Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Koetter, Michael; Wu, Qiang
This paper investigates the role of corporate boards in bank loan contracting. We find that when corporate boards are more independent, both price and non-price loan terms (e.g., interest rates, collateral, covenants and performance pricing) are more favorable and syndicated loans comprise more lenders. In addition, board size, board diversity, audit committee structure and other director characteristics also influence bank loan price. However they do not consistently affect all non-price loa...
Seyed Kazem Ebrahimi
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between different granting loans and bank deposits in some governmental banks in province of Semnan, Iran. For the proposed study of this paper, equipment of resources includes cash account, zero-interest account, short term investment and long term investment and these are considered as dependent variables. There are also seven types of granting loans devoted to customers, which are partnership loans, zero-interest loans, civic participation, contract quantity loans, future contract loans, rent-purchase loans and installment sales loans. The study considers the financial information of 171 governmental banks located in province of Semnan, Iran over the period 2006-2011. The results of our study indicate that five variables maintain positive impact on dependent variable. The highest impact belongs to Partnership loans (0.34, followed by Sales loans (0.24, contract quantity loans (0.21 and Zero-interest loans (0.16 and Future contract loans (0.14 come in the last position. The study also uses Freedman test to rank dependent factors and the results indicate that short- term investment is number one priority followed by long term investment and the other two options including zero-interest and cash accounts are in lower priority.
Full Text Available This paper studies the effects of business cycles on the performance of commercial bank loan portfolios across major developing economies in the period 1996–2008. We measure loan performance via loan loss provisions (that is, recognized expenses related to expected losses in bank income statements. Our results indicate that while economic growth is the main driver of loan portfolio performance, interest rates have second-order effects. Furthermore, we find the relationship between loan loss provisions and economic growth to be highly non-linear only under extreme economic stress: GDP growth needs to decline by more than 6 percentage points (pp, in absolute terms in order to generate an increase in loan loss provisions equivalent to median emerging market bank profits; while a decline of more than 10 pp in growth implies significant capital losses, of at least 20 percent, for the median emerging market bank. In addition, we find higher loan loss provisions are associated with private sector leverage, poor loan portfolio quality, and lack of banking system penetration and capitalization.
Full Text Available This paper is to explore the relationship between banks’ performance and their nonperforming loans (NPLs. The banks’ performance through a network production process structure with NPLs is developed. With increasing NPLs in recent years, the quality of lending assets is a key significant and influencing factor for banks’ operational risk. The research methodology is to integrate the radial and nonradial measures of efficiency into the network production process framework with NPLs; this study utilizes network epsilon-based measure model to evaluate the banking industry performance. In addition, the key characteristics of the bank industry including those of financial holding companies and privatized government banks are needed to be figured out and to provide insight into what causes imperfectly competitive conditions for some banks. The results demonstrate that the banking sector grew consistently in three aspects of operation: operating performance, profitability performance, and risk management in the last five years of the subject period. These results showed that the overall banking sector was capable of pursuing growth in both operations and profits while accounting for risk management. The potential applications and strengths of network data envelopment analysis in assessing financial organizations are also highlighted.
Charles Kahn; George Pennacchi; Ben Sopranzetti
The recent wave of bank mergers has raised concern with its effect on competition. This paper examines the influence of concentration and merger activity on consumer loan interest rates. It uses Bank Rate Monitor, Inc. survey data on loan rates quoted weekly by large commercial banks in ten major U.S. cities during the 1989 to 1997 period. The pricing behavior of banks is analyzed for two types of loans: new automobile loans and unsecured personal loans. Market concentration is found to have ...
John N. N. Ugoani
Full Text Available Huge nonperforming loans portfolio erodes the ability of banks to make profits. In the 1990s and beyond many Nigerian banks became weak and highly unprofitable due to excessive nonperforming loans portfolio accumulated by bank promoters and management that led to their demise. Insider dealing was the major cause of large nonperforming loan portfolio in Nigeria, involving over-extension of loans to promoters, directors and significant others that became bad and irrecoverable. To clean up the mess in the banking sector and return the banks to the paths of sound management and profitability, the CBN had to inject about N700bn in a bailout exercise while purging the system of bad and irresponsible management teams .The exploratory research design was adopted. Data generated were organized and coded before they were classified. To achieve the objective of the study data analyses were done through descriptive and regression analyses using the statistical package for the social sciences for the regression. With the regression result of Y = 78.353 – 4.04x it was found that nonperforming loans portfolio has negative effect on bank profitability.
Beck, T.H.L.; Behr, P.; Guttler, A.
Using a unique data set for a commercial bank in Albania, we analyze gender differences in loan officers’ performance. Loans screened and monitored by female loan officers have a lower likelihood to turn problematic than loans handled by male loan officers. This effect cannot be explained by
... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans. 100.82 Section 100.82 Federal... Contributions § 100.82 Bank loans. (a) General provisions. A loan of money to a political committee or a candidate by a State bank, a federally chartered depository institution (including a national bank) or a...
... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans. 100.142 Section 100.142 Federal... Expenditures § 100.142 Bank loans. (a) General provisions. Repayment of a loan of money to a candidate or a political committee by a State bank, a federally chartered depository institution (including a national bank...
Thorsten Beck; Patrick Behr; Andre Guettler
We analyze gender differences associated with loan officer performance. Using a unique data set for a commercial bank in Albania over the period 1996 to 2006, we find that loans screened and monitored by female loan officers show statistically and economically significant lower default rates than loans handled by male loan officers. This effect comes in addition to a lower default rate of female borrowers and cannot be explained by sample selection, overconfidence of male loan officers or exp...
Prof. R.W Gakure
Full Text Available Financial risk in a banking organization is possibility that the outcome of an action or event could bring up adverse impacts. Such outcomes could either result in a direct loss of earnings / capital or may result in imposition of constraints on bank’s ability to meet its business objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of credit risk management techniques on the performance of unsecured bank loans by commercial banks in Kenya.
Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Koetter, Michael; Wu, Qiang
We investigate the role of corporate boards in bank loan contracting. We find that when corporate boards are more independent, both price and nonprice loan terms (e.g., interest rates, collateral, covenants, and performance-pricing provisions) are more favorable, and syndicated loans comprise more lenders. In addition, board size, audit committee structure, and other board characteristics influence bank loan prices. However, they do not consistently affect all nonprice loan terms except for a...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans subject to bank approval. 614.4470 Section 614.4470 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Loan Approval Requirements § 614.4470 Loans subject to bank approval. (a) The following loans...
Tahereh Shirzad Kebria
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on loan repayment in one of Iranian banks named Sepah Bank over the period 2012-2013. The study selects a sample of 290 bank’s customers who received loans and, using logistic regression technique, tries to find whether or not qualitative as well as quantitative characteristics of loan receivers influence on repayment of loans. The results indicate that history of outstanding debt as well as customers’ past experiences with banks had meaningful relationships with having bad credit and non-payment of loans. In our survey, having a bad credit in the past had positive relationship with non-payment of loans but long-term customers had negative relationship with non-payment of loans. In addition, working capital turnover ratio, cash ratio, total liabilities, current assets and loan value had significant impact on non-repayment of the loan facilities.
Having cleared all the hurdles to enter the market, locally incorporated foreign banks declare their intentions to dive into the personal housing loan business in China A battle is brewing between domestic and locally incorporated foreign banks over the
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Bank loan. 1610.5 Section 1610.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.5 Minimum Bank loan. A Bank loan will not be made unless the applicant qualifies for a Bank...
Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to find out the determinants of NPAs in the Indian Banking sector and to study if these determinants vary across the three different ownership structures viz., public sector banks (PSBs, private banks (PBs and foreign banks (FBs, of banks in India. The panel data for all the banks from 2005 to 2014 is collected from the official website of Reserve Bank of India (RBI, the Central Bank of the country. The econometric technique of Fixed Effects model and Random Effects model is used for the purpose. The results reveal that Macro economic factors, like log of percapita income (LPCY and Inflation (INFN, are significantly affecting NPLs in Public Sector Banks (PSBs. In case of private banks (PBs LPCY is highly significant while bank specific variables like size and total loans to total loans of the banking sector (TLTLBS are significant at 10% level. For FBs none of the variables were significant.
Ongena, Steven; Ioannidou, Vasso
This paper studies loan conditions when firms switch banks. Recent theoretical work on bank–firm relationships motivates our matching models. The dynamic cycle of the loan rate that we uncover is as follows: a loan granted by a new (outside) bank carries a loan rate that is significantly lower than the rates on comparable new loans from the firm's current (inside) banks. The new bank initially decreases the loan rate further but eventually ratchets it up sharply. Other loan conditions follow ...
Ozili, Peterson K
This study investigates the non-discretionary determinants of bank loan loss provisions in Africa after controlling for macroeconomic fluctuation, financial development and investor protection. We find that non-performing loans, loan-to-asset ratio and loan growth are significant non-discretionary drivers of bank provisions in the African region. We observe that bank provision is a positive function of non-performing loans up to a threshold beyond which bank provisions will no longer increase...
... attachment for Book-entry consolidated obligations. 1270.19 Reference to certain Department of Treasury... authorized Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) liabilities and book-entry procedures for COs, as new part 1270 of... Agency and Recent Legislation Effective July 30, 2008, the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008...
Full Text Available The article aims to study methods and tools for risk management to ensure bank loans. Proved that the effectiveness of risk management to ensure bank loans depends on consistency, adequacy methods of evaluation, quality monitoring and timely response system of the banks and the regulator. The article is to develop recommendations to improve the effectiveness of risk management providing bank loans considering the risks inherent in the process support mortgage portfolio of banks in the face of considerable uncertainty functioning banks. It is proved that the risk provision of bank loans in the loan management should be considered through risk characteristics that form the aggregate credit risk. Substantiated that risk management software meets the classic risk management, which identifies four main stages: identification; risk assessment software; control risk; minimizing risk. Keywords: credit risk provision, loan, risk management, reserves.JEL: G 28
Recent literature (Boyd and De Nicoló, 2005) has argued that competition in the loan market lowers bank risk by reducing the risk-taking incentives of borrowers. We show that the impact of loan market competition on banks is reversed if banks can adjust their loan portfolios. The reason is that when
From 2000 to the end of 2004, the Tibet Branch of Agricultural Bank provided farmers and herders with loans that helped raise their average net income from 1,342 Yuan to 1,863 Yuan during the period.The net increase in income totaled nearly 1.1 billion Yuan.
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks..., provided such loans are authorized by the policies of the bank and/or association involved, do not constitute a significant shift in loan volume away from the bank or association's assigned territory, and are...
... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mutual savings banks, building and loan... § 1.581-2 Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks. (a) While the... deduction provided in section 172, any taxable year for which a mutual savings bank, building and loan...
Bolhar Tetyana M.
The article considers main methods of management of bad bank loans under modern economic conditions, conducts analysis of internal and external banking methods used by Ukrainian banks, and specifies and identifies their advantages and shortcomings. In the result of the study the article analyses in detail the use of the methods of rehabilitation and liquidation of bad loans. It considers organisation of internal and external banking methods of liquidation of bad loans, considers mechanism of ...
den Haan, W.J.; Sumner, S.W.; Yamashiro, G.M.
Following a monetary tightening, bank loans to consumers decrease. This is true for both mortgage and non-mortgage loans, and it is true for a tightening by the Bank of Canada that is, and is not, a response to a tightening by the Federal Reserve System. In contrast, business loans increase
N. Viswa Nadham
Full Text Available The study attempts to ascertain the determinants of nonperforming loans in National Bank of Commerce. Data was collected from 152 respondents. Tables, percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze data. Data collection methods adopted for the study were interview, questionnaire and documentary evidence. Interest rate, GDP, concentration of lending activities, bank’s loan supervision capacity and economic condition were investigated, and the results suggest that interest rate, GDP, bank’s loan supervision capacity and economic condition influence the level of NPLs. However, the results did not suggest that concentration of lending activities increase the level of NPLs. The study suggests that banks should put in place a vibrant credit process that ensures proper customer selection and risk identification, robust credit analysis, proactive monitoring and clear recovery strategies for bad loans, formulate clear policy framework that addresses issues of ethical standards and check and balance credit process, organizational capacity enhancement of banks, deliberate effort to develop credit culture for managing loans ,and ensure prudent policies that govern bank loans. Since the results for this study were encouraging, the researcher encourages replicating the study for other lending institutions. In order to extend the literature on non-performing loans, the researcher suggested incorporating models of Golem effect, Social loafing, Inverted pyramid effect, Pollyanna effect and High default culture effect. Also, basing on the merits of the study, the researcher suggests determining relationship between non-performing loans and loan size, collateral, credit culture, and credit management information system.
Roč. 9, č. 9 (2009), s. 1-48 ISSN 1803-7070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multinational banks * bank loan pricing * internal capital market Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/derviz- funding costs and loan pricing by multinational bank affiliates.pdf
...-AA32 Federal Home Loan Bank Investments AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency; Federal Housing Finance...-adopting existing investment regulations that apply to the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) and that were...' investment in mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and certain asset-backed securities (ABS) that were previously...
In this paper we document evidence of systemic risk taking from syndicated loan pricing. Using U.S. syndicated loan data, we find that the borrower's idiosyncratic risk is positively priced whereas systematic risk is negatively related to loan spreads, controlling for firm, loan and bank specific
Bolhar Tetyana M.
Full Text Available The article considers main methods of management of bad bank loans under modern economic conditions, conducts analysis of internal and external banking methods used by Ukrainian banks, and specifies and identifies their advantages and shortcomings. In the result of the study the article analyses in detail the use of the methods of rehabilitation and liquidation of bad loans. It considers organisation of internal and external banking methods of liquidation of bad loans, considers mechanism of their conduct and identifies advantages and shortcomings of their application both for a bank and a borrower. Prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of methods of assessment of bad loans, in particular, development of methodological approaches to identification of assessment of profitability of bad loans as an important element of the system of management of bad loans of a bank.
den Haan, W.J.; Sumner, S.W.; Yamashiro, G.M.
The impulse response function (IRF) of an aggregate variable is time-varying if the IRFs of its components are different from each other and the relative magnitudes of the components are not constant—two conditions likely to be true in practice. We model the behaviour of loan components and document
Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.
Abstract: In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.
Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.
In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.Consistent
Ostlund, Grant; Cheney, John E
In evaluating the potential for tax-exempt bank financing, healthcare organizations should carefully consider: Pricing. Loan structure. Security requirements (such as financial covenants and default remedies).
Bogdan Florin FILIP
Full Text Available The paper aims identifying and analysing the determinants of bad loans in the banks from Central and Eastern Europe, while their accumulation may lead to malfunctions on macroeconomic level. Analysing 38 of the most representative banks in the region during 2004-2013, we found significant positive linkages of bad loans ratio with cost to income ratio, unemployment and crisis, but also significant negative linkages with bank size, activity mix, bank risk taking behaviour, real GDP growth and inflation. Moreover, using Panel Least Squares Fixed Effects Method, we found that the main determinants of bad loans ratio increase are bank size, crisis, unemployment and cost to income ratio. Contrary, activity mix, bank risk taking behaviour, real GDP growth and inflation proved to act against bad loans accumulation. The results offer important lessons which may be useful in the future both for the banks and also for the governments from this region.
Lepetit , Laetitia; Nys , Emmanuelle; Rous , Philippe; Tarazi , Amine
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between bank risk and product diversification in the changing structure of the European banking industry. Based on a broad set of European banks for the period 1996-2002, our study shows that banks expanding into non-interest income activities present higher risk than banks which mainly supply loans. Whereas previous studies (mainly on U.S. banks) focused on portfolio diversification effects we explore risk implications of cross-sel...
Mamatzakis, Emmanuel; Matousek, Roman; Vu, Anh Nguyet
The Japanese banking system provides a distinctive platform for the examination of the long-lasting effect of problem loans on efficiency. We measure technical efficiency by modifying a translog enhanced hyperbolic distance function with two undesirable outputs, identified as problem loans and problem other earning assets. Our unique database allows us to distinguish between bankrupt and restructured loans to investigate the underlying causality between these loans and efficiency. From the fl...
Jiminez, G.; Ongena, S.; Saurina, J.
We investigate the impact of the stance and path of monetary policy on the level of credit risk of individual bank loans and on lending standards. We employ the Credit Register of the Bank of Spain that contains detailed monthly information on virtually all loans granted by all credit institutions
Beck, T.H.L.; Behr, P.; Guttler, A.
We analyze gender differences associated with loan officer performance. Using a unique data set for a commercial bank in Albania over the period 1996 to 2006, we find that loans screened and monitored by female loan officers show statistically and economically significant lower default rates than
Peterson K. Ozili
Full Text Available We review the recent academic and policy literature on bank loan loss provisioning. Among other things, we observe that there exist some interaction between LLPs and existing prudential, accounting, institutional, cultural, religious, tax and fiscal frameworks which differ across countries; and we find that managerial discretion in provisioning is strongly linked to income smoothing, capital management, signalling, tax management and other objectives. We also address several issues including the ethical dimensions of income smoothing, factors influencing income smoothing, methodological issues in LLP modelling and the dynamic loan loss provisioning experiment; which opens up several avenues for further research such as: finding a balance between sufficient LLPs which regulators want versus transparent LLPs which standard setters want; the sensitivity of abnormal LLPs to changes in equity; the persistence of abnormal LLPs following CEO exit; country-specific interventions that induce LLP procyclicality in emerging countries; the impact of Basel III on banks' provisioning discretion; LLP behaviour among systemic and non-systemic financial institutions; etc. We conclude that regulators need to pay attention to how much discretion lending institutions should have in determining reported provision estimates, and this has been a long standing issue.
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans by bank in capacity as trustee. 221.112... CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.112 Loans by bank in capacity as trustee. (a... been pledged as collateral for loans. Loans are not made, under the plan, from bank funds, and...
... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Repayment of certain loans by mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks. 1.592-1 Section 1.592-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.592-1 Repayment of certain loans by mutual savings banks, building...
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concurrent Bank and RUS cost-of-money loans. 1610.6..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.6 Concurrent Bank and RUS cost-of-money loans. (a) The Bank makes loans, under section 408 of the Act, concurrently with RUS cost-of-money loans made under section...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prepayment fees to Federal Home Loan Bank. 709... FEDERALLY INSURED CREDIT UNIONS IN LIQUIDATION § 709.12 Prepayment fees to Federal Home Loan Bank. The Board... of credit from a Federal Home Loan Bank will allow a claim for a prepayment fee by the Bank if: (a...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-banks for cooperatives. 614.4080 Section 614.4080 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Chartered Territories § 614.4080 Loans and chartered territory—banks for...
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans secured by a bank's own shares. 7.2019... AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2019 Loans secured by a bank's own shares. (a) Permitted... the bank's custody. (b) Use of capital notes and debentures. A national bank may not make loans...
Max Bruche; Gerard Llobet
Due to limited liability, banks that are essentially insolvent may have incentives to roll over bad loans as a gamble for resurrection, even though it is socially inefficient to do so. This paper considers the problem of making such banks remove and/or foreclose bad loans, when the proportion of loans on a bank’s balance sheet that has gone bad is private information. The private information implies that many plausible schemes are likely to generate windfall gains for bank equity holders, whi...
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans originating at other than banking offices. 7.1004 Section 7.1004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1004 Loans originating at other than banking offices. (a) General...
TANGKO, IRENE LASTRY FARDANI
Non Performing Loan (NPL)Analisis Pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) dan Non Performing Loan (NPL) Terhadap Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR) Pada Bank BUMN Persero Di Indonesia Analysis ofEffect ofCapitalAdequacy Ratio (CAR) and theNon-PerformingLoan(NPL) AgainstLoanto DepositRatio (LDR) Thestate-owned bankinIndonesiaPersero Irene Lastry Fardani Tangko Otto R. Payangan Maat pono Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) dan Non Performin...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Home Loan Banks A Appendix A to Subpart... Board Pt. 905, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 905—Federal Home Loan Banks Federal Home Loan Bank District 1 (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont) Federal...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Home Loan banks as secured creditors... OF GENERAL POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES § 360.2 Federal Home Loan banks as secured... regulations, the receiver of a borrower from a Federal Home Loan Bank shall recognize the priority of any...
Full Text Available This paper examines whether there is a causal relationship between bank loans and deposits in the Vietnamese banking system and the efficiency of the use of loans and deposits by the Vietnamese banks. In a country such as Vietnam, where inter-bank money markets are relatively underdeveloped, one would expect a reasonably strong relationship between deposits and loans. A pooled cross-sectional sample of financial ratios is collected from annual reports of 44 Vietnamese banks covering the period 2008–2015. The explanatory power of instrumental variables in relation to the endogenous variables is tested. A deterministic frontier model based on corrected ordinary least squares, estimated by three-stage least squares on a simultaneous equations model, is employed to derive the frontiers for the sampled banks as well as to estimate the causality between bank loans and deposits. Our findings suggest that, in an underdeveloped banking system such as Vietnam, bank deposits have a positive and significant impact on bank loans, but the reverse relationship is not significant. It is further suggested that in deposit-taking and loan-creating activities, Vietnamese banks performed moderately well over the period examined; however, in the near future, they should start to focus more on deposit-taking activities.
Derviz, Alexis; Raková, M.
Roč. 21, č. 4 (2012), s. 434-449 ISSN 1210-0455 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : multinational bank * interest rate * internal capital market Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/derviz-parent influence on loan pricing by czech banks.pdf
Beck, T.H.L.; Ioannidou, V.; Schäfer, L.
Abstract: Do domestic and foreign banks differ in their lending techniques and loan pricing models? Are such differences driven by different clienteles? Using a sample of firms that borrow from both domestic and foreign banks in the same month, we show significant differences in lending techniques
... 2590-AA32 Federal Home Loan Bank Investments AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency, Federal Housing... Finance Agency (FHFA) is proposing to re- organize and re-adopt existing investment regulations that apply... incorporate into the new part 1267 limits on the Banks' investment in mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and...
... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1281 RIN 2590-AA48 Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals... governing housing goals for the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) to make those requirements consistent with... Section 1205 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (HERA) amended the Federal Home Loan Bank...
...: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION... Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to permit the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) until July 30, 2010... Mae), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) (collectively, Enterprises), the Banks, and...
... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional restrictions on loans to executive officers of member banks. 215.5 Section 215.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS... MEMBER BANKS (REGULATION O) § 215.5 Additional restrictions on loans to executive officers of member...
Yunsen; Chen; Song; Zhu; Yutao; Wang
Receiving punishment from regulators for corporate fraud can affect financing contracts between a firm and its bank,as both the firm’s credit risk and information risk increase after punishment By focusing on Chinese firms’borrowing behavior after events of corporate fraud,we find that firms’bank loans after punishment are not only significantly lower,but are also less than those for non-fraudulent firms.In addition,loan interest rates after punishment are not only higher than before,but also higher than those for their non-fraudulent counterparts.In addition,we find that corporate fraud indirectly destabilizes the"performance-bank loan"relationship.Our results suggest that corporate fraud negatively affects a firm’s ability to source debt financing,which provides new evidence about the economic consequences of fraud.
Isizoh, A. N.; Anazia, A. E.; Okide, S. O. 3; Onyeyili, T. I.; Okwaraoka, C. A. P.
industry is very necessary in modern day banking system using many design techniques for security reasons. This paper thus presents the software-based design and implementation of a Visual Loan calculator for banking industry using Visual Basic .Net (VB.Net). The fundamental approach to this is to develop a Graphical User Interface (GUI) using VB.Net operating tools, and then developing a working program which calculates the interest of any loan obtained. The VB.Net programming was done, implemented and the software proved satisfactory.
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. 1610.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.10 Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. (a) All loan..., shall bear interest at the rate determined as established below, but not less than 5 percent per annum...
Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities â€“ for medium and big companies and for retail activities â€“ for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customersâ€™ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.
Full Text Available Determining the status and problems of modern investment in agricultural enterprises, as well as ways to improve their financial security. The article deals with the essence of investments and their varieties. The dynamics of the securities portfolio of domestic banks and investments in agriculture. According to a study submitted proposals to increase investment banking businesses in the agricultural sector, which is necessary to create such conditions are not included in the calculation of the volume of investment regulations investment banking provided by agribusiness companies; availability of specialized banks, which will focus its resources on the development of agricultural enterprises; give banks the opportunity to issue special investment certificates, which received funds will be channeled exclusively on investing in the development of agricultural enterprises; for the above to create an appropriate legal framework.
The Finance Committee is invited to recommend the Council and the Council is invited to approve the taking out of a loan with FORTIS BANK with the purpose of the repayment of the Organization's debt to the Pension Fund, in accordance with the conditions set out in the Annex 2, thereby authorising the CERN Management to sign the Agreement on 23 June 2006.
Balarabe, Ahmed Abdu
Discusses the development of Nigerian federal universities and their libraries. Topics include library funding; the Nigerian economic crisis and the university library system; rationale for the World Bank Federal Universities Adjustment Loan Project that was used for library materials, staff development, and equipment; and problems with the…
Reviews collection development difficulties encountered at Nigeria's University of Ilorin as a result of the inflation of serial subscription prices and the poor state of the Nigerian economy in the 1980s. Describes the library's successful use of the World Bank loan of 1990-1993 to fund journal renewals and purchases. (JMV)
Mariana Rodica ȚÎRLEA
In the case of bank loan contracts, we believe that the abuse of power takes the form of contractual terms imposed by breaking the natural order and the contract’s drafting principles, in a properly articulated decisive way, commissioned by one holding it, namely by the party holding the dominant position.
... combine provisions now found in the Finance Board regulations part 965, Sources of Funds, and part 969... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD 12 CFR Parts 965, 966, 969, and 987 FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1270 RIN 2590-AA36 Federal Home Loan Bank Liabilities AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance...
... business days between the hours of 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. at the Federal Housing Finance Agency, Fourth Floor... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD 12 CFR Part 914 FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1260 RIN 2590-AA35 Information Sharing Among Federal Home Loan Banks AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency...
...Section 20A of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act (Bank Act), requires the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to make available to the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) such reports, records, or other information as may be available, relating to the condition of any Bank in order to enable each Bank to evaluate the financial condition of one or more of the other Banks individually and the Bank System as a whole. FHFA has adopted, and published in this issue of the Federal Register, a regulation to implement the statutory information sharing provisions, which will be located at 12 CFR part 1260. As required by Sec. 1260.2(b) of that regulation, FHFA is providing this notification to the Banks and the Bank System's Office of Finance of the categories of information that it will distribute under part 1260 beginning on the effective date noted below.
Full Text Available The importance of the right choice of investment projects is very clear in our own country so that if the correct method based on pattern and scientific criteria for assessing specific plans and measures suitable for budgeting and resource allocation and planning had already seen half the work, or stay and become many non-economic plans. Private sector profitability condition as the criterion of governmental authorities saw the necessity of other factors including political considerations and design. Investment banks and commercial evaluation of projects in one hand and plan to be profitable categories on the other hand should develop programs and projects coordinated macro country. In this study, using the experiences of Iranian experts in providing loans to customers, a model was provided to be an expert system. The expert system presented in this study based on quantitative and qualitative factors considered in the evaluation process, experts from the banking loan requests is a private bank. To provide the expert system, the Bank study documents and research in the world and using interviews and questionnaires framework decision proposed expert system evaluation criteria for acceptance or rejection of requests bank customers are offered loans.
Full Text Available Receiving punishment from regulators for corporate fraud can affect financing contracts between a firm and its bank, as both the firm’s credit risk and information risk increase after punishment. By focusing on Chinese firms’ borrowing behavior after events of corporate fraud, we find that firms’ bank loans after punishment are not only significantly lower, but are also less than those for non-fraudulent firms. In addition, loan interest rates after punishment are not only higher than before, but also higher than those for their non-fraudulent counterparts. In addition, we find that corporate fraud indirectly destabilizes the “performance-bank loan” relationship. Our results suggest that corporate fraud negatively affects a firm’s ability to source debt financing, which provides new evidence about the economic consequences of fraud.
...: Enterprise and Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals Related Enforcement Amendment AGENCY: Federal Housing... Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac), or the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) for failure to submit or follow... 1209. 2. Bank Housing Plan Enforcement Section 10C(a) of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act (Bank Act), as...
... determined by a resolution adopted by the board of directors of the Bank and subject to the provisions of... 2590-AA03, 2590-AA31 and 2590-AA34 Federal Home Loan Bank Directors' Eligibility, Elections... that implements two separate proposed rules, which relate to Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) director...
