA methylation have been considered to influence radioresponsiveness, we investigated the effect of a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC, on radiosensitivity. In addition, we investigated the underlying cellular mechanisms of combination treatments of ionizing irradiation (IR and 5-aza-dC in human colon cancer cells. Colon cancer cell lines were initially tested for radiation sensitivity by IR in vitro and were treated with two different doses of 5-aza-dC. Survival of these cell lines was measured using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and clonogenic assays. The effects of 5-aza-dC along with irradiation on cell growth, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and apoptosis-related gene expression were examined. Combination irradiation treatment with 5-aza-dC significantly decreased growth activity compared with irradiation treatment alone or with 5-aza-dC treatment alone. The percentage of HCT116 cells in the sub-G1 phase and their apoptotic rate was increased when cells were treated with irradiation in combination with 5-aza-dC compared with either treatment alone. These observations were strongly supported by increased caspase activity, increased comet tails using comet assays, and increased protein levels of apoptosis-associated molecules (caspase 3/9, cleaved PARP. Our data demonstrated that 5-aza-dC enhanced radiosensitivity in colon cancer cells, and the combination effects of 5

  4. Fear of cancer recurrence in colorectal cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, J.A.E.; Gielissen, M.F.M.; Janssen, S.H.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Prins, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although long-term colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors generally report a good quality of life, fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) remains an important issue. This study investigated whether the Cancer Worry Scale (CWS) can detect high FCR, the prevalence, and characteristics of FCR in CRC

  5. Potential role of probiotics on colorectal cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uccello Mario

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer represents the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Owing to differences in dietary habits and lifestyle, this neoplasm is more common in industrialized countries than in developing ones. Evidence from a wide range of sources supports the assumption that the link between diet and colorectal cancer may be due to an imbalance of the intestinal microflora. Discussion Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a healthy benefit on the host, and they have been investigated for their protective anti-tumor effects. In vivo and molecular studies have displayed encouraging findings that support a role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention. Summary Several mechanisms could explain the preventive action of probiotics against colorectal cancer onset. They include: alteration of the intestinal microflora; inactivation of cancerogenic compounds; competition with putrefactive and pathogenic microbiota; improvement of the host’s immune response; anti-proliferative effects via regulation of apoptosis and cell differentiation; fermentation of undigested food; inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.

  6. The effect of offering different numbers of colorectal cancer screening test options in a decision aid: a pilot randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Alison RT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision aids can improve decision making processes, but the amount and type of information that they should attempt to communicate is controversial. We sought to compare, in a pilot randomized trial, two colorectal cancer (CRC screening decision aids that differed in the number of screening options presented. Methods Adults ages 48–75 not currently up to date with screening were recruited from the community and randomized to view one of two versions of our previously tested CRC screening decision aid. The first version included five screening options: fecal occult blood test (FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, a combination of FOBT and sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and barium enema. The second discussed only the two most frequently selected screening options, FOBT and colonoscopy. Main outcomes were differences in screening interest and test preferences between groups after decision aid viewing. Patient test preference was elicited first without any associated out-of-pocket costs (OPC, and then with the following costs: FOBT-$10, sigmoidoscopy-$50, barium enema-$50, and colonoscopy-$200. Results 62 adults participated: 25 viewed the 5-option decision aid, and 37 viewed the 2-option version. Mean age was 54 (range 48–72, 58% were women, 71% were White, 24% African-American; 58% had completed at least a 4-year college degree. Comparing participants that viewed the 5-option version with participants who viewed the 2-option version, there were no differences in screening interest after viewing (1.8 vs. 1.9, t-test p = 0.76. Those viewing the 2-option version were somewhat more likely to choose colonoscopy than those viewing the 5-option version when no out of pocket costs were assumed (68% vs. 46%, p = 0.11, but not when such costs were imposed (41% vs. 42%, p = 1.00. Conclusion The number of screening options available does not appear to have a large effect on interest in colorectal cancer screening. The effect of offering differing

  7. Genomics of Colorectal Cancer in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide studies are increasingly becoming a must, especially for complex diseases such as cancer where multiple genes and diverse molecular mechanisms are known to be involved in genes’ function alteration. In this review, we report our latest genomic and epigenomic findings in African-American colorectal cancer patients. This population suffers a higher burden of the disease and most investigators in this field are looking for the underlying genetic and epigenetic targets that might be r...

  8. Quality of life and its determinants among colorectal cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Ali Nikbakht; Nayyereh Amini Sani; Mohamad Asghari Jafarabadi; Seyed Reza Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer has a significant impact on physical, mental and social discomfort of patients. The aim of this study was to assess different aspects of health-related quality of life and its association with demographic characteristics and some clinical features in colorectal cancer survivors in the city of Babol. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 120 colorectal cancer survivors identified in the cancer registry from 2007 to 2012. A questionnair...

  9. Regulatory effect of evodiamine on the malignant biological behaviors and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hui Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the regulatory effect of evodiamine on the malignant biological behaviors and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29. Methods: Colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 were cultured and divided into blank control group and evodiamine group, and after different treatment, cell viability, proportion of different cell cycle as well as the contents of VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, MMP3, MMP14, Wnt and β-catenin were detected. Results: (1 Cell viability: MTT value of evodiamine group was significantly lower than that of blank control group; (2 Cell cycle: proportion of both S phase and G2/M phase of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group, and proportion of G0/ G1 phase was higher than that of blank control group; (3 VEGF and MMP contents: VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, MMP3 and MMP14 contents of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group; (4 Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway: Wnt and β-catenin contents of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group. Conclusion: Evodiamine can inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 and down-regulate the expression of VEGF and MMP, and the effect may be achieved by inhibiting the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  10. Salicylic acid metabolites and derivatives inhibit CDK activity: Novel insights into aspirin's chemopreventive effects against colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Callegari, Eduardo; Kesharwani, Siddharth S.; Sankaranarayanan, Ranjini; Seefeldt, Teresa; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin's potential as a drug continues to be evaluated for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although multiple targets for aspirin and its metabolite, salicylic acid, have been identified, no unifying mechanism has been proposed to clearly explain its chemopreventive effects. Our goal here was to investigate the ability of salicylic acid metabolites, known to be generated through cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, and its derivatives as cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors to gain new insights into aspirin's chemopreventive actions. Using in vitro kinase assays, for the first time, we demonstrate that salicylic acid metabolites, 2,3-dihydroxy-benzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA), as well as derivatives 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-DHBA), 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,6-DHBA), inhibited CDK1 enzyme activity. 2,3-DHBA and 2,6-DHBA did not inhibit CDK2 and 4; however, both inhibited CDK-6 activity. Interestingly, another derivative, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4,6-THBA) was highly effective in inhibiting CDK1, 2, 4 and 6 activity. Molecular docking studies showed that these compounds potentially interact with CDK1. Immunoblotting experiments showed that aspirin acetylated CDK1, and pre-incubation with salicylic acid and its derivatives prevented aspirin-mediated CDK1 acetylation, which supported the data obtained from molecular docking studies. We suggest that intracellularly generated salicylic acid metabolites through CYP450 enzymes within the colonic epithelial cells, or the salicylic acid metabolites generated by gut microflora may significantly contribute to the preferential chemopreventive effect of aspirin against CRC through inhibition of CDKs. This novel hypothesis and mechanism of action in aspirin's chemopreventive effects opens a new area for future research. In addition, structural modification to salicylic acid derivatives may prove useful in the development of novel CDK inhibitors in cancer prevention and

  11. The mediating effect of Mediterranean diet on the relation between smoking and colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontou, Niki; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Soupos, Nick; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Linos, Athena; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-10-01

    The protective role of Mediterranean diet (MD) and the detrimental effect of smoking on colorectal cancer (CRC) have already been shown. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential mediating effect of MD on the association between the aforementioned factor (smoking) and CRC. It is a case-control study. Two hundred fifty consecutive patients with CRC (63 ± 12 years, 59% males) and 250 age-sex group-matched controls, both from the area of Attica, were studied. Various socio-demographic, clinical, lifestyle (including detailed smoking habits) and dietary characteristics were measured. Adherence to the MD was evaluated using the MedDietScore (theoretical range 0-55). Each unit increase in the MedDietScore was associated with 13% lower likelihood of CRC (P Smoking habits were associated with 2.9-fold the likelihood of CRC among participants who were away from the MD (i.e. MedDietScore smoking habits with CRC, suggesting indirect benefits of adherence to this dietary pattern with regards to CRC morbidity and mortality.

  12. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joana Pedro; de Castro Cardoso Pereira, Paula Manuela; dos Reis Baltazar Vicente, Ana Filipa; Bernardo, Alexandra; de Mesquita, María Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery procedure. The sample was divided between convention and fast-track procedures. Most of the individuals were overweight or obese but had lost weight on the past six months. Despite mild, there were signs of malnutrition in this sample with high losses of fat free mass, weight and also fat mass during the hospitalization period. These results reinforce the importance of malnutrition assessment in colorectal patients as well as consider weight loss on the past months and body composition in order to complement nutritional status evaluation. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Cold atmospheric plasma treatment inhibits growth in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christin; Arndt, Stephanie; Zimmermann, Julia L; Li, Yangfang; Karrer, Sigrid; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2018-06-01

    Plasma oncology is a relatively new field of research. Recent developments have indicated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technology is an interesting new therapeutic approach to cancer treatment. In this study, p53 wildtype (LoVo) and human p53 mutated (HT29 and SW480) colorectal cancer cells were treated with the miniFlatPlaSter - a device particularly developed for the treatment of tumor cells - that uses the Surface Micro Discharge (SMD) technology for plasma production in air. The present study analyzed the effects of plasma on colorectal cancer cells in vitro and on normal colon tissue ex vivo. Plasma treatment had strong effects on colon cancer cells, such as inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell death, and modulation of p21 expression. In contrast, CAP treatment of murine colon tissue ex vivo for up to 2 min did not show any toxic effect on normal colon cells compared to H2O2 positive control. In summary, these results suggest that the miniFlatPlaSter plasma device is able to kill colorectal cancer cells independent of their p53 mutation status. Thus, this device presents a promising new approach in colon cancer therapy.

  14. CYP24A1 inhibition facilitates the anti-tumor effect of vitamin D3 on colorectal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósa, János P; Horváth, Péter; Wölfling, János; Kovács, Dóra; Balla, Bernadett; Mátyus, Péter; Horváth, Evelin; Speer, Gábor; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Horváth, Henrik; Lakatos, Péter

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The effects of vitamin D3 have been investigated on various tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3-24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), the enzyme that inactivates the active vitamin D3 metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3), is considered to be the main enzyme determining the biological half-life of 1,25-D3. During colorectal carcinogenesis, the expression and concentration of CYP24A1 increases significantly, suggesting that this phenomenon could be responsible for the proposed efficacy of 1,25-D3 in the treatment of CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects of vitamin D3 on the human CRC cell line Caco-2 after inhibition of the cytochrome P450 component of CYP24A1 activity. METHODS: We examined the expression of CYP24A1 mRNA and the effects of 1,25-D3 on the cell line Caco-2 after inhibition of CYP24A1. Cell viability and proliferation were determined by means of sulforhodamine-B staining and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, respectively, while cytotoxicity was estimated via the lactate dehydrogenase content of the cell culture supernatant. CYP24A1 expression was measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A number of tetralone compounds were synthesized to investigate their CP24A1 inhibitory activity. RESULTS: In response to 1,25-D3, CYP24A1 mRNA expression was enhanced significantly, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Caco-2 cell viability and proliferation were not influenced by the administration of 1,25-D3 alone, but were markedly reduced by co-administration of 1,25-D3 and KD-35, a CYP24A1-inhibiting tetralone. Our data suggest that the mechanism of action of co-administered KD-35 and 1,25-D3 does not involve a direct cytotoxic effect, but rather the inhibition of cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the selective inhibition of CYP24A1 by compounds such as KD-35 may be a new approach for enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of 1,25-D3 on CRC. PMID

  15. Colorectal-Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Screening Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Yokochi, Lance A.; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C.; Reding, Douglas J.; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S.; Miller, Anthony B.; Gohagan, John K.; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. Methods From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Results Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; Pcolorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; Pcolorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P = 0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; Pcolorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; Pcolorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P = 0.81). Conclusions Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was associated with a significant decrease in colorectal-cancer incidence (in both the distal and proximal colon) and mortality (distal colon only). (Funded by the

  16. Prospective study of blood metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Yu, Danxia; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jia, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2018-02-26

    Few prospective studies, and none in Asians, have systematically evaluated the relationship between blood metabolites and colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study to search for risk-associated metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer in an Asian population using blood samples collected prior to cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess associations of metabolites with cancer risk. In this study, we included 250 incident cases with colorectal cancer and individually matched controls nested within two prospective Shanghai cohorts. We found 35 metabolites associated with risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Among them, 12 metabolites were glycerophospholipids including nine associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and three with increased risk [odds ratios per standard deviation increase of transformed metabolites: 0.31-1.98; p values: 0.002-1.25 × 10 -10 ]. The other 23 metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk included nine lipids other than glycerophospholipid, seven aromatic compounds, five organic acids and four other organic compounds. After mutual adjustment, nine metabolites remained statistically significant for colorectal cancer. Together, these independently associated metabolites can separate cancer cases from controls with an area under the curve of 0.76 for colorectal cancer. We have identified that dysregulation of glycerophospholipids may contribute to risk of colorectal cancer. © 2018 UICC.

  17. A transcriptome anatomy of human colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Bingjian; Xu, Jing; Lai, Maode; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating databases in human genome research have enabled integrated genome-wide study on complicated diseases such as cancers. A practical approach is to mine a global transcriptome profile of disease from public database. New concepts of these diseases might emerge by landscaping this profile. In this study, we clustered human colorectal normal mucosa (N), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adenoma (A) and cancer (T) related expression sequence tags (EST) into UniGenes via an in-house GetUni software package and analyzed the transcriptome overview of these libraries by GOTree Machine (GOTM). Additionally, we downloaded UniGene based cDNA libraries of colon and analyzed them by Xprofiler to cross validate the efficiency of GetUni. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the expression of β-catenin and. 7 novel genes in colorectal cancers. The efficiency of GetUni was successfully validated by Xprofiler and RT-PCR. Genes in library N, IBD and A were all found in library T. A total of 14,879 genes were identified with 2,355 of them having at least 2 transcripts. Differences in gene enrichment among these libraries were statistically significant in 50 signal transduction pathways and Pfam protein domains by GOTM analysis P < 0.01 Hypergeometric Test). Genes in two metabolic pathways, ribosome and glycolysis, were more enriched in the expression profiles of A and IBD than in N and T. Seven transmembrane receptor superfamily genes were typically abundant in cancers. Colorectal cancers are genetically heterogeneous. Transcription variants are common in them. Aberrations of ribosome and glycolysis pathway might be early indicators of precursor lesions in colon cancers. The electronic gene expression profile could be used to highlight the integral molecular events in colorectal cancers

  18. N-glycosylation of Colorectal Cancer Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Crina I. A.; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Fung, Wesley L. J.; Koeleman, Carolien A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Verhoeven, Aswin; Mesker, Wilma E.; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Deelder, André M.; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide with an annual incidence of ∼1 million cases and an annual mortality rate of ∼655,000 individuals. There is an urgent need for identifying novel targets to develop more sensitive, reliable, and specific tests for early stage detection of colon cancer. Post-translational modifications are known to play an important role in cancer progression and immune surveillance of tumors. In the present study, we compared the N-glycan profiles from 13 colorectal cancer tumor tissues and corresponding control colon tissues. The N-glycans were enzymatically released, purified, and labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid. Aliquots were profiled by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC-HPLC) with fluorescence detection and by negative mode MALDI-TOF-MS. Using partial least squares discriminant analysis to investigate the N-glycosylation changes in colorectal cancer, an excellent separation and prediction ability were observed for both HILIC-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS data. For structure elucidation, information from positive mode ESI-ion trap-MS/MS and negative mode MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was combined. Among the features with a high separation power, structures containing a bisecting GlcNAc were found to be decreased in the tumor, whereas sulfated glycans, paucimannosidic glycans, and glycans containing a sialylated Lewis type epitope were shown to be increased in tumor tissues. In addition, core-fucosylated high mannose N-glycans were detected in tumor samples. In conclusion, the combination of HILIC and MALDI-TOF-MS profiling of N-glycans with multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated its potential for identifying N-glycosylation changes in colorectal cancer tissues and provided new leads that might be used as candidate biomarkers. PMID:22573871

  19. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinetti, Alberto; Zurlo, Valeria; Manenti, Antonio; Coppi, Francesca; Mattioli, Anna Vittoria

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, especially in developed countries where an estimated 60% of all cases occur. There is evidence of a higher risk for CRC in Western society, where people tend to eat more red and processed meat than those living along the Mediterranean coast, who have a decreased overall cancer mortality, which is correlated to their eating habits, such as Mediterranean diet. The aim of this review was to evaluate the correlation between three components of the Mediterranean diet (olive oil, red wine, and tomatoes) and incidence and progression of colorectal cancer. As such, we conducted a literature search using keywords "colorectal cancer," "dietary pattern," "Mediterranean diet," "olive oil," "protective effects," "resveratrol," and "lycopene." Olive oil polyphenols, red wine resveratrol, and tomato lycopene showed several characteristics in vitro that interfere with molecular cancer pathways. At the same time, many clinical studies have reported an association of these components with a reduction in cancer initiation and progression. More clinical studies are needed to identify the precise dose and administration of single agents or their combination to produce a coadjutant treatment to those already applied in chemoprevention and oncologic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hyaluronan and calcium carbonate hybrid nanoparticles for colorectal cancer chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinghui; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Rui

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid drug delivery system (DDS) composed of hyaluronan and calcium carbonate (CC) was developed. By taking advantage of the tumor-targeting ability of hyaluronan and the drug-loading property of CC, the well-formed hyaluronan-CC nanoparticles were able to serve as a DDS targeting colorectal cancer with a decent drug loading content, which is beneficial in the chemotherapy of colorectal cancer. In this study, hyaluronan-CC nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm were successfully developed to load the wide-range anti-cancer drug adriamycin (Adr) to construct hyaluronan-CC/Adr nanoparticles. On the other hand, we also found that hyaluronan-CC/Adr nanoparticles can possibly increase the uptake ratio of Adr into HT29 colorectal cancer cells when compared with hyaluronan-free nanoparticles (CC/Adr) via the CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis via competitive uptake and in vivo imaging assays. Note that both in vitro (CCK-8 assay on HT29 cells) and in vivo (anti-cancer assay on HT-29 tumor-bearing nude mice model) experiments revealed that hyaluronan-CC/Adr nanoparticles exhibited stronger anti-cancer activity than free Adr or CC/Adr nanoparticles with minimized toxic side effects and preferable cancer-suppression potential.

  1. Prevalence of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in patients with colorectal cancer in Iran: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Esmaeilzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and hereditary factors and family history are responsible for the incidence and development of the disease in 20 to 30% of cases. Lynch syndrome, or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, is the most common hereditary form of CRC that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This study consisted of a systematic literature review of research articles that described the prevalence of HNPCC in Iranian patients with CRC. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases to identify relevant articles that describe HNPCC or Lynch syndrome in patients with CRC in Iran. For this purpose, a keyword search of the following terms was employed: (((Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer OR HNPCC OR Lynch syndrome AND (colorectal cancer OR familial colorectal cancer OR colon cancer OR rectal cancer OR bowel cancer AND IRAN. All eligible documents were collected, and the desired data were qualitatively analyzed.Result: Of the 67 articles that were found via the initial database search, only 12 were deemed to be of relevance to the current study. These articles included a total population of 3237 and this sample was selected and qualitatively analyzed. The findings of the review revealed that the frequency of mutation in MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, and MSH6 genes varied between 23.1% and 62.5% among the studied families. This indicated that HNPCC is linked with up to 5.5% of the total cases of colorectal cancers in Iran.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the hereditary form of HNPCC or Lynch syndrome is significantly high among patients with CRC in Iran

  2. Cost-effectiveness modeling of colorectal cancer: Computed tomography colonography vs colonoscopy or fecal occult blood tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucidarme, Olivier; Cadi, Mehdi; Berger, Genevieve; Taieb, Julien; Poynard, Thierry; Grenier, Philippe; Beresniak, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the cost-effectiveness of three colorectal-cancer (CRC) screening strategies in France: fecal-occult-blood tests (FOBT), computed-tomography-colonography (CTC) and optical-colonoscopy (OC). Methods: Ten-year simulation modeling was used to assess a virtual asymptomatic, average-risk population 50–74 years old. Negative OC was repeated 10 years later, and OC positive for advanced or non-advanced adenoma 3 or 5 years later, respectively. FOBT was repeated biennially. Negative CTC was repeated 5 years later. Positive CTC and FOBT led to triennial OC. Total cost and CRC rate after 10 years for each screening strategy and 0–100% adherence rates with 10% increments were computed. Transition probabilities were programmed using distribution ranges to account for uncertainty parameters. Direct medical costs were estimated using the French national health insurance prices. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses used 5000 Monte Carlo simulations generating model outcomes and standard deviations. Results: For a given adherence rate, CTC screening was always the most effective but not the most cost-effective. FOBT was the least effective but most cost-effective strategy. OC was of intermediate efficacy and the least cost-effective strategy. Without screening, treatment of 123 CRC per 10,000 individuals would cost €3,444,000. For 60% adherence, the respective costs of preventing and treating, respectively 49 and 74 FOBT-detected, 73 and 50 CTC-detected and 63 and 60 OC-detected CRC would be €2,810,000, €6,450,000 and €9,340,000. Conclusion: Simulation modeling helped to identify what would be the most effective (CTC) and cost-effective screening (FOBT) strategy in the setting of mass CRC screening in France.

