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Sample records for effective approach annual

  1. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Identifying Cost Effective Tank Waste Characterization Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DiPrete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-12

    This report documents the activities that were performed during the second year of a project undertaken to improve the cost effectiveness and timeliness of SRNL’s tank closure characterization practices. The activities performed during the first year of the project were previously reported in SRNL-STI-2015-00144. The scope of the second year activities was divided into the following three primary tasks: 1) develop a technical basis and strategy for improving the cost effectiveness and schedule of SRNL’s tank closure characterization program; 2) initiate the design and assembly of a new waste removal system for improving the throughput and reducing the personnel dose associated with extraction chromatography radiochemical separations; and 3) develop and perform feasibility testing of three alternative radiochemical separation protocols holding promise for improving high resource demand/time consuming tank closure sample analysis methods.

  2. Persistent and contemporaneous effects of job stressors on mental health: a study testing multiple analytic approaches across 13 waves of annually collected cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Kavanagh, Anne; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Petrie, Dennis

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the extent that psychosocial job stressors had lasting effects on a scaled measure of mental health. We applied econometric approaches to a longitudinal cohort to: (1) control for unmeasured individual effects; (2) assess the role of prior (lagged) exposures of job stressors on mental health and (3) the persistence of mental health. We used a panel study with 13 annual waves and applied fixed-effects, first-difference and fixed-effects Arellano-Bond models. The Short Form 36 (SF-36) Mental Health Component Summary score was the outcome variable and the key exposures included: job control, job demands, job insecurity and fairness of pay. Results from the Arellano-Bond models suggest that greater fairness of pay (β-coefficient 0.34, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.45), job control (β-coefficient 0.15, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.20) and job security (β-coefficient 0.37, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.42) were contemporaneously associated with better mental health. Similar results were found for the fixed-effects and first-difference models. The Arellano-Bond model also showed persistent effects of individual mental health, whereby individuals' previous reports of mental health were related to their reporting in subsequent waves. The estimated long-run impact of job demands on mental health increased after accounting for time-related dynamics, while there were more minimal impacts for the other job stressor variables. Our results showed that the majority of the effects of psychosocial job stressors on a scaled measure of mental health are contemporaneous except for job demands where accounting for the lagged dynamics was important. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Annual dynamics of daylight variability and contrast a simulation-based approach to quantifying visual effects in architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Rockcastle, Siobhan

    2013-01-01

    Daylight is a dynamic source of illumination in architectural space, creating diverse and ephemeral configurations of light and shadow within the built environment. Perceptual qualities of daylight, such as contrast and temporal variability, are essential to our understanding of both material and visual effects in architecture. Although spatial contrast and light variability are fundamental to the visual experience of architecture, architects still rely primarily on intuition to evaluate their designs because there are few metrics that address these factors. Through an analysis of contemporary

  4. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.

    2012-04-01

    The temporal resolution of some ice cores is sufficient to preserve seasonal information in the ice core record. In such cases, annual layer counting represents one of the most accurate methods to produce a chronology for the core. Yet, manual layer counting is a tedious and sometimes ambiguous job. As reliable layer recognition becomes more difficult, a manual approach increasingly relies on human interpretation of the available data. Thus, much may be gained by an automated and therefore objective approach for annual layer identification in ice cores. We have developed a novel method for automated annual layer counting in ice cores, which relies on Bayesian statistics. It uses algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), originally developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of this layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on purely objective criteria for annual layer identification. With this methodology, it is possible to determine the most likely position of multiple layer boundaries in an entire section of ice core data at once. It provides a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count, hence ensuring a proper treatment of ambiguous layer boundaries in the data. Furthermore multiple data series can be incorporated to be used at once, hence allowing for a full multi-parameter annual layer counting method similar to a manual approach. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to data from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland. The NGRIP ice core has very high temporal resolution with depth, and hence the potential to be dated by annual layer counting far back in time. In previous studies [Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008], manual layer counting has been carried out back to 60 kyr BP. A comparison between the counted annual layers based on the two approaches will be presented

  5. Precipitation areal-reduction factor estimation using an annual-maxima centered approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Famiglietti, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are often computed by multiplying point depths by areal-reduction factors (ARF). ARF range from 0 to 1, vary according to storm characteristics, such as recurrence interval; and are a function of watershed characteristics, such as watershed size, shape, and geographic location. This paper presents a new approach for estimating ARF and includes applications for the 1-day design storm in Austin, Dallas, and Houston, Texas. The approach, termed 'annual-maxima centered,' specifically considers the distribution of concurrent precipitation surrounding an annual-precipitation maxima, which is a feature not seen in other approaches. The approach does not require the prior spatial averaging of precipitation, explicit determination of spatial correlation coefficients, nor explicit definition of a representative area of a particular storm in the analysis. The annual-maxima centered approach was designed to exploit the wide availability of dense precipitation gauge data in many regions of the world. The approach produces ARF that decrease more rapidly than those from TP-29. Furthermore, the ARF from the approach decay rapidly with increasing recurrence interval of the annual-precipitation maxima. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are

  6. Rainfall effects on rare annual plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.M.; McEachern, A.K.; Cowan, C.

    2008-01-01

    Variation in climate is predicted to increase over much of the planet this century. Forecasting species persistence with climate change thus requires understanding of how populations respond to climate variability, and the mechanisms underlying this response. Variable rainfall is well known to drive fluctuations in annual plant populations, yet the degree to which population response is driven by between-year variation in germination cueing, water limitation or competitive suppression is poorly understood.We used demographic monitoring and population models to examine how three seed banking, rare annual plants of the California Channel Islands respond to natural variation in precipitation and their competitive environments. Island plants are particularly threatened by climate change because their current ranges are unlikely to overlap regions that are climatically favourable in the future.Species showed 9 to 100-fold between-year variation in plant density over the 5–12 years of censusing, including a severe drought and a wet El Niño year. During the drought, population sizes were low for all species. However, even in non-drought years, population sizes and per capita growth rates showed considerable temporal variation, variation that was uncorrelated with total rainfall. These population fluctuations were instead correlated with the temperature after the first major storm event of the season, a germination cue for annual plants.Temporal variation in the density of the focal species was uncorrelated with the total vegetative cover in the surrounding community, suggesting that variation in competitive environments does not strongly determine population fluctuations. At the same time, the uncorrelated responses of the focal species and their competitors to environmental variation may favour persistence via the storage effect.Population growth rate analyses suggested differential endangerment of the focal annuals. Elasticity analyses and life table response

  7. Annual Percentage Rate and Annual Effective Rate: Resolving Confusion in Intermediate Accounting Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicknair, David; Wright, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of confusion in intermediate accounting textbooks regarding the annual percentage rate (APR) and annual effective rate (AER) is presented. The APR and AER are briefly discussed in the context of a note payable and correct formulas for computing each is provided. Representative examples of the types of confusion that we found is presented…

  8. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation was established in April, 1975, as a private nonprofit Japanese Foundation supported equally by the Government of Japan through the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Government of the United States through the National Academy of Sciences under contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. First, the messages from the chairman and the vice-chairman are described. In the annual report, the review of ABCC-RERF studies of atomic bomb survivors, the summary of research activities, the research projects, the technical report abstracts, the research papers published in Japanese and foreign journals, and the oral presentation and lectures, all from April 1, 1978, to March 31, 1979, are reported. Also the report from the Secretariat and the appendixes are given. The surveys and researches carried out in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have offered very valuable informations to the atomic bomb survivors. Many fears were eliminated, medical interests were given to the serious effects of the exposure to atomic bombs, and many things concerning the cancer induced by radiation were elucidated. The knowledges obtained will save many human lives in future by utilizing them for setting up the health and safety standard in the case of handling ionizing radiation. The progress in researches such as life span study, adult health study, pathology study, genetics program, special cancer program and so on is reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winstrup, Mai; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for automated annual layer counting in seasonally-resolved paleoclimate records has been developed. It relies on algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which originally was developed for use in machine speech-recognition. The strength of the layer...

  10. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Winstrup

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for automated annual layer counting in seasonally-resolved paleoclimate records has been developed. It relies on algorithms from the statistical framework of hidden Markov models (HMMs, which originally was developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of the layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to two ice core records from Greenland: one displaying a distinct annual signal and one which is more challenging. The algorithm shows high skill in reproducing the results from manual layer counts, and the resulting timescale compares well to absolute-dated volcanic marker horizons where these exist.

  11. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winstrup, Mai; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for automated annual layer counting in seasonally-resolved paleoclimate records has been developed. It relies on algorithms from the statistical framework of hidden Markov models (HMMs), which originally was developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of the layer...

  12. Enhanced Portfolio Performance Using a Momentum Approach to Annual Rebalancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Mattei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After diversification, periodic portfolio rebalancing has become one of the most widely practiced methods for reducing portfolio risk and enhancing returns. Most of the rebalancing strategies found in the literature are generally regarded as contrarian approaches to rebalancing. A recent article proposed a rebalancing approach that incorporates a momentum approach to rebalancing. The momentum approach had a better risk adjusted return than either the traditional approach or a Buy-and-Hold approach. This article identifies an improvement to the momentum approach and then examines the impact of transactions costs and taxes on the portfolio performance of four active rebalancing approaches.

  13. Enhanced Portfolio Performance Using a Momentum Approach to Annual Rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Mattei

    2018-01-01

    After diversification, periodic portfolio rebalancing has become one of the most widely practiced methods for reducing portfolio risk and enhancing returns. Most of the rebalancing strategies found in the literature are generally regarded as contrarian approaches to rebalancing. A recent article proposed a rebalancing approach that incorporates a momentum approach to rebalancing. The momentum approach had a better risk adjusted return than either the traditional approach or a Buy-and-Hold app...

  14. Concise Approach for Determining the Optimal Annual Capacity Shortage Percentage using Techno-Economic Feasibility Parameters of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    PV power systems have been commercially available and widely used for decades. The performance of a reliable PV system that fulfils the expectations requires correct input data and careful design. Inaccurate input data of the techno-economic feasibility would affect the size, cost aspects, stability and performance of PV power system on the long run. The annual capacity shortage is one of the main input data that should be selected with careful attention. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of different annual capacity shortages on the techno-economic feasibility parameters and determining the optimal value for Baghdad city location using HOMER simulation tool. Six values of annual capacity shortage percentages (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%), and wide daily load profile range (10 kWh - 100 kWh) are implemented. The optimal annual capacity shortage is the value that always "wins" when each techno-economic feasibility parameter is at its optimal/ reasonable criteria. The results showed that the optimal annual capacity shortage that reduces significantly the cost of PV power system while keeping the PV system with reasonable technical feasibility is 3%. This capacity shortage value can be carried as a reference value in future works for Baghdad city location. Using this approach of analysis at other locations, annual capacity shortage can be always offered as a reference value for those locations.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Estimation of annual occupational effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nagasaki nuclear bomb survivors, who have demonstrated increased ... atomic numbers as soft tissue, and their energy responses to absorbed radiation show little ... suitable thermal treatment, making them cost-effective and viable in the long ...

  16. Dynamic Effects of the Earth's Rotation Caused by the Annual and Semi-Annual Cyclic Mass Redistribution of the Planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Barkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with development of the theory of perturbed rotational motion of a celestial body with variable geometry of the masses. Its main task is to study the impact of annual and semi-annual variations of the Earth's mass geometry (a component of its inertia tensor, as well as a component of its relative angular momentum, on the movement of the Earth's poles and its axial rotation. The body is considered to be a free (isolated, and the problem formulation corresponds to the classical Liouville problem on rotation of a variable body. Euler conical movement of the axially symmetric body with an arbitrary constant half-angle  is assumed as the unperturbed motion. In the classical theory of the Earth's rotation this angle is usually assumed to be zero.In the last 20 years, accuracy to determine the Earth rotation parameters owing to using methods of space geodesy and method of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI has increased by about three orders of magnitude and has made about  i.e., in angle measure it is about 10 - 20 arc-microseconds. According to experts, the theory of the Earth's rotation with such precision is not created yet. The paper is focused just on the new dynamic studies of the Earth rotation at a higher level of accuracy than has been done in previous studies, using a new approach to the problem, based on the new forms of the equations of motion (in the Andoyer variables and the analytical methods of perturbation theory (small parameter method.The problem of perturbed rotational motion with variable geometry and variable mass relative angular momentum in the first approximation is solved in Andoyer variables and projections of the angular velocity of the planet rotation. The analytical solution allows us to run applications to study dynamic effects from above factors for various bodies in the solar system, including the Earth. The solution allowed us to obtain the following parameters of the fundamental effects in the

  17. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Walpurgis, Katja; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of improving anti-doping efforts is predicated on several different pillars, including, amongst others, optimized analytical methods. These commonly result from exploiting most recent developments in analytical instrumentation as well as research data on elite athletes' physiology in general, and pharmacology, metabolism, elimination, and downstream effects of prohibited substances and methods of doping, in particular. The need for frequent and adequate adaptations of sports drug testing procedures has been incessant, largely due to the uninterrupted emergence of new chemical entities but also due to the apparent use of established or even obsolete drugs for reasons other than therapeutic means, such as assumed beneficial effects on endurance, strength, and regeneration capacities. Continuing the series of annual banned-substance reviews, literature concerning human sports drug testing published between October 2014 and September 2015 is summarized and reviewed in reference to the content of the 2015 Prohibited List as issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), with particular emphasis on analytical approaches and their contribution to enhanced doping controls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Annual effective dose due to natural radioactivity in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma Savithri, P.; Srivastava, S.K.; Balbudhe, A.Y.; Vishwa Prasad, K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural radioactivity concentration in drinking water supply in and round Hyderabad, Secunderabad was determined. The observed gross alpha activity found in water samples vary from 0.027±0.014 Bq/L to 0.042±0.015 Bq/L with average 0.035 Bq/L while beta activity in all the samples are less than 0.076 Bq/l. Contributions of the drinking water samples to total annual effective dose equivalent from 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 26 Ra, 210 Po, 232 Th, 228 Th 210 Pb and 228 Ra are 1.14, 1.24, 5.30, 7.07, 30.3, 5.81, 1.82, 38.3 and 38.3 μSvy -1 for adults. The results indicate that the annual effective doses are below the WHO recommended reference level for α and β in food and drinking samples. (author)

  19. EFFECTIVE ANNUAL INTEREST SIGNIFIANCE ON BANKING PRODUCTS PRICE STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Lucian-Ion

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the products and services prices can be found in the reference price, that customer must compare it with the price of the last made acquisition. The price of the banking product, that includes the effective annual intrest rate (EAI, is a guide price including all the cost elements related to banking products and services. The price of the products promoted through lending activities, is affected by the exchange rate of national and foreign currency, available on the money market. The role of the banking fee is very important in the specific services and bank products price formation.

  20. An analysis of annual maximum streamflows in Terengganu, Malaysia using TL-moments approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ummi Nadiah; Shabri, Ani; Zakaria, Zahrahtul Amani

    2013-02-01

    TL-moments approach has been used in an analysis to determine the best-fitting distributions to represent the annual series of maximum streamflow data over 12 stations in Terengganu, Malaysia. The TL-moments with different trimming values are used to estimate the parameter of the selected distributions namely: generalized pareto (GPA), generalized logistic, and generalized extreme value distribution. The influence of TL-moments on estimated probability distribution functions are examined by evaluating the relative root mean square error and relative bias of quantile estimates through Monte Carlo simulations. The boxplot is used to show the location of the median and the dispersion of the data, which helps in reaching the decisive conclusions. For most of the cases, the results show that TL-moments with one smallest value was trimmed from the conceptual sample (TL-moments (1,0)), of GPA distribution was the most appropriate in majority of the stations for describing the annual maximum streamflow series in Terengganu, Malaysia.

  1. Estimating distribution parameters of annual maximum streamflows in Johor, Malaysia using TL-moments approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Jan, Nur Amalina; Shabri, Ani

    2017-01-01

    TL-moments approach has been used in an analysis to identify the best-fitting distributions to represent the annual series of maximum streamflow data over seven stations in Johor, Malaysia. The TL-moments with different trimming values are used to estimate the parameter of the selected distributions namely: Three-parameter lognormal (LN3) and Pearson Type III (P3) distribution. The main objective of this study is to derive the TL-moments ( t 1,0), t 1 = 1,2,3,4 methods for LN3 and P3 distributions. The performance of TL-moments ( t 1,0), t 1 = 1,2,3,4 was compared with L-moments through Monte Carlo simulation and streamflow data over a station in Johor, Malaysia. The absolute error is used to test the influence of TL-moments methods on estimated probability distribution functions. From the cases in this study, the results show that TL-moments with four trimmed smallest values from the conceptual sample (TL-moments [4, 0]) of LN3 distribution was the most appropriate in most of the stations of the annual maximum streamflow series in Johor, Malaysia.

  2. Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.; Liner, C.; Kerr, D.

    1995-05-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of the project on Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance. This project is funded under the Department of Energy`s Class I program which is targeted towards improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in fluvial-dominated deltaic deposits. The project involves an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by the drilling of horizontal injection wells to improve production performance. The type of data we have integrated include cross bore hole seismic surveys, geological interpretation based on logs and cores, and engineering information. This report covers the second phase of the project which includes a detailed reservoir description of the field by integrating all the available information, followed by flow simulation of the Self Unit under various operating conditions. Based on an examination of the various operating parameters, we observed that the best possible solution to improve the Self Unit performance is to recomplete and stimulate most of the wells followed by an increase in the water injection rate. Drilling of horizontal injection well, although helpful in improving the performance, was not found to be economically feasible. The proposed reservoir management plan will be implemented shortly.

  3. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Emilie R; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R; Linquist, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  4. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie R Kirk

    Full Text Available Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined. Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1 was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  5. Economic consequences of incident disease: the effect on loss of annual income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayce, Signe L; Christensen, Ulla; Hougaard, Charlotte Ø

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the effect of incident disease on loss of annual income on an individual level, to analyse whether loss of job mediates the effect on loss of annual income, to analyse whether an association is modified by socioeconomic position, and to determine whether the effect on annual inc...... on annual income. This might be interpreted as a buffering effect of the welfare policies in relation to the more discriminating demands of the labour market.......AIMS: To estimate the effect of incident disease on loss of annual income on an individual level, to analyse whether loss of job mediates the effect on loss of annual income, to analyse whether an association is modified by socioeconomic position, and to determine whether the effect on annual...... with an increased and equally strong risk for experiencing a loss of annual income corresponding to one income decile (>25,000 DKK) in the year following disease (odds ratio (OR) from 1.37 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.72) to 1.57 (95% CI 1.21-2.04)). No significant effect of female AMI was found...

  6. Effectance, committed effective dose equivalent and annual limits on intake: what are the changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, G.M.; Stather, J.W.; Phipps, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the concept of effectance, compares committed effectance with the old committed effective dose equivalent and goes on to discuss changes in the annual limits on intakes and the maximum organ doses which would result from an intake of an ALI (Annual Limit of Intake). It is shown that committed effectance is usually, but not always, higher than committed effective dose equivalent. ALIS are usually well below those resulting from the ICRP Publication 30 scheme. However, if the ALI were based only on a limit on effectance it would imply a high dose to specific organs for certain nuclides. In order to control maximum organ doses an explicit limit could be introduced. However, this would destroy some of the attractive features of the new scheme. An alternative would be a slight modification to some of the weighting factors. (author)

  7. Comprehensive model of annual plankton succession based on the whole-plankton time series approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Romagnan

    Full Text Available Ecological succession provides a widely accepted description of seasonal changes in phytoplankton and mesozooplankton assemblages in the natural environment, but concurrent changes in smaller (i.e. microbes and larger (i.e. macroplankton organisms are not included in the model because plankton ranging from bacteria to jellies are seldom sampled and analyzed simultaneously. Here we studied, for the first time in the aquatic literature, the succession of marine plankton in the whole-plankton assemblage that spanned 5 orders of magnitude in size from microbes to macroplankton predators (not including fish or fish larvae, for which no consistent data were available. Samples were collected in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Villefranche weekly during 10 months. Simultaneously collected samples were analyzed by flow cytometry, inverse microscopy, FlowCam, and ZooScan. The whole-plankton assemblage underwent sharp reorganizations that corresponded to bottom-up events of vertical mixing in the water-column, and its development was top-down controlled by large gelatinous filter feeders and predators. Based on the results provided by our novel whole-plankton assemblage approach, we propose a new comprehensive conceptual model of the annual plankton succession (i.e. whole plankton model characterized by both stepwise stacking of four broad trophic communities from early spring through summer, which is a new concept, and progressive replacement of ecological plankton categories within the different trophic communities, as recognised traditionally.

  8. Soil quality effects on regeneration of annual Medicago pastures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual medic (Medicago spp.) pastures are widely used as the forage component of crop rotation systems in the Mediterranean region of South Africa. Reliable establishment of medics can be challenging. This may be related to poor soil quality, an inherent problem of soils in the region often aggravated by poor ...

  9. Inspections - a cost effective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a cost effective approach for inspections of Computerized Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Systems (CNMCAS). Highlighted is the capability to conduct an inspection program via portable telephone terminals from off-site locations. The program can be applied to various materials management functions including materials control, quality assurance, and materials accounting. The system is designed to facilitate inspections by both external and internal groups

  10. Anomaly detection for analysis of annual inventory data: a quality control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch; Paul C. Van Deusen

    2010-01-01

    Annual forest inventories present special challenges and opportunities for those analyzing the data arising from them. Here, we address one question currently being asked by analysts of the US Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis Program’s quickly accumulating annual inventory data. The question is simple but profound: When combining the next year’s data for...

  11. Impact of trees on pollutant dispersion in street canyons: A numerical study of the annual average effects in Antwerp, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranckx, Stijn; Vos, Peter; Maiheu, Bino; Janssen, Stijn

    2015-11-01

    Effects of vegetation on pollutant dispersion receive increased attention in attempts to reduce air pollutant concentration levels in the urban environment. In this study, we examine the influence of vegetation on the concentrations of traffic pollutants in urban street canyons using numerical simulations with the CFD code OpenFOAM. This CFD approach is validated against literature wind tunnel data of traffic pollutant dispersion in street canyons. The impact of trees is simulated for a variety of vegetation types and the full range of approaching wind directions at 15° interval. All these results are combined using meteo statistics, including effects of seasonal leaf loss, to determine the annual average effect of trees in street canyons. This analysis is performed for two pollutants, elemental carbon (EC) and PM10, using background concentrations and emission strengths for the city of Antwerp, Belgium. The results show that due to the presence of trees the annual average pollutant concentrations increase with about 8% (range of 1% to 13%) for EC and with about 1.4% (range of 0.2 to 2.6%) for PM10. The study indicates that this annual effect is considerably smaller than earlier estimates which are generally based on a specific set of governing conditions (1 wind direction, full leafed trees and peak hour traffic emissions). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radon continuous monitoring in Altamira Cave (northern Spain) to assess user's annual effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lario, J.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Canaveras, J.C.; Cuezva, S.; Soler, V.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present the values of radon concentration, measured by continuous monitoring during a complete annual cycle in the Polychromes Hall of Altamira Cave in order to undertake more precise calculations of annual effective dose for guides and visitors in tourist caves. The 222 Rn levels monitored inside the cave ranges from 186 Bq m -3 to 7120 Bq m -3 , with an annual average of 3562 Bq m -3 . In order to more accurately estimate effective dose we use three scenarios with different equilibrium factors (F=0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) together with different dose conversion factors proposed in the literature. Neither effective dose exceeds international recommendations. Moreover, with an automatic radon monitoring system the time remaining to reach the maximum annual dose recommended could be automatically updated

  13. Annual Gross Primary Production from Vegetation Indices: A Theoretically Sound Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Gilabert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A linear relationship between the annual gross primary production (GPP and a PAR-weighted vegetation index is theoretically derived from the Monteith equation. A semi-empirical model is then proposed to estimate the annual GPP from commonly available vegetation indices images and a representative PAR, which does not require actual meteorological data. A cross validation procedure is used to calibrate and validate the model predictions against reference data. As the calibration/validation process depends on the reference GPP product, the higher the quality of the reference GPP, the better the performance of the semi-empirical model. The annual GPP has been estimated at 1-km scale from MODIS NDVI and EVI images for eight years. Two reference data sets have been used: an optimized GPP product for the study area previously obtained and the MOD17A3 product. Different statistics show a good agreement between the estimates and the reference GPP data, with correlation coefficient around 0.9 and relative RMSE around 20%. The annual GPP is overestimated in semiarid areas and slightly underestimated in dense forest areas. With the above limitations, the model provides an excellent compromise between simplicity and accuracy for the calculation of long time series of annual GPP.

  14. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health ampersand Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a 'capture zone' that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater

  15. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.

  16. The Effect of Hurricanes on Annual Precipitation in Maryland and the Connection to Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jackie; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Precipitation is a vital aspect of our lives droughts, floods and other related disasters that involve precipitation can cause costly damage in the economic system and general society. Purpose of this project is to determine what, if any effect do hurricanes have on annual precipitation in Maryland Research will be conducted on Marylands terrain, climatology, annual precipitation, and precipitation contributed from hurricanes Possible connections to climate change

  17. Effect of selective withdrawal on the annual thermal regime of a deep water body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, O.B.; Zinov'ev, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of any large hydraulic structure leads to the occurrence of new ecosystems in the upper and lower pools of the hydro development. A study of scenarios of the development of these ecosystems and an investigation of the possibilities of minimizing the negative ecological consequences of waterpower engineering by means of mathematical modeling in many respects determine the quality of developing the scientific and technical project. For high-head hydroelectric stations, an effective tool for controlling the water quality in the upper and lower pools is the withdrawal of water form different horizons of the upper pool reservoir. Temperature stratification of a deep sluggish water body is modeled in a one-dimensional vertical approximation with the use of an improved method of describing fluid outflow. The effect of selective withdrawal on the annual thermal regime and temperature of the outflowing water was studied. The results obtained permit estimating the effect of selective withdrawal on the thermal regime of the upper pool of the planned hydro development and temperature of the water being discharged into the lower pool on the possibility, in principle, of the water temperature in the lower pool approaching the natural both in winter and summer

  18. Quantification of annual wildfire risk; A spatio-temporal point process approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pereira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Policy responses for local and global firemanagement depend heavily on the proper understanding of the fire extent as well as its spatio-temporal variation across any given study area. Annual fire risk maps are important tools for such policy responses, supporting strategic decisions such as location-allocation of equipment and human resources. Here, we define risk of fire in the narrow sense as the probability of its occurrence without addressing the loss component. In this paper, we study the spatio-temporal point patterns of wildfires and model them by a log Gaussian Cox processes. Themean of predictive distribution of randomintensity function is used in the narrow sense, as the annual fire risk map for next year.

  19. Beyond annual streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin: a paleo-water-balance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; McCabe, Gregory J.; Woodhouse, Connie A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a methodology to use annual tree-ring chronologies and a monthly water balance model to generate annual reconstructions of water balance variables (e.g., potential evapotrans- piration (PET), actual evapotranspiration (AET), snow water equivalent (SWE), soil moisture storage (SMS), and runoff (R)). The method involves resampling monthly temperature and precipitation from the instrumental record directed by variability indicated by the paleoclimate record. The generated time series of monthly temperature and precipitation are subsequently used as inputs to a monthly water balance model. The methodology is applied to the Upper Colorado River Basin, and results indicate that the methodology reliably simulates water-year runoff, maximum snow water equivalent, and seasonal soil moisture storage for the instrumental period. As a final application, the methodology is used to produce time series of PET, AET, SWE, SMS, and R for the 1404–1905 period for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  20. Biodiversity Monitoring Using NGS Approaches on Unusual Substrates (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Tom Gilbert of the Natural History Museum of Denmark on "Biodiversity monitoring using NGS approaches on unusual substrates" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  1. New Approaches and Technologies to Sequence de novo Plant reference Genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    Jeremy Schmutz of the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology on New approaches and technologies to sequence de novo plant reference genomes at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, CA.

  2. Effect of land area on average annual suburban water demand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... to model and synthesise all decision-making information pertaining to ... In that process the GIS environment was used to delineate suburbs by ..... It should be recalled that the effects of climate and climate change on results.

  3. Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand forecast by fuzzy logic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukali, Serhat; Baris, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to forecast Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand by applying fuzzy logic methodology while general information on economical, political and electricity market conditions of the country is also given. Unlike most of the other forecast models about Turkey's electricity demand, which usually uses more than one parameter, gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was the only parameter used in the model. Proposed model made good predictions and captured the system dynamic behavior covering the years of 1970-2014. The model yielded average absolute relative errors of 3.9%. Furthermore, the model estimates a 4.5% decrease in electricity demand of Turkey in 2009 and the electricity demand growth rates are projected to be about 4% between 2010 and 2014. It is concluded that forecasting the Turkey's short-term gross electricity demand with the country's economic performance will provide more reliable projections. Forecasting the annual electricity consumption of a country could be made by any designer with the help of the fuzzy logic procedure described in this paper. The advantage of this model lies on the ability to mimic the human thinking and reasoning.

  4. Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand forecast by fuzzy logic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukali, Serhat [Civil Engineering Department, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Incivez 67100, Zonguldak (Turkey); Baris, Kemal [Mining Engineering Department, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Incivez 67100, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    This paper aims to forecast Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand by applying fuzzy logic methodology while general information on economical, political and electricity market conditions of the country is also given. Unlike most of the other forecast models about Turkey's electricity demand, which usually uses more than one parameter, gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was the only parameter used in the model. Proposed model made good predictions and captured the system dynamic behavior covering the years of 1970-2014. The model yielded average absolute relative errors of 3.9%. Furthermore, the model estimates a 4.5% decrease in electricity demand of Turkey in 2009 and the electricity demand growth rates are projected to be about 4% between 2010 and 2014. It is concluded that forecasting the Turkey's short-term gross electricity demand with the country's economic performance will provide more reliable projections. Forecasting the annual electricity consumption of a country could be made by any designer with the help of the fuzzy logic procedure described in this paper. The advantage of this model lies on the ability to mimic the human thinking and reasoning. (author)

  5. The Effect of Thermal Mass on Annual Heat Load and Thermal Comfort in Cold Climate Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Vanessa; Kotol, Martin; Grunau, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    been shown to reduce the annual heating demand. However, few studies exist regarding the effects of thermal mass in cold climates. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of high thermal mass on the annual heat demand and thermal comfort in a typical Alaskan residence using energy......Thermal mass in building construction refers to a building material's ability to absorb and release heat based on changing environmental conditions. In building design, materials with high thermal mass used in climates with a diurnal temperature swing around the interior set-point temperature have...... modeling software. The model simulations show that increased thermal mass can decrease the risk of summer overheating in Alaskan residences. They also show that increased thermal mass does not significantly decrease the annual heat load in residences located in cold climates. These results indicate...

  6. Effective Discharge and Annual Sediment Yield on Brazos River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhnia, M.; Salehi, M.; Keyvani, A.; Ma, F.; Strom, K. B.; Raphelt, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geometry of an alluvial river alters dynamically over the time due to the sediment mobilization on the banks and bottom of the river channel in various flow rates. Many researchers tried to define a single representative discharge for these morphological processes such as "bank-full discharge", "effective discharge" and "channel forming discharge". Effective discharge is the flow rate in which, the most sediment load is being carried by water, in a long term period. This project is aimed to develop effective discharge estimates for six gaging stations along the Brazos River from Waco, TX to Rosharon, TX. The project was performed with cooperation of the In-stream Flow Team of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB). Project objectives are listed as: 1) developing "Flow Duration Curves" for six stations based on mean-daily discharge by downloading the required, additional data from U.S Geological Survey website, 2) developing "Rating Curves" for six gaging stations after sampling and field measurements in three different flow conditions, 3) developing a smooth shaped "Sediment Yield Histogram" with a well distinguished peak as effective discharge. The effective discharge was calculated using two methods of manually and automatic bin selection. The automatic method is based on kernel density approximation. Cross-sectional geometry measurements, particle size distributions and water field samples were processed in the laboratory to obtain the suspended sediment concentration associated with flow rate. Rating curves showed acceptable trends, as the greater flow rate we experienced, the more sediment were carried by water.

  7. 1998 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-06-02

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. The Interim Action T-1 Air Stripper System began operation on September 16, 1996. A comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. The Interim Action is meeting its objectives and is capable of continuing to do so until the final groundwater remedial action is in place.

  8. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    There has been an immense amount of visibility of doping issues on the international stage over the past 12 months with the complexity of doping controls reiterated on various occasions. Hence, analytical test methods continuously being updated, expanded, and improved to provide specific, sensitive, and comprehensive test results in line with the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) 2016 Prohibited List represent one of several critical cornerstones of doping controls. This enterprise necessitates expediting the (combined) exploitation of newly generated information on novel and/or superior target analytes for sports drug testing assays, drug elimination profiles, alternative test matrices, and recent advances in instrumental developments. This paper is a continuation of the series of annual banned-substance reviews appraising the literature published between October 2015 and September 2016 concerning human sports drug testing in the context of WADA's 2016 Prohibited List. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of annual versus biennial screening mammography for women with high mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Reka; Ismail, Zahra; Coldman, Andrew J; Elwood, Mark; Gelmon, Karen; Hedden, Lindsay; Hislop, Greg; Kan, Lisa; McCoy, Bonnie; Olivotto, Ivo A; Peacock, Stuart

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of screening mammography is much lower among women who have dense breast tissue, compared with women who have largely fatty breasts, and they are also at much higher risk of developing the disease. Increasing mammography screening frequency from biennially to annually has been suggested as a policy option to address the elevated risk in this population. The purpose of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of annual versus biennial screening mammography among women aged 50-79 with dense breast tissue. A Markov model was constructed based on screening, diagnostic, and treatment pathways for the population-based screening and cancer care programme in British Columbia, Canada. Model probabilities and screening costs were calculated from screening programme data. Costs for breast cancer treatment were calculated from treatment data, and utility values were obtained from the literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY), and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted. Compared with biennial screening, annual screening generated an additional 0.0014 QALYs (95% CI: -0.0480-0.0359) at a cost of $819 ($ = Canadian dollars) per patient (95% CI: 506-1185), resulting in an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of $565,912/QALY. Annual screening had a 37.5% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/QALY. There is considerable uncertainty about the incremental cost-effectiveness of annual mammography. Further research on the comparative effectiveness of screening strategies for women with high mammographic breast density is warranted, particularly as digital mammography and density measurement become more widespread, before cost-effectiveness can be reevaluated. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Effective emergency management: reconsidering the bureaucratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, D M; Phillips, B D

    1995-12-01

    The command and control approach is compared with the Emergent Human Resources Model (EHRM) approach to emergency management. Four decades of systematic research shows that a rigid, bureaucratic command and control approach to emergency management generally leads to an ineffective emergency response. Previous studies and our own research suggest that flexible, malleable, loosely coupled, organizational configurations can create a more effective disaster response.

  11. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Pt. 191, App. B Appendix B to Part 191... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose B Appendix B to Part 191 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  12. Quantifying the effects of pesticide exposure on annual reproductive success of birds (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Markov chain nest productivity model (MCnest) was developed for quantifying the effects of specific pesticide‐use scenarios on the annual reproductive success of simulated populations of birds. Each nesting attempt is divided into a series of discrete phases (e.g., egg ...

  13. Quantifying the effects of pesticide exposure on annual reproductive success of birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Markov chain nest productivity model (MCnest) was developed for quantifying the effects of specific pesticide-use scenarios on the annual reproductive success of simulated populations of birds. Each nesting attempt is divided into a series of discrete phases (e.g., egg layin...

  14. Research on the Effects of Rewards: Implications for Annual Merit Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Richard R.

    Some research suggests reduced cooperation and collaboration among college faculty may result when annual pay increments are based on merit evaluations. Various theories and principles have been put forward to explain these effects. The overjustification theory suggests that extrinsically presented rewards become more salient than one's intrinsic…

  15. Interannual variation of annual precipitation and urban effect on precipitation in the Beijing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The large scale character of the interannual variation of precipitation and the urban effect on local annual precipitation anomaly are investigated in this paper based on the 1960-2000 annual precipitation observations at 20 stations in the Beijing region. The results show that: the annual precipitation in the Beijing region possesses the large scale variation character with the linear trend of - 1.197/10 yr, which corresponds to a total reduction of 27.82 mm in annual precipitation in the 41 years; the local annual precipitation anomalies (percent of the normal 1960-2000) show a positive center near the urban area, i.e. urban precipitation island (UPI), whose intensity increases with the linear trend of 0. 6621%/10 yr, opposite to the interannual trend of large scale precipitation over the Beijing region; changes in the UPI are also associated with the intensity of synoptic processes of precipitation, and when the synoptic processes are strong (wet years), the intensity of UPI strengthens, while the synoptic processes are weak (dry years), and the UPI disappears in the Beijing region.

  16. Comparisons of a Quantum Annealing and Classical Computer Neural Net Approach for Inferring Global Annual CO2 Fluxes over Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Radov, A.; Singh, D.

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of mid to high latitude atmospheric CO2 show growing amplitudes in seasonal variations over the past several decades. Recent high-resolution satellite measurements of CO2 concentration are now available for three years from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program of DOE has been making long-term CO2-flux measurements (in addition to CO2 concentration and an array of other meteorological quantities) at several towers and mobile sites located around the globe at half-hour frequencies. Recent papers have shown CO2 fluxes inferred by assimilating CO2 observations into ecosystem models are largely inconsistent with station observations. An investigation of how the biosphere has reacted to changes in atmospheric CO2 is essential to our understanding of potential climate-vegetation feedbacks. Thus, new approaches for calculating CO2-flux for assimilation into land surface models are necessary for improving the prediction of annual carbon uptake. In this study, we calculate and compare the predicted CO2 fluxes results employing a Feed Forward Backward Propagation Neural Network model on two architectures, (i) an IBM Minsky Computer node and (ii) a hybrid version of the ARC D-Wave quantum annealing computer. We compare the neural net results of predictions of CO2 flux from ARM station data for three different DOE ecosystem sites; an arid plains near Oklahoma City, a northern arctic site at Barrows AL, and a tropical rainforest site in the Amazon. Training times and predictive results for the calculating annual CO2 flux for the two architectures for each of the three sites are presented. Comparative results of predictions as measured by RMSE and MAE are discussed. Plots and correlations of observed vs predicted CO2 flux are also presented for all three sites. We show the estimated training times for quantum and classical calculations when extended to calculating global annual Carbon Uptake over land. We also

  17. Photonic crystal fibres and effective index approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres.......Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres....

  18. Radiation effects on medium active waste forms. Annual report - 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.; Wilding, C.; Lyon, C.

    1989-01-01

    Work has continued on measurements of dimensional changes, strength, and gas evolution on samples of several simulated waste forms under accelerated γ and α irradiation conditions. Samples of RMA5 (mixed ion exchangers in modified vinylester polymer) and RMA10 (incinerated PCM materials in cement) maintain their integrity during irradiation but samples of RMA3 (organic ion exchangers in cement) and RMA11.1 (mixed PCM materials in cement) swell and eventually disintegrate under some γ irradiation conditions. Disintegration of RMA3 samples occurred when samples were γ irradiated whilst immersed in water. Samples of RMA11.1 which cannot rapidly dry out swell, sometimes substantially, during γ irradiation. The principal gases of interest in gas evolution experiments are hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is evolved under all circumstances but oxygen evolution does not always occur. Samples of RMA10 evolve oxygen when α irradiated in an inert atmosphere but oxygen concentration initially falls during α irradiation in air atmosphere. Samples of RMA11.1 absorb oxygen from an air atmosphere during both α and γ irradiation. A comparison has been carried out of the effects of γ and α irradiation on identical cement grouts using BFS/OPC mixes produced under high shear mixing conditions. In contrast to earlier results on such systems, no γ irradiated samples showed physical deterioration after irradiation to 9 MGy but the a irradiated samples all showed surface cracks after about 1 MGy. The gas evolution measurements showed that during α irradiation oxygen evolution commenced after a dose of ∼ 1 MGy whereas oxygen was completely removed from the atmosphere γ irradiation. Hydrogen was evolved under all conditions and the rate of production was found to be dependent upon the dose rate. More hydrogen was evolved during α irradiations than during γ irradiation. A technique for the measurement of hydrogen permeability through cement systems has been further developed

  19. Deciphering the adjustment between environment and life history in annuals: lessons from a geographically-explicit approach in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-Piedras, Esperanza; Marcer, Arnald; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Picó, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The role that different life-history traits may have in the process of adaptation caused by divergent selection can be assessed by using extensive collections of geographically-explicit populations. This is because adaptive phenotypic variation shifts gradually across space as a result of the geographic patterns of variation in environmental selective pressures. Hence, large-scale experiments are needed to identify relevant adaptive life-history traits as well as their relationships with putative selective agents. We conducted a field experiment with 279 geo-referenced accessions of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana collected across a native region of its distribution range, the Iberian Peninsula. We quantified variation in life-history traits throughout the entire life cycle. We built a geographic information system to generate an environmental data set encompassing climate, vegetation and soil data. We analysed the spatial autocorrelation patterns of environmental variables and life-history traits, as well as the relationship between environmental and phenotypic data. Almost all environmental variables were significantly spatially autocorrelated. By contrast, only two life-history traits, seed weight and flowering time, exhibited significant spatial autocorrelation. Flowering time, and to a lower extent seed weight, were the life-history traits with the highest significant correlation coefficients with environmental factors, in particular with annual mean temperature. In general, individual fitness was higher for accessions with more vigorous seed germination, higher recruitment and later flowering times. Variation in flowering time mediated by temperature appears to be the main life-history trait by which A. thaliana adjusts its life history to the varying Iberian environmental conditions. The use of extensive geographically-explicit data sets obtained from field experiments represents a powerful approach to unravel adaptive patterns of variation. In a

  20. Effective field theory approach to nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saviankou, P.; Gruemmer, F.; Epelbaum, E.; Krewald, S.; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2006-01-01

    Effective field theory provides a systematic approach to hardon physics and few-nucleon systems. It allows one to determine the effective two-, three-, and more-nucleon interactions which are consistent with each other. We present a project to derive bulk properties of nuclei from the effective nucleonic interactions

  1. The Plight of Migrant Birds Wintering in the Caribbean: Rainfall Effects in the Annual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we summarize results of migrant bird research in the Caribbean as part of a 75th Anniversary Symposium on research of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry (IITF. The fate of migratory birds has been a concern stimulating research over the past 40 years in response to population declines documented in long-term studies including those of the IITF and collaborators in Puerto Rico’s Guánica dry forest. Various studies indicate that in addition to forest loss or fragmentation, some migrant declines may be due to rainfall variation, the consequences of which may carry over from one stage of a migrant’s annual cycle to another. For example, the Guánica studies indicate that rainfall extremes on either the temperate breeding or tropical wintering grounds affect migrant abundance and survival differently depending on the species. In contrast, IITF’s collaborative studies of the migrant Kirtland’s Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii in the Bahamas found that late winter droughts affect its annual survival and breeding success in Michigan. We review these IITF migrant studies and relate them to other studies, which have improved our understanding of migrant ecology of relevance to conservation. Particularly important is the advent of the full annual cycle (FAC approach. The FAC will facilitate future identification and mitigation of limiting factors contributing to migrant population declines, which for some species, may be exacerbated by global climate change.

  2. Approach for estimating post-annual reirradiation embrittlement of reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, W.L.; Taboada, A.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal annealing of a commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessel is a possible solution for extending lifetime in situations where excessive radiation embrittlement has taken place or when the original design life is approached. Two difficult facets of thermal annealing are the degree of toughness recovery after annealing and the post-anneal reirradiation embrittlement behavior. These aspects of annealing are evaluated in this paper by using simple models and translation of the initial irradiation damage curve either vertically or laterally at the point of residual shift after annealing. Results using this methodology are compared to limited actual weld metal measurements of annealing behavior. A forthcoming ASTM Guide on in-place annealing uses this methodology to assess annealing recovery and re-embrittlement response

  3. Assessment of Annual Effective Dose for Natural Radioactivity of Gamma Emitters in Biscuit Samples in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abojassim, Ali Abid; Al-Alasadi, Lubna A; Shitake, Ahmed R; Al-Tememie, Faeq A; Husain, Afnan A

    2015-09-01

    Biscuits are an important type of food, widely consumed by babies in Iraq and other countries. This work uses gamma spectroscopy to measure the natural radioactivity due to long-lived gamma emitters in children's biscuits; it also estimates radiation hazard indices, that is, the radium equivalent activity, the representative of gamma level index, the internal hazard index, and the annual effective dose in children. Ten samples were collected from the Iraqi market from different countries of origin. The average specific activities for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K were 9.390, 3.1213, and 214.969 Bq/kg, respectively, but the average of the radium equivalent activity and the internal hazard index were 33.101 Bq/kg and 0.107, respectively. The total average annual effective dose from consumption by adults, children, and infants is estimated to be 0.655, 1.009, and 0.875 mSv, respectively. The values found for specific activity, radiation hazard indices, and annual effective dose in all samples in this study were lower than worldwide median values for all groups; therefore, these values are found to be safe.