The European Investment Bank (EIB) has loaned 525 million Ecu (European currency unit) to Portugal to finance in particular the Transgas pipeline construction destined to the natural gas transport. It has also renewed its support to the construction and exploitation of a high pressure pipelines system for the transport and the distribution of natural gas in Greece. At last, it has loaned 180 million Ecu to Poland for the conversion of a worked-out gas deposit into a gas storage. (O.M.)
Ioannidou, V.; Pierides, Y.
This paper examines how the correlation structure of loan returns within a bank s loan portfolio a.ects its choice of .nancing when the bank faces binding capital constraints and there is asymmetric information about the quality of its loans.The paper uses an asymmetric information model similar to
Trisadini Prasastinah Usanti
Full Text Available Collateral in terms of subsequently acquired assets namely subsequently acquired credit might be charged with fiduciary security. This collateral is not considered ideal regarding the high risk a bank must take. To minimize the risks, the bank analyzes the credit thoroughly, impose fiduciary security officials perfectly and performs monitoring of credits regularly to avoid misconduct committed by the debtor. If a default occurs, the bank will take over the assets. Nevertheless, the problems of execution on the subsequently acquired credits might arise due to debtor’s default and bad debts to the third party. Consequently, subsequently acquired assets as collateral provides as additional collateral. Keywords: bank, subsequently acquired objects, fiduciary, security, loans.
杨保安; 马云飞; 俞莲
Intelligent Decision Support System (IISS) for Bank Loans Risk Classification (BLRC), based on the way of integration Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Expert System (ES), is proposed. According to the feature of BLRC, the key financial and non-financial factors are analyzed. Meanwhile, ES and Model Base (MB) which contain ANN are designed . The general framework,interaction and integration of the system are given. In addition, how the system realizes BLRC is elucidated in detail.
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans to purchase stock of American...) Interpretations § 221.114 Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock Plan. (a) The Board of Governors interpreted this part in connection with proposed loans by a bank...
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans to replenish working capital used to... Bank loans to replenish working capital used to purchase mutual fund shares. (a) In a situation... period of time the result would be the same. Accordingly, the Board concluded that bank loans made under...
... 2010 fifth round community support review cycle: Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston--District 1 People's... Association Canton Georgia. Bank of Chickamauga Chickamauga Georgia. The Peoples Bank Eatonton Georgia. The........... Kentucky. Peoples Bank of Kentucky, Inc Flemingsburg......... Kentucky. The Farmers Bank Hardinsburg...
... Indiana. The Citizens Exchange Bank Fairmount Indiana. Fire Fighter's City County Federal Credit Fort... Michigan. Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago--District 7 Old Second National Bank Aurora Illinois. Tompkins... Chester Illinois. Lakeside Bank Chicago Illinois. Pacific Global Bank Chicago Illinois. The Northern Trust...
.... Inova Federal Credit Union Elkhart Indiana. The Citizens Exchange Bank Fairmount Indiana. Fire Fighter's... Federal Credit Union...... Westland Michigan. Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago--District 7 The First.... Lakeside Bank Chicago Illinois. Pacific Global Bank Chicago Illinois. Republic Bank of Chicago Chicago...
R.J.J. van Oosterbosch (Renick)
textabstractExecutive summary Prior research suggests that banks have an incentive to smooth income through loan loss provisions (LLPs), but there has been no research on the effects of IFRS implementation on this. Using a sample of European banks and a single-stage regression that models the
Muthia Roza Linda
Full Text Available This study aimed to get empirical evidence of the effects of inflation, exchange rate, and interest rates on non-performing loans At the State Savings Bank (Persero Tbk Branch Padang. In this research used observation period ranging from 2008 - 2013. Data used is secondary data obtained from the financial statements of the State Savings Bank (Persero Tbk Branch Padang. For testing the hypothesis used multiple linear regression model to see the value of t-statistic. Based on the results of hypothesis testing found that inflation, and interest rates are individually significant effect on non-performing loans at the State Savings Bank (Persero Branch Padang, whereas no significant effect on the rate of non-performing loans at the State Savings Bank (Persero Branch Padang ,
Martha Novalina Ambaroita
Full Text Available Loan to Deposit Ratio kredit belum menunjukan optimalisasi sesuai dengan peraturan Bank Indonesia yaitu berkisar 85%-110%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendiskripsikan DPK, CAR, dan NPL, dan menganalisis bagaimana pengaruh CAR, DPK, NPL, terhadap LDR dalam jangka pendek dan jangka panjang bank umum di Indonesia. Data yang digunakan adalah time series berdasarkan bulanan tahun 2009-2013 yang diperoleh dari Bank Indonesia dan Otoritas jasa keuangan (OJK. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Error Corection Model (ECM dan menggunakan uji asumsi klasik. Hasil dalam jangka panjang CAR tidak berpengaruh terhadap LDR, dalam jangka pendek CAR berpengaruh positif terhadap LDR bank umum di Indonesia, dalam jangka panjang DPK berpengaruh positif terhadap LDR dan dalam jangka pendek DPK tidak berpengaruh terhadap LDR bank umum di Indonesia, dalam jangka panjang NPL berpengaruh negatif terhadap LDR dan dalam jangka pendek NPL berpengaruh positif terhadap LDR. Saran untuk DPK diusahakan semaksimal mungkin. Berbagai inovasi terus dimunculkan dan berbagai strategi dimunculkan agar DPK yang efektif dan agar dalam jangka pendek dan jangka panjang dapat lebih maksimal sehingga tidak ada hambatan. Loan to deposit ratio not show that the optimization of credit in accordance with the bank indonesia but range 85 % -110 % . This study attempts to mendiskripsikan dpk , car , and non-performing loans of the , and analyze how the influence of car , dpk , non-performing loans of the , against ldr in the short term and longer term commercial banks in indonesia . The data used was based on time series monthly koni year obtained from bank indonesia and the authority of financial services ( ojk . In the long run this results not affect the ldr, on this positive effect on short-term ldr commercial banks in indonesia; the positive effect on long-term deposits ldr in short-term deposits do not affect the ldr commercial banks in indonesia; in its negative effects towards long
... Bank and Trust Panama City Florida. First Federal Savings and Loan of Valdosta Georgia. Valdosta... Wisconsin. Paper City Savings Association Wisconsin Rapids Wisconsin. Rural American Bank--Luck Luck...
Christophe J. Godlewski; Ydriss Ziane
The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate the determinants of creditor concentration in the use of bank loans by firms in a European cross-country framework. We analyze the influence of loan and borrower characteristics but also banking market structure and legal enforcement country-specific variables that are expected to influence the financial and strategic decision relative to the number of bank lenders. We find that firms tend to diversify sources of financing by reducing bank c...
Full Text Available This article examines the existing Bank Lending Survey (BLS approaches to the assessment of the non-price lending conditions' impact on the credit market balance. BLS responses provided domestic central banks an early and reliable signal about the deterioration of financing conditions and the financial access. The monitoring pattern stipulate by using the core indicators: net percentage, diffusion index, Bank Lending Tightness (BLT. The priority tasks for National Bank of Ukraine for Bank Lending Survey were put forward by author. Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey (SLOOS on Bank Lending Practices address changes in the supply of, and demand for, bank loans to businesses and households over the past months.
Full Text Available Non-Performing Loans (NPLs are representing nowadays one of the main challenges for the banking systems all over the world. Therefore, a sustainable decision-making process should be implemented, for minimizing the effects of credit risk. The current paper uses a dynamic panel regression model to present the determinants of NPLs for the largest five banks of the Romanian Banking System during 2007-2016. A Generalized Method of Moments (GMM regression is used and defined under three different types of variables: bank specific indicators, macroeconomic indicators and qualitative variables. Other studies illustrated also the determinants of NPLs in various banking systems from all around the world, such as Japan, China or several CEE countries (especially the emergent ones. After an in-depth analysis of the literature and Romanian market, the following variables were found to be relevant and were introduced into a dynamic data panel model: unemployment rate, annual average growth rate of gross domestic product, return on equity (ROE, loan to deposit ratio (LTD. The existing literature presents ROE as having a negative impact on NPLs, unemployment rate being positive correlated with NPLs and a negative relationship between economic growth and such loans. Our contribution to the current literature is represented by the introduction of two additional qualitative variables (Board Risk Management Ratio (BRMR, as the proportion of risk managers within the Board of Directors of each bank in question and the Expert Aggregate Priority Vector (EAPV, as the aggregated perceived risk regarding the NPLs. The decision of introducing these variables relies on previous research made in this area, results being validated by experts from the Romanian Banking System, according to the BASEL III and NBR criteria. The results of the current paper are consistent with the existent literature, the correlations and impact of the variables being relevant for the subject
This paper studies how credit constraints develop over bank relationships. I analyze a unique dataset of matched loan application and loan contract information and measure credit constraints as the ratio of requested to granted loan amounts. I find that the most important determinants of receiving
Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D
Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate
Shehzad, Choudhry Tanveer; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert
This paper examines the impact of bank ownership concentration on two indicators of bank riskiness, namely banks' non-performing loans and capital adequacy. Using balance sheet information for around 500 commercial banks from more than 50 countries averaged over 2005-2007, we find that concentrated
Jiménez, G.; Ongena, S.; Peydro, J.L.; Saurina, J.
We identify the effects of monetary policy on credit risk-taking with an exhaustive credit register of loan applications and contracts. We separate the changes in the composition of the supply of credit from the concurrent changes in the volume of supply and quality, and the volume of demand. We
Atis, Caner; Copur Vardar, Gizem
As a result of intensive competition, banks offer many differentiated loans. Unfortunately, while these loans are being offered, there may be differences among their forms and substances; and reporting them depending on their form distorts financial statements and misleads users. Banks can even offer loans with zero percent interest, while overcharging fees, commissions, and insurance premiums in advance to compensate the cost and make a reasonable profit. They may divert interest and commiss...
The objective of this study is to find the dynamics of the relationship between bank loans and stock prices in Saudi Arabia using quarterly data for the period 1998 to 2013. The estimation methodology consists of a cointegration test, an error correction model estimation, and VAR Granger Causality. The study confirms the long-run relationship between credit card loans (CCLOAN) and Saudis stock market index (SSPI). We found a positive relationship between SSPI and bank loans, supporting the ec...
Leonardo S. Alencar
This paper addresses the micro and macroeconomic determinants of interest rates in the Brazilian banking market. The results suggest that banks fully adjust their loan interest rates to a change in the monetary policy rate, but we also observe a rigid short-term response for some loan product categories. The study confirms that pricing policies can vary substantially depending on the market. For example, microeconomic factors did not seem to be a major determinant of retail loan rates, but th...
Samuel Antwi; Ebenezer Fiifi Emire Atta Mills; Gifty Atta Mills; Xicang Zhao
This study seeks to determine some risk factors that influence loan default repayment among customers in Akuapem rural bank. Secondary data on some variables which influence customer loan default was obtained from the credit department of Akuapem rural bank. Data was collected for the period 2006 to 2010. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data. It was found that among the variables that were used, Security and Type of Loan were significant to the study whereas Sex, Marital Status,...
Bernard Ndirangu Wachira
Full Text Available Household loans remain the engine to productivity and economic growth globally. Non-prime household loan is essential, because it enables the borrowers with no collateral to access credit from Microfinance Banks. The survival and sustainability of non-prime household loans globally is therefore significant. Credit risk however remains the main deterrent of the soundness of Microfinance Banks. This leads to the poor performance of microfinance institutions in many economies in the world. Several countries globally are making inroad in reducing the credit risks, which lead to the poor performance of Microfinance Banks. It is still unknown why the credit risk affects the performance of non-prime household loans in the Microfinance Banks domiciled in Kenya. The reason for conducting this study is to determine the level at which the third party loan guarantee and the performance of non-prime household loans relate to the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. Particularly, this study is to determine how the amount secured by guarantee, recoveries from guarantors, percentage of loan secured, and percentage recoveries from guarantors relate to the performance of nonprime household loans in the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. The population was 516 senior management employees of the banks. The researcher conducted a multiple regression analysis for determining the relationship between the amount secured by guarantee—recoveries from guarantors, percentage granted, and percentage recoveries—and the performance of non-prime household loans. The R and R2 were used for determining the strength of the relationship and the coefficient of determination at 0.05 level of significance of variables. The result of this study reveals that there exists a strong relationship between the dependent and independent variables, thereby contradicting the null hypothesis, which states that the relationship does not exist. The percentage of the recoveries from the guarantors over the
... written appeal to FHFA that includes the Bank's decision resolution and a statement of the basis for the... Parts 1264, 1265 and 1269 RIN 2590-AA33 Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Associates, Core Mission... regulations address, respectively, Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) housing associates, the Banks' core mission...
Eisenberg-Guyot, Jerzy; Firth, Caislin; Klawitter, Marieka; Hajat, Anjum
The fringe banking industry, including payday lenders and check cashers, was nearly nonexistent three decades ago. Today it generates tens of billions of dollars in annual revenue. The industry's growth accelerated in the 1980s with financial deregulation and the working class's declining resources. With Current Population Survey data, we used propensity score matching to investigate the relationship between fringe loan use, unbanked status, and self-rated health, hypothesizing that the material and stress effects of exposure to these financial services would be harmful to health. We found that fringe loan use was associated with 38 percent higher prevalence of poor or fair health, while being unbanked (not having one's own bank account) was associated with 17 percent higher prevalence. Although a variety of policies could mitigate the health consequences of these exposures, expanding social welfare programs and labor protections would address the root causes of the use of fringe services and advance health equity.
Bernard Ndirangu Wachira
Full Text Available The part played by non-prime household loans in improving the lives of many people who cannot afford collateral globally cannot be ignored. Many Microfinance Banks in many economies worldwide have tried to maintain the Grameen Bank Model of granting microloans, mainly non-prime household loans. However, the credit risks associated with this initiative hamper the pace at which the granting of this credit facility is expected to grow. This study intends to explore the relationship between the post loan disbursement allocation and the performance of non-prime household loans in the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. The theory associated to this study is the Credit Risk Theory. This theory, which is regarded as credit structural theory, was developed by Merton in 1972. The descriptive survey research design method was applied, and the sample size was 150 respondents. The data-collection tool used was a questionnaire. A logistic regression analysis was conducted for the purpose of predicting non-prime household performance in the Microfinance Banks using training budget, recoveries budget, percentage of training budget, and percentage of recoveries budget as predictors. The Wald test shows that training budget, recoveries budget, and percentage of training budget were good predictors, making a significant contribution to prediction. The percentage of budget on recoveries was not a significant predictor. The Microfinance Banks should enhance the performance of non-prime household loans through capacity building to the borrowers and educate the borrowers on dangers of enforced loan recoveries. The government, through the Central Bank of Kenya, should have a training policy for the Microfinance Banks so that they can enlighten the borrowers on proper financial management to avoid conflicts with borrowers during loan recoveries.
... savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. (a) General. For purposes of § 584.2(b)(6)(i) of this part...
Full Text Available The topic of bank default risk in connection with government bailouts has recently attracted a great deal of attention. In this paper, the question of how a bank’s default risk is affected by a distress acquisition is investigated. Specifically, the government provides a bailout program of distressed loan purchases for a strong bank to acquire a bank in distress. The acquirer bank may likely refuse the acquisition with a bailout when the amount of distressed loan purchases is large or the knock-out value of the acquired bank is high. When the acquirer bank realizes acquisition gains, the default risk in the consolidated bank’s equity return is negatively related to loan purchases, but positively to the knock-out value of the acquired bank. The government bailout, as such, in large part contributes to banking stability.
Hassan, Faiza; Qayyum, Abdul
The importance of studying demand for bank loan by private business sector stems from the fact the money supply is ‘credit-driven’ and demand-determined and at the rate of interest determined by the central bank the money supply function is horizontal as illustrated by Moore and Threadgold (1985), Coghlan, (1981), Moore (1979, 1983). The analysis of the demand for bank loan by private business sector is important for understating the monetary transmission mechanism and formulation of the eff...
...Governed by the Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) regulations, the Federal Home Loan Bank System's (Bank System) Office of Finance issues debt (``consolidated obligations'') as agent for the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) on which the Banks are jointly and severally liable and publishes combined financial reports on the Banks so that members of the Bank System, investors in the consolidated obligations, and other interested parties can assess the strength of the Bank System that stands behind them. The Office of Finance (OF) is governed by a board of directors, the composition and functions of which are determined by FHFA's regulations. FHFA's experience with the Bank System and with the OF's combined financial reports during the recent period of market stress suggests that the OF and the Bank System could benefit from a reconstituted board and strengthened audit committee. This regulation is intended to achieve that end.
... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY [No. 2011-N-08] Termination of Federal Home Loan Bank Resolution... Banks (Banks) have satisfied their statutory obligation to contribute a percentage of their annual net earnings toward the interest payments due on bonds issued by the Resolution Funding Corporation (RefCorp...
... financial support are: (1) Federally regulated insured depository institutions and their holding companies... that provide health care, childcare, educational, cultural, or social services; and (4) community... association, savings and loan association, cooperative bank, homestead association, insurance company, savings...
Hamid, Nurhayati; Ramli, Noor Asiah; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh
Bank industry plays a vital role in a country's economic development. In the banking industry, the non-performing loans which are acknowledged as being undesirable outputs and usually ignored in most of the analysis should be taken into account since they are undesirable by-products of producing loans and may lead to the bank inefficiency. Modelling the efficiency measurement without undesirable outputs can provide misleading results and unfair assessment. The Directional Distance Function (DDF) approach which extended from the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) framework is one of the enhancement efficiency approaches to handle a situation when there is a joint production of the desirable and undesirable outputs. The comparison of both results between the domestic and foreign banks shows that the DEA technical efficiency score for domestic banks is marginally higher than the Malaysian foreign banks. However, when incorporating the undesirable output, the DDF technical efficiency for foreign banks is slightly higher than domestic banks.
... § 170.303 Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State infrastructure bank? Yes. Upon the request... facilitate obtaining loans and other forms of credit for an IRR project. A state infrastructure bank is a... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State...
Jimenez Porras, G.; Ongena, S.; Peydro, J.L.; Saurina, J.
We analyze the impact of monetary policy on the supply of bank credit. Monetary policy affects both loan supply and demand, thus making identification a steep challenge. We therefore analyze a novel, supervisory dataset with loan applications from Spain. Accounting for time-varying firm
Matthews, Kent; Guo, Jianguang; Zhang, Nina
The existing Chinese banking system was born out of a state-planning framework focussed on the funding of state-owned enterprises. Despite the development of a modern banking system, numerous studies of Chinese banking point to its high level of average inefficiency. Much of this inefficiency relates to the high level of non-performing loans held on the banks books. This study argues that a significant component of inefficiency relates to a defunct bureaucratic incentive structure. Using boot...
Deitch, Kenneth M.
A National Education Loan Bank (NELB) is proposed as an alternative to existing federal loan programs for education, such as the National Direct Student Loan program and the Guaranteed Student Loan program. The history and structures of these two programs are detailed: financing, costs, insurance arrangements, agencies, volume, and interest rates.…
Tysyachna Yunna S.
Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of basic methodical approaches to assessment of the quality of the bank loan portfolio, identification of specific features of their practical application and justification of selection of the most appropriate for the modern economic conditions. The article considers three main groups of methods of assessment of the quality of the bank loan portfolio: expert evaluation methods and statistical and analytical methods. It goes without saying that in order to obtain an objective assessment of quality of the bank loan portfolio it is necessary to apply a complex approach, however, due to some advantages and shortcomings of the studied methods, the author marks expediency of building an integral indicator, taxonomic in particular, in order to obtain a complex, objective and efficient assessment of the bank loan portfolio. Prospects of further studies in this direction are assessment of the quality of the loan portfolio of the first group banks by the size of their assets through building integral taxonomic indicators and identification, on this basis, of factors that influence the quality of the loan portfolio with the aim of improvement of the mechanism of management of the bank lending activity.
Koeter-Kant, J.; Hernandez-Canovas, G.
This article examines the influence of cross-country differences on bank loan maturity for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), using a sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. It analyses a country's legal and institutional environment while controlling for banking structure, economic
Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Yesin, P.
We examine the firm-level and country-level determinants of the currency denomination of small business loans. We introduce an information asymmetry between banks and firms in a model that also features the trade-off between the cost of debt and firm-level distress costs. Banks in our model don’t
Călin Viorel Iuga
Full Text Available Identifying the risks generated in the matter of by the assignment of claim arising from a bank loan agreement following the review the of the court judgments delivered by courts within the Cluj Court of Appeal. The result of the study is practical, topical,with implications on the banking market in Romania of the practitionersidentified deem that the bank loan agreement loses its enforceability following the assignment of claim, and the novation of the assignee creditor during the enforcement did not occur.
Lepetit , Laetitia; Nys , Emmanuelle; Rous , Philippe; Tarazi , Amine
This paper assesses the implications on bank interest margins of the expansion into non- traditional fee-based activities in European banking. We use a sample of 602 European commercial and cooperative banks from 1996 to 2002 and consider the total income shares of trading income and commission and fee income as measures of product diversification to explore loan pricing. Our results show that a higher income share from commission and fee activities is associated with lower margins and lower ...
...). Section 10C(e) requires the Director to annually report to Congress on the performance of the Banks in... benchmark levels to measure the Banks' housing goals performance. The Banks' performance under the housing... originated both by members and non-members. A Bank meets a housing goal if its annual performance meets or...
Jun Qian; Philip E. Strahan
We examine empirically how legal origin, creditor rights, property rights, legal formalism, and financial development affect the design of price and non-price terms of bank loans in almost 60 countries. Our results support the law and finance view that private contracts reflect differences in legal protection of creditors and the enforcement of contracts. Loans made to borrowers in countries where creditors can seize collateral in case of default are more likely to be secured, have longer mat...
Khoirunnisa, Hani Maulida; Rodhiyah, Rodhiyah; Saryadi, Saryadi
State-owned banks have involvement with many parties in their business, so the performance maintenance is benecessary to deal with banking risks that may arise. The downward trend in the profitability of state-ownedbanks indicated by Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE) becomes a problem when the CapitalAdequacy Ratio (CAR), Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR), and ROA experiencing upward trend.The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CAR, LDR and ROA on ROA and ROE withe...
... performance of the Banks in meeting the housing goals under section 10C. 12 U.S.C. 1430c(e). Sections 1331... would measure the Banks' single-family housing goals performance relative to the actual goals-qualifying... advantages of comparing the Bank's performance to actual market performance outweigh the disadvantages. A...
... Bancorp, Inc., and thereby indirectly acquire control of Midwest Federal Savings and Loan Association of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12...
Full Text Available There is an assertion that the participation of foreign banks in emerging markets is often thought to improve overall bank soundness. Therefore, if the share of foreign banks in a national banking system is large, the system will quickly overcome both financial or currency crises, and quickly recover itself. Since Turkey has been experienced mentioned crises, the aim of this study is to reveal if the assertion is valid for Turkey. Our expectation from the study using VAR method is to reach a conclusion that countries with large market share of foreign banks have safely passed the crises by virtue of foreign banks best management policies. The test results indicate that foreign banks have more positive effect for helping TBS capital structure; foreign bank participation did not cause any decline in loans and last one, after crisis, existence of foreign banks worsens TBS liquidity in interest and exchange rate shocks.
Huang, Daisy J.; Leung, Charles Ka Yui; Qu, Baozhi
Based on Chinese city-level data from 1999 to 2012 and controlling for geological, environmental, and social diversity, this study suggests that credit plays a significant role in driving up house prices after the Great Recession, whereas property prices only influence bank lending before 2008. Local amenities such as higher education, green infrastructure, healthcare, and climate also positively affect house prices. Moreover, the impacts of bank loans on housing prices tend to be related to ...
... financial reports must show that it originates or purchases such loans. In theory, an applicant could... context of the home financing policy requirement, the absence of any qualitative standards as to the form... members. With respect to the 10 percent requirement, initial research indicates that, of the approximately...
Development banks were set up and restructured over the years in Nigeria by various governments to enhance self reliance and improve incomes of rural and urban farmers in Nigeria with huge sums of money. This paper investigated the extent to which one of such banks, NACRDB, had impacted on farmers' income level ...
... possible that the Banks will not have the same motivation as depository institutions or other business... than a simple majority of each board could discourage Bank management and directors from developing and... reasonably determined, such as within a specified period after the occurrence of a particular event, such as...
Hollander, Stephan; Verriest, A.J.M.
How do the distance constraints faced by lenders in acquiring borrower information affect the design of bank loan contracts? Theoretical studies posit that greater information asymmetry leads to the allocation of stronger ex ante decision rights to the lender (the uninformed party). Consistent with
D. Gong (Di); W.B. Wagner (Wolf)
textabstractPublic guarantees extended during systemic crises can affect the relative pricing of risks in the financial system. Studying the market for syndicated loans, we find that banks require lower compensation for aggregate risk than for idiosyncratic risk, consistent with systemic risk-taking
Bouwens, J.; Kroos, P.
We examine whether loan decisions are affected by the internal decision structure of the bank. Banks typically grant decision rights on straight-forward loans entirely to individual loan officers. For more risky loans these officers have to seek ratification for their loan proposals at higher
If you have a dream of opening or expanding a practice, then bank lending is probably an option you've considered. However, many practitioners are under the false assumption that banks are currently not lending. Untrue! Between 2008 and 2012, banks have loaned an average of $216 billion to small businesses throughout the United States each year. There are two aspects to a bank loan package: (1) your loan application with tax information, asset information, etc.; and (2) your business plan. This article delves into the five reasons banks say "no" to a great healthcare practitioner and what you should include in your business plan to not only have the bank say "yes" to financing your business but also to create a situation where multiple banks are offering to lend you money.
This paper investigates two different bank loan supply functions and their determinants according to the currency of bank loans in the Republic of Macedonia. There is robust statistical evidence in favour of the existence of a bank lending channel through foreign currency loans and the foreign reference interest rate. This suggests that the impact of domestic monetary policy over the bank lending channel is limited. The most significant bank-specific characteristic for the foreign currency lo...
... corporate law, disclosure practices that are required under the federal securities laws, and the approval standards required under federal banking laws relating to mergers of insured depository institutions. D...
... Disclosure Requirements on COs The Banks fund their operations principally through the issuance of... abolished the Finance Board and established FHFA, provides that all regulations of the Finance Board shall...
Dudaš Atila I.
Full Text Available The economic crisis spread in 2008 through the world and reached Serbia, rendered the repayment of banking loans indexed in foreign currencies, mostly in CHF at the time, even more difficult. The growing number of non-performing loans inevitably led to an increase in number of the court proceedings in which the debtors made attempts to have the loan contracts declared null and void. In these proceedings, the courts needed to take a stand on some typical clauses in loan contracts and on some banking practices that the debtors considered to be contrary to the principle of good faith, which, before the crisis, was hardly ever given judicial epilogue. In the majority of cases, two types of clauses proved to be unlawful: a clause establishing a right of the bank to subsequently, i.e. after the formation of the contract, and unilaterally, i.e. without a specific consent of the debtor, change (regularly increase the interest rate for the remainder of the credit period; and a clause establishing the right of the bank to apply different exchange rates, i.e. the buying rate to the disbursement of the loan, and the selling rate to the value of credit installments. These clauses certainly existed even before the crisis, but the difficulties in performing the loans caused by the crisis was the social propelling force that brought these cases within the sight of the judiciary. In this paper the author analyzes the reaction of courts, and subsequently that of the legislator, to the clause in loan contracts entitling the bank to unilaterally increase the variable interest rate after the formation of contract. The application of this clause was usually conditioned on significant changes in international financial markets or changes in the costs of the sources of financing, while in some cases the conditions of the application of the clause were simply changes in the business policy of the bank or the need to operate with profit. In any case, these are
Fekri Ali Shawtari
Full Text Available The paper investigates whether there is a significance difference between the practices of discretionary loan/finance loss provisions between Islamic and conventional banks. Same time, the paper tests whether the efficiency may influence the behaviour of discretionary loans/finance loss provisions, taken into consideration other micro and macro variables. The study utilizes panel data runs over 1996–2011 with unbalanced observations for 16 banks, of which 4 Islamic banks. In order to achieve research objectives, the two-stage approach is adopted to examine the factors that may influence the behaviour of discretionary loan/finance loss provisions with specific emphasize on the efficiency. Furthermore, efficiency scores are estimated using Data Envelopment Windows Analysis. The findings of the research show that Islamic banks employ the discretionary loans/finance loss provisions to manage their earnings. However, the magnitude of discretion of accruals is significantly lower than conventional banks with exception for foreign banks which have reported lower discretionary loans/finance loss provisions than Islamic banks. Moreover, the analysis showed that efficiency affects the overall discretionary loans/finance loss provision positively, although this impact is shaped differently for Islamic and conventional banks.