  3. The cytotoxic effects of regorafenib in combination with protein kinase D inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ning; Chu, Edward; Wu, Shao-yu; Wipf, Peter; Schmitz, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remains a major public health problem, and diagnosis of metastatic disease is usually associated with poor prognosis. The multi-kinase inhibitor regorafenib was approved in 2013 in the U.S. for the treatment of mCRC patients who progressed after standard therapies. However, the clinical efficacy of regorafenib is quite limited. One potential strategy to improve mCRC therapy is to combine agents that target key cellular signaling pathways, which may lead to synergistic enhancement of antitumor efficacy and overcome cellular drug resistance. Protein kinase D (PKD), a family of serine/threonine kinases, mediates key signaling pathways implicated in multiple cellular processes. Herein, we evaluated the combination of regorafenib with a PKD inhibitor in several human CRC cells. Using the Chou-Talalay model, the combination index values for this combination treatment demonstrated synergistic effects on inhibition of cell proliferation and clonal formation. This drug combination resulted in induction of apoptosis as determined by flow cytometry, increased PARP cleavage, and decreased activation of the anti-apoptotic protein HSP27. This combination also yielded enhanced inhibition of ERK, AKT, and NF-κB signaling. Taken together, PKD inhibition in combination with regorafenib appears to be a promising strategy for the treatment of mCRC. PMID:25544765

  4. Distinct Gene Expression Signatures in Lynch Syndrome and Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Veerla, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects.......Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects....

  5. Clinical application and research of tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. There are many tumor markers for detecting colorectal cancer, some of which have been widely used in clinical area. However, still lack an ideal tumor marker of colorectal cancer. In this review, we simply characterized some common tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA50, CA242 etc and their dignostic value. And here we discussed some combined detecting procedures which improve diagnostic accuracy of colorectal cancer. In addition, with the development of the biomoleculer technique, some newly discovered tumor markers and genetic marekers have gained great progress in the research of colorectal cancer, and will become a promissing technique in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (authors)

  6. Effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal cancer in Fischer 344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Schoterman, H.C.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS, Elix'or) on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours in rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM). Two groups of 102 male Fischer 344 rats were injected twice with AOM to induce

  7. Randomized controlled pilot trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast and colorectal cancer survivors: effects on cancer-related cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Shelley A; Von Ah, Diane; Brown, Linda F; Beck-Coon, Kathleen; Talib, Tasneem L; Alyea, Jennifer M; Monahan, Patrick O; Tong, Yan; Wilhelm, Laura; Giesler, R Brian

    2016-06-01

    Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a common, fatigue-related symptom that disrupts cancer survivors' quality of life. Few interventions for CRCI exist. As part of a randomized pilot study targeting cancer-related fatigue, the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on survivors' cognitive outcomes were investigated. Breast and colorectal cancer survivors (n = 71) with moderate-to-severe fatigue were randomized to MBSR (n = 35) or a fatigue education and support (ES; n = 36) condition. The Attentional Function Index (AFI) and the Stroop test were used to assess survivors' cognitive function at baseline (T1), after the 8-week intervention period (T2), and 6 months later (T3) using intent-to-treat analysis. Mediation analyses were performed to explore mechanisms of intervention effects on cognitive functioning. MBSR participants reported significantly greater improvement on the AFI total score compared to ES participants at T2 (d = 0.83, p = 0.001) and T3 (d = 0.55, p = 0.021). MBSR also significantly outperformed ES on most AFI subscales, although both groups improved over time. MBSR produced greater Stroop accuracy rates relative to ES at T2 (r = 0.340, p = 0.005) and T3 (r = 0.280, p = 0.030), with improved accuracy over time only for the MBSR group. There were no significant differences in Stroop reaction time between groups. Improvements in mindfulness mediated the effect of group (e.g., MBSR vs. ES) on AFI total score at T2 and T3. Additional randomized trials with more comprehensive cognitive measures are warranted to definitively assess the efficacy of MBSR for CRCI. This pilot study has important implications for all cancer survivors as it is the first published trial to show that MBSR offers robust and durable improvements in CRCI.

  8. Colorectal cancer in younger population: our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, A.Q.; Samo, K.A.; Memon, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To promote awareness regarding increased occurrence of colorectal cancer in younger population and its clinicopathological features compared to older patients. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2010 to January 2011 on patients with diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma admitted through emergency or outpatient departments to Surgical Unit 5, Civil Hospital, Karachi. Data regarding age, gender, presentation, site of tumour, surgery performed and Dukes staging was collected and analysed. Results: A total of 23 patients were operated during the study period: 13 (56.52%) males and 10 (43.47%) females. Of them 12 (52.17%) were below the age of 40 years, while 3 (13.04%) patients were in the 11-20 age group. In 7 (30.4%) patients, tumour was irresectable at the time of presentation so a palliative procedure (diversion colostomy or ileostomy) was performed. There was a higher proportion of younger patients with metastatic disease at the time of presentation (n=9; 75%) while 10 out of 12 patients in the younger age group (83.3%) had a tumour of left colon, particularly rectum. Conclusion: Although colorectal cancer is usually a disease of older patients, it is increasingly becoming more common in younger population. Data suggests a leftward distribution for colorectal carcinoma and that younger patients present with more advanced disease and poorer prognosis. (author)

  9. Surveillance of colorectal cancer: effectiveness of early detection of intraluminal recurrences on prognosis and survival of patients treated for cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillari, P; Ramacciato, G; Manetti, G; Bovino, A; Sammartino, P; Stipa, V

    1996-04-01

    The authors evaluate the effectiveness of routine colonoscopy and marker evaluation in diagnosis of intraluminal recurrent cancer. Chart review was conducted on 481 patients who underwent curative resection for colorectal cancer between 1980 and 1990. Clinical visits were scheduled and carcinoembryonic antigen evaluation was performed every three months, and colonoscopy was performed preoperatively, 12 to 15 months after surgical treatment, and then with intervals of 12 to 24 months or when symptoms appeared. About 10 percent of patients developed intraluminal recurrences. More than one-half of metachronous lesions arose within the first 24 months, and median time to diagnosis was 25 months. Patients with left-sited tumors in the advanced stage had a higher risk of developing recurrent intraluminal disease. Twenty-nine patients underwent a second surgical operation, of which 17 cases were radical. In this group, the five-year survival was 70.6 percent, although no nonradically treated or nonresected patients survived longer than 31 months. Twenty-two patients were asymptomatic at time of diagnosis of recurrence, and of these, 12 patients underwent radical operation; on the other hand, of the 24 symptomatic patients, only 5 were treated radically. Carcinoembryonic antigen was the first sign of recurrence in eight cases. Colonoscopy must be performed within the first 12 to 15 months after operation, whereas an interval of 24 months between examinations seems sufficient to guarantee early detection of metachronous lesions. Serial tumor marker evaluation is of help in earlier diagnosis of local recurrences. Asymptomatic patients more frequently undergo another operation for cure and thus have a better survival rate.

  10. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) are subjected to a preoperative thoraco-abdominal CT scan to determine the cancer stage. This staging is of relevance with regard to treatment and prognosis. About 20% of the patients have distant metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis, i...... detected in 7.5% of the patients and in 37% of these cases the metastatic spread was confined to the lungs. The prevalence of SPCM increased with the implementation of thoracic CT in CRC staging. SPCM impaired survival significantly and was associated with increasing age and rectal cancer. Resection...

  11. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Colorectal (Colon) Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Risk Assessment Tool (National Cancer Institute) Learning About Colon Cancer Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  12. Activin pathway enhances colorectal cancer stem cell self-renew and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Jun-Hua; Xu, Chengxiong; Sun, Bo; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2016-10-28

    Activin belongs to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β super family of growth and differentiation factors and activin pathway participated in broad range of cell process. Studies elaborated activin pathway maintain pluripotency in human stem cells and suggest that the function of activin/nodal signaling in self-renew would be conserved across embryonic and adult stem cells. In this study, we tried to determine the effect of activin signaling pathway in regulation of cancer stem cells as a potential target for cancer therapy in clinical trials. A population of colorectal cancer cells was selected by the treatment of activin A. This population of cell possessed stem cell character with sphere formation ability. We demonstrated activin pathway enhanced the colorectal cancer stem cells self-renew and contribute to colorectal cancer progression in vivo. Targeting activin pathway potentially provide effective strategy for colorectal cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antitumor effect of manumycin on colorectal cancer cells by increasing the reactive oxygen species production and blocking PI3K-AKT pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang JY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jingyu Zhang,1 Hua Jiang,2 Li Xie,1 Jing Hu,1 Li Li,1 Mi Yang,1 Lei Cheng,1 Baorui Liu,1 Xiaoping Qian1 1Department of the Comprehensive Cancer Center, Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 2Department of Oncology, Affiliated Changzhou No 2 People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Manumycin is a natural, well-tolerated microbial metabolite and is regarded as a farnesyltransferase inhibitor. Some data suggest that manumycin inhibits proliferation of diverse cancer cells through various pathways. However, the antitumor effect of manumycin on colorectal cancer (CRC remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of manumycin on CRC in vitro and in vivo. The results of cell viability assay revealed that the proliferation of the CRC cells was significantly inhibited by manumycin. Moreover, cell apoptosis induced by manumycin was also found in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, treatment of the CRC cells with manumycin resulted in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Subsequently, manumycin also decreased the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and AKT, as well as the expression of caspase-9 and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in a time-dependent manner. In addition, we found that N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC attenuated the effect of manumycin on the PI3K-AKT pathway, and wortmannin reduced the effect of manumycin on caspase-9 and PARP expression. More importantly, the anticancer effect of manumycin was also observed in established tumor xenografts. Taken together, these findings supported the potential application of manumycin against colorectal carcinoma. Keywords: manumycin, colorectal cancer, PI3K-AKT pathway, ROS

  14. Lifestyle Changes and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a public health challenge in developed countries and ... of this cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, South Asia and the Caribbean. ... populations from low risk regions to countries in North America, Europe and ... risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in their newly found environment as a result of ...

  15. Colorectal Cancer: Late Presentation and Outcome of Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer remains a major health problem especially in developed countries where it ranks as the third most common cause of cancer in both men and women. Though incidence of colorectal cancer is low in Nigeria and other developing countries, outcome of treatment remains poor due largely to late ...

  16. Presentation of colorectal cancers in Benin-City, Nigeria | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, and the prevalence in Nigeria appears to be increasing due to a shift to western diets. We undertook a retrospective analysis of colorectal cancers seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City from January 1983 to December 2002.

  17. Clinical and biological aspects of mucinous colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugen, N.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands approximately 5% of all people will develop colorectal cancer during his or her life. The rapid development of individualized therapy for cancer patients has led to an increased interest in tumor subtypes. Currently, colorectal cancer patients are treated in the same way

  18. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Asia: A systematic review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the top five cancers afflicting both men and women globally. Once predominantly a Western disease, it has begun to rise in Asian countries as well. This systematic review aims to compile and analyze the various barriers towards colorectal cancer screening in Asia, and to ...

  19. Italian Mediterranean Index and risk of colorectal cancer in the Italian section of the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Pala, Valeria; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Krogh, Vittorio

    2013-03-15

    Colorectal cancer is among the commonest cancers worldwide. Dietary factors have been linked to colorectal cancer risk, however, few studies have evaluated the relationship between a priori dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk. We evaluated the effect of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, as measured by the Italian Mediterranean Index, on the risk of colorectal cancer in the 45,275 participants of the Italian section of the EPIC study who completed a dietary questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer in relation to categories of Italian Mediterranean Index score were estimated by multivariate Cox models adjusted for known risk factors, on the whole cohort, on men and women and according to cancer subsite. During a mean follow-up of 11.28 years, 435 colorectal cancer cases were identified. The Italian Mediterranean Index was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.35-0.71 for the highest category compared to the lowest, P-trend: 0.043). Results did not differ by sex. Highest Italian Mediterranean Index score was also significantly associated with reduced risks of any colon cancer (HR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.36-0.81), distal colon cancer (HR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26-0.75) and rectal cancer (HR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20-0.81), but not of proximal colon cancer. These findings suggest that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (as measured by the Italian Mediterranean Index) protects against colorectal cancer in general but not against cancer developing in the proximal colon. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  20. Peritumoral eosinophils predict recurrence in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum, Lars; Pollheimer, Marion J; Kornprat, Peter; Lindtner, Richard A; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Langner, Cord

    2015-03-01

    In colorectal cancer, the presence and extent of eosinophil granulocyte infiltration may render important prognostic information. However, it remains unclear whether an increasing number of eosinophils might simply be linked to the overall inflammatory cell reaction or represent a self-contained, antitumoral mechanism that needs to be documented and promoted therapeutically. Peri- and intratumoral eosinophil counts were retrospectively assessed in 381 primary colorectal cancers from randomly selected patients. Tumors were diagnosed in American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) stage I in 21%, stage II in 32%, stage III in 33%, and stage IV in 14%. Presence and extent of eosinophils was related to various histopathological parameters as well as patients' outcome. Overall, peri- and intratumoral eosinophils were observed in 86 and 75% cancer specimens. The peritumoral eosinophil count correlated strongly with the intratumoral eosinophil count (R=0.69; Peosinophil counts were significantly associated with lower T and N classification, better tumor differentiation, absence of vascular invasion, as well as improved progression-free and cancer-specific survival. However, only peritumoral eosinophils, but not intratumoral, were an independent prognosticator of favorable progression-free (hazard ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.98; P=0.04) and cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.52-0.93; P=0.01)-independent of the intensity of overall inflammatory cell reaction. This was also found for patients with AJCC/UICC stage II disease, wherein the presence of peritumoral eosinophils was significantly associated with favorable outcome. In conclusion, the number of peritumoral eosinophils had a significant favorable impact on prognosis of colorectal cancer patients independent of the overall tumor-associated inflammatory response. Evaluation of peritumoral eosinophils represents a promising

  1. [Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. In 2012 one million thirty six thousand cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed all over the world, two hundred fifty three thousand cases were diagnosed in China (accounted for 18.6%). China has the largest number of new cases of colorectal cancer in the world. Colorectal cancer has becoming a serious threat of Chinese residents' health. In 2010, the National Ministry of Health organized colorectal cancer expertise of the Chinese Medical Association to write the "Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer" (2010edition), and publish it publicly. In recent years, the National Health and Family Planning Commission has organized experts to revised the protocol 2 times: the first time in 2015, the second time in 2017. The revised part of "Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer" (2017 edition) involves new progress in the field of imaging examination, pathological evaluation, surgery, chemotherpy and radiotherapy. The 2017 edition of the protocol not only referred to the contents of the international guidelines, but also combined with the specific national conditions and clinical practice in China, and also included many evidence-based clinical data in China recently. The 2017 edition of the protocol would further promote the standardization of diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer in China, improve the survival and prognosis of patients, and benefit millions of patients with colorectal cancer and their families.

  2. EMX2 gene expression predicts liver metastasis and survival in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykut, Berk; Ochs, Markus; Radhakrishnan, Praveen; Brill, Adrian; Höcker, Hermine; Schwarz, Sandra; Weissinger, Daniel; Kehm, Roland; Kulu, Yakup; Ulrich, Alexis; Schneider, Martin

    2017-08-22

    The Empty Spiracles Homeobox (EMX-) 2 gene has been associated with regulation of growth and differentiation in neuronal development. While recent studies provide evidence that EMX2 regulates tumorigenesis of various solid tumors, its role in colorectal cancer remains unknown. We aimed to assess the prognostic significance of EMX2 expression in stage III colorectal adenocarcinoma. Expression levels of EMX2 in human colorectal cancer and adjacent mucosa were assessed by qRT-PCR technology, and results were correlated with clinical and survival data. siRNA-mediated knockdown and adenoviral delivery-mediated overexpression of EMX2 were performed in order to investigate its effects on the migration of colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Compared to corresponding healthy mucosa, colorectal tumor samples had decreased EMX2 expression levels. Furthermore, EMX2 down-regulation in colorectal cancer tissue was associated with distant metastasis (M1) and impaired overall patient survival. In vitro knockdown of EMX2 resulted in increased tumor cell migration. Conversely, overexpression of EMX2 led to an inhibition of tumor cell migration. EMX2 is frequently down-regulated in human colorectal cancer, and down-regulation of EMX2 is a prognostic marker for disease-free and overall survival. EMX2 might thus represent a promising therapeutic target in colorectal cancer.

  3. Synergistic Effect of Simvastatin Plus Radiation in Gastric Cancer and Colorectal Cancer: Implications of BIRC5 and Connective Tissue Growth Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Taekyu [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, VHS Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyoung [Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungmin [Changduk Girls' High School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Won Ki, E-mail: wonki.kang@samsung.com [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: We investigated the synergistic effect of simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor plus radiation therapy, on the proliferation and survival of gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We also studied several genes involved in the simvastatin/radiation-induced effects. Methods and Materials: Gastric cancer (AGS, SNU601, MKN1, and MKN28) and CRC (CoLo320, SW48, HT29, and HCT8) cell lines were treated with 0.2 μM simvastatin alone, or in combination with 0 to 4 Gy of radiation, and subjected to clonogenic survival and proliferation assays in vitro. To assess the molecular mechanism of the combination treatment, we performed microarray analysis, immunoblot assays, small interfering RNA knockdown experiments, and plasmid rescue assays. The antitumoral effects of simvastatin and radiation were evaluated in vivo using xenograft models. Results: The combination therapy of simvastatin plus radiation inhibited basal clonogenic survival and proliferation of GC and CRC cells in vitro. Simvastatin suppressed the expression of BIRC5 and CTGF genes in these cancer cells. In vivo, the combined treatment with simvastatin and radiation significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumors compared with treatment with radiation alone. Conclusion: We suggest that simvastatin has a synergistic effect with radiation on GC and CRC through the induction of apoptosis, which may be mediated by a simultaneous inhibition of BIRC5 and CTGF expression. A clinical trial of simvastatin in combination with radiation in patients with GC or CRC is warranted.

  4. Cancer in numbers: Do preventive measures for colorectal cancer apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in men, after lung cancer, and is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the second leading cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most common cause of cancer death if both genders are considered together. CRC accounts for approximately 10% of cancer deaths. Modifiable risk factors for CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption. CRC screening programs are possible in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographically populated areas and western lifestyles. Objective: To evaluate the effect on the incidence and mortality of diet and lifestyle of CRC and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through the early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology: An exhaustive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC is carried out and a meta-analysis of the same blocks is carried out. Results: 301 items related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were recovered. Of these, 177 were considered valid in the meta-analysis: 12 in epidemiology, 56 in diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different projections for the early detection of CRC. Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no question of which environmental factors, probably diet, may explain these cancer rates. Excessive consumption of alcohol and high cholesterol diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet low in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer with overexpression of p53. Eating pulses at least three times a week reduces the risk of

  5. Sulindac Sulfide, but Not Sulindac Sulfone, Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Williams

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulindac sulfide, a metabolite of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac sulfoxide, is effective at reducing tumor burden in both familial adenomatous polyposis patients and in animals with colorectal cancer. Another sulindac sulfoxide metabolite, sulindac sulfone, has been reported to have antitumor properties without inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity. Here we report the effect of sulindac sulfone treatment on the growth of colorectal carcinoma cells. We observed that sulindac sulfide or sulfone treatment of HCA-7 cells led to inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited HCA-7 and HCT-116 cell growth in vitro. Sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of either HCA-7 or HCT-116 xenografts, whereas the sulfide derivative inhibited HCA-7 growth in vivo. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited colon carcinoma cell growth and prostaglandin production in vitro, but sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of colon cancer cell xenografts in nude mice.

