Slyne, Tai C; Gautam, Ramraj; King, Valerie
Colorectal cancer screening aims to detect colorectal cancer at an early stage, when treatment is more likely to be curative. Lack of participation in such screening is a major issue in primary care practices, where nurse practitioners (NPs) often provide care. This study aimed to determine whether an educational intervention for NPs would increase their awareness of, and increase patients' participation in, colorectal cancer screening. .
Evelyn Coronado Interis
Full Text Available Despite declines in cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates remain high in Jamaica due to low levels of screening. Effective interventions are needed to decrease barriers to preventive behaviors and increase adoption of behaviors and services to improve prospects of survival. We enrolled 225 women attending health facilities in an intervention consisting of a pre-test, educational presentation and post-test. The questionnaires assessed attitudes, knowledge, risk factors, and symptoms of cervical cancer among women. Changes in knowledge and intention to screen were assessed using paired t-tests and tests for correlated proportions. Participants were followed approximately six months post-intervention to determine cervical cancer screening rates. We found statistically significant increases from pre-test to post-test in the percentage of questions correctly answered and in participants’ intention to screen for cervical cancer. The greatest improvements were observed in responses to questions on knowledge, symptoms and prevention, with some items increasing up to 62% from pre-test to post-test. Of the 123 women reached for follow-up, 50 (40.7% screened for cervical cancer. This theory-based education intervention significantly increased knowledge of and intention to screen for cervical cancer, and may be replicated in similar settings to promote awareness and increase screening rates.
A new theme in the old tension between centralization and decentralization in the governance and administration of Australian higher education is explored. The argument is that the various major attempts to restructure Australian education systems both in centralizing and decentralizing forces have gained new strength, and that the recent stated…
Yolanda A. Serra
Full Text Available IntroductionColorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Puerto Rico (PR. Although largely preventable through screening and treatment of precancerous polyps, CRC screening rates in PR remain low while CRC incidence and mortality continue to increase.MethodsWe used intervention mapping (IM, a systematic framework using theory and evidence to plan a health promotion intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening (CRCS among Puerto Rican adults 50 years and older who are patients of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs in PR.ResultsTo inform the development of a logic model of the problem during the needs assessment phase, we determined the CRC incidence and mortality rates in PR using recent data from the PR Cancer Registry, conducted a literature review to better understand behavioral and environmental factors influencing CRC among Hispanics in general and in Puerto Ricans, and collected new data. We conducted seven focus groups to identify community needs and resources, specific sub-behaviors related to CRCS (performance objectives and the determinants of CRCS. We then developed matrices of change objectives that would guide the content, behavioral change method selection, and the practical applications that would be included in the program. We selected two overarching methods: entertainment education and behavioral journalism and developed practical applications, materials, and messages containing several other methods including modeling, persuasion, information, and tailoring. We developed and pretested a Tailored Interactive Multimedia Intervention, newsletter, an action plan, and supplemental print materials for patients. We also developed a patient mediated provider prompt to increase provider recommendation and improve patient provider communication.ConclusionThe use of IM for systematic planning produced a detailed coherent plan for the CRCS educational intervention. Guided by IM processes, steps
Serra, Yolanda A; Colón-López, Vivian; Savas, Lara S; Vernon, Sally W; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Vélez, Camille; Ayala, Alelí; Fernández, María E
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Puerto Rico (PR). Although largely preventable through screening and treatment of precancerous polyps, CRC screening rates in PR remain low while CRC incidence and mortality continue to increase. We used intervention mapping (IM), a systematic framework using theory and evidence to plan a health promotion intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) among Puerto Rican adults 50 years and older who are patients of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in PR. To inform the development of a logic model of the problem during the needs assessment phase, we determined the CRC incidence and mortality rates in PR using recent data from the PR Cancer Registry, conducted a literature review to better understand behavioral and environmental factors influencing CRC among Hispanics in general and in Puerto Ricans, and collected new data. We