Full Text Available The banking sectors of the transition countries have progressed remarkably in the last 20 years. In fact, banking in most transition countries has largely shaken off the traumas of the transition eraAt the start of the 21st century banks in these countries look very much like banks elsewhere. That is, they are by no means problem free but they are struggling with the same issues as banks in other emerging market countries during the financial crises conditions. The institutional environment differs considerably among the countries. The goal we set with this article is to examine in terms of methodology the most important assessment criteria of a measuring model for bad loans.
Bruno Vinícius Ramos Fernandes
Full Text Available Given the current macroeconomic environment experienced in Brazil, where inflation has stabilized and the basic interest rate of the economy is in one of their historical lows, demand for mortgages is increasing. In this context, the mortgage is presented with great emphasis to meet the demand for purchasing housing in addition to being a catalyst for the reduction of the high housing deficit. From a descriptive and empirical-analytic was analyzed the mortgage loan portfolio of the largest banks of the country between the years 2001 and 2010 through Quarterly Financial Information (IFT available on the Central Bank website. It was settled a comparative relationship between the data in order to check the development of mortgage portfolios over the years and the factors that influenced this evolution, and evaluate the timeliness and quality of those loans. For the evolution of the portfolio there was an economic context in which Brazil was included in the period, and observed that for most of these operations are long term the banks are more exposed to market risk. With regard to credit risk parse that, over the years, Brazilian banks are presenting a mortgage loan portfolio with lower risk, and it is found that institutions with real estate credits with higher levels of portfolio risk are subject to have higher losses on such operations in the possibility of default.
This study examined the determinants of the Nigeria Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) repayment by farmers in Yewa division of Ogun State. Primary data collected through scheduled interview with the help of a structured questionnaire as well as secondary data were used for this purpose.
... distributed only by or through FHFA. In addition, the revised material in Sec. 1260.2 has now been divided... rule, FHFA declined a commenter's request to include in the rule text an explicit provision stating... ``matters requiring attention'' of the Bank's board of directors.\\22\\ \\22\\ During 2013, FHFA has been...
Spatial comparison of areas at risk for schistosomiasis in the hilly and mountainous regions in the People's Republic of China: evaluation of the long-term effect of the 10-year World Bank Loan Project.
Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Zhu, Rong; Bergquist, Robert; Chen, Dong-Mei; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qing-Wu
The long-term effectiveness of the mainly chemotherapy-based control strategy of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for schistosomiasis control in Chinese hilly and mountainous regions was evaluated with a view to determine the best road forward. Based on the national database of schistosomiasis prevalence for the periods of 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 in the People's Republic of China, a Bayesian regression model was used for spatial comparison of schistosomiasis risk distribution between two periods taking account of all the potential risk factors simultaneously through two latent components of random effects: spatially correlated heterogeneities (CH) and spatially uncorrelated heterogeneities (UH). Four different types of endemic areas were investigated: those that remained endemic despite control efforts (17 or 37.8%), those that became non-endemic (9 or 20.0%), those that reverted back to endemicity (7 or 15.6%), and those with fluctuating endemicity (12 or 26.7%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was lower in 2007-2008 compared with that in 1999-2001, but the spatial distribution of risk remained similar. Compared to 1999-2001, the magnitude and range of risk even tended to be greater in 2007-2008. UH showed a fluctuating pattern, while CH increased gradually doubling over the two periods. There was no evidence for long-term effectiveness of the WBLP chemotherapy-based control strategy in this region. Controlling the effect of UH is still the main aspect of current schistosomiasis control strategy for the hilly and mountainous regions, but innovative methods are urgently needed for effectively controlling UH.
Grosen, Anders; Jessen, Pernille; Kokholm, Thomas
We examine a specific portfolio credit derivative, an Asset Protection Scheme (APS), and its applicability as a discretionary regulatory tool to reduce asymmetric information and help restore the capital base of troubled banks. The APS can be a fair-valued contract with an appropriate structure...... of incentives. We apply two alternative multivariate structural default risk models: the classical Gaussian Merton model and a model based on Normal Inverse Gaussian processes. Using a data set on annual farm level data from 1996 to 2009, we use the Danish agricultural sector as a case study and price an APS...... on an agricultural loan portfolio. We compute the economic capital for this loan portfolio with and without an APS. Moreover, we illustrate how model risk in the form of parameter uncertainty is reduced when an APS is attached to the loan portfolio....
... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC62 Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date... rule under part 614 on May 25, 2011 (76 FR 30246) amending our regulations on loan policies and...
Access to finance for residential solar photovoltaic systems (PV) is an essential element of the clean energy economy. Perceptions about solar PV and solar loans among lenders at banks and credit unions shape the availability of lending products for residential solar PV. In March 2015, interviews were carried out among select informants and subsequently, between April and May 2015, a survey was conducted to gauge the perceptions of lenders in Massachusetts. Lenders have a range of concerns with the market and the provision of solar loans. These concerns can be grouped around risk, market size or viability and policy uncertainty. In summary, lending for this segment is not a priority for banks and credit unions in Massachusetts at this time. Recommendations are offered for the lending community and policymakers to improve adoption. Questions for further research are also presented.
Eichengreen, Barry; Mody, Ashoka
Academics pay little attention to international bank lending, focusing instead on rapidly growing market segments such as the international bond market and derivative credit instruments. The authors argue for paying more attention to international bank lending. Why? Three reasons. First, the syndicated bank loan is one of the workhorses of international capital markets. Second, international bank lending is especially important for private-sector borrowers, whose participation in internationa...
Sumarti, Novriana; Hasmi, Abrari Noor
A dynamical model, which is one of sophisticated techniques using mathematical equations, can determine the observed state, for example bank profits, for all future times based on the current state. It will also show small changes in the state of the system create either small or big changes in the future depending on the model. In this research we develop a dynamical system of the form: d/D d t =f (D ,L ,rD,rL,r ), d/L d t =g (D ,L ,rD,rL,r ), Here D and rD are the volume of deposit and its rate, L and rL are the volume of loan and its rate, and r is the interbank market rate. There are parameters required in this model which give connections between two variables or between two derivative functions. In this paper we simulate the model for several parameters values. We do bifurcation analysis on the dynamics of the system in order to identify the appropriate parameters that control the stability behaviour of the system. The result shows that the system will have a limit cycle for small value of interest rate of loan, so the deposit and loan volumes are fluctuating and oscillating extremely. If the interest rate of loan is too high, the loan volume will be decreasing and vanish and the system will converge to its carrying capacity.
Full Text Available Abstract. This paper focuses on the transmission of bank liquidity shocks in Loan and deposit in emerging markets. First, we attempt to identify factors affecting the credit strategy of foreign banks in emerging countries. Second, we test whether depositors exert market discipline on foreign subsidiaries. By combining financial variables of subsidiaries and their parent banks and macroeconomic variables of host and home countries, we investigate the factors that may affect the behavior of depositors. Our empirical approach is based on a Partial Least Squares-Path model that allows us to indentify the causal relationships between the various groups of variables. Our results show that foreign bank lending is determined by the specific financial variables of the parent bank and macroeconomic variables of the country of origin. This support that the strategy's credit of foreign subsidiary is centrally managed at the parent bank and credit supply of subsidiaries depends primary on the financial situation of its parent bank. Finally we find evidence of market discipline exercised over foreign subsidiaries in emerging countries. We show that market discipline is strongly affected by the specific characteristics of the subsidiary.
Hyun Koo Cho
Full Text Available How did the deregulation of U.S. bank activities affect the patterns of cross-border lending to emerging economies? Unlike bank lending from Europe or Japan, U.S. bank lending to emerging economies exhibited increasing volatility over time. Using U.S. cross-border bank exposure data, this study identifies a temporal association between important deregulation initiatives and the volatility of U.S. bank emerging market lending. This association is explained by the linkages between an important outcome of bank deregulation－earnings volatility from diversified bank activities－and the rising volatility. Together, it argues that U.S. banking deregulation had unanticipated effects of exacerbating the volatility of bank lending to emerging economies.
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR Part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR Part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR Part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...
Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Sarudin, Ezzah Suraya; Hamid, Fairus; Shamsuddin, Nor Diyana Ahmad
There are various thoughts and opinions when it comes to how people think of their selected banks. Therefore, to choose the best bank with a good personal loan package can be a bit tricky especially for first time customer. This research offers a guide in choosing the right bank for applying personal loan package by highlighting the important criteria that applicants should take into consideration. In order to cater the problem above, we used Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations (CFPR). Based on expert and public opinions, the important criteria in selecting an Islamic personal loan package are interest rate, tenure of loan, processing period and security of the loan. We developed questionnaire with the criteria mention earlier and distributed it among academic staffs and non academic staffs at Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences (FSKM), UiTM Shah Alam. Based on the questionnaire, we found that four banks have been selected for multiple reasons. Before we could determine the best bank, calculations are divided into 2 phases which are criteria weights determination and ranking of alternatives. We implemented these phases to get the aggregation result and to obtain the ranking in descending order. As a result, our objectives have been achieved. As a conclusion, CFPR can help others in the decision making process.
Irina K. Pavlova
Full Text Available The article analyzes new Russian archival materials related to the activities of the Loan and Account Bank of Persia from the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. The article illustrates how the Bank through its various activities, turned into one of the main agents of Russian state interest in Persia during that period. The performance of the Bank has been elucidated in the works of Russian and foreign researchers encompassing various aspects of the Bank’s activities. This article, however, is based on the previously unused materials from the Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA, St. Petersburg and the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire (AVPRI, Moscow. Among the new materials introduced and employed in this article, two documents are of an exceptional importance: “Case of rewarding Persian subjects with Russian orders and medals” and “Case of purchasing a movie theatre”. These documents confirm that the Bank’s works in Persian were multi-faceted. Many merchants were involved in commercial relations with the Bank. At the same time, some of them were informants of the Bank and helped the Russians to monitor the situation in Persia. On avenue used by the Board in order to maintain amiable relationships with Shah and His immediate circle was to bestow fascinating gifts on them.
Takipteki Kredi Oranını Etkileyen Faktörlerin Belirlenmesi: Mevduat Bankaları Üzerinde Bir Dinamik Panel Veri Uygulaması (Assessing the Factors that Impact Non-Performing Loan Ratio: An Application On Deposit Banks By Using Dynamic Panel Data
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors that are effective on non-performing loans ratio after the 2001 local financial crisis. State-owned banks, privately-owned banks and foreign banks that operate in Turkey between the years 2002 and 2014 are examined. According to System-GMM and Difference GMM results, lagged value of non-performing loans, net interest margin, capital adequacy and solvency ratio have negative effects on non-performing loans ratio. On the other hand, interest applied to loans, loans/ deposits ratio, inefficiency and operating efficiency have positive effects on non performing loans. Although the results are consistent with moral hazard and bad managemet hypothesis, they are inconsistent with diversification hypothesis
Full Text Available PT. Bank X (Persero, Tbk has credit business unit and one of them is located in Bogor, which experienced decreased performance from year to year because of the increasing of competitiveness among rivalry. The decrease of performance measured both from realization of distribution credit and level of bad loans or Non Performing Loans (NPL. This research aimed to analyze the loan portfolio strategies based on the precautionary principle in the company. This research begins with identification factors affecting the company on its business both internal and external factors. The study was conducted qualitatively by filling questionnaires and in-depth interviews to seven experts on credit sector. Internal and external factors are treated with EFE-IFE matrix then IE matrix to determine the condition of the company, then a SWOT analysis to formulate some alternative strategies was carried out and last method is QSPM to choose the best strategic alternatives for the company. The results showed that the relative strength of the company has not been strong in overcoming internal weaknesses, but the company is considered good enough to take advantage of the opportunities that exist outside and can overcome challenges. Interest rates on loans, convenience and services to debtors, the technology owned by, also the opening of the public mindset about the banking world are the important factors that affect the company in doing business. Based on the QSPM result, supply chain utilization from existing debtor is the best strategy for prudent lending in company.Keyword: loan, non performing loan, IE Matrix, SWOT, QSPMABSTRAKPT. Bank X (Persero, Tbk memiliki salah satu unit bisnis penyalur kredit yang terletak di Bogor dan mengalami penurunan kinerja dari tahun ke tahun akibat persaingan yang semakin kompetitif. Penurunan kinerja tersebut diukur dari sisi realisasi penyaluran kredit maupun dari tingkat kredit macet. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis
Westfall, Elizabeth W.; Zimmerman, Anne R.
Recognizing that current and reliable sources of information are necessary for effective management and decision making, librarians of the Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco and the Federal Home Loan Bank in Seattle prepared this booklet listing what they feel are the basic books and periodicals essential to a savings and loan library…
Zhao, F; Chi, Y; Wang, K
The progress of the World Bank loaned TB control project implemented from the second quarter of 1991 to the fourth quarter of 1993 was described in this paper. In the past three years, 737 counties of the 12 provinces with the population of 360 million has been covered by the project. Among 95176 new smear positive cases discovered, 93909 patients received free treatment of TB. The treatment coverage is 98.7%, of which 95% were treated under full course supervision. The smear conversion rate at two, three months of new smear positive TB patients are 83.4% and 90.6% respectively. The cohort analysis showed that the cure rate is 89.8%, which has reached the advanced level of the modern national tuberculosis control programme in the world.
that deposits from provincial, regional, local and municipal authorities are included in the definition of deposit – provided that they fulfill the other requirements in the definition, i.e. that they come up to the definition “any credit balance which results from funds left in an account or from temporary...... from funds left in an account’. It finally concludes that it makes no difference when interpreting the definition ‘deposit’ in the sense of Article 1(1) of the Directive where the de-posits were made directly by the depositor/investor, or indirectly through an agent who had screened the market for bank......The article deals with the definition of ’deposit’ in Directive 94/19/EC, the Deposit Guarantee Directive, as amended by Directive 2009/14/EC. It is closer examined in the article to what extent a loan to a bank qualifis as a ’deposit’ in connection with the directive. The article concludes...
... Bank Bainbridge Georgia Peoples State Bank and Trust Baxley Georgia Bank of Early Blakely Georgia... The Security State Bank McRae Georgia First Bank of Coastal Georgia Pembroke Georgia First Peoples... Georgia Vidalia Federal Savings Bank Vidalia Georgia Bank of Dooly Vienna Georgia The Peoples Bank...
This dissertation utilizes empirical methods to shed light on the current debate over whether to adopt fair value accounting for loans held for long term. Proponents of fair valuing loans argue that reporting loans at their fair values enhances the overall transparency of financial reporting. In contrast, opponents are against applying fair value accounting to loans because fair values cannot be measured reliably in the case of loans held for long term. Therefore, the key question here is whe...
Wirjodirdjo, B.; Asjari, H. Y.
The Indonesian economic indicators shown a positive progress in the last three years, Foreign exchange reserves position of the end of March 2017 stood at US 121.8 billion higher than the position of the end of 2015 amounted to US 105.9 billion of the end of 2015. This reserve would ensure the resilience and maintaining sustainable Indonesian economic growth in the future. Although Indonesia’s foreign exchange is better, the structure of expenditure in the country is still less than ideal due the proportion of spending of consumer goods is far greater than the capital goods and tend to be unproductive spending. This needs to be regulated so that in the long term does not cause balance of payments deficit. Therefore, Indonesian Central Bank took a policy to raise interest rates for retail banks from 6% to 7.25% per annum gradually up to present. Policies relating to the interest rates on loans are intended to reduce the proportion of debt financing of consumer goods, however, these policies have implications to various economic sectors and one of those is property sector. A lot of research has been conducted related the impact of loan interest to the property sector but most of it is still in partial related to the ability the people to buy. However, this research has tried to see the implication of the macro Economic Policy of Indonesian Central Bank to the property sector as a systemic problem. This paper is going to present the study on the effects of these policies on the property sector, especially residence house. To obtain a comprehensive analysis and capture the relationship between interest rate policies and their impacts to the property sector, in this study the model developed and simulated using system dynamic methodology as an approach. Various scenarios are applied to the model to get an accurate information about how and when the effectiveness of the policy related to the property sector can be enforced. The result of this study can be delivered to
... Bank, FSB Saint Cloud Minnesota. Capital Bank Saint Paul Minnesota. Bremer Bank, National Association........ South St. Paul Minnesota. Farmers & Merchants State Bank of Springfield Minnesota. Springfield. Central... Bank Denver Colorado. FirstBank of Cherry Creek--Denver, CO.... Denver Colorado. FirstBank of Denver...
Value-at-Risk model developed recently is a mathemetical medol to measure and monitor market risk. The article focuses on discussing calculate procedure and calculate method about applying VaR means for the bank loan risk in evaluation, we make clear differentiate both the Bank for International Settlements draw credit risk reserve and VaR means calculate bank loan risk value, find VaR means in application practicality value and extensity perspective in our bank loan risk for evaluation
Florina Oana VIRLANUTA
Full Text Available During the early stages of the economic crisis that hit Romania, significant imbalances occurred in all industries. Its effects had a more dramatic impact in the banking system; especially concerning bank lending which was not only adversely affected by the crisis but it was the crisis itself. In this regard, we conducted an analysis of the credit system in Romania, the implications of non-performing loans on bank performance.
............ Massachusetts. Company. Danversbank Danvers........ Massachusetts. Mechanics' Co-operative Bank. Taunton.... OceanFirst Bank Tom Rivers..... New Jersey. Roma Bank Robbinsville... New Jersey. Glen Rock Savings Bank... Savings, FSB........ Munster........ Indiana. Farmers and Mechanics Federal Bloomfield..... Indiana...
.... Crown Bank Ocean City New Jersey. Hopewell Valley Community Bank Pennington New Jersey. Rumson-Fair... Thomasville Georgia. The Park Avenue Bank Valdosta Georgia. Oconee State Bank Watkinsville Georgia. Atlantic... First Bank, National Forest Ohio. Association. The Croghan Colonial Bank Fremont Ohio. Ohio Catholic...
Full Text Available The growth of shadow banks changed the face of banking in Zimbabwe. Their inconsistent product nature and complexity of form has been a cause for concern to regulatory authorities. The interrelationship between their financial intermediary role and that of formal banks has made them good substitutes to formal banking. This study conducts a statistical analysis of the country’s monetary aggregates and the total formal bank loan-to-deposits balances. The findings of this analysis show that the shadow banking system has always been a critical element of the formal banking sector which resulted from market needs and it completes the banking system. The shadow banking system does not pose direct threat to the formal banking system but it was a result of failure to attract savers who found shadow banks as a good alternative.
Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C
A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%.
... Union Bedminster New Jersey. Liberty Bell Bank Cherry Hill New Jersey. Grand Bank, National Association... Eye Minnesota. BankCherokee St. Paul Minnesota. Saint Paul Federal Credit Union St. Paul Minnesota...
Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini mengkaji pengaruh kinerja keuangan terhadap kredit perbakan BUMN di Indonesia. Perbankan yang terpilih menjadi objek penelitian adalah Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI, Bank Nasional Indonesia (BNI, Bank Mandiri dan Ban Tabungan Negara Indonesia (BTN. Data yang digunakan adalah data panel yaitu data sekunder tahunan yang diinterpolasi dalam data per triwulan, yang bersumber dari otoritas jasa keuangan, Bank Indonesia, Bappenas, BPS dan publikasi resmi lainnya. Pengaruh variabel bebas terhadap jumlah kredit diestimasi menggunakan regresi berganda metode Random Effect Model (REM. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perkembangan rata-rata kinerja keuangan perbankan BUMN mengalami fluktuasi dan mengalami variasi masing-masing Bank, sedangkan hasil pengujian menggunakan data panel semi log dengan model REM menunjukkan bahwa variabel non performing loan dan loan to deposit ratio memiliki pengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap variabel jumlah kredit perbankan BUMN di Indonesia, sementara itu return on assets tidak berpengaruh signifikan. Kata Kunci : Dana pihak ketiga, NPL, LDR,ROA, dan Kredit Perbankan BUMN Abstract This study examines the effect of financial performance on state-owned banks credit in Indonesia. Banks selected to be analyzed are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI, Bank Nasional Indonesia (BNI, Bank Mandiri, and Bank Tabungan Negara Indonesia (BTN. Panel data used is annual secondary data interpolated into quarterly data from Financial Services Authority, Bank Indonesia, The National Development Planning Agency or BadanPerencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (Bappenas, Central Bureau of Statistics or Badan (BPS, and other official publications. The influence of independent variables to the amount of credit is estimated using multiple regression, Random Effects Model (REM. The result of the study indicates that all state-owned banks had fluctuations in financial performance growth and it is different for all banks, while the
Full Text Available A loan is probably the most important financial decision we make in life. In a time when lack of time affects us in every way, including financially, we can only appeal to specialists if we want fast, reliable and quality long-term services. „The notion of “creditor” includes all legal entities, branches of credit institution and nonbankingfinancial institutions that operate in Romania and grant or undertake to grant loans in itscommercial of professional activity”. In the case of loans, the "specialist" has been called loan broker. Loan broker is a person trained in intermediating bank loans who offers advice on choosing the best financial solutions for each client. Through partnerships with banks in Romania, the broker has access to their credit products and assist customers in choosing the loan that best suits their financial needs and possibilities. Moreover, the broker will help in preparing loan application to be submitted to the bank and pursue it to its completion. Loan broker can be defined as the person authorized by the bank or non-bank financial institutions to promote their products through direct contact with natural or legal persons wishing to contract a loan, without any of the parties to have exclusivity. There can be defined as an independent bank or non-bank financial institution, as an intermediary between customers and banks. Through its financial advisors , the company helps customers overcome the difficulty of understanding the credit products, difficulties arising from the multitude of factors that compose such a product, especially in the case of a housing loan or mortgage. Each financial institution is doing everything possible through such partnerships to attract the largest possible portfolio of clients, therefore is developing a real network of brokers to be partners for local or national level (depending on the sites coverage of the branches of each institution on one or more types of credit products. The
... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.4 Loan applications. No application for a loan will be considered for approval by the Bank... of the applicant for a Bank loan and the amount thereof. Loan application forms are available from...
... bank holding company's Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C) forms; \\3... Balance Sheet of the BHC's Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C) (OMB No... holding companies with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets, and nonbank financial companies...
Itoo, R. A.; Selvarasu, A.; Filipe, J.
This study explore the factors influencing mortgage loan default by using the data of mortgage default case from Jammu and Kashmir Bank. To achieve the study objectives sixteen variables are taken. The variables are categorized into three dimensions as borrower’s profile, loan value contents and collateral security. The tools used for analysis of data describing mortgage loan defaulter’s are chi-square, regression, ANOVA, and logistic regression through SPSS 18.0. The results indicate that th...
Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D; Minggang, Chen
China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control.
Bathmanathan Vasie Naicker
Full Text Available Since it has been observed that credit granting is a serious problem across the entire credit market, South Africa introduced National Credit Act 34 of 2005 in order to regulate the credit industry and protect credit consumers from becoming over-indebted. The study highlights and examines the implementation of the Act in relation to the South African home loans market, focussing on First National Bank home loans portfolio. The study documents that the current state of consumer indebtedness shows that both credit institutions and consumers were responsible for over extending retail credit. The study noticed that credit industry has significantly managed to regulate the retail credit through the implementation of the Act. Furthermore, the study finds that a new stakeholder such as a debt counsellor has been introduced into the retail credit value chain for debt counselling for over-indebted clients. However, the study recommends that internal forums within banks as well as industry-wide forums should be used in order to ensure that the implementation of a regulation that impacts the entire credit industry is implemented with all stakeholders to limit any possible misinterpretation of key sections of a new regulation.
de Roon, F.A.; Veld, C.H.
This study investigates the announcement effects of offerings of convertible bond loans and warrant-bond loans using data for the Dutch market. Using standard event study methodology it is found that on average stock prices show a positive but insignificant abnormal return for the announcement of a
Patrick J. Farrell
Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of credit scoring is constructing a model that has low misclassification rates and is also flexible enough to allow for random variation. It is also well known that, when there are a large number of highly correlated variables as is typical in studies involving questionnaire data, a method must be found to reduce the number of variables to those that have high predictive power. Here we propose a Bayesian multivariate logistic regression model with both fixed and random effects for small business loan credit scoring and a variable reduction method using Bayes factors. The method is illustrated on an interesting data set based on questionnaires sent to loan officers in Canadian banks and venture capital companies
Davis, EP; Obasi, U
Banking supervision is an essential aspect of modern financial systems, seeking crucially to monitor risk-taking by banks so as to protect depositors, the government safety net and the economy as a whole against systemic bank failure and its consequences. In this context, this paper seeks to explore the relationship between risk indicators for individual banks and the different approaches to banking supervision adopted around the world. This is the first work to make use of the currently avai...
股东关联贷款对商业银行发展的影响与银行贷款危机密不可分。文中分析了股东关联贷款与银行贷款危机之间的关系，着重就股东关联贷款对商业银行影响进行研究，并提出了防范和降低商业银行股东关联贷款风险的政策建议。%The shareholder loans of commercial banks related development impact of the crisis and bank loans are inseparable.This article analyzes association between the shareholder loans and the crisis of bank loan,focusing on shareholder loans of commercial banks association,and proposed to prevent and reduce the risk of commercial bank lending policies related shareholder proposals.
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect on other banking practices. 337.11 Section 337.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.11 Effect on other banking practices. Nothing in...
In W Song
Adequate loan classification practices are an essential part of a sound and effective credit risk-management process in a bank. Failure to identify deterioration in credit quality in a timely manner can aggravate and prolong the problem. Two key issues arise with regard to the use of collateral in the context of loan classification and provisioning. In particular, the questions arise whether collateral should be taken into account in classifying a collateralized loan, and whether it should be...
When NUEXCO was organized in 1968, its founders conceived of a business based on uranium loans. The concept was relatively straightforward; those who found themselves with excess supplies of uranium would deposit those excesses in NUEXCO's open-quotes bank,close quotes and those who found themselves temporarily short of uranium could borrow from the bank. The borrower would pay interest based on the quantity of uranium borrowed and the duration of the loan, and the bank would collect the interest, deduct its service fee for arranging the loan, and pay the balance to those whose deposits were borrowed. In fact, the original plan was to call the firm Nuclear Bank Corporation, until it was discovered that using the word open-quotes Bankclose quotes in the name would subject the firm to various US banking regulations. Thus, Nuclear Bank Corporation became Nuclear Exchange Corporation, which was later shortened to NUEXCO. Neither the nuclear fuel market nor NUEXCO's business developed quite as its founders had anticipated. From almost the very beginning, the brokerage of uranium purchases and sales became a more significant activity for NUEXCO than arranging uranium loans. Nevertheless, loan transactions have played an important role in the international nuclear fuel market, requiring the development of special knowledge and commercial techniques
Repullo, R.; Suarez, J.
We assess the procyclical effects of bank capital regulation in a dynamic equilibrium model of relationship lending in which banks are unable to access the equity markets every period. Banks anticipate that shocks to their earnings as well as the cyclical position of the economy can impair their
Bos, J. W. B.; Koetter, M.; Kolari, J. W.; Kool, C. J. M.
Bank efficiency estimates often serve as a proxy of managerial skill since they quantify sub-optimal production choices. But such deviations can also be due to omitted systematic differences among banks. In this study, we examine the effects of heterogeneity on bank efficiency scores. We compare
Laurin, Alain; Majnoni, Giovanni
This report reviews loan classification and provisioning practices in a broad sample of countries that differ in size, location and level of financial development. The survey conducted for the report compares the regulatory approaches adopted by industrial and emerging economies, and is intended to complement other sources of information that focus exclusively on either industrial or devel...
... directors (or persons exercising similar functions) of the issuing national bank, or to vote on or to direct..., or in any manner, to select or to vote for the selection of directors (or persons exercising similar... of the bank; (iv) The competence, experience, or integrity of any acquiring person, or of any of the...
... regulations thereunder. For rules relating to a debt evidenced by a security (as defined in section 165(g)(2..., see § 1.585-4. For rules relating to large banks, see §§ 1.585-5 through 1.585-8. (b) Application of... with the conduct of a banking business within the United States. (2) Exception. For taxable years...
Grosen, Anders; Jessen, Pernille; Kokholm, Thomas
while retaining an appropriate structure of incentives. Within the structural credit risk modeling framework we apply two alternative structural multivariate default risk models, the classical Gaussian Black-Scholes-Merton model and a model based on Normal Inverse Gaussian (NIG) processes, e.g. Barndorf...... as the underlying in the valuation of the corresponding APS in order to demonstrate the applicability of the APS as a regulatory tool. The contribution to the financial literature on credit risk is the empirical analysis of agricultural loans using our unique data set. The contribution to the banking literature......An Asset Protection Scheme (APS) is a portfolio insurance contract; a credit derivative used as a tool to restore financial stability and reestablish economic confidence. Opposed to most governmental bailout packages implemented all over the world recently, the APS can be a fair market contract...