  6. Protective effect of fish consumption on colorectal cancer risk. Hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Pac, Agnieszka; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Galas, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    Current epidemiologic studies investigating the effect of fish intake on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between fish consumption and CRC risk. This hospital-based case-control study was performed in 548 CRC patients (Surgery Clinic, University Hospital in Krakow, Poland) between November 2000 and May 2008. Histological findings, information on anatomic location and stage of cancer were available for all the patients enrolled in this study. The control group consisted of 745 patients of the same hospital with no history of cancer admitted for treatment of non-neoplastic conditions. During the 5-year study period, the food frequency questionnaire used focused on the reference period that was defined as 1-5 years prior to CRC diagnosis for the CRC cases and the date of hospital admission for the controls. The crude odds ratio (OR) was inversely related to fish consumption (z for trend in quartiles of intake= -2.31, p=0.021; OR=0.89; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.81-0.98). The risk of CRC increased with intake of stewed or cooked meat (z for trend in quartiles of intake=2.14; p=0.032; OR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.01-1.23). The adjusted OR showed a significant reduction in CRC already at the moderate fish intake of one or two servings per week (OR=0.70; 95% CI: 0.51-0.94), but it was even lower at higher fish intake (OR=0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.86). All multivariate statistical models employed in the analysis considered potential confounders, such as demographic characteristics of subjects, body mass index, smoking status, leisure time physical activity, energy consumption and intake of meat products. The study results indicate that increased fish intake may have a preventive effect on CRC and modulate the effect of meat consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first large epidemiologic study on dietary habits and CRC incidence in Eastern Europe. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules in Colorectal-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN) at staging computed tomography (CT) for colorectal cancer (CRC), and the optimal diagnostic approach, are debated. This study aimed to analyse variability in radiologists' detection of IPN at staging CT for CRC. METHODS......: All patients with CRC referred to our center between 2006 and 2011 were included. Primary staging CT scans were re-evaluated by an experienced thoracic radiologist whose findings were entered into a dedicated database and merged with data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database, the National...... investigated radiological characteristics or clinicopathological factors were significantly associated with malignancy of IPN. CONCLUSION: The characterization of pulmonary findings on staging CT for CRC varied greatly between the radiologists, and double-reading of scans with IPN is recommended prior...

  8. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... infectious complications (n = 170; HR 0.6 (95 per cent c.i. 0.4 to 0.9), P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis of patients who had a curative resection, including Dukes' stage, age, gender, tumour location, blood transfusion, postoperative infectious complications and treatment, ranitidine still had...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  9. Potential targets for colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Sally; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ali

    2013-08-22

    The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the "proof of principle" that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  10. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamseddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  11. Genetics, Cytogenetics, and Epigenetics of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Migliore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the colorectal cancer (CRC cases are sporadic, only 25% of the patients have a family history of the disease, and major genes causing syndromes predisposing to CRC only account for 5-6% of the total cases. The following subtypes can be recognized: MIN (microsatellite instability, CIN (chromosomal instability, and CIMP (CpG island methylator phenotype. CIN occurs in 80–85% of CRC. Chromosomal instability proceeds through two major mechanisms, missegregation that results in aneuploidy through the gain or loss of whole chromosomes, and unbalanced structural rearrangements that lead to the loss and/or gain of chromosomal regions. The loss of heterozygosity that occur in the first phases of the CRC cancerogenesis (in particular for the genes on 18q as well as the alteration of methylation pattern of multiple key genes can drive the development of colorectal cancer by facilitating the acquisition of multiple tumor-associated mutations and the instability phenotype.

  12. Folate, colorectal cancer and the involvement of DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth A

    2012-11-01

    Diet is a major factor in the aetiology of colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological evidence suggests that folate confers a modest protection against CRC risk. However, the relationship is complex, and evidence from human intervention trials and animal studies suggests that a high-dose of folic acid supplementation may enhance the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis in certain circumstances. The molecular mechanisms underlying the apparent dual modulatory effect of folate on colorectal carcinogenesis are not fully understood. Folate is central to C1 metabolism and is needed for both DNA synthesis and DNA methylation, providing plausible biological mechanisms through which folate could modulate cancer risk. Aberrant DNA methylation is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis and is typically associated with the transcriptional silencing of tumour suppressor genes. Folate is required for the production of S-adenosyl methionine, which serves as a methyl donor for DNA methylation events; thereby folate availability is proposed to modulate DNA methylation status. The evidence for an effect of folate on DNA methylation in the human colon is limited, but a modulation of DNA methylation in response to folate has been demonstrated. More research is required to clarify the optimum intake of folate for CRC prevention and to elucidate the effect of folate availability on DNA methylation and the associated impact on CRC biology.

  13. Bile acids in experimental colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Rainey, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Cogent epidemiological and experimental data implicate bile acids as endogenous co-carcinogens in colorectal cancer. A series of experiments was designed to test the ability of sodium deoxycholate (SDC) to promote intestinal hyperplasia and neoplasia in rats (n = 265). The intermediary role of faecal anaerobes was explored in animals receiving oral metronidazole. Intrarectal instillation of SDC trebled tumour yield in functioning large bowel and increased both crypt depth and crypt cell produ...

  14. Cetuximab in the management of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2007-01-01

    Cetuximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets the ligand-binding domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is active in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). As an IgG1 antibody, cetuximab may exert its antitumor efficacy through both EGFR antagonism and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Clinical trials established the role of cetuximab, particularly with irinotecan, in irinotecan-refractory/heavily pretreated patients. More recent studies show promising...

  15. Short-Term Outcomes of Simultaneous Laparoscopic Colectomy and Hepatectomy for Primary Colorectal Cancer With Synchronous Liver Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Akira; Uemura, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Hiraki, Masayuki; Naito, Atsushi; Ogino, Takayuki; Nonaka, Ryoji; Nishimura, Junichi; Wada, Hiroshi; Hata, Taishi; Takemasa, Ichiro; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Nagano, Hiroaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Although simultaneous resection of primary colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases is reported to be safe and effective, the feasibility of a laparoscopic approach remains controversial. This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and short-term outcomes of simultaneous laparoscopic surgery for primary colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases. From September 2008 to December 2013, 10 patients underwent simultaneous laparoscopic resection of primary colorectal cancer an...

  16. A cohort study of metformin exposure and survival in patients with stage I-III colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    BENNETT, KATHLEEN

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: Preclinical evidence suggests a beneficial effect of metformin in colorectal cancer. This study aimed to investigate associations between metformin exposure and colorectal cancer–specific survival using population-level data. Methods: Adult patients with stage I–III colorectal cancer diagnosed from 2001 to 2006 were identified from the National Cancer Registry Ireland. Use of metformin and other antidiabetic medications was determined from a linked national prescr...

  17. Metformin enhances radiosensitivity via inhibition of DNA repair pathway in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Youn Kyoung; Kim, Mi Sook; Lee, Ji Young; Song, Kyung Hee; Choi, Kyul; Kim, Eun Ho; Ha, Hun Joo [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In this study, we provide a scientific rationale for the clinical application of metformin as a radiosensitizer in colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Currently, it is one of the commonest chemoradiotherapy worked better than the radiotherapy or chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. To enhance radiosensitivity of tumor cells for chemoradiotherapy, it is to use potential anticancer agents that act as radiosensitizers. Metformin, one of the most widely used antidiabetic drugs, has recently been associated with potential antitumorigenic effects. Our data shows that metformin combined with radiation enhances the efficacy of radiotherapy and down-regulates DNA repair proteins. Therefore, we provides a scientific rationale for the clinical application of metformin as a radiosensitizer in colorectal cancer.

  18. Metformin enhances radiosensitivity via inhibition of DNA repair pathway in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Youn Kyoung; Kim, Mi Sook; Lee, Ji Young; Song, Kyung Hee; Choi, Kyul; Kim, Eun Ho; Ha, Hun Joo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we provide a scientific rationale for the clinical application of metformin as a radiosensitizer in colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Currently, it is one of the commonest chemoradiotherapy worked better than the radiotherapy or chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. To enhance radiosensitivity of tumor cells for chemoradiotherapy, it is to use potential anticancer agents that act as radiosensitizers. Metformin, one of the most widely used antidiabetic drugs, has recently been associated with potential antitumorigenic effects. Our data shows that metformin combined with radiation enhances the efficacy of radiotherapy and down-regulates DNA repair proteins. Therefore, we provides a scientific rationale for the clinical application of metformin as a radiosensitizer in colorectal cancer

  19. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mark; Alsina, Deborah; Adams, Richard A; Anderson, Annie S; Brown, Gina; Fearnhead, Nicola S; Fenwick, Stephen W; Hochhauser, Daniel; Koelzer, Viktor H; McNair, Angus G K; Norton, Christine; Novelli, Marco R; Steele, Robert J C; Thomas, Anne L; Wilde, Lisa M; Wilson, Richard H

    2018-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) leads to significant morbidity/mortality worldwide. Defining critical research gaps (RG), their prioritisation and resolution, could improve patient outcomes. Design RG analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of patients, clinicians and researchers (n=71). Eight working groups (WG) were constituted: discovery science; risk; prevention; early diagnosis and screening; pathology; curative treatment; stage IV disease; and living with and beyond CRC. A series of discussions led to development of draft papers by each WG, which were evaluated by a 20-strong patient panel. A final list of RGs and research recommendations (RR) was endorsed by all participants. Results Fifteen critical RGs are summarised below: RG1: Lack of realistic models that recapitulate tumour/tumour micro/macroenvironment; RG2: Insufficient evidence on precise contributions of genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors to CRC risk; RG3: Pressing need for prevention trials; RG4: Lack of integration of different prevention approaches; RG5: Lack of optimal strategies for CRC screening; RG6: Lack of effective triage systems for invasive investigations; RG7: Imprecise pathological assessment of CRC; RG8: Lack of qualified personnel in genomics, data sciences and digital pathology; RG9: Inadequate assessment/communication of risk, benefit and uncertainty of treatment choices; RG10: Need for novel technologies/interventions to improve curative outcomes; RG11: Lack of approaches that recognise molecular interplay between metastasising tumours and their microenvironment; RG12: Lack of reliable biomarkers to guide stage IV treatment; RG13: Need to increase understanding of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and promote residual symptom resolution; RG14: Lack of coordination of CRC research/funding; RG15: Lack of effective communication between relevant stakeholders. Conclusion Prioritising research activity and funding could have a significant impact on reducing CRC

  20. Cost-effectiveness of RAS screening before monoclonal antibodies therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer based on FIRE3 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Yang, Yu; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Jing; Tang, Ruilei; Chen, Hongdou; Zheng, Hanrui; Fu, Ping; Li, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The surprising results published by FIRE-3 revealed that the overall survival (OS) of RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with Cetuximab(Cmab) and FOLFIRI combination was prolonged to 33.1 months. The substantial increase in testing and treatment costs, however, impose a considerable health burden on patients and society. Hence the study was aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of RAS screening before monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) therapy based on FIRE-3 study. Four groups were analyzed: group 1, patients with KRAS testing treated with Cmab and FOLFIRI; group 2, patients with RAS testing treated with Cmab and FOLFIRI; group 3, patients with KRAS testing treated with bevacizumab(Bmab) and FOLFIRI; group 4, patients with RAS testing treated with Bmab and FOLFIRI. A Markov model comprising 3 health states (progression-free survival, progressive disease and death) was built. The costs were calculated from a Chinese payer perspective, and survival was reported in quality-adjusted life-months (QALMs). Average total lifetime costs ranged from $104,682.44 (RAS-Bmab) to $136,867.44 (RAS-Cmab), while the survival gained varied from 16.88 QALMs in RAS-Bmab to 21.85 QALMs in RAS-Cmab. The cost per QALM was $6,263.86 for RAS-Cmab, $6,145.84 for KRAS-Bmab, $6,201.57 for RAS-Bmab and $6,960.70 for KRAS-Cmab respectively. The KRAS-Cmab strategy was dominated by the other 3 groups. The first-treatment cost of RAS-Cmab was the most influential one to the model. In all, the RAS screening prior to Cmab treatment in mCRC seems to be a cost-effective strategy in the time of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) therapy with the most gained QALMs. PMID:26418570

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Echave

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG of aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI as second-line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC patients previously treated with oxaliplatin. Methods: Based on clinical trial VELOUR results, a three-state Markov model (stable disease, progression and death with 2-week cycle duration was designed. Transition to health state «progression» implied the interruption of second-line treatment and administration of a third-line treatment (post-second line chemotherapy. Cost estimation included disease management cost (pharmaceutical, adverse event management, administration costs, etc.. Both cost and outcomes were discounted (3% annually. Sensitivity analyses (SA were performed to test model robustness. Results: Administration of aflibercept + FOLFIRI as second-line treatment provided 1.78 LYG (21 life-months gained. With FOLFIRI 1.43 LYG (17 months were obtained. The cost of the clinical management of aflibercept + FOLFIRI implied an additional investment of 13,564 compared with FOLFIRI for a lifetime horizon, being total costs for aflibercept + FOLFIRI of 38,346, compared to 24,782 with FOLFIRI. In the cost-effectiveness analysis 38,931/LYG was obtained with aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI versus FOLFIRI. Conclusion: Aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI increased overall survival versus FOLFIRI, so it is an effective strategy in the treatment of patients with mCRC. Aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI is an efficient strategy for second-line mCRC treatment from the National Health System perspective.

  2. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mark; Alsina, Deborah; Adams, Richard A; Anderson, Annie S; Brown, Gina; Fearnhead, Nicola S; Fenwick, Stephen W; Halloran, Stephen P; Hochhauser, Daniel; Hull, Mark A; Koelzer, Viktor H; McNair, Angus G K; Monahan, Kevin J; Näthke, Inke; Norton, Christine; Novelli, Marco R; Steele, Robert J C; Thomas, Anne L; Wilde, Lisa M; Wilson, Richard H; Tomlinson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) leads to significant morbidity/mortality worldwide. Defining critical research gaps (RG), their prioritisation and resolution, could improve patient outcomes. RG analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of patients, clinicians and researchers (n=71). Eight working groups (WG) were constituted: discovery science; risk; prevention; early diagnosis and screening; pathology; curative treatment; stage IV disease; and living with and beyond CRC. A series of discussions led to development of draft papers by each WG, which were evaluated by a 20-strong patient panel. A final list of RGs and research recommendations (RR) was endorsed by all participants. Fifteen critical RGs are summarised below: RG1 : Lack of realistic models that recapitulate tumour/tumour micro/macroenvironment; RG2 : Insufficient evidence on precise contributions of genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors to CRC risk; RG3 : Pressing need for prevention trials; RG4 : Lack of integration of different prevention approaches; RG5 : Lack of optimal strategies for CRC screening; RG6 : Lack of effective triage systems for invasive investigations; RG7 : Imprecise pathological assessment of CRC; RG8 : Lack of qualified personnel in genomics, data sciences and digital pathology; RG9 : Inadequate assessment/communication of risk, benefit and uncertainty of treatment choices; RG10 : Need for novel technologies/interventions to improve curative outcomes; RG11 : Lack of approaches that recognise molecular interplay between metastasising tumours and their microenvironment; RG12 : Lack of reliable biomarkers to guide stage IV treatment; RG13 : Need to increase understanding of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and promote residual symptom resolution; RG14 : Lack of coordination of CRC research/funding; RG15 : Lack of effective communication between relevant stakeholders. Prioritising research activity and funding could have a significant impact on reducing CRC disease burden over

  3. Immunotherapy and immunoescape in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, Guillermo; Murillo, Oihana; Atorrasagasti, Catalina; Dubrot, Juan; Tirapu, Iñigo; Rizzo, Miguel; Arina, Ainhoa; Alfaro, Carlos; Azpilicueta, Arantza; Berasain, Carmen; Perez-Gracia, José L; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Melero, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Immunotherapy encompasses a variety of interventions and techniques with the common goal of eliciting tumor cell destructive immune responses. Colorectal carcinoma often presents as metastatic disease that impedes curative surgery. Novel strategies such as active immunization with dendritic cells (DCs), gene transfer of cytokines into tumor cells or administration of immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (such as anti-CD137 or anti-CTLA-4) have been assessed in preclinical studies and are at an early clinical development stage. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that chemotherapy and immunotherapy can be combined in the treatment of some cases with colorectal cancer, with synergistic potentiation as a result of antigens cross-presented by dendritic cells and/or elimination of competitor or suppressive T lymphocyte populations (regulatory T-cells). However, genetic and epigenetic unstable carcinoma cells frequently evolve mechanisms of immunoevasion that are the result of either loss of antigen presentation, or an active expression of immunosuppressive substances. Some of these actively immunosuppressive mechanisms are inducible by cytokines that signify the arrival of an effector immune response. For example, induction of 2, 3 indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO) by IFNγ in colorectal carcinoma cells. Combinational and balanced strategies fostering antigen presentation, T-cell costimulation and interference with immune regulatory mechanisms will probably take the stage in translational research in the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:17990348

  4. Comparison of colorectal and gastric cancer: Survival and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Safaee, Azadeh; Zali, Mohammad R

    2009-01-01

    Gastric and colorectal cancers are the most common gastrointestinal malignancies in Iran. We aim to compare the survival rates and prognostic factors between these two cancers. We studied 1873 patients with either gastric or colorectal cancer who were registered in one referral cancer registry center in Tehran, Iran. All patients were followed from their time of diagnosis until December 2006 (as failure time). Survival curves were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier Method and compared by the Log-rank test. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was carried out using the Cox proportional hazard model. Of 1873 patients, there were 746 with gastric cancer and 1138 with colorectal cancer. According to the Kaplan-Meier method 1, 3, 5, and 7-year survival rates were 71.2, 37.8, 25.3, and 19.5%, respectively, in gastric cancer patients and 91.1, 73.1, 61, and 54.9%, respectively, in patients with colorectal cancer. Also, univariate analysis showed that age at diagnosis, sex, grade of tumor, and distant metastasis were of prognostic significance in both cancers ( P < 0.0001). However, in multivariate analysis, only distant metastasis in colorectal cancer and age at diagnosis, grade of tumor, and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer were identified as independent prognostic factors influencing survival. According to our findings, survival is significantly related to histological differentiation of tumor and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer patients and only to distant metastasis in gastric cancer patients. (author)

  5. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer: systematic reviews and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A; Lourenco, T; de Verteuil, R; Hernandez, R; Fraser, C; McKinley, A; Krukowski, Z; Vale, L; Grant, A

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic, laparoscopically assisted (hereafter together described as laparoscopic surgery) and hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) in comparison with open surgery for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Electronic databases were searched from 2000 to May 2005. A review of economic evaluations was undertaken by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in 2001. This review was updated from 2000 until July 2005. Data from selected studies were extracted and assessed. Dichotomous outcome data from individual trials were combined using the relative risk method and continuous outcomes were combined using the Mantel-Haenszel weighted mean difference method. Summaries of the results from individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses were also presented. An economic evaluation was also carried out using a Markov model incorporating the data from the systematic review. The results were first presented as a balance sheet for comparison of the surgical techniques. It was then used to estimate cost-effectiveness measured in terms of incremental cost per life-year gained and incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for a time horizon up to 25 years. Forty-six reports on 20 studies [19 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and one IPD meta-analysis] were included in the review of clinical effectiveness. The RCTs were of generally moderate quality with the number of participants varying between 16 and 1082, with 10 having less than 100 participants. The total numbers of trial participants who underwent laparoscopic or open surgery were 2429 and 2139, respectively. A systematic review of four papers suggested that laparoscopic surgery is more costly than open surgery. However, the data they provided on effectiveness was poorer than the evidence from the review of effectiveness. The estimates from the systematic review of clinical effectiveness were

  6. KRAS mutation testing of tumours in adults with metastatic colorectal cancer: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Marie; van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Whiting, Penny; Joore, Manuela; Armstrong, Nigel; Noake, Caro; Ross, Janine; Severens, Johan; Kleijnen, Jos