  4. Combined macroscopic and microscopic approach to the fracture of metals. Annual progress report, 1980-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaro, R.J.; Gurland, J.; Needleman, A.; Rice, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    Recent progress was achieved in refining and generalizing the methods previously developed for treating the stable crack growth problem, with particular attention to the approximate asymptotic solution of Rice, Drugan and Sham for stress and deformation fields near the tip of a growing crack. The microstructural aspects of ductile fracture were studied in dual-phase steels and high-strength 4340 steels. Very interesting results were obtained in the work on hydrogen effects in steels. In medium strength steels, the ductility-reducing effect of hydrogen is tentatively attributed to the accumulation of hydrogen at internal interfaces with a resulting loss in the resistance to interfacial separation. Extension of Needleman and Rice's work on the growth of cavities at elevated temperatures to the investigation of the effects of triaxial stressing relates the rate of void growth by grain boundary diffusion and dislocation creep to the triaxiality. It provides a good model to analyze the growth of macro-cracks in polycrystals by the mechanisms of growth and coalescence of micro-voids

  5. Effect of quantity and composition of waste on the prediction of annual methane potential from landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han Sang; Moon, Hee Sun; Kim, Jae Young

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of waste composition change on the methane production in landfills. An empirical equation for the methane potential of the mixed waste is derived based on the methane potential values of individual waste components and the compositional ratio of waste components. A correction factor was introduced in the equation and was determined from the BMP and lysimeter tests. The equation and LandGEM were applied for a full size landfill and the annual methane potential was estimated. Results showed that the changes in quantity of waste affected the annual methane potential from the landfill more than the changes of waste composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Climatic Factors and Ecosystem Responses on the Inter-Annual Variability of Evapotranspiration in a Coniferous Plantation in Subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingjie; Wen, Xuefa; Wang, Huimin; Zhang, Wenjiang; Dai, Xiaoqin; Song, Jie; Wang, Yidong; Fu, Xiaoli; Liu, Yunfen; Sun, Xiaomin; Yu, Guirui

    2014-01-01

    Because evapotranspiration (ET) is the second largest component of the water cycle and a critical process in terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the inter-annual variability of ET is important in the context of global climate change. Eight years of continuous eddy covariance measurements (2003–2010) in a subtropical coniferous plantation were used to investigate the impacts of climatic factors and ecosystem responses on the inter-annual variability of ET. The mean and standard deviation of annual ET for 2003–2010 were 786.9 and 103.4 mm (with a coefficient of variation of 13.1%), respectively. The inter-annual variability of ET was largely created in three periods: March, May–June, and October, which are the transition periods between seasons. A set of look-up table approaches were used to separate the sources of inter-annual variability of ET. The annual ETs were calculated by assuming that (a) both the climate and ecosystem responses among years are variable (Vcli-eco), (b) the climate is variable but the ecosystem responses are constant (Vcli), and (c) the climate is constant but ecosystem responses are variable (Veco). The ETs that were calculated under the above assumptions suggested that the inter-annual variability of ET was dominated by ecosystem responses and that there was a negative interaction between the effects of climate and ecosystem responses. These results suggested that for long-term predictions of water and energy balance in global climate change projections, the ecosystem responses must be taken into account to better constrain the uncertainties associated with estimation. PMID:24465610

  7. Assessing the effects of land-use changes on annual average gross erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Brath

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of land-use changes on potential annual gross erosion in the uplands of the Emilia-Romagna administrative region, a broad geographical area of some 22 000 km2 in northern-central Italy, have been analysed by application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. The presence of an extended mountain chain, particularly subject to soil erosion, makes the estimation of annual gross erosion relevant in defining regional soil-conservation strategies. The USLE, derived empirically for plots, is usually applied at the basin scale. In the present study, the method is implemented in a distributed framework for the hilly and mountainous portion of Emilia-Romagna through a discretisation of the region into elementary square cells. The annual gross erosion is evaluated by combining morphological, pedological and climatic information. The stream network and the tributary area drained by each elementary cell, which are needed for the local application of the USLE, are derived automatically from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM of grid size 250 x 250 m. The rainfall erosivity factor is evaluated from local estimates of rainfall of six-hour storm duration and two-year return period. The soil erodibility and slope length-steepness factors are derived from digital maps of land use, pedology and geomorphology. Furthermore, historical land-use maps of the district of Bologna (a large portion — 3720 km2 — of the area under study, allow the effect of actual land use changes on the soil erosion process to be assessed. The analysis shows the influence of land-use changes on annual gross erosion as well as the increasing vulnerability of upland areas to soil erosion processes during recent decades. Keywords: USLE, gross erosion, distributed modelling, land use changes, northern-central Italy

  8. The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, P.

    2015-05-01

    The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.

  9. Annual report of the Committee for the environment-effect-reporting for the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annual report over 1988 presents a general survey of the activities of the Dutch Committee for the environment-effect-reporting (m.e.r.). Besides two themes are discussed in depth: the signifcance of m.e.r. in the decision-making and the discharging from the m.e.r. duty. The appendices contain an overview of the assembly of the Committee, of the gaps in knowledge and information observed in environment-effect reports, the durations of the projects, descriptions of the state of affairs per project and a list of advises brought out by the Committee. (author)

  10. ABC's of Higher Education. Getting Back to the Basics: An Activity-Based Costing Approach to Planning and Financial Decision Making. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kelline S.; Downey, Ronald G.; Smith, Laurinda G.

    This paper describes the activity-based costing approach used to report and capture the time spent by faculty for specified activities at one Midwestern university. For each department, four major areas (instruction, research, public service, and administration) and 14 activities were identified. During the annual goal-setting period, each faculty…

  11. A New Approach to Evaluate MODIS Annual NPP Product (MOD17A3) Using Forest Field Data from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbeyaz, Onder; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Akyurek, Zuhal; West, Tristram O.

    2018-04-18

    In this study we present the first evaluation of the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) annual Net Primary Product (NPP) for Turkey's forest ecosystems using field measurements. Due to lack of country scale field measurements (i.e. flux tower for forest ecosystems), tree DBH (Diameter at Breast Height) dataset provided by Ministry of Forest and Water Affair (MFWA) of Turkey is used to calculate NPP of Turkey’s forest ecosystems. The lack of a reliable NPP dataset leads the researchers to use global NPP models such as MODIS annual NPP product. The MODIS MOD17A3 product of vegetation net primary production (NPP) is one of the most highly used data sources for studies of global carbon 25 cycle. However, it is still necessary to test its predictions in multiple biomes, especially for heterogeneous areas in terms of its accuracy and potential bias. Here, we studied a new approach to evaluate coarse scale NPP estimates from the MODIS NPP- MOD17A3 data product, using 2008-2013 field measurements of tree growth throughout Turkey. There different methods were used to calculate field NPP, including standardized growth coefficients (MC), growth coefficients from North America (JC) and annual expected increment (AEI). The average NPP values for all the country is calculated as 2.06 kgC m-2(5years)-1 (0.412 kgC m-2 year-1) (SD = 1.15 kgC m-2 (5years)-1) from MOD17A3, 0.90 kgC m-2(5years)-1 (0.18 kgC m-2 year-1) (SD = 0.57 kgC m-2(5years)-1) with MC, 0.63 kgC m-2(5years)-1 (0.126 kgC m-2 year-1) (SD = 0.37 kgC m-2(5years)-1) with JC and 0.58 kgC m-2 year-1 (SD = 0.29 kgC m-2(5years)-1) with AEI for the studied plots. We found that the MODIS NPP product has a clear relation with both the NPP estimates obtained by using MC (R36 2 = 0.34, RMSE=1.51 kgC m-2(5years)-1) and JC (R37 2 = 0.32, RMSE = 1.73 kgC m-2(5years)-1). In addition to that, the relation between MOD17A3 product and AEI-derived NPP is relatively strong (R39 2 = 0.48, RMSE = 0.26 kgC m-2 year

  12. Analysis on inter-annual variability of CO2 exchange in Arctic tundra: a model-data approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Blanco, E.; Lund, M.; Christensen, T. R.; Smallman, T. L.; Slevin, D.; Westergaard-Nielsen, A.; Tamstorf, M. P.; Williams, M.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are exposed to rapid changes triggered by the climate variability, thus there is a growing concern about how the carbon (C) exchange balance will respond to climate change. There is a lack of knowledge about the mechanisms that drive the interactions between photosynthesis and ecological respiration with changes in C stocks in the Arctic tundra across full annual cycles. The reduction of uncertainties can be addressed through process-based modelling efforts. Here, we report the independent predictions of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) calculated from the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) model across eight years. The model products are validated with observational data obtained from the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program in West Greenland tundra (64° N). Overall, the model results explain 71%, 73% and 51% of the variance in NEE, GPP and Reco respectively using data on meteorology and local vegetation and soil structure. The estimated leaf area index (LAI) is able to explain 80% of the plant greenness variation, which was used as a plant phenology proxy. The full annual cumulated NEE during the 2008-2015 period was -0.13 g C m-2 on average (range -30.6 to 34.1 g C m-2), while GPP was -214.6 g C m-2 (-126.2 to -332.8 g C m-2) and Reco was 214.4 g C m-2 (213.9 to 302.2 g C m-2). We found that the model supports the main finding from our previous analysis on flux responses to meteorological variations and biological disturbance. Here, large inter-annual variations in GPP and Reco are also compensatory, and so NEE remains stable across climatically diverse snow-free seasons. Further, we note evidence that leaf maintenance and root growth respiration are highly correlated with GPP (R2 = 0.92 and 0.83, p < 0.001), concluding that these relations likely drive the insensitivity of NEE. Interestingly, the model quantifies the contribution of the larvae outbreak occurred in 2011 in about 27

  13. Regional probability distribution of the annual reference evapotranspiration and its effective parameters in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Neda; Rezaie, Hossein; Montaseri, Majid; Behmanesh, Javad

    2017-10-01

    The reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays an important role in water management plans in arid or semi-arid countries such as Iran. For this reason, the regional analysis of this parameter is important. But, ET0 process is affected by several meteorological parameters such as wind speed, solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, the effect of distribution type of effective meteorological variables on ET0 distribution was analyzed. For this purpose, the regional probability distribution of the annual ET0 and its effective parameters were selected. Used data in this research was recorded data at 30 synoptic stations of Iran during 1960-2014. Using the probability plot correlation coefficient (PPCC) test and the L-moment method, five common distributions were compared and the best distribution was selected. The results of PPCC test and L-moment diagram indicated that the Pearson type III distribution was the best probability distribution for fitting annual ET0 and its four effective parameters. The results of RMSE showed that the ability of the PPCC test and L-moment method for regional analysis of reference evapotranspiration and its effective parameters was similar. The results also showed that the distribution type of the parameters which affected ET0 values can affect the distribution of reference evapotranspiration.

  14. Evaluation of annual effective dose from indoor radon concentration in Eastern Province, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelhia, E.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the indoor radon concentration and to evaluate the annual effective dose received by the inhabitants in Dammam, Al-Khobar, and compare it with new premises built at university of dammam. The research has been carried out by using active detection method; Electronic Radon Detector (RAD-7) a solid state α-detector with its special accessories. The indoor radon concentration measured varies from 10.2 Bqm-3 to 25.8 Bqm-3 with an average value of 18.8 Bqm-3 and 19.7 Bqm-3 to 23.5 Bqm-3 with an average value of 21.7 Bqm-3, in Dammam and Al-khobar dwellings, respectively. In university of dammam the radon concentration varies from 7.4 Bqm-3 to 15.8 Bqm-3 with an average value of 9.02 Bqm-3. The values of annual effective doses were found to be 0.47mSv/y, 0.55mSv/y, and 0.23mSv/y, in Dammam, Al-khobar and university new premises, respectively. The average radon concentration in the old dwellings was two times compared to that in the new premises and it was 25.4 Bqm-3 lower than the world average value of 40 Bqm-3 reported by the UNSCEAR. The annual effective doses in the old dwellings was found to be (0.55mSv/y) two times the doses received at the new premises, and below the world wide average of 1.15mSv/y reported by ICRP (2010). The indoor radon concentration in the study region is safe as far as health hazard is concerned.

  15. Annual Report of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: Fiscal Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terraqua, Inc. (Wauconda, WA)

    2009-07-20

    This document was created as an annual report detailing the accomplishments of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) in the Upper Columbia Basin in fiscal year 2008. The report consists of sub-chapters that reflect the various components of the program. Chapter 1 presents a report on programmatic coordination and accomplishments, and Chapters 2 through 4 provide a review of how ISEMP has progressed during the 2008 fiscal year in each of the pilot project subbasins: the John Day (Chapter 2), Wenatchee/Entiat (Chapter 3) and Salmon River (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 presents a report on the data management accomplishments in 2008.

  16. Quasiconfigurations: an approach to effective forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poves, A.; Pasquini, E.; Zuker, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    Many body effective operators appear naturally by dressing states through a perturbative unitary transformation. They have forms that differ from those obtained in the Bloch-Horowitz approach. The fsub(7/2)sup(n) problem is treated explicitly. Pandya's transforms are generalized

  17. Effect of daily noise exposure monitoring on annual rates of hearing loss in industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R; Cullen, Mark R; Slade, Martin D; Dixon-Ernst, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is prevalent, yet evidence on the effectiveness of preventive interventions is lacking. The effectiveness of a new technology allowing workers to monitor daily at-ear noise exposure was analysed. Workers in the hearing conservation program of an aluminium smelter were recruited because of accelerated rates of hearing loss. The intervention consisted of daily monitoring of at-ear noise exposure and regular feedback on exposures from supervisors. The annual rate of change in high frequency hearing average at 2, 3 and 4 KHz before intervention (2000-2004) and 4 years after intervention (2006-2009) was determined. Annual rates of loss were compared between 78 intervention subjects and 234 controls in other company smelters matched for age, gender and high frequency hearing threshold level in 2005. Individuals monitoring daily noise exposure experienced on average no further worsening of high frequency hearing (average rate of hearing change at 2, 3 and 4 KHz = -0.5 dB/year). Matched controls also showed decelerating hearing loss, the difference in rates between the two groups being significant (p hearing loss showed a similar trend but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Monitoring daily occupational noise exposure inside hearing protection with ongoing administrative feedback apparently reduces the risk of occupational NIHL in industrial workers. Longer follow-up of these workers will help determine the significance of the intervention effect. Intervention studies for the prevention of NIHL need to include appropriate control groups.

  18. Influence of Sea Surface Temperature, Tropospheric Humidity and Lapse Rate on the Annual Cycle of the Clear-Sky Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Liu, W.

    2000-01-01

    The implication of this work will provide modeling study a surrogate of annual cycle of the greenhouse effect. For example, the model should be able to simulate the annual cycle before it can be used for global change study.

  19. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1989 - March 31, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the research activities of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in the fiscal year, 1989. Outcome of the work is presented, covering epidemiology, Adult Health Survey Program, cytogenetics, genetic biochemical survey, immunology, cytobiology, and statistics. Symposium entitled 'update information on effects of radiation', held on October 8, 1989, and the final workshop on 'aging', held on March 29-31, 1990, are outlined, accompanied by the other scientific lectures and campus study seminars. The report also includes research abstracts published by the Research Foundation staff. Bibliography of papers, published in scientific journals and presented in scientific meetings, is provided. Appendices give the proceedings of the aforementioned workshop on 'aging', the continuing research issues, and the personal list of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. (N.K.)

  20. Annual effective dose of {sup 210}Po from sea food origin (Oysters and Mussels) in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bo Eum; Hong, Gi Hoon; Kim, Suk Hyun; Lee, Hyun Mi [Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ingestion of {sup 210}Po laden seafood accounts for a substantial amount of the effective dose of {sup 210}Po. Among seafood items, mollusks, especially domestically produced oysters and mussels, are highly enriched in {sup 210}Po and are consumed in large quantities in Korea. Oysters and mussels around the Korean coasts were collected from major farm areas in November 2013. Samples were spiked with an aliquot of {sup 210}Po as a yield tracer, and they were digested with 6 mol·L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The {sup 210}Po and {sup 209}Po were spontaneously deposited onto a silver disc in an acidic solution of 0.5 mol·L{sup -1} HCl and measured using an alpha spectrometer. The activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po were decay corrected to the sampling date, accounting for the possible in-growth and decay of {sup 210}Po. {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in oysters were in a range from 41.3 to 206 Bq·(kg-ww{sup -1} and mussels in a range from 42.9 to 46.7 Bq·(kg-ww){sup -1}. The {sup 210}Po activity concentration of oysters in the turbid Western coast was higher than the Southern coast. The {sup 210}Po activity concentration of the oysters was positively correlated (R2=0.89) with those of the suspended particulate matter in the surface water. The calculated annual effective dose of {sup 210}Po from oysters and mussels consumed by the Korean population was 21-104 and 5.01-5.46 μSv·y{sup -1}. The combined effective dose due to the consumption of oysters and mussels appears to account for about 35±19% of that arising from seafood consumption in the Korean population. The annual effective dose of {sup 210}Po for oysters in the Korean population was found to be higher than other countries. The total annual effective dose of 210Po{sup 210}Po due to consumption of oysters and mussels consumed in Korea was found to be 76±42 μSv·y{sup -1}, accounting for 28±16% of the total effective dose of {sup 210}Po from food in Korea.

  1. Annual effective dose of 210Po from sea food origin (Oysters and Mussels) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bo Eum; Hong, Gi Hoon; Kim, Suk Hyun; Lee, Hyun Mi

    2016-01-01

    Ingestion of 210 Po laden seafood accounts for a substantial amount of the effective dose of 210 Po. Among seafood items, mollusks, especially domestically produced oysters and mussels, are highly enriched in 210 Po and are consumed in large quantities in Korea. Oysters and mussels around the Korean coasts were collected from major farm areas in November 2013. Samples were spiked with an aliquot of 210 Po as a yield tracer, and they were digested with 6 mol·L -1 HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 . The 210 Po and 209 Po were spontaneously deposited onto a silver disc in an acidic solution of 0.5 mol·L -1 HCl and measured using an alpha spectrometer. The activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po were decay corrected to the sampling date, accounting for the possible in-growth and decay of 210 Po. 210 Po activity concentrations in oysters were in a range from 41.3 to 206 Bq·(kg-ww -1 and mussels in a range from 42.9 to 46.7 Bq·(kg-ww) -1 . The 210 Po activity concentration of oysters in the turbid Western coast was higher than the Southern coast. The 210 Po activity concentration of the oysters was positively correlated (R2=0.89) with those of the suspended particulate matter in the surface water. The calculated annual effective dose of 210 Po from oysters and mussels consumed by the Korean population was 21-104 and 5.01-5.46 μSv·y -1 . The combined effective dose due to the consumption of oysters and mussels appears to account for about 35±19% of that arising from seafood consumption in the Korean population. The annual effective dose of 210 Po for oysters in the Korean population was found to be higher than other countries. The total annual effective dose of 210Po 210 Po due to consumption of oysters and mussels consumed in Korea was found to be 76±42 μSv·y -1 , accounting for 28±16% of the total effective dose of 210 Po from food in Korea

  2. The Effects of Inter-annual Climate Variability on the Departures of Leatherback Marine Turtles from the California Current Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zerr, Vanessa E

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean is a highly variable environment, and changes in oceanographic conditions impact the distributions of many organisms. Inter-annual climate variability, especially the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, is known to have wide-ranging impacts on organisms in the California Current. Understanding the factors that drive changes in the spatial ecology of organisms, such as inter-annual climate variability, is essential in many cases for effective conservation. Leatherback marine turtle...

  3. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH OF STABILIZED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELEA. I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the omnipresence of the electromagnetic field are certain and recognized. Assessing as accurately as possible these effects, which characterize random phenomena require the use of statistical-probabilistic calculation. This paper aims at assessing the probability of exceeding the admissible values of the characteristic sizes of the electromagnetic field - magnetic induction and electric field strength. The first part justifies the need for concern and specifies how to approach it. The mathematical model of approach and treatment is presented in the second part of the paper and the results obtained with reference to 14 power stations are synthesized in the third part. In the last part, are formulated the conclusions of the evaluations.

  4. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the Lebanese diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreddine, L.; Hwalla, N.; El Samad, O.; Baydoun, R.; Hamze, M.; Parent-Massin, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since the primary factor contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism is contaminated food, the control of radionuclides in food represents the most important means of protection. This study was conducted to determine the levels of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to gamma-emitting radioisotopes. The activity concentrations of gamma-emitting radioisotopes have been measured in food samples that represent the market basket of an adult urban population in Lebanon. The artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was measured above detection limits in only fish, meat and milk-based deserts. The most abundant natural radionuclide was 40 K (31-121 Bq kg -1 ), with the highest content in fish and meat samples. The annual mean effective dose contributed by 40 K in the reference typical diet was estimated equal to 186 μSv y -1 , a value reasonably consistent with findings reported by several other countries. (authors)

  5. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1988 - March 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the research activities of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in the fiscal year 1988. Outcome of the work is presented, covering the two major workshops for 'immunology' and for 'radiation-induced carcinogenesis' which were held in Hiroshima on November 28-29, 1988, and on March 16-18, 1989, respectively. Study meeting of 'medical radiation research program' and Japan-the U.S. joint meeting of 'DS 86' are reported, as well as the other scientific lectures and campus study seminars. Included are research abstracts published by the Research Foundation staff. The bibliography of papers, published in scientific journals and presented in scientific meetings, is provided. Appendices give the details of the aforementioned workshops, the continuing research issues, and the personnel list of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. (N.K.)

  6. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies.

  7. Evaluation of indoor radon equilibrium factor using CFD modeling and resulting annual effective dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, R.; Oufni, L.

    2018-04-01

    The equilibrium factor is an important parameter for reasonably estimating the population dose from radon. However, the equilibrium factor value depended mainly on the ventilation rate and the meteorological factors. Therefore, this study focuses on investigating numerically the influence of the ventilation rate, temperature and humidity on equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny. The numerical results showed that ventilation rate, temperature and humidity have significant impacts on indoor equilibrium factor. The variations of equilibrium factor with the ventilation, temperature and relative humidity are discussed. Moreover, the committed equivalent doses due to 218Po and 214Po radon short-lived progeny were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of indoor air. The annual effective dose due to radon short lived progeny from the inhalation of indoor air by the members of the public was investigated.

  8. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1992 - March 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an annual report concerning research activities and achievement in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan during the period April 1, 1992-March 31, 1993. Twenty-nine reports, including integrated report on the incidence of solid tumors (surveyed during the period 1958-1987) and the report on the incidence of leukemia (surveyed during the period 1950-1987), were approved in the fiscal year 1992. The present report deals with scientific achievement of each division of RERF; various activities including international cooperation programs, disease monitoring workshop, lectures, and in-house seminars; abstracts of new research topics, achievement reports, and review reports; a list of publications and presentations by staff members in academic meetings; and RERF organization affairs including activities, financial aspects, and a list of visitors to RERF. An Appendix gives the proceedings; a brief summary of disease monitoring workshop; ongoing and completed research topics; and a list of RERF personnel. (N.K.)

  9. Metallurgical source-contribution analysis of PM10 annual average concentration: A dispersion modeling approach in moravian-silesian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jančík

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to present analysis of metallurgical industry contribution to annual average PM10 concentrations in Moravian-Silesian based on means of the air pollution modelling in accord with the Czech reference methodology SYMOS´97.

  10. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma.

  11. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma

  12. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and greater sage-grouse: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; David A. Pyke; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mike Pellant; Chad S. Boyd; Steven B. Campbell; Shawn Espinosa; Douglas W. Havlina; Kenneth E. Mayer; Amarina Wuenschel

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2...

  13. Incorporating seeds in activated carbon pellets limits herbicide effects to seeded bunchgrasses when controlling exotic annuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revegetation of exotic annual grass-invaded rangeland with pre-emergent herbicides is challenging because seeding is delayed until herbicide toxicity has diminished, but at this time, exotic annuals can be re-invading. Incorporating seeds into activated carbon pellets may allow seeding to occur at t...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF THE SETTLEMENTS LOCATED IN THE TERRITORIES CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalogue of the average annual effective exposure doses of the inhabitants of the territories contaminated due to the Chernobul accident had been developed according to the method of the assessment of the average annual effective exposure doses of the settlements inhabitants. The cost-efficacy of the use of the average annual effective dose assessment method was 250 000 USD for the current 5 years. Average annual effective dose exceeded 1 mSv/year for 191 Belarus settlements from 2613. About 50 000 persons are living in these settlements.

  15. Effect of Process Approach to Writing on Senior Secondary Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Process Approach to Writing on Senior Secondary Students' ... The study adopted a quasi-experimental non equivalent pretest-posttest research design. ... Key words: process approach, product approach, essay, writing, achievement.

  16. Novel approach to analyzing the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, O; Cleland, M R

    2006-01-01

    Cancer incidence of ionizing radiations exposure is considered to be proportional to the absorbed dose. However, there are disagreements between substantial amounts of epidemiological studies. In this study, we question the basic relationship of the risk estimate with total accumulated dose, and reanalyse available data on the basis of a daily dose concept. The data analysed were relative mortality risk from all cancers vs. total-body dose on a daily basis. References have been selected on the basis of objective criteria. We found that this relationship removes major discrepancies. It revises estimates of low-level exposures, with consequences regarding nuclear power plants safety, wastes management, medical applications or homeland security. The idea that the dose rate may have a significant impact on health effects of ionizing radiations is not new, but has always been considered as a parameter in models based on integrated dose. The novel approach in this paper is to consider the primary relevant parameter as an average of dose rate over a time period of one day. This is an argument to revise the whole philosophy in radioprotection, and place regulatory limits on specific locations instead of annual limits relevant to individual persons.

  17. Kelvin wave coupling from TIMED and GOCE: Inter/intra-annual variability and solar activity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Federico; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Doornbos, Eelco N.; Bruinsma, Sean L.

    2018-06-01

    The primary mechanism through which energy and momentum are transferred from the lower atmosphere to the thermosphere is through the generation and propagation of atmospheric waves. It is becoming increasingly evident that a few waves from the tropical wave spectrum preferentially propagate into the thermosphere and contribute to modify satellite drag. Two of the more prominent and well-established tropical waves are Kelvin waves: the eastward-propagating 3-day ultra-fast Kelvin wave (UFKW) and the eastward-propagating diurnal tide with zonal wave number 3 (DE3). In this work, Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) temperatures at 110 km and Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) neutral densities and cross-track winds near 260 km are used to demonstrate vertical coupling in this height regime due to the UFKW and DE3. Significant inter- and intra-annual variability is found in DE3 and the UFKW, with evidence of latitudinal broadening and filtering of the latitude structures with height due to the effect of dissipation and mean winds. Additionally, anti-correlation between the vertical penetration of these waves to the middle thermosphere and solar activity level is established and explained through the effect of molecular dissipation.

  18. A human factors approach to effective maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.; Shakeri, S.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally in the field of Human Factors within the nuclear industry, the focus has been to identify the potential for human errors in operating tasks, and develop strategies to prevent their occurrence, provide recovery mechanisms, and mitigate the consequences of error as appropriate. Past experience has demonstrated however a significant number of human errors within the nuclear industry occur during maintenance tasks. It is for this reason, and the fact that our nuclear power plants are ageing and increasingly in need of maintenance, that the industry must pay more attention to maintenance tasks. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for effective maintenance programs, and based upon this framework discuss an approach (an audit tool) that can be used to both design such a program, and to assess existing programs. In addition, this tool can form the basis of cost benefit decisions relating to priorities for improvements to existing programs. (author)

  19. The effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the development of emphysema in smokers assessed by annual computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Dirksen, Asger; Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on disease progression in smokers with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as assessed by annual computed tomography (CT) using lung density (LD) measurements. Two hundred and fifty-four current smokers...... (-54 mL) and placebo (-56 mL) (p = 0.89). Long-term budesonide inhalation shows a non-significant trend towards reducing the progression of emphysema as determined by the CT-derived 15th percentile lung density from annual CT scans in current smokers with moderate to severe COPD....

  20. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Effects of annual crops used for fall forage production on livestock productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversification of farm enterprises is important to maintain sustainable production systems. Systems that integrate crops and livestock may prove beneficial to each enterprise. Our objectives were to determine the effects of annual crops grazed in the fall and early-winter period on cow and calf gro...

  1. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  2. An Effective Approach to Teaching Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney

    1990-01-01

    An approach which may be useful for teaching electrochemistry in freshman college chemistry courses is presented. Discussed are the potential problems with teaching this subject and solutions provided by this approach. (CW)

  3. CO2 and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO 2 influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38 degree, but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28 degree. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18 degree due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO 2 concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28 degree, resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28 degree, and was increased by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree but decreased at 38 degree. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO 2 , butt was greater at 38 degree. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38 degree relative to 28 degree, and elevated CO 2 levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28 degree but decreased leaf area at 38 degree

  4. Assessment of annual effective dose from natural radioactivity intake through wheat grain produced in Faisalabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufail, M.; Sabiha-Javied; Akhtar, N.; Akhter, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wheat is staple food of the people of Pakistan. Phosphate fertilizers, used to increase the yield of wheat, enhance the natural radioactivity in the agricultural fields from where radionuclides are transferred to wheat grain. A study was, therefore, carried out to investigate the uptake of radioactivity by wheat grain and to determine radiation doses received by human beings from the intake of foodstuffs made of wheat grain. Wheat was grown in a highly fertilized agricultural research farm at the Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan. The activity concentration of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th was measured in soil, single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer, and wheat grain using an HPGe-based gamma-ray spectrometer. Soil to wheat grain transfer factors determined for 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th were 0.118 ± 0.021, 0.022 ± 0.004 and 0.036 ± 0.007, respectively, and the annual effective dose received by an adult person from the intake of wheat products was estimated to be 217 μSv. (author)

  5. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose of foodstuffs on the island of Tenerife (Spain))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, F.; Hernandez-Armas, J.; Catalan, A.; Fernandez-Aldecoa, J. C.; Landeras, M. I.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 26 different food types and 12 elaborated diets were analysed by low-level gamma spectrometry to measure their content of 238 U( 234 Th), 228 Ra( 228 Ac), 226 Ra( 214 Pb), 210 Pb, 137 Cs and 40 K. The concentrations of these radionuclides measured in some imported foodstuffs were compared with those measured in some locally produced ones. Moreover, the concentrations found in the analysed foodstuffs and composite diets were compared with the data available in literature from other locations, such as Egypt (Brazil)) (Poland)) and Hong Kong. 40 K contributed highest to the daily dose produced by the intake of comestibles. The largest 40 K concentrations were measured in the chickpeas and beans with 380 ± 30 and 380 ± 20 Bq kg -1 fresh weights, respectively. The artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was measured only above detection limits in the potatoes and sweet potatoes. A mean annual effective dose of 362 μSv with a standard deviation of 110 μSv was calculated from the composite diets. (authors)

  6. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1991 - March 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is an annual report concerning research activities and achievement in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan during the period April 1, 1991-March 31, 1992. During this period, 25 publications were approved, including some epoch studies (such as the life span study that revealed a significant increase of cardiovascular disease of A-bomb survivors and the study on thyroid cancer). The present report deals with scientific achievement of each division of RERF; various activities including international cooperation programs, workshop, lectures, and in-house seminars; abstracts of new research topics, achievement reports, and review reports; a list of publications and presentations by staff members in academic meetings; and RERF organization affairs including activities, financial aspects, a list of visitors to RERF. An Appendix gives the proceedings; a brief summary of the workshop on 'the application of molecular genetics to the study of mutation in the children of A-bomb survivors' held in November 12-14, 1991; both ongoing and completed research topics as of March 31, 1992; and a list of RERF personnel. (N.K.)

  7. Effects of lakes and reservoirs on annual river nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export in agricultural and forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Stephen M.; Robertson, Dale M.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, effects of lakes and reservoirs on river nutrient export have been incorporated into landscape biogeochemical models. Because annual export varies with precipitation, there is a need to examine the biogeochemical role of lakes and reservoirs over time frames that incorporate interannual variability in precipitation. We examined long-term (~20 years) time series of river export (annual mass yield, Y, and flow-weighted mean annual concentration, C) for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total suspended sediment (TSS) from 54 catchments in Wisconsin, USA. Catchments were classified as small agricultural, large agricultural, and forested by use of a cluster analysis, and these varied in lentic coverage (percentage of catchment lake or reservoir water that was connected to river network). Mean annual export and interannual variability (CV) of export (for both Y and C) were higher in agricultural catchments relative to forested catchments for TP, TN, and TSS. In both agricultural and forested settings, mean and maximum annual TN yields were lower in the presence of lakes and reservoirs, suggesting lentic denitrification or N burial. There was also evidence of long-term lentic TP and TSS retention, especially when viewed in terms of maximum annual yield, suggesting sedimentation during high loading years. Lentic catchments had lower interannual variability in export. For TP and TSS, interannual variability in mass yield was often >50% higher than interannual variability in water yield, whereas TN variability more closely followed water (discharge) variability. Our results indicate that long-term mass export through rivers depends on interacting terrestrial, aquatic, and meteorological factors in which the presence of lakes and reservoirs can reduce the magnitude of export, stabilize interannual variability in export, as well as introduce export time lags.

  8. How to calculate the annual costs of NGO-implemented programmes to support orphans and vulnerable children: a six-step approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce A; Wambua, Nancy

    2011-12-19

    Information on the costs of implementing programmes designed to provide support of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere is increasingly being requested by donors for programme evaluation purposes. To date, little information exists to document the costs and structure of costs of OVC programmes as actually implemented "on the ground" by local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This analysis provides a practical, six-step approach that NGOs can incorporate into routine operations to evaluate their costs of implementing their OVC programmes annually. This approach is applied to the Community-Based Care for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (CBCO) Program implemented by BIDII (a Kenyan NGO) in Eastern Province of Kenya. The costing methodology involves the following six steps: accessing and organizing the NGO's annual financial report into logical sub-categories; reorganizing the sub-categories into input cost categories to create a financial cost profile; estimating the annual equivalent payment for programme equipment; documenting donations to the NGO for programme implementation; including a portion of NGO organizational costs not attributed to specific programmes; and including the results of Steps 3-5 into an expanded cost profile. Detailed results are provided for the CBCO programme. This paper shows through a concrete example how NGOs implementing OVC programmes (and other public health programmes) can organize themselves for data collection and documentation prospectively during the implementation of their OVC programmes so that costing analyses become routine practice to inform programme implementation rather than a painful and flawed retrospective activity. Such information is required if the costs and outcomes achieved by OVC programmes will ever be clearly documented and compared across OVC programmes and other types of programmes (prevention, treatment, etc.).

  9. Determination of indoor radon concentration levels and the associated annual effective dose rate in some Ghanaian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsiah-Akoto, I.

    2010-01-01

    Radon and its decay products in indoor air are the main source of natural internal irradiation of man. In this present work, the indoor radon concentration, the annual exposure, the annual effective dose and the annual dose equivalent to the lung received by the population were estimated in the dwellings at Dome in the Ga-East District of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana using time-integrated passive radon detectors; LR-115 Type II solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) technique. The primary objective of this project was to assess the annual effective dose rate due to the indoor radon concentration levels and the associated level of risk. Measurements were carried out from December 2009 to March 2010. After the 3 months exposure, the detectors were subjected to chemical etching in a 2.5M analytical grade sodium hydroxide solution at (60 ±1) o C, for 90mins in a constant temperature water bath to enlarge the latent tracks produced by alpha particles from the decay of radon. The etched tracks were magnified using the microfiche reader and counted with a tally counter. The mean indoor radon concentration was found to be (466.9±1.2) Bqm -3 and the mean annual exposure was (2.03±0.08) WLM. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.4 and 0.4 for equilibrium factor for radon indoors, we found out that the mean Rn-222 effective dose rate and the annual equivalent dose rate to the lung in the present study dwellings was (14.13±0.22)mSvy -1 and (3.74 E-07 ±3.50 E-06)Svy -1 respectively. The mean values of radon concentrations at Dome, Kwabenya, Biakpa, and South-Eastern part of Ghana, Prestea and Kassena-Nakana District in the previous research ranged from (9.4±0.5) to (518.7±4.0) Bqm -3 . The mean annual exposure, annual effective dose rate and the annual equivalent for the previous work ranged from (0.04±0.03)WLM to (0.58±0.05)WLM, (0.28±0.08) to (15.54±0.69mSvy -1 ), (8.23E-12±4.33E-07) to (4.15E-07± 1.13E-04) respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) for lung

  10. Projecting pest population dynamics under global warming: the combined effect of inter- and intra-annual variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidon, Royi; Tsueda, Hirotsugu; Morin, Efrat; Morin, Shai

    2016-06-01

    The typical short generation length of insects makes their population dynamics highly sensitive not only to mean annual temperatures but also to their intra-annual variations. To consider the combined effect of both thermal factors under global warming, we propose a modeling framework that links general circulation models (GCMs) with a stochastic weather generator and population dynamics models to predict species population responses to inter- and intra-annual temperature changes. This framework was utilized to explore future changes in populations of Bemisia tabaci, an invasive insect pest-species that affects multiple agricultural systems in the Mediterranean region. We considered three locations representing different pest status and climatic conditions: Montpellier (France), Seville (Spain), and Beit-Jamal (Israel). We produced ensembles of local daily temperature realizations representing current and future (mid-21st century) climatic conditions under two emission scenarios for the three locations. Our simulations predicted a significant increase in the average number of annual generations and in population size, and a significant lengthening of the growing season in all three locations. A negative effect was found only in Seville for the summer season, where future temperatures lead to a reduction in population size. High variability in population size was observed between years with similar annual mean temperatures, suggesting a strong effect of intra-annual temperature variation. Critical periods were from late spring to late summer in Montpellier and from late winter to early summer in Seville and Beit-Jamal. Although our analysis suggested that earlier seasonal activity does not necessarily lead to increased populations load unless an additional generation is produced, it is highly likely that the insect will become a significant pest of open-fields at Mediterranean latitudes above 40° during the next 50 years. Our simulations also implied that current

  11. Effective field theory approaches for tensor potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Maximilian

    2016-11-14

    Effective field theories are a widely used tool to study physical systems at low energies. We apply them to systematically analyze two and three particles interacting via tensor potentials. Two examples are addressed: pion interactions for anti D{sup 0}D{sup *0} scattering to dynamically generate the X(3872) and dipole interactions for two and three bosons at low energies. For the former, the one-pion exchange and for the latter, the long-range dipole force induce a tensor-like structure of the potential. We apply perturbative as well as non-perturbative methods to determine low-energy observables. The X(3872) is of major interest in modern high-energy physics. Its exotic characteristics require approaches outside the range of the quark model for baryons and mesons. Effective field theories represent such methods and provide access to its peculiar nature. We interpret the X(3872) as a hadronic molecule consisting of neutral D and D{sup *} mesons. It is possible to apply an effective field theory with perturbative pions. Within this framework, we address chiral as well as finite volume extrapolations for low-energy observables, such as the binding energy and the scattering length. We show that the two-point correlation function for the D{sup *0} meson has to be resummed to cure infrared divergences. Moreover, next-to-leading order coupling constants, which were introduced by power counting arguments, appear to be essential to renormalize the scattering amplitude. The binding energy as well as the scattering length display a moderate dependence on the light quark masses. The X(3872) is most likely deeper bound for large light quark masses. In a finite volume on the other hand, the binding energy significantly increases. The dependence on the light quark masses and the volume size can be simultaneously obtained. For bosonic dipoles we apply a non-perturbative, numerical approach. We solve the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the two-dipole system and the Faddeev

  12. [Factors Associated with Stress Check Attendance: Possible Effect of Timing of Annual Health Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hattori, Michihiro; Nagata, Masako; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Watanabe, Seiji; Mori, Koji

    2018-01-01

    The stress check program has been part of annual employees' health screening since 2015. Employees are recommended, but not obliged, to undergo the stress check offered. This study was designed to examine the factors associated with stress check attendance. A total of 31,156 Japanese employees who underwent an annual health examination and a stress check service at an Occupational Health Service Center in 2016 participated in this study. Data from the annual health examination and stress check service included stress check attendance, date of attendance (if implemented), gender, age, workplace industry, number of employees at the workplace, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The mean rate of stress check attendance was 90.8%. A higher rate of stress check attendance was associated with a lower duration from the annual health examination, age ≥30 years, construction and transport industry, and 50-999 employees at the workplace. A lower rate of stress check attendance was associated with medical and welfare industry and ≥1,000 employees at the workplace. These findings provide insights into developing strategies for improving the rate of stress check attendance. In particular, stress check attendance may improve if the stress check service and annual health examination are conducted simultaneously.

  13. Differentiating Performance Approach Goals and Their Unique Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ordene V.

    2014-01-01

    The study differentiates between two types of performance approach goals (competence demonstration performance approach goal and normative performance approach goal) by examining their unique effects on self-efficacy, interest, and fear of failure. Seventy-nine students completed questionnaires that measure performance approach goals,…

  14. Effect of realistic astrophysical inputs on the phase and shape of the weakly interacting massive particles annual modulation signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Anne M.

    2003-01-01

    The orbit of the Earth about the Sun produces an annual modulation in the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) direct detection rate. If the local WIMP velocity distribution is isotropic then the modulation is roughly sinusoidal with maximum in June; however, if the velocity distribution is anisotropic the phase and shape of the signal can change. Motivated by conflicting claims about the effect of uncertainties in the local velocity distribution on the interpretation of the DAMA annual modulation signal (and the possibility that the form of the modulation could be used to probe the structure of the Milky Way halo), we study the dependence of the annual modulation on various astrophysical inputs. We first examine the approximations used for the Earth's motion about the Sun and the Sun's velocity with respect to the Galactic rest frame. We find that overly simplistic assumptions lead to errors of up to ten days in the phase and up to tens of percent in the shape of the signal, even if the velocity distribution is isotropic. Crucially, if the components of the Earth's velocity perpendicular to the motion of the Sun are neglected, then the change in the phase which occurs for anisotropic velocity distributions is missed. We then examine how the annual modulation signal varies for physically and observationally well-motivated velocity distributions. We find that the phase of the signal changes by up to 20 days and the mean value and amplitude change by up to tens of percent

  15. Annual Fire, Mowing and Fertilization Effects on Two Cicada Species (Homoptera: Cicadidae) in Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Matt R. Whiles; John M. Blair

    2002-01-01

    In tallgrass prairie, cicadas emerge annually, are abundant and their emergence can be an important flux of energy and nutrients. However, factors influencing the distribution and abundance of these cicadas are virtually unknown. We examined cicada emergence in plots from a long-term (13 y) experimental manipulation involving common tallgrass prairie management...

  16. Effect of length of measurement period on accuracy of predicted annual heating energy consumption of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Tae; Tae, Choon-Soeb; Zaheeruddin, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the temperature dependent regression models of energy consumption as a function of the length of the measurement period. The methodology applied was to construct linear regression models of daily energy consumption from 1 day to 3 months data sets and compare the annual heating energy consumption predicted by these models with actual annual heating energy consumption. A commercial building in Daejon was selected, and the energy consumption was measured over a heating season. The results from the investigation show that the predicted energy consumption based on 1 day of measurements to build the regression model could lead to errors of 100% or more. The prediction error decreased to 30% when 1 week of data was used to build the regression model. Likewise, the regression model based on 3 months of measured data predicted the annual energy consumption within 6% of the measured energy consumption. These analyses show that the length of the measurement period has a significant impact on the accuracy of the predicted annual energy consumption of buildings

  17. 2008 annual nuclear technology conference: opting out of the use of nuclear power. German special approach leads into a dead end of energy policy. Conference report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The President of the Deutsches Atomforum, Dr. Walter Hohlefelder, emphasized in his opening address at the 2008 Annual Nuclear Technology Conference in Hamburg that the German special approach to nuclear power utilization led straight into a dead end of energy policy. ''The outcome is foreseeable: The ambitious German goals of carbon dioxide reduction are missed, the competitiveness of the country is jeopardized, dependency on foreign energy imports rises,'' Dr. Hohlefelder stated. In view of the growing challenges in energy policy Germany had no alternative but to reassess nuclear power. The only outcome of this reappraisal could be extension of the life of nuclear power plants currently in operation. This was necessary also in order to avoid an impending gap in German electricity supply, Dr. Hohlefelder added. He invited all stakeholders to join in an open, unbiased dialog. Dr. Hohlefelder openly criticized the continued ban on research into the development of new reactors. ''A policy of this kind, a policy which bans thinking, is unacceptable in a technology-oriented, industrialized nation such as Germany.'' Nuclear power technology as a high-tech area was a unique achievement which had contributed to the prosperity of the country. The Annual Nuclear Technology Conference, which was held for the 39th time this year, is one of the biggest specialized conferences in the nuclear field with an attendance, this year, of approximately 1300 participants from more than twenty nations. (orig.)

  18. radioactivity analysis in food-stuffs and evaluation of annual effective doses from intakes of radionuclides through daily diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.N.; Chowdhury, M. I.; Kamal, M.; Ghose, S.; Islam, M. N.; Mustafa, M. N.; Islam, Al Amin S.

    1996-01-01

    The concentrations of natural and anthropogenic gamma emitting radionuclides in different vegetables, grains,fishes, sugar and common salt samples were measured by using high purity germanium ( HPGe ) detector coupled with Personal Computer Analyzer ( PCA ) and thereby the effective doses from the consumption of these diet were evaluated. The activities of 232 Th in vegetable, grains, salt, sugar and fish samples ranged from 0.13±0.02 to 1.49±0.32 Bq. kg -1 . The concentration of 238 U in these food-stuffs ranged from 0.07±0.01 to 0.95±0.26 Bq Kg -1 . The observed activity of 40 K ranged between 5.04±1.05 and 196.60±41.0 Bq Kg -1 . Caesium was not detected in any of the samples, Assessment of annual intake of these radionuclides has been made on the basis of the average annual intake of these food-stuffs by the population of Bangladesh.The annual effective dose equivalent due to ingestion of different naturally occurring radionuclides ( 232 Th, 238 U, and 40 K) by intake food-stuffs ranged from 0.2 to 113.62 μ Sv. y'-1. The annual effective doses observed in the present study for various types of food-stuffs were less than the ICRP-60 (1990) recommendation, which is 1 m Sv. y -1 for the members of the public. The result and knowledge of this study, would be helpful in making a yardstick comparing with which an appropriate radiation control limit may be imposed on food materials for public consumption in Bangladesh. 1 fig., 2 tables, 13 refs. (Author)

  19. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an efficient trajectory-based approach to integrate transient pressure data into high-resolution reservoir and aquifer models. The method involves alternating travel time and peak amplitude matching of pressure response using inverse modeling and is particularly well-suited for high resolution subsurface characterization using hydraulic tomography or pressure interference tests. Compared to travel time inversion only, our proposed approach results in a significantly improved match of the pressure response at the wells and also better estimates of subsurface properties. This is accomplished with very little increase in computational cost. Utilizing the concept of a ''diffusive'' time of flight derived from an asymptotic solution of the diffusivity equation, we develop analytical approaches to estimate the sensitivities for travel time and peak amplitude of pressure response to subsurface properties. The sensitivities are then used in an iterative least-squared minimization to match the pressure data. We illustrate our approach using synthetic and field examples. In the field application at a fractured limestone formation, the predominant fracture patterns emerging from the inversion are shown to be consistent with independent geophysical experiments and borehole data

  20. Building Effective Collaboration in a Comprehensive Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essens, P.J.M.D.; Thompson, M.T.; Karrasch, A.; Jermalavičius, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Comprehensive Approach (CA) to crisis management operations is an essential element in NATO’s transformation in modern operations. At the Bucharest Summit in April 2008, Allied leaders endorsed an Action Plan for the development and implementation of NATO’s contribution to a Comprehensive

  1. Effect of gravitational focusing on annual modulation in dark-matter direct-detection experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samuel K; Lisanti, Mariangela; Peter, Annika H G; Safdi, Benjamin R

    2014-01-10

    The scattering rate in dark-matter direct-detection experiments should modulate annually due to Earth's orbit around the Sun. The rate is typically thought to be extremized around June 1, when the relative velocity of Earth with respect to the dark-matter wind is maximal. We point out that gravitational focusing can alter this modulation phase. Unbound dark-matter particles are focused by the Sun's gravitational potential, affecting their phase-space density in the lab frame. Gravitational focusing can result in a significant overall shift in the annual-modulation phase, which is most relevant for dark matter with low scattering speeds. The induced phase shift for light O(10)  GeV dark matter may also be significant, depending on the threshold energy of the experiment.