Raabe, K.; Arnold, I.J.M.; Kool, C.J.M.
This paper presents evidence on the industry effects of bank lending in Germany and asks whether bank lending to single industries depends on industry-specific bank credit demand or on monetary policy as determinant of bank credit supply. To this end, we estimate individual bank lending functions
Alexandra Ryan Ahmad Dina
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to examine the effect of bank monitoring as an alternative of corporate governance mechanisms on the borrowers’ firm value. The strengths of bank monitoring on the borrowers are measured based on the magnitude of the bank loan, the size of the loan from banks with high monitoring quality, the length of a bank loan outstanding period, and the number of lenders. The research hypotheses were tested using multiple regression model with a sample of 230 companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2009. The empirical results show that only the size of the loan from banks with high monitoring quality and the number of lenders significantly influences the borrowers’ firm value. These findings imply that only banks with high monitoring quality could play an important role in the corporate governance and therefore increasing the firm value by their monitoring function. Furthermore, bank monitoring is less effective if a company borrows from many banks, and therefore decreasing the firm value
H.P. Huizinga; J.H.M. Nelissen (Jan); R. Vander Vennet
textabstractNext to technological progress and deregulation, the introduction of the euro is widely considered to be an important catalyst for bank consolidation in Europe. In order to assess the public policy issues surrounding bank mergers, this paper analyzes the efficiency effects of 52
Leo de Haan; Jeroen Hinloopen
We estimate the incremental financing decision for a sample of some 150Dutch companies for the years 1984 through 1997, thereby distinguishinginternal finance and three types of external finance: bank borrowing, bondissues and share issues. First, we estimate a multinomial logit model whichconfirms several predictions of both the static trade-off theory and thepecking-order theory as to the determinants of financing choices. Next, weuse ordered probit models to determine which financing hiera...
Jianfang Zhou; Jingjing Wang; Jianping Ding
Purpose-After loan interest rate upper limit deregulation in October 2004,the financing environment in China changed dramatically,and the banks were eligible for risk compensation.The purpose of this paper is to focus on the influence of the loan interest rate librealization on firms' loan maturity structure.Design/methodology/approach-Based on Rajan's (1992) model the authors constructed a tradeoff model of how the banks choose long-term and short-term loans scales,and further analyzed banks' loan term decisions under the loan interest rate upper limit deregulation or collateral cases.Then the authors used an unbalanced panel data set of 586 Chinese listed manufacturing companies and 9,376 observations during the period 1996-2011 to testify the theoretical conclusion.Furthermore,the authors studied the effect on firms with different characteristics of ownership or scale.Findings-The results show that the loan interest rate liberalization significantly decreases the private companies' reliance on short-term loans and increases sensitivity to interest rates of stateowned companies' long-term loans.But the results also show that the companies' ownership still plays a key role on the long-term loans availability.When monetary policy tightened,small companies still have to borrow short-term loans for long-term purposes.As the bank industry is still dominated by state-owned banks and the deposit interest rate has upper limits,the effect of the loan interest rate liberalization on easing long-term credit constraints is limited.Originality/value-From a new perspective,the content and findings of this paper contribute to the study of the effect of the interest rate liberalization on China economy.
Changsong, Sun; Binggui, Yu; Hongyi, Liao; Yuhai, Dai; Xu, Xingjian; Huiguo, Zhu; Yong, Jiang
Since the World Bank provided a loan for control of schistosomiasis in China, started from 1992, with the objective of a reduction of prevalence and intensity of the infection both in humans and animals by 40%, through mass chemotherapy in areas of high prevalence, and selective chemotherapy in areas with medium and low endemicity together with focal mollusciciding, the objective of morbidity control of the project has been reached in Hubei Province.
Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo
In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation.
Full Text Available An effective agency mode is the key to solve incentive problems in Chinese student loan system. Principal-agent frameworks are considered in which two principals share one common agent that is performing one single task but each prefers the different aspect of the task. Three models are built and decision mechanisms are given. The studies show that the three modes have different effects. Exclusive dealing mode is not good for long-term effect because sometimes it guides agent ignoring repayment. If effort proportionality coefficient and observability are both unchanged, principals all prefer common agency, but independent contracting mode may be more efficient in reality because not only the total outputs under that mode are larger than those under cooperation one, but also preferring independent contracting mode can stimulate the bank participating in the game.
Okibo, Bichanga Walter; Wario, Ali Yattani
The study highlights the effects of E-banking services on growth of customer base in Kenyan banks for over the last five years. It addresses issues that affect effective utilization of E-banking facilities by customers. The study generally investigates how lack of technological know-how, illiteracy, unreliability, and transaction limits has hindered growth of on-line customer base in Kenyan banks. E-banking provides enormous benefits to consumers in terms of time saving and cost of transactio...
Guo, J; Booth, M; Jenkins, J; Wang, H; Tanner, M
The World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis in China commenced field activities in 1992. In this paper, we describe disease control strategies for levels of different endemicity, and estimate unit costs and total expenditure of screening, treatment (cattle and humans) and snail control for 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum infection is endemic. Overall, we estimate that more than 21 million US dollars were spent on field activities during the first three years of the project. Mollusciciding (43% of the total expenditure) and screening (28% of the total) are estimated to have the most expensive field activities. However, despite the expense of screening, a simple model predicts that selective chemotherapy could have been cheaper than mass chemotherapy in areas where infection prevalence was higher than 15%, which was the threshold for mass chemotherapy intervention. It is concluded that considerable cost savings could be made in the future by narrowing the scope of snail control activities, redefining the threshold infection prevalence for mass chemotherapy, defining smaller administrative units, and developing rapid assessment tools.
Evaluation Of Loan Disbursement And Repayment Of Supervised Credit ... bank as regard to loan supervision was scored low as a result of low rate of loan recovery, ... strategy to recover outstanding debts and reduce interest charge on loans.
Interest Free Banking in Nigeria - Welcome Islamic Banking; Welcome Christian Banking. ... banks pay interest on deposits, and charge interest on loans and advances, ... However, the literature on interest rates, in relation to Commercial Bank ...
Braggion, Fabio; Dwarkasing, Narly; Moore, Lyndon
We investigate the impact of increasing bank concentration on bank loan contracts in a lightly regulated environment. This environment allows us to abstract from possible confounding effects of regulation to focus on the “pure” effects of competition on bank lending. We study over 30,000 British
Journal of Business Research ... This study estimates the effect of capital adequacy on bank earnings and profitability in Nigeria. ... regulatory framework in the management liquidity and bank capital to shore-up bank performance in Nigeria.
... not the sole or principal factor underlying a decision. FHFA also does not believe that the proposed... Bank Act (Bank Act).\\1\\ The Banks are cooperatives; only members of a Bank may purchase the capital... if it satisfies certain criteria and purchases a specified amount of the Bank's capital stock.\\4\\ \\1...
Saeid Ghorbannejad Maleki; Jafar Beikzad
The main purpose of this paper is to detect effective factors on mobilization of East Azarbaijan Agricultural Bank resources in terms of deposits absorption. In order to reaching this goal, six hypotheses have been arranged and a questionnaire including 28 questions has been designed. So after justifiability and perpetuity evaluation, the questionnaires are distributed among managers of these banks. We have analyzed the data using multi variable regression analysis, Pearson's R and Variant an...
To manage their loans effectively, U.S. postsecondary student loan borrowers must make a variety of important decisions that require significant knowledge and financial skills and entail considerable risk. Federal law requires colleges to provide student loan counseling to their federal student loan borrowers, but there is significant room for…
Full Text Available This study examines the factors used by the banks to determine the outcome of loan applications of Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs in Bhutan. Inaccessibility to financing is one of the biggest challenges faced by the Bhutanese SMEs. This exploratory study is built on in-depth interview of 6 credit officials to understand the lending behaviour of banks towards SMEs. Thematic Analysis revealed that the bank loan accessibility was a function of firm and owner characteristics. The collateral and internal finance was found to be vital in determining SMEs accessibility to bank loans. SMEs inadequate financial information was a serious problem for the banks. Firm age size and industry sector had a positive correlation with bank loan accessibility. The age and educational qualification of borrowers were also found to have a positive relationship while the gender of the owner did not have any effect on bank loan accessibility.
福田, 慎一; 鯉渕, 賢
In this paper, we investigate who bears the burden when writing off bad loans in Japan. Traditionally, Japanese main banks bore large burdens in saving their customers. We still find that some main banks bear a large burden in saving their customers. However, in most cases, main banks became very reluctant to bear large burdens when bailing out their customers. In the transition from the bank-based system to a market-based system, traditional implicit rules are collapsing dramatically. We sug...
Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.
Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas
We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...... in the required return, the interest rate premium paid for leniency isincreased in recession at a given level of required capital....
Ronald Fischer; Nicolás Inostroza; Felipe J. Ramírez
We consider a two-period model of a banking system to explore the effects of competition on the stability and efficiency of economic activity. In the model, competing banks lend to entrepreneurs. After entrepreneurs receive the loans for their projects, there is a probability of a shock. The shock implies that a fraction of firms will default and be unable to pay back their loans. This will require banks to use their capital and reserves to pay back depositors, restricting restrict second per...
Qinwei Chi; Wenjing Li
Using data for Chinese commercial banks from 2000 to 2014, this paper examines the effects of economic policy uncertainty(EPU) on banks’ credit risks and lending decisions. The results reveal significantly positive connections among EPU and non-performing loan ratios, loan concentrations and the normal loan migration rate. This indicates that EPU increases banks’ credit risks and negatively influences loan size, especially for joint-equity banks. Given the increasing credit risks generated by EPU, banks can improve operational performance by reducing loan sizes. Further research indicates that the effects of EPU on banks’ credit risks and lending decisions are moderated by the marketization level, with financial depth moderating the effect on banks’ credit risks and strengthening it on lending decisions.
Daru Setyo Rini
Full Text Available There were 18 accelerated erosion sites identified along 7 km of Surabaya River Fishery Sanctuary Area. A model of ecohydraulic bank stabilization was applied to reduce bank erosion in Surabaya River at Gresik Regency Indonesia. The model is combination of reprofiled and revegetated bank with rock toe reinforcement and addition of log groynes. Various native plant species were planted and naturally grown to establish multi-strata littoral vegetation structure. This study assessed effects of ecohydraulic bank stabilization on bank morphology, near bank velocity and littoral macroinvertebrate community during September 2014 to August 2016. The study found that rock toe enforcement, log groynes and reprofiled bank slope could stabilized the eroded bank, and littoral vegetation formation reduced near bank velocity at restored sites. There were 31 families of macroinvertebrate found in Surabaya River with high abundance of moderately pollution sensitive taxa Atyidae and pollution tolerant taxa Corixidae, Chironomidae and Tubificidae. The taxa richness, diversity index and abundance of sensitive and moderately sensitive macroinvertebrate group were increased after application of ecohydraulic bank stabilization at restored area. The results shown that ecohydraulic bank stabilization structure provides multi-benefits in improving bank stabilization against erosion and providing new micro-habitats for biotic community. Keywords: ecohydraulic bank stabilization, macroinvertebrates, riparian restoration
Trofimov, Ivan D.; Md. Aris, Nazaria; Ying Ying, Jovena Kho
This study aims to examine the relationship between non-performing loans (NPLs) and commercial banks' performance in Malaysia, alongside other factors. It considers the effect of NPLs, cost efficiency and bank size on commercial banks' profitability by using panel data regression (Pooled OLS model), covering the period of 2010-2015. The findings of the study show that NPLs and cost efficiency have a significant negative relationship with commercial banks' performances in Malaysia. On the othe...
Schindler, Dirk; Eggert, Wolfgang
This paper examines competition between bank regulators in open economies. We use a model where credit demand of firms is endogenous and show any tendency for downward competition in regulation policy is limited by the effect of regulation on profits of nonfinancial firms. Moreover, perfect mobility on loans and deposit markets fully eliminates the incentives of regulators to set bank regulation at ine±cient low levels.
... concerns about credit quality, undue concentrations in the bank's portfolio of residential real estate, small business, or small farm loans, or concerns about the bank's overall credit risk management systems...
Svetlana Andrianova; Badi H Baltagi; Panicos O Demetriades
African financial deepening is beset by a high rate of loan defaults, which encourages banks to hold liquid assets instead of lending. We put forward a novel theoretical model that captures the salient features of African credit markets which shows that equilibrium with high loan defaults and low lending can arise when contract enforcement institutions are weak, investment opportunities are relatively scarce and information imperfections abound. We provide evidence using a panel of 110 banks ...
Full Text Available In banking practice the pledge plays an important role, it is often used to denote the pledge agreement, as well asthe real right that is the result of the pledge agreement conclusion and the good that is the object of the pledge. Thepledge is the only real security interest in the range of bank guarantees. Actually, each obligation can beguaranteed by the pledging. Assets diversification and trade needs have led to the development of a new pledgeform. Anyway, regardless of the number and content of the economic material, the licensed banks from the Republicof Moldova attach importance to the correctness of pledge accounting taking into account the deadline. Thus, thisresearch aims to present the accounting of the pledged assets passed to the licensed banks from the Republic ofMoldova for the repayment of the granted loan, taking into account the enforcement of the obligation secured by thepledge deadline, the right to possession of the pledged asset and not the least of its value. In the research there wasmainly used the method of monographic study applying elements of observation, selection, induction and deduction.
The transmission of monetary policy may hold the key to explaining the effects of policy on the economy. The objective of the study is to assess the importance of the bank lending channel in the transmission of monetary policy in Australia. In this paper, we found that the effectiveness of monetary policy varies with the size of the bank as well as the type of the loan. For different asset size and different kinds of loans, the effect of monetary policy is different. Thus, policy has distribu...
Tololiu, Melisa I.M
In this global era, every organization seeks to improve employees performance to create productive employees as their asset. PT. Bank Mandiri Area Manado is one of the organizations on the banking sector which has the main task of managing and marketing loans especially micro-credit segment. The aim of this study is to determine the influences of women leadership, organizational culture, working climate and effective communication on employees productivity. In this study, population refer...
Full Text Available Studies have shown that in service organizations, quality can have a growth in customer satisfaction as its consequence, and when it regards the banking services, factors are brought up with regard to the quality of banking services, which include the speed in responding, providing products proportionate to the customer needs, and gaining competence. These concepts are shared by the issue of organizational agility; hence, the qualities as well as the bank's agility of the banking system embrace these concepts in common. Therefore, the study aims at studying the effect of the quality of electronic banking services on the bank's agility, and assesses the role of two mediator variables of the quality of service system and personnel behavior quality. Using a questionnaire comprised of 76 items about the above components and asking the line personnel in Bank Saderat Iran (BSI in the branches both inside and outside of Iran, the research data was collected, and stratified random sampling was used. To analyze the data, the Structural Equation Model (SEM was used and the PLS software was employed to perform the computations. Results indicated that the model of the study has a high Goodness of Fit, and the quality of the electronic banking services had a significant effect on the bank's agility. In addition, the quality of electronic banking services affects the service system quality. The system service quality, also affects the employees' behavior. Therefore, it can be said that the electronic services quality and the bank's agility affect the personnel behavior quality through the mediated effect of the service system quality. The results of the present study can help the bank's executives to promote their bank's agility and the personnel behavior quality.
Survey data on factors affecting negotiation of professional fees between Estate Valuers and their clients when the mortgage is financed by bank loan: A case study of mortgage valuations in Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria
Chukwuemeka O. Iroham
Full Text Available In this article, two sets of questionnaires were administered to professionals and clients (commercial banks on their willingness to negotiate the professional fees charged by the Estate Valuers assuming that the mortgage in valuation was financed by bank loan. A range of fees options were provided. Other factors such as the business environment and mortgage valuation can influence the negotiated fees when the data obtained from the survey data is analyzed.
Survey data on factors affecting negotiation of professional fees between Estate Valuers and their clients when the mortgage is financed by bank loan: A case study of mortgage valuations in Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria.
Iroham, Chukwuemeka O; Okagbue, Hilary I; Ogunkoya, Olalekan A; Owolabi, James D
In this article, two sets of questionnaires were administered to professionals and clients (commercial banks) on their willingness to negotiate the professional fees charged by the Estate Valuers assuming that the mortgage in valuation was financed by bank loan. A range of fees options were provided. Other factors such as the business environment and mortgage valuation can influence the negotiated fees when the data obtained from the survey data is analyzed.
Determinants of Effective Internal Control System in Nigerian Banks. ... (21) chief internal auditors of selected recapitalized banks currently operating in Port Harcourt. ... can be carried out, high level ethical standards should be enshrined in Nigerian banks to make internal control more effective. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.
... SALES LOANS MADE BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY AND FOREIGN MILITARY SALES LOANS MADE BY THE FEDERAL FINANCING BANK AND GUARANTEED BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY Form of Private Loan § 25... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan provisions. 25.400 Section 25...
Tu DQ Le
Full Text Available This paper employs Data Envelopment Analysis to examine the relative efficiency for Vietnamese banks from 2008 to 2015. Efficiency level is relatively high and remains stable over the examined period, suggesting the banking system is less affected by the global financial crisis. More specifically, technical efficiency and scale efficiency in Vietnamese banking is examined when controlling for problem loans. We suggest that controlling for the exogenous impact of problem loans is important for joint-stock banks. Furthermore, our results do not support the hypothesis that acquiring banks are more efficient than the acquired banks. The efficiency improved in majority of merger cases and was not related to acquiring bank’s efficiency advantage over its targets. Small-and medium- banks should be promoted in future acquisitions as a means to enjoying efficiency gains. Finally, there are mixed results on the extent to which the benefits of efficiency gains are passed on to the public.
The student loan program run by the Instituto Colombiano de Credito Educativo y Estudios Tecnicos en el Exterior (ICETEX) has three main objectives: to increase the country's supply of highly skilled manpower, to achieve more equality of educational opportunity, and to provide a meaningful source of finance for higher education. An analysis of…
Allen, F.; Hryckiewicz, A.; Kowalewski, O.; Tumer Alkan, G.
We examine the international transmission of liquidity shocks from multinational bank holding companies to their subsidiaries during the financial crisis of 2008. Our results demonstrate that a subsidiary's reduction in lending is strongly related to its parent bank's lending via the interbank
Full Text Available This study focuses on assessment of the effect of government's economic liberalization policy on the flow of commercial banks credit to farmers in Rivers State. The empirical analyses are based on information obtained from a sample of 25 out of the over 30 commercial banks operating in the State. Results from the analyses indicate that despite the deregulation of interest rates associated with economic liberalization, commercial banks in the State are unable to meet one-half of the loan requests of farmers. The flow of loanable funds can therefore not be said to have been enhanced by interest rates deregulation. It is argued that simply re-moving restrictions on interest rates is not a sufficient condition for enhanced flow of commercial bank credit to farmers in the State. Such a policy must be complemented with programmes of sharing initial risks and administrative costs between government and the private sector.
Pham, Thi Thu Trà; Lensink, Robert
This paper deals with loan contracting from a private bank in Vietnam. We focus on the main loan contract features that the bank uses in lending to business firms, namely loan maturity, collateral and loan interest rate. Based upon the simultaneous equation model of Dennis et al. (2000) and the bank’s loan contracting policies, we examine the possible interdependency of the three different loan contract terms. Also, we try to determine which firm characteristics and exogenous factors are rele...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a savings...
... REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.30 Nonresidential construction loan. The term nonresidential construction loan means a loan for construction of other than one or more dwelling units. ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonresidential construction loan. 561.30...
With the deepening of the banking liberalization and market-oriented reform of interest rate controls,it would be an inevitable trend for banks and enterprises to determine the loan price by negotiation,so the role of the bargaining power in the loan pricing process will become more prominent.However,the existing literature mostly discussed the issue of loan pricing by focus on the product attribute of loan and the financial intermediary attribute of banks which ignored the properties of general merchandise of loans,so we barely knew the loan pricing mechanism form the perspective of market player's bargaining power,especially the bargaining power which came from bank's franchise and its impacts on loan price.This is neither conducive for us to understand the process of capital pricing correctly,nor comprehensive understanding the role of bank's franchise in loan pricing.This paper established a bargaining game model to analyze the formation mechanism of loan pricing with the market trend,and influences of bank's franchise on the loan prices negotiation.Based on this,this paper did an empirical study on the determinants of loan pricing by using two-tier stochastic frontier model and the data of 104 China's commercial bank from 2005 to 2013,measured commercial bank's bargaining power and its impact degree on loan prices.The study found:Firstly,franchise brought banks monopoly and operational superiority,which made banks have lower negotiation cost and stronger bargaining power,so as to get a strong position in the loan price negotiation to make the negotiation reach a higher transaction price;Secondly,beside the benchmark interest rate,loan cost,credit risk,the market structure of banking and the level of inflation were the major factors to determine the price of the loan.And the barging between the lender and borrower could lead to loan price fluctuation.Thirdly,although interest rate control limited the bargaining space of loan price,with monopoly power and
Li Ma; Junxun Dai; Xian Huang
Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the financial supervision authority utilizes the restrictions of capital constraints imposing on commercial banks the need to develop the macro economy.Design/methodology/approach-This paper uses multilateral game to deduce the loan characteristics of banks,vector and void coordinates to analyze the behavior choices of banks under capital supervision,sets up an index to describe the risk preference of banks,and analyzes the process with Chinese data empirically.Findings-This paper finds big banks have a loan preference for big enterprises and small banks have a preference for establishing a bank syndicate to pursue large projects.Further,the paper notes the conditions by which the heterology banks choose loans across the border and proves that changes of capital requirements would force the credit structure of the commercial banks to adjust along an efficient frontier broken line or an efficient frontier plane under the conditions of interest rate regulation or interest rate marketization,respectively.Research limitations/implications-It is very complex to describe the choices of risk behavior of banks and the simple supervision method needs to be adjusted.Practical implications-This paper finds that banks show risk preferences of credit structure,and capital constraints would affect it greatly;regulators should guard against capital constraint softening.Originality/value-It is the first time that the conditions of banks beyond the loan border have been studied and the behavior adjustment of banks using the vector and void coordinate analyzed.
Full Text Available Loans make up the bulk of a bank’s assets, and thus credit risk is the most significant risk for commercial banks in Kosovo and throughout the world. Despite its complexity, effective management of credit risk is a prerequisite for the success of a bank and the banking system in general. A special role in this aspect is played by the separation of reserves to cover the risk of failure to repay the loan or in cases of nonfulfilment of contractual obligations by the loan recipient. Therefore, this research aims to address this issue and analyses the credit risk management of the banking system of the Republic of Kosovo in general and the effects of separation of reserves for loan losses in particular.
J. N. ELOSIUBA
Full Text Available In the light of globalisation where foreign investment has become trendy, comparability of financial reports of Nigerian firms and those of other firms across the world has become a concern. Nigerian firms has been mandated to adopt the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS is their financial reporting. This study has examined the effect of the IFRS adoption on the reported performance of Nigerian banks listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Eight (8 out of the fourteen (14 quoted banks were selected for the study. Four indices of performance employed in the study are profitability using the Return on Equity, Liquidity using total deposit to total loan, loan grants and then market value measured by Price earnings ratio for the period (2011 and 2012. 2011 represented GAAP era while 2012 stands for IFRS adoption. A comparability index for the banks were computed using the Excel Spreadsheet for each of the banks on each variable. Then the One Sample Test was employed for the analyses. The mean was used to answer the research question while the t-statistics tested the hypotheses. The results showed that mean values for profitability, liquidity and market value are greater in the GAAP era (2011 than in the IFRS period (2012, while loan grant has higher for IFRS period (2012. The t-tested indicated none of the variables had significant effect. Thus the study concluded that IFRS adopted does not have significant effect on bank performance reported in 2011 and 2012. The use of IFRS for all firms as well as incorporation of IFRS guideline in professional training are recommended by this study.
Zhang, Zhijie; Zhu, Rong; Ward, Michael P; Xu, Wanghong; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Jiagang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qingwu
The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China because of the current low endemic levels of infection. The future control
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China
maintained for all Ghanaian students but they were to pay for room, meals, ... was replaced by the Students Loan Trust Fund ... given amount of investment in human capital is identical for all .... of order one i.e. the first difference must be stationary ..... the Analysis of Long Run Relation- ships. Discussion Paper no. 46, Edin-.
This paper investigates how government bond purchases affect leverage-constrained banks and non-financial firms by utilising a stochastic general equilibrium model. My results indicate that government bond purchases not only reduce non-financial firms' borrowing costs, amplified through a reduction in expected defaults, but also lower banks' profit margins. In an economy in which loans priced at par dominate in banks' balance sheets - as a reflection of the euro area's structure - the leverag...
@@ China Petroleum Engineering Construction Corp. (CPECC) has got a syndicated loan of 80 million USD from a consortium composed of 15 banks of Japan, Germany, France, Netherlands and Belgium with Sanwa Bank Hongkong Branch as the arrangement bank. The loan will be used for building a multiple well manifold production station (MWMPS) in Kuwait. The signing ceremony for the loan agreement was held in late January 1997.
Drăgan (Sântămărian Oana Raluca
Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the present: globalization and its effects on the banking. Globalization is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand as well as a new landscape of business opportunity.Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the globalization problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the globalization over the way of creating the banking risk in the future. The banking management in the context of globalization represents one of the challengesof these days. Starting from literature in the globalization field in this paper focuses on several relevant issues related to banking management.
Kaimal, Anjali J; Smith, Catherine C; Laros, Russell K; Caughey, Aaron B; Cheng, Yvonne W
To investigate the cost-effectiveness of private umbilical cord blood banking. A decision-analytic model was designed comparing private umbilical cord blood banking with no umbilical cord blood banking. Baseline assumptions included a cost of $3,620 for umbilical cord blood banking and storage for 20 years, a 0.04% chance of requiring an autologous stem cell transplant, a 0.07% chance of a sibling requiring an allogenic stem cell transplant, and a 50% reduction in risk of graft-versus-host disease if a sibling uses banked umbilical cord blood. Private cord blood banking is not cost-effective because it cost an additional $1,374,246 per life-year gained. In sensitivity analysis, if the cost of umbilical cord blood banking is less than $262 or the likelihood of a child needing a stem cell transplant is greater than 1 in 110, private umbilical cord blood banking becomes cost-effective. Currently, private umbilical cord blood banking is cost-effective only for children with a very high likelihood of needing a stem cell transplant. Patients considering private blood banking should be informed of the remote likelihood that a unit will be used for a child or another family member. III.
Full Text Available This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of that cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We find the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan. Smaller banks are more sensitive to policy rate changes, and household loans, government loans and intra-group loans are less responsive to monetary policy compared with financial and non-financial loans.
... Desk, First Floor, on business days between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. U.S. Mail, United Parcel Service, Federal Express, or Other Mail Service: The mailing address for comments is: Alfred M. Pollard, General Counsel... Services of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs of the...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempt savings and loan holding companies and... THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2a Exempt savings and loan holding companies and grandfathered activities. (a) Exempt savings and loan holding companies. (1) The following savings and loan...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple savings and loan holding company. 583... DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.12 Multiple savings and loan holding company. The term multiple savings and loan holding company means any savings and loan holding...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diversified savings and loan holding company... DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.11 Diversified savings and loan holding company. The term diversified savings and loan holding company means any savings and loan holding...
MSc. Florida Veljanoska
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of foreign bank entry in emerging markets. We developed a picture of a multinational bank in an emerging markets by combining statistics from several sources, in order to explore broad range of effects that brings foreign bank entry in the developing countries. Some impacts of foreign bank entry have been thoroughly studied, while others are hardly mention. Entry of foreign bank brings large benefits to host country’s financial system and economies at large. This paper is studying those benefits very carefully, by analyzing the impact of foreign bank entry on economy, government, monetary policy, large enterprises, small and medium size enterprises, domestic bank etc. But, we also consider the fact that at the same time, foreign investment in the financial sector, rises some concerns, and therefore we analyze the negative effects as well. At the end we must admit that although there are some negative consequences from foreign bank entry in emerging markets, the benefits that arise from foreign banks penetration are much more, and this trend of foreign bank entry has brought new positive economic impulse in developing world.
The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.