    2014-10-01

    Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the UK. Most bowel cancers are initially treated with surgery, but around 17% spread to the liver. When this happens, sometimes the liver tumour can be treated surgically, or chemotherapy may be used to shrink the tumour to make surgery possible. Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) mutations make some tumours less responsive to treatment with biological therapies such as cetuximab. There are a variety of tests available to detect these mutations. These vary in the specific mutations that they detect, the amount of mutation they detect, the amount of tumour cells needed, the time to give a result, the error rate and cost. To compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of KRAS mutation tests in differentiating adults with metastatic colorectal cancer whose metastases are confined to the liver and are unresectable and who may benefit from first-line treatment with cetuximab in combination with standard chemotherapy from those who should receive standard chemotherapy alone. Thirteen databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, research registers and conference proceedings were searched to January 2013. Additional data were obtained from an online survey of laboratories participating in the UK National External Quality Assurance Scheme pilot for KRAS mutation testing. A systematic review of the evidence was carried out using standard methods. Randomised controlled trials were assessed for quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Diagnostic accuracy studies were assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. There were insufficient data for meta-analysis. For accuracy studies we calculated sensitivity and specificity together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Survival data were summarised as hazard ratios and tumour response data were summarised as relative risks, with 95% CIs. The health economic analysis considered the long-term costs and quality-adjusted life-years associated with different tests followed by treatment

  7. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer prevention: point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arber, Nadir

    2008-08-01

    The limited success of current treatments for most advanced common malignancies highlights the importance of cancer prevention. Clinical trials on cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor drugs showed the potential of chemoprevention as a strategy for reducing cancer incidence, although not without associated side effects. The attractiveness of these drugs partly stems from an ability to engage multiple mechanisms of action by their potential to influence multiple components of the carcinogenesis pathway, from initiation to progression. There are two isoforms of the COX enzymes. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in normal tissues and serves as a "housekeeper" of mucosal integrity, whereas COX-2 is an immediate early response gene that is highly inducible by neoplastic and inflammatory stimuli. COX-2 is significantly overexpressed in colorectal neoplasms, making it an attractive therapeutic target. The drug market has been revolutionized by the development of preparations targeted selectively against COX-2, and a proof of concept has been achieved. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer is already possible with celecoxib, but it is still not the ultimate drug of choice especially because of the cardiovascular risk associated with COX-2 inhibitors. Better patient selection and more effective and safer drugs are needed. Celecoxib is probably best used in a subset of individuals at moderate to high colorectal cancer risk and low risk of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Vitamin D and colorectal cancer: molecular, epidemiological and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ruoxu; Ng, Kimmie; Giovannucci, Edward L; Manson, JoAnn E; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    In many cells throughout the body, vitamin D is converted into its active form calcitriol and binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which functions as a transcription factor to regulate various biological processes including cellular differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D-metabolising enzymes (including CYP24A1 and CYP27B1) and VDR play major roles in exerting and regulating the effects of vitamin D. Preclinical and epidemiological studies have provided evidence for anti-cancer effects of vitamin D (particularly against colorectal cancer), although clinical trials have yet to prove its benefit. In addition, molecular pathological epidemiology research can provide insights into the interaction of vitamin D with tumour molecular and immunity status. Other future research directions include genome-wide research on VDR transcriptional targets, gene-environment interaction analyses and clinical trials on vitamin D efficacy in colorectal cancer patients. In this study, we review the literature on vitamin D and colorectal cancer from both mechanistic and population studies and discuss the links and controversies within and between the two parts of evidence.

  9. Analysis of metastasis associated signal regulatory network in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu; Ding, Yanqing

    2018-06-18

    Metastasis is a key factor that affects the survival and prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. To elucidate molecular mechanism associated with the metastasis of colorectal cancer, genes related to the metastasis time of colorectal cancer were screened. Then, a network was constructed with this genes. Data was obtained from colorectal cancer expression profile. Molecular mechanism elucidated the time of tumor metastasis and the expression of genes related to colorectal cancer. We found that metastasis-promoting and metastasis-inhibiting networks included protein hubs of high connectivity. These protein hubs were components of organelles. Some ribosomal proteins promoted the metastasis of colorectal cancer. In some components of organelles, such as proteasomes, mitochondrial ribosome, ATP synthase, and splicing factors, the metastasis of colorectal cancer was inhibited by some sections of these organelles. After performing survival analysis of proteins in organelles, joint survival curve of proteins was constructed in ribosomal network. This joint survival curve showed metastasis was promoted in patients with colorectal cancer (P = 0.0022939). Joint survival curve of proteins was plotted against proteasomes (P = 7 e-07), mitochondrial ribosome (P = 0.0001157), ATP synthase (P = 0.0001936), and splicing factors (P = 1.35e-05). These curves indicate that metastasis of colorectal cancer can be inhibited. After analyzing proteins that bind with organelle components, we also found that some proteins were associated with the time of colorectal cancer metastasis. Hence, different cellular components play different roles in the metastasis of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical activity and the risk of colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, S Ghazaleh; Win, Aung Ko; Hardikar, Sheetal S; Glombicki, Stephen E; Mallenahalli, Sheila; Thirumurthi, Selvi; Peterson, Susan K; You, Y Nancy; Buchanan, Daniel D; Figueiredo, Jane C; Campbell, Peter T; Gallinger, Steven; Newcomb, Polly A; Potter, John D; Lindor, Noralane M; Le Marchand, Loic; Haile, Robert W; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Basen-Engquist, Karen M; Lynch, Patrick M; Pande, Mala

    2018-06-14

    Greater physical activity is associated with a decrease in risk of colorectal cancer for the general population; however, little is known about its relationship with colorectal cancer risk for people with Lynch syndrome, carriers of inherited pathogenic mutations in genes affecting DNA mismatch repair (MMR). We studied a cohort of 2,042 MMR gene mutations carriers (n=807, diagnosed with colorectal cancer), from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Self-reported physical activity in three age-periods (20-29, 30-49, and ≥50 years) was summarized as average metabolic equivalent of task hours per week (MET-h/week) during the age-period of cancer diagnosis or censoring (near-term exposure), and across all age-periods preceding cancer diagnosis or censoring (long-term exposure). Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between physical activity and colorectal cancer risk. Near-term physical activity was associated with a small reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer (HR ≥35 vs. Lynch syndrome, however, further confirmation is warranted. The potential modifying effect of physical activity on colorectal cancer risk for people with Lynch syndrome could be useful for risk prediction and support counseling advice for lifestyle modification to reduce cancer risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  11. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three......YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been...

  12. Risk and protective factors for development of colorectal polyps and cancer (Bulgarian experience).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzev, I; Mirchev, M; Manevska, B; Ivanova, I; Kaneva, M

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer takes third place among all malignancies in the Varna region. The present study aims to determine the typical and distinguishing risk and protective factors for colorectal polyps and cancer formation. 166 patients with large bowel polyps and 107 patients with colorectal cancer were questioned, examined endoscopically and histologically. Logistic regression analysis was used to find a possible correlation between alimentary habits, way of life, and risk for colorectal polyps and cancer formation. The latter have been used to define a strategy for their prevention. Our results showed that fried, preserved, and grilled meat, consumption of animal fats, sugar, and being overweight are positively associated with colorectal polyps. In contrast, consumption of fruit, vegetables, rye- and brown bread, green tea, vegetable food, yoghourt, vegetarian food, fish, lamb, hare, garlic, boiled food, and mineral water, have strong protective effect against large bowel polyps. We have confirmed the role of the well-known risk factors for colorectal cancer, and discovered an association between H. pylori infection, age, villous component in the adenomatous polyps, and family history for any neoplasia and large bowel carcinoma. We suggest the following protective factors for CRC: vegetarian food, plant oil, rural life, aspirin intake, legumes, fish, fruit and vegetable consumption. We observe a similarity between the risk factors for colorectal polyps and cancer formation. They act simultaneously and depend on genetic predisposition. A combination of endoscopic treatment and correction of the alimentary factors could be used as a means of cancer prevention.

  13. A Gene Expression Classifier of Node-Positive Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F. Meeh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We used digital long serial analysis of gene expression to discover gene expression differences between node-negative and node-positive colorectal tumors and developed a multigene classifier able to discriminate between these two tumor types. We prepared and sequenced long serial analysis of gene expression libraries from one node-negative and one node-positive colorectal tumor, sequenced to a depth of 26,060 unique tags, and identified 262 tags significantly differentially expressed between these two tumors (P < 2 x 10-6. We confirmed the tag-to-gene assignments and differential expression of 31 genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, 12 of which were elevated in the node-positive tumor. We analyzed the expression levels of these 12 upregulated genes in a validation panel of 23 additional tumors and developed an optimized seven-gene logistic regression classifier. The classifier discriminated between node-negative and node-positive tumors with 86% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of the classifier revealed an area under the curve of 0.86. Experimental manipulation of the function of one classification gene, Fibronectin, caused profound effects on invasion and migration of colorectal cancer cells in vitro. These results suggest that the development of node-positive colorectal cancer occurs in part through elevated epithelial FN1 expression and suggest novel strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of advanced disease.

  14. The effect of perioperative probiotics treatment for colorectal cancer: short-term outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongzhi; Xia, Yang; Chen, Hongqi; Hong, Leiming; Feng, Junlan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhe; Shi, Chenzhang; Wu, Wen; Gao, Renyuan; Wei, Qing; Qin, Huanlong; Ma, Yanlei

    2016-02-16

    This study was designed to mainly evaluate the anti-infective effects of perioperative probiotic treatment in patients receiving confined colorectal cancer (CRC) respective surgery. From November 2011 to September 2012, a total of 60 patients diagnosed with CRC were randomly assigned to receive probiotic (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) treatment. The operative and post-operative clinical results including intestinal cleanliness, days to first - flatus, defecation, fluid diet, solid diet, duration of pyrexia, average heart rate, length of intraperitoneal drainage, length of antibiotic therapy, blood index changes, rate of infectious and non-infectious complications, postoperative hospital stay, and mortality were investigated. The patient demographics were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the probiotic treated and the placebo groups. The days to first flatus (3.63 versus 3.27, p = 0.0274) and the days to first defecation (4.53 versus 3.87, p = 0.0268) were significantly improved in the probiotic treated patients. The incidence of diarrhea was significantly lower (p = 0.0352) in probiotics group (26.67%, 8/30) compared to the placebo group (53.33%, 16/30). There were no statistical differences (p > 0.05) in other infectious and non-infectious complication rates including wound infection, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, anastomotic leakage, and abdominal distension. In conclusion, for those patients undergoing confined CRC resection, perioperative probiotic administration significantly influenced the recovery of bowel function, and such improvement may be of important clinical significance in reducing the short-term infectious complications such as bacteremia.

  15. The Role of Akt Isoforms in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0198 TITLE: The Role of Akt Isoforms in Colorectal Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jatin Roper...CONTRACT NUMBER The Role of Akt Isoforms in Colorectal Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0198 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...substantially reduces colorectal tumorigenesis in our genetically engineered mouse model. We also successfully ablated novel downstream targets of Akt in our

  16. Analysis of a gene panel for targeted sequencing of colorectal cancer samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Højgaard; Izarzugaza, Jose M.G; Sierakowska Juncker, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Surgical intervention is a successful treatment for stage I patients, whereas other more advanced cases may require adjuvant chemotherapy. The selection of effective adjuvant treatments remains, however, challenging. Accurate patient...

  17. Eating frequency and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrigue, Martine M; Kantor, Elizabeth D; Hastert, Theresa A; Patterson, Ruth; Potter, John D; Neuhouser, Marian L; White, Emily

    2013-12-01

    Eating frequency is a modifiable aspect of dietary behavior that may affect risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although most previous case-control studies indicate a positive association, two prospective studies suggest an inverse association between eating frequency and CRC risk, with evidence of effect modification by diet composition. We examined the association between eating frequency and CRC in a large, prospective cohort study, and explored whether this relationship was modified by sex, coffee consumption, or dietary glycemic load. Between 2000 and 2002, 67,912 western Washington residents aged 50-76 reported average daily meal and snack frequency using a mailed questionnaire as part of the vitamins and lifestyle study. Participants were followed for CRC through linkage with SEER through 2008, over which time 409 CRC cases developed. Hazard Ratios and 95 % Confidence Intervals were obtained using Cox regression. In age- and sex-adjusted models higher (5+ times/d) vs. lower (1-2 times/d) eating frequency was associated with a HR of 0.62 (95 % CI 0.43-0.88, Ptrend = 0.001). However, following further adjustment for BMI, race/ethnicity, alcohol, and other known CRC risk factors, the relationship was no longer statistically significant (HR: 0.76; 95 % CI 0.51, 1.14). No effect modification was observed by sex (Pinteraction = 0.45), coffee consumption (Pinteraction = 0.44), or dietary glycemic load (Pinteraction = 0.90). In subgroup analyses by tumor site, higher vs. lower eating frequency was associated with lower risk for colon (HR 0.65 95 % CI 0.39-1.07, Ptrend = 0.04), but not rectal cancers (HR = 1.08 95 % CI 0.54-2.18, Ptrend = 0.94). The weak inverse association observed between eating frequency and CRC is consistent with findings from other prospective studies. Modification of this relationship by diet quality and participant characteristics should be considered in the future studies.

  18. Early colorectal Cancer: focuses and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Oscar A; Martinez, Carlos E; Escobar, Jaime; Sanchez, William; Serrano, Juan M

    2001-01-01

    Currently, early colorectal cancer (ECC) constitutes only 10% of the total of diagnosed colorectal malignancy. This proportion is expected to show an important increase with the different screening protocols that are on the way, together with recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy. We compare the histopathologic spectrum of ECC from the western and Japanese viewpoint, defining the anatomopathologic characteristics of this lesions, together with the natural history and new classification and staging systems; variables which are all oriented to establish the grade of local invasion and risk of nodal spread. The knowledge and integral analysis of the different biologic, clinical, histological and endoscopic characteristics of ECC, will determine the most rational individual therapeutic pathway from the prognostic point of view

  19. DNA copy-number alterations underlie gene expression differences between microsatellite stable and unstable colorectal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorissen, Robert N; Lipton, Lara; Gibbs, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: About 15% of colorectal cancers harbor microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI-associated gene expression changes have been identified in colorectal cancers, but little overlap exists between signatures hindering an assessment of overall consistency. Little is known about the causes...... and downstream effects of differential gene expression. Experimental Design: DNA microarray data on 89 MSI and 140 microsatellite-stable (MSS) colorectal cancers from this study and 58 MSI and 77 MSS cases from three published reports were randomly divided into test and training sets. MSI-associated gene......-number data. Results: MSI-associated gene expression changes in colorectal cancers were found to be highly consistent across multiple studies of primary tumors and cancer cell lines from patients of different ethnicities (P

  20. Mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal cancer patients in a low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... This is 10% of the rate reported in First-World countries. In high-incidence areas, the rate of abnormal mismatch repair gene expression in colorectal cancers is 2 - 7%. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hMLH1- and hMSH2-deficient colorectal cancer in the. Northern Cape.

  1. Patterns and presentations of colorectal cancer at Komfo-Anokye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally and its incidence is increasing in developing countries. This study determined the incidence, clinical features and the histopathological patterns of colorectal cancer at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Methods: A ...

  2. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya | Saidi | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The incidence of colorectal cancer in Africa is increasing. True data on clinical outcomes of the disease is hampered by follow up challenges. Method Follow up data of 233 patients treated for colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2010 at various Nairobi hospitals were evaluated. The primary outcome was ...

  3. Vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer cell pulsed autologous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer (CRC) cell pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) in advanced CRC, 14 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) were enrolled and treated with DCs vaccine to assess toxicity, tolerability, immune and clinical responses to the vaccine. No severe toxicity ...

  4. Immunogenomic Classification of Colorectal Cancer and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Roelands

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The immune system has a substantial effect on colorectal cancer (CRC progression. Additionally, the response to immunotherapeutics and conventional treatment options (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies is influenced by the immune system. The molecular characterization of colorectal cancer (CRC has led to the identification of favorable and unfavorable immunological attributes linked to clinical outcome. With the definition of consensus molecular subtypes (CMSs based on transcriptomic profiles, multiple characteristics have been proposed to be responsible for the development of the tumor immune microenvironment and corresponding mechanisms of immune escape. In this review, a detailed description of proposed immune phenotypes as well as their interaction with different therapeutic modalities will be provided. Finally, possible strategies to shift the CRC immune phenotype towards a reactive, anti-tumor orientation are proposed per CMS.

  5. An effect from anticipation also in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families without identified mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timshel, Susanne; Therkildsen, Christina; Bendahl, Pär-Ola

    2009-01-01

    the Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC and showed normal MMR function and/or lack of disease-predisposing MMR gene mutation. In total, 319 cancers from 212 parent-child pairs in 99 families were identified. A paired t-test and a bivariate statistical model were used to assess anticipation. Both methods demonstrated...

  6. Prognostic and predictive factors in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolocan, A; Ion, D; Ciocan, D N; Paduraru, D N

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important public health problem; it is a leading cause of cancer mortality in the industrialized world, second to lung cancer: each year there are nearly one million new cases of CRC diagnosed worldwide and half a million deaths (1). This review aims to summarise the most important currently available markers for CRC that provide prognostic or predictive information. Amongst others, it covers serum markers such as CEA and CA19-9, markers expressed by tumour tissues, such as thymidylate synthase, and also the expression/loss of expression of certain oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes such as K-ras and p53. The prognostic value of genomic instability, angiogenesis and proliferative indices, such as the apoptotic index, are discussed. The advent of new therapies created the pathway for a personalized approach of the patient. This will take into consideration the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis, besides the classical clinical and pathological stagings. The growing number of therapeutic agents and known molecular targets in oncology lead to a compulsory study of the clinical use of biomarkers with role in improving response and survival, as well as in reducing toxicity and establishing economic stability. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have arisen from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and their therapeutical significance are discussed. RevistaChirurgia.

  7. Pattern & presentation of colorectal cancer in central Sudan, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    logical types of colorectal cancer cases presented to Ibn Sina specialized hospital. ... Abdominal pain. Tenesmus. Weight loss. Abdominal distension. Anal pain ... Male sex. 23. 18. 31. 21. Family history 8. 1. 6. 5. Rectal cancer. 26. 9. 29. 26.

  8. Evaluation of complement proteins as screening markers for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Line; Christensen, Ib J; Jensenius, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Lack of symptoms results in late detection and increased mortality. Inflammation, including complement activation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The concentrations of nine proteins...

  9. Self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianhui; Xu, Jinghong; Zhu, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog-Gli (HH-GLI), specific roles mediated by cell surface markers and micro-environmental factors are involved in the regulation of self-renewal. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind self-renewal may lead to the development of novel targeted interventions for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  10. Australian contemporary management of synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, Phillip; Gibbs, Peter; Shapiro, Jeremy; Sockler, Jim; Bell, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This article outlines the current Australian multidisciplinary treatment of synchronous metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and assesses the factors that influence patient outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of the prospective 'Treatment of Recurrent and Advanced Colorectal Cancer' registry, describing the patient treatment pathway and documenting the extent of disease, resection of the colorectal primary and metastases, chemotherapy and biological therapy use. Cox regression models for progression-free and overall survival were constructed with a comprehensive set of clinical variables. Analysis was intentionn-ton-treat, quantifying the effect of treatment intent decided at the multidisciplinary team meeting (MDT). One thousand one hundred and nine patients presented with synchronous metastatic disease between July 2009 and November 2015. Median follow-up was 15.8 months; 4.4% (group 1) had already curative resections of primary and metastases prior to MDT, 22.2% (group 2) were considered curative but were referred to MDT for opinion and/or medical oncology treatment prior to resection and 70.2% were considered palliative at MDT (group 3). Overall, 83% received chemotherapy, 55% had their primary resected and 23% had their metastases resected; 13% of resections were synchronous, 20% were staged with primary resected first and 62% had only the colorectal primary managed surgically. Performance status, metastasis resection (R0 versus R1 versus R2 versus no resection), resection of the colorectal primary and treatment intent determined at MDT were the most significant factors for progression-free and overall survival. This is the largest Australian series of synchronous metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and offers insight into the nature and utility of contemporary practice. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Vitamin D and Colorectal Cancer: Molecular, Epidemiological, and Clinical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ruoxu; Ng, Kimmie; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    In many cells throughout the body, vitamin D is converted into its active form calcitriol, and binds to vitamin D receptor (VDR), which functions as a transcription factor to regulate various biological processes including cellular differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes (including CYP24A1 and CYP27B1) and VDR play major roles in exerting and regulating effects of vitamin D. Preclinical and epidemiological studies provide evidence for anticancer effects of vitamin D (in particular, against colorectal cancer), though clinical trials have yet to prove its benefit. Additionally, molecular pathological epidemiology research can provide insights into the interaction of vitamin D with tumour molecular and immunity status. Other future research directions include genome-wide research on VDR transcriptional targets, gene-environment interaction analyses, and clinical trials on vitamin D efficacy in colorectal cancer patients. Here we review the literature on vitamin D and colorectal cancer from both mechanistic and population studies, and discuss the links and controversies within and between the two parts of evidence. PMID:27245104

  12. Effects of Nutritional Support in Patients with Colorectal Cancer during Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrila Dintinjana, Renata; Guina, Tina; Krznarić, Željko; Radić, Mladen; Dintinjana, Marijan

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional support, addressing the specific needs of this patient group, is required to help improve prognosis, and reduce the consequences of cancer-associated nutritional decline. Early intervention with nutritional supplementation has been shown to halt malnutrition, and may improve outcome in some patients. In our study we tried to assess the influence of nutritional support (counseling, oral liquids, megestrol acetate) on nutritional status and symptoms prevalence in patients ...