  2. Synthesis of new water-soluble metal-binding polymers: Combinatorial chemistry approach. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, M.J.; Miller, R.B.; Sawan, S.; Smith, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    '(1) Develop rapid discovery and optimization approaches to new water-soluble chelating polymers for use in Polymer Filtration (PF) systems, and (2) evaluate the concept of using water and organic soluble polymers as new solid supports for combinatorial synthesis. Polymer Filtration (PF), which uses water-soluble metal-binding polymers to sequester metal ions in dilute solution with ultrafiltration (UF) to separate the polymers, is a new technology to selectively remove or recover hazardous and valuable metal ions. Future directions in PF must include rapid development, testing, and characterization of new metal-binding polymers. Thus, the authors are building upon and adapting the combinatorial chemistry approach developed for rapid molecule generation for the drug industry to the rapid development of new chelating polymers. The authors have focused on four areas including the development of: (1) synthetic procedures, (2) small ultrafiltration equipment compatible with organic- and aqueous-based combinatorial synthesis, (3) rapid assay techniques, and (4) polymer characterization techniques.'

  3. Effect of annual and quarterly financial statement announcements on trading volume and return variability in ISE

    OpenAIRE

    Çakmak, S. Serdar

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Management and Graduate School of Business Administration of Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 22-24 Announcements of financial statement informations provide valuable signals for investors. There are evidences documenting the changes in trading volume and stock returns at the time of annual and interim financial statement announcements in comparison to those in non-announcement p...

  4. The Effects of Different Teaching Approaches in Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Bea; Nouri, Hossein; Samanta, Subarna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of the two different teaching approaches in the first accounting course on student performance in a subsequent finance course. The study compares 128 accounting and finance students who took introductory financial accounting by either a user approach or a traditional preparer approach to examine…

  5. A demographic approach to study effects of climate change in desert plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Siewert, Wolfgang; Casper, Brenda B.; Tielbörger, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Desert species respond strongly to infrequent, intense pulses of precipitation. Consequently, indigenous flora has developed a rich repertoire of life-history strategies to deal with fluctuations in resource availability. Examinations of how future climate change will affect the biota often forecast negative impacts, but these—usually correlative—approaches overlook precipitation variation because they are based on averages. Here, we provide an overview of how variable precipitation affects perennial and annual desert plants, and then implement an innovative, mechanistic approach to examine the effects of precipitation on populations of two desert plant species. This approach couples robust climatic projections, including variable precipitation, with stochastic, stage-structured models constructed from long-term demographic datasets of the short-lived Cryptantha flava in the Colorado Plateau Desert (USA) and the annual Carrichtera annua in the Negev Desert (Israel). Our results highlight these populations' potential to buffer future stochastic precipitation. Population growth rates in both species increased under future conditions: wetter, longer growing seasons for Cryptantha and drier years for Carrichtera. We determined that such changes are primarily due to survival and size changes for Cryptantha and the role of seed bank for Carrichtera. Our work suggests that desert plants, and thus the resources they provide, might be more resilient to climate change than previously thought. PMID:23045708

  6. An effective utilization management strategy by dual approach of influencing physician ordering and gate keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnenaei, Manal O; Campbell, Samuel G; Thoni, Andrea J; Lou, Amy; Crocker, Bryan D; Nassar, Bassam A

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of appropriate laboratory test utilization. We investigate the effect of a multifaceted educational approach that includes physician feedback on individual test ordering, in conjunction with targeted restriction, on the utilization of selected laboratory tests. Scientific evidence was compiled on the usefulness and limitations of tests suspected of being over utilized in our laboratories. A variety of approaches were used to deliver education on each of the targeted tests, with greater focus on primary care physicians (PCPs). Feedback on requesting behavior of these tests was also communicated to the latter group which included an educational component. Laboratory based restriction of testing was also exercised, including the unbundling of our electrolyte panel. PCP requesting patterns for the selected tests were found to be markedly skewed. The interventions implemented over the study period resulted in a substantial 51% reduction in overall ordering of five of the targeted tests equating to an annual marginal cost saving of $60,124. Unbundling of the electrolyte panel resulted in marginal cost savings that equated annually to $42,500 on chloride and $48,000 on total CO2. A multifaceted educational approach combined with feedback on utilization and laboratory driven gate-keeping significantly reduced the number of laboratory tests suspected of being redundant or unjustifiably requested. Laboratory professionals are well positioned to manage demand on laboratory tests by utilizing evidence base in developing specific test ordering directives and gate-keeping rules. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  8. Trend Change Detection in NDVI Time Series: Effects of Inter-Annual Variability and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Verbesselt, Jan; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Neigh, Christopher S.R.; Reichstein, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Changing trends in ecosystem productivity can be quantified using satellite observations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the estimation of trends from NDVI time series differs substantially depending on analyzed satellite dataset, the corresponding spatiotemporal resolution, and the applied statistical method. Here we compare the performance of a wide range of trend estimation methods and demonstrate that performance decreases with increasing inter-annual variability in the NDVI time series. Trend slope estimates based on annual aggregated time series or based on a seasonal-trend model show better performances than methods that remove the seasonal cycle of the time series. A breakpoint detection analysis reveals that an overestimation of breakpoints in NDVI trends can result in wrong or even opposite trend estimates. Based on our results, we give practical recommendations for the application of trend methods on long-term NDVI time series. Particularly, we apply and compare different methods on NDVI time series in Alaska, where both greening and browning trends have been previously observed. Here, the multi-method uncertainty of NDVI trends is quantified through the application of the different trend estimation methods. Our results indicate that greening NDVI trends in Alaska are more spatially and temporally prevalent than browning trends. We also show that detected breakpoints in NDVI trends tend to coincide with large fires. Overall, our analyses demonstrate that seasonal trend methods need to be improved against inter-annual variability to quantify changing trends in ecosystem productivity with higher accuracy.

  9. Variability of the western Galician upwelling system (NW Spain) during an intensively sampled annual cycle. An EOF analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J. L.; Rosón, G.; Varela, R. A.; Piedracoba, S.

    2008-07-01

    The key features of the western Galician shelf hydrography and dynamics are analyzed on a solid statistical and experimental basis. The results allowed us to gather together information dispersed in previous oceanographic works of the region. Empirical orthogonal functions analysis and a canonical correlation analysis were applied to a high-resolution dataset collected from 47 surveys done on a weekly frequency from May 2001 to May 2002. The main results of these analyses are summarized bellow. Salinity, temperature and the meridional component of the residual current are correlated with the relevant local forcings (the meridional coastal wind component and the continental run-off) and with a remote forcing (the meridional temperature gradient at latitude 37°N). About 80% of the salinity and temperature total variability over the shelf, and 37% of the residual meridional current total variability are explained by two EOFs for each variable. Up to 22% of the temperature total variability and 14% of the residual meridional current total variability is devoted to the set up of cross-shore gradients of the thermohaline properties caused by the wind-induced Ekman transport. Up to 11% and 10%, respectively, is related to the variability of the meridional temperature gradient at the Western Iberian Winter Front. About 30% of the temperature total variability can be explained by the development and erosion of the seasonal thermocline and by the seasonal variability of the thermohaline properties of the central waters. This thermocline presented unexpected low salinity values due to the trapping during spring and summer of the high continental inputs from the River Miño recorded in 2001. The low salinity plumes can be traced on the Galician shelf during almost all the annual cycle; they tend to be extended throughout the entire water column under downwelling conditions and concentrate in the surface layer when upwelling favourable winds blow. Our evidences point to the

  10. The effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the development of emphysema in smokers assessed by annual computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Saher B; Dirksen, Asger; Ulrik, Charlotte S; Hestad, Marianne; Stavngaard, Trine; Laursen, Lars C; Maltbaek, Niels; Clementsen, Paul; Skjaerbaek, Nanna; Nielsen, Lars; Stoel, Berend; Skovgaard, Lene T; Tonnesen, Philip

    2009-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on disease progression in smokers with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as assessed by annual computed tomography (CT) using lung density (LD) measurements. Two hundred and fifty-four current smokers with COPD were randomised to treatment with either an inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), budesonide 400 microg bid, or placebo. COPD was defined as FEV(1) < or = 70% pred, FEV(1)/FVC < or = 60% and no reversibility to beta(2)-agonists and oral corticosteroids. The patients were followed for 2-4 years with biannual spirometry and annual CT and comprehensive lung function tests (LFT). CT images were analysed using Pulmo-CMS software. LD was derived from a pixel-density histogram of the whole lung as the 15th percentile density (PD15) and the relative area of emphysema at a threshold of -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910), and both were volume-adjusted to predicted total lung capacity. At baseline, mean age was 64 years and 64 years; mean number of pack-years was 56 and 56; mean FEV(1) was 1.53 L (51% pred) and 1.53 L (53% pred); mean PD15 was 103 g/L and 104 g/L; and mean RA-910 was 14% and 13%, respectively, for the budesonide and placebo groups. The annual fall in PD15 was -1.12 g/L in the budesonide group and -1.81 g/L in the placebo group (p = 0.09); the annual increase in RA-910 was 0.4% in the budesonide group and 1.1% in the placebo group (p = 0.02). There was no difference in annual decline in FEV(1) between ICS (-54 mL) and placebo (-56 mL) (p = 0.89). Long-term budesonide inhalation shows a non-significant trend towards reducing the progression of emphysema as determined by the CT-derived 15th percentile lung density from annual CT scans in current smokers with moderate to severe COPD.

  11. Effect on the annual atmospheric dispersion factor of different diffusion parameters and meteorological data at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Yan Jiangyu; Wang Han; Xin Cuntian

    2003-01-01

    Based on the hourly metrological observing data of 100 m high tower during 1997-1999 at Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site and 1995-1997 in Fujian Huian NPP site, the effect on the annual atmospheric dispersion factor (AADF) of four different diffusion parameters (on-site measuring values, IAEA's, Briggs's and Pasquill's) are estimated. The analysis shows that the deviation between the results from IAEA's, Briggs's and on-site measured diffusion parameters is less than 20%. The effect on the AADF from different years' meteorological data also is estimated. (authors)

  12. Effect of climate warming on the annual terrestrial net ecosystem CO2 exchange globally in the boreal and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Renduo; Cescatti, Alessandro; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Buchmann, Nina; Zhu, Juan; Chen, Guanhong; Moyano, Fernando; Pumpanen, Jukka; Hirano, Takashi; Takagi, Kentaro; Merbold, Lutz

    2017-06-08

    The net ecosystem CO 2 exchange is the result of the imbalance between the assimilation process (gross primary production, GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE). The aim of this study was to investigate temperature sensitivities of these processes and the effect of climate warming on the annual terrestrial net ecosystem CO 2 exchange globally in the boreal and temperate regions. A database of 403 site-years of ecosystem flux data at 101 sites in the world was collected and analyzed. Temperature sensitivities of rates of RE and GPP were quantified with Q 10 , defined as the increase of RE (or GPP) rates with a temperature rise of 10 °C. Results showed that on the annual time scale, the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of GPP (Q 10sG ) was higher than or equivalent to the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of RE (Q 10sR ). Q 10sG was negatively correlated to the mean annual temperature (MAT), whereas Q 10sR was independent of MAT. The analysis of the current temperature sensitivities and net ecosystem production suggested that temperature rise might enhance the CO 2 sink of terrestrial ecosystems both in the boreal and temperate regions. In addition, ecosystems in these regions with different plant functional types should sequester more CO 2 with climate warming.

  13. A systemic approach to modelling of radiobiological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaturov, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Basic principles of the systemic approach to modelling of the radiobiological effects at different levels of cell organization have been formulated. The methodology is proposed for theoretical modelling of the effects at these levels

  14. Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.

    2010-01-01

    As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…

  15. Canadian and international approaches to regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojk, R.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory effectiveness is an important attribute of any regulator, particularly nuclear regulators. As the nuclear industry has matured, and as the social landscape has changed, so have views on what constitutes regulatory effectiveness. Canada has evolved its regulatory structure and modernized its legislative framework and technical requirements and guidance over time. In addition, Canada continues to collaborate with international agencies, particularly the NEA and the IAEA, to ensure that there is a common understanding of the indicators and key attributes of regulatory effectiveness. This paper discusses Canadian and international views on the subject, including perspectives from other industries. (author)

  16. Dynamic effects of tank waste aging on radionuclide-complexant interactions. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterburn, J.B.; Chamberlin, R.

    1998-01-01

    'The overall objective of this project is to provide a scientific basis for safely processing complexant-containing high-level tank wastes for disposal. The key goals are to identify a means to prepare realistic complexant-containing tank waste simulants, and to use those simulants to determine the relative importance of organic complexants and their breakdown products on the partitioning of important radionuclides. These goals will be accomplished by artificially aging complexant-containing tank waste simulants using microwave, ultrasound, and photolysis techniques. The simulants will be compared to samples of actual Hanford tank wastes to determine the most realistic aging method, on the basis of the organic fragmentation and the partitioning behavior of the important radionuclides 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and 239 Pu. Also, the authors will use their simulant aging process to investigate the relative effects of chelator degradation products on the partitioning of important radionuclides from the waste. Using NMR-active labels in the chelators, they will use a combinatorial approach of generating multiple chelator fragments in a single experiment and then determining which fragments have a negative effect on the separations chemistry. The successful completion of this goal will specifically identify the most problematic organic fragments in complexant-containing waste and provide the basis for developing successful treatment strategies for these wastes. This report summarizes work carried out at Los Alamos during the first 8 months of a 3-year project.'

  17. Annual mean effective dose of Slovak population due to natural radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanekova, H.

    2006-01-01

    volume of the samples. For the typical building materials of Slovak construction industry has been estimated the average volume activity (brick: 40 K: 660.1 Bq.kg-1, 226 Ra: 63.5 Bq.kg-1, 232 Th: 71.3 Bq.kg-1, A ekv : 216.3 Bq.kg-1; concrete: 40 K: 322.6 Bq.kg-1, 226 Ra: 46.1 Bq.kg-1, 232 Th: 29.0 Bq.kg-1, A ekv : 216,3 Bq.kg-1). Indoor radiation exposure of the population due to external exposure from natural radionuclides has been determined for a standard room (5 x 5 x 2.8 m) and for assuming that the mean occupancy indoors is 80%. Using a special calculation model there was received the annual mean effective dose from natural radionuclides in two typical Slovak dwellings for brick houses: 0.87 mSv.y-1 and for houses from concrete panels: 0.31 mSv.y-1. (author)

  18. Annual age-grouping and athlete development: a meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, Stephen; Baker, Joseph; Wattie, Nick; McKenna, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Annual age-grouping is a common organizational strategy in sport. However, such a strategy appears to promote relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs refer both to the immediate participation and long-term attainment constraints in sport, occurring as a result of chronological age and associated physical (e.g. height) differences as well as selection practices in annual age-grouped cohorts. This article represents the first meta-analytical review of RAEs, aimed to collectively determine (i) the overall prevalence and strength of RAEs across and within sports, and (ii) identify moderator variables. A total of 38 studies, spanning 1984-2007, containing 253 independent samples across 14 sports and 16 countries were re-examined and included in a single analysis using odds ratios and random effects procedures for combining study estimates. Overall results identified consistent prevalence of RAEs, but with small effect sizes. Effect size increased linearly with relative age differences. Follow-up analyses identified age category, skill level and sport context as moderators of RAE magnitude. Sports context involving adolescent (aged 15-18 years) males, at the representative (i.e. regional and national) level in highly popular sports appear most at risk to RAE inequalities. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAEs magnify and subside, as well as confirm whether RAEs exist in female and more culturally diverse contexts. To reduce and eliminate this social inequality from influencing athletes' experiences, especially within developmental periods, direct policy, organizational and practitioner intervention is required.

  19. Energy Absorbing Effectiveness – Different Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotełko Maria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the study of different crashworthiness indicators used to evaluate energy absorbing effectiveness of thin-walled energy absorbers is presented. Several different indicators are used to assess an effectiveness of two types of absorbing structures, namely thin-walled prismatic column with flaws and thin-walled prismatic frustum (hollow or foam filled in both cases subjected to axial compressive impact load. The indicators are calculated for different materials and different geometrical parameters. The problem of selection of the most appropriate and general indicators is discussed.

  20. Physical and Biogeochemical Controls of the Phytoplankton Blooms in North Western Mediterranean Sea: A Multiplatform Approach Over a Complete Annual Cycle (2012-2013 DEWEX Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayot, Nicolas; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Prieur, Louis; de Fommervault, Orens Pasqueron; Claustre, Hervé; Bosse, Anthony; Testor, Pierre; Conan, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    The North Western Mediterranean Sea exhibits recurrent and significant autumnal and spring phytoplankton blooms. The existence of these two blooms coincides with typical temperate dynamics. To determine the potential control of physical and biogeochemical factors on these phytoplankton blooms, data from a multiplatform approach (combining ships, Argo and BGC-Argo floats, and bio-optical gliders) were analyzed in association with satellite observations in 2012-2013. The satellite framework allowed a simultaneous analysis over the whole annual cycle of in situ observations of mixed layer depth, photosynthetical available radiation, particle backscattering, nutrients (nitrate and silicate), and chlorophyll-a concentrations. During the year 2012-2013, satellite ocean color observations, confirmed by in situ data, have revealed the existence of two areas (or bioregions) with comparable autumnal blooms but contrasting spring blooms. In both bioregions, the ratio of the euphotic zone (defined as the isolume 0.415 mol photons m-2 d-1, Z0.415) and the MLD identified the initiation of the autumnal bloom, as well as the maximal annual increase in [Chl-a] in spring. In fact, the autumnal phytoplankton bloom might be initiated by mixing of the summer shallowing deep chlorophyll maximum, while the spring restratification (when Z0.415/MLD ratio became >1) might induce surface phytoplankton production that largely overcomes the losses. Finally, winter deep convection events that took place in one of the bioregions induced higher net accumulation rate of phytoplankton in spring associated with a diatom-dominated phytoplankton community principally. We suggest that very deep winter MLD lead to an increase in surface silicates availability, which favored the development of diatoms.

  1. Iterative approach to effective interactions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    Starting from a non-linear equation for the effective interaction in a model space, various iteration procedures converge to a correct solution irrespective of the presence of intruder states. The physical significance of the procedures and the respective solution is discussed

  2. Effect of D2O on growth properties and chemical structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Bali, Garima [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Reeves, David T [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Sun, Qining [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Shah, Riddhi S [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    In present paper, we report the production and detailed structural analysis of deuterium-enriched rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) for neutron scattering experiments. An efficient method to produce deuterated biomass was developed by designing hydroponic perfusion chambers. In preliminary studies, the partial deuterated rye samples were grown in increasing levels of D2O to study the seed germination and the level of deuterium incorporation as a function of D2O concentration. Solution NMR method indicated 36.9 % deuterium incorporation in 50 % D2O grown annual rye samples and further significant increase in the deuterium incorporation level was observed by germinating the rye seedlings in H2O and growing in 50 % D2O inside the perfusion chambers. Moreover, in an effort to compare the substrate characteristics related to enzymatic hydrolysis on deuterated and protiated version of biomass, annual rye grown in 50 % D2O was selected for detailed biomass characterization studies. The compositional analyses, degree of polymerization and cellulose crystallinity were compared with its protiated control. The cellulose molecular weight indicated slight variation with deuteration; however, hemicellulose molecular weights and cellulose crystallinity remain unaffected with the deuteration. Besides the minor differences in biomass components, the development of deuterated biomass for neutron scattering application is essential to understand the complex biomass conversion processes.

  3. 14. Annual meeting of the European Society of Radiobiology and the symposium of the European Late Effects Project Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.

    1979-03-01

    In October 1978 the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the European Society of Radiation Biology (ESRB) and a symposium of the European Late Effects Project Group (EULEP) were held consecutively at the Kernforchungsanlage (KFA), Julich, FDR. The EULEP meeting was convened to specifically discuss the biological basis of the recommendations of publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The programme of the ESRB Meeting also reflected the present interest in radiological protection. A short summary of these meetings is presented. Details of the two meetings are given in appendices which should form an introduction to, and resume of, recent developments in this field. (author)

  4. Determination of radon concentration in drinking water resources of villages nearby Lalehzar fault and evaluation the annual effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Malakootian; Zahra Darabi Fard; Mojtaba Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    The radon concentration has been measured in 44 drinking water resources, in villages nearby Lalehzar fault in winter 2014. Some samples showed a higher concentration of radon surpassing limit set by EPA. Further, a sample was taken from water distribution networks for these sources of water. Soluble radon concentration was measured by RAD7 device. Range radon concentration was 26.88 and 0.74 BqL -1 respectively. The maximum and minimum annual effective dose for adults was estimated at 52.7 and 2.29 µSvY -1 , respectively. Reducing radon from water before use is recommended to improve public health. (author)

  5. Do Annual Stock Price Effects of Extreme Cash Dividend Pay-Out Events Differ from Their Short Term Effects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eije, Johan; Muckley, Cal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the long-term stock price impact of 1327 cash dividend payment initiations and 1156 cash dividend payment omissions of firms listed on the NYSE and the NASDAQ, from 1972 to 2012. In particular we compare the annual returns of dividend initiating and omitting firms and firms

  6. Plant rhizosphere effects on metal mobilization and transport. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, D.E.; Fan, T.W.M.; Higashi, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    'During the funding period of 1996--1997, the authors explored the utility of multi-nuclear, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for a comprehensive analysis of barley root exudates collected under Fe sufficient and deficient conditions. As both structural and quantitative information was obtained directly from crude root exudates using this approach, no tedious sample fractionation was necessary, which will greatly facilitate future chemical characterization of root exudates in general. They found that the phytosiderophore mugineic acids (including 2'-deoxymugineic acid, mugineic acid, and 3-epi-hydroxymugineic acid) were readily identified and quantified in crude exudate samples along with a number of amino and organic acids. The amount of mugineic acids excreted was correlated positively with the extent of Fe deficiency with 3-epi-hydroxymugineic acid being the most prominent component. The total Fe chelating capacity was also measured using the ferrozine assay and compared with the production of the mugineic acids. They were surprised to find that the mugineic acids may account for a part of the Fe chelating capacity, especially under mild and moderatley Fe deficient conditions. Lactate, alanine, y-aminobutyrate, malate, and glycinebetaine collectively may contribute to a significant fraction of the Fe chelating capacity. In light of the known stimulatory effect of alanine and citrate on metal availability to algae (Campell, 1995), the function of these low molecular weight metabolites as vehicles for Fe or metal uptake in general warrant further investigation. This work is now published in Analytical Biochemistry 251, 57-68 ( 1997). They then proceeded to apply the above approach to investigate the interaction of elevated cadmium (Cd) with Fe deficiency in gramineous plants. They have completed one each series of cadmium (Cd) treatments of barley and wheat seedlings under Fe sufficient

  7. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study. Volume 1. Summary of environmental effects, Savannah River Plant. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    This volume summarizes the technical content of Volumes II through XI of the annual report. Volume II provides a description of the SRP environment, facilities, and operation, and presents the objectives and design for the CCWS. Volume III presents information on water quality of SRP surface waters. Results of radionuclide and heavy metal transport studies are presented in Volume IV. Volume V contains findings from studies of wetland plant communities. Volume VI presents findings from studies of the lower food chain components of SRP aquatic habitats. The results of fisheries studies are reported in Volume VII. Studies of semi-aquatic vertebrate populations are reported in Volume VIII. Water-fowl utilization of SRP habitats is discussed in Volume IX. The status of endangered species that utilize SRP aquatic habitats is presented in Volume X. The findings from studies of Parr Pond ecosystem are presented in Volume XI

  8. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity. 2nd annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2004-07-01

    This report, which covers the year 2003 growing season, is the second annual report about a project to investigate the ecological impact on biodiversity of plantations of biomass grass crops grown in Hertfordshire in the UK. Wildlife monitoring was carried out at five field sites growing the perennial rhizomatous grass crops Miscanthus, reed canary grass and switch grass. The report covers the findings from wildlife surveys for the 2003 season, the final results from the invertebrate identification from the 2002 season, data entry from the 2002 and 2003 seasons, and the continued invertebrate identification during the 2003 season. Butterfly assessments and an evaluation of crop characteristics such as plant height, plant/stem density and biomass yield were also performed. Results are presented with respect to crop field characteristics, pests and diseases, ground flora, ground beetles, birds, small mammals, butterflies and epigeal invertebrates. Plans for the next growing season are outlined.

  9. Field theory approach to quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo, A.; Chaichian, M.

    1990-07-01

    The Fradkin's formulation of statistical field theory is applied to the Coulomb interacting electron gas in a magnetic field. The electrons are confined to a plane in normal 3D-space and also interact with the physical 3D-electromagnetic field. The magnetic translation group (MTG) Ward identities are derived. Using them it is shown that the exact electron propagator is diagonalized in the basis of the wave functions of the free electron in a magnetic field whenever the MTG is unbroken. The general tensor structure of the polarization operator is obtained and used to show that the Chern-Simons action always describes the Hall effect properties of the system. A general proof of the Streda formula for the Hall conductivity is presented. It follows that the coefficient of the Chern-Simons terms in the long-wavelength approximation is exactly given by this relation. Such a formula, expressing the Hall conductivity as a simple derivative, in combination with diagonal form of the full propagator allows to obtain a simple expressions for the filling factor and the Hall conductivity. Indeed, these results, after assuming that the chemical potential lies in a gap of the density of states, lead to the conclusion that the Hall conductivity is given without corrections by σ xy = νe 2 /h where ν is the filling factor. In addition it follows that the filling factor is independent of the magnetic field if the chemical potential remains in the gap. (author). 21 ref, 1 fig

  10. Towards effective extension delivery approach and strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards effective extension delivery approach and strategies for food security poverty ... Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2010) > ... groups, promotion of best practices and environment friendly initiatives among others were recommended.

  11. Fire rehabilitation effectiveness: a chronosequence approach for the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Pilliod, David S.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Grace, James

    2009-01-01

    Federal land management agencies have invested heavily in seeding vegetation for emergency stabilization and rehabilitation (ES&R) of non-forested lands. ES&R projects are implemented to reduce post-fire dominance of non-native annual grasses, minimize probability of recurrent fire, quickly recover lost habitat for sensitive species, and ultimately result in plant communities with desirable characteristics including resistance to invasive species and resilience or ability to recover following disturbance. Land managers lack scientific evidence to verify whether seeding non-forested lands achieves their desired long-term ES&R objectives. The overall objective of our investigation is to determine if ES&R projects increase perennial plant cover, improve community composition, decrease invasive annual plant cover and result in a more desirable fuel structure relative to no treatment following fires while potentially providing habitat for Greater Sage-Grouse, a species of management concern. In addition, we provide the locations and baseline vegetation data for further studies relating to ES&R project impacts. We examined effects of seeding treatments (drill and broadcast) vs. no seeding on biotic and abiotic (bare ground and litter) variables for the dominant climate regimes and ecological types within the Great Basin. We attempted to determine seeding effectiveness to provide desired plant species cover while restricting non-native annual grass cover relative to post-treatment precipitation, post-treatment grazing level and time-since-seeding. Seedings were randomly sampled from all known post-fire seedings that occurred in the four-state area of Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Utah. Sampling locations were stratified by major land resource area, precipitation, and loam-dominated soils to ensure an adequate spread of locations to provide inference of our findings to similar lands throughout the Great Basin. Nearly 100 sites were located that contained an ES&R project. Of

  12. Effective field theory: A modern approach to anomalous couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrande, Céline; Greiner, Nicolas; Kilian, Wolfgang; Mattelaer, Olivier; Mebane, Harrison; Stelzer, Tim; Willenbrock, Scott; Zhang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    We advocate an effective field theory approach to anomalous couplings. The effective field theory approach is the natural way to extend the standard model such that the gauge symmetries are respected. It is general enough to capture any physics beyond the standard model, yet also provides guidance as to the most likely place to see the effects of new physics. The effective field theory approach also clarifies that one need not be concerned with the violation of unitarity in scattering processes at high energy. We apply these ideas to pair production of electroweak vector bosons. -- Highlights: •We discuss the advantages of effective field theories compared to anomalous couplings. •We show that one need not be concerned with unitarity violation at high energy. •We discuss the application of effective field theory to weak boson physics

  13. Mapping Annual Precipitation across Mainland China in the Period 2001–2010 from TRMM3B43 Product Using Spatial Downscaling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Shi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit precipitation data is often responsible for the prediction accuracy of hydrological and ecological models. Several statistical downscaling approaches have been developed to map precipitation at a high spatial resolution, which are mainly based on the valid conjugations between satellite-driven precipitation data and geospatial predictors. Performance of the existing approaches should be first evaluated before applying them to larger spatial extents with a complex terrain across different climate zones. In this paper, we investigate the statistical downscaling algorithms to derive the high spatial resolution maps of precipitation over continental China using satellite datasets, including the Normalized Distribution Vegetation Index (NDVI from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, and the rainfall product from the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM. We compare three statistical techniques (multiple linear regression, exponential regression, and Random Forest regression trees for modeling precipitation to better understand how the selected model types affect the prediction accuracy. Then, those models are implemented to downscale the original TRMM product (3B43; 0.25° resolution onto the finer grids (1 × 1 km2 of precipitation. Finally we validate the downscaled annual precipitation (a wet year 2001 and a dry year 2010 against the ground rainfall observations from 596 rain gauge stations over continental China. The result indicates that the downscaling algorithm based on the Random Forest regression outperforms, when compared to the linear regression and the exponential regression. It also shows that the addition of the residual terms does not significantly improve the accuracy of results for the RF model. The analysis of the variable importance reveals the NDVI related predictors

  14. Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. Annual progress report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.; Liner, C.; Kerr, D.

    1997-01-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the fourth year of the project on {open_quotes}Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance{close_quotes}. The project involves using an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by proposing an appropriate reservoir management strategy to improve the field performance. In the first stage of the project, the type of data we integrated include cross borehole seismic surveys, geological interpretation based on the logs and the cores, and the engineering information. In contrast, during the second stage of the project, we intend to use only conventional data to construct the reservoir description. This report covers the results of the implementation from the first stage of the project. It also discusses the work accomplished so far for the second stage of the project. The production from the Self Unit (location of Stage 1) has sustained an increase of 30 bbls/day over a year with an additional increase anticipated with further implementation. We have collected available core, log and production data from Section 16 in the Berryhill Glenn Unit and have finished the geological description. Based on the geological description and the associated petrophysical properties, we have developed a new indexing procedure for identifying the areas with the most potential. We are also investigating an adjoining tract formerly operated by Chevron where successful miceller-polymer flood was conducted. This will help us in evaluating the reasons for the success of the flood. Armed with this information, we will conduct a detailed geostatistical and flow simulation study and recommend the best reservoir management plan to improve the recovery of the field.

  15. Equivalence between the semiclassical and effective approaches to gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszko, Ricardo; Accioly, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Semiclassical and effective theories of gravitation are quite distinct from each other as far as the approximation scheme employed is concerned. In fact, while in the semiclassical approach gravity is a classical field and the particles and/or remaining fields are quantized, in the effective approach everything is quantized, including gravity, but the Feynman amplitude is expanded in terms of the momentum exchanged between the particles and/or fields. In this paper, we show that these approaches, despite being radically different, lead to equivalent results if one of the masses under consideration is much greater than all the other energies involved.

  16. The Alpha value decrease when the annual individual effective dose decreases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian M.; Marchiusi, Thiago; Sousa, Jefferson de J.

    2008-01-01

    A recent IAEA publication tells that a few entities took different alpha values for maxima individual doses. Beyond to disregard the international agencies, that recommend only one alpha value for each country, the alpha values decreases when the individual doses decreases and the practice happens exactly the conversely as we will show in this paper. We will prove that the alpha value increase when the maximum individual doses decreases in a four different manner. The first one we call the theoretical conception and it is linked to the emergent of the ALARA policy and to the purpose that led to the 3/10 of the annual limits, for to decrease the individual doses as a first resort and a 1/10 as a last resort. The second prove will be based in a small mine example used in the ICRP publication number 55 concerning to the optimization and the quantitative decision-aiding techniques in radiological protection where we will determine the alpha value ranges in which each radiological protection options becomes the analytical solution. The third prove will be based in the determination of the optimized thickness example of a plane shielding for a radiation source exposed in the ICRP publication number 37. We will use, also, the numerical example provided there. Eventually, as four prove we will show that the alpha value dos not only increases with the maximum individual dose decrease, but also, with the shielding geometry. (author)

  17. Describing the interannual variability of precipitation with the derived distribution approach: effects of record length and resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Meier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interannual variability of precipitation is traditionally described by fitting a probability model to yearly precipitation totals. There are three potential problems with this approach: a long record (at least 25–30 years is required in order to fit the model, years with missing rainfall data cannot be used, and the data need to be homogeneous, i.e., one has to assume stationarity. To overcome some of these limitations, we test an alternative methodology proposed by Eagleson (1978, based on the derived distribution (DD approach. It allows estimation of the probability density function (pdf of annual rainfall without requiring long records, provided that continuously gauged precipitation data are available to derive external storm properties. The DD approach combines marginal pdfs for storm depths and inter-arrival times to obtain an analytical formulation of the distribution of annual precipitation, under the simplifying assumptions of independence between events and independence between storm depth and time to the next storm. Because it is based on information about storms and not on annual totals, the DD can make use of information from years with incomplete data; more importantly, only a few years of rainfall measurements should suffice to estimate the parameters of the marginal pdfs, at least at locations where it rains with some regularity. For two temperate locations in different climates (Concepción, Chile, and Lugano, Switzerland, we randomly resample shortened time series to evaluate in detail the effects of record length on the DD, comparing the results with the traditional approach of fitting a normal (or lognormal distribution. Then, at the same two stations, we assess the biases introduced in the DD when using daily totalized rainfall, instead of continuously gauged data. Finally, for randomly selected periods between 3 and 15 years in length, we conduct full blind tests at 52 high-quality gauging stations in Switzerland

  18. The Late Glacial Chronology from Lake Suigestu: A new approach to varve interpolation using frequency distributions of annual sub-layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlolaut, Gordon; Marshall, Michael; Brauer, Achim; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Lamb, Henry; Staff, Richard; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Brock, Fiona; Bryant, Charlotte; 2006 Project Members, Suigetsu

    2010-05-01

    The 1993 sediment core from Lake Suigetsu is one of the most comprehensive terrestrial radiocarbon records. It is extremely rich in leaf fossils, providing a unique, truly atmospheric record of radiocarbon for the last 10-50 kyr BP (Kitagawa & van der Plicht, 2000). Since the Lake Suigetsu sediment is annually laminated (varved) for much of its depth it is suitable for extending the terrestrial radiocarbon calibration model up to 50 kyr BP. However, the data presented by Kitagawa & van der Plicht (2000) significantly diverged from alternative, marine-based calibration datasets, due to gaps in the sediment profile and varve counting uncertainties (Staff et al., 2009). In 2006 four new parallel cores were recovered from Lake Suigetsu and combined to construct a new complete and continuous master profile (SG06). Along with a new program of AMS radiocarbon measurement, varve counting is being carried out using two different techniques: i) thin section microscopy and ii) high-resolution X-ray fluorescence and X-radiography. In addition, a novel interpolation approach has been developed. First results are presented for the Late Glacial (10,200 - 15,000 kyr BP). The U-Oki Tephra at the top of this interval is used as tie point for the floating varve count chronology. Initially, the two counting methods are carried out independently. The results are then compared in detail to identify the differences down to the sub-mm scale. This new approach substantially reduces internal error and results in a greater degree of accuracy than previously possible. Due to poor varve preservation in some sediment intervals, the counts of these sections have to be interpolated. Commonly, interpolation is carried out manually using sedimentation rate estimates from neighbouring sections. The new approach presented here is based on an automated analysis of frequency distributions of annual sub-layers from the compromised section itself, allowing an estimate of the sedimentation rate unbiased

  19. Annual runoff and erosion in a recently burn Mediterranean forest - The effects of plowing and time-since-fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, D. C. S.; Malvar, M. C.; Fernández, C.; Serpa, D.; Keizer, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    The impacts of forest fires on runoff and soil erosion have been assessed by many studies, so the effects of fires on the hydrological and geomorphological processes of burnt forest areas, globally and in the Mediterranean region, are well established. Few studies, however, have assessed post-fire runoff and erosion on large time scales. In addition, a limited number of studies are available that consider the effect of pre-fire land management practices on post-fire runoff and erosion. This study evaluated annual runoff and sediment losses, at micro plot scale, for 4 years after a wildfire in three eucalypt plantations with different pre-fire land management practices (i.e., plowed and unplowed). During the four years following the fire, runoff amounts and coefficients at the downslope plowed (1257 mm, 26%) and contour plowed eucalypt sites (1915 mm, 40%) were higher than at the unplowed site (865 mm, 14%). Sediment losses over the 4 years of study were also consistently higher at the two plowed sites (respectively, 0.47 and 0.83 Mg ha- 1 y- 1 at the downslope and contour plowed eucalypt site) than at the unplowed site (0.11 Mg ha- 1 y- 1). Aside from pre-fire land management, time-since-fire also seemed to significantly affect post-fire annual runoff and erosion. In general, annual runoff amounts and erosion rates followed the rainfall pattern. Runoff amounts presented a peak during the third year of monitoring while erosion rates reached their maximum one year earlier, in the second year. Runoff coefficients increased over the 4 years of monitoring, in disagreement to the window of disturbance post-fire recovery model, but sediment concentrations decreased over the study period. When compared with other long-term post-fire studies and with studies evaluating the effects of pre- and post-fire management practices, the results of the present work suggest that an ecosystem's recovery after fire is highly dependent on the background of disturbances of each site, as

  20. Competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on some native and reclamation species in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, E.B.; Knight, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on certain native and reclamation species. The first experiment was initiated by discing three sites in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, at three distances from introduced weed seed sources. Introduced weed colonization was greatest when a seed source was located nearby. Higher weed cover resulted in reductions of percent cover, density, and richness of the native species. The second experiment was conducted in the greenhouse and was designed to determine if there are changes in response of S. kali and the native grasses Agropyron smithii and Bouteloua gracilis to competition and water regime. Both grass species had lower biomass and higher stomatal resistance when growing in mixed culture with S. kali than in pure culture in the dry regime, but there were no significant differences in the wet regime. In general, the difference in plant response between mixed and pure cultures was more pronounced in the dry than in the wet regime. The third study was a greenhouse experiment on germination and competition of S. kali (a C/sub 4/ species) with native species Lepidium densiflorum (C/sub 3/), Chenopodium pratericola (C/sub 3/), A. smithii (C/sub 3/), and B. gracilis (C/sub 4/) under May, June, and July temperature regimes. Salsola kali germinated equally well in all three regimes, but the other C/sub 4/ species had highest germination in the July regime and the C/sub 3/ species in the May and June regimes. The fourth study was designed to examine the effect of weed colonization on the success of mine reclamation. Little effect was observed, but colonization by introduced annuals was very low. (ERB)

  1. Temperature Effects on the Seed Germination of Some Perennial and Annual Species of Asteraceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarghani Hadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the most critical factor determining success or failure of plant establishment. Seed germination response of five medicinal species include three seed-propagated perennial species, Cichorium intybus, cynara scolymus and Echinacea purpurea and vegetative-reproduction perennial species, Achillea millefolium and annual species, Matricaria aurea were assessed at constant temperatures. The seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45°C under total darkness. Germination percentage of all the species were significantly affected by various temperatures (p ≤ 0.001. A. millefolium did not germinate at 5-10 and 35-45°C, but showed noticeable germination percentage (73.3-100% at temperatures ranged from 15-30° C. The highest total germination percentage was observed within the range of 15-35 °C for other species. Also, we calculated cardinal temperatures (the minimum, optimum and maximum temperature for seed germination of species. The highest value for minimum temperature was 10.07ºC in A. millefolium followed by C. scolymus and M. aurea (5ºC while the lowest was for E. purpurea and C. intybus (2.68 and 2.90ºC respectively. The lowest value for optimum temperature was detected in A. millefolium (22.72ºC and M. aurea (23.88°C while the maximum values were observed in E. purpurea and C. intybus (30.40ºC and 29.90ºC respectively. Based on results of present study we concluded that species with both vegetative and seed-propagated reproduction forms like A. millefolium had smaller temperature range rather those with just one way of reproduction (seed production.

  2. Interactive effects of senescence and natural disturbance on the annual survival probabilities of snail kites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Brian E.; Martin, J.; Kendall, William L.; Cattau, Christopher E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals in wild populations face risks associated with both intrinsic (i.e. aging) and external (i.e. environmental) sources of mortality. Condition-dependent mortality occurs when there is an interaction between such factors; however, few studies have clearly demonstrated condition-dependent mortality and some have even argued that condition-dependent mortality does not occur in wild avian populations. Using large sample sizes (2084 individuals, 3746 re-sights) of individual-based longitudinal data collected over a 33 year period (1976-2008) on multiple cohorts, we used a capture-mark-recapture framework to model age-dependent survival in the snail kite Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus population in Florida. Adding to the growing amount of evidence for actuarial senescence in wild populations, we found evidence of senescent declines in survival probabilities in adult kites. We also tested the hypothesis that older kites experienced condition-dependent mortality during a range-wide drought event (2000-2002). The results provide convincing evidence that the annual survival probability of senescent kites was disproportionately affected by the drought relative to the survival probability of prime-aged adults. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of condition-dependent mortality to be demonstrated in a wild avian population, a finding which challenges recent conclusions drawn in the literature. Our study suggests that senescence and condition-dependent mortality can affect the demography of wild avian populations. Accounting for these sources of variation may be particularly important to appropriately compute estimates of population growth rate, and probabilities of quasi-extinctions.

  3. Determination of transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Hess, N.J.; Strachan, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    'In this report, the authors summarize the research that has taken place during the second year of the 3-year project. This project is being carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory. The original intent in this project was to use high-energy EXAFS to obtain information on the chemical state of the 137 Ba in pollucite without opening the stainless steel capsules. Using this approach, the authors hoped to avoid changing the chemical state of the 137 Ba. To evaluate the extent to which high-energy EXAFS data can be interpreted, the authors analyzed a number of Cs and Ba standards in addition to Ba-doped pollucite samples. The standards included a variety of structures from simple oxides and halides to titanates and silicates. While the EXAFS signal from the simple oxides and halides were low in amplitude the analysis of the EXAFS and the Fourier transforms resulted in reasonable data. The authors obtained extremely weak EXAFS signals from the more complex silicates and titanates with distant first neighbor atoms. In addition, the amplitudes of the Cs K-edge EXAFS are about half as intense as the corresponding Ba K-edge EXAFS (Figure 1). Several factors may have contributed to the apparent differences between the Cs and Ba K-edge data, such as core-hole lifetime broadening, weak photoelectron backscatters, and low charge density of the large low-valence cations. Also, long interatomic distances appear as low frequency oscillations in the XAS and these features could have been inadvertently removed when they tried to extract the EXAFS. Artifacts that have no possible structural origin often dominated the Fourier transforms from these compounds. A number of signal processing techniques were employed in an attempt to minimize these artifacts but they generally resulted in severe distortions of the weak EXAFS signal. Regardless of the specific origin, these factors reduce the extent to which the Cs K-edge EXAFS data can be

  4. The graded approach to SAT: A cost effective use of the systematic approach to training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, R.P.; Bruno, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) has become the internationally accepted standard for the identification, organization, development and delivery of performance - based training. The SAT methodology has been defined and endorsed by the National Academy for Nuclear Training (NANT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Through the routine use of the SAT process organizations, including non-nuclear industries, have been provided with a consistent methodology to determine the level of knowledge and skills that are required to successfully perform job related tasks. However, due to the complexity of each NPP job position and those in other highly technical organizations an enormous volume of data is required to develop, deliver and maintain a performance - based training program. This burden most often falls on the Training Department and requires proficient information management to ensure that all aspects of job performance are incorporated into position specific training programs. Traditionally the SAT process has been a costly and labor- intensive endeavor that many organizations are beginning to challenge as 'too expensive'. Organizations in the US are spending 60+ billion dollars annually on training and the number is growing rapidly. These organizations are also demanding that training: Develop shorter timeframes for learning; Bring physically disconnected employees together in a virtual learning environment; Optimize training by leveraging technology; Be diverse enough to support employee careers; More clearly demonstrate training's ROI; Accommodate cultural diversity and learning differences. (author)

  5. Determination of Radon Level in Drinking Water in Mehriz Villages and Evaluation the Annual Effective Absorbed Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2015-03-01

    Results: Radon concentrations of samples ranged from 0.187 BqL-1 to 14.8 BqL-1.These results were related to samples No.12 and 9 and also to aqueducts of Tang-e-chenar and Malekabad village respectively. Based on the amount of radon in the sample, the lowest annual effective absorbed dose through drinking water or breathing(In an environment where water was used was 0.0005msv/y and the maximum amount was 0.04msv/y. Conclusion: Apart from samples No.9 and 16 that were elated to the aqueduct of Malekabad village and a private well in Dare Miankoohvillagehaving48 persons as total population, Radon concentrations of other samples used by people of Mehriz villages as drinking water was low and less than permitted limit set by the Environmental Protection Agency of United States of America.