conducted seven focus groups to identify community needs and resources, specific sub-behaviors related to CRCS (performance objectives) and the determinants of CRCS. We then developed matrices of change objectives that would guide the content, behavioral change method selection, and the practical applications that would be included in the program. We selected two overarching methods: entertainment education and behavioral journalism and developed practical applications, materials, and messages containing several other methods including modeling, persuasion, information, and tailoring. We developed and pretested a Tailored Interactive Multimedia Intervention, newsletter, an action plan, and supplemental print materials for patients. We also developed a patient mediated provider prompt to increase provider recommendation and improve patient provider communication. The use of IM for systematic planning produced a detailed coherent plan for the CRCS educational intervention. Guided by IM processes, steps, and tasks, we used community level information
Calzone, Kathleen A; Jenkins, Jean; Culp, Stacey; Badzek, Laurie
The Precision Medicine Initiative will accelerate genomic discoveries that improve health care, necessitating a genomic competent workforce. This study assessed leadership team (administrator/educator) year-long interventions to improve registered nurses' (RNs) capacity to integrate genomics into practice. We examined genomic competency outcomes in 8,150 RNs. Awareness and intention to learn more increased compared with controls. Findings suggest achieving genomic competency requires a longer intervention and support strategies such as infrastructure and policies. Leadership played a role in mobilizing staff, resources, and supporting infrastructure to sustain a large-scale competency effort on an institutional basis. Results demonstrate genomic workforce competency can be attained with leadership support and sufficient time. Our study provides evidence of the critical role health-care leaders play in facilitating genomic integration into health care to improve patient outcomes. Genomics' impact on quality, safety, and cost indicate a leader-initiated national competency effort is achievable and warranted. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Isaac, Carol; Kaatz, Anna; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly
Women are sparsely represented in leadership in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Cultural stereotypes about men, women, and leaders influence the attitudes, judgments, and decisions that others make about women and the choices women make for themselves. Multilevel interventions are needed to counteract the impact of these pervasive and easily activated stereotypes, which conspire in multiple ways to constrain women's entry, persistence, and advancement in academic STEMM. We describe an individual-level educational intervention. Using the transtheoretical model of behavioral change as a framework, we assessed the success of a semester course on increasing women's leadership self-efficacy for the first three cohorts of course participants (n = 30). Pre/post questionnaires showed gains in leadership self-efficacy, personal mastery, and self-esteem, and decreases in perceived constraints. Qualitative text analysis of weekly journals indicated increasing leadership self-efficacy as course participants applied course information and integrated strategies to mitigate the impact of societal stereotypes into their own leadership practices. Follow-up queries of the first two cohorts supported the enduring value of course participation. We conclude that providing strategies to recognize and mitigate the impact of gender stereotypes is effective in increasing leadership self-efficacy in women at early stages of academic STEMM careers. PMID:22949427
Isaac, Carol; Kaatz, Anna; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly
Women are sparsely represented in leadership in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Cultural stereotypes about men, women, and leaders influence the attitudes, judgments, and decisions that others make about women and the choices women make for themselves. Multilevel interventions are needed to counteract the impact of these pervasive and easily activated stereotypes, which conspire in multiple ways to constrain women's entry, persistence, and advancement in academic STEMM. We describe an individual-level educational intervention. Using the transtheoretical model of behavioral change as a framework, we assessed the success of a semester course on increasing women's leadership self-efficacy for the first three cohorts of course participants (n = 30). Pre/post questionnaires showed gains in leadership self-efficacy, personal mastery, and self-esteem, and decreases in perceived constraints. Qualitative text analysis of weekly journals indicated increasing leadership self-efficacy as course participants applied course information and integrated strategies to mitigate the impact of societal stereotypes into their own leadership practices. Follow-up queries of the first two cohorts supported the enduring value of course participation. We conclude that providing strategies to recognize and mitigate the impact of gender stereotypes is effective in increasing leadership self-efficacy in women at early stages of academic STEMM careers.