  13. The effect of metformin on the recurrence of colorectal adenoma in diabetic patients with previous colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min Seok; Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Won Ho; Kim, Tae Il

    2017-08-01

    Existing studies suggest that metformin lowers the risk and mortality of colorectal cancer. However, the effect of metformin on the suppression and prevention of colorectal adenomas is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metformin on the recurrence of colorectal adenoma in diabetic patients with previous colorectal adenoma. Among 423 diabetic patients who underwent surveillance colonoscopy after resection of colorectal adenoma between 2005 and 2011, 257 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: one group comprising 106 patients who took metformin and another group comprising 151 patients who did not take metformin. The clinical characteristics, colorectal adenoma recurrence, and valuable factors for adenoma recurrence were analyzed. At surveillance colonoscopy after colonoscopic polypectomy for adenoma, 38 patients (35.8%) exhibited colorectal adenoma among 106 patients who took metformin, compared with 85 patients (56.3%) with colorectal adenoma among 151 patients who did not take metformin (odds ratio 0.434, 95% confidence interval 0.260-0.723, P = 0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that metformin was associated with decreased recurrence of colorectal adenoma (hazard ratio 0.572, 95% confidence interval 0.385-0.852, P = 0.006) in diabetic patients with previous colorectal adenoma. The cumulative probability of colorectal adenoma recurrence was significantly lower in the metformin group than in the non-metformin group (P = 0.001). Metformin use in diabetic patients with previous colorectal adenoma is associated with a lower risk of colorectal adenoma recurrence.

  14. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.

  15. Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Associated Mortality in HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼNeill, Tyler J; Nguemo, Joseph D; Tynan, Anne-Marie; Burchell, Ann N; Antoniou, Tony

    2017-08-01

    As people with HIV live longer, the numbers of colorectal cancer cases are expected to increase. We sought to compare the colorectal cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality among people living with and without HIV. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched 5 electronic databases up to June 28, 2016, for primary studies reporting standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), standardized mortality ratios (SMRs)/hazard ratios or data sufficient for estimating these summary measures. We performed a random effects pooled analysis to estimate SIR and SMR of colorectal cancer in HIV. Of 8110 articles, we included 27 studies from North America (n = 18), Europe (n = 7), the Pacific region (n = 4), and South America (n = 1). Overall, 1660 cases of colorectal cancer and colon cancer (excluding rectal cancer) occurred among 1,696,070 persons with HIV. In pooled analysis, we found no summary risk of malignancy among those with HIV relative to an uninfected population (SIR 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.22; I = 89.2%). Colorectal cancer-specific mortality was higher among people with HIV but did not reach statistical significance (SMR 2.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 4.40; I = 85.0%). Rates of colorectal cancer are similar between people with and without HIV. Existing screening guidelines are likely adequate for people with HIV.

  16. Evaluation the role of nutritional and individual factors in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Moshfeghi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide including 38% of gastrointestinal cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third type of Iranian men and fourth in women in ranking. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of environmental risk factors in colorectal cancer.Materials and Method: In this case-control study, the authors selected cases from colorectal cancer patients in Arak and controls were selected from Arak hospitals in proportion to the number of cases. Data collected by using a structured questionnaire and based on interviews with patients and their medical records. We used chi-squared and independent t-tests to analyze data. Logistic regression applies to eliminate the effect of possible confounding variables.Results: From all participants 55.7% were male and 90% got married. 33.6% were overweight and/or obese. Mean ± SD of age and BMI was 54.41±14.88 yr and 24.42±4.58, respectively. Regression model showed that fatty food intake, high education and positive family history are the predictor risk factors of colorectal cancer. Conclusion: Due to preventable colorectal cancer and increased global incidence of disease, educational intervention about the importance of disease, methods of screening and diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of patients are necessary

  17. Expression of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in colorectal cancer--inhibitory effects of an siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gan-Ting; Yang, Li-Juan; Li, Xi-Xia; Cui, Hui-Lin; Guo, Rui

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate expression of the proto-oncogene POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon) in colorectal cancer (CRC), and assess inhibitory effects of a small interference RNA (siRNA) expression vector in SW480 and SW620 cells. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels of Pokemon in CRC tissues. Indirect immunofluorescence staining was applied to investigate the location of Pokemon in SW480 and SW620 cells. The siRNA expression vectors that were constructed to express a short hairpin RNA against Pokemon were transfected to the SW480 and SW620 cells with a liposome. Expression levels of Pokemon mRNA and protein were examined by real-time quantitative-fluorescent PCR and western blot analysis. The effects of Pokemon silencing on proliferation of SW480 and SW620 cells were evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assays. The mRNA expression level of Pokemon in tumor tissues (0.845 ± 0.344) was significantly higher than that in adjacent tumor specimens (0.321 ± 0.197). The positive expression ratio of Pokemon protein in CRC (87.0%) was significantly higher than that in the adjacent tissues (19.6%). Strong fluorescence staining of Pokemon protein was observed in the cytoplasm of the SW480 and SW620 cells. The inhibition ratios of Pokemon mRNA and protein in the SW480 cells were 83.1% and 73.5% at 48 and 72 h, respectively, compared with those of the negative control cells with the siRNA. In the SW620 cells, the inhibition ratios of Pokemon mRNA and protein were 76.3% and 68.7% at 48 and 72 h, respectively. MTT showed that Pokemon gene silencing inhibited the proliferation of SW480 and SW620 cells. Overexpression of Pokemon in CRC may have a function in carcinogenesis and progression. siRNA expression vectors could effectively inhibit mRNA and protein expression of Pokemon in SW480 and SW620 cells, thereby reducing

  18. [Significance of CEA in gastric and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, K; Miyamoto, Y; Izuo, M; Shiozaki, H; Aiba, S; Matsumoto, H

    1985-04-01

    The determination of serum CEA (Sandwich method) and CEA staining (PAP method) of excised specimens were performed in patients with gastric or colorectal cancer, and the biological characteristics of each cancer and the factors to increase serum CEA were studied with the following results: As colonic cancer has strong CEA productivity, serum CEA can be useful for the detection of cancer, and especially effective for the postoperative observation. Gastric cancer has weak CEA productivity, and serum CEA is not so useful in the detection of cancer and the judgement of resectability. The CEA positive rate of tissue with CEA staining was 80% in gastric cancer, 100% in colonic cancer, and were nearly equal to the CEA positive rate of serum in the group of terminal stage. In the mode of CEA staining of cancerous cells, IV type was observed most frequently in gastric cancer, and I type in colonic cancer. Among the resected cases showing more than 7ng/ml serum CEA, differentiated type, lymph node metastasis (+), the degree of tissue staining with CEA staining, the mode of cell staining O or I type in gastric cancer and I type in colonic cancer were observed in common.

  19. Effect of genetic variants and traits related to glucose metabolism and their interaction with obesity on breast and colorectal cancer risk among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su Yon; Sobel, Eric M; Papp, Jeanette C; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2017-04-26

    Impaired glucose metabolism-related genetic variants and traits likely interact with obesity and related lifestyle factors, influencing postmenopausal breast and colorectal cancer (CRC), but their interconnected pathways are not fully understood. By stratifying via obesity and lifestyles, we partitioned the total effect of glucose metabolism genetic variants on cancer risk into two putative mechanisms: 1) indirect (risk-associated glucose metabolism genetic variants mediated by glucose metabolism traits) and 2) direct (risk-associated glucose metabolism genetic variants through pathways other than glucose metabolism traits) effects. Using 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with glucose metabolism and data from 5379 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Harmonized and Imputed Genome-Wide Association Studies, we retrospectively assessed the indirect and direct effects of glucose metabolism-traits (fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) using two quantitative tests. Several SNPs were associated with breast cancer and CRC risk, and these SNP-cancer associations differed between non-obese and obese women. In both strata, the direct effect of cancer risk associated with the SNP accounted for the majority of the total effect for most SNPs, with roughly 10% of cancer risk due to the SNP that was from an indirect effect mediated by glucose metabolism traits. No apparent differences in the indirect (glucose metabolism-mediated) effects were seen between non-obese and obese women. It is notable that among obese women, 50% of cancer risk was mediated via glucose metabolism trait, owing to two SNPs: in breast cancer, in relation to GCKR through glucose, and in CRC, in relation to DGKB/TMEM195 through HOMA-IR. Our findings suggest that glucose metabolism genetic variants interact with obesity, resulting in altered cancer risk through pathways other than those mediated by glucose metabolism traits.

  20. [Effects of a nutritional intervention in a fast-track program for a colorectal cancer surgery: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Arroyo-Sebastián, Antonio; Cheikh-Moussa, Kamila; Moya-Forcen, Pedro

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: Preoperative nutritional status (NS) has consequences on postoperative (POSTOP) recovery. Our aim was to systematically review the nutritional interventions (NI) in Fast-Track protocols for colorectal cancer surgery and assess morbidity-mortality and patient´s recovery. Systematic review of scientific literature after consulting bibliographic databases: Medline, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Institute for Scientific Information, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. MeSH Descriptors: "Colorectal Surgery", "Fast-Track", "Perioperative Care", "Nutrition Therapy" and "Enhanced recovery programme". Filters: "Humans", Adult (19+ years) and "Clinical Trial". Variables POSTOP outcomes: bowel recovery (BR), hospital stay (HS), complications and death. Selected studies, 27, had good or excellent methodological quality. From 25 to 597 patients were included. Aged between 16-94 years, men were predominant in 66.6%. NS was evaluated in 13 studies; 7 by Body Mass Index while one by Subjective Global Assessment. One presented POSTOP data. Fast-Track groups had solids, liquids or supplements (SS) in prior 2-8 hours. SS were high in carbohydrates, immune-nutrients and non-residue. Free liquids, solids and SS intake was allowed in POSTOP. Half traditional groups fasted between 3-12 hours and resumed POSTOP food intake progressively. Fast-Track groups had early BR (p Nutritional status must be assessed for a higher acknowledgement of NI impact.

  1. Obesity, Aspirin, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Carriers of Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Movahedi, Mohammad; Bishop, D Timothy; Macrae, Finlay

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In the general population, increased adiposity is a significant risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether obesity has similar effects in those with hereditary CRC is uncertain. This prospective study investigated the association between body mass index and cancer risk...... was 25.0 months, and mean follow-up was 55.7 months. RESULTS: During follow-up, 55 of 937 participants developed CRC. For obese participants, CRC risk was 2.41× (95% CI, 1.22 to 4.85) greater than for underweight and normal-weight participants (reference group), and CRC risk increased by 7% for each 1-kg....../m(2) increase in body mass index. The risk of all LS-related cancers in obese people was 1.77× (95% CI, 1.06 to 2.96; P = .03) greater than for the reference group. In subgroup analysis, obesity was associated with 3.72× (95% CI, 1.41 to 9.81) greater CRC risk in patients with LS with MLH1 mutation...

  2. The Effect of a Decision Aid on the Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    a rubric supplied by the developer; a ‘correct’ answer for question 3.5 was any number between 4 and 10 and for question 3.16 any number between 1...or Crohn’s disease, genetic syndromes that increase the risk of CRC, a parent, brother, sister or child with colon cancer or a previous screening...abnormal test result on CSPY. According to the rubric provided by the developer, the answer to the question is “no”. As discussed in Section E.3, the CRCDA

  3. POLE somatic mutations in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joana; Pinto, Carla; Pinto, Diana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Silva, Romina; Peixoto, Ana; Rocha, Patrícia; Veiga, Isabel; Santos, Catarina; Santos, Rui; Cabreira, Verónica; Lopes, Paula; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2017-12-01

    Despite all the knowledge already gathered, the picture of somatic genetic changes in colorectal tumorigenesis is far from complete. Recently, germline and somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit (POLE) gene have been reported in a small subset of microsatellite-stable and hypermutated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), affecting the proofreading activity of the enzyme and leading to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. To evaluate the role of POLE mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis, namely in advanced CRC, we searched for somatic mutations by Sanger sequencing in tumor DNA samples from 307 cases. Microsatellite instability and mutation analyses of a panel of oncogenes were performed in the tumors harboring POLE mutations. Three heterozygous mutations were found in two tumors, the c.857C>G, p.Pro286Arg, the c.901G>A, p.Asp301Asn, and the c.1376C>T, p.Ser459Phe. Of the POLE-mutated CRCs, one tumor was microsatellite-stable and the other had low microsatellite instability, whereas KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were found in one tumor each. We conclude that POLE somatic mutations exist but are rare in advanced CRC, with further larger studies being necessary to evaluate its biological and clinical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. miR-330 regulates the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells by targeting Cdc42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuefeng [The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Zhu, Xiaolan; Xu, Wenlin [The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Wang, Dongqing [The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Yan, Jinchuan, E-mail: jiangdalyf2009@126.com [The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► miR-330 was inversely correlated with Cdc42 in colorectal cancer cells. ► Elevated miR-330 suppressed cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. ► Elevated miR-330 mimicked the effect of Cdc42 knockdown. ► Restoration of Cdc42 could partially attenuate the effects of miR-330. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that play important roles in the multistep process of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) development. However, the miRNA–mRNA regulatory network is far from being fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and the biological roles of miR-330 in colorectal cancer cells. Cdc42, one of the best characterized members of the Rho GTPase family, was found to be up-regulated in several types of human tumors including CRC and has been implicated in cancer initiation and progression. In the present study, we identified miR-330, as a potential regulator of Cdc42, was found to be inversely correlated with Cdc42 expression in colorectal cancer cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-330 down-regulated Cdc42 expression at both protein and mRNA level, mimicked the effect of Cdc42 knockdown in inhibiting proliferation, inducing G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of the colorectal cancer cells, whereas restoration of Cdc42 could partially attenuate the effects of miR-330. In addition, elevated expression of miR-330 could suppress the immediate downstream effectors of Cdc42 and inhibit the growth of colorectal cancer cells in vivo. To sum up, our results establish a role of miR-330 in negatively regulating Cdc42 expression and colorectal cancer cell proliferation. They suggest that manipulating the expression level of Cdc42 by miR-330 has the potential to influence colorectal cancer progression.

  5. miR-330 regulates the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells by targeting Cdc42

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuefeng; Zhu, Xiaolan; Xu, Wenlin; Wang, Dongqing; Yan, Jinchuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► miR-330 was inversely correlated with Cdc42 in colorectal cancer cells. ► Elevated miR-330 suppressed cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. ► Elevated miR-330 mimicked the effect of Cdc42 knockdown. ► Restoration of Cdc42 could partially attenuate the effects of miR-330. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that play important roles in the multistep process of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) development. However, the miRNA–mRNA regulatory network is far from being fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and the biological roles of miR-330 in colorectal cancer cells. Cdc42, one of the best characterized members of the Rho GTPase family, was found to be up-regulated in several types of human tumors including CRC and has been implicated in cancer initiation and progression. In the present study, we identified miR-330, as a potential regulator of Cdc42, was found to be inversely correlated with Cdc42 expression in colorectal cancer cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-330 down-regulated Cdc42 expression at both protein and mRNA level, mimicked the effect of Cdc42 knockdown in inhibiting proliferation, inducing G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of the colorectal cancer cells, whereas restoration of Cdc42 could partially attenuate the effects of miR-330. In addition, elevated expression of miR-330 could suppress the immediate downstream effectors of Cdc42 and inhibit the growth of colorectal cancer cells in vivo. To sum up, our results establish a role of miR-330 in negatively regulating Cdc42 expression and colorectal cancer cell proliferation. They suggest that manipulating the expression level of Cdc42 by miR-330 has the potential to influence colorectal cancer progression

  6. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Quality assurance in the treatment of colorectal cancer: the EURECCA initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugom, A J; Boelens, P G; van den Broek, C B M; Cervantes, A; Van Cutsem, E; Schmoll, H J; Valentini, V; van de Velde, C J H

    2014-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe. Over the past few decades, important advances have been made in screening, staging and treatment of colorectal cancer. However, considerable variation between and within European countries remains, which implies that further improvements are possible. The most important remaining question now is: when are we, health care professionals, delivering the best available care to patients with colon or rectal cancer? Currently, quality assurance is a major issue in colorectal cancer care and quality assurance awareness is developing in almost all disciplines involved in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. Quality assurance has shown to be effective in clinical trials. For example, standardisation and quality control were introduced in the Dutch TME trial and led to marked improvements of local control and survival in rectal cancer patients. Besides, audit structures can also be very effective in monitoring cancer management and national audits showed to further improve outcome in colorectal cancer patients. To reduce the differences between European countries, an international, multidisciplinary, outcome-based quality improvement programme, European Registration of Cancer Care (EURECCA), has been initiated. In the near future, the EURECCA dataset will perform research on subgroups as elderly patients or patients with comorbidities, which are often excluded from trials. For optimal colorectal cancer care, quality assurance in guideline formation and in multidisciplinary team management is also of great importance. The aim of this review was to create greater awareness and to give an overview of quality assurance in the management of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Extended Cancer Education for Longer-Term Survivors in Primary Care for Patients With Stage I-II Breast or Prostate Cancer or Stage I-III Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage II Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Prostate Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

  9. Gambogic acid-loaded biomimetic nanoparticles in colorectal cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Z

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhen Zhang,1 Hanqing Qian,2 Mi Yang,2 Rutian Li,2 Jing Hu,1 Li Li,1 Lixia Yu,2 Baorui Liu,1,2 Xiaoping Qian1,2 1Comprehensive Cancer Center, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Comprehensive Cancer Center, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Clinical Cancer Institute, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China Abstract: Gambogic acid (GA is expected to be a potential new antitumor drug, but its poor aqueous solubility and inevitable side effects limit its clinical application. Despite these inhe­rent defects, various nanocarriers can be used to promote the solubility and tumor targeting of GA, improving antitumor efficiency. In addition, a cell membrane-coated nanoparticle platform that was reported recently, unites the customizability and flexibility of a synthetic copolymer, as well as the functionality and complexity of natural membrane, and is a new synthetic biomimetic nanocarrier with improved stability and biocompatibility. Here, we combined poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA with red blood-cell membrane (RBCm, and evaluated whether GA-loaded RBCm nanoparticles can retain and improve the antitumor efficacy of GA with relatively lower toxicity in colorectal cancer treatment compared with free GA. We also confirmed the stability, biocompatibility, passive targeting, and few side effects of RBCm-GA/PLGA nanoparticles. We expect to provide a new drug carrier in the treatment of colorectal cancer, which has strong clinical application prospects. In addition, the potential antitumor drug GA and other similar drugs could achieve broader clinical applications via this biomimetic nanocarrier. Keywords: gambogic acid, nanocarriers, RBCm-GA/PLGA nanoparticles, colorectal cancer

  10. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in restaging of colorectal cancer. Evidence-based recommendations and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Weber, W.; Schwaiger, M.