  6. Interactive effects of warming and increased precipitation on community structure and composition in an annual forb dominated desert steppe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Hou

    Full Text Available To better understand how warming, increased precipitation and their interactions influence community structure and composition, a field experiment simulating hydrothermal interactions was conducted at an annual forb dominated desert steppe in northern China over 2 years. Increased precipitation increased species richness while warming significantly decreased species richness, and their effects were additive rather than interactive. Although interannual variations in weather conditions may have a major affect on plant community composition on short term experiments, warming and precipitation treatments affected individual species and functional group composition. Warming caused C4 grasses such as Cleistogenes squarrosa to increase while increased precipitation caused the proportions of non-perennial C3 plants like Artemisia capillaris to decrease and perennial C4 plants to increase.

  7. Effect of inter-annual variability in pasture growth and irrigation response on farm productivity and profitability based on biophysical and farm systems modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Iris; Mackay, Alec; Vibart, Ronaldo; Rendel, John; Beautrais, Josef; Dennis, Samuel

    2016-09-15

    Farm system and nutrient budget models are increasingly being used in analysis to inform on farm decision making and evaluate land use policy options at regional scales. These analyses are generally based on the use of average annual pasture yields. In New Zealand (NZ), like in many countries, there is considerable inter-annual variation in pasture growth rates, due to climate. In this study a modelling approach was used to (i) include inter-annual variability as an integral part of the analysis and (ii) test the approach in an economic analysis of irrigation in a case study within the Hawkes Bay Region of New Zealand. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) was used to generate pasture dry matter yields (DMY) for 20 different years and under both dryland and irrigation. The generated DMY were linked to outputs from farm-scale modelling for both Sheep and Beef Systems (Farmaxx Pro) and Dairy Systems (Farmax® Dairy Pro) to calculate farm production over 20 different years. Variation in DMY and associated livestock production due to inter-annual variation in climate was large, with a coefficient of variations up to 20%. Irrigation decreased this inter-annual variation. On average irrigation, with unlimited available water, increased income by $831 to 1195/ha, but when irrigation was limited to 250mm/ha/year income only increased by $525 to 883/ha. Using pasture responses in individual years to capturing the inter-annual variation, rather than the pasture response averaged over 20years resulted in lower financial benefits. In the case study income from irrigation based on an average year were 10 to >20% higher compared with those obtained from individual years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The pulling power of chocolate: Effects of approach-avoidance training on approach bias and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Hugh; Kavanagh, David J; MacLeod, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has shown that action tendencies to approach alcohol may be modified using computerized Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), and that this impacted on subsequent consumption. A recent paper in this journal (Becker, Jostman, Wiers, & Holland, 2015) failed to show significant training effects for food in three studies: Nor did it find effects on subsequent consumption. However, avoidance training to high calorie foods was tested against a control rather than Approach training. The present study used a more comparable paradigm to the alcohol studies. It randomly assigned 90 participants to 'approach' or 'avoid' chocolate images on the AAT, and then asked them to taste and rate chocolates. A significant interaction of condition and time showed that training to avoid chocolate resulted in faster avoidance responses to chocolate images, compared with training to approach it. Consistent with Becker et al.'s Study 3, no effect was found on amounts of chocolate consumed, although a newly published study in this journal (Schumacher, Kemps, & Tiggemann, 2016) did do so. The collective evidence does not as yet provide solid basis for the application of AAT training to reduction of problematic food consumption, although clinical trials have yet to be conducted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced approaches to failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vykydal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores advanced approaches to the FMEA method (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis which take into account the costs associated with occurrence of failures during the manufacture of a product. Different approaches are demonstrated using an example FMEA application to production of drawn wire. Their purpose is to determine risk levels, while taking account of the above-mentioned costs. Finally, the resulting priority levels are compared for developing actions mitigating the risks.

  10. Variation in moisture duration as a driver of coexistence by the storage effect in desert annual plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Galen; Chesson, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Temporal environmental variation is a leading hypothesis for the coexistence of desert annual plants. Environmental variation is hypothesized to cause species-specific patterns of variation in germination, which then generates the storage effect coexistence mechanism. However, it has never been shown how sufficient species differences in germination patterns for multispecies coexistence can arise from a shared fluctuating environment. Here we show that nonlinear germination responses to a single fluctuating physical environmental factor can lead to sufficient differences between species in germination pattern for the storage effect to yield coexistence of multiple species. We derive these nonlinear germination responses from experimental data on the effects of varying soil moisture duration. Although these nonlinearities lead to strong species asymmetries in germination patterns, the relative nonlinearity coexistence mechanism is minor compared with the storage effect. However, these asymmetries mean that the storage effect can be negative for some species, which then only persist in the face of interspecific competition through average fitness advantages. This work shows how a low dimensional physical environment can nevertheless stabilize multispecies coexistence when the species have different nonlinear responses to common conditions, as supported by our experimental data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Disentangling the effects of feedback structure and climate on Poaceae annual airborne pollen fluctuations and the possible consequences of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de León, David; García-Mozo, Herminia; Galán, Carmen; Alcázar, Purificación; Lima, Mauricio; González-Andújar, José L

    2015-10-15

    Pollen allergies are the most common form of respiratory allergic disease in Europe. Most studies have emphasized the role of environmental processes, as the drivers of airborne pollen fluctuations, implicitly considering pollen production as a random walk. This work shows that internal self-regulating processes of the plants (negative feedback) should be included in pollen dynamic systems in order to give a better explanation of the observed pollen temporal patterns. This article proposes a novel methodological approach based on dynamic systems to investigate the interaction between feedback structure of plant populations and climate in shaping long-term airborne Poaceae pollen fluctuations and to quantify the effects of climate change on future airborne pollen concentrations. Long-term historical airborne Poaceae pollen data (30 years) from Cordoba city (Southern Spain) were analyzed. A set of models, combining feedback structure, temperature and actual evapotranspiration effects on airborne Poaceae pollen were built and compared, using a model selection approach. Our results highlight the importance of first-order negative feedback and mean annual maximum temperature in driving airborne Poaceae pollen dynamics. The best model was used to predict the effects of climate change under two standardized scenarios representing contrasting temporal patterns of economic development and CO2 emissions. Our results predict an increase in pollen levels in southern Spain by 2070 ranging from 28.5% to 44.3%. The findings from this study provide a greater understanding of airborne pollen dynamics and how climate change might impact the future evolution of airborne Poaceae pollen concentrations and thus the future evolution of related pollen allergies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report 1987: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory (CRHL) was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experiment the lifetime hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. It is a long-term (life span) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages-at-irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the developmental period. The basic experiment under the contract contains 1,680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. The annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of November 21, 1986 through November 20, 1987

  13. Drought during canopy development has lasting effect on annual carbon balance in a deciduous temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Steve G. McNulty; Jared L. DeForest; Ge Sun; Qinglin Li; Jiquan Chen

    2008-01-01

    Climate change projections predict an intensifying hydrologic cycle and an increasing frequency of droughts, yet quantitative understanding of the effects on ecosystem carbon exchange remains limitedHere, the effect of contrasting precipitation and soil moisture dynamics were evaluated on forest carbon exchange using 2 yr of...

  14. The anterior interhemispheric approach: a safe and effective approach to anterior skull base lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Dorothee; Mayfrank, Lothar; Psychogios, Marios Nikos; Rohde, Veit

    2014-04-01

    Many approaches to the anterior skull base have been reported. Frequently used are the pterional, the unilateral or bilateral frontobasal, the supraorbital and the frontolateral approach. Recently, endoscopic transnasal approaches have become more popular. The benefits of each approach has to be weighted against its complications and limitations. The aim of this study was to investigate if the anterior interhemispheric approach (AIA) could be a safe and effective alternative approach to tumorous and non-tumorous lesions of the anterior skull base. We screened the operative records of all patients with an anterior skull base lesion undergoing transcranial surgery. We have used the AIA in 61 patients. These were exclusively patients with either olfactory groove meningioma (OGM) (n = 43), ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) ( n = 6) or frontobasal fractures of the anterior midline with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage ( n = 12). Patient records were evaluated concerning accessibility of the lesion, realization of surgical aims (complete tumor removal, dAVF obliteration, closure of the dural tear), and approach related complications. The use of the AIA exclusively in OGMs, ethmoidal dAVFs and midline frontobasal fractures indicated that we considered lateralized frontobasal lesions not suitable to be treated successfully. If restricted to these three pathologies, the AIA is highly effective and safe. The surgical aim (complete tumor removal, complete dAVF occlusion, no rhinorrhea) was achieved in all patients. The complication rate was 11.5 % (wound infection (n = 2; 3.2 %), contusion of the genu of the corpus callosum, subdural hygroma, epileptic seizure, anosmia and asymptomatic bleed into the tumor cavity (n = 1 each). Only the contusion of the corpus callosum was directly related to the approach (1.6 %). Olfaction, if present before surgery, was preserved in all patients, except one (1.6 %). The AIA is an effective and a safe approach

  15. Assessment of Constraint Effects based on Local Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Rin; Chang, Yoon Suk; Choi, Jae Boong; Seok, Chang Sung; Kim, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    Traditional fracture mechanics has been used to ensure a structural integrity, in which the geometry independence is assumed in crack tip deformation and fracture toughness. However, the assumption is applicable only within limited conditions. To address fracture covering a broad range of loading and crack geometries, two-parameter global approach and local approach have been proposed. The two-parameter global approach can quantify the load and crack geometry effects by adopting T-stress or Q-parameter but time-consuming and expensive since lots of experiments and finite element (FE) analyses are necessary. On the other hand, the local approach evaluates the load and crack geometry effects based on damage model. Once material specific fitting constants are determined from a few experiments and FE analyses, the fracture resistance characteristics can be obtained by numerical simulation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate constraint effects for compact tension (CT) specimens with different in-plane or out-of-plane size using local approach. Both modified GTN model and Rousselier model are adopted to examine the ductile fracture behavior of SA515 Gr.60 carbon steel at high temperature. The fracture resistance (J-R) curves are estimated through numerical analysis, compared with corresponding experimental results and, then, crack length, thickness and side-groove effects are evaluated

  16. Radon in the Underground Workplaces; Assessment of the Annual Effective Dose due to Inhaled Radon for the Seoul Subway Station Staffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myeong Han; Chang, Byung Uck; Kim, Yong Jae [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hwa Yong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Dong Hey [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The effective dose of the Seoul subway staffs due to inhaled radon ({sup 222}Rn) in their workplace was investigated depended on radon concentration exposed at each workplace, and working hours and working types of the staffs. Annual average radon concentrations ranged from 16.5 to 93.0 Bq·m{sup -3}. The staffs commonly spend 2,304 hours in the underground spaces a year. With the radon concentrations and the working hours of the staffs, estimated annual effective doses ranged from 0.23 to 0.73 mSv·y{sup -1}.

  17. Radon in the Underground Workplaces; Assessment of the Annual Effective Dose due to Inhaled Radon for the Seoul Subway Station Staffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Myeong Han; Chang, Byung Uck; Kim, Yong Jae; Lee, Hwa Yong; Heo, Dong Hey

    2010-01-01

    The effective dose of the Seoul subway staffs due to inhaled radon ( 222 Rn) in their workplace was investigated depended on radon concentration exposed at each workplace, and working hours and working types of the staffs. Annual average radon concentrations ranged from 16.5 to 93.0 Bq·m -3 . The staffs commonly spend 2,304 hours in the underground spaces a year. With the radon concentrations and the working hours of the staffs, estimated annual effective doses ranged from 0.23 to 0.73 mSv·y -1

  18. On the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1996-01-01

    A formulation of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics in terms of generalized observables (POV measures) and effect operators is provided. The usual notion of open-quote open-quote history close-quote close-quote is generalized to the notion of open-quote open-quote effect history.close-quote close-quote The space of effect histories carries the structure of a D-poset. Recent results of J. D. Maitland Wright imply that every decoherence functional defined for ordinary histories can be uniquely extended to a bi-additive decoherence functional on the space of effect histories. Omngrave es close-quote logical interpretation is generalized to the present context. The result of this work considerably generalizes and simplifies the earlier formulation of the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics communicated in a previous work of this author. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Carry-Over Effects on the Annual Cycle of a Migratory Seabird: an Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fayet, Annette; Freeman, R; Shoji, A; Kirk, HL; Padget, O; Perrins, CM; Guilford, T

    2016-01-01

    1. Long-lived migratory animals must balance the cost of current reproduction with their own condition ahead of a challenging migration and future reproduction. In these species, carry-over effects, which occur when events in one season affect the outcome of the subsequent season, may be particularly exacerbated. However, how carry-over effects influence future breeding outcomes and whether (and how) they also affect behaviour during migration and wintering is unclear. 2. Here we inve...

  20. Inter-annual cascade effect on marine food web: A benthic pathway lagging nutrient supply to pelagic fish stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohengrin Dias de Almeida Fernandes

    Full Text Available Currently, spatial and temporal changes in nutrients availability, marine planktonic, and fish communities are best described on a shorter than inter-annual (seasonal scale, primarily because the simultaneous year-to-year variations in physical, chemical, and biological parameters are very complex. The limited availability of time series datasets furnishing simultaneous evaluations of temperature, nutrients, plankton, and fish have limited our ability to describe and to predict variability related to short-term process, as species-specific phenology and environmental seasonality. In the present study, we combine a computational time series analysis on a 15-year (1995-2009 weekly-sampled time series (high-resolution long-term time series, 780 weeks with an Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model to track non-seasonal changes in 10 potentially related parameters: sea surface temperature, nutrient concentrations (NO2, NO3, NH4 and PO4, phytoplankton biomass (as in situ chlorophyll a biomass, meroplankton (barnacle and mussel larvae, and fish abundance (Mugil liza and Caranx latus. Our data demonstrate for the first time that highly intense and frequent upwelling years initiate a huge energy flux that is not fully transmitted through classical size-structured food web by bottom-up stimulus but through additional ontogenetic steps. A delayed inter-annual sequential effect from phytoplankton up to top predators as carnivorous fishes is expected if most of energy is trapped into benthic filter feeding organisms and their larval forms. These sequential events can explain major changes in ecosystem food web that were not predicted in previous short-term models.

  1. Seasonal Redistribution of Immune Function in a Migrant Shorebird : Annual-Cycle Effects Override Adjustments to Thermal Regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, Deborah M.; Piersma, Theunis; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Demas, Greg (associate); Geber, Monica A.

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the annual cycle, demands on competing physiological systems change, and animals must allocate resources to maximize fitness. Immune function is one such system and is important for survival. Yet detailed empirical data tracking immune function over the entire annual cycle are lacking for

  2. Irradiation effects on reactor structural materials. Semi-annual progress report, August 1974--February 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudson, T.T.

    1975-03-01

    Data are reported on: effects of cold work on creep-fatigue of irradiated 304 and 316 stainless steel (ss); swelling of 304 and 316 ss irradiated with protons and fast neutrons; effects of hold time on fatigue crack propagation in neutron-irradiated 20 percent cold-worked 316 ss; radiation resistance of 0.03 percent Cu A533-B steel; microstructure of irradiated Inconel 718, Incoloy 800, PH13-8Mo, Mo, and Nb; dose dependence of 2.8-MeV Ni + ion damage (swelling) in Ni; notch ductility and strength of 316 ss submerged arc weld deposits; effects of microstructure of 316 ss on its irradiation response; in-reactor deformation of 20 percent cold-worked 316 ss; microstructure of HFIR-irradiated 316 ss; void microstructures of V bombarded by 46-MeV Ni 6+ ions (with and without preinjected helium) or 7.5-MeV Ta 3+ ions; swelling of Mo, Mo--0.5 Ti, Nb, Nb--1 Zr, W, and W--25 Re after fast neutron irradiation; swelling of V ion-irradiated Mo; creep of 20 percent cold-worked 316 ss at 850, 1000, and 1100 0 F; effects of fast neutrons on mechanical properties of 20 percent cold-worked 316 ss; notch effects in tensile behavior of irradiated, annealed 304 ss (EBR-II duct thimbles); equations for thermal creep in pressurized tubes of 20 percent cold-worked 316 ss; irradiation creep in cold-worked 316 ss; helium production cross sections in neutron-irradiated elements; and radiation effects on various alloys. (U.S.)

  3. Effects of Maternal Obesity on Fetal Programming: Molecular Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Caterina; Edlow, Andrea G.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. Obesity and a high-fat diet have been shown to have deleterious effects on fetal programming, predisposing offspring to adverse cardiometabolic and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although large epidemiological studies have shown an association between maternal obesity and adverse outcomes for offspring, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Molecular approaches have played a key role in elucidating the mechanistic underpinnings of fetal malprogramming in the setting of maternal obesity. These approaches include, among others, characterization of epigenetic modifications, microRNA expression, the gut microbiome, the transcriptome, and evaluation of specific mRNA expression via quantitative reverse transcription polmerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in fetuses and offspring of obese females. This work will review the data from animal models and human fluids/cells regarding the effects of maternal obesity on fetal and offspring neurodevelopment and cardiometabolic outcomes, with a particular focus on molecular approaches. PMID:26337113

  4. Pleiotropic effects of flowering time genes in the annual crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tienderen, P.H.; Hammad, I.; Zwaal, F.C.

    1996-01-01

    Variation in flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied in an experiment with mutant lines. The pleiotropic effects of flowering time genes on morphology and reproductive yield were assessed under three levels of nutrient supply. At all nutrient levels flowering time and number of rosette

  5. Indirect effects of an invasive annual grass on seed fates of two native perennial grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susan E; Merrill, Katherine T; Allen, Phil S; Beckstead, Julie; Norte, Anna S

    2014-04-01

    Invasive plants exhibit both direct and indirect negative effects on recruitment of natives following invasion. We examined indirect effects of the invader Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) on seed fates of two native grass species, Elymus elymoides and Pseudoroegneria spicata, by removing B. tectorum and by adding inoculum of the shared seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda in factorial experiments at xeric and mesic field sites. We also included a supplemental watering treatment to increase emergence and also the potential for pathogen escape. We recorded emergence and survival of native seedlings and also determined the fate of unemerged seeds. At the xeric site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was high (34%), and effects of other pathogens and failed emergence of germinants were smaller. Cheatgrass removal negatively affected both emergence (35 vs. 25%) and spring survival (69 vs. 42%). Pyrenophora-caused seed mortality increased with inoculum augmentation for both species (22 vs. 47% overall), but emergence was negatively impacted only for P. spicata (20 vs. 34%). At the mesic site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was low (6%). Cheatgrass removal doubled emergence (26 vs. 14%). Seed mortality increased significantly with inoculum augmentation for P. spicata (12 vs. 5%) but not E. elymoides, while emergence was not significantly affected in either species. A large fraction of seeds produced germinants that failed to emerge (37%), while another large fraction (35%) was killed by other pathogens. We conclude that facilitation by cheatgrass at the xeric site but interference at the mesic site was probably mediated through litter effects that could be ameliorative or suppressive. Apparent competition between cheatgrass and native grasses could occur through Pyrenophora, especially in a xeric environment, but effects were weak or absent at emergence. This was probably because Pyrenophora attacks the same slow-germinating fraction that is subject to pre-emergence mortality from

  6. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  7. An effective Hamiltonian approach to quantum random walk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-09

    Feb 9, 2017 ... Abstract. In this article we present an effective Hamiltonian approach for discrete time quantum random walk. A form of the Hamiltonian for one-dimensional quantum walk has been prescribed, utilizing the fact that Hamil- tonians are generators of time translations. Then an attempt has been made to ...

  8. Flipping the Calculus Classroom: A Cost-Effective Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a cost-effective approach to flipping the calculus classroom. In particular, the emphasis is on low-cost choices, both monetarily and with regards to faculty time, that make the daunting task of flipping a course manageable for a single instructor. Student feedback and overall impressions are also presented.

  9. The UFAIL Approach: Unconventional Technologies and Their "Unintended" Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agler, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This essay presents the use-first-and-investigate-later (UFAIL) approach to technological use through two case studies: the atomic bomb in World War II and chemical defoliants during the Vietnam War. The methodology of UFAIL is as follows: despite limited understanding of an array of potential effects (medical, environmental, etc.), technology…

  10. effect of cuisenaire rods' approach on students' interest in decimal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    coefficient of 0.72 using K-R(21), was used as a research instrument for data collection. ... effect between method and gender (F1,199=20.848; p<0.05). ... teachers of mathematics should adopt this approach in teaching mathematics in Junior ...

  11. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  12. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland: effects of climate and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Bahn, Michael; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Cernusca, Alexander

    2008-04-27

    The role and relative importance of climate and cutting for the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO 2 (NEE) of a temperate mountain grassland was investigated. Eddy covariance CO 2 flux data and associated measurements of the green area index and the major environmental driving forces acquired during 2001-2006 at the study site Neustift (Austria) were analyzed. Driven by three cutting events per year which kept the investigated grassland in a stage of vigorous growth, the seasonal variability of NEE was primarily modulated by gross primary productivity (GPP). The role of environmental parameters in modulating the seasonal variability of NEE was obscured by the strong response of GPP to changes in the amount of green area, as well as the cutting-mediated decoupling of phenological development and the seasonal course of climate drivers. None of the climate and management metrics examined was able to explain the inter-annual variability of annual NEE. This is thought to result from (1) a high covariance between GPP and ecosystem respiration (R eco ) at the annual time scale which results in a comparatively small inter-annual variation of NEE, (2) compensating effects between carbon exchange during and outside the management period, and (3) changes in the biotic response to rather than the climate variables per se. GPP was more important in modulating inter-annual variations in NEE in spring and before the first and second cut, while R eco explained a larger fraction of the inter-annual variability of NEE during the remaining, in particular the post-cut, periods.

  13. Transient Relative Age Effects across annual age groups in National level Australian Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, Stephen; Abbott, Shaun; Dogramaci, Sera; Kable, Adam; Salter, James; Hintermann, Mirjam; Romann, Michael

    2017-12-29

    To determine the prevalence, magnitude and transient patterning of Relative Age Effects (RAEs) according to sex and stroke event across all age-groups at the Australian National age swimming Championships. Repeated years of cross-sectional participation data were examined. Participants were 6014 unique male (3185) and female (2829) swimmers (aged 12-18 years) who participated in Freestyle (50, 400m) and/or Breaststroke (100, 200m) at the National age swimming Championships between 2000-2014 (inclusive). RAE prevalence, magnitude and transience were determined using Chi-square tests and Cramer's V estimates for effect size. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) examined relative age quartile discrepancies. These steps were applied across age-groups and according to sex and each stroke event. Consistent RAEs with large-medium effect sizes were evident for males at 12-15 years of age respectively, and with large-medium effects for females at 12-14 respectively across all four swimming strokes. RAE magnitude then consistently reduced with age across strokes (e.g., Q1 vs. Q4 OR range 16year old males=0.94-1.20; females=0.68-1.41). With few exceptions, by 15-16 years RAEs had typically dissipated; and by 17-18 years, descriptive and significant inverse RAEs emerged, reflecting overrepresentation of relatively younger swimmers. Performance advantages associated with relative age (and thereby likely growth and maturation) are transient. Greater consideration of transient performance and participation in athlete development systems is necessary. This may include revising the emphasis of sport programmes according to developmental stages and delaying forms of athlete selection to improve validity. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) Program. Annual progress report, October 1978-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.N.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1980-04-01

    The METER (Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases) Program was organized to develop and verify methods for predicting the maximum amount of energy that can be dissipated to the atmosphere (through cooling towers or cooling ponds) from proposed nuclear energy centers without affecting...the local and regional environment. The initial program scope (mathematical modeling, laboratory and field experimentation, and societal impact assessment) has now narrowed to emphasis on the acquisition of field data of substantial quality and extent

  15. Genetic diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating selected annual grain legumes growing in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degefu, Tulu; Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew; Rasche, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Vigna unguiculata, Vigna radiata and Arachis hypogaea growing in Ethiopia are nodulated by a genetically diverse group of Bradyrhizobium strains. To determine the genetic identity and symbiotic effectiveness of these bacteria, a collection of 36 test strains originating from the root nodules of the three hosts was investigated using multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of core genes including 16S rRNA, recA, glnII, gyrB, atpD and dnaK. Sequence analysis of nodA and nifH genes along with tests for symbiotic effectiveness using δ 15 N analysis were also carried out. The phylogenetic trees derived from the MLSA grouped most test strains into four well-supported distinct positions designated as genospecies I-IV. The maximum likelihood (ML) tree that was constructed based on the nodA gene sequences separated the entire test strains into two lineages, where the majority of the test strains were clustered on one of a well-supported large branch that comprise Bradyrhizobium species from the tropics. This clearly suggested the monophyletic origin of the nodA genes within the bradyrhizobia of tropical origin. The δ 15 N-based symbiotic effectiveness test of seven selected strains revealed that strains GN100 (δ 15 N=0.73) and GN102 (δ 15 N=0.79) were highly effective nitrogen fixers when inoculated to cowpea, thus can be considered as inoculants in cowpea production. It was concluded that Ethiopian soils are a hotspot for rhizobial diversity. This calls for further research to unravel as yet unknown bradyrhizobia nodulating legume host species growing in the country. In this respect, prospective research should also address the mechanisms of symbiotic specificity that could lead to high nitrogen fixation in target legumes.

  16. Carry-over effects on the annual cycle of a migratory seabird: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, Annette L; Freeman, Robin; Shoji, Akiko; Kirk, Holly L; Padget, Oliver; Perrins, Chris M; Guilford, Tim

    2016-11-01

    Long-lived migratory animals must balance the cost of current reproduction with their own condition ahead of a challenging migration and future reproduction. In these species, carry-over effects, which occur when events in one season affect the outcome of the subsequent season, may be particularly exacerbated. However, how carry-over effects influence future breeding outcomes and whether (and how) they also affect behaviour during migration and wintering is unclear. Here we investigate carry-over effects induced by a controlled, bidirectional manipulation of the duration of reproductive effort on the migratory, wintering and subsequent breeding behaviour of a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus. By cross-fostering chicks of different age between nests, we successfully prolonged or shortened by ∼25% the chick-rearing period of 42 breeding pairs. We tracked the adults with geolocators over the subsequent year and combined migration route data with at-sea activity budgets obtained from high-resolution saltwater-immersion data. Migratory behaviour was also recorded during non-experimental years (the year before and/or two years after manipulation) for a subset of birds, allowing comparison between experimental and non-experimental years within treatment groups. All birds cared for chicks until normal fledging age, resulting in birds with a longer breeding period delaying their departure on migration; however, birds that finished breeding earlier did not start migrating earlier. Increased reproductive effort resulted in less time spent at the wintering grounds, a reduction in time spent resting daily and a delayed start of breeding with lighter eggs and chicks and lower breeding success the following breeding season. Conversely, reduced reproductive effort resulted in more time resting and less time foraging during the winter, but a similar breeding phenology and success compared with control birds the following year, suggesting that

  17. The stochastic system approach for estimating dynamic treatments effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commenges, Daniel; Gégout-Petit, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The problem of assessing the effect of a treatment on a marker in observational studies raises the difficulty that attribution of the treatment may depend on the observed marker values. As an example, we focus on the analysis of the effect of a HAART on CD4 counts, where attribution of the treatment may depend on the observed marker values. This problem has been treated using marginal structural models relying on the counterfactual/potential response formalism. Another approach to causality is based on dynamical models, and causal influence has been formalized in the framework of the Doob-Meyer decomposition of stochastic processes. Causal inference however needs assumptions that we detail in this paper and we call this approach to causality the "stochastic system" approach. First we treat this problem in discrete time, then in continuous time. This approach allows incorporating biological knowledge naturally. When working in continuous time, the mechanistic approach involves distinguishing the model for the system and the model for the observations. Indeed, biological systems live in continuous time, and mechanisms can be expressed in the form of a system of differential equations, while observations are taken at discrete times. Inference in mechanistic models is challenging, particularly from a numerical point of view, but these models can yield much richer and reliable results.

  18. Radiation effects on transport and bubble formation in silicate glasses. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    'To study the fundamental chemistry of radiation damage in silicate/borosilicate glasses and simulated high-level nuclear waste (HLW) forms. Special emphasis is on delineating molecular processes crucial for understanding the aggregation of defects and formation of oxygen bubbles. The knowledge obtained will provide the needed scientific basis for extrapolating long-term behavior of stored radiative waste glass forms. This report summarizes the first 6 months of a 3-year project. The following issues have been addressed: (i) the production of radiolytic oxygen, (ii) the chemistry of hydrogenous species, and (iii) the effect of glass composition and microstructure on the formation and accumulation of metastable point defects.'

  19. Nutrient and water addition effects on day- and night-time conductance and transpiration in a C3 desert annual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Fulco; Jewitt, Rebecca A; Donovan, Lisa A

    2006-06-01

    Recent research has shown that many C3 plant species have significant stomatal opening and transpire water at night even in desert habitats. Day-time stomatal regulation is expected to maximize carbon gain and prevent runaway cavitation, but little is known about the effect of soil resource availability on night-time stomatal conductance (g) and transpiration (E). Water (low and high) and nutrients (low and high) were applied factorially during the growing season to naturally occurring seedlings of the annual Helianthus anomalus. Plant height and biomass were greatest in the treatment where both water and nutrients were added, confirming resource limitations in this habitat. Plants from all treatments showed significant night-time g (approximately 0.07 mol m(-2) s(-1)) and E (approximately 1.5 mol m(-2) s(-1)). In July, water and nutrient additions had few effects on day- or night-time gas exchange. In August, however, plants in the nutrient addition treatments had lower day-time photosynthesis, g and E, paralleled by lower night-time g and E. Lower predawn water potentials and higher integrated photosynthetic water-use efficiency suggests that the nutrient addition indirectly induced a mild water stress. Thus, soil resources can affect night-time g and E in a manner parallel to day-time, although additional factors may also be involved.

  20. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, annual ring structure and photosynthesis in Larix kaempferi seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazaki, K.; Ishida, S.; Kawagishi, T.; Fukatsu, E.; Funada, R.; Maruyama, Y.; Kitao, M.; Tobita, H.; Koike, T.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and two nutrient regimes on stem growth rate, annual ring structure and temporal variations in photosynthetic characteristics of seedlings of Japanese larch were evaluated. When compared with ambient carbon dioxide, elevated carbon dioxide reduced stem height and increased stem basal diameter, but had no significant effect on ring width or the number of tracheids per radial file. No obvious difference was observed in cell wall thickness or the relative area of cell wall between seedlings grown in ambient or elevated carbon dioxide. Net assimilation rate increased in the presence of elevated carbon dioxide, however, the increase in whole-crown photosynthetic rate was minimal due to the smaller needle area and acclimation of the photosynthetic characteristics of the needles to the growth in carbon dioxide concentration. Conclusion: elevated carbon dioxide concentration did not appear to significantly affect the capacity of stems of Japanese larch seedlings for carbon fixation for use in cell wall synthesis, although there was evidence of change in the temporal pattern of stem growth and stem thickening. 52 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Wisz, M.S.; Teilmann, J.; Bech, N.I. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [DHI - Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Henriksen, Oluf, D. [DDH-Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  2. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J; Carstensen, J; Wisz, M S; Teilmann, J; Bech, N I [National Environmental Res. Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H [DHI - Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Henriksen, Oluf, D. [DDH-Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  3. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Wisz, M.S.; Teilmann, J.; Bech, N.I.; Skov, H.; Henriksen, Oluf D.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  4. Interfacial radiolysis effects in tank waste speciation. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.; Meisel, D.; Orlando, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    'The purpose of this program is to deliver pertinent, fundamental information that can be used to make technically defensible decisions on safety issues and processing strategies associated with storage and clean up of DOE mixed chemical and radioactive wastes. The radioactive and chemical wastes present in DOE underground storage tanks contain complex mixtures of sludges, salts, and supernatant liquids. These mixtures, which contain a wide variety of oxide materials, aqueous solvents, and organic components, are constantly bombarded with gamma quanta, beta and alpha particles produced via the decay of radioactive isotopes. Currently, there is a vital need to understand radiolysis of organic and inorganic species present in mixed waste tanks because these processes: (a) produce mixtures of toxic, flammable, and potentially explosive gases (i.e., H 2 , N 2 O and volatile organics) (b) degrade organics, possibly to gas-generating organic fragments, even as the degradation reduces the hazards associated with nitrate-organic mixtures, (c) alter the surface chemistry of insoluble colloids in tank sludge, influencing sedimentation and the gas/solid interactions that may lead to gas entrapment phenomena. This report summarizes the technical achievements of a 3-year project that is now in its 2nd year. Progress in three areas is reported: (1) radiation effects at NaNO 3 crystal interfaces, (2) reactions of organic complexants with NO 2 in water, and (3) radiation effects in oxide particles.'

  5. The effect of fire on the dormancy break of annual legume seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gresta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a common phenomenon in the Mediterranean environment and strongly influences vegetal population dynamics through its impact on vegetation and the soil seed bank. Fire is able to break down the seed coat of hard-seeded legumes within the soil and trigger germination. To evaluate the effect of fire on the dormancy break in Medicago ciliaris, Medicago rugosa and Scorpiurus muricatus subsp. subvillosus, the seeds were placed at three different depths (surface, 25 mm and 50 mm and subjected to fires at two different intensities (high and low. As a control sample, a batch of seeds was buried at 25 mm for the duration of the trial and not subjected to fire. Soil temperatures during the fire were compared directly to stubble quantity and indirectly related to soil depth. The two Medicago species survived exposure to 90°C for a few minutes and displayed a significant increase in germination with exposure to high temperatures (over 70°C for several minutes. On the other hand, no germination occurred in Scorpiurus, irrespective of treatment. In conclusion, fire had a significant and positive effect in triggering germination of the Medicago species, but the dispersal strategies of these hard-seeded legumes are only partially interrupted by fire as a large number of seeds (>50% remained non-germinated in the soil.

  6. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1993 - March 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The circumstances that the move of the Hiroshima facilities is in the state of reservation due to the budget reduction of USA government are reported. As to the investigation and research activities, international cooperation has increased remarkably. The council resolved to request United Nations that it designates the Radiation Effects Research Foundation to the organ for inquiring about the effect of radiation on health and gives aid. The change of directors is reported. The research works in fiscal 1993 in Departments of Epidemiology, Pathological Epidemiology, Statistics, Clinical Research (in Hiroshima and Nagasaki), Genetic Biochemical Laboratory and Cell Genetics Laboratory of Genetics Department, Radiation Biology, Radiation Biology (in Nagasaki) are reported. The trend of the research works in fiscal 1994 in respective Departments is described. As to the plan of Research Information Center in fiscal 1994, the abolishment of large computer, the extension of PC network, data base management and the computer processing of office works are described. As to the plan of Research Information Center in fiscal 1995, the completion of the network connection of all computers, the expansion of the data base to input major source data sets, and the introduction of software so as to utilize and retrieve data easily are expected. The abstracts of new research plan papers and the manuscripts contributed to scientific journals are collected. (K.I.)

  7. The effect of fire on the dormancy break of three annual legume seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gresta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a common phenomenon in the Mediterranean environment and strongly influences vegetal population dynamics through its impact on vegetation and the soil seed bank. Fire is able to break down the seed coat of hard-seeded legumes within the soil and trigger germination. To evaluate the effect of fire on the dormancy break in Medicago ciliaris, Medicago rugosa and Scorpiurus muricatus subsp. subvillosus, the seeds were placed at three different depths (surface, 25 mm and 50 mm and subjected to fires at two different intensities (high and low. As a control sample, a batch of seeds was buried at 25 mm for the duration of the trial and not subjected to fire. Soil temperatures during the fire were compared directly to stubble quantity and indirectly related to soil depth. The two Medicago species survived exposure to 90°C for a few minutes and displayed a significant increase in germination with exposure to high temperatures (over 70°C for several minutes. On the other hand, no germination occurred in Scorpiurus, irrespective of treatment. In conclusion, fire had a significant and positive effect in triggering germination of the Medicago species, but the dispersal strategies of these hard-seeded legumes are only partially interrupted by fire as a large number of seeds (>50% remained non-germinated in the soil.

  8. The Effects of Different Parts of the Annual Report on Potential Investors' Attitudes Towards the Company and on the Corporate Reputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Joyce; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Hofmans, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Research problem: Both the function and the appearance of annual reports have changed over the last few decades. These multimodal reports now include many types of information that serve different functions. In this study, the effects of several information types on stakeholders' attitudes toward

  9. Diagnostic of annual cycle and effects of the ENSO about the maximum intensity of duration rains between 1 and 24 hours at the Andes of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, German; Mesa, Oscar; Toro, Vladimir; Agudelo, Paula; Alvarez, Juan F; Arias, Paola; Moreno, Hernan; Salazar, Luis; Vieira, Sara

    2002-01-01

    We study the distribution of maximum rainfall events during the annual cycle, for storms ranging from 1 to 24-hour in duration; by using information over 51 rain gauges locate at the Colombian Andes. Also, the effects of both phases of ENSO (El Nino and La Nina) are quantified. We found that maximum rainfall intensity events occur during the rainy periods of march-may and September-November. There is a strong similarity between the annual cycle of mean total rainfall and that of the maximum intensities of rainfall over the tropical Andes. This result is quite consistent throughout the three ranges of the Colombian Andes. At inter annual timescales, we found that both phases of ENSO are associated with disturbances of maximum rainfall events; since during La Nina there are more intense precipitation events than during El Nino, overall, for durations longer than 3 hours, rainfall intensity gets reduced by one order of magnitude with respect to shorter durations (1-3 hours). The most extreme recorded rainfall events are apparently not associated with the annual and inter annual large scales forcing and appear to be randomly generated by the important role of the land surface atmosphere in the genesis and dynamics of intense storm over central Colombia

  10. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term ( 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation

  11. Effects of roof tile permeability on the thermal performance of ventilated roofs. Analysis of annual performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Orazio, M.; Di Perna, C.; Principi, P.; Stazi, A. [DACS, Universita politecnica delle Marche, 60100 Ancona (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    This paper shows the results of the second part of an experimental study aimed at analysing the effects of roof tile permeability on the thermal performances of ventilation ducts. Ventilation ducts under the layer of tiles are typically used in south European countries to limit the energy load during the summer period. The results of the first part of the study, carried out by analysing 14 different types of roof, proved that the air permeability of the layer of tiles determines a certain amount of heat to be released, in addition to the release connected with the stack effect, in ventilation ducts which have the same characteristics but are perfectly airtight. However, the study did not completely resolve some issues since it was carried out on a model roof (6 m x 1.5 m) with devices to raise the layer of tiles and to create the ventilation duct but without those building elements which are present in real roofs and are used to stop insects and small animals from entering the ventilation duct. These elements narrow the inlet and outlet and consequently cause important reductions in pressure. Moreover, the measurements were based on data collected for limited periods of time during the summer season. So as to eliminate any possible uncertainty from the results of the research, the study continued with the creation of a model building on which five types of ventilated roof with different cross sections of the ventilation duct were analysed. The results show that the presence of air permeable layers and elements to protect the ventilation duct eliminate any differences in performance which were due to the cross section of the ventilation duct. (author)

  12. Effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of a single annual professional intervention for the prevention of childhood dental caries in a remote rural Indigenous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, Ratilal; Kroon, Jeroen; Tut, Ohnmar; Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Jamieson, Lisa M; Wallace, Valda; Boase, Robyn; Fernando, Surani; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Scuffham, Paul A; Johnson, Newell W

    2015-08-29

    The aim of the study is to reduce the high prevalence of tooth decay in children in a remote, rural Indigenous community in Australia, by application of a single annual dental preventive intervention. The study seeks to (1) assess the effectiveness of an annual oral health preventive intervention in slowing the incidence of dental caries in children in this community, (2) identify the mediating role of known risk factors for dental caries and (3) assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the intervention. The intervention is novel in that most dental preventive interventions require regular re-application, which is not possible in resource constrained communities. While tooth decay is preventable, self-care and healthy habits are lacking in these communities, placing more emphasis on health services to deliver an effective dental preventive intervention. Importantly, the study will assess cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness for broader implementation across similar communities in Australia and internationally. There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of dental decay in these communities, by implementing effective, cost-effective, feasible and sustainable dental prevention programs. Expected outcomes of this study include improved oral and general health of children within the community; an understanding of the costs associated with the intervention provided, and its comparison with the costs of allowing new lesions to develop, with associated treatment costs. Findings should be generalisable to similar communities around the world. The research is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), registration number ACTRN12615000693527; date of registration: 3rd July 2015.

  13. Evaluation of Effect of Silicon on NaCl Tolerance in Annual Medicago scutellata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azizi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salinity is one of the most important stress resulting depletion of vegetation in large areas of the world including some regions of Iran. Reduction of plant growth due to salinity occurs with a range of mechanisms, including low external water potential, ion toxicity and interfere with the uptake. Silicon (Si is the second most abundant element in soil and could efficiently mitigate the effects of various biotic and abiotic stresses, such as drought, heavy metal toxicity and salinity on plants. Medicago scutellata is an important leguminous forage crop throughout the world that could increase soil nitrogen content via reduction of atmospheric nitrogen. To our knowledge, no study have examined the interaction of salinity and Si nutrition in Medicago scutellata or how the beneficial effects of Si in salt-stressed M. scutellata plants (if any are exerted. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of silicon nutrition on salt tolerance of Medicago scutellata. Materials and Methods Seeds of alfalfa (Medicago scutellata L. were sterilized with a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution and were incubated in a moistened paper towel. Then, they germinated in the dark at 255  C for 48 h. Healthy seedlings of uniform sizes were selected for hydroponic culture (Hoagland solution in a 10×15×15 cm plastic pots. A factorial experiment carried out based on a completely randomized design with two factors. The first factor was salinity, including 0 and 100 mM NaCl and the second was silicon nutrition, including 0, 0.75 and 1.5 m.M sodium silicate. The pH of the nutrient solution was adjusted daily at 6.4  0.2 and nutrient solution was refreshed weekly. During the experiment, maximum and minimum air temperatures were 30ºC and 21ºC respectively, and the mean relative humidity was 67%. Four weeks after exerting the treatments, plants were harvested and used for the assessment of growth parameters and chemical analyses

  14. Interfacial radiolysis effects in tank waste speciation. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, T.M.

    1997-01-01

    'The purpose of this program is to deliver pertinent, fundamental information that can be used to make technically defensible decisions on safety issues and processing strategies associated with mixed chemical and radioactive waste cleanup. In particular, an understanding of radiolysis in mixed-phase systems typical of U. Department of Energy (DOE) heterogeneous, radioactive/chemical wastes will be established. This is an important scientific concern with respect to understanding tank waste chemistry issues; it has received relatively little attention. The importance of understanding solid-state radiolysis, secondary electron interactions, charge-transfer dynamics, and the general effect of heterogeneous solids (interface and particulate surface chemistry) on tank waste radiation processes will be demonstrated. In particular, the author will investigate (i) the role of solid-state and interfacial radiolysis in the generation of gases, (ii) the mechanisms of organic compound degradation, (iii) scientific issues underlying safe interim storage, and (iv) the effects of colloid surface-chemical properties on waste chemistry. Controlled radiolysis studies of NaNO 3 solids and SiO 2 particles were carried out using pulsed, low- (5--150 eV) and high- (3 MeV) energy electron-beams at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), respectively. The pulsed, low-energy electron beams probe the inelastic scattering and secondary cascading effects produced by high-energy beta and gamma particles. Pulsed radiolysis allows time-resolved measurements of the high-energy processes induced by these particles. Using low-energy (10--75 eV) electron-beam irradiation of nominally dry NaNO 3 solution-grown and melt-grown single crystals, they observed H + , Na + , O + , NO + , NO, NO 2 , O 2 , and O( 3 P) desorption signals. The threshold measurements and yields indicate that the degradation proceeds mainly via destruction of the nitrate moiety. The

  15. Determination of transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Hess, N.J.; Strachan, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    'A team from two national laboratories is studying transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. Analyses are being done with 18 year old samples of 137 Cs-bearing pollucite (CsAlSi 2 O 6 267 0.5 H 2 O) obtained from a French company. These samples are unique in that the pollucite was made with various amounts of 137 Cs, which was then sealed in welded stainless- steel capsules to be used as tumor irradiation sources. Over the past 18 years, the 137 Cs has been decaying to stable Ba in the capsules, i.e., in the absence of atmospheric effects. This material serves as an analogue to a crystalline waste form in which such a transmutation occurs to possibly disrupt the integrity of the original waste form. Work this year consisted of determining the construction of the capsule and state of the pollucite in the absence of details about these components from the French company. The authors have opened one capsule containing nonradioactive pollucite. The information on the construction of the stainless-steel capsule is useful for the work that the authors are preparing to do on capsules containing radioactive pollucite. Microscopic characterization of the nonradioactive pollucite revealed that there are at least two compounds in addition to pollucite: a Cs-silicate and a Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO 4 ). These findings may complicate the interpretation of the planned experiments using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (fluorescence) have been used to characterize the nonradioactive pollucite. They have investigated the stability of the nonradioactive pollucite to β radiation damage by use of 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope. The samples were found to become amorphous in less than 10 minutes with loss of Cs. This is equivalent to many more years of β radiation damage than under normal decay of the 137 Cs. In fact, the dose was equivalent to several thousand years of normal

  16. Environmental effects research. Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1983. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The Terrestrial Ecology group continued its involvement in the National Crop Loss Assessment Network, and studies of O 3 effects on winter wheat and soybeans were completed. Experiments on O 3 x SO 2 interactions on soybeans were also performed. The Microcosms for Acid Rain Studies (MARS) project had its first full year of research and much information concerning acid rain impacts on soil-plant systems was collected. A study of the influence of temporal variations in rain acidity on soybean productivity was also initiated. The aquatic radiochemistry group continued measurements of the mobility of plutonium and americium at a disposal site at Los Alamos and initiated similar work at Hanford. Laboratory tracer experiments were carried out to study the adsorptive behavior of neptunium, the solubility limits of plutonium, and the influence of rare earth concentration on the sorption and redox behavior of plutonium. The soil-plant process group initiated several studies on the influence of mycorrhizae to host plants in disturbed and natural environments. Much of the past research has been concerned with understanding mycorrhizal fungi propagule dynamics as related to disturbances associated with energy extraction. Future research will be directed at understanding how below-ground symbiotic associations may increase the fitness of host plants. Emphasis is being placed on resource acquisition and compartmental strategies. Separate analytics have been indexed for EDB

  17. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J.; Rye Hansen, J.