Hussain Ali Bekhet
Full Text Available Despite the increase in the number of non-performing loans and competition in the banking market, most of the Jordanian commercial banks are reluctant to use data mining tools to support credit decisions. Artificial neural networks represent a new family of statistical techniques and promising data mining tools that have been used successfully in classification problems in many domains. This paper proposes two credit scoring models using data mining techniques to support loan decisions for the Jordanian commercial banks. Loan application evaluation would improve credit decision effectiveness and control loan office tasks, as well as save analysis time and cost. Both accepted and rejected loan applications, from different Jordanian commercial banks, were used to build the credit scoring models. The results indicate that the logistic regression model performed slightly better than the radial basis function model in terms of the overall accuracy rate. However, the radial basis function was superior in identifying those customers who may default.
Full Text Available The banking incomes and costs represent an important source of information regarding the profitability of a bank. The paper aims to analyse the current financial world crisis. After describing its causes and effects, the study focuses on the crisis’ impact on the global economy; Romania is the core of this analysis, as it is a country which feels very strongly the effects of the international financial turmoil. In a banking environment such as Romania's, constantly changing and subject to the pressure of a fierce competition, all the attention of the banks management teams is oriented towards the costs and their possible reduction in regard to maximizing the profit. In this context we considered as particularly important the analysis of the bank costs within the framework of the Romanian banking system, analysis which targets their structure on one side and their evolution and efficiency on the other side.
@@ The growth of loans significantly slowed during the first seven months of this year, which indicates the government's economic macro control measures are taking effect, the People's Bank of China (PBOC) said. By the end of July, outstanding loans of all financial institutions stood at RMB18.1 trillion (US$2.18 trillion),up 15.9% on a year-on-year basis. The growth rate compared to 23.2% registered during the same period in 2003,the central bank said.
Full Text Available The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking which totaled 19.9 million customers with the size of the sample being 400 respondents. The sampling method used nonprobability sampling by incidental sampling. The results by using a structural equation modeling (SEM found significant influences between service quality of mobile banking (m-banking partially and simultaneously to customer satisfaction.
Full Text Available This study endeavours to determine Poland’s cooperative banking sector’s effectiveness based on the board of directors’ president’s gender. The examination indicated that in the case of Polish co-op banks, women fulfilled the function of bank president in smaller banks than did men. The volume of clients, members, general assets and equity in banks managed by men were generally more than double than the same values in banks managed by women. However, the effectiveness of the examined co-op banks managed by women was decidedly better with regard to ROA, ROE, net profits, cost/income ratio and non-performing loans indicator, than those banks under male management. In addition, by applying advanced statistical modelling, confirmed was that the gender of a co-op bank board of directors’ president had significant influence on the bank’s effectiveness and when that position was held by a woman, this circumstance had a positive effect on the bank’s condition.
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan application register. 528.6 Section 528.6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NONDISCRIMINATION... Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the Office of Thrift Supervision in accordance with...
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze policy effectiveness of loan for delaying timber harvesting for smallholder private forest business (Pinjaman Tunda Tebang Hutan Rakyat; hereinafter will be referred as PTT-HR. The analysis will be used to provide recommendations for improving PTT-HR scheme included scaling out and scaling up of the scheme for improving economic benefits and supporting smallholder private forest business as well as for strengthening farmer's welfare. Field survey was conducted in October–November 2013 in two districts in Central of Java, Indonesia namely Blora and Wonosobo District as recipient of PTT-HR from Public Service Agency for Forest Development Financing Center (BLU Center of P2H Ministry of Forestry, Republic of Indonesia. The results showed that PTT-HR policy has implemented effectively based on evaluation parameter derived from the objectives of policy namely the age of the stands for loan collateral, the capabilities for improving farmer's welfare, utilization of loan, perception of the farmers regarding to the ease of the process and purpose of loan utilization, and the capability of loan repayment. However, this research has not been answered the aspect of PTT-HR policy implementation efficiency
Full Text Available The importance of the products and services prices can be found in the reference price, that customer must compare it with the price of the last made acquisition. The price of the banking product, that includes the effective annual intrest rate (EAI, is a guide price including all the cost elements related to banking products and services. The price of the products promoted through lending activities, is affected by the exchange rate of national and foreign currency, available on the money market. The role of the banking fee is very important in the specific services and bank products price formation.
Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the performance of the bank by using camel ratio to earnings managementpractices. This research objects used cluster danamon bank ambon total of 14 samples of banks consisting of 2banks conventional danamon and 12 savings and loan business unit danamon using data for 2006-2011. Theresults of studies using T test showed that there had no significant effect between the performance of the bankto the practice of earnings management measured using discretionary accruals in Danamon banks. The resultby using multiple regression analysis showed that there was a significant negative impact on earnings managementpractices. Thus cluster ambon danamon bank had to use earnings management practices.
This paper describes the development of a knowledgebased system (KBS) for determining whether or not, and under what conditions, a bank Ioan officer should grant a business loan to a company. The prototype system developed focuses on what is bank loans risks management, how to prevent risk by the analysis of the ability of paying back loans. The paper makes the structural analysis involved in the system's decision situation, the structured situation diagram or model, dependency diagram and the document needed by the KBS prototype system thus are developed. Through testing the samples from loan business, the quality for the analysis of the ability of paying back loans can be effectively evaluated by the KBS prototype system.
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monthly Home Loan Activity Format I Appendix I to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. I Appendix I to Part 27—Monthly Home Loan Activity Format EC22SE91...
Bizer, David S; DeMarzo, Peter M
The authors study environments in which agents may borrow sequentially from more than one leader. Although debt is prioritized, additional lending imposes an externality on prior debt because, with moral hazard, the probability of repayment of prior loans decreases. Equilibrium interest rates are higher than they would be if borrowers could commit to borrow from at most one bank. Even though the loan terms are less favorable than they would be under commitment, the indebtedness of borrowers i...
The banking systems of some countries export intermediation services to the rest of the world, while many other countries are net exporters of deposits to banks abroad and net importers of loans from banks abroad. Banking center countries typically have lower inflation, deeper financial systems, earn less government revenue from seigniorage, and have lower reserve money relative to bank assets than nonbanking-center countries. This paper develops a stylized model of regulated bank intermediat...
... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA or Agency), through the FCA Board (Board...
The paper considers a model of double Bertrand competition among banks, in which banks compete for deposits as well as loans. It is shown that the introduction of reserve requirements can have an effect on the existence and efficiency properties of Nash equilibria of this model. This provides a new
Full Text Available Unlike conventional airplane, a WIG craft experiences righting moment and adverse yaw moment in banked turning in ground effect. Numerical simulations are carried out to study the aerodynamics of banked wing in ground effect. Configurations of rectangular wing and delta wing are considered, and performance of endplates and ailerons during banking are also studied. The study shows that righting moment increase nonlinearly with heeling angle, and endplates enhance the righting. The asymmetric aerodynamic distribution along span of wing with heeling angle introduces adverse yaw moment. Heeling in ground effect with small ground clearance increases the vertical aerodynamic force and makes WIG craft climb. Deflections of ailerons introduce lift decrease and a light pitching motion. Delta wing shows advantage in banked turning for smaller righting moment and adverse yaw moment during banking.
Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu
We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999–2001 and again in 2007–2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin’s Local Moran’s I test and Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China. PMID:24394217
Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Ward, Michael; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu
The 10-year (1992-2001) World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) contributed greatly to schistosomiasis control in China. However, the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in recent years challenged the long-term progress of the WBLP strategy. In order to gain insight in the long-term progress of the WBLP, the spatial pattern of the epidemic was investigated in the Yangtze River Valley between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008. Two spatial cluster methods were jointly used to identify spatial clusters of cases. The magnitude and number of clusters varied during 1999-2001. It was found that prevalence of schistosomiasis had been greatly reduced and maintained at a low level during 2007-2008, with little change. Besides, spatial clusters most frequently occurred within 16 counties in the Dongting Lake region and within 5 counties in the Poyang Lake region. These findings precisely pointed out the prior places for future public health planning and resource allocation of schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu
We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999-2001 and again in 2007-2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin's Local Moran's I test and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.
Cerqueiro, G.M.; Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.
Loan rates for seemingly identical borrowers often exhibit substantial dispersion. This paper investigates the determinants of the dispersion in interest rates on loans granted by banks to small and medium sized enterprises. We associate this dispersion with the loan officers’ use of “discretion” in
Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni , la politica monetaria italiana è stata basata sempre più sui controlli amministrativi . Tra le tesi , i più significativi sono i limiti della crescita e vincoli della composizione del portafoglio. Questo articolo ha esaminato l' effetto dei limiti di crescita , ossia il loro effetto , da un punto di vista geografico della struttura e sul sul bancario italiano .In recent years, Italian monetary policy has become increasingly based on administrative controls. Among theses, the most important are the limits of growth and constraints of the portfolio composition. The former impose a maximum growth rate of total loans in lire on banks, while the latter obliges them to invest a given amount of the increases in deposits in securities with specific characteristics. The present article examines a side effect of growth limits, namely their effect from a geographical point of view and on the structure of the Italian banking system. In particular, the author shows that the occurrence of growth ceilings for a given bank is greater the more rapid the increase in its deposits and the smaller the geographical area in which it operates. JEL: E51, E52, G21
Full Text Available Transactions carried out in the uncertain and impersonal conditions of the Internet require substantial levels of trust. Obtaining customers’ trust is therefore imperative to cultivating and nurturing long-lasting and profitable customer-firm relationships in online environments. Surprisingly however, there is currently a dearth of research on the effects of trust on customers’ acceptance of e-commerce in Africa. This paper investigates the effects of the components of institutional trust on perceptions of ease of use and usefulness, as well as attitudes towards use on customers’ intentions to use Internet banking services. An integrated research model based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was built and empirically tested using data obtained from 390 retail banking customers in South Africa. The results show that the proposed model possesses high explanatory capabilities as it could explain 61 per cent of the variance in Internet banking use intentions. The study results further show that situational normality is neither a salient determinant of customers’ attitudes towards use of internet banking nor their use intention, whereas structural assurance is. By examining the effects of institutional trust on the TAM’s variables, especially in a developing African country, this study does not only provide insights for managers in their efforts to achieve rapid adoption of Internet banking, but also contributes to the literature on the topic.
Full Text Available This study examines the impact of credit risk on the interest income of banks in Nigeria between the period of 2000 and 2014. Unbalanced panel data analysis was used to estimate the model with unit root test, Breusch Pagan test, trend analysis, descriptive statistics, Perasan CD Test, heteroskedasticity test, heterogeneity test, serial correlation test, Jarquebera, F-statistics, random effect, fixed effect, time effect, Prob value, Hausman test and rho as the estimation parameters. The study discovered that NPL, LLP and LA are statistically significant in explaining the variation in interest income across banks in Nigeria, while LA/TD is not statistically significant in explaining the variation in interest income across banks in Nigeria. Based on this, the study recommends that regular update of credit policy and adequate measures to monitor loans should be put in place by banks in Nigeria, as these measures will reduce bad loans and ultimately cause a reduction in loan loss provisions.
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank authority to make advances to housing associates. 926.2 Section 926.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING ASSOCIATES § 926.2 Bank authority to make...
Full Text Available Trust is one of the most important factors for the development of electronic banking. The purpose of this study is to determine effective factors on trust in e-banking in the form of a conceptual model. Due to the rapid growth of electronic banking in the country, identify factors affecting trust in e-banking is very important. Population of this study is customers of Bank Melli in Urmia. We used structural equation modeling with Lisrel 8.80 for testing hypotheses. Results show that independent variables include familiarity with electronic banking, tendency to trust, structural confidence and reputation effect on trust creator beliefs and trust creator beliefs effects on trust. Therefore, trust creator beliefs play a mediating effect in relation between independent and dependent variables. Results of this research can be used by public and private banks` top management.
LV Jianglin; HUANG Guang
Based on the theoretical analysis,this paper applies the entropy method to establish a comprehensive index system for the evaluation of the overall level of risk control and comprehensive efficiency of the supervision of China's commercial banks.Considering the trinity-characteristics of bank supervision system consisting of the People's Bank of China(PBC),the CBRC and the financial offices of local governments,the following conclusions have been drawn:the amount of penalties on banking illegal transactions is not correlated with the supervision efficiency of China's commercial banks;the capital adequacy ratio,the loan to deposit ratio,the percentage point of the non-performing loan rate of urban commercial banks higher than that of the national joint-stock banks are negatively correlated with the supervision efficiency of China 's commercial banks;the total asset variation of the PBC and the different loan balance in local and foreign currency of the banks are positively correlated with the supervision efficiency of China's commercial banks,but the effect is minor.Therefore,China should give the capital adequacy ratio a full play in the bank supervision,accelerate the construction of supervision information system and improve the supervision function of the local governments.
... OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by the...
... than the maximum loan value for the collateral specified in this part. (c) If the stock should become... increase the amount of the loan balance unless there was provided additional collateral having a maximum... value of the loan collateral or because of a decrease by the Board in the maximum loan value of the loan...
Aalbers, M.B.; Smith, S.J.
This article presents a short historical overview of the different types of lenders that are active in the origination of residential mortgage loans. First, a distinction is made between depository and nondepository lenders. Second, there are two major types of depository lenders: commercial banks,
Full Text Available This research “The influence of BI rate to the distribution of working capital loans" is conducted at Indonesian commercial bank during the month of January 2005 until May 2009. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of BI rate toward the distribution of working capital loans. To test the research hypotheses, the data were analyzed by using Pearson correlate and simple linear regression. Based on research, BI rate significantly influence the distribution of working capital loans. BI rate gives a negative impact to the distribution of working capital loans. It means, the increase in BI rate will decrease the distribution of working capital loans, and vice versa, the decrease in BI rate will increase the distribution of working capital loans.
... to reduce default rate and loan diversions since members can serve as watch dog to each other. Banks should also prevent unnecessary delay in loan disbursement to allow for timely use of the loan. Banks should also explore the Agricultural credit guarantee scheme (ACGS) to offset part of the risk in case of default.
Full Text Available The paper empirically investigates the determinants of interest rate spread in Kenya's banking sector based on panel data analysis. The findings show that bank-specific factors play a significant role in the determination of interest rate spreads. These include bank size, credit risk as measured by non-performing loans to total loans ratio, return on average assets and operating costs, all of which positively influence interest rate spreads. On the other hand, higher bank liquidity ratio has a negative effect on the spreads. On average, big banks have higher spreads compared to small banks. The impact of macroeconomic factors such as real economic growth is insignificant. The effect of the monetary policy rate is positive but not highly significant. The results largely reflect the structure of the banking industry, in which a few big banks control a significant share of the market.
Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certain acquisitions by savings and loan... TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.4 Certain acquisitions by savings and loan holding companies. (a) Acquisitions by a savings and loan holding company of more than five percent of a non...
... restructure a loan? 617.7415 Section 617.7415 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS Distressed Loan Restructuring; State Agricultural Loan Mediation Programs § 617.7415 How... the cost to the lender of restructuring the loan is equal to or less than the cost of foreclosure...
... value of margin stock and other collateral. (a) Maximum loan value of margin stock. The maximum loan... nonmargin stock and all other collateral. The maximum loan value of nonmargin stock and all other collateral... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplement: Maximum loan value of margin stock...
Patty Duijm; Peter Wierts
Under Basel III rules, banks become subject to a liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) from 2015 onwards, to promote short-term resilience. We investigate the effects of such liquidity regulation on bank liquid assets and liabilities. Results indicate co-integration of liquid assets and liabilities, to maintain a minimum short-term liquidity buffer. Still, microprudential regulation has not prevented an aggregate liquidity cycle characterised by a pro-cyclical pattern in the size of balance sheets a...
Loan collaterals and collateral substitutes in rural finance: a review. ... have difficulties in obtaining loans from banks and other financial institutions because ... The limited availability of conventional collaterals in rural financial markets has led ...
Jui-Chuan Chang; Ching-Chuan Tsong; Chieh-Tsung Wu
This paper investigates whether distributional effect arising from the impact of monetary policy on bank credits will be different when monetary policy is asymmetric. Methodologically, we use a set of high frequency panel data for Taiwan commercial banks and adopt Arellano and Bond's (1991) generalized method of moments approach to conduct our empirical analysis. First of all, we investigate whether there exist the distributional effects of monetary policy on bank lending behavior which is as...
Competition was more intense in the market for loans than in the deposit market. There was more competition among domestic banks than among foreign banks. The study also reveals that there was marginal differences in the intensity of competition for loans and deposits among domestic banks. On the aggregate level, ...
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans to brokers or dealers. 221.103 Section... SYSTEM CREDIT BY BANKS AND PERSONS OTHER THAN BROKERS OR DEALERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF PURCHASING OR CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.103 Loans to brokers or dealers. Questions have...
Paul Munene Muiruri
Full Text Available Securitization is a process in which commercial banks can raise low-cost financing by assigning asset risks to investors’ appetite for risk. This has been one of the most dominant and fastest growing means of capital creation in the United States and the world over. After introduction of securitization, the banking industry in Kenya has recovered from a long period of poor performance. The aim of this study is to aim of study was to tests for the moderating effects of bank ownership on relationship between securitization uptake and financial performance of forty three commercial banks in Kenya, over a five-year period from 2009 to 2013. The researchers dominantly relied on secondary data from most recent annual published financial statements and banks supervision records at the Central Bank of Kenya. The data was complimented by use unstructured personal interview from 172 banks key officials; the mortgage, credit, risk and compliance and debt recovery who were identified by simple random sampling from each of 43 banks. The data were cross validated with information from secondary sources; five years annual published financial statements and bank supervision records at the Central Bank of Kenya so as to avoid premature conclusions. In line with the previous studies, the results indicate that the banks’ financial performance had been almost progressing over the operational periods considered for the study. The commendable performance in profitability of the banks was attributable to securitization uptake among banks. The study recommends banks to use securitization in ensuring they have adequate capital and bank managers to be allowed to invest their liquid assets so that can generate more income to boost their performance.
Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking
... redemption of Bank stock. 931.8 Section 931.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.8 Other restrictions on the repurchase or redemption of Bank stock. (a) Capital impairment. A Bank may not redeem or...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal land bank associations. 614.4354 Section 614.4354 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND... association may assume endorsement liability on any loan if the total amount of the association's endorsement...
Shorouq F. Eletter; Saad G. Yaseen; Ghaleb A. Elrefae
Problem statement: Despite the increase in consumer loans defaults and competition in the banking market, most of the Jordanian commercial banks are reluctant to use artificial intelligence software systems for supporting loan decisions. Approach: This study developed a proposed model that identifies artificial neural network as an enabling tool for evaluating credit applications to support loan decisions in the Jordanian Commercial banks. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network with backpr...
Smith, J. C.
The nature and importance of the relationship between banks and operating companies as the foundation for securing funds for day-to-day operating expenses on reasonable terms and conditions, were explored. The nature of bank loans, what to watch for in a loan agreement, when to ask for changes, the level of desirable debt, the mysteries of debt to cash flow ratios, and the principles underlying their management, the effect of hedging on ratios, limitations of hedging programs, and the differences between corporate versus project loans were reviewed
Bolt, Wilko; Tieman, Alexander F.
In a dynamic framework, commercial banks compete for customers by setting acceptance criteria for granting loans, while taking into account regulatory requirements. By easing its acceptance criteria a bank faces a trade-off between attracting more demand for loans, thus making higher per-period
Full Text Available Іn the article the theoretical fundamentals of the prudential banking supervision effectiveness and substantiation of approaches to calculation of the integral indicator of supervisory system compliance with the Basel Committee Core Principles were investigated. The “functional effectiveness” and “institutional effectiveness” concepts of supervisory activity were suggested. The authors have defined the influence of supervisory organizing structure on GDP growth by groups of countries in the world. The list of priority measures focused on increase of the effectiveness of prudential supervisory activity was systematized to restore sustainability of the national banking sector.
IMOLA DRIGĂ; DORINA NIŢĂ; IOAN CUCU
The paper examines the features of private banking business focusing on the substantial growth in private banking over the last decade as commercial banks have targeted upmarket high net worth individuals. The accumulation of wealth has prompted the development of private banking services for high net worth individuals, offering special relationships and investment services. Private banking is about much more than traditional banking services of deposits and loans. It's about providing a one-...
Full Text Available This paper examines government policies aimed at rescuing banks from the effects of the great financial crisis of 2007-2009. To delimit the scope of the analysis, we concentrate on the fiscal side of interventions and ignore, by design, the monetary policy reaction to the crisis. The policy response to the subprime crisis started in earnest after Lehman's failure in mid September 2008, accelerated after February 2009, and has become very large by September 2009. Governments have relied on a portfolio of intervention tools, but the biggest commitments and outlays have been in the form of debt and asset guarantees, while purchases of bad assets have been very limited. We employ event study methodology to estimate the benefits of government interventions on banks and their shareholders. Announcements directed at the banking system as a whole (general and at specific banks (specific were priced by the markets as cumulative abnormal rates of return over the selected window periods. General announcements tend to be associated with positive cumulative abnormal returns and specific announcements with negative ones. General announcements exert cross-area spillovers but are perceived by the home-country banks as subsidies boosting the competitive advantage of foreign banks. Specific announcements exert spillovers on other banks. Our results are also sensitive to the information environment. Specific announcements tend to exert a positive impact on rates of return in the pre-crisis sub-period, when announcements are few and markets have relative confidence in the "normal" information flow. The opposite takes place in the turbulent crisis sub-period when announcements are the order of the day and markets mistrust the "normal" information flow. These results appear consistent with the observed reluctance of individual institutions to come forth with requests for public assistance.
Purpose-Since the reform and opening-up policy,the long-term problem of loans became more and more serious when China's economy maintained rapid growth.The purpose of this paper is to explore the profound causes of the medium-and long-term problem of loans and the relationship between it and economic growth.Design/methodology/approach-Using panel data for 28 provinces and cities of China during 1994-2005,this paper investigates the determinants on the maturity of bank credit using threshold panel data of Hansen.In addition,using dynamics panel data,this paper investigates the effects of the maturity structure of bank credit on economic growth.Findings-The drop of bank industry concentration tends to increase the supply of long-term loans.The raise of economic growth and the increase of industrialization degree promote the demand of long-term loans,significantly.Furthermore,the threshold effects of inflation exist.When the initial inflation is lower than 3.9 percent,the raise of inflation can increase the supply of long-term loans.When the initial inflation is higher than 3.9 percent,the raise of inflation can decrease the supply of long-term loans.The increase in the supply of long-term loans can promote the economic growth.Originality/value-The paper has two innovations:first,when studying the determinants on the maturity of bank credit,using the threshold panel approach takes account of the nonlinear adjustment of inflation;second,including the maturity of bank credit into the realm of financial development studies the relationship between this and economic growth.
2012 Analisis Pengaruh LDR, NPL, dan ROA terhadap CAR Pada Bank Pembangunan Daerah (BPD) Se-Indonesia Tahun 2007-2011 Analysis of Effect of Loan to Deposit Ratio, Non Performing Loan, and Return On Assets to the Capital Adequacy Ratio of the Regional Development Banks In Indonesia Period 2007-2011 Fatwal Sam Cepi Pahlevi Gamalca Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh variabel LDR, NPL dan ROA terhadap CAR. Data yang digunakan adalah publikasi laporan tahun...
... money market funds. 218.741 Section 218.741 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 (REGULATION R) § 218.741 Exemption for banks effecting transactions in money market... issued by a money market fund, provided that: (1) The bank either (i) Provides the customer, directly or...
This dissertation contains three studies on banking and asset pricing. It analyzes questions related to informational content of bank loan announcements and trading activity. The first two chapters examine theoretically and empirically how stock and bond holders react to bank loan announcements as a
Doble, Rebecca; Brunner, Philip; McCallum, James; Cook, Peter G
Recognizing the underlying mechanisms of bank storage and return flow is important for understanding streamflow hydrographs. Analytical models have been widely used to estimate the impacts of bank storage, but are often based on assumptions of conditions that are rarely found in the field, such as vertical river banks and saturated flow. Numerical simulations of bank storage and return flow in river-aquifer cross sections with vertical and sloping banks were undertaken using a fully-coupled, surface-subsurface flow model. Sloping river banks were found to increase the bank infiltration rates by 98% and storage volume by 40% for a bank slope of 3.4° from horizontal, and for a slope of 8.5°, delay bank return flow by more than four times compared with vertical river banks and saturated flow. The results suggested that conventional analytical approximations cannot adequately be used to quantify bank storage when bank slope is less than 60° from horizontal. Additionally, in the unconfined aquifers modeled, the analytical solutions did not accurately model bank storage and return flow even in rivers with vertical banks due to a violation of the dupuit assumption. Bank storage and return flow were also modeled for more realistic cross sections and river hydrograph from the Fitzroy River, Western Australia, to indicate the importance of accurately modeling sloping river banks at a field scale. Following a single wet season flood event of 12 m, results showed that it may take over 3.5 years for 50% of the bank storage volume to return to the river. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.
Lam, Hwai-Tai Chen
In view of the increasing costs of hospital care, it is essential to investigate methods to improve the labor efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of the hospital technical core in order to control costs while maintaining the quality of care. This study was conducted to develop indices to measure efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and the quality of blood banks; to identify factors associated with efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and quality; and to generate strategies to improve blood bank labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Indices developed in this study for labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness were not affected by patient case mix and illness severity. Factors that were associated with labor efficiency were identified as managerial styles, and organizational designs that balance workload and labor resources. Medical directors' managerial involvement was not associated with labor efficiency, but their continuing education and specialty in blood bank were found to reduce the performance of unnecessary tests. Surprisingly, performing unnecessary tests had no association with labor efficiency. This suggested the existence of labor slack in blood banks. Cost -effectiveness was associated with workers' benefits, wages, and the production of high-end transfusion products by hospital-based donor rooms. Quality indices used in this study included autologous transfusion rates, platelet transfusion rates, and the check points available in an error-control system. Because the autologous transfusion rate was related to patient case mix, severity of illness, and possible inappropriate transfusion, it was not recommended to be used for quality index. Platelet-pheresis transfusion rates were associated with the transfusion preferences of the blood bank medical directors. The total number of check points in an error -control system was negatively associated with government ownership and workers' experience. Recommendations for improving labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness
Alina BRĂTUCU (LUCA
Full Text Available Known as the biggest crises since the Great Depression, the actual global crisis has modified the economical structures of many countries and a vicious circle of tightening credit, has reduced demand and rapid job cuts occurred. In Romania, the situation evolved with rapidity based on a series of snow-ball effects and the economy suffered severe damages in terms of intensive growth and sustainability. The lending activity was seriously damaged and many people got in a difficult situation with no jobs and with higher interest rates on loans.For a better understanding of the economic crisis phenomena consequences in Romania, we will try to emphasize the main implications of the influences of unemployment and medium net wages on the banking activity using a regional econometric model for panel data.
... corporation of an “unsecured” bank loan to exercise an option to purchase stock of the corporation is an... to the bank. The corporation would issue to the bank a guaranty of the loan and hold the purchased... of their options through an unsecured bank loan guaranteed by the company, thereby facilitating the...
In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...
... Federal savings associations. (a) With regard to any real property loan originated by a lender other than... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans originated by lenders other than Federal savings associations. 591.4 Section 591.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the effects of seven internal factors of five conventional Kuwaiti banks on capital adequacy ratio (CAR. The five factors are: Loans to Assets, Loans to Deposits, Non-Performing Loans to Total Loans, Return on Assets, Return on Equity, Dividend Payout and Total Liability to Total Assets. The study covers the period from 2005 to 2013. The study shows that under fixed effect model, variables DIVIEDEND, LAR, LDR, NPLLR, and ROE do not have any impact on capital adequacy ratio. However, SIZE has a significant and negative relationship with capital adequacy ratio. Also, ROA shows a significant and negative relationship with capital adequacy ratio. Under random effect model, results indicate that CAR is adversely affected by bank’s SIZE (total liability to assets, and ROA has a significant and negative relationship with capital adequacy ratio, However, Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR showed a significant and positive relationship with capital adequacy ratio. On the other hand, dividend payout, loans to assets, Non-Performing Loans to Total Loans and Return on equity do not have significant effect on CAR under random effect model.
... repayment rate for marketing assistance loans for honey under this part will be in effect on a short-term... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.18 Loan repayments. (a) A honey producer may repay a nonrecourse marketing assistance...
contribute more to systemic risk than other banks and thereby have spillover effects on the financial system. Overall, this paper shows firstly, that banks manage capital with loan loss provisions to avoid regulatory costs prior to a restatement. Secondly, it shows that capital providers demand a higher risk...... premium to compensate for the higher uncertainty following a restatement and that this has material effects on the financial system through higher balance sheet illiquidity and higher contribution to systemic risk....