    2003-01-01

    Aim, method: Recommendations for the use of FDG-PET in relapsed colorectal cancer and the decision of reimbursement should base on published studies and on their level of evidence. Therefore, the PET-studies published between 1997 and 2002 were graded by the bias-criteria, by two rating-systems and by two classification-systems for the level of evidence according to AHCPR (Agency for Health Care Policy and Research) and VHA (Veterans Health Administration). Results: The recommendation for the use of PET in relapsed colorectal cancer reached the level IIa according to the AHCPR, corresponding to level B according to the VHA. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 94% (95% CI: 91-96%) and 78% (95% CI: 69-86%), respectively. Staging was changed correctly in 27% of patients (95% CI: 24-30%). Staging by FDG-PET was incorrect in 4% of the patients (95% CI: 2-5%) compared with the conventionel methods. The additional use of PET changed the prospectively defined management plan for 34% of patients (95% CI: 31-38%). Either potentially curative operations were initiated in case of resectable tumour or futile operations were cancelled in case of multiple metastases. Conclusion: The 3-years-survival-rate following surgery would have exceeded 70% if the selection of patients had included an additional PET-examination. The correct selection of patients is requested in the daily routine as well as in the clinical implementation of neoadjuvant therapies to prevent a selection-bias from a suboptimal restaging without PET. (orig.) [de

  11. Synergistic antitumor effect of 3-bromopyruvate and 5-fluorouracil against human colorectal cancer through cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Dianlong; Ma, Linyan; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Zhirui; Zhao, Surong; Huo, Qiang; Zhang, Pei; Zheng, Hailun; Liu, Hao

    2017-09-01

    3-Bromopyruvic acid (3-BP) is a well-known inhibitor of energy metabolism. It has been proposed as an anticancer agent as well as a chemosensitizer for use in combination with anticancer drugs. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for colorectal cancer; however, most patients develop resistance to 5-FU through various mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 3-BP has a synergistic antitumor effect with 5-FU on human colorectal cancer cells. In our study, combined 3-BP and 5-FU treatment upregulated p53 and p21, whereas cyclin-dependent kinase CDK4 and CDK2 were downregulated, which led to G0/G1 phase arrest. Furthermore, there was an increase in reactive oxygen species levels and a decrease in adenosine triphosphate levels. It was also observed that Bax expression increased, whereas Bcl-2 expression reduced, which were indicative of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, the combination of 3-BP and 5-FU significantly suppressed tumor growth in the BALB/c mice in vivo. Therefore, 3-BP inhibits tumor proliferation and induces S and G2/M phase arrest. It also exerts a synergistic antitumor effect with 5-FU on SW480 cells.

  12. Bounding the per-protocol effect in randomized trials: An application to colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Swanson (Sonja); Holme (Øyvind); M. Løberg (Magnus); M. Kalager (Mette); M. Bretthauer (Michael); G. Hoff (G.); E. Aas (Eline); M.A. Hernán (M.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The per-protocol effect is the effect that would have been observed in a randomized trial had everybody followed the protocol. Though obtaining a valid point estimate for the per-protocol effect requires assumptions that are unverifiable and often implausible, lower and upper

  13. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  14. Using Comics to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayan Linda; Acevedo, Nazia; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2017-06-23

    There are unaesthetic aspects in teaching people about the early detection of colorectal cancer using the fecal immunochemical test. Comics were seen as a way to overcome those unaesthetic aspects. This study used the Asian grocery store-based cancer education venue to pilot-test the clarity, cultural acceptability, and alignment of five colorectal cancer education comics intended for publication in Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) community newspapers. After developing the colorectal cancer education comics, API students asked shoppers to review a comic from their collection and provide feedback on how to make the comic clearer and more culturally pertinent to API readers. To evaluate viewers' responses, the students gathered such unobtrusive data as: (1) how many of the predetermined salient information points were discussed as the student educators interacted with shoppers and (2) how many comics the shoppers were willing to review. Shoppers were also asked to evaluate how effective the comics would be at motivating colorectal cancer screening among APIs. The students were able to cover all of the salient information points with the first comic. As evidence of the comics' capacity to engage shoppers' interest, shoppers willingly evaluated all five comics. Using multiple comics enabled the educators to repeatedly address the four salient colorectal cancer information points. Thus, the comics helped student educators to overcome the unesthetic elements of colorectal cancer discussions, while enabling them to engage shoppers in animated discussions, for far more time than with their conventional didactic educational methods.

  15. Effect of Cu(II) coordination compounds on the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Katarzyna; Malinowska, Katarzyna; Langer, Ewa; Dziki, Łukasz; Dziki, Adam; Majsterek, Ireneusz

    2011-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious medical and economical problem of our times. It is the most common gastrointestinal cancer in the world. In Poland, the treatment and detection of CRC are poorly developed and the pathogenesis is still unclear. One hypothesis suggests a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of CRC. Experimental studies in recent years confirm the participation of ROS in the initiation and promotion of CRC. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the following coordination compounds coordination compounds: dinitrate (V) tetra(3,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dichloro di(3,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dinitrate (V) di(1,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dichloro di(1,3,4,5-tetramethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, ZnCu-SOD) and catalase (CAT) in a group of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and in the control group consisting of patients with minor gastrointestinal complaints. The study was conducted in 20 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at the age of 66.5±10.2 years (10 men and 10 women) versus the control group of 20 people (10 men and 10 women) aged 57.89±17.10 years without cancer lesions in the biological material - hemolysate prepared in a proportion of 1ml of water per 1 ml of blood. CAT activity was measured by the Beers method (1952), while SOD activity was measured by the Misra and Fridovich method (1972). We found that patients with CRC showed a statistically significant decrease of SOD and CAT activity (CAT - 12,75±1.97 U/g Hb, SOD - 1111.52±155.52 U/g Hb) in comparison with the control group (CAT - 19.65±2,17 U/g Hb, SOD - 2046.26±507.22 U/g Hb). Simultaneously, we observed that the investigated coordination compounds of Cu(II) significantly increased the antioxidant activity of CAT and SOD in patients with CRC (mean: CAT 25.23±4.86 U/g Hb, SOD - 3075.96±940.20 U/g Hb). Patients with

  16. 5-Fluorouracil response in a large panel of colorectal cancer cell lines is associated with mismatch repair deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bracht, K; Nicholls, A M; Liu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is (CRC) one of the commonest cancers and its therapy is still based on few drugs. Currently, no biological criteria are used to choose the most effective of the established drugs for treatment.......Colorectal cancer is (CRC) one of the commonest cancers and its therapy is still based on few drugs. Currently, no biological criteria are used to choose the most effective of the established drugs for treatment....

  17. Colorectal cancer: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillant, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Technical advances that has been achieved during the past two decades have not dramatically improved the 35 % five-year rate observed in patients with colorectal cancer. These tumours remain one of the most challenging problems in public health policies in western countries. Screening applies to some subgroups of high-risk individuals and the general population aged over 50. In order to improve their efficacy, such screening programs imply large-scale information campaigns and a strong cooperation with the general physicians. The diagnosis is strongly suggested by any recent modification of bowel habits ad by rectal bleeding. It has to be confirmed by rectal examination and by colonoscopy which allows sampling to the tumour. Loco-regional and distant metastatic tumour spread must be assessed precisely before any therapeutic strategy is decided. Surgery, which resects the tumour en bloc with the corresponding lymphatic territories, is the only treatment that can achieve long term cure. In localized tumours, surgery alone can provide patients with 5-years survival rates close to 95 %. On the other hand, surgery alone is not sufficient to cure patients with advances cancers. In recent years, several adjuvant therapeutic modalities have been shown to improve the results of surgery in these cases (rectal cancer: pre-operative radiotherapy or post-operative radio-chemotherapy, colon cancer with nodal metastases: post-operative chemotherapy). There is a hope that a better use of our diagnostic and therapeutic armementarium would be able to avoid or to cure up to 75 % of the colorectal cancers we are dealing with. (author)

  18. Colorectal cancer: what's new in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivoire, M.

    1992-01-01

    Five studies presented at the 1992 ASCO meeting are analysed. Kligerman's study was designed to determine if pre-treatment with WR-2721 could p rotect normal tissues from the toxicities induced by radiation therapy (in 100 patients with an advanced rectal cancer). This pre-treatment resulted in a 13% reduction of moderate and severe acute toxicity. No WR-2721 patient experienced moderate or severe late toxicities compared to five in the group without pre-treatment. Minski studied the acute toxicity (during treatment and two weeks after) of combined pelvic radiation therapy, 5-FU and leucovorin when delivered pre-operatively (16 patients) versus post-operatively (25 patients) in patients with rectal cancer. The final report of the inter group study of 5-FU plus levamisole as adjuvant therapy for stage C colon cancer was made by Moertel. With a median follow-up time of 5.5 years, the 5-FU plus levamisole treatment has reduced the recurrence rate by 39%, the cancer related death rate by 32% and the overall death rate by 31%. Most of the recurrences occurred during the first two years. There was a decrease in the liver, great omentum, peritoneum and lung metastases, but there was no modification in loco-regional recurrence rate. Welt presented a phase I/II study of radio-immunotherapy with I 131 monoclonal antibody A33 in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. Results were characterized by major hematologic toxicity and minor tumor response rate. Heiss undertook a prospective study to evaluate the influence of homologous blood transfusion on recurrence rate after colorectal cancer surgery. Fifty-eight patients receiving autologous blood transfusion were compared with sixty-two patients receiving homologous transfusion. With a median follow-up of 21 months a higher recurrence rate was found in the homologous group (29.4% versus 16.7%)

  19. Anti-tumor effects of ONC201 in combination with VEGF-inhibitors significantly impacts colorectal cancer growth and survival in vivo through complementary non-overlapping mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jessica; Kline, C Leah; Zhou, Lanlan; Khazak, Vladimir; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2018-01-22

    Small molecule ONC201 is an investigational anti-tumor agent that upregulates intra-tumoral TRAIL expression and the integrated stress response pathway. A Phase I clinical trial using ONC201 therapy in advanced cancer patients has been completed and the drug has progressed into Phase II trials in several cancer types. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer worldwide and metastatic disease has a poor prognosis. Clinical trials in CRC and other tumor types have demonstrated that therapeutics targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, such as bevacizumab, are effective in combination with certain chemotherapeutic agents. We investigated the potential combination of VEGF inhibitors such as bevacizumab and its murine-counterpart; along with other anti-angiogenic agents and ONC201 in both CRC xenograft and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. We utilized non-invasive imaging and immunohistochemistry to determine potential mechanisms of action. Our results demonstrate significant tumor regression or complete tumor ablation in human xenografts with the combination of ONC201 with bevacizumab, and in syngeneic MC38 colorectal cancer xenografts using a murine VEGF-A inhibitor. Imaging demonstrated the impact of this combination on decreasing tumor growth and tumor metastasis. Our results indicate that ONC201 and anti-angiogenic agents act through distinct mechanisms while increasing tumor cell death and inhibiting proliferation. With the use of both a murine VEGF inhibitor in syngeneic models, and bevacizumab in human cell line-derived xenografts, we demonstrate that ONC201 in combination with anti-angiogenic therapies such as bevacizumab represents a promising approach for further testing in the clinic for the treatment of CRC.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in Iranian pharmaceutical market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Davari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The FOLFOX regimen + cetuximab provides lower costs per additional life years gained (more cost-effective compared with its alternatives in the treatment of patients with unresectable metastatic CRC. However, according to the WHO indicator, none of the cetuximab regimens could be considered as cost effective for the Iranian health care market.

  1. Is prevalence of colorectal polyps higher in patients with family history of colorectal cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Bezerra, Carla Camila Rocha; Peixoto, Ana Ligia Rocha; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Siebra, José Airton Gonçalves; da Silva Fernandes, Graziela Olivia; Vasconcelos, Rafael Aragão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjectives:To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening.Methods:A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy...

  2. Colorectal Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Periostin Expression and Its Prognostic Value for Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewu Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrin is important for cell growth, invasion and metastasis, which are frequently observed in malignant tumors. The periostin (POSTN gene encodes the ligand for integrin, one of the key focal adhesion proteins contributing to the formation of a structural link between the extracellular matrix and integrins. High expression levels of the POSTN gene are correlated with numerous human malignancies. We examined POSTN protein in colorectal cancer specimens from 115 patients by strictly following up using immunohistochemistry. Cytoplasm immunohistochemical staining showed POSTN protein expression in colorectal cancers. The positive expression rate of POSTN protein (59.13%, 68/115 in colorectal cancers was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal colon mucosa (0.47%, 11/109. POSTN over-expression in colorectal cancers was positively correlated with tumor size, differentiation, lymph node metastasis, serosal invasion, clinical stage and five-year survival rates. Further analysis showed that patients with advanced stage colorectal cancer and high POSTN expression levels had lower survival rates than those with early stage colorectal cancer and low POSTN expression levels. Overall, our results showed that POSTN played an important role in the progression of colorectal cancers.

  5. Gc, gc-ms analysis of lipophilic fractions of aerial parts of fagonia indica burm.f. showing growth inhibitory effect on ht 29 colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farheen, R.; Mahmood, I.

    2016-01-01

    Fagonia indica Burm.f. is a small genus of herbs and under shrubs. The plant contains potentially active substances and has been used traditionally for the treatment of many illnesses including cancer. Many polar compounds have been reported from this plant but its non-polar constituents have only been rarely studied. In the present studies these constituents of aerial parts of Fagonia indica Burm.f. and its sub fractions showing growth inhibitory effect on HT 29 colorectal cancer cells were analyzed using flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC-EIMS analysis. The present studies exhibited the presence of free fatty acids and their esters along with structurally diverse constituents including triterpene, heterocyclic organic compound, aromatics, hydrocarbons, alcohols, lactone and sterols which may be responsible for this activity. The results suggest that the non-polar constituents of F. indica bear a potential of further studies. (author)

  6. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie L; Rennert, Hedy S; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Coffee contains several bioactive compounds relevant to colon physiology. Although coffee intake is a proposed protective factor for colorectal cancer, current evidence remains inconclusive. We investigated the association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in 5,145 cases and 4,097 controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, a population-based case-control study in northern Israel. We also examined this association by type of coffee, by cancer site (colon and rectum), and by ethnic subgroup (Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Arabs). Coffee data were collected by interview using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Coffee consumption was associated with 26% lower odds of developing colorectal cancer [OR (drinkers vs. non-drinkers), 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.86; P consumption alone (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99; P = 0.04) and for boiled coffee (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.94; P = 0.004). Increasing consumption of coffee was associated with lower odds of developing colorectal cancer. Compared with 2.5 servings/day (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.39-0.54; P colorectal cancer (Ptrend cancers. Coffee consumption may be inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer in a dose-response manner. Global coffee consumption patterns suggest potential health benefits of the beverage for reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 634-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme C M DE; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Monteiro, Mariane; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results. RESUMO O câncer colorretal (CCR) esporádico é tradicionalmente diagnosticado após a sexta década de vida, embora uma pequena porcentagem de casos seja diagnosticada em doentes abaixo dos 40 anos de idade, e a incidência está aumentando. Existe uma grande controvérsia a respeito da evolução clínica de doentes jovens portadores de CCR em comparação aos mais idosos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de CCR em doentes jovens, rever a literatura pertinente e discutir suas características mais importantes nesta faixa etária. Para tanto realizou-se revisão da literatura envolvendo doentes com CCR com foco na

  8. Role of physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarigan, Erin L; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the evidence regarding physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival. There have been extensive reports on adiposity, inactivity, and certain diets, particularly those high in red and processed meats, and increased risk of colorectal cancer. Only in the past decade have data emerged on how such lifestyle factors are associated with outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors. Prospective observational studies have consistently reported that physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis reduces mortality. A meta-analysis estimated that each 15 metabolic equivalent task-hour per week increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with a 38% lower risk of mortality. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to confirm that physical activity lowers risk of mortality among colorectal cancer survivors; however, trials have shown that physical activity, including structured exercise, is safe for colorectal cancer survivors (localized to metastatic stage, during and after treatment) and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function. In addition, prospective observational studies have suggested that a Western dietary pattern, high carbohydrate intake, and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages after diagnosis may increase risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality, but these data are limited to single analyses from one of two US cohorts. Additional data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available evidence, it is reasonable to counsel colorectal cancer survivors to engage in regular physical activity and limit consumption of refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. The evaluation of diagnostic value of the tumor markers: CCSA-2 and CEA in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knychalski, Bartłomiej; Lukieńczuk, Tadeusz

    2012-02-01

    Finding the biomarker or biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity in colorectal cancer, and thus a high diagnostic value will determine their clinical usefulness in clinical practice. An effective noninvasive blood test would be an ideal method to detect colorectal cancer. Discovered in 2007 a novel tumor marker CCSA-2 showes a promising results in patients with colorectal cancer. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was the evaluation of diagnostic and clinical value of a novel marker - colon cancer specific antigen-2 (CCSA-2) in colorectal adenocarcinoma in comparison to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in patients operated during the years 2008 to 2010 at Wrocław Medical University 1st Department and Clinic of General, Gastroenterological and Endocrinologic Surgery. The study was performed on 40 patients with colorectal cancer and 40 patients in control group consisted of healthy subjects who had colonoscopy examinations with negative results (no pathology in the colon was found). The obtained results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests - Mann Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. To determine the clinical value of CCSA-2 and CEA in those groups, their sensitivity and specifity was evaluated using ROC analysis. This analysis determines the accuracy and diagnostic value of both tests. There was a positive correlation between markers in patients with colorectal cancer and a statistically significant relationship according to which respondents with higher concentrations of CCSA-2 also have higher concentrations of CEA (R=0.754, ptumor markers increase and correlate with the clinical progression of the disease. Accuracy of CCSA-2 test using ROC analysis showed a slightly lower measurement of antigen CCSA-2 as diagnostic value in colorectal cancer in comparison to measurement of antigen CEA (accuracy of tests: CCSA-2 - 52%, CEA - 60%). CCSA-2 as a single tumor marker has a low diagnostic value in colorectal cancer because

  10. Faecal immunochemical tests to triage patients with lower abdominal symptoms for suspected colorectal cancer referrals in primary care: A systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Westwood (Marie); I. Corro Ramos (Isaac); Lang, S. (Shona); M. Luyendijk (Marianne); Zaim, R. (Remziye); Stirk, L. (Lisa); M.J. Al (Maiwenn); N. Armstrong (Nigel); J. Kleijnen (Jos)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the UK. Presenting symptoms that can be associated with CRC usually have another explanation. Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) detect blood that is not visible to the naked eye and may help to select patients who

  11. Genetic susceptibility markers for a breast-colorectal cancer phenotype: Exploratory results from genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joon, Aron; Brewster, Abenaa M.; Chen, Wei V.; Eng, Cathy; Shete, Sanjay; Casey, Graham; Schumacher, Fredrick; Lin, Yi; Harrison, Tabitha A.; White, Emily; Ahsan, Habibul; Andrulis, Irene L.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Ko Win, Aung; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Kapuscinski, Miroslaw K.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Gallinger, Steven; Jenkins, Mark A.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Peters, Ulrike; Amos, Christopher I.; Lynch, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Clustering of breast and colorectal cancer has been observed within some families and cannot be explained by chance or known high-risk mutations in major susceptibility genes. Potential shared genetic susceptibility between breast and colorectal cancer, not explained by high-penetrance genes, has been postulated. We hypothesized that yet undiscovered genetic variants predispose to a breast-colorectal cancer phenotype. Methods To identify variants associated with a breast-colorectal cancer phenotype, we analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from cases and controls that met the following criteria: cases (n = 985) were women with breast cancer who had one or more first- or second-degree relatives with colorectal cancer, men/women with colorectal cancer who had one or more first- or second-degree relatives with breast cancer, and women diagnosed with both breast and colorectal cancer. Controls (n = 1769), were unrelated, breast and colorectal cancer-free, and age- and sex- frequency-matched to cases. After imputation, 6,220,060 variants were analyzed using the discovery set and variants associated with the breast-colorectal cancer phenotype at Pcolorectal cancer phenotype in the discovery and replication data (most significant; rs7430339, Pdiscovery = 1.2E-04; rs7429100, Preplication = 2.8E-03). In meta-analysis of the discovery and replication data, the most significant association remained at rs7429100 (P = 1.84E-06). Conclusion The results of this exploratory analysis did not find clear evidence for a susceptibility locus with a pleiotropic effect on hereditary breast and colorectal cancer risk, although the suggestive association of genetic variation in the region of ROBO1, a potential tumor suppressor gene, merits further investigation. PMID:29698419

  12. Laparoscopic surgery in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressler Hernandez, Norlan; Martinez Perez, Elliot; Fernandez Rodriguez, Leopoldo; Torres Core, Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    In the current age of minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer has been established as oncologically equivalent to conventional open surgery. The advantages of laparoscopic surgery have translated into smaller incisions and shorter recovery. Since the advent of laparoscopy, surgeons have been fueled to develop less invasive operative methods as feasible alternatives to traditional procedures. As techniques evolved and technology advanced, laparoscopy became more widely accepted and is now more commonly used in many institutions. Recently, a trend toward less invasive surgery, driven by patient and surgeon alike, has been a major objective for many institutions because of the ability of laparoscopic surgery to reduce postoperative pain, achieve a quicker recovery time, and improve cosmetic outcomes. Although still evolving, traditional laparoscopy has served as a foundation for even further refinements in the minimally invasive approach and as a result, more advanced equipment and newer techniques have arisen