    2004-06-01

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  18. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Rye Hansen, J. [DDH Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-06-15

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  19. Experimental investigation of ICRF effects: Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1988-October 15, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Phaedrus Program now consists of two major devices, the Phaedrus-B Tandem mirror and the Phaedrus-T tokamak. Phaedrus-B has been modified to operate as an axisymmetric tandem mirror with no quadrupole end cell fields and only circular baffles. Phaedrus-T is now under construction. The Phaedrus-T vacuum chamber is nearing completion and new toroidal field coils have been ordered (with completion expected in early 1989). As originally proposed, when Phaedrus-T is operational, our initial plan is to continue operating both devices (on alternating schedules). We will utilize the same control room, power supplies, and staff for both devices, and graduate students will have thesis project physics issues that can be studied on both devices. Investigations are currently and, will continue to be, centered around five physics areas. All involve ICRF. These are: edge physics; ponderomotive effects; mode conversion; mode control; and tandem mirror specific. The first four will ultimately involve activities on both Phaedrus-T and Phaedrus-B. The fifth includes work that is specifically related to tandem mirror issues. 4 figs

  20. Biological applications and effects of optical masers. Annual report, 16 March 1984-15 March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, W.T.; Mueller, H.A.; Ruffolo, J.J.; Cleary, S.F.; Guerry, R.K.

    1985-09-01

    Histological studies on the right eye of a monkey exposed three and one half years ago to the Miles prototype GaAs laser confirm the visual acuity tests performed on this animal. There was no histological evidence of retinal damage. The aphakic eye of a monkey exposed to near-uv radiation under high blood-oxygen tension was examined. There was widespread cone destruction and extensive damage to the RPE at radiant exposures well below the threshold for monkeys under normal oxygenation conditions. Very small lesions produced in the monkey macula by 40-microsecond pulses of 647 nm argon-krypton laser light at 1600 pulses per second were examined. The effects of the intravenous injection of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and SOD + catalase on the blue-light retinal lesion, inflicted both before and after injection, were studied by in vivo observation. The threshold for photic damage to the retina for a period of two years. Threshold data on argon-krypton laser pulse trains at two wavelengths have been obtained for pulse repetition frequencies and exposure times. Trained rhesus monkeys exposed to 5mW/sq cm of a near-uv continuous spectrum on a daily basis showed no lenticular changes between exposed and control eye when examined biomicroscopically.

  1. Savannah River Laboratory environmental transport and effects research. Annual report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.V.

    1975-06-01

    The principal objective of environmental transport research at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is to develop, apply, adapt, use, test, and verify models that predict the directions and magnitude of ecosystem processes. Since an ecosystem is understood to be a complex ecological unit composed of physical, chemical, and biotic components interacting in the cycling and transport of matter and the flow of energy, the understanding of ecosystem processes demands integrated study by scientists of differing disciplines. Data are included from studies on factors that affect the atmospheric transport and dispersion of radionuclides and chemical effluents; surface and groundwater transport of various pollutants following release to the soil surface or a flowing stream; the uptake and retention of tritium oxide by pine trees; calculations of the radiation dose commitment for human populations from 14 C released by the nuclear industry; the effects of thermal effluents on aquatic organisms, including plankton productivity, the population dynamics of freshwater snails, and the growth and respiration rates of the sand-burrowing mayfly (Dolania americana). Data are included from a survey of seismic activity in South Carolina. (CH)

  2. Environmental effects research. Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1983. Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    The Terrestrial Ecology group continued its involvement in the National Crop Loss Assessment Network, and studies of O/sub 3/ effects on winter wheat and soybeans were completed. Experiments on O/sub 3/ x SO/sub 2/ interactions on soybeans were also performed. The Microcosms for Acid Rain Studies (MARS) project had its first full year of research and much information concerning acid rain impacts on soil-plant systems was collected. A study of the influence of temporal variations in rain acidity on soybean productivity was also initiated. The aquatic radiochemistry group continued measurements of the mobility of plutonium and americium at a disposal site at Los Alamos and initiated similar work at Hanford. Laboratory tracer experiments were carried out to study the adsorptive behavior of neptunium, the solubility limits of plutonium, and the influence of rare earth concentration on the sorption and redox behavior of plutonium. The soil-plant process group initiated several studies on the influence of mycorrhizae to host plants in disturbed and natural environments. Much of the past research has been concerned with understanding mycorrhizal fungi propagule dynamics as related to disturbances associated with energy extraction. Future research will be directed at understanding how below-ground symbiotic associations may increase the fitness of host plants. Emphasis is being placed on resource acquisition and compartmental strategies. Separate analytics have been indexed for EDB.

  3. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  4. Effect of Surgery First Orthognathic Approach on the Temporomandibular Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelo, Sandro; Saponaro, Gianmarco; De Angelis, Paolo; Gasparini, Giulio; Garagiola, Umberto; Moro, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    Correction of severe malocclusions with skeletal discrepancies requires orthodontic treatment in combination with orthognathic surgery. Even though conventional orthognathic surgery (COS) is a common and well-accepted approach its influence on the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) is still debated. Recently with the introduction of surgery first approach, a different timing for the management of dentoskeletal imbalances has been proposed. The present study is aimed at assessing the relationship between surgery first approach and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. The study sample consisted of 24 patients who were selected to be treated with surgery first approach. Clinical follow-ups after surgery were performed every week for the first month, at 3 months, 6 months, and at 1 year. A radiological follow-up was performed at 1 week and at 1 year after the operation with a panorex and a latero-lateral teleradiograph. To assess the effect of surgery first approach on the TMDs signs and symptoms, a clinical assessment was performed 4 days before surgery (T1), 6 months after surgery (T2), and 1 year postoperatively (T3). The results of the authors' study show that pain assessment revealed a general improvement of this symptom in correspondence to TMJ and masticatory muscles except in the masseter and neck region. Also joint noises, TMJ functioning, migraine, and headache underwent a considerable improvement. Surgery first approach is an innovative orthognathic procedure and, by undergoing surgery first approach, patients with pre-existing TMJ dysfunction may experience a significant improvement or even resolution of the TMDs signs and symptoms.

  5. Toward an effective field theory approach to reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Ogan; Giblin, John T.; Nesbit, Eva; Şengör, Gizem; Watson, Scott

    2017-12-01

    We investigate whether effective field theory (EFT) approaches, which have been useful in examining inflation and dark energy, can also be used to establish a systematic approach to inflationary reheating. We consider two methods. First, we extend Weinberg's background EFT to the end of inflation and reheating. We establish when parametric resonance and decay of the inflaton occurs, but also find intrinsic theoretical limitations, which make it difficult to capture some reheating models. This motivates us to next consider Cheung et al.'s EFT approach, which instead focuses on perturbations and the symmetry breaking induced by the cosmological background. Adapting the latter approach to reheating implies some new and important differences compared to the EFT of inflation. In particular, there are new hierarchical scales, and we must account for inflaton oscillations during reheating, which lead to discrete symmetry breaking. Guided by the fundamental symmetries, we construct the EFT of reheating, and as an example of its usefulness we establish a new class of reheating models and the corresponding predictions for gravity wave observations. In this paper we primarily focus on the first stages of preheating. We conclude by discussing challenges for the approach and future directions. This paper builds on ideas first proposed in the paper [O. Ozsoy, G. Sengor, K. Sinha, and S. Watson, arXiv:1507.06651.].

  6. Combined Effects of Nutrient and Pesticide Management on Soil Microbial Activity in Hybrid Rice Double Annual Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEXiao-mei; LIAOMin; LIUWei-ping; SusanneKLOSE

    2004-01-01

    Combined effects on soil microbial activity of nutrient and pesticide management in hybrid rice double annual cropping system were studied. Results of field experiment demonstrated significant changes in soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents,abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria, electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity, soil protein contents under different management practices and at various growth stages. Marked depletions in the soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also induced slight changes, and the lowest microbial biomass phospholipid content was found with pesticides application alone. A decline in the bacterial abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was observed during the continuance of crop growth, while the lowest abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolyrJc bacteria was found with pesticides application alone, which coincided with the decline of soil microbial biomass. A consistent increase in the electron transport svstem activit), was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or combined with pesticides increased it, while a decline was noticed with pesticides application alone as compared with the control.The soil protein content was found to be relatively stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops undertaken, but notable changes were detected at different growrh stages

  7. Combined Effects of Nutrient and Pesticide Management on Soil Microbial Activity in Hybrid Rice Double Annual Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-mei; LIAO Min; LIU Wei-ping; Susanne KLOSE

    2004-01-01

    Combined effects on soil microbial activity of nutrient and pesticide management in hybrid rice double annual cropping system were studied. Results of field experiment demonstrated significant changes in soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents,abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria, electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity, soil protein contents under different management practices and at various growth stages. Marked depletions in the soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also induced slight changes, and the lowest microbial biomass phospholipid content was found with pesticides application alone. A decline in the bacterial abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was observed during the continuance of crop growth, while the lowest abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was found with pesticides application alone, which coincided with the decline of soil microbial biomass. A consistent increase in the electron transport system activity was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or combined with pesticides increased it, while a decline was noticed with pesticides application alone as compared with the control.The soil protein content was found to be relatively stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops undertaken, but notable changes were detected at different growth stages.

  8. Variation of annual effective dose due to radon level in indoor air in Marwar region of Rajasthan, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Asha, E-mail: ashasachdeva78@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science, Ferozepur College of Engineering and Technology, Farozshah, Ferozepur-142052, Punjab (India); Mittal, Sudhir, E-mail: sudhirmittal03@gmail.com [Department of Applied Sciences, Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar-144601, Punjab (India); Mehra, Rohit [Department of Physics, Dr. B.R.Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar-144011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    In the present work, indoor radon and thoron measurements have been carried out from different locations of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Northern Rajasthan, India using RAD7, a solid state alpha detector. The radon and thoron concentration in indoor air varies from 8.75 to 61.25 Bq m{sup −3} and 32.7 to 147.2 Bq m{sup −3} with the mean value of 32 and 73 Bq m{sup −3} respectively. The observed indoor radon concentration values are well below the action level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (200-300 Bq m{sup −3}) and Environmental Protection Agency (148 Bq m{sup −3}). The survey reveals that the thoron concentration values in the indoor air are well within the International Commission on Radiological Protection (2005). The calculated total annual effective dose due to radon level in indoor air varies from 0.22 to 1.54 mSv y{sup −1} with the mean value of 0.81 mSv y{sup −1} which is less than even the lower limit of action level 3-10 mSv y{sup −1} recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (2005)

  9. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  10. A model to evaluate the costs and clinical effectiveness of human papilloma virus screening compared with annual papanicolaou cytology in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Karl Ulrich; Barth, Cordula; Wasem, Jürgen; Neumann, Anja

    2017-05-01

    We modelled human papilloma virus (HPV) primary screening scenarios compared with Pap cytology to evaluate clinical effectiveness and projected annual costs in Germany. A Markov cohort model was built to compare the budget impact of annual Pap cytology with different 5-yearly HPV screening scenarios: (1) a positive HPV test followed by Pap cytology; (2) a positive HPV test followed by p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology; (3) a positive HPV test followed by colposcopy if HPV-16/18-positive or p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology if positive for other subtypes; (4) co-testing with HPV and Pap. Screening scenarios were based on a 10-year horizon. All HPV screening scenarios in the model were associated with fewer deaths from missed diagnosis of cervical cancer compared with Pap screening; 10-year totals n=172-344 (1.5-3 per 100,000) versus n=477 (4.1 per 100,000), respectively. Total annual costs were lower with HPV screening than Pap cytology. The projected average annual cost for HPV screening ranged from €117 million to €136 million compared with €177 million for Pap screening, representing annual savings of €41-60 million. The greatest clinical impact was achieved with primary HPV screening (with genotyping) followed by colposcopy for HPV 16/18-positive women or p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology for women positive for other HPV subtypes. Screening strategies including primary HPV testing for high-risk subtypes (HPV-16/18) in conjunction with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology can improve the detection of cervical cancer at a lower total annual cost than conventional Pap cytology screening. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and sage-grouse- A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Boyd, Chad S.; Campbell, Steve; Espinosa, Shawn; Havlina, Doug; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution, relative abundance, and persistence of sage-grouse populations to develop management strategies at both landscape and site scales. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with sage-grouse habitat requirements for landscape cover of sagebrush to help decision makers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at landscape scales. Focal areas for management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation (PACs), breeding bird densities, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of focal areas for treatment and the most appropriate management treatments.

  12. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PRUDENTIAL BANKING SUPERVISION: PECULIARITIES OF METHODICAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naumenkova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Іn the article the theoretical fundamentals of the prudential banking supervision effectiveness and substantiation of approaches to calculation of the integral indicator of supervisory system compliance with the Basel Committee Core Principles were investigated. The “functional effectiveness” and “institutional effectiveness” concepts of supervisory activity were suggested. The authors have defined the influence of supervisory organizing structure on GDP growth by groups of countries in the world. The list of priority measures focused on increase of the effectiveness of prudential supervisory activity was systematized to restore sustainability of the national banking sector.

  13. Vibrational mechanics nonlinear dynamic effects, general approach, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blekhman, Iliya I

    2000-01-01

    This important book deals with vibrational mechanics - the new, intensively developing section of nonlinear dynamics and the theory of nonlinear oscillations. It offers a general approach to the study of the effect of vibration on nonlinear mechanical systems.The book presents the mathematical apparatus of vibrational mechanics which is used to describe such nonlinear effects as the disappearance and appearance under vibration of stable positions of equilibrium and motions (i.e. attractors), the change of the rheological properties of the media, self-synchronization, self-balancing, the vibrat

  14. Effective IEC approaches for Asia. IEC evaluation workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The UNFPA-supported project on development and distribution of information, education, and communication (IEC) materials in support of improving women's health and status was evaluated at a workshop held in Tokyo in December 13-15, 1995. The 1992-95 cycle of the project was analyzed by experts from Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Vietnam plus three experts from the UNFPA/Country Support Team. The workshop also made it possible for the experts to identify needs as well as effective utilization of existing IEC materials. It was suggested that a nongovernmental organization be established for the distribution and effective use of these materials. The workshop mostly reviewed the print and audiovisual materials. Videos were also evaluated. The materials were found useful for the targeted region. Among other subregional issues it was noted that youth needs were inadequately addressed as they related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), unwanted pregnancy, risk of maternal mortality and morbidity, low birth weight, and premature birth. Although the women of the region comprise one-third of the world's population, 70% of the global annual maternal mortality of 500,000 occurs in the subregion. IEC materials should also target adolescents and their support groups. Other needs were also outlined: the expansion of educational opportunities for women, the promotion of employment, the involvement of men, and the training of personnel. The strategies used in the cycle helped strengthen self-reliance through information and experience sharing. The focus on women should be continued with more attention paid to adolescents and young adults, including males. Women's health issues should be expanded to include menopause, reproductive tract infections, STDs, HIV/AIDS prevention, and legal rights including abortion. The production of IEC materials should be identified through research and analysis of existing materials, focus group

  15. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  16. Energy conservation through behavioral change. Examining the effectiveness of a tailor-made approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamse, W.

    2007-12-06

    Households constitute an important target group when it comes to encouraging energy conservation. This dissertation provides an overview of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at encouraging households to reduce their energy use through behavioral changes. It also provides more insight into the factors related to household energy use and conservation. Tailored interventions in particular appear to be effective in reducing energy consumption. Households were given tailored information about energy saving measures they could apply. They were asked to try and save 5% energy and the website indicated how much energy they could save with each measure to attain that goal. Households also received feedback about their energy savings. Households who received the combination of tailored information, goal setting and tailored feedback via the Internet saved 5%, while households in a control group used more energy. Households had adopted more energy-saving measures and had more knowledge of energy conservation, compared to the control group. Also, household energy consumption appeared to be mainly related to socio-demographic variables, such as income and household size. Energy savings appeared to be mainly related to individual factors like perceived behavioral control. If the aim is to encourage households to adopt more sustainable lifestyles, it is important to provide them with more insight into which energy saving options are most effective for them to conserve energy. In view of the annual energy reduction targets set by the Dutch government, a tailor-made approach via the Internet can be an important step in that direction.

  17. Effective source approach to self-force calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Ian; Wardell, Barry; Diener, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Numerical evaluation of the self-force on a point particle is made difficult by the use of delta functions as sources. Recent methods for self-force calculations avoid delta functions altogether, using instead a finite and extended 'effective source' for a point particle. We provide a review of the general principles underlying this strategy, using the specific example of a scalar point charge moving in a black hole spacetime. We also report on two new developments: (i) the construction and evaluation of an effective source for a scalar charge moving along a generic orbit of an arbitrary spacetime, and (ii) the successful implementation of hyperboloidal slicing that significantly improves on previous treatments of boundary conditions used for effective-source-based self-force calculations. Finally, we identify some of the key issues related to the effective source approach that will need to be addressed by future work.

  18. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Steinmann, Paul [Erlangen-Nuremberg Univ., erlangen (Germany). Chair of Applied Mechanics

    2015-04-15

    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  19. Alcoholism and its Effects: an Approach Based on Health Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de las Mercedes Pretel Olite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a complex biopsychosocial disorder that requires a specialised and multidisciplinary approach focusing on both the patient and the family. Alcohol consumption is the most important addiction worldwide due to its prevalence and impact. Therefore, the main objective of a primary care physician should be to facilitate the referral of patients and their families to a structured treatment, support and guidance program during the whole detoxification process. In every health area in Cienfuegos, there are community mental health centers with a staff trained to deal with these disorders in addicts and their family. A literature review was conducted to establish the relationship between alcohol consumption and its harmful effects on health, family and society, using an approach based on Health Psychology.

  20. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen; Steinmann, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  1. Effective channel approach to nuclear scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of high energy nuclear reactions is considered within the framework of the effective channel approach. A variational procedure is used to obtain an expression for the Green's function in the effective channel, which includes the average fluctuation potential, average energy, and an additional term arising from the non-commutability of the kinetic energy operator and the effective target wave function. The resulting expression for the effective channel, containing one variational parameter, is used to obtain the coupling potential. The resulting formulation is applied to the elastic scattering of 1 GeV protons by 4 He nuclei. A simple Gaussian form is used for the spin--isospin averaged proton--nucleon interaction. The variational parameter in the effective channel wave function is fixed a posteriori via the total p-- 4 He cross section. The effect of the coupling to the effective channel is demonstrated, as well as the effect of each term in the coupled equation for this channel. The calculated elastic cross sections were compared to both the recent data from Saclay and the earlier Brookhaven data for the 1-GeV p-- 4 He elastic scattering cross section. Using proton--nucleus elastic scattering experiments to study the proton--nucleon elastic scattering amplitude is discussed. The main purpose of our study is to investigate the effects on the cross section of varying, within its estimated range of uncertainty, each parameter which enters into the coupled equations. The magnitude of these effects was found to be large enough to conclude that any effects due to dynamical correlations would be obscured by the uncertainties in the input parameters

  2. Teaching STEM Effectively with the Learning Cycle Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep M. Dass

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges for teachers with regard to STEM-oriented instruction are: 1 How to integrate science, technology, engineering and mathematics in such a way that students see the interconnectedness and interdependence between these disciplines; and 2 How to help students realize that solutions to real world problems or issues involve the combined use of knowledge, processes and practices from all of these disciplines. In order to teach STEM effectively, these two challenges must be met, but how? Teachers need pedagogical approaches or models that can address these challenges effectively. Given that the STEM definition adopted by IPST includes "the application of knowledge to real-life problem solving", it follows that effective STEM-oriented instruction must involve a pedagogy that is centered around real-life issues, concerns, problems or questions and offers students the opportunity to employ two or more of the STEM disciplines in an integrated manner to address the questions.

  3. Lorentz Invariance Violation effects on UHECR propagation: A geometrized approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Marco Danilo Claudio; Bertini, Stefano; Giammarchi, Marco; Miramonti, Lino

    2018-06-01

    We explore the possibility to geometrize the interaction of massive fermions with the quantum structure of space-time, trying to create a theoretical background, in order to explain what some recent experimental results seem to implicate on the propagation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). We will investigate part of the phenomenological implications of this approach on the predicted effect of the UHECR suppression, in fact recent evidences seem to involve the modification of the GZK cut-off phenomenon. The search for an effective theory, which can explain this physical effect, is based on Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV), which is introduced via Modified Dispersion Relations (MDRs). Furthermore we illustrate that this perspective implies a more general geometry of space-time than the usual Riemannian one, indicating, for example, the opportunity to resort to Finsler theory.

  4. Environmental Radiation Effects on Mammals A Dynamical Modeling Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Olga A

    2010-01-01

    This text is devoted to the theoretical studies of radiation effects on mammals. It uses the framework of developed deterministic mathematical models to investigate the effects of both acute and chronic irradiation in a wide range of doses and dose rates on vital body systems including hematopoiesis, small intestine and humoral immunity, as well as on the development of autoimmune diseases. Thus, these models can contribute to the development of the system and quantitative approaches in radiation biology and ecology. This text is also of practical use. Its modeling studies of the dynamics of granulocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis in humans testify to the efficiency of employment of the developed models in the investigation and prediction of radiation effects on these hematopoietic lines. These models, as well as the properly identified models of other vital body systems, could provide a better understanding of the radiation risks to health. The modeling predictions will enable the implementation of more ef...

  5. One-Year Effect of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit on Detection of Cognitive Impairment: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Nicole R; Campbell, Noll L; Pohl, Gerhardt M; Munsie, Leanne M; Kirson, Noam Y; Desai, Urvi; Trieschman, Erich J; Meiselbach, Mark K; Andrews, J Scott; Boustani, Malaz A

    2018-04-02

    To examine the effect of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit (AWV) on the detection of cognitive impairment and on follow-up cognitive care for older adults. Retrospective matched-cohort study. United States. A 5% random sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries continuously enrolled for 12 months before and after an index ambulatory visit occurring from 2011 to 2013 with no claims evidence of cognitive impairment before index. Outcomes include 12-month post-index visit claims-based measurements of cognitive impairment, including new Alzheimer's disease and related dementia (ADRD) diagnoses; medications for ADRD; and cognitive care-related diagnostic examination such as neurobehavioral testing, brain imaging, and blood tests for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), serum B12, folate, and syphilis. We also measured changes in burden of anticholinergic medication. There were no clinically relevant differences between the AWV and control groups in the rates of incident ADRD diagnoses (6.16% vs 6.86%, p<.001) and initiation of ADRD medications (1.00% vs 1.08%, p=.15), although there were differences favoring the AWV group in rates of TSH (39.80% vs 28.36%, p<.001), B12 (9.41% vs 6.97%, p<.001), folate (4.76% vs 3.72%, p<.001), and neurobehavioral (0.75% vs 0.55%, p<.001) testing. Although the AWV is correlated with an increase in some measures of cognitive care, such as laboratory testing for reversible causes of cognitive impairment, it does not appear to substantially increase recognition of undetected ADRD. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. How to improve communication for the safe use of medicines?: Discussions on social marketing and patient-tailored approaches at the annual meetings of the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Priya; Harrison-Woolrych, Mira

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, the annual meetings of national centres participating in the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring have increasingly included discussions on how to improve communication between national pharmacovigilance centres, patients, healthcare professionals, policy makers and the general public, with the aim of promoting the safe use of medicines. At the most recent meetings, working groups were dedicated to discuss possible applications and implementation of social marketing and patient-tailored approaches. This article provides the history and a summary of the recent discussions and recommendations to support progress in this respect at national and global level. Recommendations are made to investigate and pilot these approaches in small-scale projects at national pharmacovigilance centres. Applying elements from the social marketing and patient-tailored approaches to support behaviours of safe medicines use in patients and healthcare professionals should give the pharmacovigilance community new tools to achieve their goal to minimize risks with medicines and improve patient safety.

  7. Transportation Statistics Annual Report, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report describes the Nations transportation system, the systems performance, its contributions to the economy, and its effects on people and the environment. This 22nd edition of the report is based on infor...

  8. Transportation statistics annual report, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report : describes the Nations transportation system, : the systems performance, its contributions to : the economy, and its effects on people and the : environment. This 20th edition of the report is : base...

  9. Transportation statistics annual report, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report : describes the Nations transportation system, : the systems performance, its contributions to : the economy, and its effects on people and the : environment. This 18th edition of the report is : base...

  10. Generalized Ford-Vilenkin approach for the dynamical Casimir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, Andreson L.C.; Alves, Danilo Teixeira; Alves, Joao Paulo da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In the 70s decade the first works investigating the quantum problem of the radiation emitted by moving mirrors in vacuum were published by Moore, DeWitt, Fulling and Davies. This effect, usually named dynamical Casimir effect (DCE). The DCE is also related to several other problems like particle creation in cosmological models and radiation emitted by collapsing black holes, decoherence, entanglement the Unruh effect. The DCE has been subject to experimental investigations: few months ago, Wilson and collaborators have announced the first experimental observation of the DCE. The theory of the DCE has been investigated by many authors, among them Ford and Vilenkin [L.H. Ford and A. Vilenkin, Phys. Rev. D 25, 2569 (1982)] who developed a perturbative method, which can be applied to moving mirrors in small displacements δq(t) = εF (t) and with nonrelativistic velocities. The usual application of the Ford-Vilenkin approach to the calculation of the spectrum of the created particles, results in the spectral distribution proportional to ε 2 . In the present paper, we consider a real massless scalar field and a moving mirror in a two-dimensional spacetime, satisfying Dirichlet boundary condition at the instantaneous position of the mirror, for large displacements and relativistic velocities. We generalize the Ford-Vilenkin approach to the calculation of the spectral density of the created particles, obtaining formulas for the spectrum up to order ε n . (author)

  11. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  12. Palatini approach to bouncing cosmologies and DSR-like effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmo, Gonzalo J

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that a quadratic gravitational Lagrangian in the Palatini formulation is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology in a single framework. In particular, in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity approaches. This theory, however, avoids the so-called soccer ball problem. Also, the resulting isotropic and anisotropic cosmologies are free from the big bang singularity. This singularity avoidance occurs non-perturbatively and shares some similitudes with the effective dynamics of loop quantum cosmology.

  13. Active Brownian particles at interfaces: An effective equilibrium approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, René; Brader, Joseph M.

    2016-06-01

    A simple theoretical approach is used to investigate active colloids at the free interface and near repulsive substrates. We employ dynamical density functional theory to determine the steady-state density profiles in an effective equilibrium system (Farage T. F. F. et al., Phys. Rev. E, 91 (2015) 042310). In addition to the known accumulation at surfaces, we predict wetting and drying transitions at a flat repulsive wall and capillary condensation and evaporation in a slit pore. These new phenomena are closely related to the motility-induced phase separation (MIPS) in the bulk.

  14. Effective healthcare process redesign through an interdisciplinary team approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rita; Huynh, Nathan; Cai, Bo; Vidal, José; Bennett, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare process redesign is a complex and often high risk undertaking. Typically, there is a limited understanding of the baseline process and often inadequate tools by which to assess it. This can be confounded by narrow redesign team expertise that can result in unanticipated and/or unintended redesign consequences. Interdisciplinary research teams of healthcare, biostatistics, engineering and computer science experts provide broad support for a more effective and safer approach to healthcare process redesign. We describe an interdisciplinary research team focused on medication administration process (MAP)redesign and its achievements and challenges.

  15. Specific Activities of Natural Radionuclides and Annual Effective Dose Due to the Intake of Some Types of Children Powdered Milk Available in Baghdad Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Khalaf Rejah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research the specific activity of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined by sodium iodide enhanced by thallium NaI(TI detector and assessed the annual effective dose in Dielac 1 and 2 and Nactalia 1 and 2 for children of less than 1 year which are available in Baghdad markets. The specific activity of 40K has the greater value in all the types which is in the range of allowed levels globally that suggested by UNSCEAR. The mean value of annual effective doses were 2.92, 4.005 and 1.6325 mSv/y for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K respectively.

  16. MEASUREMENT OF RADON EXHALATION RATE, RADIUM ACTIVITY AND ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE FROM BRICKS AND CEMENT SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DERA ISMAIL KHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Nisar Ahmad; Mohamad Suhaimi Jaafar; Sohail Aziz Khan; Tabassum Nasir; Sajjad Ahmad; Muhammad Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Radon concentration, exhalation rate, radium activity and annual effective dose have been measured from baked and unbaked bricks and cement samples commonly used as construction material in the dwellings of Dera Ismail Khan City, Pakistan. CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters and RAD7 have been used as passive and active devises. The values of radon concentration for baked, unbaked bricks and cements obtained from passive and active techniques were found in good agreement. Average values of rado...

  17. Bale Location Effects on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristics of Annual Ryegrass Bale Stored in In-line Wrapping Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Han

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In southeastern regions of the US, herbage systems are primarily based on grazing or hay feeding with low nutritive value warm-season perennial grasses. Nutritious herbage such as annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. may be more suitable for preserving as baleage for winter feeding even with more intensive production inputs. Emerging in-line wrapped baleage storage systems featuring rapid wrapping and low polyethylene film requirements need to be tested for consistency of storing nutritive value of a range of annual ryegrass herbage. A ryegrass storage trial was conducted with 24-h wilted ‘Marshall’ annual ryegrass harvested at booting, heading and anthesis stages using three replicated in-line wrapped tubes containing ten round bales per tube. After a six-month storage period, nutritive value changes and fermentation end products differed significantly by harvest stage but not by bale location. Although wilted annual ryegrass exhibited a restricted fermentation across harvest stages characterized by high pH and low fermentation end product concentrations, butyric acid concentrations were less than 1 g/kg dry matter, and lactic acid was the major organic acid in the bales. Mold coverage and bale aroma did not differ substantially with harvest stage or bale location. Booting and heading stage-harvested ryegrass baleage were superior in nutritive value to anthesis stage-harvested herbage. Based on the investigated nutritive value and fermentation characteristics, individual bale location within in-line tubes did not significantly affect preservation quality of ryegrass round bale silages.

  18. Temperature and vegetation effects on soil organic carbon quality along a forested mean annual temperature gradient in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; Gary M. King; Martin F. Jurgensen; Christopher D. Barton; S. Douglas McDowell

    2008-01-01

    Both climate and plant species are hypothesized to influence soil organic carbon (SOC) quality, but accurate prediction of how SOC process rates respond to global change will require an improved understanding of how SOC quality varies with mean annual temperature (MAT) and forest type. We investigated SOC quality in paired hardwood and pine stands growing in coarse...

  19. Climate effects on inter- and intra-annual larch stemwood anomalies in the Mongolian forest-steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishigjargal, Mookhor; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Leuschner, Hanns Hubert; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Climate response of tree-ring width and intra-annual wood anomalies were studied in stands of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) on Mt. Bogd Uul in the forest-steppe ecotone of Mongolia. Climate on Mt. Bogd Uul is characterized by an increase of the annual mean temperature by 1.5 K between 1965 and 2007, the lack of a long-term trend for annual precipitation and, with it, an increase in aridity. Tree-ring width increases with increasing June precipitation of the current year (June) and increasing late summer precipitation of the previous year. In >100-year old trees, also a negative correlation of tree-ring width with the July temperature of the year prior to tree-ring formation was found. Decreasing tree-ring width with increasing snowfall in December can be explained with the protection of the frost-sensitive eggs of gypsy moth by snow cover, which is a major herbivore of larch in Mongolia and causes reduction in the annual stem increment. The most significant change in wood anatomy was the decline of wide latewood, which is attributable to the increase of summer days with a mean temperature > 15 °C and drought periods in summer without precipitation. Increasing summer drought is also thought to have caused the repeated occurrence of missing rings since the 1960s, which were not observed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  20. Linear mixed-effects modeling approach to FMRI group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Saad, Ziad S; Britton, Jennifer C; Pine, Daniel S; Cox, Robert W

    2013-06-01

    Conventional group analysis is usually performed with Student-type t-test, regression, or standard AN(C)OVA in which the variance-covariance matrix is presumed to have a simple structure. Some correction approaches are adopted when assumptions about the covariance structure is violated. However, as experiments are designed with different degrees of sophistication, these traditional methods can become cumbersome, or even be unable to handle the situation at hand. For example, most current FMRI software packages have difficulty analyzing the following scenarios at group level: (1) taking within-subject variability into account when there are effect estimates from multiple runs or sessions; (2) continuous explanatory variables (covariates) modeling in the presence of a within-subject (repeated measures) factor, multiple subject-grouping (between-subjects) factors, or the mixture of both; (3) subject-specific adjustments in covariate modeling; (4) group analysis with estimation of hemodynamic response (HDR) function by multiple basis functions; (5) various cases of missing data in longitudinal studies; and (6) group studies involving family members or twins. Here we present a linear mixed-effects modeling (LME) methodology that extends the conventional group analysis approach to analyze many complicated cases, including the six prototypes delineated above, whose analyses would be otherwise either difficult or unfeasible under traditional frameworks such as AN(C)OVA and general linear model (GLM). In addition, the strength of the LME framework lies in its flexibility to model and estimate the variance-covariance structures for both random effects and residuals. The intraclass correlation (ICC) values can be easily obtained with an LME model with crossed random effects, even at the presence of confounding fixed effects. The simulations of one prototypical scenario indicate that the LME modeling keeps a balance between the control for false positives and the sensitivity

  1. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach. Progress report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-31

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma.

  2. An ``Anatomic approach" to study the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Haakh, Harald; Henkel, Carsten

    2010-03-01

    The Casimir effect, in its simplest definition, is a quantum mechanical force between two objects placed in vacuum. In recent years the Casimir force has been the object of an exponentially growing attention both from theorists and experimentalists. A new generation of experiments paved the way for new challenges and spotted some shadows in the comparison to theory. Here we are going to isolate different contributions to the Casimir interaction and perform a detailed study to shine new light on this phenomenon. As an example, the contributions of Foucault (eddy current) modes will be discussed in different configurations. This ``anatomic approach'' allows to clearly put into evidence special features and to explain unusual behaviors. This brings new physical understanding on the undergoing physical mechanisms and suggests new ways to engineer the Casimir effect.

  3. Climate change and local pollution effects. An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaheim, H.A.; Kristin, A.; Seip, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Few studies on measures for mitigation of damage caused by man-made emissions to the environment have tried to consider all major effects. We illustrate the importance of an integrated approach by estimating costs and benefits of a proposed energy saving program for Hungary, originally designed to reduce CO 2 emissions. The dominant benefit of implementing the program is likely to be reduced health damage from local pollutants. Also reduced costs of material damage and to a lesser extent vegetation damage contribute to make the net benefit considerable. Compared to the reduction in these local and regional effects, the benefits from reducing greenhouse gases are likely to be minor. Since local effects in general occur much earlier after measures have been implemented than effects of increased emissions of greenhouse gases, inclusion of local effects makes evaluation of climate policy less dependent on the choice of discount rate. In our opinion, similar results are likely for many measures originally designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases particularly in some areas in developing countries with high local pollution levels. Main uncertainties in the analysis, e.g. in the relationships between damage and pollution level, are discussed. 72 refs

  4. Estimation of annual effective dose from 226Ra and 228Ra due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of Ramsar city, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asefi, M.; Fathivand, A. A.; Amidi, J.

    2005-01-01

    226 Ra and 228 Ra contents in foodstuffs of Ramsar which is a coastal city in the northern part of lran were determined by gamma spectrometry. Measurement results together with food consumption rates were used to estimate annual effective dose from 226 Ra and 228 Ra, due to consumption of food stuffs by inhabitants of Ramsar city. Materials and methods: a total of 33 samples from 11 different foodstuffs including root vegetables (beetroot), leafy vegetables (lettuce, parsley and spinach) and tea, meat, chicken, pea, broad bean, rice, and cheese were purchased from markets of Ramsar city and were analyzed for their 226 Ra and 228 Ra concentration. 1-8 kg of fresh weight sample was placed in Marinnelli beaker and sealed. The measurement of natural radioactivity levels as performed by gamma-spectrometry system, using a high purity germanium detector with 40% relative efficiency. Results: The highest concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined in tea samples with 1570 and 1140 mBq/kg, respectively, and the lowest concentration of 226 Ra was in pea, cheese, chicken, broad bean, and beetroot. Conclusion:The maximum estimated annual effective dose from 226 Ra and 228 Ra due to consumption, foodstuffs were determined to be 19.22 and 0.71 mSv from rice and meat samples respectively, where as, minimum estimated annual effective dose for 226 Ra was 0.017, 0.018 and 0.019 mSv from beetroot, cheese and pea samples respectively

  5. Effect of variable annual precipitation and nutrient input on nitrogen and phosphorus transport from two Midwestern agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Tomer, Mark D.; James, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Precipitation patterns and nutrient inputs affect transport of nitrate (NO3-N) and phosphorus (TP) from Midwest watersheds. Nutrient concentrations and yields from two subsurface-drained watersheds, the Little Cobb River (LCR) in southern Minnesota and the South Fork Iowa River (SFIR) in northern Iowa, were evaluated during 1996–2007 to document relative differences in timings and amounts of nutrients transported. Both watersheds are located in the prairie pothole region, but the SFIR exhibits a longer growing season and more livestock production. The SFIR yielded significantly more NO3-N than the LCR watershed (31.2 versus 21.3 kg NO3-N ha− 1 y− 1). The SFIR watershed also yielded more TP than the LCR watershed (1.13 versus 0.51 kg TP ha− 1 yr− 1), despite greater TP concentrations in the LCR. About 65% of NO3-N and 50% of TP loads were transported during April–June, and < 20% of the annual loads were transported later in the growing season from July–September. Monthly NO3-N and TP loads peaked in April from the LCR but peaked in June from the SFIR; this difference was attributed to greater snowmelt runoff in the LCR. The annual NO3-N yield increased with increasing annual runoff at a similar rate in both watersheds, but the LCR watershed yielded less annual NO3-N than the SFIR for a similar annual runoff. These two watersheds are within 150 km of one another and have similar dominant agricultural systems, but differences in climate and cropping inputs affected amounts and timing of nutrient transport.

  6. Parts and Components Reliability Assessment: A Cost Effective Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    System reliability assessment is a methodology which incorporates reliability analyses performed at parts and components level such as Reliability Prediction, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to assess risks, perform design tradeoffs, and therefore, to ensure effective productivity and/or mission success. The system reliability is used to optimize the product design to accommodate today?s mandated budget, manpower, and schedule constraints. Stand ard based reliability assessment is an effective approach consisting of reliability predictions together with other reliability analyses for electronic, electrical, and electro-mechanical (EEE) complex parts and components of large systems based on failure rate estimates published by the United States (U.S.) military or commercial standards and handbooks. Many of these standards are globally accepted and recognized. The reliability assessment is especially useful during the initial stages when the system design is still in the development and hard failure data is not yet available or manufacturers are not contractually obliged by their customers to publish the reliability estimates/predictions for their parts and components. This paper presents a methodology to assess system reliability using parts and components reliability estimates to ensure effective productivity and/or mission success in an efficient manner, low cost, and tight schedule.

  7. Assessment of annual effective dose from 238U and 226Ra due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of Tehran city (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, T.; Fathivand, A. A.; Abbasisiar, F.; Karimi, M.; Barati, H.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of 238 U and 226 Ra were determined in different foodstuffs purchased from markets in Tehran. Determinations of the radionuclides have been carried out using alpha spectrometry technique, on samples of egg, lentil, potato, rice, soya, spinach, tea and wheat. Average concentrations of natural radionuclides and foodstuff consumption rate were used to assess annual intake and based on intake values, the annual effective ingestion dose has been estimated for Tehran city residents. The measurement results show that soya has the maximum concentration of 238 U equal to 15.6 ± 2.6 mBq kg -1 and tea has the maximum concentration of 226 Ra equal to 1153.3 ± 265.3 mBq kg -1 . Besides, the maximum annual effective dose from 238 U and 226 Ra were assessed to be 2.88 x 10 -2 ±7.20 x 10 -3 and 2.15 ± 0.54 μSv, respectively, from wheat samples. (authors)

  8. Effects of flooding-induced N2O production, consumption and emission dynamics on the annual N2O emission budget in wetland soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Juncher; Elberling, Bo

    2012-01-01

    during mid-summer when the WL was at its seasonally lowest counterbalancing ~6.4% of the total annual net N2O emission budget. Main surface emission periods of N2O were observed when the water level and associated peaks in subsurface N2O concentrations were gradually decreasing to soil depths down to 40...... production and consumption capacities where >500 nmol N2O cm-3 were sequentially produced and consumed in less than 24 hrs. It is concluded that a higher future frequency of flooding induced N2O emissions will have a very limited effect on the net annual N2O emission budget as long as NO3- availability...

  9. Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, EunSu; Han, Jae Woong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using an environmentally friendly approach and evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the conversion of Pd(II) ions to Pd(0)NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallinity of the as-synthesized PdNPs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) further confirmed the role of the leaf extract of Evolvulus alsinoides as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of PdNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the average size of the NPs was 5 nm. After a 24-h exposure to PdNPs, cell viability and light microscopy assays revealed the dose-dependent toxicity of the PdNPs. Furthermore, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the PdNPs was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of PdNPs-induced autophagy, impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), enhanced caspase-3 activity, and detection of TUNEL-positive cells. Our study demonstrates a single, simple, dependable and green approach for the synthesis of PdNPs using leaf extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides. Furthermore, the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that it could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.

  10. Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangiliyandi Gurunathan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs using an environmentally friendly approach and evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to monitor the conversion of Pd(II ions to Pd(0NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the crystallinity of the as-synthesized PdNPs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR further confirmed the role of the leaf extract of Evolvulus alsinoides as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of PdNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed that the average size of the NPs was 5 nm. After a 24-h exposure to PdNPs, cell viability and light microscopy assays revealed the dose-dependent toxicity of the PdNPs. Furthermore, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the PdNPs was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, activation of PdNPs-induced autophagy, impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and detection of TUNEL-positive cells. Our study demonstrates a single, simple, dependable and green approach for the synthesis of PdNPs using leaf extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides. Furthermore, the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that it could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.

  11. Solvent effect on indocyanine dyes: A computational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolino, Chiara A.; Ferrari, Anna M.; Barolo, Claudia; Viscardi, Guido; Caputo, Giuseppe; Coluccia, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    The solvatochromic behaviour of a series of indocyanine dyes (Dyes I-VIII) was investigated by quantum chemical calculations. The effect of the polymethine chain length and of the indolenine structure has been satisfactorily reproduced by semiempirical Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) calculations. The solvatochromism of 3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-N,N'-diethylindocarbocyanine iodide (Dye I) has been deeply investigated within the ab initio time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) approach. Dye I undergoes non-polar solvation and a linear correlation has been individuated between absorption shifts and refractive index. Computed absorption λ max and oscillator strengths obtained by TD-DFT are in good agreement with the experimental data

  12. Assessment of the Annual Additional Effective Doses amongst Minamisoma Children during the Second Year after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Morita, Tomohiro; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Hanai, Tatsuo; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the external and internal radiation exposure levels, which includes calculation of effective doses from chronic radiation exposure and assessment of long-term radiation-related health risks, has become mandatory for residents living near the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. Data for all primary and secondary children in Minamisoma who participated in both external and internal screening programs were employed to assess the annual additional effective dose acquired due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. In total, 881 children took part in both internal and external radiation exposure screening programs between 1st April 2012 to 31st March 2013. The level of additional effective doses ranged from 0.025 to 3.49 mSv/year with the median of 0.70 mSv/year. While 99.7% of the children (n = 878) were not detected with internal contamination, 90.3% of the additional effective doses was the result of external radiation exposure. This finding is relatively consistent with the doses estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The present study showed that the level of annual additional effective doses among children in Minamisoma has been low, even after the inter-individual differences were taken into account. The dose from internal radiation exposure was negligible presumably due to the success of contaminated food control.

  13. Partitioning inter annual variability in net ecosystem exchange between climatic variability and functional change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, D.; Luo, Y.; Katul, G.

    2003-01-01

    Inter annual variability in net ecosystem exchange of carbon is investigated using a homogeneity-of-slopes model to identify the function change contributing to inter annual variability, net ecosystem carbon exchange, and night-time ecosystem respiration. Results of employing this statistical approach to a data set collected at the Duke Forest AmeriFlux site from August 1997 to December 2001 are discussed. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to partition the variation in ecosystem carbon fluxes into direct effects of seasonal and inter annual climatic variability and functional change. 51 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  14. Effective approach toward Intrusion Detection System using data mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Nadiammai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the tremendous growth of the usage of computers over network and development in application running on various platform captures the attention toward network security. This paradigm exploits security vulnerabilities on all computer systems that are technically difficult and expensive to solve. Hence intrusion is used as a key to compromise the integrity, availability and confidentiality of a computer resource. The Intrusion Detection System (IDS plays a vital role in detecting anomalies and attacks in the network. In this work, data mining concept is integrated with an IDS to identify the relevant, hidden data of interest for the user effectively and with less execution time. Four issues such as Classification of Data, High Level of Human Interaction, Lack of Labeled Data, and Effectiveness of Distributed Denial of Service Attack are being solved using the proposed algorithms like EDADT algorithm, Hybrid IDS model, Semi-Supervised Approach and Varying HOPERAA Algorithm respectively. Our proposed algorithm has been tested using KDD Cup dataset. All the proposed algorithm shows better accuracy and reduced false alarm rate when compared with existing algorithms.

  15. Nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring: exposure/effect indicator development approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Desvergne, C.; Dubosson, M.; Lacombe, M.; Brun, V.; Mossuz, V.