The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) is considering taking out bank loans to fund its Large Hadron Collider project. CERN officials are evaluating this option in view of the German government's decision to substantially reduce its annual contributions to the project. They state that the bank loans may be the only way to complete the project by the year 2005, especially if other contributing nations follow Germany's lead.
Chu Yeong Lim; Kevin Ow Yong
We examine the effects of the revised Basel II rules on bank managers’ discretionary behavior, specifically income smoothing and loan loss provisioning. As the revised rules exert greater regulatory pressure on corporate than retail banking, we predict corporate bank managers to reduce risk-taking activities or increase income smoothing. Analysis of segmental reports reveals greater(less) income smoothing in the corporate banking segments of low-capital(high-capital) banks during the Basel II period, with their managers recognizing loan loss provisions in a less timely fashion. We find no such effects for retail banking. Although we document an initially negative market reaction to the regulatory announcements, that reaction weakens over time. Overall,the study highlights the unintended consequences of the banking rule changes.
Chu Yeong Lim
Full Text Available We examine the effects of the revised Basel II rules on bank managers’ discretionary behavior, specifically income smoothing and loan loss provisioning. As the revised rules exert greater regulatory pressure on corporate than retail banking, we predict corporate bank managers to reduce risk-taking activities or increase income smoothing. Analysis of segmental reports reveals greater (less income smoothing in the corporate banking segments of low-capital (high-capital banks during the Basel II period, with their managers recognizing loan loss provisions in a less timely fashion. We find no such effects for retail banking. Although we document an initially negative market reaction to the regulatory announcements, that reaction weakens over time. Overall, the study highlights the unintended consequences of the banking rule changes.
María B. Veléz
Full Text Available While bank investment is a driving force behind neighborhood viability, few studies have directly examined the effects of bank loan practices on neighborhood crime rates. This paper proposes that variation in residential bank loans helps explain the higher rates of homicide in minority neighborhoods in Chicago compared to white neighborhoods. It finds that black and Latino neighborhoods would experience fewer homicides if more financial capital were infused into these neighborhoods. These findings suggest that neighborhoods are shaped profoundly by the decisions of external economic actors.
... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 610 RIN 3052-AC78 Registration of Mortgage Loan Originators... residential mortgage loan originators employed by Farm Credit System (FCS or System) institutions. We are... loan originators at banks, savings associations, credit unions, FCS institutions, and their...
Full Text Available In many countries the mortgage banking plays a basic role in the housing funding. The Polish model of the housing funding in large measure grounded on banking loans. However, more than 95% of mortgage loans come from universal banks. Mortgage banks, which have existed in the Polish economy for 10 years still play a small role in housing funding.
... actual or impending failure of another depository institution; share insurance funds; depository... Federal Home Loan Bank, or in the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility if the...
Canton, Erik; Blom, Andreas
Financial aid to students in tertiary education can contribute to human capital accumulation through two channels: increased enrollment and improved student performance. We analyze the quantitative importance of both channels in the context of a student loan program "Sociedad de Fomento a la Educacion, Superior" (SOFES) implemented at…
... accepted accounting principles. ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for fees on international loans. 347... OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.304 Accounting for fees on...
Full Text Available Bad loans are essentially loans with arrears of 90 days or more, and the criterion of 90 days is the most common practice in different countries to determine indicators on the bad in lending. Credit risk is one of the most important financial risks facing the banking system is assumed by all credit institutions and may cause serious problems so that bank and the whole system if risk exposure is substantial. From this point of view, the most important function of bank management is to control the quality of the loan portfolio. This is because the poor quality of loans is the leading cause of bankruptcy. In accordance with the central bank, credit institutions are obliged to protect the bank's capital and the deposits of individuals and legal entities and to cover any loans that present uncertainties in recovery, to determine and utilize prudential value adjustments. The central bank aims NPL development using aggregated indicators on credit institutions. Conclusions are presented on developments and trends in non-performing loans in the portfolio of credit institutions in Romania.
Akwaa-Sekyi, Ellis Kofi
Full Text Available The initiation, funding, servicing and monitoring of loans by financial intermediaries has been done without regard to some critical factors which could have averted the likelihood of default. The study aimed at measuring the extent that owner-specific, borrower-specific, loan and lender-specific characteristics could determine the probability of loan default. The study used logistic regression for 224 business customers of a bank in Ghana from its nation-wide branches. The study found that owner’s extra income (ownership characteristics, multiple borrowing, diversion of loan purpose (borrower characteristics, loan price, loan purpose, loan age, repayment plan (loan characteristics and underfunding (lender characteristics significantly determined the probability of business loan default. The overall model predicted up to 78.5% of variations in the likelihood of default. The hierarchy of strong determinants given by their odd ratios were loan purpose (47.9 times, underfunding (19.2 times, diversion of loan purpose (11.7 times multiple borrowing (9.4 times and owner’s extra income (8.2 times. The study can conclude that financial intermediaries should be wary of the credit granting process taking cognisance of ownership, borrower, loan and lender characteristics especially the significant predictors. Combining quantitative and qualitative variables as determinants of default could be considered in future.
Full Text Available Following foreign bank entry, credit interest rates have been extremely high in Serbia compared with a reference group of countries: Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. This is connected with monetary authorities' poor predictions regarding the behavior of those banks in setting interest rates, creating an illusion that competition, per se, would rapidly result in decreasing interest rates; as well as undertaking monetary policy measures-such as an extreme increase in the reserve requirements rate-that contributed to unchanged or increased credit interest rates. The final outcome of poor predictions and measures undertaken by the National Bank of Serbia is limited to periodical appeals by its highest officials to citizens to consider the conditions under which they borrow from banks. However, under conditions of fully inelastic demand for bank credit and a cartel presence in the banking sector, such appeals are ineffective, merely reflecting an attempt to avoid responsibility for a possible wave of bankruptcies in the household sector. Only increasing competition among banks can lead to a significant decrease in credit interest rates in Serbia in the medium term. Empirical analysis shows that competition should be most intensive on the mortgage loan market.
Muhammad Mehtab Azeem; Akin Marsap; Cigdem Ozari
Banks and bank regulatory authorities are vital players for the stability of economy and financial system in potential way. Basel III and its related to capital¡¯s requirement obligations have been effective useful tool for the banking system. Since, this is tough job for the bankers to maintain the liquidity for hedging the future risk but it also been expensive for bankers to keep the extra capital and become more liquid since this discourage the provision of loans but promote the credit ra...
Muhammad Adli Musa
Full Text Available This study identifies the role that Bank Negara Malaysia plays in regulating imprudent consumption. In doing so, the author reviews the Guidelines on Responsible Financing introduced by the Bank in 2012 to regulate the consumer credit market. Since consumers are highly dependent on credit to purchase what they desire, the Bank tightened lending procedures. The author also argues that despite the claimed ethical superiority of Islamic finance, there is no apparent difference when it comes to providing loans (or rather financing to consumers. The findings of this study suggest that such procedures reduced the growth of household borrowing and consumer loans/financing. As such, the study concludes that Bank Negara Malaysia has an effective role to play in limiting the negative effects of imprudent consumption.
Wang shuang; Wang Ji-heng; Liu Bing; Yu Xiao-wen
This paper summarized the management models of village banks in China. We compared and analyzed different management models of four village banks in different regions on four aspects: regional agriculture feature, loan for farmers, loan for enterprises and the construction of network, then came to the conclusion that, if the village banks' health development can realize, they must pay attention to innovating in loan patterns as well as material loan and starting out the network development.
<正> On Aug 16, 2004, the People’s Bank of China and China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) jointly issued the new version of the Regulations on Automobile Loans. Due to be put into implementation on Oct 1, the new Regulations change radically compared with the previous version in terms of creditors, possible borrowers, rate of down payments, loan periods, etc.
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Home Loan Data Submission IV Appendix IV to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 27—Home Loan Data Submission ER21JN94.003 ER21JN94...
SANTOSA, ANGGITA PUJI
2012 Pengaruh CAR, NPL, Dan LDR Terhadap ROA(Studi Pada Bank Umum Yang Listing Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Tahun 2007-2011) The Effect of Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non Performing Loan, and Loan to Deposit Ratio to Return On Assets( A study in Commercial Banking that Listed on Indonesian Stock Exchange Period 2007-2011) Anggita Puji Santosa Cepi Pahlevi Gamalca Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh CAR, NPL dan LDR terhadap ROA.Data yang digunakan dalam penelitia...
.... Financing and protection provided by Ex-Im Bank includes (1) loans to foreign buyers of U.S. exports, (2) loan guarantees to commercial lenders providing repayment protection for loans to foreign buyers...
Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.
Less-intense competition for deposits, by mitigating banks’ incentive to take excessive risks, is traditionally believed to lead to lower non-performing loan (NPL) ratios and more-stable banks. This paper revisits this proposition in a model with borrower moral hazard in which banks’ NPL ratios
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans originated by Federal savings... PREEMPTION OF STATE DUE-ON-SALE LAWS § 591.3 Loans originated by Federal savings associations. (a) With regard to any real property loan originated or to be originated by a Federal savings association, as a...
... accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. [Reg. K, 68 FR 1159, Jan. 9, 2003] Interpretations ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for fees on international loans. 211... Accounting for fees on international loans. (a) Restrictions on fees for restructured international loans. No...
Signal, Louise; Lanumata, Tolotea; Bowers, Sharron
Growth in the high-cost, unregulated fringe lender market (with these lenders commonly referred to as loan sharks) has occurred both internationally and in New Zealand in recent years. The credit practices of loan sharks create financial hardship for many people including Māori, Pacific and low-income New Zealanders. This paper reports on research that explored strategies for reducing the impact of the fringe lender market on Māori, Pacific and low-income New Zealanders. A narrative literature review and 10 key informant interviews were conducted to provide information on how best to intervene to reduce the impact of the fringe lender market for these people. The main interventions identified were: two regulatory approaches, one for capping interest rates and another to create codes of responsible lending; access to safe affordable micro-finance options; financial literacy education; and Pacific cultural change around fa'alavelave, which are the 'obligations' of giving. Protecting consumers from the unsafe practices of fringe lenders requires a combined approach of discouraging the undesirable practices of fringe lenders through regulation and encouraging the growth of safe, affordable micro-finance options. Financial literacy education is a valuable activity for directing consumer attention to the safest options, but in isolation will have limited effect if options are limited. Health promoters have a valuable role to play in implementing these interventions.
We test for pure contagion effects in international banking arising from the failure of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), one of the largest bank failures in the world. We focused on large individual banks in three developed countries where BCCI had established operations, namely the UK, the US, and Canada. Using event study methodology, we tested for contagion effects using time windows surrounding several known BCCI-related announcements. Our analysis provides strong evi...
Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.
Galema, R.J.; Koetter, M.
This chapter explores European bank efficiency and performance. First, the authors provide an overview of the key estimation methods for efficiency and discuss selected applications to the European banking sector. Second, they apply stochastic frontier analysis to investigate the extent to which the
Full Text Available Credit portfolio management means the totality of financial and economic decisions realization aimed at achieving optimal ratio of performance indicators of loan portfolio. If low-quality loans increase, the reduction of productive assets volume and, respectively, profitability from banking lending. In extreme cases a such situation could lead to bank bankruptcy. At present bank loan portfolio quality assessment is an important component of bank management.
Sarah Rudd; Chris Stewart
The Reserve Bank has conducted a survey on bank fees each year since 1997. The results of the latest survey show that banks’ aggregate fee income rose slightly in the banks’ 2011 financial years, but that growth in fee income was less than that in banks’ total assets. Fee income from households declined while fee income from businesses grew, largely as a result of increases in fees on business loans and bank bills.
Moll, Peter; Geli, Patricia; Saavedra, Pablo
This paper examines the correlates of success of development policy lending operations of the World Bank between 2004 and 2012. The paper uses a data set constructed of individual loan characteristics and ex-post loan ratings produced by the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group. Departing from the related literature, the paper focuses mostly on examining the impact of loan characteris...
... make, provided the borrower eligibility, membership, term, amount, loan security, and stock or... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending... the requirements in § 614.4200 of this part, to make real estate mortgage loans with maturities of not...
The result showed that the agro-based enterprises are faced with the problems of insufficient collateral, high interest rate and poor documentation while the banks are faced with the problems of loan diversion, irregular loan repayment and none presentation of perfectible collaterals by loan beneficiaries. Commercial banks ...
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small bank performance standards. 228.26... bank performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small banks that are not intermediate small... performance is evaluated pursuant to the following criteria: (1) The bank's loan-to-deposit ratio, adjusted...
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small bank performance standards. 25.26 Section... § 25.26 Small bank performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small banks that are not... lending performance is evaluated pursuant to the following criteria: (1) The bank's loan-to-deposit ratio...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615.5335 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5335 Bank net...
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to work out and characterize bank business models that are formed in Ukraine. Methodology. Our research we will spend among banks that are functioning on the Ukrainian financial market and are not on the stage of liquidation, so the sample under study in our work is comprised of 131 banks which are different in their ownership structure and size. The core of the methodology is a statistical clustering algorithm that allows identifying the groups of banks (clusters with similar business models as banks with similar business model strategies have made similar choices regarding the composition of their assets and liabilities. The cluster analyses were taken on the base of seven chosen indicators: bank loans, bank liabilities, enterprise loans, enterprise liabilities, household loans, household liabilities and trading assets. Results. The traditional business model of bank is worked out. The bank business models that are functioning in Ukraine are identified on the base of cluster analyses using balance sheet characteristics of 131 Ukrainian banks. We find that in Ukraine were formed three types of bank business models: “Focused retail”, “Diversified retail” and “Corporative retail”. The description of each model is given. Practical implications. More detailed research of distinguished models allows not only to find out the main advantages and disadvantages of each bank model, but also the main problems that follow the development of Ukrainian banking sector. Identifying of bank models and their studying simplifies searching and elaboration of regulatory instruments as there is a two-way causation between regulation and bank business models. This implies a symbiotic relationship between regulation and bank business models: business models respond to regulation which in turn responds to the evolution of new business models. Value/originality. Such survey is conducted at the first time among Ukrainian banks. The
Full Text Available This study focuses on an impact assessment of the consolidation exercise on the performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. While prior studies focused on the financial performance of banks (with emphasis on profitability, the main thrust of this study was on how the consolidation exercise had affected different areas of commercial banks in Nigeria other than profitability. Secondary data were sourced from the annual accounts and statistical bulletins of the CBN and SEC respectively for the relevant years. The data obtained were analysed by means of sensitivity analysis, in addition to the correlation and regression analyses. The results obtained show that the consolidation exercise had positive impact on the selected variables (Non Performing Loans, Liquidity Ratio, Bank Credit to Private Sector and Bank Capital To Asset Ratio for this study. Based on the above findings, we recommend among others that while efforts are made by the CBN to sustain the increased capital base of banks, a very sound corporate governance framework and effective risk management systems must be put in place to check the level of non-performing loans which seem to be predominant in the industry. The quality of bank credit to private sector and their recovery procedures should also be improved upon.
Soneye Gbolade Michael
This study assessed the extent of e-commerce usage for effective service delivery in Nigeria banking sector. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The study covered 64 microfinance banks in Oyo State, South-West, Nigeria. The population was made up of 1275 staffs from the 64 microfinance banks. The sample size consisted of 28 microfinance banks of which 280 staffs were purposively selected. A 28-item st...
... the prescribed lending schedule, EDA may de-obligate the non-disbursed balance of the RLF Grant. EDA... control of the RLF Recipient; (ii) The financial need for the RLF still exists; (iii) The current and... loaned. (2) When the percentage of loaned RLF Capital falls below the applicable capital utilization...
Huang, Wei; Li, Fan; Liao, Xiaowei; Hu, Pingping
The goal of this study is to examine the effect of student loans and need-based grants on financially disadvantaged student academic performance in China's higher education. We used a large sampled data from 101 universities to conduct our study. By employing different matching methods, we found
Sun, Zhuo; Cong, Shuang; Pan, Junnan; Zheng, Jianfeng
In narrow water channels, bank might affect nearby ships due to hydrodynamic forces (bank effect). To avoid accidents, different sailing rules (i.e., lane-changing, speed control) are required. In this paper, a two-lane cellular automata model is proposed to evaluate such phenomena. Numerical experiments show that ships will form a “slow-moving chunk” in the bank area, which will significantly block the flux. As further study demonstrated to alleviate bank effect, ship speed and bank length should be controlled.
Full Text Available This study is about the influence of corporate governance on corporate performance in Indonesia. Data from 20 banking companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period of five years 2011-2016 conducted a panel data analysis with modeling by conducting Chow and Hausman tests. The results show that the influence of corporate governance (institutional share ownership, independent comers, audit committee and board of directors, non performing loan and loan to deposit ratio have an effect on company performance measure. in particular, the findings indicate that non performing loans have a negative and significant effect on return on assets, and audit committee variables have a positive and significant impact on return on equity, whereas while non performing loan and loan to deposit ratio have the negative and significant impact on return on equity. Other variables have no significant effect on return on assets and return on equity.
Further liberalization of financial sector has facilitated development of a capital market and non-banking financial institutions with ... Yet, the collective performance of the banking sector in helping the country to achieve its economic growth ...
Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzes the effect of Indonesian Bank loan, the amount of demand deposits, and the Indonesia economic crisis in 1997 on the interbank call money market transactions in Indonesia using a multiple linear regression method. This study finds that the variables influencing the interbank call money market transactions are the interest rate of interbank call money market and the check money. Both variables have positive effect on the interbank money market transactions in Indonesia.Keywords: Loans, Interest Rate, Check Money, Monetary Crisis, Interbank Money Market TransactionsJEL Classification Numbers: G21, G28AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis pengaruh pinjaman Bank Indonesia terhadap tingkat bunga pasar uang antar bank, jumlah uang giral, dan krisis ekonomi Indonesia tahun 1997 terhadap transaksi pasar uang antar bank di Indonesia menggunakan metode regresi linier berganda. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa variabel yang berpengaruh terhadap transaksi pasar uang antar bank tersebut adalah tingkat bunga pasar uang antar bank dan jumlah uang giral. Dua variabel tersebut berpengaruh positif terhadap transaksi pasar uang antar bank di Indonesia.Keywords: Pinjaman, Tingkat Bunga, Uang Giral, Krisis Moneter, Transaksi Pasar Uang antar BankJEL Classification Numbers: G21, G28
Racha El Moslemany
Full Text Available The aim of this paper to establish the relationship between corporate social responsibility disclosure and financial performance in the Egyptian banking sector. Only three banks were included in the study because Corporate Social Responsibility is a new concept that has not yet been fully established in the banking sector in Egypt. Secondary data were obtained from the annual financial reports of the banks for the period from 2008 to 2011. Corporate social responsibility score was obtained using content analysis of reports of the companies on various components of corporate social responsibility as reported in their annual financial reports. The present study identified four dimensions in the pilot study: Environment, Community, Customer, and Employee. Descriptive analysis was used to describe data collected such as Pearson correlation method. The authors used regression analysis to study the relationship between the dependent variables and the independent variables and the bank age and bank size were used as control variables in the analysis. The results indicated an insignificant relationship between the independent variables (corporate social responsibility toward environment, community, customer, and employee used in the model and the dependent variables Corporate Financial Performance as measured by (ROA, ROE, NPM, and EPS. The results of the study proved the absence of a significant relationship between the dependent and the independent variables as a whole. Yet, some relationships were found concerning individual measures. The major limitation of this paper is the sample size. In addition, failure of corporations to disclose CSR in the annual reports will have a material effect on these findings. The findings of this paper have practical implications on the management of Banks in Egypt to re-think and re-strategize their CSR policies that incorporate social and economic performance to improve their CFP.
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose loans to brokers and dealers... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CREDIT BY BANKS AND PERSONS OTHER THAN BROKERS OR DEALERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF PURCHASING OR CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) § 221.5 Special purpose loans to brokers and dealers. (a...
@@ With the competition over foreign currency loans becoming intensified among foreign and Chinese banks, rivalry on loans made in RMB are seeing a similar trend. Specifically, the local banks' "comfort zone" has been challenged as the country's financial industry opens according to the timetable of WTO agreement, with full opening arriving at the end of this year.
Nakamura, L.I.; Roszbach, K.
In this paper we use credit rating data from two Swedish banks to elicit evidence on these banks’ loan monitoring ability. We do so by comparing the ability of bank ratings to predict loan defaults relative to that of public ratings from the Swedish credit bureau. We test the banks’ abilility to
Full Text Available Profitability is one of the essential elements in the process of assessing performance in banking finance. Bank needs to keep its profitability to maintain the continuity of its corporation. In the process of attaining income and making profit, a bank commonly does many efforts. One of them is through offering the credits to the public. However, in fact, credit which becomes the basis to run the company has the risk of failure when the clients/ debtors have to pay the loan back on its deadline/ Non Performing Loan (NPL. The objective of this study is to find out whether NPL influences negatively or not towards the bank profitability. This study employed the basic regression analysis method through linearity and normality tests. The data used is the financial statement of PT. Bank OCBC NISP, Tbk in 2002 until 2010 published by Bank Indonesia. Based on the revealed elaboration and the data analysis about the influence of NPL towards profitability, it can be concluded that the condition of Non-Performing Loan (NPL in PT. Bank OCBC NISP, Tbk is good in general since it is still below the NPL value regulated by Bank Indonesia which is 5%. Meanwhile, the profitability based on the return on assets (ROA in PT. Bank OCBC NISP tends to be below the minimum standard which is 1,5%, but it is classified in high category in the framework of performance determination of banking finance governed by Bank Indonesia. In PT. Bank OCBC NISP, Tbk, Non-Performing Loan (NPL influences negatively towards profitability.
Emphasis of this paper is, however, on the behavioural issues, that affect bank management. These issues include mismanagement, ownership structure and bank board related problems, frauds and forgeries, and also the greed and ignorance of depositors. The period covered was 1986-1993, while reforms in the banks ...
MSc. Anera Alishani
Full Text Available Since 1990s many countries have moved toward greater central bank independence (CBI by either amending their Central Bank’s laws or writing them de novo. Also countries of Western Balkans and many other transition countries have moved toward greater CBI. There are many potential benefits associated with greater CBI, and one of them is stable growth of money and liquidity. For a given level of money market development the hypothesis is that a more independent CB is likely to promote more stable growth of money supply (Dželetović et al., 2008. As a result the main research task of this work is to estimate the effects of CBI on money market growth for five Western Balkans countries and five other European transition countries. Because the empirical studies were very limited for the relationship between CBI and money market growth, there were no clear conclusions. In addition, there were different measuring methodologies that attempt to quantify the extent of legal and actual CBI. Related to the main research task, this dissertation has examined the effects of CBI on money market stability (proxied by bank deposit growth for a sample of 10 countries for a period from 1999-2009 by using fixed effect model. Through this methodology different regressions have been estimated, but the results were not robust and there are no clear finding on the relationship between CBI and money market growth.
Tia Melya Sari
Full Text Available The research purpose is to examine the effect of non-performing loans (NPL in the global financial crisis on the corporate profitability of banks (listed on the Stock Exchange in 2003-2010. Independent variable in this research is Non Performing Loan (NPL and the dependent variable is probability by return on asset.Sampling technique is used non-probability purposive sampling, so to be concluded the samples used 15 banks. The method of the research is quantitative and description data non performing loan and probability (return on asset bank listing on the Stock Exchange 2003-2010 period. Which are then analyzed by employing statistical analysis, such as simple linier regression, correlation analysis, determination coefficient analysis, and t-test. The data is calculated by SPSS 16 for windows. Based on the research result, there is not influence between non performing loan to probability (return on asset. The two variables show a very weak correlation at 0,142 with negative correlation value. This mean if non performing loan is increasing, profitability (return on asset is decreasing and vice versa. The determination coefficient is 2% and the rest 98% which is influence by other factors. While in the hypothesis examination using t test, t calculation is -1,563 and t table 1,658. As such H0 is accepted. So in conclusion, non performing loan does not significantly affect the level of profitability (ROA company. Because the intermediary function of banks is not running properly.
In a February 1, 2001 letter, you expressed concerns about repayments of federally guaranteed loans by borrowers under the Emergency Steel Loan Guarantee Program and the effect of the program on the U.S. steel industry...
Full Text Available This study uses bank loan data to examine the effect of (political tie between the company and the government to on the assessment of companies financial leverage and profitability in the bank lending decisions in Indonesia. The numbers of samples are 1465 observations. This study uses moderated regression analysis (MRA. The study finds that a political tie affect corporate profitability assessment in bank lending decisions. Firms with lower profitability receive larger bank loan because their political tie (rent-seeking hypothesis. However, this study inds that a political tie does not affect the assessment of financial leverage in bank's lending decisions. This finding also supports Faccio (2010, Fisman (2001, and Backman (2001. Indonesia condition which has a weak institutional regulation and high information asymmetry is beneficial for companies that have a political tie. This leads to more trusted political tie as an indicator of the profitability.
Summary Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises. Significance The aging population in Western countries is causing a progressive reduction of blood donors and a constant increase of blood recipients. Because blood is the main therapeutic option to treat acute hemorrhage, cost-effective alternatives to blood donations are being actively investigated. The enormous replication capability of induced pluripotent stem cells and their promising results in many other fields of medicine could be an apt solution to produce the large numbers of viable cells required in transfusion and usher in a new era in transfusion medicine. The present report describes the potentiality, technological hurdles, and promises of induced pluripotent stem cells to generate red blood cells by redifferentiation. PMID:26819256
This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We found the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan.
Tabak, Benjamin Miranda; Moreira, Tito Belchior Silva; Fazio, Dimas Mateus; Cavalcanti, André Luiz Cordeiro; Cunha, George Henrrique de Moura
This paper examines the bank lending channel, which considers how monetary authority actions affect the variation of loans. We focus on the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) totalizing 1254 banks from five countries in the period 2000-2012 (totalizing 13 years). The empirical results show that the effect of money supply growth on the growth of loans is non-linear and inverted U-shaped. In this context, our results show empirical evidence expansionary monetary policies do not increase the propensity of economic agents to systematically take greater risks on the market. After a certain level of money stock, increases in the money supply do not lead to increased negotiated credit.
This paper studies the problem of monitoring the monitor in a model of money and banking with aggregate uncertainty. It shows that when inside money is required as a means of bank loan repayment, a market of inside money is entailed at the repayment stage and generates information-revealing prices that perfectly discipline the bank. The incentive problem of a bank is costlessly overcome simply by involving inside money in repayment. Inside money distinguishes itself from outside money by its ...
Juri Marcucci; Paolo Emilio Mistrulli
We investigate the duration of bad loans for a unique data set of sole proprietorships in Italy, finding that bad loans for female firms last longer. However, this result is mainly due to the fact that loans granted to female firms are less frequently written off than those to male ones, suggesting that for banks female firms might be more creditworthy than male firms. These findings are robust to censoring, alternative specifications of the distribution of bad loan duration and other bank-sp...
Vahid Anvar Keivi
Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been tremendous changes on banking services and many bank customers are able to do their daily banking activities using recent advances of technology such as internet banking, telephone banking, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation on the effects of strategic positioning for development of modern banking services. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some 385 randomly selected people who live in Tehran in 2013. The questionnaire consists of seven factors including property positioning, advantage positioning, consumer positioning, user positioning, competitive advantage positioning, quality positioning and merchandise category positioning. Using Spearman correlation as well as stepwise regression technique, the study has determined positive and meaningful relationships between different components of strategy positioning development of modern banking services.
Data on the geology of the USERDA Nevada Test Site have been collected for the purpose of evaluating the possibility of release of radioactivity at proposed underground nuclear test sites. These data, including both the rock physical properties and the geologic structure and stratigraphy of a large number of drill-hole sites, are stored in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Earth Sciences Division Nuclear Test Effects and Geologic Data Bank. Retrieval programs can quickly provide a geological and geophysical comparison of a particular site with other sites where radioactivity was successfully contained. The data can be automatically sorted, compared, and averaged, and information listed according to site location, drill-hole construction, rock units, depth to key horizons and to the water table, and distance to faults. These programs also make possible ordered listings of geophysical properties (interval bulk density, overburden density, interval velocity, velocity to the surface, grain density, water content, carbonate content, porosity, and saturation of the rocks). The characteristics and capabilities of the data bank are discussed
Full Text Available This paper tests the bank lending channel for Poland based on a simultaneousequation model consisting of demand for and supply of bank loans. The three-stage least squares method is employed in empirical work. This paper finds support for a bank lending channel for Poland. Expansionary monetary policy through a lower money market rate or open market purchase of government bonds to increase bank reserves/deposits would increase bank loan supply.