  13. Clinicoepidemiologic characterization and endoscopy in patients with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hano Garcia, Olga Marina; Wood Rodriguez, Lisette; Villa Jimenez, Oscar Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is recognized as the second death cause from cancer in most of developed countries; the increasing exposure to risk factor such as smoking, changes in diet, in lifestyles, as well as environmental and infectious factors is conductive to its morbidity and mortality increase. A prospective and descriptive study was conducted in 65 patients older than 18 years seen from April, 2007 to April, 2008 in the Endoscopy Service of the National Institute of Gastroenterology, diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma by colonoscopy and histology. In collection form were registered: sex, age, personal backgrounds of colon cancer, polyps, intestinal inflammatory disease and cholecystectomy; family backgrounds of colon cancer or another location; toxic habits: smoking and alcoholism; diet as regards: vegetal fiber ingestion and animal fat; anatomic location of cancer and histology. We conclude that there was predominance of female sex, the more frequent diagnosis age was between 60 and 70 years. The personal background of colon polyp and the family background of colon cancer were the more frequent. There was also predominance of smokers and heavy drinkers with or without effect. There was a great ingestion of animal fat and few ingestion of vegetal fiber. The more frequent anatomical location was the rectosygmoid, where the histological colon adenocarcinoma had the greater frequency

  14. Genetic Mechanisms of Immune Evasion in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Catherine S; Giannakis, Marios; Wells, Daniel K; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Quist, Michael; Nowak, Jonathan A; Nishihara, Reiko; Qian, Zhi Rong; Inamura, Kentaro; Morikawa, Teppei; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Abril-Rodriguez, Gabriel; Connolly, Charles; Escuin-Ordinas, Helena; Geybels, Milan S; Grady, William M; Hsu, Li; Hu-Lieskovan, Siwen; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Kim, Yeon Joo; Krystofinski, Paige; Leiserson, Mark D M; Montoya, Dennis J; Nadel, Brian B; Pellegrini, Matteo; Pritchard, Colin C; Puig-Saus, Cristina; Quist, Elleanor H; Raphael, Ben J; Salipante, Stephen J; Shin, Daniel Sanghoon; Shinbrot, Eve; Shirts, Brian; Shukla, Sachet; Stanford, Janet L; Sun, Wei; Tsoi, Jennifer; Upfill-Brown, Alexander; Wheeler, David A; Wu, Catherine J; Yu, Ming; Zaidi, Syed H; Zaretsky, Jesse M; Gabriel, Stacey B; Lander, Eric S; Garraway, Levi A; Hudson, Thomas J; Fuchs, Charles S; Ribas, Antoni; Ogino, Shuji; Peters, Ulrike

    2018-06-01

    To understand the genetic drivers of immune recognition and evasion in colorectal cancer, we analyzed 1,211 colorectal cancer primary tumor samples, including 179 classified as microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high). This set includes The Cancer Genome Atlas colorectal cancer cohort of 592 samples, completed and analyzed here. MSI-high, a hypermutated, immunogenic subtype of colorectal cancer, had a high rate of significantly mutated genes in important immune-modulating pathways and in the antigen presentation machinery, including biallelic losses of B2M and HLA genes due to copy-number alterations and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. WNT/β-catenin signaling genes were significantly mutated in all colorectal cancer subtypes, and activated WNT/β-catenin signaling was correlated with the absence of T-cell infiltration. This large-scale genomic analysis of colorectal cancer demonstrates that MSI-high cases frequently undergo an immunoediting process that provides them with genetic events allowing immune escape despite high mutational load and frequent lymphocytic infiltration and, furthermore, that colorectal cancer tumors have genetic and methylation events associated with activated WNT signaling and T-cell exclusion. Significance: This multi-omic analysis of 1,211 colorectal cancer primary tumors reveals that it should be possible to better monitor resistance in the 15% of cases that respond to immune blockade therapy and also to use WNT signaling inhibitors to reverse immune exclusion in the 85% of cases that currently do not. Cancer Discov; 8(6); 730-49. ©2018 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 663 . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Effects of warm ischemic time on gene expression profiling in colorectal cancer tissues and normal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Musella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide gene expression analyses of tumors are a powerful tool to identify gene signatures associated with biologically and clinically relevant characteristics and for several tumor types are under clinical validation by prospective trials. However, handling and processing of clinical specimens may significantly affect the molecular data obtained from their analysis. We studied the effects of tissue handling time on gene expression in human normal and tumor colon tissues undergoing routine surgical procedures. METHODS: RNA extracted from specimens of 15 patients at four time points (for a total of 180 samples after surgery was analyzed for gene expression on high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. A mixed-effects model was used to identify probes with different expression means across the four different time points. The p-values of the model were adjusted with the Bonferroni method. RESULTS: Thirty-two probe sets associated with tissue handling time in the tumor specimens, and thirty-one in the normal tissues, were identified. Most genes exhibited moderate changes in expression over the time points analyzed; however four of them were oncogenes, and two confirmed the effect of tissue handling by independent validation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a critical time point for tissue handling in colon seems to be 60 minutes at room temperature. Although the number of time-dependent genes we identified was low, the three genes that already showed changes at this time point in tumor samples were all oncogenes, hence recommending standardization of tissue-handling protocols and effort to reduce the time from specimen removal to snap freezing accounting for warm ischemia in this tumor type.

  16. Advance in plasma SEPT9 gene methylation assay for colorectal cancer early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Pei-Min; Liu, Rong-Bin

    2018-01-15

    This review article summarizes the research advances of the plasma-based SEPT9 gene methylation assay for the clinical detection of colorectal cancer and its limitations. Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy with a poor prognosis and a high mortality, for which early detection and diagnosis are particularly crucial for the high-risk groups. Increasing evidence supported that SEPT9 gene methylation is associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and that detecting the level of methylation of SEPT9 in the peripheral blood can be used for screening of colorectal cancer in susceptible populations. In recent years, the data obtained in clinical studies demonstrated that the SEPT9 gene methylation assay has a good diagnostic performance with regard to both sensitivity and specificity with the advantage of better acceptability, convenience and compliance with serological testing compared with fecal occult blood tests and carcinoembryonic antigen for colorectal cancer (CRC). Furthermore, the combination of multiple methods or markers has become a growing trend for CRC detection and screening. Nevertheless, the clinical availability of the methylated SEPT9 assay is still limited because of the large degree of sample heterogeneity caused by demographic characteristics, pathological features, comorbidities and/or technique selection. Another factor is the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening strategies that hinders its large-scale application. In addition, improvements in its accuracy in detecting adenomas and premalignant polyps are required.

  17. Implementation and process evaluation of a workplace colorectal cancer screening program in eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy A; Vu, Thuy; Ogdon, Sara; Fleury, Emily M; Yette, Emily; Wittenberg, Reva; Celedonia, Megan; Bowen, Deborah J

    2013-03-01

    Colorectal cancer screening is a life-saving intervention, but screening rates are low. The authors implemented and evaluated the Spokane Colorectal Cancer Screening Program-a novel worksite intervention to promote colorectal cancer screening that used a combination of evidence-based strategies recommended by the Guide to Community Preventive Services, as well as additional strategies. Over a period of approximately 3 months, participating worksites held one or more physician-led seminars about colorectal cancer screening for employees. They also distributed free fecal immunochemical tests at the worksite to employees 50 years and older, and they provided test results to employees and their primary care physician. The authors measured attendance at seminars, test kits taken and returned, employee awareness of the program, and colorectal cancer screening rates in participating and comparison worksites. It is estimated that 9% of eligible employees received kits at the worksite, and 4% were screened with these kits. The Spokane Colorectal Cancer Screening Program was a promising pilot test of an innovative worksite screening program that successfully translated evidence-based strategies into practical use in a brief period of time, and it merits a larger study to be able to test its effects more rigorously.

  18. Low Penetrance Alleles in Colorectal Cancer: the arachidonic acid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L.E. Siezen

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn summary, we can conclude that we have successfully identified low penetrance alleles in the PPAR., PLA2G2A and ALOX15 genes, conferring differential colorectal adenoma risk, and two such alleles in the PTGS2 gene, one of which is also involved in colorectal cancer risk. These

  19. Sirt1 Is Required for Resveratrol-Mediated Chemopreventive Effects in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Buhrmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sirt1 is a NAD+-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, metabolism and survival, as well as acts as an important subcellular target of resveratrol. The complex mechanisms underlying Sirt1 signaling during carcinogenesis remain controversial, as it can serve both as a tumor promoter and suppressor. Whether resveratrol-mediated chemopreventive effects are mediated via Sirt1 in CRC growth and metastasis remains unclear; which was the subject of this study. We found that resveratrol suppressed proliferation and invasion of two different human CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner, and interestingly, this was accompanied with a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression. By transient transfection of CRC cells with Sirt1-ASO, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on cells was abolished, suggesting the essential role of this enzyme in the resveratrol signaling pathway. Moreover, resveratrol downregulated nuclear localization of NF-κB, NF-κB phosphorylation and its acetylation, causing attenuation of NF-κB-regulated gene products (MMP-9, CXCR4 involved in tumor-invasion and metastasis. Finally, Sirt1 was found to interact directly with NF-κB, and resveratrol did not suppress Sirt1-ASO-induced NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation and NF-κB-regulated gene products. Overall, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can suppress tumorigenesis, at least in part by targeting Sirt1 and suppression of NF-κB activation.

  20. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Courtney; Kim, David H; Bartel, Twyla B; Cash, Brooks D; Chang, Kevin J; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Garcia, Evelyn M; Kambadakone, Avinash R; Lambert, Drew L; Levy, Angela D; Marin, Daniele; Peterson, Christine M; Scheirey, Christopher D; Smith, Martin P; Weinstein, Stefanie; Carucci, Laura R

    2018-05-01

    This review summarizes the relevant literature regarding colorectal screening with imaging. For individuals at average or moderate risk for colorectal cancer, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer screening. After positive results on a fecal occult blood test or immunohistochemical test, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer detection. For individuals at high risk for colorectal cancer (eg, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn colitis), optical colonoscopy is preferred because of its ability to obtain biopsies to detect dysplasia. After incomplete colonoscopy, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer screening for individuals at average, moderate, or high risk. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Patients' Awareness Of The Prevention And Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Łukasz; Puła, Anna; Stawiski, Konrad; Mudza, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Marcin; Dziki, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patients' awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, hospitalised at the Department of General and Colorectal Surgery of the Medical University in Łódź during the period from January 2015 to April 2015, were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their families' medical case record, factors predisposing them to the development of colorectal cancer, the tests applied in diagnostics, and the treatment process. The questionnaire comprised 42 closed-ended questions with one correct answer. A statistical analysis of all answers was carried out. The study group consisted of 30 men and 20 women aged 27-94 years old. A strong, statistically significant negative correlation between a patient's age and his/her awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer was noted (pcancer (p=0.008), and the awareness of the prevention programme. The women's group was characterised by statistically significantly greater awareness of colonoscopy as a screening examination (p=0.004). Patients need more information on colorectal cancer, its risk factors, prevention, the treatment process, and postoperative care. Lack of awareness of the colorectal cancer issue can be one of the major factors contributing to the high incidence of this disease.

  2. Risk of second primary colorectal cancer among colorectal cancer cases: A population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha P Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with history of colorectal cancer (CRC are at increased risk for developing a second primary colorectal cancer (SPCRC as compared to the general population. However, the degree of risk is uncertain. Here, we attempt to quantify the risk, using data from the large population-based California Cancer Registry (CCR. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the CCR data for cases with surgically-treated colon and rectal cancer diagnosed during the period 1990-2005 and followed through up to January 2008. We excluded those patients diagnosed with metastatic disease and those in whom SPCRC was diagnosed within 6 months of the diagnosis of the primary CRC. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to evaluate risk as compared to the underlying population after taking into account age, sex, ethnicity, and time at risk. Results: The study cohort consisted of 69809 cases with colon cancer and 34448 with rectal cancer. Among these patients there were 1443 cases of SPCRCs. The SIR for developing SPCRC was higher in colon cancer survivors (SIR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.5 as compared to the underlying population. The incidence of SPCRC was also higher in females (SIR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6 and Hispanics (SIR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.7 to 2.4 with primary colon cancer. The SIR for developing an SPCRC was higher only among those whose initial tumor was located in the descending colon (SIR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.0 and proximal colon (SIR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6. Conclusions: Our results confirm that CRC patients, especially females and Hispanics, are at a higher risk of developing SPCRC than the general population. Differential SPCRC risk by colorectal tumor subsite is dependent on gender and ethnicity, underscoring the heterogeneous nature of CRC.

  3. Underpinning the repurposing of anthracyclines towards colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Sune Boris; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Smith, David Hersi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. We propose a repurposing strategy where anthracyclines are reintroduced to a subgroup of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with the highest likelihood of response. In breast cancer, DNA topoisomerase II alpha gene (TOP2A) alterations predict incremental benefit...... of anthracyclines, but this association has not been investigated in colorectal cancer. Frequency analysis of TOP2A gene alterations in colorectal cancer and the association with prognosis are evaluated and the challenges of using a TOP2A/CEN-17 FISH probe combination are addressed. Material and methods. Formalin......-fixed, paraffin-embedded material from 154 stage III colorectal cancer patients included in the RANX05 clinical trial was retrospectively assessed for TOP2A gene alterations using FISH. The TOP2A/CEN-17 ratio as well as the TOP2A gene copy number alone was used to define gene alterations and associations between...

  4. What are the most effective methods for assessment of nutritional status in outpatients with gastric and colorectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe Vicente, Mariana; Barão, Katia; Silva, Tiago Donizetti; Forones, Nora Manoukian

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate methods for the identification of nutrition risk and nutritional status in outpatients with colorectal (CRC) and gastric cancer (GC), and to compare the results to those obtained for patients already treated for these cancers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 137 patients: group 1 (n = 75) consisting of patients with GC or CRC, and group 2 (n = 62) consisting of patients after treatment of GC or CRC under follow up, who were tumor free for a period longer than 3 months. Nutritional status was assessed in these patients using objective methods [body mass index (BMI), phase angle, serum albumin]; nutritional screening tools [Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI)], and subjective assessment [Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PGSGA)]. The sensitivity and specificity of each method was calculated in relation to the PG-SGA used as gold standard. One hundred thirty seven patients participated in the study. Stage IV cancer patients were more common in group 1. There was no difference in BMI between groups (p = 0.67). Analysis of the association between methods of assessing nutritional status and PG-SGA showed that the nutritional screening tools provided more significant results (p nutritional screening tools MUST, NRI and MST were more sensitive than the objective methods. Phase angle measurement was the most sensitive objective method in group 1. The nutritional screening tools showed the best association with PG-SGA and were also more sensitive than the objective methods. The results suggest the combination of MUST and PG-SGA for patients with cancer before and after treatment. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Current and future molecular diagnostics in colorectal cancer and colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Andy Hin-Fung; Cheng, Ka-Ho; Wong, Apple Siu-Ping; Ng, Simon Siu-Man; Ma, Brigette Buig-Yue; Chan, Charles Ming-Lok; Tsui, Nancy Bo-Yin; Chan, Lawrence Wing-Chi; Yung, Benjamin Yat-Ming; Wong, Sze-Chuen Cesar

    2014-04-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in developed countries. On the other hand, CRC is also one of the most curable cancers if it is detected in early stages through regular colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Since CRC develops slowly from precancerous lesions, early detection can reduce both the incidence and mortality of the disease. Fecal occult blood test is a widely used non-invasive screening tool for CRC. Although fecal occult blood test is simple and cost-effective in screening CRC, there is room for improvement in terms of the accuracy of the test. Genetic dysregulations have been found to play an important role in CRC development. With better understanding of the molecular basis of CRC, there is a growing expectation on the development of diagnostic tests based on more sensitive and specific molecular markers and those tests may provide a breakthrough to the limitations of current screening tests for CRC. In this review, the molecular basis of CRC development, the characteristics and applications of different non-invasive molecular biomarkers, as well as the technologies available for the detection were discussed. This review intended to provide a summary on the current and future molecular diagnostics in CRC and its pre-malignant state, colorectal adenoma.

  6. Effect of a Website That Presents Patients' Experiences on Self-Efficacy and Patient Competence of Colorectal Cancer Patients: Web-Based Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Jürgen M; Keller, Bettina; Repke, Tim; Leonhart, Rainer; Weis, Joachim; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Rieckmann, Nina; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Lucius-Hoene, Gabriele; Holmberg, Christine

    2017-10-13

    Patients often seek other patients' experiences with the disease. The Internet provides a wide range of opportunities to share and learn about other people's health and illness experiences via blogs or patient-initiated online discussion groups. There also exists a range of medical information devices that include experiential patient information. However, there are serious concerns about the use of such experiential information because narratives of others may be powerful and pervasive tools that may hinder informed decision making. The international research network DIPEx (Database of Individual Patients' Experiences) aims to provide scientifically based online information on people's experiences with health and illness to fulfill patients' needs for experiential information, while ensuring that the presented information includes a wide variety of possible experiences. The aim is to evaluate the colorectal cancer module of the German DIPEx website krankheitserfahrungen.de with regard to self-efficacy for coping with cancer and patient competence. In 2015, a Web-based randomized controlled trial was conducted using a two-group between-subjects design and repeated measures. The study sample consisted of individuals who had been diagnosed with colorectal cancer within the past 3 years or who had metastasis or recurrent disease. Outcome measures included self-efficacy for coping with cancer and patient competence. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group that had immediate access to the colorectal cancer module for 2 weeks or to a waiting list control group. Outcome criteria were measured at baseline before randomization and at 2 weeks and 6 weeks. The study randomized 212 persons. On average, participants were 54 (SD 11.1) years old, 58.8% (124/211) were female, and 73.6% (156/212) had read or heard stories of other patients online before entering the study, thus excluding any influence of the colorectal cancer module on

  7. Cytotoxic and anti-colorectal tumor effects of sulfated saponins from sea cucumber Holothuria moebii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siran; Ye, Xuewei; Chen, Lu; Xie, Xin; Zhou, Qian; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2015-11-15

    Whether sulfated saponins from Holothuria moebii inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and have anti-colorectal tumor effects in animal model has not been investigated. To evaluate the cytotoxic and anti-colorectal tumor effects of sulfated saponins from sea cucumber Holothuria moebii. (1) Column chromatography was used to prepare the total and individual saponins and HPLC was applied to define the components of the total saponins; (2) the activity of the total and individual saponins inhibiting the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells was determined by SRB assay and the apoptosis induced by the saponins was qualified using cytometric analysis with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining; and (3) the antitumor effects of the sulfated saponins on colorectal CT-26 tumor-bearing Balb/c mice were tested. The total and individual sulfated saponins significantly inhibited the proliferation of four different human colorectal cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 1.04 to 4.08 μM (or 1.46 to 3.24 μg/ml for total saponins) and induced late apoptosis at an early treatment time in cancer cells. The total saponins (120 mg/kg) had antitumor activity in colorectal CT-26 tumor-bearing Balb/c mice. The sulfated saponins from H. moebii remarkably inhibited the proliferation of different human colorectal cancer cells and had significant anti-colorectal tumor activity in animal model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, S Lucas; van Roon, Aafke H C; Reijerink, Jacqueline C I Y; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Habbema, J Dik F; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2013-05-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if two-sample FIT screening is cost-effective compared with one-sample FIT. The MISCAN-colon microsimulation model was used to estimate costs and benefits of strategies with either one or two-sample FIT screening. The FIT cut-off level varied between 50 and 200 ng haemoglobin/ml, and the screening schedule was varied with respect to age range and interval. In addition, different definitions for positivity of the two-sample FIT were considered: at least one positive sample, two positive samples, or the mean of both samples being positive. Within an exemplary screening strategy, biennial FIT from the age of 55-75 years, one-sample FIT provided 76.0-97.0 life-years gained (LYG) per 1000 individuals, at a cost of € 259,000-264,000 (range reflects different FIT cut-off levels). Two-sample FIT screening with at least one sample being positive provided 7.3-12.4 additional LYG compared with one-sample FIT at an extra cost of € 50,000-59,000. However, when all screening intervals and age ranges were considered, intensifying screening with one-sample FIT provided equal or more LYG at lower costs compared with two-sample FIT. If attendance to screening does not differ between strategies it is recommended to increase the number of screening rounds with one-sample FIT screening, before considering increasing the number of FIT samples provided per screening round.