    2015-05-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) is more and more widespread in various industrial sectors. The inhalation route of exposure is a matter of concern (adverse effects of air pollution by ultrafine particles and asbestos). No NP biomonitoring recommendations or standards are available so far. The LBM laboratory is currently studying several approaches to develop bioindicators for occupational health applications. As regards exposure indicators, new tools are being implemented to assess potentially inhaled NP in non-invasive respiratory sampling (nasal sampling and exhaled breath condensates (EBC)). Diverse NP analytical characterization methods are used (ICP-MS, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis). As regards effect indicators, a methodology has been developed to assess a range of 29 cytokines in EBCs (potential respiratory inflammation due to NP exposure). Secondly, collaboration between the LBM laboratory and the EDyp team has allowed the EBC proteome to be characterized by means of an LC-MS/MS process. These projects are expected to facilitate the development of individual NP exposure biomonitoring tools and the analysis of early potential impacts on health. Innovative techniques such as field-flow fractionation combined with ICP-MS and single particle-ICPMS are currently being explored. These tools are directly intended to assist occupational physicians in the identification of exposure situations.

  16. Electrochemical Approach for Effective Antifouling and Antimicrobial Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Sheng Long; Sarkar, Sujoy; Nir, Sivan; Schnell, Yafit; Mandler, Daniel; Xu, Zhichuan J; Lee, Pooi See; Reches, Meital

    2017-08-09

    Biofouling, the adsorption of organisms to a surface, is a major problem today in many areas of our lives. This includes: (i) health, as biofouling on medical device leads to hospital-acquired infections, (ii) water, since the accumulation of organisms on membranes and pipes in desalination systems harms the function of the system, and (iii) energy, due to the heavy load of the organic layer that accumulates on marine vessels and causes a larger consumption of fuel. This paper presents an effective electrochemical approach for generating antifouling and antimicrobial surfaces. Distinct from previously reported antifouling or antimicrobial electrochemical studies, we demonstrate the formation of a hydrogen gas bubble layer through the application of a low-voltage square-waveform pulses to the conductive surface. This electrochemically generated gas bubble layer serves as a separation barrier between the surroundings and the target surface where the adhesion of bacteria can be deterred. Our results indicate that this barrier could effectively reduce the adsorption of bacteria to the surface by 99.5%. We propose that the antimicrobial mechanism correlates with the fundamental of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). HER leads to an arid environment that does not allow the existence of live bacteria. In addition, we show that this drought condition kills the preadhered bacteria on the surface due to water stress. This work serves as the basis for the exploration of future self-sustainable antifouling techniques such as incorporating it with photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical reactions.

  17. Automated approach to nuclear facility safeguards effectiveness evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Concern over the security of nuclear facilities has generated a need for a reliable, time efficient, and easily applied method of evaluating the effectiveness of safeguards systems. Such an evaluation technique could be used (1) by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate a licensee's proposal, (2) to assess the security status of a system, or (3) to design and/or upgrade nuclear facilities. The technique should be capable of starting with basic information, such as the facility layout and performance parameters for physical protection components, and analyzing that information so that a reliable overall facility evaluation is obtained. Responding to this expressed need, an automated approach to facility safeguards effectiveness evaluation has been developed. This procedure consists of a collection of functional modules for facility characterization, critical path generation, and path evaluation combined into a continuous stream of operations. The technique has been implemented on an interactive computer-timesharing system and makes use of computer graphics for the handling and presentation of information. Using this technique a thorough facility evaluation can be made by systematically varying parameters that characterize the physical protection components of a facility according to changes in perceived adversary attributes and strategy, environmental conditions, and site status

  18. Nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring: exposure/effect indicator development approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Desvergne, C; Dubosson, M; Mossuz, V; Lacombe, M; Brun, V

    2015-01-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) is more and more widespread in various industrial sectors. The inhalation route of exposure is a matter of concern (adverse effects of air pollution by ultrafine particles and asbestos). No NP biomonitoring recommendations or standards are available so far. The LBM laboratory is currently studying several approaches to develop bioindicators for occupational health applications. As regards exposure indicators, new tools are being implemented to assess potentially inhaled NP in non-invasive respiratory sampling (nasal sampling and exhaled breath condensates (EBC)). Diverse NP analytical characterization methods are used (ICP-MS, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis). As regards effect indicators, a methodology has been developed to assess a range of 29 cytokines in EBCs (potential respiratory inflammation due to NP exposure). Secondly, collaboration between the LBM laboratory and the EDyp team has allowed the EBC proteome to be characterized by means of an LC-MS/MS process. These projects are expected to facilitate the development of individual NP exposure biomonitoring tools and the analysis of early potential impacts on health. Innovative techniques such as field-flow fractionation combined with ICP-MS and single particle-ICPMS are currently being explored. These tools are directly intended to assist occupational physicians in the identification of exposure situations. (paper)

  19. Effects of Alder Mine on the Water, Sediments, and Benthic Macroinvertebrates of Alder Creek, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Dan

    1999-05-28

    The Alder Mine, an abandoned gold, silver, copper, and zinc mine in Okanogan County, Washington, produces heavy metal-laden effluent that affects the quality of water in a tributary of the Methow River. The annual mass loading of heavy metals from two audits at the Alder Mine was estimated to exceed 11,000 kg per year. In this study, water samples from stations along Alder Creek were assayed for heavy metals by ICP-AES and were found to exceed Washington State's acute freshwater criteria for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn).

  20. Using latent variable approach to estimate China's economy-wide energy rebound effect over 1954–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Shuai; Huang, Tao; Yang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The energy rebound effect has been a significant issue in China, which is undergoing economic transition, since it reflects the effectiveness of energy-saving policy relying on improved energy efficiency. Based on the IPAT equation and Brookes' explanation of the rebound effect, this paper develops an alternative estimation model of the rebound effect. By using the estimation model and latent variable approach, which is achieved through a time-varying coefficient state space model, we estimate China's economy-wide energy rebound effect over 1954–2010. The results show that the rebound effect evidently exists in China as a result of the annual average of 39.73% over 1954–2010. Before and after the implementation of China's reform and opening-up policy in 1978, the rebound effects are 47.24% and 37.32%, with a strong fluctuation and a circuitously downward trend, respectively, indicating that a stable political environment and the development of market economy system facilitate the effectiveness of energy-saving policy. Although the energy-saving effect of improving energy efficiency has been partly realised, there remains a large energy-saving potential in China. - Highlights: • We present an improved estimation methodology of economy-wide energy rebound effect. • We use the latent variable approach to estimate China's economy-wide rebound effect. • The rebound exists in China and varies before and after reform and opening-up. • After 1978, the average rebound is 37.32% with a circuitously downward trend. • Traditional Solow remainder method underestimates the rebound in most cases

  1. New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency. Annual subcontract report, 1 August 1990--31 July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; O`Bradovich, G.J.; Young, M.P. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes progress during the first year of a three-year project. The objective of the research is to examine new design approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program is divided into two areas. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for III-V semiconductors. The second area centers on exploring design approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high quality material. Research activities consisted of an experimental study of minority carrier recombination in n-type, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-deposited GaAs, an assessment of the minority carrier lifetimes in n-GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and developing a high-efficiency cell fabrication process.

  2. Differentiating social and personal power: opposite effects on stereotyping, but parallel effects on behavioral approach tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Joris; Stoker, Janka I; Stapel, Diederik A

    2009-12-01

    How does power affect behavior? We posit that this depends on the type of power. We distinguish between social power (power over other people) and personal power (freedom from other people) and argue that these two types of power have opposite associations with independence and interdependence. We propose that when the distinction between independence and interdependence is relevant, social power and personal power will have opposite effects; however, they will have parallel effects when the distinction is irrelevant. In two studies (an experimental study and a large field study), we demonstrate this by showing that social power and personal power have opposite effects on stereotyping, but parallel effects on behavioral approach.

  3. CEA Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The CEA, a prominent player in research development and innovation, is active in three main domains: energy, health care and information technology, defense and security. This annual report presents the CEA activities for the year 2007 in these three main areas: science and technology working for nuclear deterrence and global security, the energies without greenhouse effect gases emission against the climatic change, researches in the information sciences and technologies for a better communication and health. The CEA safety, organization, communication and international relations are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  4. 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and communication with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the nuclear protection and safety, the advanced technologies, the quasi-particles, the effects of ionizing radiations on humans, the medical imagery, the transfer of technology, the protection and valorization of knowledge, the radioactive wastes and spent fuels management, the training and teaching, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (O.M.)

  5. Annual progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a brief description of the progress made in each section of the Institut. Research activities of the Protection department include, radiation effects on man, radioecology and environment radioprotection techniques. Research activities of the Nuclear Safety department include, reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities safety analysis, safety research programs. The third section deals with nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport and monitoring of nuclear material management [fr

  6. 1985. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a description of the progress made in each sections of the Institut Research activities of the different departments include: reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities analysis; and associated safety research programs (criticality, sites, transport ...), radioecology and environmental radioprotection techniques; data acquisition on radioactive waste storage sites; radiation effects on man, studies on radioprotection techniques; nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport, and monitoring of nuclear material management; nuclear facility decommissioning; and finally the public information [fr

  7. Effects of climate variables on intra-annual stem radial increment in Pinus cembra (L.) along the alpine treeline ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Andreas; Zimmermann, Jolanda; Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter

    2009-08-01

    Within the alpine treeline ecotone tree growth is increasingly restricted by extreme climate conditions. Although intra-annual stem growth recorded by dendrometers can be linked to climate, stem diameter increments in slow-growing subalpine trees are masked by changes in tree water status.We tested the hypothesis that intra-annual radial stem growth in Pinus cembra is influenced by different climate variables along the treeline ecotone in the Austrian Alps. Dendrometer traces were compared with dynamics of xylem cell development to date onset of cambial activity and radial stem growth in spring.Daily fluctuations in stem radius reflected changes in tree water status throughout the treeline ecotone. Extracted daily radial increments were significantly correlated with air temperature at the timberline and treeline only, where budburst, cambial activity and enlargement of first tracheids also occurred quite similarly. A close relationship was detected between radial increment and number of enlarging tracheids throughout the treeline ecotone.We conclude that (i) the relationship between climate and radial stem growth within the treeline ecotone is dependent on a close coupling to atmospheric climate conditions and (ii) initiation of cambial activity and radial growth in spring can be distinguished from stem re-hydration by histological analysis.

  8. Effect of origin conditions on the anatomical structure of the annual ring of Pinus sylvestris L. in the taiga zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiсhshenko Ivan Tarasovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in South Karelia (middle taiga subzone in 2006. Objects of study were the following kinds of pine forest: bilberry, cowberry and wild rosemary-bog moss ones. The investigation has shown that with the advancement of the tree in the forest canopy the annual growth ring of the trunk increases significantly. Thus, in the bilberry pine forest in the trees of the growth class I this index is higher than in the trees of the growth classes II-III and IV-V by 4 and 97 %, respectively. In the bilberry pine forest the percentage of the participation of late wood in the formation of growth ring in the dominant trees is by 6-9% less than that of the rest of the stand. The width of the early tracheid shells in the trees of the growth class I-III is by 22% more than in the overtopped ones in the bilberry pine forest. Annual ring width and latewood percentage in the pine forest of Hylocomium group is higher than in the wild rosemary – bog moss one by 41-50 and 7-35%, respectively. The maximal thickness of the late tracheid shells was observed in the cowberry pine forest (6.8-7.4 microns.

  9. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganendran, L. B.; Sidhu, L. A.; Catchpole, E. A.; Chambers, L. E.; Dann, P.

    2016-08-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival.

  10. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirr, K.L.; Gaddis, M.P.; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs

  11. Effects of a Birth Hospital's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Level and Annual Volume of Very Low-Birth-Weight Infant Deliveries on Morbidity and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erik A; Lorch, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    The annual volume of deliveries of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants has a greater effect on mortality risk than does neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) level. The differential effect of these hospital factors on morbidity among VLBW infants is uncertain. To assess the independent effects of a birth hospital's annual volume of VLBW infant deliveries and NICU level on the risk of several neonatal morbidities and morbidity-mortality composite outcomes that are predictive of future neurocognitive development. Retrospective, population-based cohort study (performed in 2014) of all VLBW infants without severe congenital anomalies delivered in all hospitals in California, Missouri, and Pennsylvania between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2009 (N = 72,431). Risk-adjusted odds ratios and risk-adjusted probabilities were determined by logistic regression. The primary study outcomes were the individual composites of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Among the 72,431 VLBW infants in the present study, birth at a hospital with 10 or less deliveries of VLBW infants per year was associated with the highest risk-adjusted probability of death (15.3% [95% CI, 14.4%-16.3%]), death or severe intraventricular hemorrhage (17.5% [95% CI, 16.5%-18.6%]), and death or necrotizing enterocolitis (19.3% [95% CI, 18.1%-20.4%]). These complications were also more common among infants born at hospitals with a level I or II NICU compared with infants delivered at hospitals with a level IIIB/C NICU. The risk-adjusted probability of death or retinopathy of prematurity was highest among infants born at hospitals with a level IIIB/C NICU and lowest among infants born at hospitals with a level IIIA NICU. When the effects of NICU level and annual volume of VLBW infant deliveries were evaluated simultaneously, the annual volume of deliveries was the stronger contributor to the risk of death, death or

  12. A different approach to evaluating health effects from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Absorbed dose D is shown to be a composite variable, the product of the fraction of cells hit (I/sub H/) and the mean /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ (hit size) /ovr z/ to those cells. D is suitable for use with high level (HLE) to radiation and its resulting acute organ effects because, since I/sub H/ = 1.0, D approximates closely enough the mean energy density in the cell as well as in the organ. However, with low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation and its consequent probability of cancer induction from a single cell, stochastic delivery of energy to cells results in a wide distribution of hit sizes z, and the expected mean value, /ovr z/, is constant with exposure. Thus, with LLE, only I/sub H/ varies with D so that the apparent proportionality between /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ and the fraction of cells transformed is misleading. This proportionality therefore does not mean that any (cell) dose, no matter how small, can be lethal. Rather, it means that, in the exposure of a population of individual organisms consisting of the constituent relevant cells, there is a small probabililty of particle-cell interactions which transfer energy. The probability of a cell transforming and initiating a cancer can only be greater than zero if the hit size (/open quotes/dose of energy/close quotes/) to the cell is large enough. Otherwise stated, if the /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ is defined at the proper level of biological organization, namely, the cell and not the organ, only a large dose z to that cell is effective. The above precepts are utilized to develop a drastically different approach to evaluation oif risk from LLE, that holds promise of obviating any requirement for the components of the present system: absorbed organ dose, LET, a standard radiation, REB(Q), dose equivalent and rem. 12 refs., 11 figs

  13. An Effective Approach for Immunotherapy Using Irradiated Tumor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, D.M.B.

    2011-01-01

    This study has been aimed to investigate the effect of injection of Irradiated Ehrlich tumor cells alone or concurrent with immunomodulator in mice before and after challenge with viable Ehrlich tumor cells for enhancement of immune system. This study includes the estimation of survival, tumor size, lymphocyte count, LDH, MTT, granzyme B, and DNA fragmentation. In order to fulfill the target of this study, a total of 120 female swiss albino mice were used. They were divided into two classes vaccinated (injection of vaccine before challenge) and therapeutic class (injection of vaccine after challenge). Each class was divided into four groups, group (1) mice injected with viable Ehrlich tumor cells (G1), group (2) mice injected with irradiated tumor cells (G2), group (3) mice injected with immunomodulator (G3), and group (4) mice injected with irradiated tumor cells + immunomodulator (G4). Results obtained from this study demonstrated that, the lymphocyte count and granzyme B activity were increased in both the vaccinated and therapeutic classes compared with control group. LDH activity was decreased in all groups of vaccinated class and also in G2 and G4 groups of therapeutic class compared with control group. There was a significant increase in percent apoptosis of tumor cells cultured with spleenocytes of the groups of vaccinated class as compared with control group. Cellular DNA from Ehrlich tumor cell line cultured with spleenocytes of immunized groups was fragmented into discrete bands of approximate multiples of 200 bp. Revealing significant apoptosis in tumor cells due to vaccination. It is concluded that, vaccination with irradiated tumor cells is an effective approach in stimulation of immune system against viable tumor cells.

  14. A different approach to evaluating health effects from radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Absorbed dose D is shown to be a composite variable, the product of the fraction of cells hit (I/sub H/) and the mean /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ (hit size) /ovr z/ to those cells. D is suitable for use with high level (HLE) to radiation and its resulting acute organ effects because, since I/sub H/ = 1.0, D approximates closely enough the mean energy density in the cell as well as in the organ. However, with low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation and its consequent probability of cancer induction from a single cell, stochastic delivery of energy to cells results in a wide distribution of hit sizes z, and the expected mean value, /ovr z/, is constant with exposure. Thus, with LLE, only I/sub H/ varies with D so that the apparent proportionality between /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ and the fraction of cells transformed is misleading. This proportionality therefore does not mean that any (cell) dose, no matter how small, can be lethal. Rather, it means that, in the exposure of a population of individual organisms consisting of the constituent relevant cells, there is a small probabililty of particle-cell interactions which transfer energy. The probability of a cell transforming and initiating a cancer can only be greater than zero if the hit size (/open quotes/dose of energy/close quotes/) to the cell is large enough. Otherwise stated, if the /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ is defined at the proper level of biological organization, namely, the cell and not the organ, only a large dose z to that cell is effective. The above precepts are utilized to develop a drastically different approach to evaluation oif risk from LLE, that holds promise of obviating any requirement for the components of the present system: absorbed organ dose, LET, a standard radiation, REB(Q), dose equivalent and rem. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Teamwork and communication: an effective approach to patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujumdar, Sandhya; Santos, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Teamwork and communication failures are leading causes of patient safety incidents in health care. Though health care providers must work in teams, they are not well-trained in teamwork and communication skills. Health care faces the problems of differences in communication styles, communication failures and poor teamwork. There is enough evidence in the literature to show that communication failure is detrimental to patient safety. It is estimated that 80% of serious medical errors worldwide take place because of miscommunication between medical providers. NUH recognizes that effective communication and teamwork are essential in the delivery of high quality safe patient care, especially in a complex organization. NUH is a good example, where there is a rich mix of nationalities and races, in staff and in patients, and there is a rapidly expanding care environment. NUH had to overcome these challenges by adopting a multi-pronged approach. The trials and tribulations of NUH in this journey were worthwhile as the patient safety climate survey scores improved over the years.

  16. Study of the radiation effects on nucleic acids and related compounds. Annual progress report, November 15, 1977--November 14, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1978-07-01

    Acquisition of information on molecular biology involves four stages: establishment of procedures for the separation, isolation, and characterization of radiation products of nucleic acid bases, nucleosides, etc.; development of methods for the synthesis of these products once they are identified so that a constant supply in milligram to gram quantities is available for the studies in stages 3 and 4; examination of the apparent biological effects of each product in vitro and in vivo; and study of the molecular mechanism related to an observed biological phenomenon. In view of the difficulties experienced in this area of research and this deliberate and careful investigative approach, it was generally believed that progress toward our final goal would be rather prolonged. Yet the elucidation of a molecular mechanism by which ionizing radiation induces mutation in vivo is very near at hand. Further progress has been made in the separation and isolation of three hydroperoxy derivatives of thymidine. One communication has appeared and another has been submitted for publication. The former reports the efficient stereospecific synthesis of cis-pyrimidine glycols and the latter describes the study of mutagenicity and toxicity of seven radiation products of thymine and thymidine using Ames Salmonella test. Also, a quantitative study of the reversion of cytosine N(3)-oxide, a hydroperoxidation product induced by 6-TOOH, to cytosine has been carried out

  17. Annual Report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Annual Report covers the activities of the Institute of the Nuclear Physics Accelerator (KVI) during the year 1980. The main lines of research are on experimental nuclear physics and on nuclear theory. The experimental work of the laboratory is centred around a large and modern, k=160 MeV AVF cyclotron that became operational at the end of 1972. The experimental work in 1980 concentrated on high-resolution nuclear structure studies via transfer reactions and inelastic scattering, on the decay properties of giant resonances, on elastic and inelastic breakup of light and heavy ions, on the investigation of continuum γ-rays, on in-beam γ-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy, and on weak interactions. Much of the theoretical work was directed towards the Interacting Boson Model (IBM). Another major effort was done on the theoretical description of relativistic heavy-ion reactions via a Boltzmann equation approach. (Auth.)

  18. Annual Site Environmental Report: 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    sabba, d

    2007-02-03

    This report provides information about environmental programs during 2005 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Seasonal activities that span calendar years are also included. Production of an annual site environmental report (ASER) is a requirement established by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for all management and operating (M&O) contractors throughout the DOE complex. SLAC is a federally-funded research and development center with Stanford University as the M&O contractor. SLAC effectively applied environmental management in meeting the site's integrated safety and environmental management system (ISEMS) goals. For normal daily activities, all SLAC managers and supervisors are responsible for ensuring that proper procedures are followed so that: (1) Worker safety and health are protected; (2) The environment is protected; and (3) Compliance is ensured. Throughout 2005, SLAC focused on these activities through the SLAC management systems (described in Chapter 3). These systems were also the way SLAC approached implementing ''greening of the government'' initiatives such as Executive Order 13148. The management systems at SLAC are effective, supporting compliance with all relevant statutory and regulatory requirements. There were no reportable releases to the environment from SLAC operations during 2005. In addition, many improvements were continued during 2005, in waste minimization, recycling, stormwater drain system, groundwater restoration, and implementing a chemical management system (CMS) to better manage chemical use. Program-specific details are discussed.

  19. Annual Site Environmental Report: 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuckolls, H.; /SLAC

    2006-04-19

    This report provides information about environmental programs during 2002 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Seasonal activities that span calendar years are also included. Production of an annual site environmental report (ASER) is a requirement established by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for all management and operating (M&O) contractors throughout the DOE complex. SLAC is a federally-funded, research and development center with Stanford University as the M&O contractor. The most noteworthy information in this report is summarized in this section. This summary demonstrates the effective application of SLAC environmental management in meeting the site's integrated safety management system (ISMS) goals. For normal daily activities, all SLAC managers and supervisors are responsible for ensuring that proper procedures are followed so that worker safety and health are protected; the environment is protected; and compliance is ensured. Throughout 2002, SLAC focused on these activities through the SLAC management systems (described in Chapter 3). These systems were also the way SLAC approached implementing ''greening of the government'' initiatives such as Executive Order 13148. The management systems at SLAC are effective, supporting compliance with all relevant statutory and regulatory requirements. SLAC did not receive any notices of violation during 2002. In addition, many improvements were continued during 2002, in decreasing air emission rates, the storm drain system, groundwater restoration, and planning for a chemical management system to manage chemical use better.

  20. An Approach for Measurement of Company Business Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenkova, B.; Manchev, B.; Tomov, E.

    2016-01-01

    meeting the objectives or that the company is being effective and efficient. The Performance measurement system is composed of three elements: Performance criteria - relative elements used for comparison at the performance evaluation; Performance indicators - specific values of the performance criteria over some specified time period, or 'numerical or quantitative indices that show how well each objective is being met'. Performance standards - accepted levels of performance for each criterion. The purpose of this report is to present an approach for measurement of business effectiveness of Consultancy Company, operating in energy sector. (author).

  1. An effective and efficient approach for manually improving geocoded data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knoblock Craig A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of geocoding produces output coordinates of varying degrees of quality. Previous studies have revealed that simply excluding records with low-quality geocodes from analysis can introduce significant bias, but depending on the number and severity of the inaccuracies, their inclusion may also lead to bias. Little quantitative research has been presented on the cost and/or effectiveness of correcting geocodes through manual interactive processes, so the most cost effective methods for improving geocoded data are unclear. The present work investigates the time and effort required to correct geocodes contained in five health-related datasets that represent examples of data commonly used in Health GIS. Results Geocode correction was attempted on five health-related datasets containing a total of 22,317 records. The complete processing of these data took 11.4 weeks (427 hours, averaging 69 seconds of processing time per record. Overall, the geocodes associated with 12,280 (55% of records were successfully improved, taking 95 seconds of processing time per corrected record on average across all five datasets. Geocode correction improved the overall match rate (the number of successful matches out of the total attempted from 79.3 to 95%. The spatial shift between the location of original successfully matched geocodes and their corrected improved counterparts averaged 9.9 km per corrected record. After geocode correction the number of city and USPS ZIP code accuracy geocodes were reduced from 10,959 and 1,031 to 6,284 and 200, respectively, while the number of building centroid accuracy geocodes increased from 0 to 2,261. Conclusion The results indicate that manual geocode correction using a web-based interactive approach is a feasible and cost effective method for improving the quality of geocoded data. The level of effort required varies depending on the type of data geocoded. These results can be used to choose between

  2. Illegitimacy moderates the effects of power on approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Joris; Galinsky, Adam D.; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Otten, Sabine

    A wealth of research has found that power leads to behavioral approach and action. Four experiments demonstrate that this link between power and approach is broken when the power relationship is illegitimate. When power was primed to be legitimate or when power positions were assigned legitimately,

  3. Comparison of effective Hough transform-based fingerprint alignment approaches

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available points set with larger rotation and small number of points. The DRBA approach was found to perform better with minutiae points with large amount of translation, and the computational time was less than that of LMBA approach. However, the memory usage...

  4. Reading Approach Use Effectiveness And EFL Reading Comprehension In University Muhammadiyah Of Parepare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharuddin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Indonesian EFL learners approach of two reading approaches cognitive and metacognitive their perceived contact on effectiveness and the association between reading approach and effectiveness on their English reading comprehension. Fifty-Three English-major freshmen from University Muhammadiyah of Parepare participated in these lessons. Two principal questions were addressed 1 what is the most frequent use of reading approach reported by individual students 2 Is there any significant association between reading approach and effectiveness on their English reading comprehension To examine the effects of approach instruction on students reading performance a qualitative interview technique and quantitative research methods including a paired-sample t-test and Person Product Moment Correlation were used to estimate the relationship between reading approach use and effectiveness on students reading accomplishment. Significance showed that the most frequent use of reading approach was found to be metacognitive approach followed by the cognitive approach. In addition there was a significant positive connection between reading approach and effectiveness on their English reading comprehension. Reading approach on the other hand was unrelated to reading achievement. Results of interview findings were analyzed to explore in-depth in sequence about the condition of approach used. The implications of these findings for implementing effective reading strategy instruction are discussed.

  5. Effective approaches for managing electronic records and archives

    CERN Document Server

    Dearstyne, Bruce W

    2006-01-01

    This is a book of fresh insights, perspectives, strategies, and approaches for managing electronic records and archives. The authors draw on first-hand experience to present practical solutions, including recommendations for building and sustaining strong electronic records programs.

  6. Social Context Effects on Decision-Making: A Neurobiological Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stallen (Mirre)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis explores how social context influences the neurobiological processes underlying decision-making. To this end, this research takes an interdisciplinary approach, combining methods and insights from Psychology, Marketing, Economics, and Neuroscience. In particular, behavioural

  7. Improving the key biodiversity areas approach for effective conservation planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Knight, AT

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The key biodiversity areas (KBA) approach aims to identify globally important areas for species conservation. Although a similar methodology has been used successfully to identify important Bird Areas, the authors have identified five limitations...

  8. A Life Course Approach to Understanding Neighbourhood Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vuijst, E.; van Ham, M.; Kleinhans, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Many theories on so-called neighbourhood effectseffects of the residential context on individual outcomes such as employment, education, and health – implicitly, or explicitly suggest lagged effects, duration effects, or for example, intergenerational effects of neighbourhoods. However, these

  9. Natural Reproductive Success and Demographic Effects of Hatchery-Origin Steelhead in Abernathy Creek, Washington : Annual Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center

    2008-12-01

    U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed, naturally spawning populations in the Columbia River Basin. As a consequence of that BO, NOAA recommended - as a reasonable and prudent alternative (RPA) - that federal and state agencies phase out non-native broodstocks of steelhead and replace them with native broodstocks. However, NOAA provided no guidance on how to achieve that RPA. The development of native broodstocks of hatchery steelhead can potentially pose unacceptable biological risks to naturally spawning populations, particularly those that are already listed as threatened or endangered under the ESA. The traditional method of initiating new hatchery broodstocks of anadromous salmonid fishes is by trapping adults during their upstream, spawning migration. However, removing natural-origin adults from ESA listed populations may not be biologically acceptable because such activities may further depress those populations via 'broodstock mining'. In addition, trapping adult steelhead may be logistically unfeasible in many subbasins due to high water flows in the spring, when steelhead are moving upstream to spawn, that will often 'blow out' temporary weirs. Additional risks associated with trapping adults include genetic founder effects and difficulties meeting minimum, genetic effective number of breeders without 'mining' the wild population to potential extinction. As a result, alternative methods for developing native broodstocks are highly desired. One alternative for developing native broodstocks, particularly when the collection of adults is logistically unfeasible or biologically unacceptable, is captive rearing of natural-origin juveniles to sexual maturity. In this approach, pre-smolt juveniles are collected from the stream or watershed for which a native broodstock is desired, and those juveniles are raised to sexual maturity in a hatchery. Those hatchery-reared adults then become the broodstock source for gametes and initial

  10. Perturbative effect of heavy particles in an effective-Lagrangian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, T.; Nakazawa, N.

    1981-01-01

    An effective-Lagrangian approach is summarized to estimate the perturbative effect of heavy-mass particles in the leading-logarithmic approximation: the logarithmic corrections to mass-suppressed amplitudes are given in a concise form. We apply the formalism to a simplified model with two scalar fields where one is heavy and the other is light. We derive an effective Lagrangian by calculating heavy-particle one-loop diagrams. Solving renormalization-group equations derived from the effective Lagrangian by light-particle one-loop corrections, we obtain logarithmic corrections to the mass-suppressed amplitudes. The results are confirmed by explicit two-loop calculation in the full theory, up to order O((1/M 2 )1nM 2 ), where M is a heavy scalar mass. It is found that the boundary condition for solving the renormalization-group equations must be specified by the renormalization at the heavy-particle mass. It must also be emphasized that in an effective-Lagrangian approach minimal subtraction is not a proper method of renormalization. The necessity to adopt the conventional momentum-shell subtraction is stressed. Several applications of this formalism are also mentioned

  11. Effect of Average Annual Mean Serum Ferritin Levels on QTc Interval and QTc Dispersion in Beta-Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Ghandi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background There is evidence indicating impaired cardiomyocytic contractility, delayed electrical conduction and increased electrophysiological heterogeneities due to iron toxicity in beta-thalassemia major patients. In the present study, we compared the electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features of beta-thalassemia major patients with a healthy control group. Materials and Methods The average annual serum ferritin levels of fifty beta-thalassemia major patients were assessed. For each patient, corrected QT (QTc intervals and QTc dispersions (QTcd were calculated and V1S and V5R were measured. All subjects underwent two-dimensional M-mode echocardiography and Doppler study and were compared with 50 healthy subjects as a control group. Results QTc interval and dispersion were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia major patients (P= 0.001. The mean V5R (20.04 ± 4.34 vs. 17.14 ± 2.55 mm and V1S (10.24 ± 2.62 vs. 7.83 ± 0.38 mm showed considerably higher mean values in patients in comparison with control group.Peak mitral inflow velocity at early diastole and early to late ratio in the case- group was markedly higher(P

  12. Effects of germination season on life history traits and on transgenerational plasticity in seed dormancy in a cold desert annual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juan J; Tan, Dun Y; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M

    2016-04-27

    The maternal environment can influence the intensity of seed dormancy and thus seasonal germination timing and post-germination life history traits. We tested the hypotheses that germination season influences phenotypic expression of post-germination life history traits in the cold desert annual Isatis violascens and that plants from autumn- and spring-germinating seeds produce different proportions of seeds with nondeep and intermediate physiological dormancy (PD). Seeds were sown in summer and flexibility in various life history traits determined for plants that germinated in autumn and in spring. A higher percentage of spring- than of autumn-germinating plants survived the seedling stage, and all surviving plants reproduced. Number of silicles increased with plant size (autumn- > spring-germinating plants), whereas percent dry mass allocated to reproduction was higher in spring- than in autumn-germinating plants. Autumn-germinating plants produced proportionally more seeds with intermediate PD than spring-germinating plants, while spring-germinating plants produced proportionally more seeds with nondeep PD than autumn-germinating plants. Flexibility throughout the life history and transgenerational plasticity in seed dormancy are adaptations of I. violascens to its desert habitat. Our study is the first to demonstrate that autumn- and spring-germinating plants in a species population differ in proportion of seeds produced with different levels of PD.

  13. An effective temperature compensation approach for ultrasonic hydrogen sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaolong; Li, Min; Arsad, Norhana; Wen, Xiaoyan; Lu, Haifei

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen is a kind of promising clean energy resource with a wide application prospect, which will, however, cause a serious security issue upon the leakage of hydrogen gas. The measurement of its concentration is of great significance. In a traditional approach of ultrasonic hydrogen sensing, a temperature drift of 0.1 °C results in a concentration error of about 250 ppm, which is intolerable for trace amount of gas sensing. In order to eliminate the influence brought by temperature drift, we propose a feasible approach named as linear compensation algorithm, which utilizes the linear relationship between the pulse count and temperature to compensate for the pulse count error (ΔN) caused by temperature drift. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach is capable of improving the measurement accuracy and can easily detect sub-100 ppm of hydrogen concentration under variable temperature conditions.

  14. 2014 HPC Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Barbara [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Our commitment is to support you through delivery of an IT environment that provides mission value by transforming the way you use, protect, and access information. We approach this through technical innovation, risk management, and relationships with our workforce, Laboratories leadership, and policy makers nationwide. This second edition of our HPC Annual Report continues our commitment to communicate the details and impact of Sandia’s large-scale computing resources that support the programs associated with our diverse mission areas. A key tenet to our approach is to work with our mission partners to understand and anticipate their requirements and formulate an investment strategy that is aligned with those Laboratories priorities. In doing this, our investments include not only expanding the resources available for scientific computing and modeling and simulation, but also acquiring large-scale systems for data analytics, cloud computing, and Emulytics. We are also investigating new computer architectures in our advanced systems test bed to guide future platform designs and prepare for changes in our code development models. Our initial investments in large-scale institutional platforms that are optimized for Informatics and Emulytics work are serving a diverse customer base. We anticipate continued growth and expansion of these resources in the coming years as the use of these analytic techniques expands across our mission space. If your program could benefit from an investment in innovative systems, please work through your Program Management Unit ’s Mission Computing Council representatives to engage our teams.

  15. 1994 MCAP annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmony, S.C.; Boyack, B.E.

    1995-04-01

    VELCOR is an integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants. The entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena, including reactor coolant system and containment thermal-hydraulic response, core heatup, degradation and relocation, and fission product release and transport is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework for both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Its current uses include the estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. Independent assessment efforts have been successfully completed by the US and international MELCOR user communities. Most of these independent assessment efforts have been conducted to support the needs and fulfill the requirements of the individual user organizations. The resources required to perform an extensive set of model and integral code assessments are large. A prudent approach to fostering code development and maturation is to coordinate the individual assessment efforts of the MELCOR user community. While retaining individual control over assessment resources, each organization using the MELCOR code could work with the other users to broaden assessment coverage and minimize duplication. In recognition of these considerations, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) has initiated the MELCOR Cooperative Assessment Program (MCAP), a vehicle for coordinating and standardizing the assessment practices of the various MELCOR users. In addition, the user community will have a forum to better communicate lessons learned regarding MELCOR applications, capabilities, and user guidelines and limitations and to provide a user community perspective on code development needs and priorities. This second Annual Report builds on the foundation laid with the first Annual Report

  16. Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2009-01-01

    The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

  17. A category approach for reproductive effects of phthalates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabjan, Evelin; Hulzebos, Etje; Mennes, W; Piersma, Aldert H

    2006-01-01

    In regulatory toxicology, the experimental assessment of reproductive toxicity is one of the most costly endpoints to perform. Categorizing chemicals is an approach that can be used to reduce animal tests in risk assessments of chemicals, for example, via REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and

  18. Effect of the inquiry-based teaching approach on students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental group was treated with a teaching approach that integrated inquiry-based teaching into classroom discourse. Tests (pre- and post-), for assessing students' understanding of circle theorems and a questionnaire for measuring the students' perception of motivation to learn were given to the two groups ...

  19. Effects of Cloze Instructional Approach on Junior Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the study would be significant as it would provide basis for incorporating the cloze approach as a method of teaching reading comprehension. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to achieve the stated goal. A purposive sampling technique was used to sample 240 students in the area ...

  20. Effects-Based Approaches to Operations: Canadian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Analysis,” Financial Times (30 June 2003), 13; R.W. Apple , “A New Way of Warfare Leaves Behind an Abundance of Loose Ends,” New York Times (20 April 2003...Threats ( SWOT ) analysis briefing and this approach and its tone was unhelpful. It did not, despite the article’s title, address the instruments of

  1. Alternative and cost-effective bridge approach slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The primary objectives of the proposed project are to investigate the causes for any bumps at the end of the bridge approach slab : and to develop remedial measures or alternative designs for a replacement. It is clear that the problem stems from geo...

  2. Bubble Coalescence: Effect of Bubble Approach Velocity and Liquid Viscosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orvalho, Sandra; Růžička, Marek; Olivieri, G.; Marzocchella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 134, SEP 29 (2015), s. 205-216 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : bubble coalescence * bubble approach velocity * liquid viscosity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.750, year: 2015

  3. Effect of the inquiry-based teaching approach on students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofi.mereku

    mathematics as a vital tool for the understanding and application of science and .... In view of senior high school students' poor performance in circle theorems and their ..... taught using the inquiry-based approach on the other hand perceive their .... visualization and spatial reasoning to middle school mathematics students.

  4. On quantum approach to modeling of plasmon photovoltaic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluczyk, Katarzyna; David, Christin; Jacak, Witold Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures including metallically nanomodified solar cells are conventionally studied and modeled by application of the Mie approach to plasmons or by the finite element solution of differential Maxwell equations with imposed boundary and material constraints (e...... to the semiconductor solar cell mediated by surface plasmons in metallic nanoparticles deposited on the top of the battery. In addition, short-ranged electron-electron interaction in metals is discussed in the framework of the semiclassical hydrodynamic model. The significance of the related quantum corrections......-aided photovoltaic phenomena. Quantum corrections considerably improve both the Mie and COMSOL approaches in this case. We present the semiclassical random phase approximation description of plasmons in metallic nanoparticles and apply the quantumFermi golden rule scheme to assess the sunlight energy transfer...

  5. Design for deconstruction : emergy approach to evaluate deconstruction effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Amoêda, R.

    2010-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Arquitectura - Projecto e Tecnologias da Construção Recovery of materials is a crucial concern to avoid depletion of natural resources nowadays. Industrial Ecology recognised the role of industrial activities in order to minimise waste flows and to maximise materials and components recovery, by means of reuse and recycling. Construction industries, however, is slowly becoming aware of building materials recovery and at present new approaches are seriousl...

  6. An effective approach for choosing an electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Robert

    2009-01-01

    With government stimulus money becoming available to encourage healthcare facilities to adopt electronic health record (EHR) systems, the decision to move forward with implementing an EHR system has taken on an urgency not previously seen. The EHR landscape is evolving rapidly and the underlying technology platform is becoming increasingly interconnected. One must make sure that an EHR decision does not lock oneself into technology obsolescence. The best approach for evaluating an EHR is on the basis of:usability, interoperability, and affordability.

  7. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The resources of international co-operation, notably through the Nuclear Energy Agency, can substantially help 'keep the nuclear option open' in a sustainable development perspective, for example by helping preserve and develop scientific and technical know-how, maintaining adequate human resources both in quantity and quality, contributing to greater cost-effectiveness of nuclear operations, and improving stakeholder confidence in radioactive waste management solutions. The 1999 Annual Report of the Nuclear Energy Agency illustrates various facets of the international co-operation made available to Member governments which assists them in rising to these challenges: Nuclear Development and the Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Science, Data Banks, Legal Affairs, Joint Projects and Other Co-operative Projects. (author)

  8. Annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The resources of international co-operation, notably through the Nuclear Energy Agency, can substantially help 'keep the nuclear option open' in a sustainable development perspective, for example by helping preserve and develop scientific and technical know-how, maintaining adequate human resources both in quantity and quality, contributing to greater cost-effectiveness of nuclear operations, and improving stakeholder confidence in radioactive waste management solutions. The 1999 Annual Report of the Nuclear Energy Agency illustrates various facets of the international co-operation made available to Member governments which assists them in rising to these challenges: Nuclear Development and the Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Science, Data Banks, Legal Affairs, Joint Projects and Other Co-operative Projects. (author)

  9. 7th annual report 1998. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. The monitoring and prediction of complex ecosystem effects on undisturbed reference areas require a continuous effort to improve the collection and assessment of data on the international scale. At the 1997 Task Force meeting it was decided that future annual reports from ICP IM would have a more technical character. The report could include some scientific material but also short technical descriptions of recent national activities and publications. Scientific articles should preferably be published in recognised scientific journals. The responsibility for producing annual reports would still lie on the Programme Centre, but more contributions from National Focal Points were welcomed. The content of the present Annual Report reflects the decisions of the Task Force meeting. The report gives a general overview of the ICP IM activities, the present content of the ICP IM database, and presents results from assessment activities carried out by several collaborating institutes and the ICP IM Programme Centre during the programme year 1997/98. The resources of the Programme Centre have been targeted to the revision of the Programme Manual and the EU/LIFE-project `Development of Assessment and Monitoring Techniques at Integrated Monitoring Sites in Europe`, which has limited the possibilities to carry out additional evaluations of ICP IM data. Section 1 is a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, including the contents of the GIS database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network. Section 2 contains a report on multivariate gradient analysis applied to relate chemical and biological observations (prepared by D. de Zwart, RIVM

  10. Determination of radon activity concentration in drinking water and evaluation of the annual effective dose in Hassan district, Karnataka state, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    The radon concentration has been determined in 27 drinking water samples of Hassan district and was estimated by using emanometry technique and physicochemical parameters were estimated using standard techniques. The 222 Rn concentrations in water are varying from 0.85 ± 0.2 to 60.74 ± 2.5 Bq l -1 with an average value of 26.5 ± 1.65 Bq l -1 . This study reveals that 66 % of the drinking water samples have radon concentration level in excess of the EPA recommended maximum contamination level of 11.1 Bq l -1 . There is no significant correlation noted between radon concentration and physicochemical parameters. The mean annual effective ingestion doses received from all samples are lower than 0.1 mSv y -1 . (author)

  11. Placebo and Nocebo Effects in Sexual Medicine: An Experimental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tillmann H C; Grob, Carolin; de Boer, Claas; Peschel, Thomas; Hartmann, Uwe; Tenbergen, Gilian; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2016-11-16

    Few studies have investigated placebo and nocebo effects in a human sexuality context. Studying placebo and nocebo responses in this context may provide insight into their potential to modulate sexual drive and function. To examine such effects in sexual medicine, 48 healthy, male heterosexual participants were divided into four groups. Each group received instruction to expect stimulating effects, no effect, or an inhibitory effect on sexual functions. Only one group received the dopamine agonist cabergoline; all other groups received placebo or nocebo. Modulations in sexual experience were examined through an established experimental paradigm of sexual arousal and masturbation-induced orgasm during erotic film sequences with instruction to induce placebo or nocebo effects. Endocrine data, appetitive, consummatory, and refractory sexual behavior parameters were assessed using the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Acute Sexual Experience Scale (ASES). Results showed increased levels of sexual function after administration of cabergoline with significant effects for several parameters. Placebo effects were induced only to a small degree. No negative effects on sexual parameters in the nocebo condition were noted. This paradigm could induce only small placebo and nocebo effects. This supports the view that healthy male sexual function seems relatively resistant to negative external influences.