Nwolise, Chidiebere Hope; Hussein, Julia; Kanguru, Lovney; Bell, Jacqueline; Patel, Purvi
Scarcity and costs of transport have been implicated as key barriers to accessing care when obstetric emergencies occur in community settings. Community-based loans have been used to increase utilization of health facilities and potentially reduce maternal mortality by providing funding at community level to provide emergency transport. This review aimed to provide evidence of the effect of community-based loan funds on utilization of health facilities and reduction of maternal mortality in developing countries. Electronic databases of published literature and websites were searched for relevant literature using a pre-defined set of search terms, inclusion and exclusion criteria. Screening of titles, abstracts and full-text articles were done by at least two reviewers independently. Quality assessment was carried out on the selected papers. Data related to deliveries and obstetric complications attended at facilities, maternal deaths and live births were extracted to measure and compare the effects of community-based loan funds using odds ratios (ORs) and reductions in maternal mortality ratio. Forest plots are presented where possible. The results of the review show that groups where community-based loan funds were implemented (alongside other interventions) generally recorded increases in utilization of health facilities for deliveries, with ORs of 3.5 (0.97-15.48) and 3.55 (1.56-8.05); and an increase in utilization of emergency obstetric care with ORs of 2.22 (0.51-10.38) and 3.37 (1.78-6.37). Intervention groups also experienced a positive effect on met need for complications and a reduction in maternal mortality. There is some evidence to suggest that community-based loan funds as part of a multifaceted intervention have positive effects. Conclusions are limited by challenges of study design and bias. Further studies which strengthen the evidence of the effects of loan funds, and mechanism for their functionality, are recommended. Published by Oxford
This study on utilization of loans was conducted in the five branches of theNigerian Agricultural and Cooperatives Bank (NACRDB), in Abia State Nigeria. Two farmer customers were sampled randomly in proportion to the category of the bank branch . Thirty-two (32) farmers who had mandatory savings with the bank were ...
... for a savings and loan holding company? 502.29 Section 502.29 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Assessments Savings and Loan Holding Companies-Calculation of Assessments § 502.29 How does OTS determine the condition component for a savings and loan...
... assessment for savings and loan holding companies? 502.26 Section 502.26 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Assessments Savings and Loan Holding Companies-Calculation of Assessments § 502.26 How does OTS calculate the semi-annual assessment for savings and loan...
... component for a savings and loan holding company? 502.28 Section 502.28 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Assessments Savings and Loan Holding Companies... savings and loan holding company that OTS regulates under section 10(l) of the HOLA. OTS will compute your...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans by savings associations to their... § 563.43 Loans by savings associations to their executive officers, directors and principal shareholders...) that is a savings and loan holding company. A company has control over a saving association if it...
... extensions of credit and not upon any full or partial recourse endorsement or guarantee by the transferor... Loans and Extensions of Credit Appendix to Part 215 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... Statutes Total Loans and Extensions of Credit (a)(1) The total loans and extensions of credit by a national...
Full Text Available Introduction. Constant changes in the economic situation in the country and in the world give rise to new problems in asset management of commercial banks. This, in turn, requires the timely development and introduction of new and improved mechanisms for active operations of banking institutions. Only the implementation of such adequate mechanisms will allow, on the one hand, to satisfy the needs of consumers of banking services, and on the other – for banking institutions, to obtain the necessary level of profit for the acceptable risk to them. Purpose. Substantiation of theoretical foundations of organization and management of assets of banking institutions and determination of perspective directions of development of active operations in commercial banks. Results. The article provides a list of operations carried out by commercial banks of Ukraine. The essence of the concept of active operations of a banking institution as an important element of its activity for profit is considered. Possible variants of classification of active operations are analyzed, depending on the criterion underlying (risk level, liquidity and term of putting. The definition of a bank loan and its basic principles are given. The purposes and advantages of investment activity of banking institutions are specified, the classification of such activity is carried out. Proposed directions of development of active operations of banking institutions through the use of intermediary operations and unconventional banking services are offered. Conclusions. Currently, banking institutions carry out a large number of different banking operations. Mobilized by carrying out passive operations cash funds of the banking institution are placed through active operations in different directions. The basis of active operations of a commercial bank is its credit and investment operations. A commercial bank’s profits in the future are dependent on their effective conduct. The conduct of
Reserve Bank of Australia
The Reserve Bank has conducted a survey on bank fees each year since 1997. In 2009 growth in fee income increased slightly from recent years though it was again slower than growth in banksâ€™ balance sheets. Growth in fee income was higher for businesses than for households. Banks reacted to the financial crisis by competing more aggressively for deposit funding which resulted in total fee income from deposit accounts falling, and repricing loan products which contributed to an increase in fe...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for a Bank's capital classification. 1229.3 Section 1229.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS CAPITAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Federal Home Loan Banks § 1229.3 Criteria for a Bank's capital...
Victoria COCIUG; Olga TIMOFEI
In the context of modern economy, banks play an essential role for sustainable growth, by ensuring economy with financial resources and driving impulses of monetary policy to economy. Monetary authorities influence significantly the bank's ability to fulfill this role. Thus, to achieve macroeconomic objectives, there is promoted particular monetary policy and are implemented various practical regulations for banks. In this article, we want to identify the existing relationship between monetar...
Full Text Available In the context of modern economy, banks play an essential role for sustainable growth, by ensuring economy with financial resources and driving impulses of monetary policy to economy. Monetary authorities influence significantly the bank's ability to fulfill this role. Thus, to achieve macroeconomic objectives, there is promoted particular monetary policy and are implemented various practical regulations for banks. In this article, we want to identify the existing relationship between monetary policy followed by the authorities and the ability of banks to create money with its impact on various practical regulations.
Kamarudin, Norbaizura; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Mohd, Muhammad Azri
Islamic banks in Malaysia are indispensable players in the financial industry with the growing needs for syariah compliance system. In the banking industry, most recent studies concerned only on operational efficiency. However rarely on the operational effectiveness. Since the production process of banking industry can be described as a two-stage process, two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) can be applied to measure the bank performance. This study was designed to measure the overall performance in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of Islamic banks in Malaysia using Two-Stage DEA approach. This paper presents analysis of a DEA model which split the efficiency and effectiveness in order to evaluate the performance of ten selected Islamic Banks in Malaysia for the financial year period ended 2011. The analysis shows average efficient score is more than average effectiveness score thus we can say that Malaysian Islamic banks were more efficient rather than effective. Furthermore, none of the bank exhibit best practice in both stages as we can say that a bank with better efficiency does not always mean having better effectiveness at the same time.
Ruochen Wang; Xuan Wang
This paper examines the factors affecting bank profitability. We use a sample of US banks over the period 2002-2014, and measure profitability using both return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). We find that banks have higher profitability when they have: (1) a lower loans to total assets ratio, (2) a lower customer deposits to total liabilities ratio, (3) a lower nonperforming loans to gross loans ratio, (4) higher efficiency, and (5) higher revenue diversification. We...
Full Text Available The crises that are frequently observed in the banking industries of emerging markets which affect banks’ profits necessitate regulations and supervision of these markets. This paper investigates the determinants of Turkish banks’ profits and the effects of the regulations implemented in this industry on profits. In this research, 468 firm year observations for 36 Turkish banks for the period 1995-2007 were used and analyzed with Prais-Winsten regression method. The empirical findings of the study show positive and statistically significant relations between capital, size, offbalance sheet transactions, liquidity and loans and performance and negative and statistically significant relations between quality of loans, concentration and performance.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of risk, efficiency and performances of conventional banks in Indonesia. Risk variables consist of capital risk which are measured by Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, liquidity risk which are measured by Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR, credit risk which are measured by Non Performing Loan (NPL and management risk which are measured by Net Interest Margin (NIM. Efficiency is measured by Operating Expense to Operating Income (BOPO while banking performances are measured by Return on Assets (ROA. The population of this study is all of conventional banks registered in Indonesia Stock Exchange(BEI. Purposive sampling method is used and the number of samples is 16 banks. We use quarterly data during period of 2013-2014. The hypotheses are tested using multiple linear regression.The result shows that capital risk (CAR has negative effects, Liquidity risk (LDR has positive and significant effects, credit risk (NPL has no significant effects and management risk (NIM has positive and significant effects on banking performance. Meanwhile, efficiency (BOPO has significant and negative effects on banking performance.
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonfederally chartered commercial banks. 34.24... LENDING AND APPRAISALS Adjustable-Rate Mortgages § 34.24 Nonfederally chartered commercial banks. Pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 3803(a), a State chartered commercial bank may make ARM loans in accordance with the...
...) of this chapter, for the export (including the cost of freight) of agricultural commodities or... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural credit banks. 614.4010 Section 614.4010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS...
... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from the definition of âbrokerâ for banks effecting certain excepted or exempted transactions in investment company securities. 218.775... EXCEPTIONS FOR BANKS FROM THE DEFINITION OF BROKER IN THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 (REGULATION R...
... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from the definition of âbrokerâ for banks effecting certain excepted or exempted transactions in a company's securities for its employee... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM EXCEPTIONS FOR BANKS FROM THE DEFINITION OF BROKER IN THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT...
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) could start to make loans for immediate safety improvements on eastern European reactors in the first half of 1993, according to Francois Demarcq, the bank's project manager for the nuclear safety account. He reported to the German Atomforum meeting in Bonn on January 26; progress at last seems to be forthcoming on the proposals for urgent assistance put forward last year by the Group of 24 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries in Lisbon last June and the Group of 7 summit meeting in Bonn in July
Full Text Available Nowadays, new technologies have changed the way of serving customers in many service organizations including banking industry. The importance of websites and their exclusive characteristics in presenting various kinds of services to the bank customers has increased. This paper presents a compound model to investigate the effect of traditional and online elements on customers' trust in electronic banking and word of mouth advertisement. For this purpose, a standard questionnaire based on Likert segmentation has been used and 384 customers of Shiraz Mellat bank branches have been tested, randomly. Using structural equation modeling, the study shows that both traditional characteristics of bank and website characteristics rather have positive effects on customers’ trust in electronic banking, which increase word of mouth advertising, positively.
This research “The influence of BI rate to the distribution of working capital loans" is conducted at Indonesian commercial bank during the month of January 2005 until May 2009. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of BI rate toward the distribution of working capital loans. To test the research hypotheses, the data were analyzed by using Pearson correlate and simple linear regression. Based on research, BI rate significantly influence the distribution of working capital lo...
The purpose of the study was to determine if relationship banking, and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) affect the financial performance of manufacturing firms in Kenya. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design with the population being 620 manufacturing SMEs involved in relationship banking with commercial ...
Ramon-Ballester, Francisco; Wezel, Torsten
This paper empirically investigates the extent to which the financial linkages of Latin American banks with the exterior are influenced by political risk and deposit dollarisation. We find that the sum of banks’ foreign assets and liabilities is a function of risk-return considerations and excess domestic credit demand. An increase in political risk is shown to be associated with a build-up of foreign positions by the banking sector, but this adverse effect on the banking system is mitigated ...
Full Text Available This study endeavours at measuring bank competition in Indian loan market using a new competitiveness index, the Augmented Relative Profit Difference (ARPD, which quantifies the impact of marginal costs on performance, measured in terms of market shares. This study yields two major insights. First, the theoretical foundation of the ARPD is very robust as compared to other conventional measures. Second, applying this unbiased competition indicator to Indian bank loan markets shows that financial reform indeed has contributed to significant improvements in competition. As regards, the competition among specific types of banks, we found public sector banks and private sector banks are comparatively more competitive than foreign banks. The empirical finding indicates that the Indian loan market is monopolistic in nature.
Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker
This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income adults, discusses banking skills. Topics include banking services (savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, Christmas clubs, loans, etc.), checking accounts (deposits, checkwriting, check registers, opening an account), how to use the check register (cancelled checks, deposits),…
Full Text Available This paper is conducted to compare the determinants of profitability of the domestic and foreign Islamic banks operating in Malaysia. The Generalized Least Square (GLS is employed with unbalanced panel data on seventeen Islamic banks, using quarterly data for the period of 2007 to 2010. In order to find out the differences in the profitability determinants, the sample of banks is divided into two sub-samples (domestic and foreign. The results reveal that domestic Islamic banks are more profitable than foreign Islamic banks. The results also show that the profitability determinants of domestic banks are different from those of foreign banks. The overhead expenses, loans, efficiency, gross domestic product growth rate and bank size have a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability, in which case applicable to the domestic banks only. In turn, the gross domestic product per capita has a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability of only the foreign banks. The study finds that, deposits, capital and reserves, inflation and banks’ age have a significant effect in determining banks’ profitability of both domestic and foreign banks. Meanwhile, liquidity and concentration are not able to explain the variability of domestic and foreign Islamic banks’ profitability. The findings indicate that the profitability of domestic banks is affected by the global financial crisis while, the profitability of foreign banks is not affected.
This thesis aims at investigating the financial stability of China's banking system. Since the banking system is one of the most important financial intermediaries in the financial systems, the financial soundness of banks could secure the stability of the whole financial system. Two of the factors that may significantly increase imbalance of the banking system, and hence affect financial stability of an economy is the accumulated non-performing loans of banks and the macro-economic turbulenc...
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research on the impact of non-performing loans to the systemic risk in the domestic banking system and a comparison with other countries in transition, as well as on certain EU countries. It is important to metion that the extreme bank-centricity caused the extension of the analysis to the entire financial sector of Serbia. Therefore, macroeconomic and macro-financial component of systemic risk were separated. In order to more precisely determine the main effects of non-performing loans in the propagation of systemic risk, the authors have created and used two new synthetic indicators in the research. The first is the macroeconomic contagion with non-performing loans (problematic loans expressed as a percentage of GDP, and the second is the infection of financial sector with non-performing loans (the proportional share of these loans in the assets of the financial sector. Analysis of the period just before and during the current financial crisis and the recession (2007-2012 showed that the NPLs (non-performing loans are the main generator of systemic risk in the financial and real sectors of Serbia. In addition, the survey results show that the applied synthetic indicators measure total system risk and its basic components more accurately then the analytical, which have only been in use until now. Comparative analysis showed similar results, not only in the countries in transition, but also in developed ones. The results of this study provide guidance and represent an important input for economic policymakers, because the systemic risk is the greatest immediate threat to economic prosperity and financial stability of each country
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan and loan guarantee provisions. 417.937 Section... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.937 Loan and loan guarantee provisions. (a) Disbursement of loan proceeds. The principal amount of any loan made or...
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan and loan advance requirements. 1751.103 Section... Telecommunications Modernization Plan § 1751.103 Loan and loan advance requirements. (a) For information about loan... February 13, 1996, RUS will make RUS hardship loans, RUS cost-of-money loans, and RTB loans for facilities...
Trautmann, S.T.; Vlahu, R.
This paper experimentally studies the impact of bank and borrower fundamentals on loan repayment. We find that solvent borrowers are more likely to default strategically when the bank’s expected strength is low, although loan repayment is a Pareto dominant Nash equilibrium. Borrowers are also less
The study identified factors affecting loan utilization and repayment patterns by small holder farmers of the Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) Osogbo branch in Osun State. Two Local Government Areas with large number of loan beneficiaries from 2003 to 2008 in NACRDB were ...
Full Text Available The aim of the empirical study is to investigate credit risk determinants in banking sectors across three kinds of South Asian economies. An accumulated sample of 105 unbalanced panel data of financial firms over the period of 2000-2015, by applying General Method of Moment (GMM estimation techniques one-step at the difference in order to identify factors influencing credit risk. This study is inspired by two broad categories of explanatory variables which are bank-specific and macroeconomic. Bank-specific factors influencing unsystematic risk, while macroeconomic factors promoting systematic risk. The study uses a proxy of non-performing loans for credit risk in banking sectors of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. The empirical results have been found aligned with theoretical arguments and literature as expected. In comparison, NPLs in Pakistan is greater than India and Bangladesh, while India has the lowest ratio of non-performing loans. The study documents that bank-specific factors (inefficiency, profitability, capital ratio and leverage have a significant contribution towards credit risk. Further, the study also finds a significant impact of macroeconomic variables on non-performing loans. While, the result in the case of Bangladesh predict contradictions, that have no significant effect on non-performing loans at various level. The overall results indicate that credit risk is not influenced by only external factors but also affect by internal factors like bad management and skimping etc.
Rwanda Journal Volume 26, Series B, 2012 : Social Sciences. 116 ... The post Genocide Rwanda's financial sector has changed drastically, and banks' soundness and ... Using a triangulation of methods such as quantitative data collection,.
reduces the number of human deployment by banks thereby reducing cost of operations. ... United States (PLUS and CIRRUS) drooped their long standing opposition to allowing ..... Automated teller machine network pricing – A review of the.
@@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.
International Monetary Fund; World Bank
The assessment of the current state of the implementation of the Basel Core Principles (BCP) for effective banking supervision in Nigeria, against the BCP methodology issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) in October 2006, was completed between August 27 and September 19, 2012, as part of a Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update, undertaken jointly by the Fu...
Minnis, Michael; Sutherland, Andrew Gordon
Using a data set that records banks’ ongoing requests of information from small commercial borrowers, we examine when banks use financial statements to monitor borrowers after loan origination. We find that banks request financial statements for half the loans and this variation is related to borrower credit risk, relationship length, collateral, and the provision of business tax returns, but in complex ways. The relation between borrower risk and financial statement requests has an inverted ...
Full Text Available An event study window analysis of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is employed in this study to investigate the effect of mergers and acquisitions on Singaporean domestic banking groups’ efficiency. The results suggest that the mergers have resulted in a higher post-merger mean overall efficiency of Singaporean banking groups. However, from the scale efficiency perspective, our findings do not support further consolidation in the Singaporean banking sector. We find mixed evidence of the efficiency characteristics of the acquirers and targets banks. Hence, the findings do not fully support the hypothesis that a more (less efficient bank becomes the acquirer (target. In most cases, our results further confirm the hypothesis that the acquiring bank’s mean overall efficiency improves (deteriorates post-merger resulted from the merger with a more (less efficient bank. Tobit regression model is employed to determine factors affecting bank performance, and the results suggest that bank profitability has a significantly positive impact on bank efficiency, whereas poor loan quality has a significantly negative influence on bank performance.
P. Duijm (Patty); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)
textabstractTheory suggests that cross-border banking is beneficial as long as there is a non-perfect correlation across country-specific risks. Using a unique hand-collected dataset with cross-border loans for the 61 largest European banks, we find that cross-border banking in general decreases
The monetary policy mechanism by which monetary policy was transmitted to thereal economy had emerged as the pivotal discussion topic recently. This paper tried to discussthe impact of Bank Indonesia’s monetary policy on loan bank. By using simple loan bankframework we concluded that monetary policies were able to influence loan bank. Themonetary variables such as discount rate policy, base money and exchange rate policy werevery important in determining the banking credit. As the credit was ...
Bayus, Barry; Kendis, Kurt
In this econometric model of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program (GSLP), supply is related to banks' liquidity and yield curves, all lenders' economic costs and returns, and Student Loan Marketing Association activity. GSLP demand is based on loan costs, family debt position, and net student need for financial aid. (RW)
Full Text Available In a continuously changing business environment accounting data have to provide useful information in order to achieve relevant and faithful representation in financial statements. Since global markets have changed radically, growing international trade means the horizons of investors and borrowers have now become global, which has increased the level of their risks. Concerning international trade and investment, one of the most important risks is uncertainty about future foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. Changes in financial markets have increased the use of derivative instruments (such as forwards, futures, swaps, and options to hedge risk exposure worldwide, while the related accounting standards have not kept pace with those changes. Because of the complexity and variety of these instruments, reporting on derivatives faces many difficulties, since a different framework and different accounting concepts are required to present useful financial information. For these reasons the growing use of derivative financial instruments and the challenges of the global financial system have intensified and sharpened debates about whether derivative instruments increase or decrease the risk of banks, affecting faithful representation based on their financial statements and decision usefulness of the reported information. This study aims to describe the transformation of accounting concepts and its effect on fair value accounting for derivative financial instruments in the information economy. The research question of the paper is whether the advantages of fair value accounting exceed the disadvantages, especially in the case of derivatives, in reducing the uncertainty and risk associated with financial reporting. Based on this question, the purpose of the empirical research is to assess the level of different risks which banks operating in Hungary face when using derivative financial instruments and to investigate how and to what extent
Export financing of a nuclear power plant to be exported from Germany, is, in principle, provided by German commercial banks and KfW (Kreditanstalt fuer Wiederaufbau). As a rule, 50 per cent of the financing of maturities falling due under the export portion of the loan will be taken over by a banking syndicate of approximately 25 member banks, and the remaining 50 per cent would be provided by KfW. KfW and the commercial banks must grant their loans at the respective money market conditions. The banks' and KfW's loans will normally be disbursed pro rata delivery. (HP) [de
Full Text Available This paper examines the credit risk and capital adequacy of the 567 rural banks in the Philippines to investigate how both variables affect bank profitability. Using the Arellano-Bond estimator, we found out that credit risk has a negative and statistically significant relationship with profitability. However, empirical analysis showed that capital adequacy has no significant impact on the profitability of rural banks in the Philippines. It is therefore necessary for the rural banks to examine more deeply if capital infusion would result in higher profitability than increasing debts. The study also implies that it is imperative for the banks to understand which risk factors have greater impact on their financial performance and use better risk-adjusted performance measurement to support their strategies. Rural banks should establish credit risk management that defines the process from initiation to approval of loans, taking into consideration the sound credit risk management practices issued by regulatory bodies. Moreover, rural banks need to enhance internal control measures to ensure the strict implementation of internal processes on lending operations.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of loan supply, as well as aggregate demand,aggregate supply and monetary policy shocks between 1998 and 2014 in Macedonia using a structural vector autoregression model with sign restrictions and Bayesian estimation. The main results indicate that loan supply shocks have no significant effect on loan volumes and lending rates, or on economic activity and prices. The effects of monetary policy on lending activity are fairly limited, although there is some evidence that it affects lending rates more than loan volumes. Monetary policy shocks have strong effects on inflation, while the central bank reacts strongly to adverse shocks hitting the economy. Baseline results are confirmed by several robustness checks. According to historical decomposition, the lending activity was supporting economic growth before and during the crisis, but its contribution became negative during the recovery and it was a drag on growth until the end of the period. Pre-crisis GDP growth is mostly explained by supportive monetary policy. However, the restrictive monetary policy during the crisis contributed to the fall of GDP, before becoming supportive again during the early stages of the recovery. Policy rates in recent years mostly reflect subdued lending activity and aggregate supply factors, which the central bank tries to counteract with a more accommodative policy.
Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard
Full Text Available Measuring the effects of various factors influencing on risk of return in banking system plays essential role on making managerial decisions. This paper investigates the effects of seven factors including equities, leverage, dividend, size, growth domestic products, bank concentration and market return on risk of return in selected banks listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The study selects the necessary data through financial statements announced on exchange as well as macro-economic figures reported by central bank of Iran to examine the hypotheses of the survey. Using some regression technique, the study has determined that only bank size and growth domestic product influence significantly on risk of return on Tehran Stock Exchange.
Mar 1, 2013 ... Financial transactions through manual system of operation .... Integrated Financial Accounting. The accounting processes for loans are supported within Loans ... principal and interest, and print checks, payment receipts, or ...
Hidayat, Ayat; Koesrindartoto, Deddy P
Data of Bank Indonesia stated that Small Medium Enterprises (SME) loan portfolio by the end of April 2012 amounted to 20.65% of the total national banking loans. Currently the banks, ranging from the state owned banks, private banks, rural banks (BPR), joint venture banks, to foreign banks are competing to grab SME market. The reason is that the SME sector is a profitable and huge market. Bank BJB is one of the commercial banks based in West Java, where in the region, small medium enterprises...
Galeeva, G. M.; Zagladina, E. N.; Kadeeva, E. N.
The paper presents data on the influence of the most significant factors having impact on the credit portfolio volume, as well as conducts correlation and regression analysis with the subsequent construction of the trend for a short period. Credit activity is understood as the bank activity in the formation of a credit portfolio. Considering the structure of the bank credit portfolio, it can be observed that it consists of credits granted by the bank particularly for legal entities, individuals and other banks. Herewith, it is necessary to understand that any decrease in the credit portfolio will adversely affect the financial stability and effectiveness of any commercial bank. Moreover, during crisis periods, the policy and practice of banks have been determined as quite aggressive and conducted as such with regard to interest rates. The dynamics of credit portfolio volume has been selected as an independent factor due to the reason that it can fully explain the current development situation and the effectiveness of the bank credit policy. Considering the dependent factors, their influence will be assessed by the credit portfolio volume indicator. The authors have distinguished the following ones among them: the volume of credits granted to individuals; the volume of credits granted to legal entities; the amount of overdue credits in the credit portfolio; bank investments in the securities; inflation; key rate.
An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.
Ismail Ahmad; Ken D. Duft; Ron C. Mittelhammer
Characteristics of Banks for Cooperatives term loan and equity capital programs contribute toward complex intermittent exchanges of positive and negative cash flows between the cooperative lender and borrower and complicate the analysis of the net present value and effective interest of the financing project. A multiperiod linear program was developed to analyze the effect of variations in equity capital program components on the present value of the financing project. Furthermore, the concep...
... state agricultural loan mediation programs? 617.7430 Section 617.7430 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... Mediation Programs § 617.7430 Are institutions required to participate in state agricultural loan mediation programs? (a) If initiated by a borrower, System institutions must participate in state mediation programs...
... according to generally accepted accounting principles. (b) Develop, adopt, and consistently apply policies... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for the allowance for loan losses... ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS General Rules § 621.5 Accounting for the allowance for loan losses and...
... CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.109 Loan to open-end investment company. In... customarily purchases stocks registered on a national securities exchange, the Board stated that in view of... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan to open-end investment company. 221.109...
Moro, Andrea; Fink, Matthias; Maresch, Daniela
Loan managers’ trust in entrepreneurs can be a useful tool for overcoming entrepreneurial firms’ opaqueness. Nevertheless, the possibility for loan managers to leverage trust can be affected by differences in the regulative institutions within the banks (type of bank) and by place-bound normative...
... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Special Rules for Private Education Loans § 226.46 Special disclosure requirements for private education loans. (a) Coverage. The... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special disclosure requirements for private...
Full Text Available Intensification of financial development during last decade causes transformation of banking sector functioning. In particular, among the most significant changes over this period should be noted the next ones: convergence of financial market segments and appearance of cross-sector financial products, an increase of prevailing of financial sector in comparison with real economy and level of their interdependent, an intensification of crisis processes in financial and especially banking sector and a significant increase of the scale of the crisis consequences etc. thus, in such vulnerable conditions it is become very urgent to identify the relevant factors that can influence on the stability of banking sector, because its maintenance seems to be one of the most important preconditions of the stability of the national economy as a whole. Purpose of the article is to analyze key performance indicators of the Ukrainian banking system, clarify its main problems, identify relevant factors of the stability of the Ukrainian banking system and the character of their influence on the dependent variable. Realization of the mentioned above tasks was ensured by regression analysis (OLS regression. Analysis of key indicators that characterize current situation in the Ukrainian banking system found out the existence of numerous endogenous and exogenous problems, which, in turn, cause worsening most of analyzed indicators during 2013-2015. Unfavorable situation in Ukrainian banking system determined the necessity of identification of relevant factors of banking system stability to avoid transmission of financial shocks. According to the results of regression analysis on the stability of banking sector positively influence such factors as increase of interest margin to gross income ratio, reserves to assets ratio, number of branches, ratio of non-performing loans to total loans. Meanwhile, negative impact on stability of banking system has an increase of liquid
Fazelina Sahul Hamid
Full Text Available The third pillar of the Basel II highlights the role of market discipline in easing the existing pressure on traditional monitoring measures like capital requirement and government supervision. This study test the effectiveness of market discipline in inducing prudential risk management practices among the East Asian banks over the 1995 to 2005 period. Market discipline is measured using information disclosure and interbank deposit holdings. We find that only the latter is an effective market discipline tool. However, the former becomes effective when market concentration is higher. We find that government owned, foreign owned and recapilatised banks are subject to market disciplining when disclosure in taken account but the opposite is true when interbank deposits is taken into account. Finally, we find that banks that disclose more risk related information hold more capital against their non-performing loan. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the effect of water level on germination in soil seed banks has been documented in many ecosystems, the mechanism is not fully understood, and to date no empirical studies on this subject exist. Further, no work has been done on the effect of water level on seed banks of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands in alpine areas on the Tibetan Plateau. METHODOLOGY: We examined the effects of water level (0 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm on seed germination and seedling establishment from soil seed banks at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depths in typical, drying, and saline-alkaline wetlands. We also explore the potential role of soil seed bank in restoration of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species richness decreased with increase in water level, but there almost no change in seed density. A huge difference exists in species composition of the seed bank among different water levels in all three wetlands, especially between 0 cm and 5 cm and 0 cm and 10 cm. Similarity of species composition between seed bank and plant community was higher in 0 cm water level in drying wetland than in the other two wetlands. The similarity was much higher in 0 cm water level than in 5 cm and 10 cm water levels in all three wetlands. Species composition of the alpine wetland plant community changed significantly after drying and salinization, however, species composition of the seed bank was unchanged regardless of the environment change. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Water level greatly affects seed bank recruitment and plant community establishment. Further, different water levels in restored habitats are likely to determine its species composition of the plant community. The seed bank is important in restoration of degraded wetlands. Successful restoration of drying and salinization wetlands could depend on the seed bank.
... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0050] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP086418XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has...
Full Text Available AbstractThis study examines the influencing macro economics factor in lending distribution and observes the comparison of each factor based on lending type which are investment, working capital and domestic consumption lending. Using data of Indonesian commercial banks between 2003-2011 and a balanced panel method, it finds that bank liquidity and inflation rate have significant negative effect, while number of banks has strong positive influence to stimulate lending distribution. Moreover, saving rate and GDP growth were found not meaningfully contributed to change investment lending distribution, but they significantly influenced the other lending distribution. Lastly, reserve requirement and exchange rate did not significantly influence all lending type.Keywords: Loan, interest rate, growth, GDP.JEL Classification Numbers: G21, E43, E51AbstrakStudi ini meneliti faktor ekonomi makro yang mempengaruhi distribusi pinjaman dan mengamati perbandingan masing-masing faktor berdasarkan jenis pinjaman yaitu pinjaman investasi, modal kerja dan konsumsi. Dengan menggunakan data dari bank-bank komersial di Indonesia antara 2003-2011, dengan menggunakan analisis data panel, ditemukan bahwa likuiditas perbankan dan tingkat inflasi berpengaruh negatif signifikan, sedangkan jumlah bank berpengaruh positif dan kuat untuk mendorong distribusi pinjaman pada semua jenis pinjaman. Selain itu, tingkat tabungan dan pertumbuhan PDB ditemukan tidak bermakna dalam kontribusinya untuk mempengaruhi distribusi kredit investasi, tetapi secara signifikan mempengaruhi distribusi pinjaman lainnya. Terakhir, GWM dan nilai tukar tidak signifikan mempengaruhi semua tiga kategori jenis pinjaman. Keywords: Loan, interest rate, growth, GDPJEL Classification Numbers: G21, E43, E51
Full Text Available The subject of the research presented in this paper is risk management, with a special study of banking sector. Research goals include determining the degree of importance and influence of risk management of internal and external risks to a more favorable environment for business success of banks in strategic terms, in the long run. In this sense, the key results of the empirical research on the territory of Serbia in 2015 on a sample of 34 financial institutions, of which 26 were banks, has been provided . The results were processed by statistical and mathematical methods and confirmed the validity of the defined hypotheses, that the importance of effective risk management in banking is growing, as well as the reporting system. The contribution of this research is in a scientific assessment of the importance of various risks, determination of the dominant theoretical and empirical knowledge supporting wider further research in this area in the banking industry.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the technical efficiency of domestic banks andforeign banks in Indonesia during the period 2008-2009 using a two-stage analysis. The first phase of testingusing the method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA showed that foreign-owned banks efficiently producedhigher performance than domestic-owned banks. The second phase of testing showed that the size of the bank,the net interest margin (NIM, and non-performing loans (NPL, had a positive and significant effect on theperformance efficiency of the domestic and foreign banks. Return on assets (ROA had a positive but notsignificant effect on the performance efficiency of domestic banks. While for foreign banks, ROA had a positiveand significant effect on performance efficiency. The capital adequacy ratio (CAR had a positive and signifi-cant effect on the performance efficiency of domestic banks, while for foreign banks, the CAR had positive butnot significant effect on performance efficiency. Operational costs had a significant negative influence on theperformance efficiency of the domestic and foreign banks.
The problems faced by developing countries in embarking on a nuclear power programme are considered. It is argued that an international funding agency should be set up by the IAEA and the World Bank to provide developing countries with help in the form of a loan at soft interest rates and longer repayment periods. (U.K.)
Israel Kofi Nyarko
Advertising which uses electronic energy to transmit information to the end user is called electronic media advertising. It appears as TV, radio, internet. The objective of this study is to establish the contribution of electronic media advertising to rural banking in Ghana. Hitherto, studies have covered advertising rural banks; the outcome of this study will help reveal contributions of electronic media ads to rural banking. Questionnaires were administered to 350 rural bank customers in Ho...
A. R. Fonseca; F. González; L. Pereira da Silva
This paper analyzes the cyclical effects of bank capital buffers using an international sample of 2,361 banks from 92 countries over the 1990-2007 period. We find that capital buffers reduce the bank credit supply but – through what could be “monitoring or signaling effects” – have also an expansionary effect on economic activity by reducing lending and deposit rate spreads. This influence on lending and deposit rate spreads is more pronunced in developing countries and during downturns. The ...
Full Text Available European economies are traditionally considered to be bank based regarding the debt financing. However, in times of crises in the bank sector, this feature may indicate a weakness of these economies when the credit squeeze phenomenon may occur and companies’ competitiveness might be negatively affected thanks to unstable financing possibilities. In such conditions, a shift from bank loans to bonds might be expected. That is why this paper focuses on mutual development of corporate bond and business loan markets in the developing Czech economy in the years 2006–2014 with regard to the impacts of the global financial crisis of 2008/2009. The main goal of this article is to identify whether, thanks to the impacts of the global recession in 2009, there was a shift in Czech economy in business financing from the loans to bonds in a similar fashion as in the case of East Asian economies after their financial crisis in the nineties. Since Czech companies practically do not use short-term bonds, a mutual relationship is examined between amounts of long-term corporate bonds and economic development captured by the GDP per capita, and between long-term business loans and development of long-term corporate bonds. The main findings of this study are that since the global financial crisis, bond financing of businesses has been growing faster than loan financing. Czech economy thus shifts and becomes more bond market-based. The development of bond financing is positively correlated with the GDP per capita. Time series of both loans and bonds develop along the same trend. However, residual components are correlated negatively, which confirms the standing of loans and bonds as substitutes. Two main practical implications may be derived from this study. First, a growing usage of bonds increases demands on the market regulator, especially in the field of monitoring. Second, the growing bond market leads to the increased effectiveness, which makes additional
Full Text Available Firstly, the author explains what motivated him to write this article, because Swiss-francs loans issue is very important for almost all Balkans states. After that, the essence of Swiss-francs loans is explained and what caused litigations relating to the nullity of these loans agreements. Courts are of the opinion that these agreements are legal and valid. They point out that currency clauses within these agreements are lawful and valid. Such courts' conclusion is a premise on which rests this article. The author emphasizes that subject of this article is not whether currency clauses regarding mentioned loans are lawful or not, but whether the Draft of the law on the conversion of Swiss-francs loans is constitutional and legitimate. The author explains the content of the mentioned Draft, especially the method of the intended conversion. Essence of the proposed conversion is as follows - conversion of Swiss-francs loans into the local currency (convertible mark at rates which had existed at the moment of the conclusion of an agreement. The author points to the vagueness of the Draft provisions and the possible problems that may arise in its application, if enacted. Next and main part of the article concerns the potential retroactive application of the Draft provisions. Draft covers all loans agreements, i.e. agreements which have ever been concluded, regardless of whether they are no longer in force. Thus, main effect of the Draft would be retroactive application of its provisions. Retroactivity undermines principle of legal certainty and to some extent principle of separation of powers, since courts have confirmed validity of the mentioned agreements. Draft, also, places all negative effects of rates exchange on creditors (banks, meaning that the question of proportionality could arise. Thus, the author argues that enactment of the Draft in proposed capacity would probably violate the principle of non-retroactive application of law and
Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2014
For those needing a loan to attend college, think federal aid first. Federal student loans usually offer borrowers lower interest rates and have more flexible repayment terms and options than private student loans. This brief report answers the following questions about federal aid: (1) What is a federal student loan?; (2) What is a private…
AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... work is to find out the effects of Automated Teller Machines (ATM) on Bank's services. ... used by successful organizations for gaining competitive advantage over others.
Michael D. Harvey; Chester C. Watson
Twelve low radius of curvature bends, half of which were rivetted, were studied in the Butte Basin reach of Sacramento River, California, to determine whether bank revetment deleteriously affected salmonid habitat. At low discharge (128.6 cubic meters/s) it was demonstrated that revetment does not cause channel narrowing or deepening, nor does it prevent re-entrainment...
Three of the banks however stood out. The change (an increase) in the EPS of two of them is significant while the change (a decrease) in the third one is also significant not only at 5% but at 1%. The findings here confirm the existing controversy on whether or not mergers or acquisitions lead to improved profitability. What is ...
It was found that Monetary Policy Rate (MPR) and inflation rate exert a positive and significant impact on banks' loans for the period. For the deregulation era, the result showed that MPR and the exchange rate had significant impact on banks' loans and advances. While the former exerted a negative impact, the later had a ...
The Solar Bank is proposed to be established as a multinational wholesale lending institution supporting the adoption of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems by as much as 40% of the world's population. It would supply capital resources to local lending institutions such as banks, credit unions, cooperatives, and rural lending organizations in the developing countries, and to financial institutions in the developed countries. The Solar Bank is intended to be global in scope, with operations in the major countries. The Solar Bank will bring a degree of standardization to the process of making small loans to many people for the purchase of PV systems, and it will provide technical support and training to its participating financial institutions. 'Solar Bank International' is likely to be headquartered in Europe. (orig.)
Edwinah Amah; C. A. Nwuche
The paper examined the effect of size on corporate culture and organizational effectiveness in the Nigerian banking industry. A total of 388 managers were randomly drawn from a population of 13,339 managers of all the 24 banks in Nigeria. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaire and oral interview. A total of 320 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and analyzed. Spearman¡¯s Rank Correlation Statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that ...
Full Text Available Financial institutions present on the market become more attentive when they have to give loans to the agriculture sector. The lack of necessary guarantees the low profit registered in agricultural district, economy instability and other things had and continue to have a negative impact on the evolution of agricultural sector, this being seen as one with a high level of risk. Commercial banks use less own funds for lending to agriculture and especially when the loans are guaranteed from various funds, programs or foreign donor agencies. Farmers find it difficult to bank loans because of collateral amount required is too high. However, commercial banks in Moldova provide agricultural loans, thus increasing the economic efficiency of agriculture.
The corporate governance practices of EU bank group were based on the principle of self-regulation. The negative effects of adoptation of the principle were on stakeholders account – deposit insurance funds, government loans, depositors, and taxpayers. The international financial crisis gives reasons for new institutional framework. The taken measures on pan-European level defined new role for traditional actors in which key actors are shareholders and regulators. The new instruments in m...
The corporate governance practices of EU bank group were based on the principle of self-regulation. The negative effects of adoptation of the principle were on stakeholders account – deposit insurance funds, government loans, depositors, and taxpayers. The international financial crisis gives reasons for new institutional framework. The taken measures on pan-European level defined new role for traditional actors in which key actors are shareholders and regulators. The newn instruments in mode...
Beck, T.H.L.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Martinez Peria, M.
Using data for 91 large banks from 45 countries, this paper finds few differences in the extent, type, and pricing of SME loans across foreign, private, and government-owned banks, even though different bank ownership types apply different lending technologies and have different organizational
... such activities constitute a materially important line of business to its members. Also, investments... banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615...
Nicoleta Georgeta PANAIT
Full Text Available The introduction of a harmonized framework for financial supervision allows the minimizing of tax consequences and possible systemic bank failures. Banking union project will have impact on both the micro-prudential supervisory practices and the prudential supervision framework in the euro area and in the state members that will decide to participate in this project. The non-performing loans (NPL trend in the countries of Southeastern Europe further shows that nonperforming loans will increase in some of the states of Eastern Europe affecting credit flows and profits made by the banks. The activities conducted by the banks cannot be estimated, quantified and especially eliminate all risk, lending generates NPL even lending procedures were followed in accordance with the laws and regulations in force. Romania has the highest rate of non-performing loans in the region and the fact is generated because of difficulties in removing non performing loans from banks' balance sheets. In order to increase the volume of loans it is necessary to decrease of nonperforming loans from banks' balance sheets. To identify the optimal strategy for managing non-performing loans is necessary to continually monitor the performance and providing rapid adaptation to the dynamic environmental factors and changes in the characteristics of the loan portfolio. European Central Bank will consistently enforce a set of unique rules apply to the group of euro area credit institutions will directly supervise credit large institutions and will monitor supervisory practices of credit institutions less significant conducted by competent national authorities.
Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.
V. E. Gladkova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to assessing the effectiveness of refi nancing credit institutions as a tool of monetary policy the Bank of Russia. The Bank of Russia has a policy on the basis of certain economic situations, to create an enabling environment for financial sector development, increasing the stability of commercial banks, and, in general, economic growth in the country. The refinancing rate, which in turn should influence the currency market in the country and the level of interest rates, can not perform their duties because of inefficiencies such as a refinancing.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the detection and analysis of empirical determinants of credit risk in the banking sector of the Republic of Serbia. The paper is based on an analysis of results of the application of the linear regression model, during the period from the third quarter of 2008 to the third quarter of 2014. There are three main findings. Firstly, the higher lending activity of banks contributes to the increasing share of high-risk loans in the total withdrawn loans (delayed effect of 3 years. Secondly, the growth of loans as opposed to deposits contributes to the increased exposure of banks to credit risk. Thirdly, the factors that reduce the exposure of banks to credit risk increase profitability, growth of interest rate spread and real GDP growth. Bearing in mind the overall market conditions and dynamics of the economic recovery of the country, there is a general conclusion based on the results that in the coming period the question of non-performing loans (NPLs in the Republic of Serbia will present a challenge for both lenders and borrowers.
Verweij, M.; Klingers, J.
This report investigates the shareholder voting of equity funds of the three major Dutch banks and of the asset managers of three Dutch pension funds. Specifically, it concerns voting on shareholder resolutions on climate change. The scope of the research includes 48 shareholder resolutions from the period 2006 until summer 2008 and concerning 28 U.S. and two Japanese companies. In these resolutions shareholders call on the companies to report on their carbon emissions, take climate-related measures, or to invest more in renewable energy. Practically every Dutch bank and pension fund publicly claims to be very concerned about climate change, and they report to varying extent on their efforts in this regard. However, in practice equity funds and asset managers frequently vote against climate resolutions or refrain from using their voting rights altogether [nl
Full Text Available The article aims to find the probability effects of bank’s health level using CAMEL ratio analysis. The statistic method used to test on the research hypothesis was logit regression. The dependent variable used in this research was bank’s health level and independent variables were CAMEL financial ratios consisting of CAR, NPL, ROA, ROE, LDR, and NIM. The report data were extracted from bank’s financial from financial report, which had been published and accumulated by Infobank research bureau with valuation, based on bank Indonesia policy. The sample consisted of 60 healthy banks and 14 unhealthy banks in 2005 and 2006. The empirical result of this research indicates that the Non Performing Loan is the significant variable affecting bank health level.
Full Text Available Recognizing the asset value dynamics volatility of the financial institutions and the importance of its recognition both for financial reporting purposes and risk management effect, this paper aims to provide a practical model for the assets and financial institutions evaluation especially banks. It also aims to present a model to measure the value of banking assets for the purposes of risk management as an opportunity to identify in an early moment the banking risks. The paper develops the bank assets assessment forms and the basis of mathematical modeling of this assessment in general. He identifies also the evaluation factors as for example time to maturity, interest rate market for the assets (YTM, the interest rate agreed, the early repayment of the loan, interest ceilings and floors, off-balance sheet treatment, etc..
....4357 Section 614.4357 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND... endorsement or unconditional guarantee by the borrower; (b) The bank determines the financial condition, repayment capacity, and other credit factors of the loan to the original maker reasonably justify the credit...
Kleemann, Michael; Wiegand, Manuel
Does restrictive bank lending cause lower employment growth at the firm-level or does it reflect firm characteristics that drive the deterioration of employment figures? Applying propensity score matching, we estimate the treatment effect of restrictive bank lending on employment growth. Combining balance sheet information and survey data on a firm's current and expected future business situation, we rule out the impact of firm heterogeneity. We find that credit constraints have a significant...
Neelam Hans; Sandeep Kaur
Background: Menstrual blood banking enables women to store their menstrual blood under required conditions and preserve it for future. Stem cells present in the menstrual blood have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding menstrual blood stem cells banking among nursing students studying in selected nursing college of Amritsar, Punjab. M...
Sri Vandayuli Riorini; Christine Catur Widayati
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of Brand relationship, Brand trust, Brand identification, Brand involvement, Brand commitment to Brand evangelism. This study using purposive sampling technique in which samples were selected in this study as much as 200 commercial Banks customers have used the services of the Bank at least 12 months. Data analysis instrument used was Multiple Regression Analysis with SPSS assistance. The results obtained are consistent with previous studies...
Sri Vandayuli Riorini; Christine Catur Widayati
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of Brand relationship, Brand trust, Brand identification, Brand involvement, Brand commitment to Brand evangelism. This study using purposive sampling technique in which samples were selected in this study as much as 200 commercial Banks customers have used the services of the Bank at least 12 months. Data analysis instrument used was Multiple Regression Analysis with SPSS assistance. The results obtained are consistent with previous...
AbdolRahman Maleki Afzal; Heirsh SoltanPanah
The purpose of this research is to review the relationship between effectiveness of marketing strategies performance Marketing Bank branches in the city of Sanandaj. This research in terms of purpose is applied; and also in terms of method is descriptive correlational research and in term of duration is a single period. The statistical population contains staff at the branch of the bank of Sanandaj city. To choose the statistical sample by using classical random sampling and according to the ...
International Monetary Fund
This technical note presents a factual update of the 2001 assessment of Switzerland’s compliance with the 1997 Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision (BCP), including a follow-up on implementation of the 2001 BCP assessment, undertaken in the context of the original Financial Sector Assessment Program in 2001. The note discusses that the Swiss Federal Banking Commission (SFBC) has made impressive progress both organizationally and to its supervisory practices to strengthen Sw...
Akwaa-Sekyi, Ellis Kofi; Moreno Gené, Jordi
Purpose: The paper examines the effectiveness of internal control systems, explores the exposure of Spanish banks to the dangers of default as a result of internal control systems and establishes a relationship between internal controls and credit risk. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative research approach is used to test hypotheses on the relationship between internal controls and credit risk among listed banks in Spain. Data from Bankscope and company websites from 2004-2013 were used...
Vesna Tornjanski; Sanja Marinković; Željka Jančić
This paper sets out to extend and deepen the understanding the ways toward economic sustainability through efficient and effective growth operations strategies, quality management and operational excellence in banking. In this study we define new quality management practices based on developed conceptual architecture of digital platform for operations function in banking. Additionally, we employ decision making framework consisted of two parts: introduction of new operations services using To...
Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing competition in banking industry in Iran and there is a growing trend on emerge of new banks, which makes it difficult for existing banks to keep market share. In this paper, we study the effect of advertisements on customers’ willingness to accept banking services based on modulatory role of brand. The proposed study has been performed among 440 randomly selected customers in city of Tehran, Iran who were doing banking business with one of Iranian banks called Parsian. The results of survey have been analyzed using structural equation modeling and the preliminary results indicate that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between brand advertisement and associate name and brand identification. However, there was no meaningful relationship between brand advertisement and customer loyalty towards to brand. In addition, the results of survey indicate there was a meaningful relationship between brand equity components including perception quality on brand name, customer awareness from brand, loyalty to brand and customers’ willingness to accept banking services on modulatory role of brand.
Xiuli Zhu; Lianjun Li; Yunkui Xue
This paper investigates credit allocation before and after the 2003 banking system reform in China. We find that relationships between earnings quality and new short-term loans, long-term loans and total loans in listed companies changed significantly after the banking system reform, especially in stateowned listed companies. Further investigation shows that due to the influence of rent-seeking, banks have eased the earnings requirements of non-stateowned listed companies. These findings enhance our understanding of the economic consequences of the banking system reform and of credit discrimination under the new regime.
Full Text Available This paper investigates credit allocation before and after the 2003 banking system reform in China. We find that relationships between earnings quality and new short-term loans, long-term loans and total loans in listed companies changed significantly after the banking system reform, especially in state-owned listed companies. Further investigation shows that due to the influence of rent-seeking, banks have eased the earnings requirements of non-state-owned listed companies. These findings enhance our understanding of the economic consequences of the banking system reform and of credit discrimination under the new regime.
Inessa Love; Rima Turk-Ariss
This paper investigates macro-financial linkages in Egypt using two complementary methods, assessing the interaction between different macroeconomic aggregates and loan portfolio quality in a multivariate framework as well as through a panel vector autoregressive method that controls for bank-level characteristics. Using a panel of banks over 1993-2010, the authors find that a positive shock to capital inflows and growth in gross domestic product improves banksâ€™ loan portfolio quality, and ...
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the differences in financial performance of Bank BNI and other BUMN Banks by the measuring the ratio of Non Performing Loan (NPL, Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR, Adecuacy Capital Ratio (CAR, Return on Assets (ROA and BOPO. The study was conducted by using descriptive analysis method. The results of this study explained that the performance NPL, LDR, and Bank BNI's CAR on average during the past eight semesters was still better than BUMN Banks on average, while the performance of ROA and BOPO remained below the average Revenues and Operating Expenses of Operational Income of Bank BUMN. The results also showed that all BUMN banks still showed good and healthy performance and in accordance with the provisions set by Bank Indonesia. This study also presented the strategy undertaken by Bank BNI to improve its financial performance, that is, the business synergy of all units unit, growth in good-quality assets, optimization of the customer engagement, strengthening the network and develop alliances, optimization of existing resources and simplification of processes, and enhancing customer experiences through improving processes and business models to digital banking. Keywords: Non-Performing Loans, Loan to Deposit Ratio, Capital Adequacy Ratio, Return on Assets, Revenues and Operating Expenses of Operational Income, Bank BNI, Bank BUMN.
Full Text Available Measuring customer satisfaction in banking industry plays essential role for increasing market share and profitability. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to measure the effect of customer relationship management (CRM on customer loyalty in Iranian banking industry. The study aims to understand whether implementation of a good CRM could increase the quality of services. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 65 selected customers who do their banking activities with Bank Melli Iran in city of Semnan, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.939, which is well above desirable level. Using t-student test, the study has determined that implementation of CRM could increase customer loyalty and quality of services.
Full Text Available Rotation can be used as an approach for weed management, because density and combination of weed seed bank may be affected by rotation. In this study effect of rotation in diversity and density of weed seed was studied in three rotation systems (fallow – barely, maize – barely and canola – barely. Results showed that fallow – barely rotation system have high population density in seed bank and highest amount of Shannon diversity index (H = 0.84. In canola – barely rotation system because of different herbicide uses and special traits of canola, population of weed seeds in seed bank was significantly lower that other rotation systems. Results showed that canola – barely rotation system because of combination special herbicide and agronomical and biological characteristic of canola, in comparison with other rotation systems is more successful in decreasing of weed seed bank.
Moldavska Olena V.
Full Text Available The article conducts an economic and statistical analysis of the modern state of credit activity of Ukrainian banks and main tendencies of its development. It justifies urgency of the statistical study of credit activity of banks. It offers a complex system of assessment of bank lending at two levels: the level of the banking system and the level of an individual bank. The use of the system analysis allows reflection of interconnection between effectiveness of functioning of the banking system and quality of the credit portfolio. The article considers main aspects of management of quality of the credit portfolio – level of troubled debt and credit risk. The article touches the problem of adequate quantitative assessment of troubled loans in the credit portfolios of banks, since the methodologies of its calculation used by the National Bank of Ukraine and international rating agencies are quite different. The article presents a system of methods of management of credit risk, both theoretically and providing specific examples, in the context of prevention of occurrence of risk situations or elimination of their consequences.
Ma, Hongyuan; Yang, Haoyu; Liang, Zhengwei; Ooi, Mark K. J.
Background Management regimes for vegetation restoration of degraded grasslands can significantly affect the process of ecological succession. However, few studies have focused on variation in the soil seed bank during vegetation restoration under different management regimes, especially in saline-alkaline grassland habitats. Our aim was to provide insights into the ecological effects of grassland management regimes on soil seed bank composition and vegetation establishment in mown, fenced, transplanted and natural grassland sites, all dominated by the perennial rhizomatous grass Leymus chinensis. Methodology We studied species composition and diversity in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation in differently managed grasslands in Northeast China. An NMDS (nonmetric multidimensional scaling) was used to evaluate the relationship between species composition, soil seed banks, aboveground vegetation and soil properties. Principal Findings Fenced and mown grassland sites had high density and species richness in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation. The Transplanted treatment exhibited the highest vegetation growth and seed production of the target species L. chinensis. Seeds of L. chinensis in the soil occurred only in transplanted and natural grassland. Based on the NMDS analysis, the number of species in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation were significantly related to soil Na+, Cl-, RSC (residual sodium carbonate), alkalinity, ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) and AP (available phosphorus). Conclusions Soil seed bank composition and diversity in the saline-alkaline grassland were significantly affected by the management regimes implemented, and were also significantly related to the aboveground vegetation and several soil properties. Based on vegetative growth, reproductive output and maintenance of soil seed bank, the transplanting was identified as the most effective method for relatively rapid restoration of the target
Ellis Kofi Akwaa-Sekyi
Full Text Available Purpose: The paper examines the effectiveness of internal control systems, explores the exposure of Spanish banks to the dangers of default as a result of internal control systems and establishes a relationship between internal controls and credit risk. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative research approach is used to test hypotheses on the relationship between internal controls and credit risk among listed banks in Spain. Data from Bankscope and company websites from 2004-2013 were used. Generalized Least Squares (random effect econometric estimation technique was used for the model. Findings: We find that internal control systems are in place but their effectiveness cannot be guaranteed. This exposes Spanish listed banks to serious default situations. There is significant effect of internal controls on credit risk especially the control environment, risk management, control activities and monitoring. The non-disclosure of material internal control weakness is a contributory factor to the ineffective internal control systems. There is however a perceived board ineffectiveness which does not augur well for effective internal control systems. Board characteristics for Spanish banks confirm the agency theory. Research Limitations and Implications: Data unavailability for certain years, variables and many inactive banks did not permit a larger sample size than expected. The use of quantitative variables lacks flexibility. Practical Implications: Bank management will find the work useful to ensure strict enforcement of internal control mechanisms and see it as both credit risk and operational risk issues. Central bank should hurry to compel banks to disclose material internal control weakness as provided in the reviewed COSO framework. Social Implications: Ineffective internal controls lead to credit risks, bank closure and loss of investments. Society suffers a lot from such losses and contagion. Disclosure of material internal control
MSc. Anera Alishani
Since 1990s many countries have moved toward greater central bank independence (CBI) by either amending their Central Bank’s laws or writing them de novo. Also countries of Western Balkans and many other transition countries have moved toward greater CBI. There are many potential benefits associated with greater CBI, and one of them is stable growth of money and liquidity. For a given level of money market development the hypothesis is that a more independent CB is likely to promote more stab...
Full Text Available At the time of financial crisis, one of the influential institutions in society is banking. Banking sector provide soft loans to create productive employment for the community. On the other hand, customers also need the liquidity from bank-ing. These stakeholders' needs can be met by looking at the performance of bank-ing. This study aims to determine differences in the performance of sharia banking and conventional banking during economic crisis. This study uses t-test to analyze the data. From the research, it was found that in general, the performance of conventional banking is better than sharia banking in the economic crisis. Keywords: shariah banking, conventional banking, performance.
Ita, Asuquo Akabom
Mergers and acquisitions are the major instruments of the recent banking reforms in Nigeria.The effects and the implications of the reforms on the lending practices of merged banks to small businesses were considered in this study. These effects were divided into static and dynamic effects (restructuring, direct and external). Data were collected by cross-sectional research design and were subsequently analyzed by the ordinary least square (OLS) method.The analyses show that bank size, financial characteristics and deposit of non-merged banks are positively related to small business lending. While for the merged banks, the reverse is the case. From the above result, it is evident that merger and acquisition have not only static effect on small business lending but also dynamic effect, therefore, given the central position of small businesses in the current government policy on industrialization in Nigeria, policy makers in Nigeria, should consider both the static and dynamic effects of merger and acquisition on small business lending in their policy thrust.
The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research