  9. Identification of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Zhifen; Guan, Guoxian; Kang, Deyong

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a potential diagnostic tool is attractive. MPM can effectively provide information about morphological and biochemical changes in biological tissues at the molecular level. In this paper, we attempt to identify normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections (both in transverse and longitudinal sections). The results show that MPM can display different microstructure changes in the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. MPM also can quantitatively describe the alteration of collagen content between normal and cancerous muscle layers. These are important pathological findings that MPM images can bring more detailed complementary information about tissue architecture and cell morphology through observing the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. This work demonstrates that MPM can be better for identifying the microstructural characteristics of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria in different sections. (paper)

  10. Identification of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Chen, Zhifen; Kang, Deyong; li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a potential diagnostic tool is attractive. MPM can effectively provide information about morphological and biochemical changes in biological tissues at the molecular level. In this paper, we attempt to identify normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections (both in transverse and longitudinal sections). The results show that MPM can display different microstructure changes in the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. MPM also can quantitatively describe the alteration of collagen content between normal and cancerous muscle layers. These are important pathological findings that MPM images can bring more detailed complementary information about tissue architecture and cell morphology through observing the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. This work demonstrates that MPM can be better for identifying the microstructural characteristics of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria in different sections.

  11. Study protocol on comparative effectiveness of mindfulness meditation and qigong on psychophysiological outcomes for patients with colorectal cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Wan, Adrian H Y; Chan, Jessie S M; Ng, S M; Chung, K F; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2017-08-08

    Colorectal cancer imposes threats to patients' well-being. Although most physical symptoms can be managed by medication, psychosocial stressors may complicate survival and hamper quality of life. Mindfulness and Qigong, two kinds of mind-body exercise rooted in Eastern health philosophy, has been found effective in symptoms management, improving mental health, and reducing stress. With these potential benefits, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is planned to investigate the comparative effectiveness of mindfulness and Baduanjin intervention on the bio-psychosocial wellbeing of people with colorectal cancer. A 3-arm RCT with waitlist control design will be used in this study. One hundred eighty-nine participants will be randomized into (i) Mindfulness, (ii) Baduanjin, or (iii) waitlist control groups. Participants in both the Baduanjin and mindfulness groups will receive 8-weeks of specific intervention. All three groups will undergo four assessment phases: (i) at baseline, (ii) at 4-week, (iii) at 8-week (post-intervention), and 6-month post-intervention (maintenance). All participants will be assessed in terms of cancer-related symptoms and symptom distress, mental health status, quality of life, stress level based on physiological marker. Based on prior research studies, participants in both the mindfulness and Baduanjn intervention group are expected to have better symptoms management, lower stress level, better mental health, and higher level of quality of life than the control group. This study contributes to better understanding on the common and unique effectiveness of mindfulness and Baduanjin qigong, as such patients and qualified healthcare professionals can select or provide practices which will produce maximum benefits, satisfaction, adherence, and sustainability. The trial has been registered in the Clinical Trials Centre of the University of Hong Kong ( HKCTR-2198 ) on 08 March 2017.

  12. Immunomodulatory effects in a phase II study of lenalidomide combined with cetuximab in refractory KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Gandhi

    Full Text Available This study assessed the immunomodulatory effects in previously treated KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients participating in a phase II multicenter, open-label clinical trial receiving lenalidomide alone or lenalidomide plus cetuximab. The main findings show the T cell immunostimulatory properties of lenalidomide as the drug induced a decrease in the percentage CD45RA(+ naïve T cells 3-fold while increasing the percentage HLA-DR(+ activated T helper cells and percentage total CD45RO(+ CD8(+ memory T cytotoxic cells, 2.6- and 2.1-fold respectively (p<0.0001. In addition, lenalidomide decreased the percentage of circulating CD19(+ B cells 2.6-fold (p<0.0001. Lenalidomide increased a modest, yet significant, 1.4-fold change in the percentage of circulating natural killer cells. Our findings indicate that lenalidomide significantly activates T cells, suggestive of an immunotherapeutic role for this drug in settings of maintenance therapy and tumor immunity. Furthermore, reported for the first time is the effect of lenalidomide in combination with cetuximab on T cell function, including increases in circulating naïve and central memory T cells. In summary, lenalidomide and cetuximab have significant effects on circulating immune cells in patients with colorectal carcinoma.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01032291.

  13. Urban?rural disparities in colorectal cancer screening: cross-sectional analysis of 1998?2005 data from the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Allison M; Jackson, J Elizabeth; Doescher, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Despite the existence of effective screening, colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Identification of disparities in colorectal cancer screening will allow for targeted interventions to achieve national goals for screening. The objective of this study was to contrast colorectal cancer screening rates in urban and rural populations in the United States. The study design comprised a cross-sectional study in the United States 1998?2005. Behavior...

  14. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer : Identification of mutation carriers and assessing pathogenicity of mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, RC; Sijmons, RH; Berends, MJW; Ou, J; Hofstra, RNW; Kleibeuker, JH

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also referred to as Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by susceptibility to colorectal cancer and extracolonic malignancies, in particular endometrial cancer. HNPCC is caused by pathogenic mutations

  15. Differential CARM1 expression in prostate and colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Rang; Lee, Byung Kook; Park, Ra-Young; Nguyen, Nguyen Thi Xuan; Bae, Jeong A; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Jung, Chaeyong

    2010-01-01

    Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) functions as a transcriptional coactivator of androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling. Correspondingly, overexpression of CARM1 has been associated with the development of prostate cancer (PCa) and its progression to androgen-independent PCa. In our preliminary study, however, the promoting effects of CARM1, with regard to androgen-stimulated AR target gene expression were minimal. These results suggested that the AR target gene expression associated with CARM1 may result primarily from non-hormone dependent activity. The goal of this study was to confirm the pattern of expression of CARM1 in human tumors and determine the mechanism of action in CARM1 overexpressed tumors. Tissue microarray was used to determine the pattern of expression of CARM1 in human cancers by immunohistochemistry. CARM1 expression was also evaluated in prostate and colorectal surgical specimens and the clinical records of all cases were reviewed. In addition, a reporter transcription assay using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter was used to identify the signaling pathways involved in non-hormone-mediated signal activation associated with CARM1. The tissue microarray showed that CARM1 was particularly overexpressed in the colorectal cancers while CARM1 expression was not prevalent in the prostate and breast cancers. Further studies using surgical specimens demonstrated that CARM1 was highly overexpressed in 75% of colorectal cancers (49 out of 65) but not in the androgen-independent PCa. In addition, CARM1's coactivating effect on the entire PSA promoter was very limited in both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent PCa cells. These results suggest that there are other factors associated with CARM1 expression in PSA regulation. Indeed, CARM1 significantly regulated both p53 and NF-κB target gene transcription. The results of this study suggest that, in addition to its role in activation of steroid receptors

  16. Molecularly targeted drugs for metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ying-dong Cheng, Hua Yang, Guo-qing Chen, Zhi-cao Zhang Department of General Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The survival rate of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC has significantly improved with applications of molecularly targeted drugs, such as bevacizumab, and led to a substantial improvement in the overall survival rate. These drugs are capable of specifically targeting the inherent abnormal pathways in cancer cells, which are potentially less toxic than traditional nonselective chemotherapeutics. In this review, the recent clinical information about molecularly targeted therapy for mCRC is summarized, with specific focus on several of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved molecularly targeted drugs for the treatment of mCRC in the clinic. Progression-free and overall survival in patients with mCRC was improved greatly by the addition of bevacizumab and/or cetuximab to standard chemotherapy, in either first- or second-line treatment. Aflibercept has been used in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–irinotecan (FOLFIRI chemotherapy in mCRC patients and among patients with mCRC with wild-type KRAS, the outcomes were significantly improved by panitumumab in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–oxaliplatin (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. Because of the new preliminary studies, it has been recommended that regorafenib be used with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI as first- or second-line treatment of mCRC chemotherapy. In summary, an era of new opportunities has been opened for treatment of mCRC and/or other malignancies, resulting from the discovery of new selective targeting drugs. Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC, antiangiogenic drug, bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib, cetuximab, panitumumab, clinical trial, molecularly targeted therapy

  17. Altered Polyamine Profiles in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venäläinen, Markus K; Roine, Antti N; Häkkinen, Merja R; Vepsäläinen, Jouko J; Kumpulainen, Pekka S; Kiviniemi, Mikko S; Lehtimäki, Terho; Oksala, Niku K; Rantanen, Tuomo K

    2018-06-01

    The declining mortality rate of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) can be explained, at least partially, with early diagnosis. Simple diagnostic methods are needed to achieve a maximal patient participation rate in screening. Liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine urinary polyamine (PA) profiles. In a prospective setting, 116 patients were included in the study: 57 with CRC, 13 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 12 with adenoma, and 34 controls. N1,N12-diacetylspermine (DiAcSPM) level was significantly higher in patients with CRC than controls (sensitivity=78.0%, specificity=70.6%; p=0.00049). The level of diacetylated cadaverine (p=0.0068) was lower and that of diacetylated putrescine (p=0.0078) was higher in patients with CRC than in those with IBD. Cadaverine (p=0.00010) and spermine (p=0.042) levels were lower and that of DiAcSPM (p=0.018) higher in patients with CRC than in those with adenoma. The simultaneous determination of urinary PAs by means of LC-MS/MS can be used to discriminate CRC from controls and patients with benign colorectal diseases. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Towards the human colorectal cancer microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Marchesi

    Full Text Available Multiple factors drive the progression from healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinomas and accumulating evidence associates intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a first high-resolution map of colonic dysbiosis that is associated with human colorectal cancer (CRC. To this purpose, the microbiomes colonizing colon tumor tissue and adjacent non-malignant mucosa were compared by deep rRNA sequencing. The results revealed striking differences in microbial colonization patterns between these two sites. Although inter-individual colonization in CRC patients was variable, tumors consistently formed a niche for Coriobacteria and other proposed probiotic bacterial species, while potentially pathogenic Enterobacteria were underrepresented in tumor tissue. As the intestinal microbiota is generally stable during adult life, these findings suggest that CRC-associated physiological and metabolic changes recruit tumor-foraging commensal-like bacteria. These microbes thus have an apparent competitive advantage in the tumor microenvironment and thereby seem to replace pathogenic bacteria that may be implicated in CRC etiology. This first glimpse of the CRC microbiome provides an important step towards full understanding of the dynamic interplay between intestinal microbial ecology and sporadic CRC, which may provide important leads towards novel microbiome-related diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions.

  19. Colorectal Cancer "Methylator Phenotype": Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anacleto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that human colorectal tumors can be classified into two groups: one in which methylation is rare, and another with methylation of several loci associated with a "CpG island methylated phenotype (CIMP," characterized by preferential proximal location in the colon, but otherwise poorly defined. There is considerable overlap between this putative methylator phenotype and the well-known mutator phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI. We have examined hypermethylation of the promoter region of five genes (DAPK, MGMT, hMLH1, p16INK4a, and p14ARF in 106 primary colorectal cancers. A graph depicting the frequency of methylated loci in the series of tumors showed a continuous, monotonically decreasing distribution quite different from the previously claimed discontinuity. We observed a significant association between the presence of three or more methylated loci and the proximal location of the tumors. However, if we remove from analysis the tumors with hMLH1 methylation or those with MSI, the significance vanishes, suggesting that the association between multiple methylations and proximal location was indirect due to the correlation with MSI. Thus, our data do not support the independent existence of the so-called methylator phenotype and suggest that it rather may represent a statistical artifact caused by confounding of associations.

  20. Colorectal cancer mortality trends in Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Osella, Alberto Rubén; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Niclis, Camila; Diaz, María del Pilar

    2009-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide for men and women, and one of the most commonly diagnosed in Córdoba, Argentina. The aim of this work was to provide an up-to-date approach to descriptive epidemiology of colorectal cancer in Córdoba throughout the estimation of mortality trends in the period 1986-2006, using Joinpoint and age-period-cohort (APC) models. Age-standardized (world population) mortality rates (ASMR), overall and truncated (35-64 years), were calculated and Joinpoint regression performed to compute the estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC). Poisson sequential models were fitted to estimate the effect of age (11 age groups), period (1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000 or 2001-2006) and cohort (13 ten-years cohorts overlapping each other by five-years) on colorectal cancer mortality rates. ASMR showed an overall significant decrease (EAPC -0.9 95%CI: -1.7, -0.2) for women, being more noticeable from 1996 onwards (EAPC -2.1 95%CI: -4.0, -0.1). Age-effect showed an important rise in both sexes, but more evident in males. Birth cohort- and period effects reflected increasing and decreasing tendencies for men and women, respectively. Differences in mortality rates were found according to sex and could be related to age-period-cohort effects linked to the ageing process, health care and lifestyle. Further research is needed to elucidate the specific age-, period- and cohort-related factors.

  1. Evaluation the role of nutritional and individual factors in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Moshfeghi; Abolfazl Mohammad-Beigi; Davood Hamedi-Sanani; Masoud Bahrami

    2011-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide including 38% of gastrointestinal cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third type of Iranian men and fourth in women in ranking. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of environmental risk factors in colorectal cancer.Materials and Method: In this case-control study, the authors selected cases from colorectal cancer patients in Arak and controls were selected from Arak hospitals in proportion to the number of...

  2. Colorectal cancer tumour markers and biomarkers: Recent therapeutic advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gustaw; Słotwiński, Robert; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among females and third among males worldwide. It also contributes significantly to cancer-related deaths, despite the continuous progress in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Biomarkers currently play an important role in the detection and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Risk stratification for screening might be augmented by finding new biomarkers which alone or as a complement of existing tests might recognize either the predisposition or early stage of the disease. Biomarkers have also the potential to change diagnostic and treatment algorithms by selecting the proper chemotherapeutic drugs across a broad spectrum of patients. There are attempts to personalise chemotherapy based on presence or absence of specific biomarkers. In this review, we update review published last year and describe our understanding of tumour markers and biomarkers role in CRC screening, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Goal of future research is to identify those biomarkers that could allow a non-invasive and cost-effective diagnosis, as well as to recognise the best prognostic panel and define the predictive biomarkers for available treatments. PMID:26855534

  3. Colorectal cancer tumour markers and biomarkers: Recent therapeutic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gustaw; Słotwiński, Robert; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz Wojciech

    2016-02-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among females and third among males worldwide. It also contributes significantly to cancer-related deaths, despite the continuous progress in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Biomarkers currently play an important role in the detection and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Risk stratification for screening might be augmented by finding new biomarkers which alone or as a complement of existing tests might recognize either the predisposition or early stage of the disease. Biomarkers have also the potential to change diagnostic and treatment algorithms by selecting the proper chemotherapeutic drugs across a broad spectrum of patients. There are attempts to personalise chemotherapy based on presence or absence of specific biomarkers. In this review, we update review published last year and describe our understanding of tumour markers and biomarkers role in CRC screening, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Goal of future research is to identify those biomarkers that could allow a non-invasive and cost-effective diagnosis, as well as to recognise the best prognostic panel and define the predictive biomarkers for available treatments.

  4. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: are we closer to reality?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, Asghar

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An early detection of colorectal cancer determines therapeutic outcomes, while primary prevention remains a challenge. Our aim was to review the dietary, geographical and genetic factors in the causation and their possible role in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Data from experimental and clinical studies and population screening programmes were analysed to determine the factors responsible for causation of colorectal cancer. The role of dietary constituents, including the consumption of fat, red meat, fibre content, alcohol consumption, and other lifestyle issues, including obesity, lack of exercise and geographical variations in cancer prevalence were reviewed. The role of genetic and lifestyle factors in causation of colorectal cancer is evident from the experimental, clinical and population-based studies. Dietary factors, including the consumption of fat, fibre, red meat and alcohol, seem to have a significant influence in this regard. The role of micronutrients, vitamins, calcium may be relevant but remain largely unclear. In conclusion, there is ample evidence favouring the role of various dietary and lifestyle factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. Modification of these factors is an attractive option, which is likely to help in the primary prevention and reduced disease burden.

  5. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer, using anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tadashi; Tadokoro, Masanori; Takagi, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Sadayuki; Sakamoto, Junichi.

    1989-01-01

    Aiming at radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer, anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies (CEA102) were produced by immunization with purified CEA. CEA102 showed high specificity with clorectal cancer by mixed hemadsorption assay and immunoperoxidase technique. The antigen detected by CEA102 was confirmed to be carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and its molecular weight was estimated to be ca. 180,000 by biochemical analysis. The in vivo study using nude mice grafted a human colorectal cancer or a human malignant melanoma showed greater accumulation of 125 I-labeled CEA102 in CEA-positive colorectal cancer than in nude mouse tissues and CEA-negative malignant melanoma. Moreover we successfully obtained scans with good localization of the grafted colorectal cancer on FCR (Fuji Computed Radiography). Using 131 I-labeled CEA102 liver metastasis in the patient with colorectal cancer was successfully detected by external scanning with γ-camera. These results suggest that radiolabeled CEA102 is useful for the detection of colorectal cancer. (author)

  6. Garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk in man: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer shows large incidence variations worldwide that have been attributed to different dietary factors. We conducted a meta-analysis on the relationship between garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk. We systematically reviewed publications obtained by searching ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE and EMBASE literature databases. We extracted the risk estimate of the highest and the lowest reported categories of intake from each study and conducted meta-analysis using a random-effects model. The pooled analysis of all fourteen studies, seven cohort and seven case-control, indicated that garlic consumption was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·82, 1·06, P=0·281; I 2=83·6 %, P≤0·001). Separate analyses on the basis of cancer sites and sex also revealed no statistically significant effects on cancer risk. However, when separately analysed on the basis of study type, we found that garlic was associated with an approximately 37 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk in the case-control studies (combined risk estimate=0·63, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·82, P=0·001; I 2=75·6 %, P≤0·001). Our results suggest that consumption of garlic is not associated with a reduced colorectal cancer risk. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the discrepancy between results obtained from different types of epidemiological studies.

  7. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G; Selmin, Ornella I; Doetschman, Tom C; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  8. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G.; Selmin, Ornella I.; Doetschman, Tom C.; Romagnolo, Donato F.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern. PMID:29259973

  9. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah G. Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  10. RET is a potential tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanxin; Tsuchiya, Karen D.; Park, Dong Il; Fausel, Rebecca; Kanngurn, Samornmas; Welcsh, Piri; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Wang, Jianping; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer arises as the consequence of mutations and epigenetic alterations that activate oncogenes and inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Through a genome-wide screen for methylated genes in colon neoplasms, we identified aberrantly methylated RET in colorectal cancer. RET, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase and a receptor for the GDNF-family ligands, was one of the first oncogenes to be identified and has been shown to be an oncogene in thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma. However, unexpectedly, we found RET is methylated in 27% of colon adenomas and in 63% of colorectal cancers, and now provide evidence that RET has tumor suppressor activity in colon cancer. The aberrant methylation of RET correlates with decreased RET expression, whereas the restoration of RET in colorectal cancer cell lines results in apoptosis. Furthermore, in support of a tumor suppressor function of RET, mutant RET has also been found in primary colorectal cancer. We now show that these mutations inactivate RET, which is consistent with RET being a tumor suppressor gene in the colon. These findings suggest that the aberrant methylation of RET and the mutational inactivation of RET promote colorectal cancer formation and that RET can serve as a tumor suppressor gene in the colon. Moreover, the increased frequency of methylated RET in colon cancers compared to adenomas suggests RET inactivation is involved in the progression of colon adenomas to cancer. PMID:22751117

  11. [Flow cytometry in datecting lymph node micrometastasis in colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q; Ding, Y; Zhang, J

    2001-01-25

    To study the methodology and significance of flow cytometry in detecting lymph node micrometastasis of colorectal cancer. One hundred sixty-two cellular suspensions were prepared with lymph nodes which were resected radically on 25 patients with colorectal cancer and in which no cancer cells were found by HE staining. Different concentrations of cultured Lovo colorectal cancer cells were added into the celular suspension prepared from lymph node tissue of persons without colorectal cancer in order to prepare a control model. Dual staining with CK/FTTC and PI was made to the sedimetns from those 2 kinds of suspension. Flow cytometry was used to detect cancer cells. An ideal correlation was obtained between the detection value and the theoretical value of cancer cells in the specimen suspensions and control models (r = 0.097 6) with a sensitivity rate of 10/10(5). Cancer cells were detected from 7 out of the 25 patients and 30 of the 162 cellular susp