  12. Estimation of annual effective dose from 226Ra 228Ra due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of high level natural radiation of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathivand, A.A.; Asefi, M.; Amidi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A knowledge of natural radioactivity in man and his environment is important since naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to man. Radioactive nuclides present in the natural environment enter the human body mainly through food and water.Besides, measurement of naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment can be used not only as a reference when routine releases from nuclear installation or accidental radiation exposures are assessed, but also as a baseline to evaluate the impact caused by non-nuclear activities. In Iran, measurement of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples in normal and high-background radiation areas have been performed by some investigators but no information has been available on 226 Ra and 228 Ra in foodstuffs. Therefore we have started measurements of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in foodstuffs of Ramsar which is a coastal city in the north part of Iran and has been known as one of the world's high level natural radiation areas, using low level gamma spectrometry measurement system .The results from our measurements and food consumption rates for inhabitants of Ramsar city have been used for the estimation of annual effective dose due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of Ramsar city. A total of 33 samples from 11 different foodstuffs including root vegetables (beetroot), leafy vegetables (lettuce, parsley and spinach) and tea, meat,chicken, pea,broad bean, rice, and cheese were purchased from markets and were analyzed for their 226 Ra and 228 Ra concentrations. The highest concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined in tea samples with 1570 and 1140 mBq kg -1 respectively and the maximum estimated annual effective dose from 226 Ra and Ra due to consumption foodstuffs were determined to be 19.22 and 0.71 μSv from rice and meat samples respectively

  13. The role of social support in protecting mental health when employed and unemployed: A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis using 12 annual waves of the HILDA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Butterworth, Peter; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2016-03-01

    Perceived social support is associated with overall better mental health. There is also evidence that unemployed workers with higher social support cope better psychologically than those without such support. However, there has been limited research about the effect of social support among people who have experienced both unemployment and employment. We assessed this topic using 12 years of annually collected cohort data. The sample included 3190 people who had experienced both unemployment and employment. We used longitudinal fixed-effects modelling to investigate within-person changes in mental health comparing the role of social support when a person was unemployed to when they were employed. Compared to when a person reported low social support, a change to medium (6.35, 95% 5.66 to 7.04, p social support (11.58, 95%, 95% CI 10.81 to 12.36, p health (measured on an 100 point scale, with higher scores representing better mental health). When a person was unemployed but had high levels of social support, their mental health was 2.89 points (95% CI 1.67 to 4.11, p social support. The buffering effect of social support was confirmed in stratified analysis. There was a strong direct effect of social support on mental health. The magnitude of these differences could be considered clinically meaningful. Our results also suggest that social support has a significant buffering effect on mental health when a person is unemployed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  15. Optimization of heliostat field layout in solar central receiver systems on annual basis using differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atif, Maimoon; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Differential evolution optimization model was developed to optimize the heliostat field. • Five optical parameters were considered for the optimization of the optical efficiency. • Optimization using insolation weighted and un-weighted annual efficiency are developed. • The daily averaged annual optical efficiency was calculated to be 0.5023 while the monthly was 0.5025. • The insolation weighted daily averaged annual efficiency was 0.5634. - Abstract: Optimization of a heliostat field is an essential task to make a solar central receiver system effective because major optical losses are associated with the heliostat fields. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to effectively optimize the heliostat field on annual basis using differential evolution, which is an evolutionary algorithm. The heliostat field layout optimization is based on the calculation of five optical performance parameters: the mirror or the heliostat reflectivity, the cosine factor, the atmospheric attenuation factor, the shadowing and blocking factor, and the intercept factor. This model calculates all the aforementioned performance parameters at every stage of the optimization, until the best heliostat field layout based on annual performance is obtained. Two different approaches were undertaken to optimize the heliostat field layout: one with optimizing insolation weighted annual efficiency and the other with optimizing the un-weighted annual efficiency. Moreover, an alternate approach was also proposed to efficiently optimize the heliostat field in which the number of computational time steps was considerably reduced. It was observed that the daily averaged annual optical efficiency was calculated to be 0.5023 as compared to the monthly averaged annual optical efficiency, 0.5025. Moreover, the insolation weighted daily averaged annual efficiency of the heliostat field was 0.5634 for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The code developed can be used for any other

  16. NUKEM annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of this important undertaking in the German nuclear industry informs about its structure, holdings and activities in 1981. The report of the management is followed by remarks on the annual statement of accounts (annual balance, profit-loss accounting) and the report of the Supervisory Board. In the annex the annual balance of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH as per December 31, 1981, and the profit-loss accounting of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH for the business year 1981 are presented. (UA) [de

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Theoretical approach to the magnetocaloric effect with hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, V.; Bertotti, G.; LoBue, M.; Sasso, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a thermodynamic model with internal variables is presented and applied to ferromagnetic hysteresis. The out-of-equilibrium Gibbs free energy of a magnetic system is expressed as a function of the internal state of the Preisach model. Expressions for the system entropy and the entropy production are derived. By this approach it is possible to reproduce the characteristic features of the experimentally observed temperature changes (of the order of 10 -4 K around room temperature) induced by the magnetic field along the hysteresis loop performed in iron under adiabatic condition

  14. Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing: Practical Approach to Test Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Berg, Melanie D.

    2014-01-01

    While standards and guidelines for performing SEE testing have existed for several decades, guidance for developing SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this presentation, the variety of areas that need to be considered ranging from resource issues (funds, personnel, schedule) to extremely technical challenges (particle interaction and circuit application), shall be discussed. Note: we consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: Mission-specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account.

  15. Modeling the Effects of Stress: An Approach to Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuper, Taryn

    2010-01-01

    Stress is an integral element of the operational conditions experienced by combat medics. The effects of stress can compromise the performance of combat medics who must reach and treat their comrades under often threatening circumstances. Examples of these effects include tunnel vision, loss of motor control, and diminished hearing, which can result in an inability to perceive further danger, satisfactorily treat the casualty, and communicate with others. While many training programs strive to recreate this stress to aid in the experiential learning process, stress inducement may not always be feasible or desired. In addition, live simulations are not always a practical, convenient, and repeatable method of training. Instead, presenting situational training on a personal computer is proposed as an effective training platform in which the effects of stress can be addressed in a different way. We explore the cognitive and motor effects of stress, as well as the benefits of training for mitigating these effects in real life. While many training applications focus on inducing stress in order to "condition" the stress response, the author explores the possibilities of modeling stress to produce a similar effect. Can presenting modeled effects of stress help prepare or inoculate soldiers for stressful situations in which they must perform at a high level? This paper investigates feasibility of modeling stress and describes the preliminary design considerations of a combat medic training system that utilizes this method of battlefield preparation.

  16. Effective viscosity of dispersions approached by a statistical continuum method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, J.; Willemse, M.W.M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the determination of the effective viscosity of disperse systems (emulsions, suspensions) is considered. On the basis of the formal solution of the equations governing creeping flow in a statistically homogeneous dispersion, the effective viscosity is expressed in a series expansion

  17. Improving School Board Effectiveness: A Balanced Governance Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsbury, Thomas L., Ed.; Gore, Phil, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    "Improving School Board Effectiveness" offers a clarifying and essential look at the evolving role of school boards and how they contribute to efforts to improve student learning. It examines how board members can establish effective district priorities, and it explores those board policies and actions that result in shared, districtwide…

  18. Journaling: An Effective Approach to Professional Development For Reflective Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Peng

    2008-01-01

    As a new curriculum reform program was put forward in China,higher standards for teachers were given that teachers must have a potential of reflective development.Continuing and effective professional development is a common concern of most teachers and professional educators.Effective professional development usually means that not only does it have immediate impact on the work of the professional educator,but it has a long lasting impact.Unfortunately,such effective professional development activities are rare and,in turn,costly to the organization.The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a form of effective professional development which is not only economical but effective.That is the reflective journal.This article analyzes the application of Journal writing from these aspects of the definition,content and the procedures.

  19. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect

  20. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Bos, J.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stolk, R.P.; Wolters, B.; Bijl, M.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.; Nichol, K.L.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. Methods: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was

  1. Alternative Model for the Assessment of Organizational Effectiveness for Higher Education Institutions in Developing Countries. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Miguel J.; And Others

    The results of a study developing and testing a socially relevant model for assessing organizational effectiveness in developing countries are presented. Focus is on assessing the Dominican Republic. The objectives of the study were: to select and test theoretically sound effectiveness criteria which account for the type of organization and the…

  2. Annual Energy Review 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    , to the end of the century? What happened to the relationship between growth and energy consumption? How did the fuel mix change over this period? What are the effects of energy usage on our environment? What level of consumption will the United States—and the world—record in the Annual Energy Review 2025? We present this edition of the Annual Energy Review to help investigate these important questions and to stimulate and inform our thinking about what the future holds.

  3. Participatory approaches for environmental governance: theoretical justifications and practical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, Sybille

    2003-01-01

    A key justification for the rapid development of participatory approaches for environment and sustainable development governance stems from the characteristics of environmental issues. Environmental issues - and radioactive waste disposal is a good example - typically present four important physical characteristics: complexity, uncertainty, large temporal and spatial scales, and irreversibility, which all have consequences on what can be called the social characteristics of environmental issues. These include: social complexity and conflicts of interests, transversality, diffuse responsibilities and impacts, no clear division between micro- and macro-levels, and short-term costs of dealing with the issue associated with benefits which might occur only in the long-term. In turn, these physical and social characteristics determine the type of problem-solving processes needed to tackle environmental issues. It appears that the problem-solving processes best suited to confront global environmental issues will be dynamic processes of capacity-building, - aiming at innovative, flexible and adjustable answers, - allowing for the progressive integration of information as it becomes available, and of different value judgements and logics, - involving various actors from different backgrounds and levels. In promoting more democratic practices, these processes additionally should supersede traditional politics and allow co-ordination across different policy areas. It is deemed that participatory approaches have the potential to meet these problem-solving requirements

  4. Structured-Exercise-Program (SEP): An Effective Training Approach to Key Healthcare Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazi, Mosharaf H.; Hossain, Taleb; Tiroyakgosi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Structured exercise program is an effective approach to technology dependent resource limited healthcare area for professional training. The result of a recently conducted data analysis revealed this. The aim of the study is to know the effectiveness of the applied approach that was designed to observe the level of adherence to newly adopted…

  5. Effective stress in unsaturated soils: A thermodynamic approach based on the interfacial energy and hydromechanical coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikooee, E.; Habibagahi, G.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Ghahramani, A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the effective stress approach has received much attention in the constitutive modeling of unsaturated soils. In this approach, the effective stress parameter is very important. This parameter needs a correct definition and has to be determined properly. In this paper, a

  6. Effective interactions approach to phase stability in alloys under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrique, R.A.; Bellon, P.

    1999-01-01

    Phase stability in alloys under irradiation is studied considering effective thermodynamic potentials. A simple kinetic model of a binary alloy with phase separation is investigated. Time evolution in the alloy results from two competing dynamics: thermal diffusion, and irradiation induced ballistic exchanges The dynamical (steady state) phase diagram is evaluated exactly performing Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The solution is then compared to two theoretical frameworks: the effective quasi-interactions model as proposed by Vaks and Kamishenko, and the effective free energy model as proposed by Martin. New developments of these models are proposed to allow for quantitative comparisons. Both theoretical frameworks yield fairly good approximations to the dynamical phase diagram

  7. Effective interactions approach to phase stability in alloys under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrique, R.A.; Bellon, P.

    1999-01-01

    Phase stability in alloys under irradiation is studied considering effective thermodynamic potentials. A simple kinetic model of a binary alloy with phase separation is investigated. Time evolution in the alloy results form two competing dynamics: thermal diffusion, and irradiation induced ballistic exchanges. The dynamical (steady state) phase diagram is evaluated exactly performing Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The solution is then compared to two theoretical frameworks: the effective quasi-interactions model as proposed by Vaks and Kamishenko, and the effective free energy model as proposed by Martin. New developments of these models are proposed to allow for quantitative comparisons. Both theoretical frameworks yield fairly good approximations to the dynamical phase diagram

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of diarrhoea management approaches in Nigeria: A decision analytical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E Okafor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death in Nigerian children under 5 years. Implementing the most cost-effective approach to diarrhoea management in Nigeria will help optimize health care resources allocation. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of various approaches to diarrhoea management namely: the 'no treatment' approach (NT; the preventive approach with rotavirus vaccine; the integrated management of childhood illness for diarrhoea approach (IMCI; and rotavirus vaccine plus integrated management of childhood illness for diarrhoea approach (rotavirus vaccine + IMCI.Markov cohort model conducted from the payer's perspective was used to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the four interventions. The markov model simulated a life cycle of 260 weeks for 33 million children under five years at risk of having diarrhoea (well state. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs averted was used to quantify clinical outcome. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER served as measure of cost-effectiveness.Based on cost-effectiveness threshold of $2,177.99 (i.e. representing Nigerian GDP/capita, all the approaches were very cost-effective but rotavirus vaccine approach was dominated. While IMCI has the lowest ICER of $4.6/DALY averted, the addition of rotavirus vaccine was cost-effective with an ICER of $80.1/DALY averted. Rotavirus vaccine alone was less efficient in optimizing health care resource allocation.Rotavirus vaccine + IMCI approach was the most cost-effective approach to childhood diarrhoea management. Its awareness and practice should be promoted in Nigeria. Addition of rotavirus vaccine should be considered for inclusion in the national programme of immunization. Although our findings suggest that addition of rotavirus vaccine to IMCI for diarrhoea is cost-effective, there may be need for further vaccine demonstration studies or real life studies to establish the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine in Nigeria.

  9. Transgenic approaches in potato: effects on glycoalkaloids levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sayyar

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... effects of plant transformation on known toxic compounds has been an area of immense interest. Compositional .... cells carrying rDNA molecules are induced to regenerate .... Glycoalkaloids in toxic levels disrupt membrane.

  10. Hyperon-nucleon interactions - a chiral effective field theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.; Haidenbauer, J.; Meissner, U.G.

    2006-01-01

    We construct the leading order hyperon–nucleon potential in chiral effective field theory. We show that a good description of the available data is possible and discuss briefly further improvements of this scheme

  11. Introducing Effects in an Image: A MATLAB Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar , Vinay; Sood , Saurabh; Mishra , Shruti

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of introducing morning, night, and some more effect in an image is discussed, the original image is clicked in the morning. Several examples have also been discussed. MATLAB is used for the processing.

  12. A Genomic Approach: The Effects of Bisphenol A on Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics are emerging technologies used to analyze the effects of the increasing level of environmental pollutants that are affecting aquatic organisms. Some of these toxins are considered endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) due to their interferenc...

  13. Leadership effectiveness: a supervisor's approach to manage return to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, J. A. H.; Groothoff, J. W.; Jongsma, D.; van Zweeden, N. F.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate adaptive leadership in relation to personnel sickness absence (SA). In situational leadership, supervisors are effective if they adapt their leadership style appropriately to a given situation. A managerial reorganization in a Dutch hospital with reassignment of supervisors provided

  14. Leadership Effectiveness : A Supervisor's Approach to Manage Return to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, J. A. H.; Groothoff, J. W.; Jongsma, D.; van Zweeden, N. F.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    Purpose To investigate adaptive leadership in relation to personnel sickness absence (SA). In situational leadership, supervisors are effective if they adapt their leadership style appropriately to a given situation. Methods A managerial reorganization in a Dutch hospital with reassignment of

  15. Versatility of field theory motivated nuclear effective Lagrangian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, P.; Sharma, B.K.; Sahu, P.K.; Patra, S.K.; Sil, Tapas; Centelles, M.; Vinas, X.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the results for infinite nuclear and neutron matter using the standard relativistic mean field model and its recent effective field theory motivated generalization. For the first time, we show quantitatively that the inclusion in the effective theory of vector meson self-interactions and scalar-vector cross-interactions explains naturally the recent experimental observations of the softness of the nuclear equation of state, without losing the advantages of the standard relativistic model for finite nuclei

  16. CENS - Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    It is widely recognized that nuclear safety is one of the most important issues in the world. The process of transformation in the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe has created a delicate situation for nuclear regulators, often leaving them without necessary human and financial resources. Therefore, regulatory bodies from Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) welcomed the idea of the Center for Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe (CENS) - a non-profit organization that would help them to achieve independence and greater efficiency. After two years of preparation, the Center was founded in March 2002 in Bratislava. Funding for the project was provided by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), which saw the Center as a new approach to technical co-operation between regulatory bodies of East and West. The respective planning involved close collaboration between the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK), IAEA, Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), and Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). The Center's main aims are to improve the independence, competence, and efficiency of nuclear regulatory bodies, and to improve safety in nuclear facilities, by providing a system of networking and international membership for regulators in CEEC and for technical support organizations from around Europe. In this Annual Report activities of the CENS in 2002 year are reported

  17. Biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Annual report, April 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the biological effects on mice and rats of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields. Results are reported on the effects of 30-day and 60-day exposures to 100 kV/m, 60-Hz electric fields on hematologic values, blood chemistry, and organ weights. With the possible exception of elevated blood platelet counts following 60-day exposures, there were no pathological changes observed in either mice or rats.

  18. Measuring energy rebound effect in the Chinese economy: An economic accounting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Kerui

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the magnitude of China's economy-wide rebound effect has attracted much attention in recent years. Most existing studies measure the rebound effect through the additional energy consumption from technological progress. However, in general technological progress is not equivalent to energy efficiency improvement. Consequently, their estimation may be misleading. To overcome the limitation, this paper develops an alternative approach for estimating energy rebound effect. Based on the proposed approach, China's economy-wide energy rebound effect is revisited. The empirical result shows that during the period 1981–2011 the rebound effects in China are between 30% and 40%, with an average value of 34.3%. - Highlights: • This paper develops an alternative approach for estimating energy rebound effect. • The proposed approach is based on the multilevel–hierarchical (M–H) IDA model. • The energy rebound effects in China are estimated between 30% and 40%

  19. Solidification effects on sill formation: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanceaux, L.; Menand, T.

    2014-10-01

    Sills represent a major mechanism for constructing continental Earth's crust because these intrusions can amalgamate and form magma reservoirs and plutons. As a result, numerous field, laboratory and numerical studies have investigated the conditions that lead to sill emplacement. However, all previous studies have neglected the potential effect magma solidification could have on sill formation. The effects of solidification on the formation of sills are studied and quantified with scaled analogue laboratory experiments. The experiments presented here involved the injection of hot vegetable oil (a magma analogue) which solidified during its propagation as a dyke in a colder and layered solid of gelatine (a host rock analogue). The gelatine solid had two layers of different stiffness, to create a priori favourable conditions to form sills. Several behaviours were observed depending on the injection temperature and the injection rate: no intrusions (extreme solidification effects), dykes stopping at the interface (high solidification effects), sills (moderate solidification effects), and dykes passing through the interface (low solidification effects). All these results can be explained quantitatively as a function of a dimensionless temperature θ, which describes the experimental thermal conditions, and a dimensionless flux ϕ, which describes their dynamical conditions. The experiments reveal that sills can only form within a restricted domain of the (θ , ϕ) parameter space. These experiments demonstrate that contrary to isothermal experiments where cooling could not affect sill formation, the presence of an interface that would be a priori mechanically favourable is not a sufficient condition for sill formation; solidification effects restrict sill formation. The results are consistent with field observations and provide a means to explain why some dykes form sills when others do not under seemingly similar geological conditions.

  20. Systems approach modelling of the interactive effects of fisheries, jellyfish and tourism in the Catalan coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Benjamin; Maynou, Francesc; Sabatés, Ana; Fuentes, Verónica; Canepa, Antonio; Sastre, Sergio

    2018-02-01

    Despite the large fluctuation in annual recordings of gelatinous plankton along the Catalan coast in the north western Mediterranean and the lack of long term data sets, there is a general perception that jellyfish abundances are increasing. Local authorities are concerned about the stranding events and arrivals of jellyfish to beaches and believe it could reduce the recreational appeal of the beaches - a valuable ecosystem service for the regional tourist industry. Previous studies also demonstrate the predation of jellyfish (Pelagia noctiluca ephyrae) upon some small pelagic fish larvae (Engraulis encrasicolus). Small pelagics are the principal source of revenue for the local fisheries. A social-ecological model was created in order to capture the effects of changes in abundance of P. noctiluca upon the local fisheries, the tourist industry and the wider economy. The following sub-models were constructed and connected following the systems approach framework methodology: an age-class based fisheries model; a jellyfish population matrix model; a jellyfish stranding model; a study on the impact of jellyfish strandings on beach users; and an economic input-output matrix. Various future scenarios for different abundances of jellyfish blooms were run. The "Expected blooms" scenario is similar to the quantity and size of blooms for 2000-2010. For a hypothetical "No blooms" scenario (standard background level of jellyfish but without any blooms) landings would increase by around 294 tonnes (5.1%) per year (averaged over 10 years) or approximately 0.19 M€ in profits per year (4.5%), and strandings would decrease by 49%. In a "Frequent blooms" scenario, landings would decrease by around 147 tonnes per year (2.5%) and decrease profits by 0.10 M€ per year (2.3%), and strandings would increase by 32%. Given the changes that these scenarios would cause on the regional gross domestic product and employment, this study concludes that the overall impact of either of these

  1. Valuing Health Effect on Air Pollution : WTP Approach Using CVM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Yoo; Um, Mi Jung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Kwak, Seung Jun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    Cost-benefit is required for improving air quality efficiently. Benefit in connection with air quality has influence on health effects, a barrier to administration, aesthetic value, and material loss. Among these, health effects are occupying most of them. In this study, the economic value by the people in Seoul was estimated about symptoms of eye irritation, heartburn, and asthma among health effects relating to air pollution by using conditional value measurement (CVM). As a result, 2,580 won/day for eye irritation, 9,000 won/day for heartburn, and 55,400 won/day for asthma were measured. Moreover, in the case of carrying out several CV questions in one survey, it was found out that the estimated results of single variation model and dual variation model were different. (author). 21 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. CSIR Annual report 1965

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 48 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  3. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. CSIR Annual report 1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 86 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. CSIR Annual report 1976

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 75 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. CSIR Annual report 1978

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 78 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. CSIR Annual report 1991

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 40 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  9. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  10. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  11. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  12. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  13. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  14. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  15. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N; Mika, J R; Wieteska, K [eds.

    1999-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  16. No evidence of the effect of extreme weather events on annual occurrence of four groups of ectothermic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka H Malinowska

    Full Text Available Weather extremes may have strong effects on biodiversity, as known from theoretical and modelling studies. Predicted negative effects of increased weather variation are found only for a few species, mostly plants and birds in empirical studies. Therefore, we investigated correlations between weather variability and patterns in occupancy, local colonisations and local extinctions (metapopulation metrics across four groups of ectotherms: Odonata, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Reptilia. We analysed data of 134 species on a 1×1 km-grid base, collected in the last 20 years from the Netherlands, combining standardised data and opportunistic data. We applied dynamic site-occupancy models and used the results as input for analyses of (i trends in distribution patterns, (ii the effect of temperature on colonisation and persistence probability, and (iii the effect of years with extreme weather on all the three metapopulation metrics. All groups, except butterflies, showed more positive than negative trends in metapopulation metrics. We did not find evidence that the probability of colonisation or persistence increases with temperature nor that extreme weather events are reflected in higher extinction risks. We could not prove that weather extremes have visible and consistent negative effects on ectothermic species in temperate northern hemisphere. These findings do not confirm the general prediction that increased weather variability imperils biodiversity. We conclude that weather extremes might not be ecologically relevant for the majority of species. Populations might be buffered against weather variation (e.g. by habitat heterogeneity, or other factors might be masking the effects (e.g. availability and quality of habitat. Consequently, we postulate that weather extremes have less, or different, impact in real world metapopulations than theory and models suggest.

  17. Comparative Effects of Tri-Polar Eclectic Teaching Approach on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an experimental study that examined the comparative effects of Tripolar Interactionist teaching strategy on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School III students of Adeyemi Demonstration secondary School Ondo in social studies. The instrument used for the study includes scheme of work, lesson notes ...

  18. Effectiveness, Improvement and Educational Change: A Distinctively Canadian Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy; Fink, Dean

    1998-01-01

    A distinctive Canadian school of thought on educational change is inclined to synthesize diverse bodies of work and integrate nonrational and emotional dimensions with rational and technically effective ones in a socially critical way. Highlights the Canadian perspective through discussions about complex systems, contexts of change, critical…

  19. The background effective average action approach to quantum gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D’Odorico, G.; Codello, A.; Pagani, C.

    2016-01-01

    of an UV attractive non-Gaussian fixed-point, which we find characterized by real critical exponents. Our closure method is general and can be applied systematically to more general truncations of the gravitational effective average action. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016....

  20. An effective approach to the problem of time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojowald, M.; Höhn, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330827952; Tsobanjan, A.

    2010-01-01

    A practical way to deal with the problem of time in quantum cosmology and quantum gravity is proposed. The main tool is effective equations, which mainly restrict explicit considerations to semiclassical regimes but have the crucial advantage of allowing the consistent use of local internal times in

  1. Is a participatory approach effective to stimulate using ergonomic measures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, H.F. van der; Sluiter, J.K.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Vink, P.; Duivenbooden, J.C. van; Holman, R.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a participatory ergonomics (PE) implementation strategy on the use of ergonomic measures reducing the physical work demands of construction work. The ergonomic measures consisted of adjusting working height (two measures) and mechanising the

  2. Customer complaints and recovery effectiveness : A customer base approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knox, G.; van Oest, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Although customer complaints are a well-studied aspect of business, no study has measured the impact of actual complaints and recoveries on subsequent customer purchasing. The authors develop a customer base model to investigate the effectiveness of recovery in preventing customer churn. They

  3. Effective viscosity in quantum turbulence: a steady-state approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuin, Simone; Varga, E.; Skrbek, L.; Lévêque, E.; Roche, P.-E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 2 (2014), "24006-1"-"24006-6" ISSN 0295-5075 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum turbulence * effective viscosity * superfluid hydrodynamics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.095, year: 2014

  4. Nutrient and water addition effects on day- and night-time conductance and transpiration in a C3 desert annual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Jewitt, R.A.; Donovan, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has shown that many C3 plant species have significant stomatal opening and transpire water at night even in desert habitats. Day-time stomatal regulation is expected to maximize carbon gain and prevent runaway cavitation, but little is known about the effect of soil resource

  5. Magnetic and thermal Moessbauer effect scans: a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquevich, G. A.; Zelis, P. Mendoza; Sanchez, F. H.; Fernandez van Raap, M. B.; Veiga, A.; Martinez, N.

    2006-01-01

    Moessbauer transmission recorded at fixed photon energies as a function of a given physical parameter such as temperature, external field, etc. (Moessbauer scan), is being developed as a useful quantitative tool, complementary of Moessbauer spectroscopy. Scans are performed at selected energies, suitable for the observation of a given physical property or process. It is shown that one of main advantages of this approach is the higher speed at which the external physical parameter can be swept, which allows the recording of quasi-continuous experimental response functions as well as the study of processes which occur too fast to be followed by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The applications presented here are the determination of the temperature dependence of the 57 Fe hyperfine field in FeSn 2 , the thermal evolution and nanocrystallization kinetics of amorphous Fe 73.5 Si 13.5 Cu 1 Nb 3 B 9 and the measurement of the dynamic response of Fe magnetic moments in nanocrystalline Fe 90 Zr 7 B 3 to an external ac field.

  6. Neumann Casimir effect: A singular boundary-interaction approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fosco, C.D.; Lombardo, F.C.; Mazzitelli, F.D.

    2010-01-01

    Dirichlet boundary conditions on a surface can be imposed on a scalar field, by coupling it quadratically to a δ-like potential, the strength of which tends to infinity. Neumann conditions, on the other hand, require the introduction of an even more singular term, which renders the reflection and transmission coefficients ill-defined because of UV divergences. We present a possible procedure to tame those divergences, by introducing a minimum length scale, related to the nonzero 'width' of a nonlocal term. We then use this setup to reach (either exact or imperfect) Neumann conditions, by taking the appropriate limits. After defining meaningful reflection coefficients, we calculate the Casimir energies for flat parallel mirrors, presenting also the extension of the procedure to the case of arbitrary surfaces. Finally, we discuss briefly how to generalize the worldline approach to the nonlocal case, what is potentially useful in order to compute Casimir energies in theories containing nonlocal potentials; in particular, those which we use to reproduce Neumann boundary conditions.

  7. Effective field renormalization group approach for Ising lattice spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittipaldi, Ivon P.

    1994-03-01

    A new applicable real-space renormalization group framework (EFRG) for computing the critical properties of Ising lattice spin systems is presented. The method, which follows up the same strategy of the mean-field renormalization group scheme (MFRG), is based on rigorous Ising spin identities and utilizes a convenient differential operator expansion technique. Within this scheme, in contrast with the usual mean-field type of equation of state, all the relevant self-spin correlations are taken exactly into account. The results for the critical coupling and the critical exponent v, for the correlation length, are very satisfactory and it is shown that this technique leads to rather accurate results which represent a remarkable improvement on those obtained from the standard MFRG method. In particular, it is shown that the present EFRG approach correctly distinguishes the geometry of the lattice structure even when employing its simplest size-cluster version. Owing to its simplicity we also comment on the wide applicability of the present method to problems in crystalline and disordered Ising spin systems.

  8. Understanding the edge effect in wetting: a thermodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guoping; Amirfazli, A

    2012-06-26

    Edge effect is known to hinder spreading of a sessile drop. However, the underlying thermodynamic mechanisms responsible for the edge effect still is not well-understood. In this study, a free energy model has been developed to investigate the energetic state of drops on a single pillar (from upright frustum to inverted frustum geometries). An analysis of drop free energy levels before and after crossing the edge allows us to understand the thermodynamic origin of the edge effect. In particular, four wetting cases for a drop on a single pillar with different edge angles have been determined by understanding the characteristics of FE plots. A wetting map describing the four wetting cases is given in terms of edge angle and intrinsic contact angle. The results show that the free energy barrier observed near the edge plays an important role in determining the drop states, i.e., (1) stable or metastable drop states at the pillar's edge, and (2) drop collapse by liquid spilling over the edge completely or staying at an intermediate sidewall position of the pillar. This thermodynamic model presents an energetic framework to describe the functioning of the so-called "re-entrant" structures. Results show good consistency with the literature and expand the current understanding of Gibbs' inequality condition.

  9. Constraining Dark Sectors at Colliders: Beyond the Effective Theory Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Philip; Spannowsky, Michael; Williams, Ciaran

    2015-01-01

    We outline and investigate a set of benchmark simplified models with the aim of providing a minimal simple framework for an interpretation of the existing and forthcoming searches of dark matter particles at the LHC. The simplified models we consider provide microscopic QFT descriptions of interactions between the Standard Model partons and the dark sector particles mediated by the four basic types of messenger fields: scalar, pseudo-scalar, vector or axial-vector. Our benchmark models are characterised by four to five parameters, including the mediator mass and width, the dark matter mass and an effective coupling(s). In the gluon fusion production channel we resolve the top-quark in the loop and compute full top-mass effects for scalar and pseudo-scalar messengers. We show the LHC limits and reach at 8 and 14 TeV for models with all four messenger types. We also outline the complementarity of direct detection, indirect detection and LHC bounds for dark matter searches. Finally, we investigate the effects wh...

  10. Neighborhood Effects in Wind Farm Performance: A Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Ritter

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of turbine density in wind farms entails a trade-off between the usage of scarce, expensive land and power losses through turbine wake effects. A quantification and prediction of the wake effect, however, is challenging because of the complex aerodynamic nature of the interdependencies of turbines. In this paper, we propose a parsimonious data driven regression wake model that can be used to predict production losses of existing and potential wind farms. Motivated by simple engineering wake models, the predicting variables are wind speed, the turbine alignment angle, and distance. By utilizing data from two wind farms in Germany, we show that our models can compete with the standard Jensen model in predicting wake effect losses. A scenario analysis reveals that a distance between turbines can be reduced by up to three times the rotor size, without entailing substantial production losses. In contrast, an unfavorable configuration of turbines with respect to the main wind direction can result in production losses that are much higher than in an optimal case.

  11. Radiation effects on organic insulators for superconducting magnets. Annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Klabunde, C.E.; Kernohan, R.H.; Long, C.J.

    1979-11-01

    The most recent efforts in a program to study the effects of irradiation near 5 K on organic insulators for fusion reactors have extended the irradiation dose from 2 x 10 9 to 1 x 10 10 rads and have studied additional effects due to fast neutrons. When added to a gamma-ray dose of 2.4 x 10 9 rads, a fast-neutron fluence of 2.4 x 10 20 n/m 2 has little effect upon changes in electrical and mechanical properties. At this dose, present results are in agreement with previous results. At a dose of 1 x 10 10 rads, particle-filled epoxies are at end of life in terms of mechanical strength, while fiberglass-cloth-filled epoxies retain sufficient strength for use. Electrical-resistivity and voltage-breakdown values were reduced in some materials but remained in a usable range. Two sheet-type materials showed excellent stability in their electrical properties. Dimensional stability was generally good, except for one epoxy which showed considerable swelling at the higher dose

  12. The Effects of Unemployment on Economic Growth in Greece. An ARDL Bound Test Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Dritsakis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between unemployment rate, economic growth and inflation rate in Greece, using annual data covering the period 1995-2015. The unit root tests results indicated that the variables have different integration order. Subsequently, the bounds testing (ARDL approach and ECM-ARDL model are applied in order to examine the long-run and the causal relationship between the variables. The empirical results of the study revealed, both in the short and long-run, that there is a unidirectional causal relationship between unemployment and economic growth with direction from unemployment to economic growth, as well as a unidirectional causality running from inflation to economic growth.

  13. Effective quark-diquark supersymmetry an algebraic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, S.

    1989-01-01

    Effective hadronic supersymmetries and color algebra, where extended Miyazawa U(6/21) supersymmetry between mesons and baryons are derived from QCD under some assumptions and within some approximation, also using a dynamical suppression of color-symmetric states. This shows the hadronic origin of supersymmetry as well as the underlying structure of exceptional algebras to the quark model. Supergroups, and infinite groups like Virasoro algebra, then emerge as useful descriptions of certain properties of the hadronic spectrum. Applications to exotic mesons and baryons are discussed

  14. Effective Lagrangian approach to the fermion mass problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.S.; Volkas, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    An effective theory is proposed, combining the standard gauge group SU(3) C direct-product SU(2) L direct-product U(1) Y with a horizontal discrete symmetry. By assigning appropriate charges under this discrete symmetry to the various fermion fields and to (at least) two Higgs doublets, the broad spread of the fermion mass and mixing angle spectrum can be explained as a result of suppressed, non-renormalizable terms. A particular model is constructed which achieves the above while simultaneously suppressing neutral Higgs-induced flavour-changing processes. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Message Oriented Approach to WOM Effects in Service Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA DILBER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a search-based and an experience-based service were examined in Word-of-Mouth (WOM context. The study aimed at revealing the extent to which consumer choices in movie theatre and repair and maintenance shop services are influenced by the experience communicated by personal sources. Four key contributions are planned. Firstly, although it has attracted attention and criticism there is no empirical examination regarding message characteristics. In this study, the effects of messages delivered by senders concerning purchase decisions are investigated. Secondly, a more powerful scale regarding active information search was developed. Thirdly, perceptual homophily and sender characteristics were added to the model in a unique construct. Fourthly, to measure the effects of personal sources a classification of services is applied for the first time in WOM researches in this context. Data was subjected to an exploratory factor analysis (EFA and reliability analysis in the first stage of the analysis. At the second stage, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was conducted and the model's hypotheses were tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM.

  16. Novel and Conservative Approaches Towards Effective Management of Plantar Fasciitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Awaiz; Kiani, Immad; Ghani, Usman; Wadhera, Vikram; Tom, Todd N

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of the different treatments for plantar fasciitis (PF) based on the changes in functional outcomes. A systematic literature search was carried out and studies from 2010 to 2016 were included in this review. The databases from Google Scholar, PubMed and Cochrane were used for the various treatment modalities of plantar fasciitis. The objectives measured included visual analog scale (VAS), Roles and Maudsley scale, foot function index (FFI), plantar fascia thickness and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hind foot scale as the tools to predict the improvement in symptoms of pain and discomfort. Eight randomized controlled trails that met the selection criteria were included in this review. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) with botulinum toxin type A, corticosteroid injections, autologous whole blood and plasma treatment, novel treatments like cryopreserved human amniotic membrane, effect of placebo, platelet rich plasma injections and corticosteroid injections, physiotherapy and high strength training were analyzed. All the treatment modalities applied did lead to the reduction in pain scores, but for long term management autologous condition plasma and platelet rich plasma are the preferred treatment options. Impact of physiotherapy and high strength training is equivalent to corticosteroid injections and hence is suited for patients avoiding invasive forms of treatment.  PMID:28083457

  17. Is there an effective approach to deterring students from plagiarizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Azman, Josip; Frkovic, Vedran; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plagiarism detection software and penalty for plagiarizing in detecting and deterring plagiarism among medical students. The study was a continuation of previously published research in which second-year medical students from 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 school years were required to write an essay based on one of the four scientific articles offered by the instructor. Students from 2004/2005 (N = 92) included in present study were given the same task. Topics of two of the four articles were considered less complex, and two were more complex. One less and one more complex articles were available only as hardcopies, whereas the other two were available in electronic format. The students from 2001/2002 (N = 111) were only told to write an original essay, whereas the students from 2002/2003 (N = 87) were additionally warned against plagiarism, explained what plagiarism was, and how to avoid it. The students from 2004/2005 were warned that their essays would be examined by plagiarism detection software and that those who had plagiarized would be penalized. Students from 2004/2005 plagiarized significantly less of their essays than students from the previous two groups (2% vs. 17% vs. 21%, respectively, P plagiarism. Use of plagiarism detection software in evaluation of essays and consequent penalties had effectively deterred students from plagiarizing.

  18. Field-theoretic approach to fluctuation effects in neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buice, Michael A.; Cowan, Jack D.

    2007-01-01

    A well-defined stochastic theory for neural activity, which permits the calculation of arbitrary statistical moments and equations governing them, is a potentially valuable tool for theoretical neuroscience. We produce such a theory by analyzing the dynamics of neural activity using field theoretic methods for nonequilibrium statistical processes. Assuming that neural network activity is Markovian, we construct the effective spike model, which describes both neural fluctuations and response. This analysis leads to a systematic expansion of corrections to mean field theory, which for the effective spike model is a simple version of the Wilson-Cowan equation. We argue that neural activity governed by this model exhibits a dynamical phase transition which is in the universality class of directed percolation. More general models (which may incorporate refractoriness) can exhibit other universality classes, such as dynamic isotropic percolation. Because of the extremely high connectivity in typical networks, it is expected that higher-order terms in the systematic expansion are small for experimentally accessible measurements, and thus, consistent with measurements in neocortical slice preparations, we expect mean field exponents for the transition. We provide a quantitative criterion for the relative magnitude of each term in the systematic expansion, analogous to the Ginsburg criterion. Experimental identification of dynamic universality classes in vivo is an outstanding and important question for neuroscience

  19. Effects of Oil Shocks on the Unemployment: GVAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek KhojastehNeghad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil is not only one of the most significant and useful consumer goods but also is a remarkable material in energy production all around the world which has a lot of price fluctuation. oil shocks consider as a principal factor of many financial crises and have various effects on economy of countries. Hence, the assessment of price fluctuations on macroeconomic variables such as unemployment seems important. This paper survey the oil price inconstancy on unemployment in 31countries during the period from the second quarter of 1985 to the fourth quarter of 2009 through Global Vector Auto-Regression model. Results demonstrate except of the rest of W. Europe, there is a positive relationship between oil prices oscillation and unemployment. It should be noted in many area the feedback along with the lag that depends on the ratio of oil cost in national income, reliance level to imported oil, end-users ability to reduce their usage and substitute other sources, gas consumption quantity in economy, effect of higher prices on other energy sources, monetary policies adopt when face with oil price swaging and capability of goverments to apply the vary policies.

  20. Minimal flavour violation an effective field theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, G.; Isidori, G.; Strumia, A.

    2002-01-01

    We present a general analysis of extensions of the Standard Model which satisfy the criterion of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV). We define this general framework by constructing a low-energy effective theory containing the Standard Model fields, with one or two Higgs doublets and, as the only source of SU(3)^5 flavour symmetry breaking, the background values of fields transforming under the flavour group as the ordinary Yukawa couplings. We analyse present bounds on the effective scale of dimension-six operators, which range between 1 and 10 TeV, with the most stringent constraints imposed by B -> X_s gamma. In this class of theories, it is possible to relate predictions for FCNC processes in B physics to those in K physics. We compare the sensitivity of various experimental searches in probing the hypothesis of MFV. Within the two-Higgs-doublet scenario, we develop a general procedure to obtain all tan(beta)-enhanced Higgs-mediated FCNC amplitudes, discussing in particular their impact in B -> l^+l^-, Delta...

  1. Annual effects of different organic fertilisers in a baby leaf crops system under tunnel in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Morra; Maurizio Bilotto; Salvatore Baiano; Giovanni Saviello; Domenico Cerrato

    2015-01-01

    In a farm devoted to the production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables located in Eboli (Salerno), it was carried out a trial to compare the effects on crops and soil organic carbon (SOC) of biowaste compost, olive pomace compost, buffalo manure applied to soil in two doses (15 and 30 t ha−1 fresh weight). The amendments were tested in order to start in defining a feasible strategy for the recovery/maintenance of soils in degradation due to the organic matter depletion triggered by the intensive s...

  2. Radiation effects on materials in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    'Sheet silicates (e.g. micas and clays) are important constituents of a wide variety of geological formations such as granite, basalt, and sandstone. Sheet silicates, particularly clays such as bentonite are common materials in near-field engineered barriers in high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repositories. This is because migration of radionuclides from an underground HLW repository to the geosphere may be significantly reduced by sorption of radionuclides (e.g., Pu, U and Np) onto sheet silicates (e.g., clays and micas) that line the fractures and pores of the rocks along groundwater flowpaths. In addition to surface sorption, it has been suggested that some sheet silicates may also be able to incorporate many radionuclides, such as Cs and Sr, in the inter-layer sites of the sheet structure. However, the ability of the sheet silicates to incorporate radionuclides and retard release and migration of radionuclides may be significantly affected by the near-field radiation due to the decay of fission products and actinides. for example, the unique properties of the sheet structures will be lost completely if the structure becomes amorphous due to irradiation effects. Thus, the study of irradiation effects on sheet-structures, such as structural damage and modification of chemical properties, are critical to the performance assessment of long-term repository behavior.'

  3. Study of the radiation effects on nucleic acids and related compounds. Annual progress report, August 15, 1974--August 14, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1975-01-01

    Interest is being centered on the chemical and physical nature of radiation-induced lesions to nucleic acids and their components. These investigations have revealed the enormous complexity of chemical events in these systems and the possible degradation of nucleic acids by strand breakage. Therefore, work in the ionizing radiation of DNA and its components has proceeded along a dual course. For chemical studies, our prime concern is the stepwise isolation and identification of the radiation products of derivatives of pyrimidines and the study of the actual mechanisms of their formation. For biological studies, H. influenzae cells, the Chinese hamster V79B-1 cell line, and the Dunn osteosarcoma lung colony system were used. During the last year, the method of synthesis of 5-hydroperoxymethyluracil (T/sub α/OOH) was greatly improved. Large-scale preparation of 5-hydroxy-6-hydroperoxy-5,6-dihydrothymine (T 6 OOH) were carried out in order to study the action of T 6 OOH on neighboring bases, glycosidic bond-breakage, cell mutagenesis, chromosomal aberrations, and possible synergistic effects on x radiation. These results allow one to relate radiobiological effects with radiation chemical changes in DNA

  4. Effects of artificial gravity on the cardiovascular system: Computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Artiles, Ana; Heldt, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2016-09-01

    Artificial gravity has been suggested as a multisystem countermeasure against the negative effects of weightlessness. However, many questions regarding the appropriate configuration are still unanswered, including optimal g-level, angular velocity, gravity gradient, and exercise protocol. Mathematical models can provide unique insight into these questions, particularly when experimental data is very expensive or difficult to obtain. In this research effort, a cardiovascular lumped-parameter model is developed to simulate the short-term transient hemodynamic response to artificial gravity exposure combined with ergometer exercise, using a bicycle mounted on a short-radius centrifuge. The model is thoroughly described and preliminary simulations are conducted to show the model capabilities and potential applications. The model consists of 21 compartments (including systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a cardiac model), and it also includes the rapid cardiovascular control systems (arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex). In addition, the pressure gradient resulting from short-radius centrifugation is captured in the model using hydrostatic pressure sources located at each compartment. The model also includes the cardiovascular effects resulting from exercise such as the muscle pump effect. An initial set of artificial gravity simulations were implemented using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Compact-Radius Centrifuge (CRC) configuration. Three centripetal acceleration (artificial gravity) levels were chosen: 1 g, 1.2 g, and 1.4 g, referenced to the subject's feet. Each simulation lasted 15.5 minutes and included a baseline period, the spin-up process, the ergometer exercise period (5 minutes of ergometer exercise at 30 W with a simulated pedal cadence of 60 RPM), and the spin-down process. Results showed that the cardiovascular model is able to predict the cardiovascular dynamics during gravity changes, as well as the expected

  5. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  6. The effective action approach applied to nuclear matter (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh.

    1996-11-01

    Within the framework of the Walecka model (QHD-I) the application of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action to nuclear matter is presented. The main feature is the treating of the meson condensates for the system of finite nuclear density. The system of couple Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equations is derived. It is shown that SD equations for sigma-omega mixings are absent in this formalism. Instead, the energy density of the nuclear ground state does explicitly contain the contributions from the ring diagrams, amongst others. In the bare-vertex approximation, the expression for energy density is written down for numerical computation in the next paper. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs

  7. Instanton effects in ABJM theory from Fermi gas approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst.; Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-19

    We study the instanton effects of the ABJM partition function using the Fermi gas formalism. We compute the exact values of the partition function at the Chern-Simons levels k=1, 2, 3, 4, 6 up to N=44, 20, 18, 16, 14 respectively, and extract non-perturbative corrections from these exact results. Fitting the resulting non-perturbative corrections by their expected forms from the Fermi gas, we determine unknown parameters in them. After separating the oscillating behavior of the grand potential, which originates in the periodicity of the grand partition function, and the worldsheet instanton contribution, which is computed from the topological string theory, we succeed in proposing an analytical expression for the leading D2-instanton correction. Just as the perturbative result, the instanton corrections to the partition function are expressed in terms of the Airy function.

  8. A Cost Effective System Design Approach for Critical Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Larry Wayne; Cox, Gary; Nguyen, Hai

    2000-01-01

    NASA-JSC required an avionics platform capable of serving a wide range of applications in a cost-effective manner. In part, making the avionics platform cost effective means adhering to open standards and supporting the integration of COTS products with custom products. Inherently, operation in space requires low power, mass, and volume while retaining high performance, reconfigurability, scalability, and upgradability. The Universal Mini-Controller project is based on a modified PC/104-Plus architecture while maintaining full compatibility with standard COTS PC/104 products. The architecture consists of a library of building block modules, which can be mixed and matched to meet a specific application. A set of NASA developed core building blocks, processor card, analog input/output card, and a Mil-Std-1553 card, have been constructed to meet critical functions and unique interfaces. The design for the processor card is based on the PowerPC architecture. This architecture provides an excellent balance between power consumption and performance, and has an upgrade path to the forthcoming radiation hardened PowerPC processor. The processor card, which makes extensive use of surface mount technology, has a 166 MHz PowerPC 603e processor, 32 Mbytes of error detected and corrected RAM, 8 Mbytes of Flash, and I Mbytes of EPROM, on a single PC/104-Plus card. Similar densities have been achieved with the quad channel Mil-Std-1553 card and the analog input/output cards. The power management built into the processor and its peripheral chip allows the power and performance of the system to be adjusted to meet the requirements of the application, allowing another dimension to the flexibility of the Universal Mini-Controller. Unique mechanical packaging allows the Universal Mini-Controller to accommodate standard COTS and custom oversized PC/104-Plus cards. This mechanical packaging also provides thermal management via conductive cooling of COTS boards, which are typically

  9. New approaches for effective mutation induction in gamma field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki [National Institute of Agrobiological Resources, Institute of Radiation Breeding, Omiya, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to clarify the effects of chronic irradiation using in vitro culture on inducing the mutation of two model plants. Culture technique combined with irradiation can overcome the problem of chimera formation and provided 10 times greater mutation efficiency than conventional method. Proper mutagenic treatment using cultured materials is indispensable to effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method showed the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum and extended toward not only the negative but positive direction. However, the acute culture methods indicated a relatively low mutation rate and a very limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation of the regenerations could be induced more from petals and buds than from leaves. These facts is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture. It may be likely to control a direction of desired mutation. One possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies is that most of the cells composing the tissue and organs continually irradiated into a cell division which was highly sensitive and more mutable to irradiation. Under these conditions, many mutated sectors may accumulate in the cells of the growing organs. Regenerated mutant lines show remarkable decrease of chromosome numbers by irradiation. It is a proper indicator to monitor radiation damage. In this study, the six flower color mutant varieties registered were derived from chronic irradiation. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding for not only flower species but any other species. (author)

  10. Psychological targeting as an effective approach to digital mass persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, S C; Kosinski, M; Nave, G; Stillwell, D J

    2017-11-28

    People are exposed to persuasive communication across many different contexts: Governments, companies, and political parties use persuasive appeals to encourage people to eat healthier, purchase a particular product, or vote for a specific candidate. Laboratory studies show that such persuasive appeals are more effective in influencing behavior when they are tailored to individuals' unique psychological characteristics. However, the investigation of large-scale psychological persuasion in the real world has been hindered by the questionnaire-based nature of psychological assessment. Recent research, however, shows that people's psychological characteristics can be accurately predicted from their digital footprints, such as their Facebook Likes or Tweets. Capitalizing on this form of psychological assessment from digital footprints, we test the effects of psychological persuasion on people's actual behavior in an ecologically valid setting. In three field experiments that reached over 3.5 million individuals with psychologically tailored advertising, we find that matching the content of persuasive appeals to individuals' psychological characteristics significantly altered their behavior as measured by clicks and purchases. Persuasive appeals that were matched to people's extraversion or openness-to-experience level resulted in up to 40% more clicks and up to 50% more purchases than their mismatching or unpersonalized counterparts. Our findings suggest that the application of psychological targeting makes it possible to influence the behavior of large groups of people by tailoring persuasive appeals to the psychological needs of the target audiences. We discuss both the potential benefits of this method for helping individuals make better decisions and the potential pitfalls related to manipulation and privacy. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Psychological targeting as an effective approach to digital mass persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, S. C.; Nave, G.; Stillwell, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    People are exposed to persuasive communication across many different contexts: Governments, companies, and political parties use persuasive appeals to encourage people to eat healthier, purchase a particular product, or vote for a specific candidate. Laboratory studies show that such persuasive appeals are more effective in influencing behavior when they are tailored to individuals’ unique psychological characteristics. However, the investigation of large-scale psychological persuasion in the real world has been hindered by the questionnaire-based nature of psychological assessment. Recent research, however, shows that people’s psychological characteristics can be accurately predicted from their digital footprints, such as their Facebook Likes or Tweets. Capitalizing on this form of psychological assessment from digital footprints, we test the effects of psychological persuasion on people’s actual behavior in an ecologically valid setting. In three field experiments that reached over 3.5 million individuals with psychologically tailored advertising, we find that matching the content of persuasive appeals to individuals’ psychological characteristics significantly altered their behavior as measured by clicks and purchases. Persuasive appeals that were matched to people’s extraversion or openness-to-experience level resulted in up to 40% more clicks and up to 50% more purchases than their mismatching or unpersonalized counterparts. Our findings suggest that the application of psychological targeting makes it possible to influence the behavior of large groups of people by tailoring persuasive appeals to the psychological needs of the target audiences. We discuss both the potential benefits of this method for helping individuals make better decisions and the potential pitfalls related to manipulation and privacy. PMID:29133409

  12. New approaches for effective mutation induction in gamma field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to clarify the effects of chronic irradiation using in vitro culture on inducing the mutation of two model plants. Culture technique combined with irradiation can overcome the problem of chimera formation and provided 10 times greater mutation efficiency than conventional method. Proper mutagenic treatment using cultured materials is indispensable to effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method showed the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum and extended toward not only the negative but positive direction. However, the acute culture methods indicated a relatively low mutation rate and a very limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation of the regenerations could be induced more from petals and buds than from leaves. These facts is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture. It may be likely to control a direction of desired mutation. One possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies is that most of the cells composing the tissue and organs continually irradiated into a cell division which was highly sensitive and more mutable to irradiation. Under these conditions, many mutated sectors may accumulate in the cells of the growing organs. Regenerated mutant lines show remarkable decrease of chromosome numbers by irradiation. It is a proper indicator to monitor radiation damage. In this study, the six flower color mutant varieties registered were derived from chronic irradiation. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding for not only flower species but any other species. (author)

  13. The effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on children's fear-related responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Lisk, Stephen C; Mikita, Nina; Mitchell, Sophie; Huijding, Jorg; Rinck, Mike; Field, Andy P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on fear-related cognitive and behavioural responses about novel animals. One hundred and sixty children (7-11 years) were randomly allocated to receive: a) positive verbal information about one novel animal and threat information about a second novel animal (verbal information condition); b) approach-avoidance training in which they repeatedly pushed away (avoid) or pulled closer (approach) pictures of the animals (approach-avoidance training), c) a combined condition in which verbal information was given prior to approach-avoidance training (verbal information + approach-avoidance training) and d) a combined condition in which approach-avoidance training was given prior to verbal information (approach-avoidance training + verbal information). Threat and positive information significantly increased and decreased fear beliefs and avoidance behaviour respectively. Approach-avoidance training was successful in training the desired behavioural responses but had limited effects on fear-related responses. Verbal information and both combined conditions resulted in significantly larger effects than approach-avoidance training. We found no evidence for an additive effect of these pathways. This study used a non-clinical sample and focused on novel animals rather than animals about which children already had experience or established fears. The study also compared positive information/approach with threat information/avoid training, limiting specific conclusions regarding the independent effects of these conditions. The present study finds little evidence in support of a possible causal role for behavioural response training in the aetiology of childhood fear. However, the provision of verbal information appears to be an important pathway involved in the aetiology of childhood fear. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of 210Po in leafy vegetables and annual effective dose assessment to the inhabitants of Mumbai city, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, J.S.; Sahoo, S.K.; Mohapatra, S.; Patra, A.C.; Lenka, P.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.; Nair, A.

    2014-01-01

    Present study deals with the measurement of activity concentration of 210 Po in leafy vegetable of Mumbai city and corresponding ingestion dose assessment to the population. 210 Po activity levels ranged from 44.5-183.3 with an average value of 81.8 mBq/kg. Minimum activity of 210 Po was found in shepu and maximum in methi. The concentration reported here is slightly more than the UNSCEAR value. The estimated total effective dose was found to vary from 0.3 - 1.4 with an average value of 0.6 μSv/y, which is about 1% of global average total ingestion dose due to 210 Po. (author)

  15. Multi-Scale Action Effectiveness Research in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2011 - FINAL ANNUAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Teel, D. J.; Skalski, J. R.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Blaine, Jennifer; Kuligowski, D. R.; Kropp, Roy K.; Dawley, Earl M.

    2012-05-31

    The study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the University of Washington (UW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). This research project was initiated in 2007 by the Bonneville Power Administration to investigate critical uncertainties regarding juvenile salmon ecology in shallow tidal freshwater habitats of the lower Columbia River. However, as part of the Washington Memorandum of Agreement, the project was transferred to the USACE in 2010. In transferring from BPA to the USACE, the focus of the tidal freshwater research project shifted from fundamental ecology toward the effectiveness of restoration in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The research is conducted within the Action Agencies Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). Data reported herein spans the time period May 2010 to September 2011.

  16. Papers of the 2. annual Canadian Institute conference on managing natural gas price volatility : effective risk strategies for turbulent times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The issue of how natural gas price volatility is affecting future energy projects was the focus of this conference. Discussions focused on the dynamics of supply and demand of natural gas in North America and how end-users are responding to price fluctuations. Methods by which storage can be used as an effective risk management tool was also on the agenda. The hedging strategies that work best for leading energy firms were described. It was noted that price volatility can be reduced through improved market transparency. Discussions also focused on credit risk in a volatile price environment. A total of 17 papers were presented of which 3 were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. tabs., figs

  17. Annual report 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is the annual report of the Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, 1985-86. The contents include a description of the research activities, and the reactor and associated activities. The research activities include: environmental radioactivity, neutron activation analysis, clinical studies, gamma ray irradiation processing, radiation effects on insulation, radiogenic isotope geology, stable isotopes in geology and biological sciences, and radiocarbon studies. The reactor activities include: reactor operation, isotope production, and computing and counting systems. (U.K.)

  18. Effects of CO2 and temperature on growth and resource use of co-occurring C3 and C4 annuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.S.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors examined how CO 2 concentrations and temperature interacted to affect growth, resource acquisition, and resource allocation of two annual plants that were supplied with a single pulse of nutrients. Physiological and growth measurements were made on individuals of Abutilon throphrasti (C 3 ) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C 4 ) grown in environments with atmospheric CO 2 levels of 400 or 700 μL/L and with light/dark temperatures of 28 degree/22 degree or 38 degree/31 degree C. Elevated CO 2 and temperature treatments had significant independent and interactive effects on plant growth, resource allocation, and resource acquisition, and the strength and direction of these effects were often dependent on plant species. For example, final biomass of Amaranthus was enhanced by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree but was depressed at 38 degree. For Abutilon, elevated CO 2 increased initial plant relative growth rates at 28 degree but not at 38 degree, and had no significant effects on final biomass at either temperature. These results are interpreted in light of the interactive effects of CO 2 and temperature on the rates of net leaf area production and loss, and on net whole-plant nitrogen retention. At 28 degree C, elevated CO 2 stimulated the initial production of leaf area in both species, which led to an initial stimulation of biomass accumulation at the higher CO 2 level. However, in elevated CO 2 at 28 degree, the rate of net leaf area loss for Abutilon increased while that of Amaranthus decreased. Furthermore, high CO 2 apparently enhanced the ability of Amaranthus to retain nitrogen at this temperature, which may have helped to enhance photosynthesis, whereas nitrogen retention was unaffected in Abutilon

  19. Effective and efficient optics inspection approach using machine learning algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulla, G.; Kegelmeyer, L.; Liao, Z.; Carr, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Final Optics Damage Inspection (FODI) system automatically acquires and utilizes the Optics Inspection (OI) system to analyze images of the final optics at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). During each inspection cycle up to 1000 images acquired by FODI are examined by OI to identify and track damage sites on the optics. The process of tracking growing damage sites on the surface of an optic can be made more effective by identifying and removing signals associated with debris or reflections. The manual process to filter these false sites is daunting and time consuming. In this paper we discuss the use of machine learning tools and data mining techniques to help with this task. We describe the process to prepare a data set that can be used for training and identifying hardware reflections in the image data. In order to collect training data, the images are first automatically acquired and analyzed with existing software and then relevant features such as spatial, physical and luminosity measures are extracted for each site. A subset of these sites is 'truthed' or manually assigned a class to create training data. A supervised classification algorithm is used to test if the features can predict the class membership of new sites. A suite of self-configuring machine learning tools called 'Avatar Tools' is applied to classify all sites. To verify, we used 10-fold cross correlation and found the accuracy was above 99%. This substantially reduces the number of false alarms that would otherwise be sent for more extensive investigation.

  20. Cognitive behaviour therapy territory model: effective disputing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, D

    1997-06-01

    This paper proposes a disputing model (territory model) which is particularly useful and effective for disputing clients who persistently hold on to their dysfunctional thinking and/or core irrational beliefs. Their 'stubbornness' to change is compounded by unhealthy negative emotions during sessions. The intense emotion makes it difficult to access the belief system, and therefore any attempt to dispute it often proves futile. This model advocates the shift of disputing onto a different 'territory/ground' where the client can be facilitated to acquire higher, abstract and objective thinking, and at the same time his/her emotional level is susceptible to rational and logical arguments. The new thinking would act as a catalyst for the client to reflect on his/her dysfunctional thought/irrational beliefs. In this paper, the author uses a case example to illustrate and discuss the ineffectiveness of the 'traditional' way of disputing the dysfunctional thinking/core beliefs of a difficult and emotional client. This is contrasted with the 'territory' model.

  1. The effectiveness of single port thoracoscopic approach in pleural effusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Bilgin Büyükkarabacak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Currently, thoracoscopic procedures have been used frequently in diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusions. It was reported, high diagnosis and treatment success with thoracoscopy in pleural effusion, which was not, diagnosed using cytology and blinding pleural biopsy procedures. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate of the patient was performed video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS due to pleural effusion. Methods: Between 2011 and 2014 years, it was evaluated 52 patients was performed VATS because of pleural effusion. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia and single lung ventilation in 50 patients, and local anesthesia in 2 patients. Results: Histopathological results were reported as carcinoma infiltration in 29 patients, benign disease in 23 patients. Cytological examination of liquid was executed before thoracoscopy in all of the patients with malignity positive. In addition, in eight patients pleura biopsy, on which blinding was executed, evaluated as malignity negative. The diagnostic value of our procedure has 100% in malign group and 98% in benign group. In patients with malignant disease, pleurodesis was performed peroperatively. Mean hospital stay was 5 days (3-15. Mean duration of terminating chest tube was 3 days (3-15. There were no morbidity and mortality due to procedure. Conclusion: Single port VATS is an effective and safe procedure in diagnosis and palliative treatment of patient with pleural effusion, and it has high success rate and reduces hospital stay.

  2. Lignin Formation and the Effects of Gravity: A New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.

    1997-01-01

    Two aspects of considerable importance in the enigmatic processes associated with lignification have made excellent progress. The first is that, even in a microgravity environment, compression wood formation, and hence altered lignin deposition, can be induced upon mechanically bending the stems of woody gymnosperms. It now needs to be established if an organism reorientating its woody stem tissue will generate this tissue in microgravity, in the absence of externally applied pressure. If it does not, then gravity has no effect on its formation, and instead it results from alterations in the stress gradient experienced by the organism impacted. The second area of progress involves establishing how the biochemical pathway to lignin is regulated, particularly with respect to selective monolignol biosynthesis. This is an important question since individual monomer deposition occurs in a temporally and spatially specific manner. In this regard, the elusive metabolic switch between E-p-coumaryl alcohol and E-coniferyl alcohol synthesis has been detected, the significance of which now needs to be defined at the enzyme and gene level. Switching between monolignol synthesis is important, since it is viewed to be a consequence of different perceptions by plants in the gravitational load experienced, and thus in the control of the type of lignification response. Additional experiments also revealed the rate-limiting processes involved in monolignol synthesis, and suggest that a biological system (involving metabolite concentrations, as well as enzymatic and gene (in)activation processes) is involved, rather than a single rate-limiting step.

  3. APPROACHING THE TARGET: THE PATH TOWARDS AN EFFECTIVE MALARIA VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto L. García-Basteiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eliciting an effective malaria vaccine has been the goal of the scientific community for many years. A malaria vaccine, added to existing tools and strategies, would further prevent and decrease the unacceptable malaria morbidity and mortality burden. Great progress has been made over the last decade, with some vaccine candidates in the clinical phases of development. The RTS,S malaria vaccine candidate, based on a recombinant P. falciparum protein, is the most advanced of such candidates, currently undergoing a large phase III trial. RTS,S has consistently shown an efficacy of around 50% against the first clinical episode of malaria, with protection in some cases extending up to 4 years of duration. Thus, it is hoped that this candidate vaccine will eventually become the first licensed malaria vaccine. This first vaccine against a human parasite is a groundbreaking achievement, but improved malaria vaccines conferring higher protection will be needed if the aspiration of malaria eradication is to be achieved

  4. From SCIS to PELE: Approaches to Effective Dissemination Implementation and Adaptation of Instructional Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, Herbert D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses in general terms the approaches necessary for effective dissemination and implementation of an educational program in a country and then relates these approaches to the cooperative relationship between the University of California at Berkeley and the Israel Science Teaching Center's MATAL and PELE Projects. (CS)

  5. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  6. Extending Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Approach for Reliability Analysis at the Software Architecture Design Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet; de Lemos, Rogerio; Gacek, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Several reliability engineering approaches have been proposed to identify and recover from failures. A well-known and mature approach is the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) method that is usually utilized together with Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to analyze and diagnose the causes of failures.

  7. An asset pricing approach to liquidity effects in corporate bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, Dion; de Jong, Frank; Driessen, Joost

    We use an asset pricing approach to compare the effects of expected liquidity and liquidity risk on expected U.S. corporate bond returns. Liquidity measures are constructed for bond portfolios using a Bayesian approach to estimate Roll’s measure. The results show that expected bond liquidity and

  8. Effects of annual and interannual environmental variability on soil fungi associated with an old-growth, temperate hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David J

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal and interannual variability in temperature, precipitation and chemical resources may regulate fungal community structure in forests but the effect of such variability is still poorly understood. In this study, I examined changes in fungal communities over two years and how these changes were correlated to natural variation in soil conditions. Soil cores were collected every month for three years from permanent plots established in an old-growth hardwood forest, and molecular methods were used to detect fungal species. Species richness and diversity were not consistent between years with richness and diversity significantly affected by season in one year but significantly affected by depth in the other year. These differences were associated with variation in late winter snow cover. Fungal communities significantly varied by plot location, season and depth and differences were consistent between years but fungal species within the community were not consistent in their seasonality or in their preference for certain soil depths. Some fungal species, however, were found to be consistently correlated with soil chemistry across sampled years. These results suggest that fungal community changes reflect the behavior of the individual species within the community pool and how those species respond to local resource availability. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Agricultural subsidies in the United States and their effect on two annual Chilean crops: corn and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz Osorio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The development strategies for Chile have been oriented toward a greater commercial openness. Chile and the United States signed a Free Trade Agreement (FTA that has triggered controversies between producers directed to the internal market due to the production and export subsidies that this country carries out. This study analyzed the effect of subsidies granted by the United States to wheat (Tritricum aestivum and corn (Zea mays growers (Farm Bill 2002. For the study, Technical Standard sheet were drawn up, from which were determined the direct production costs and the gross margins. The variables used (market prices, subsidies, freight costs and tariffs and determining the average variable costs allowed us to do a sensitivity analysis, thus establishing the minimum level of production that national farmers must achieve in order to maintain competitiveness while a free trade is in force. The signing of a trade agreement could provoke the eventual withdrawal of many Chilean producers from the business arena while at the same time, favoring consumers with lower prices for the goods derived from these grains.

  10. 2005 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, P; Walter, K

    2006-01-01

    As the cover of our ''2005 Annual Report'' highlights, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory joined the international science community in celebrating the World Year of Physics in 2005, with special events and science outreach and education programs. Einstein's remarkable discoveries in 1905 provided an opportunity to reflect on how physics has changed the world during the last century and on the promise of future beneficial discoveries. For half of the past century, Lawrence Livermore, which was established to meet an urgent national security need, has been contributing to the advancement of science and technology in a very special way. Co-founder Ernest O. Lawrence was the leading proponent in his generation of large-scale, multidisciplinary science and technology teams. That's Livermore's distinctive heritage and our continuing approach as a national laboratory managed and operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). We focus on important problems that affect our nation's security and seek breakthrough advances in science and technology to achieve mission goals. An event in 2005 exemplifies our focus on science and technology advances in support of mission goals. In October, distinguished visitors came to Livermore to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (now called the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, or ASC). ASC was launched in 1995 by DOE/NNSA to achieve a million-fold increase in computing power in a decade. The goal was motivated by the need to simulate the three-dimensional performance of a nuclear weapon in sufficient resolution and with the appropriately detailed physics models included. This mission-driven goal is a key part of fulfilling Livermore's foremost responsibility to ensure that the nuclear weapons in the nation's smaller 21st-century stockpile remain safe, reliable, and secure

  11. A novel approach for effective integration of new faculty leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastings NB

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Natalie B Hastings,1 Linda S Centore,2 Stuart A Gansky,3 Frederick C Finzen,4 Joel M White,5 Eric Wong,6 Grayson W Marshall,7 Lisa Chung,3 Elsbeth Kalenderian3 1Division of Clinical General Dentistry, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Division of Behavioral Sciences & Community Dental Education, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Division of Oral Epidemiology & Dental Public Health, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; 4Division of Prosthodontics, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; 5Division of Preclinical Simulation, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; 6Division of Endodontics, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; 7Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: We report on an accelerated and effective way of assimilating a new leader into a team at a large academic dental school department.Methods: At University of California, San Francisco (UCSF, a new Chair was recruited through a national search to lead its largest department in the School of Dentistry. Two months after arrival, the new Chair embarked on a process of leadership assimilation among her executive team, facilitated by a professional consultant. Within four

  12. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA): A Practical and Cost Effective Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lydia L.; Ingegneri, Antonino J.; Djam, Melody

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first mission of the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP), a space exploration venture to the Moon, Mars and beyond. The LRO mission includes spacecraft developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and seven instruments built by GSFC, Russia, and contractors across the nation. LRO is defined as a measurement mission, not a science mission. It emphasizes the overall objectives of obtaining data to facilitate returning mankind safely to the Moon in preparation for an eventual manned mission to Mars. As the first mission in response to the President's commitment of the journey of exploring the solar system and beyond: returning to the Moon in the next decade, then venturing further into the solar system, ultimately sending humans to Mars and beyond, LRO has high-visibility to the public but limited resources and a tight schedule. This paper demonstrates how NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission project office incorporated reliability analyses in assessing risks and performing design tradeoffs to ensure mission success. Risk assessment is performed using NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.5 - Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Procedures for NASA Programs and Projects to formulate probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). As required, a limited scope PRA is being performed for the LRO project. The PRA is used to optimize the mission design within mandated budget, manpower, and schedule constraints. The technique that LRO project office uses to perform PRA relies on the application of a component failure database to quantify the potential mission success risks. To ensure mission success in an efficient manner, low cost and tight schedule, the traditional reliability analyses, such as reliability predictions, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), are used to perform PRA for the large system of LRO with more than 14,000 piece parts and over 120 purchased or contractor

  13. A common-garden study of resource-island effects on a native and an exotic, annual grass after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Amber N.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-soil variation related to perennial-plant resource islands (coppices) interspersed with relatively bare interspaces is a major source of heterogeneity in desert rangelands. Our objective was to determine how native and exotic grasses vary on coppice mounds and interspaces (microsites) in unburned and burned sites and underlying factors that contribute to the variation in sagebrush-steppe rangelands of the Idaho National Lab, where interspaces typically have abiotic crusts. We asked how the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve) were distributed among the microsites and measured their abundances in three replicate wildfires and nearby unburned areas. We conducted a common-garden study in which soil cores from each burned microsite type were planted with seed of either species to determine microsite effects on establishment and growth of native and exotic grasses. We assessed soil physical properties in the common-garden study to determine the intrinsic properties of each microsite surface and the retention of microsite soil differences following transfer of soils to the garden, to plant growth, and to wetting/drying cycles. In the field study, only bluebunch wheatgrass density was greater on coppice mounds than interspaces, in both unburned and burned areas. In the common-garden experiment, there were microsite differences in soil physical properties, particularly in crust hardness and its relationship to moisture, but soil properties were unaffected by plant growth. Also in the experiment, both species had equal densities yet greater dry mass production on coppice-mound soils compared to interspace soils, suggesting microsite differences in growth but not establishment (likely related to crust weakening resulting from watering). Coppice-interspace patterning and specifically native-herb recovery on coppices is likely important for postfire resistance of this rangeland to cheatgrass.

  14. Radiation effects on materials in the near-field of nuclear waste repository. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    'Site restoration activities at DOE facilities and the permanent disposal of nuclear waste generated at DOE facilities involve working with and within various types and levels of radiation fields. Once the nuclear waste is incorporated into a final form, radioactive decay will decrease the radiation field over geologic time scales, but the alpha-decay dose for these solids will still reach values as high as 10 18 alpha-decay events/gm in periods as short as 1,000 years. This dose is well within the range for which important chemical (e.g., increased leach rate) and physical (e.g., volume expansion) changes may occur in crystalline ceramics. Release and sorption of long-lived actinides (e.g., 237 Np) can provide a radiation exposure to backfill materials, and changes in important properties (e.g., cation exchange capacity) may occur. The objective of this research program is to evaluate the long term radiation effects in the materials in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository with accelerated experiments in the laboratory using energetic particles (electrons, ions and neutrons). Experiments on the microstructural evolution during irradiation of two important groups of materials, sheet silicates (e.g., clays) and zeolites (analcime), have been conducted; and studies of radiation-induced changes in chemical properties (e.g. cation exchange capacity) are underway. As of the mid-2nd year of the 3-year project, experiments on the microstructural evolution during irradiation of two important group of materials, sheet silicates (mica) and zeolites (analcime), have been conducted; and studies of radiation-induced changes in chemical properties (e.g., cation exchange capacity) are underway.'

  15. COST-EFFECTIVE APPROACH TO ESTIMATE UNREPORTED DATA: REBUILDING HISTORY OF LIFT-NET FISHING IN KWANDANG WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andhika Prima Prasetyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop cost-effective approach regarding the estimation unreported annual catch data of lift-net fishery using Google Earth imagery. Lift net fishery is one of the main fishing activities of coastal community in Kwandang Bay, it has been faced problem of uncertain fisheries status due to limited recorded data. Combination of a Monte Carlo procedure was applied by involving couple of assumptions on parameters such as estimate growth rate of the total number of lift-net per years (10%, day at sea per unit per month (21 days and operated lift-net per month (50% and 80%. The results showed that 101 units of lift-nets were found around Kwandang waters based on Google Earth imagery recorded in October, 7th 2010, and this were used as a benchmark of calculation. This prediction was 28 units higher than official data from North Gorontalo District of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Services (DKP Gorontalo Utara. Compared with capture fisheries statistics issued by Kwandang CFP, the estimated lift-net catches based on two-scenarios represent additional catches of 46 % and 86 %. These results suggested and could be used as a correction index to improve the reliability of Kwandang District officially reported fisheries statistics as a baseline to develop a local common fisheries policy.

  16. NIRE annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of 'ecotechnology' that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts.

  17. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  18. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  19. IKO Annual Report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The IKO Annual Report of 1976 relates their progress in different projects and project fields. The fields covered include electron scattering, pion and muon physics, theory, radio- and nuclear chemistry, technical department, MEA, nuclear reactions and nuclear spectroscopy

  20. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  1. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  2. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI) [de

  3. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry [fr

  4. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-04-01

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  5. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI) [de

  6. Annual report - LNLS - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the 1990 Annual Report of the LNLS, the upcoming Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. It discusses its projects, organization as well as the proposed experimental stations. It presents also a list of publications. (A.C.A.S.)

  7. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  8. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2003-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2002 is reported. Structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  9. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2005-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2004 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  10. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2004-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2003 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  11. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  12. Annual Report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The annual report gives the specific scientific results in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and data processing with a list of publications. (orig.) [de

  13. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  14. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  15. Effects of Brain-Based Learning Approach on Students' Motivation and Attitudes Levels in Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Erkan; Afacan, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of brain-based learning approach on attitudes and motivation levels in 8th grade students' science classes. The main reason for examining attitudes and motivation levels, the effect of the short-term motivation, attitude shows the long-term effect. The pre/post-test control group research model…

  16. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  17. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  18. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  19. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  20. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  1. Annual effects of different organic fertilisers in a baby leaf crops system under tunnel in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Morra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In a farm devoted to the production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables located in Eboli (Salerno, it was carried out a trial to compare the effects on crops and soil organic carbon (SOC of biowaste compost, olive pomace compost, buffalo manure applied to soil in two doses (15 and 30 t ha−1 fresh weight. The amendments were tested in order to start in defining a feasible strategy for the recovery/maintenance of soils in degradation due to the organic matter depletion triggered by the intensive soil tillage and the lack of organic matter returned to soil. In the year following the soil amendment, it was studied the crop sequence: rocket-basil-rocket. Analysis of nitrates concentration in leaves of rocket was carried out on samples of all the treatments picked up in the two cycles of rocket. Along the year, we observed that the higher yields promoted in the first six months (May-September from the dose 15 t ha−1, were obtained with the dose 30 t ha−1 in the successive six months (November-May. This was due, probably, to the larger stock of total N supplied with dose 30 and its release in time. Buffalo manure amendment showed a higher quickness than composts in the supplying mineral nitrogen to the first crops. On the other hand, nitrates in leaves of rocket exceeded, more frequently, the limits fixed in EU Regulation n. 1258/2011 in the plots amended with buffalo manure. Instead, the treatments with olive pomace compost showed to exceed rarely the EU limits. Under tunnel, the intensive management based on 4-5 crop cycles per year and as much soil tillage, appeared the first cause to explain the lack of significant variation in SOC of plots treated with organic improvers after one year from their distribution. This result let us to suppose the need to study some modifications of the standard farm management in order to reduce the number of soil tillage in a year and, as a consequence, the main stress causing the high carbon mineralisation rate in

  2. Cognitive Effects of Mindfulness Training: Results of a Pilot Study Based on a Theory Driven Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wimmer, Lena; Bellingrath, Silja; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports a pilot study which tested cognitive effects of mindfulness practice in a theory-driven approach. Thirty-four fifth graders received either a mindfulness training which was based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction approach (experimental group), a concentration training (active control group), or no treatment (passive control group). Based on the operational definition of mindfulness by Bishop et al. (2004), effects on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility...

  3. 137Cs and 40K concentrations on imported powder milk and its contribution to the annual effective dose by ingestion for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, D.; Borrell Munnoz, J. L.; D'Alessandro, K.; Gelen Rudnikas, A.; Diaz Rizo, O.; Martinez Herrera, E.; Gonzales Mesa, A.; Marrero Arias, L.; Hilda Zambrano, M.

    2013-01-01

    Low Background Gamma Spectrometry was used to determine activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 40 K on different powder milk samples imported in Cuba for local consumption. Radionuclide concentration has been evaluated using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector (2.04 keV of FWHM and 30% of relative efficiency coupled to a low background system. A relative procedure, using the Certified Reference Materials (CRM) IAEA-152 and 154, was implemented. Samples were dried at 105 o C, macerated and sieved at 125 μm using standardized procedures . Results show that radionuclide activities is strongly dependent on milk type (full and skimmed milk) and on its origin, showing in all samples an activity concentration for 137 Cs is from 1.30 to 2.69 Bq kg -1 only in the 54.7 % of them. Annual effective dose committed by powder milk ingestion for children has been estimated as 9.3x10 -3 mSv y -1 , beneath the permissible dose regulated by the Cuban authorities based on doses reported worldwide for population affected only by global fallout. (Author)

  4. Impulsivity moderates the effect of approach bias modification on healthy food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-10-01

    The study aimed to modify approach bias for healthy and unhealthy food and to determine its effect on subsequent food consumption. In addition, we investigated the potential moderating role of impulsivity in the effect of approach bias re-training on food consumption. Participants were 200 undergraduate women (17-26 years) who were randomly allocated to one of five conditions of an approach-avoidance task varying in the training of an approach bias for healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food cues in a single session of 10 min. Outcome variables were approach bias for healthy and unhealthy food and the proportion of healthy relative to unhealthy snack food consumed. As predicted, approach bias for healthy food significantly increased in the 'avoid unhealthy food/approach healthy food' condition. Importantly, the effect of training on snack consumption was moderated by trait impulsivity. Participants high in impulsivity consumed a greater proportion of healthy snack food following the 'avoid unhealthy food/approach healthy food' training. This finding supports the suggestion that automatic processing of appetitive cues has a greater influence on consumption behaviour in individuals with poor self-regulatory control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conflict Approaches of Effective Project Manager in the Upstream Sector of Indonesian Oil & Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Cahyono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional to the organization’s performance. This study focused on the relationship between conflict approaches implemented by the project manager based on project team member’s perception on the effectiveness of the project manager in managing project’s conflict. Questionnaires were modified from Barker et al. (1988 to measure conflict management approaches and outcomes of managing project conflict. Data were gathered from 57 respondents who worked in the Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC contractors serving the upstream sector of the Oil and Gas industry in Indonesia. By using Pearson correlation, result of this study indicated that project managers were perceived to be effective in managing project conflict when implementing cooperative and confi rmative approaches, but ineffective when combining competitive and avoidance approaches. Further research should investigate correlation between cultural dimensions with conflict approaches and outcomes of managing conflict.

  6. Entomology Unit annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Medfly genetic sexing strains (GSS) are now being used for all operational SIT programmes. In 2002, a new strain, VIENNA 8, was evaluated for stability, quality and production characteristics. The strain carries the inversion as described in the 2001 Annual Report and it can produce ca 10% more males for irradiation and release than could previous GSS. This strain will be transferred to several facilities in 2003. As a further improvement to the strain the visible marker, Sergeant, has been introduced into the strain following the successful field cage evaluations reported in the 2001 Annual Report. In 2003 this strain will be further analysed to assess the stability of the marker. There is considerable interest in the field of medfly SIT in developing procedures whereby eggs can be shipped between different rearing facilities. This could be especially relevant for GSS as a central facility could hold and maintain a specific strain and eggs could be sent to satellite facilities where only males would be reared for sterilization and release. During 2002 a series of egg shipments was received from the medfly mass rearing facility at El Pino, Guatemala and the effect of shipment on the quality parameters of the resultant flies was assessed. It was concluded that although there was some reduction in egg viability, especially for long shipments, it will be possible to develop an effective shipment protocol. In 2002 colonies of Bactrocera oleae and Anastrepha fraterculus were established, the former after some initial problems associated with the unsuitability of the larval diet. In 2003 these colonies will be used to develop improved mass rearing techniques for these species and for A. fraterculus a series of field cage evaluations will be carried out to assess the degree of mating compatibility of populations from the whole geographic range of this species in South and Central America. The development of tsetse mass rearing facilities in Africa is expanding and in

  7. THE EFFECTS OF APPROACH ANGLE ON PENALTY KICKING ACCURACY AND KICK KINEMATICS WITH RECREATIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Scurr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Kicking accuracy is an important component of successful penalty kicks, which may be influenced by the approach angle. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of approach angle on kicking accuracy and three-dimensional kinematics of penalty kicks. Seven male amateur recreational soccer players aged (mean ± s 26 ± 3 years, body mass 74.0 ± 6.8 kg, stature 1.74 ± 0.06 m, who were right foot dominant, kicked penalties at a 0.6 x 0.6 m target in a full size goal from their self-selected approach angle, 30º, 45º and 60º (direction of the kick was 0º. Kicking accuracy and three-dimensional kinematics were recorded. Results revealed that there was no significant difference in kicking accuracy (p = 0.27 or ball velocity (p = 0.59 between the approach angles. Pelvic rotation was significantly greater under the 45º and the 60º approach angles than during the self-selected approach angle (p < 0.05. Thigh abduction of the kicking leg at impact using the 60º approach angle was significantly greater than during the self- selected approach (p = 0.01 and the 30º approach (p = 0.04. It was concluded that altering an individual's self-selected approach angle at recreational level did not improve kicking accuracy or ball velocity, despite altering aspects of underlying technique.

  8. A novel ontology approach to support design for reliability considering environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Li, Yu; Ye, Tianyuan; Ren, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Environmental effects are not considered sufficiently in product design. Reliability problems caused by environmental effects are very prominent. This paper proposes a method to apply ontology approach in product design. During product reliability design and analysis, environmental effects knowledge reusing is achieved. First, the relationship of environmental effects and product reliability is analyzed. Then environmental effects ontology to describe environmental effects domain knowledge is designed. Related concepts of environmental effects are formally defined by using the ontology approach. This model can be applied to arrange environmental effects knowledge in different environments. Finally, rubber seals used in the subhumid acid rain environment are taken as an example to illustrate ontological model application on reliability design and analysis.

  9. The effect of limited availability of N or water on C allocation to fine roots and annual fine root turnover in Alnus incana and Salix viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2013-09-01

    The effect of limited nitrogen (N) or water availability on fine root growth and turnover was examined in two deciduous species, Alnus incana L. and Salix viminalis L., grown under three different regimes: (i) supply of N and water in amounts which would not hamper growth, (ii) limited N supply and (iii) limited water supply. Plants were grown outdoors during three seasons in covered and buried lysimeters placed in a stand structure and filled with quartz sand. Computer-controlled irrigation and fertilization were supplied through drip tubes. Production and turnover of fine roots were estimated by combining minirhizotron observations and core sampling, or by sequential core sampling. Annual turnover rates of fine roots water availability. Fine root production (treatments in Salix; i.e., absolute length and biomass production increased in the order: water limited treatment effects were detected for fine roots 1-2 mm. Proportionally more C was allocated to fine roots (≤2 mm) in N or water-limited Salix; 2.7 and 2.3 times the allocation to fine roots in the unlimited regime, respectively. Estimated input to soil organic carbon increased by ca. 20% at N limitation in Salix. However, future studies on fine root decomposition under various environmental conditions are required. Fine root growth responses to N or water limitation were less pronounced in Alnus, thus indicating species differences caused by N-fixing capacity and slower initial growth in Alnus, or higher fine root plasticity in Salix. A similar seasonal growth pattern across species and treatments suggested the influence of outer stimuli, such as temperature and light.

  10. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.

    1980-01-04

    This is the third annual progress report for a continuing EPA-DOE jointly funded project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project is organized into four project tasks: (1) literature review; (2) process water screening; (3) methods development; and (4) recommendations. Our Bibliography of aquatic ecosystem effects, analytical methods and treatment technologies for organic compounds in advanced fossil-fuel processing effluents was submitted to the EPA for publication. The bibliography contains 1314 citations indexed by chemicals, keywords, taxa and authors. We estimate that the second bibliography volume will contain approximately 1500 citations and be completed in February. We compiled results from several laboratories of inorganic characterizations of 19 process waters: 55 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters; and Hanna-3, Hanna-4B 01W and Lawrence Livermore Hoe Creek underground coal gasification condenser waters. These process waters were then compared to a published summary of the analyses from 18 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters. We completed this year 96-h flow-through toxicity bioassays with fathead minnows and rainbow trout and 48-h flow-through bioassays with Daphnia pulicaria exposed to 5 oil-shale process waters, 1 tar-sand process water, 2 underground coal gasification condenser waters, 1 post-gasification backflood condenser water, as well as 2 bioassays with fossil-fuel process water constituents. The LC/sub 50/ toxicity values for these respective species when exposed to these waters are given in detail. (LTN)

  11. Estimation of Radionuclide Concentrations and Average Annual Committed Effective Dose due to Ingestion for the Population in the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Tran Thi; Bat, Luu Tam; Nhan, Dang Duc; Quang, Nguyen Hao; Cam, Bui Duy; Hung, Luu Viet

    2018-02-16

    Radioactivity concentrations of nuclides of the 232 Th and 238 U radioactive chains and 40 K, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu were surveyed for raw and cooked food of the population in the Red River delta region, Vietnam, using α-, γ-spectrometry, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The concentration of 40 K in the cooked food was the highest compared to those of other radionuclides ranging from (23 ± 5) (rice) to (347 ± 50) Bq kg -1 dw (tofu). The 210 Po concentration in the cooked food ranged from its limit of detection (LOD) of 5 mBq kg -1  dw (rice) to (4.0 ± 1.6) Bq kg -1  dw (marine bivalves). The concentrations of other nuclides of the 232 Th and 238 U chains in the food were low, ranging from LOD of 0.02 Bq kg -1  dw to (1.1 ± 0.3) Bq kg -1  dw. The activity concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu in the food were minor compared to that of the natural radionuclides. The average annual committed effective dose to adults in the study region was estimated and it ranged from 0.24 to 0.42 mSv a -1 with an average of 0.32 mSv a -1 , out of which rice, leafy vegetable, and tofu contributed up to 16.2%, 24.4%, and 21.3%, respectively. The committed effective doses to adults due to ingestion of regular diet in the Red River delta region, Vietnam are within the range determined in other countries worldwide. This finding suggests that Vietnamese food is safe for human consumption with respect to radiation exposure.

  12. Complementary modelling approaches for analysing several effects of privatization on electricity investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, D.W.; Vlahos, K. [London Business School (United Kingdom); Larsen, E.R. [Bologna Univ. (Italy)

    1997-11-01

    This chapter examines two modelling approaches optimisation and system dynamics, for describing the effects of the privatisation of the UK electric supply industry. Modelling the transfer of ownership effects is discussed and the implications of the rate of return, tax and debt are considered. The modelling of the competitive effects is addressed, and the effects of market structure, risk and uncertainty, and strategic competition are explored in detail. (UK)

  13. Comparison of statistical approaches dealing with time-dependent confounding in drug effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Mohammad Ehsanul; Petkau, John; Gustafson, Paul; Platt, Robert W; Tremlett, Helen

    2018-06-01

    In longitudinal studies, if the time-dependent covariates are affected by the past treatment, time-dependent confounding may be present. For a time-to-event response, marginal structural Cox models are frequently used to deal with such confounding. To avoid some of the problems of fitting marginal structural Cox model, the sequential Cox approach has been suggested as an alternative. Although the estimation mechanisms are different, both approaches claim to estimate the causal effect of treatment by appropriately adjusting for time-dependent confounding. We carry out simulation studies to assess the suitability of the sequential Cox approach for analyzing time-to-event data in the presence of a time-dependent covariate that may or may not be a time-dependent confounder. Results from these simulations revealed that the sequential Cox approach is not as effective as marginal structural Cox model in addressing the time-dependent confounding. The sequential Cox approach was also found to be inadequate in the presence of a time-dependent covariate. We propose a modified version of the sequential Cox approach that correctly estimates the treatment effect in both of the above scenarios. All approaches are applied to investigate the impact of beta-interferon treatment in delaying disability progression in the British Columbia Multiple Sclerosis cohort (1995-2008).

  14. Estimating annual bole biomass production using uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis J. Woolley; Mark E. Harmon; Kari B. O' Connell

    2007-01-01

    Two common sampling methodologies coupled with a simple statistical model were evaluated to determine the accuracy and precision of annual bole biomass production (BBP) and inter-annual variability estimates using this type of approach. We performed an uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo methods in conjunction with radial growth core data from trees in three Douglas...

  15. A preliminary study of mechanistic approach in pavement design to accommodate climate change effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnaeni, S. R.; Pramesti, F. P.; Budiarto, A.; Setyawan, A.

    2018-03-01

    Road damage is caused by some factors, including climate changes, overload, and inappropriate procedure for material and development process. Meanwhile, climate change is a phenomenon which cannot be avoided. The effects observed include air temperature rise, sea level rise, rainfall changes, and the intensity of extreme weather phenomena. Previous studies had shown the impacts of climate changes on road damage. Therefore, several measures to anticipate the damage should be considered during the planning and construction in order to reduce the cost of road maintenance. There are three approaches generally applied in the design of flexible pavement thickness, namely mechanistic approach, mechanistic-empirical (ME) approach and empirical approach. The advantages of applying mechanistic approach or mechanistic-empirical (ME) approaches are its efficiency and reliability in the design of flexible pavement thickness as well as its capacity to accommodate climate changes in compared to empirical approach. However, generally, the design of flexible pavement thickness in Indonesia still applies empirical approach. This preliminary study aimed to emphasize the importance of the shifting towards a mechanistic approach in the design of flexible pavement thickness.

  16. The Effect of Realistic Mathematics Education Approach on Students' Achievement And Attitudes Towards Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effandi Zakaria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of Realistic Mathematics Education Approach on mathematics achievement and student attitudes towards mathematics. This study also sought determine the relationship between student achievement and attitudes towards mathematics. This study used a quasi-experimental design conducted on 61 high school students at SMA Unggul Sigli. Students were divided into two groups, the treatment group $(n = 30$ namely, the Realistic Mathematics Approach group (PMR and the control group $(n = 31$ namely, the traditional group. This study was conducted for six weeks. The instruments used in this study were the achievement test and the attitudes towards mathematics questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS. To determine the difference in mean achievement and attitudes between the two groups, data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. The result showed significant differences between the Realistic Mathematics Approach and the traditional approach in terms of achievement. The study showed no significant difference between the Realistic Mathematics Approach and the traditional approach in term of attitudes towards mathematics. It can be concluded that the use of realistic mathematics education approach enhanced students' mathematics achievement, but not attitudes towards mathematics. The Realistic Mathematics Education Approach encourage students to participate actively in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Thus, Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is an appropriate methods to improve the quality of teaching and learning process.

  17. Effects of unit-based garbage pricing : A differences-in-differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Hoeben, Corine

    Using a unique 10-year dataset of all 458 Dutch municipalities, we apply a differences-in-differences approach to estimate the effect of unit-based pricing on household waste quantities and recycling. Community-level studies of unit-based pricing typically do not include fixed effects at the local

  18. Cost-effectiveness of screening programs for Chlamydia trachomatis - A population-based dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R; Kretzschmar, M; Leidl, R; Van den Hoek, A; Jager, JC; Postma, MJ

    2000-01-01

    Background: Models commonly used for the economic assessment of chamydial screening programs do not consider population effects. Goal: To develop a novel dynamic approach for the economic evaluation of chlamydial prevention measures and to determine the cost-effectiveness of a general

  19. Behavioural effects of advanced cruise control use : a meta-analytic approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragutinovic, N. Brookhuis, K.A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Marchau, V.A.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a meta-analytic approach was used to analyse effects of Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) on driving behaviour reported in seven driving simulator studies. The effects of ACC on three consistent outcome measures, namely, driving speed, headway and driver workload have been analysed. The

  20. Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the "Air pollution and health : A European approach" project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryparis, A; Forsberg, B; Katsouyanni, K; Analitis, A; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Samoli, E; Medina, S; Anderson, HR; Niciu, EM; Wichmann, HE; Kriz, B; Kosnik, M; Skorkovsky, J; Vonk, JM; Dortbudak, Z

    2004-01-01

    In the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA2) project, the effects of ambient ozone concentrations on mortality were investigated. Data were collected on daily ozone concentrations, the daily number of deaths, confounders, and potential effect modifiers from 23 cities/areas for at