... in women at increased risk for breast cancer; (2) examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the endpoint variables of quality of life and adherence to screening in women at increased risk for breast cancer; and (3...
... skills in women at increased risk for breast cancer; (2) to examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the endpoint variables of quality of life and adherence to screening in women at increased risk for breast cancer; and (3...
Mendhi, Marvesh M; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Newman, Susan D; Premji, Shahirose; Pope, Charlene
Annually, up to 2.7 million neonatal deaths occur worldwide, and 25% of these deaths are caused by birth asphyxia. Infants born in rural areas of low-and-middle-income countries are often delivered by traditional birth attendants and have a greater risk of birth asphyxia-related mortality. This review will evaluate the effectiveness of neonatal resuscitation educational interventions in improving traditional birth attendants' knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, and infant mortality outcomes in low-and-middle-income countries. An integrative review was conducted to identify studies pertaining to neonatal resuscitation training of traditional birth attendants and midwives for home-based births in low-and-middle-income countries. Ten studies met inclusion criteria. Most interventions were based on the American Association of Pediatrics Neonatal Resuscitation Program, World Health Organization Safe Motherhood Guidelines and American College of Nurse-Midwives Life Saving Skills protocols. Three studies exclusively for traditional birth attendants reported decreases in neonatal mortality rates ranging from 22% to 65%. These studies utilized pictorial and oral forms of teaching, consistent in addressing the social cognitive theory. Studies employing skill demonstration, role-play, and pictorial charts showed increased pre- to post-knowledge scores and high self-efficacy scores. In two studies, a team approach, where traditional birth attendants were assisted, was reported to decrease neonatal mortality rate from 49-43/1000 births to 10.5-3.7/1000 births. Culturally appropriate methods, such as role-play, demonstration, and pictorial charts, can contribute to increased knowledge and self-efficacy related to neonatal resuscitation. A team approach to training traditional birth attendants, assisted by village health workers during home-based childbirths may reduce neonatal mortality rates. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All
Belski, Regina; Donaldson, Alex; Staley, Kiera; Skiadopoulos, Anne; Randle, Erica; O'Halloran, Paul; Kappelides, Pam; Teakel, Steve; Stanley, Sonya; Nicholson, Matthew
This study evaluated the impact of a brief (20-min) nutrition education intervention embedded in an existing mandatory coach education course for coaches of junior (8-12 years old) Australian football teams. A total of 284 coaches (68% of 415 coaching course participants) completed a presession questionnaire, and 110 coaches (27% of coaching course participants) completed an identical postsession questionnaire. The responses to the pre- and postsession surveys were matched for 78 coaches. Coaches' ratings of their own understanding of the nutritional needs of young athletes (6.81, 8.95; p 95%) provided a correct response to six of the 15 nutrition and hydration knowledge questions included in the presession questionnaire. Even with this high level of presession knowledge, there was a significant improvement in the coaches' nutrition and hydration knowledge after the education session across five of the 15 items, compared with before the education session. The results of this study suggest that a simple, short nutrition education intervention, embedded in an existing coach education course, can positively influence the nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy of community-level, volunteer coaches of junior sports participants.
Sparks, Rachel; Salskov, Alex H; Chang, Anita S; Wentworth, Kelly L; Gupta, Pritha P; Staiger, Thomas O; Anawalt, Bradley D
Complete documentation of patient comorbidities in the medical record is important for clinical care, hospital reimbursement, and quality performance measures. We designed a pocket card reminder and brief educational intervention aimed at hospitalists with the goal of improving documentation of 6 common comorbidities present on admission: coagulation abnormalities, metastatic cancer, anemia, fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, malnutrition, and obesity. Two internal medicine inpatient teams led by 10 hospitalist physicians at an academic medical center received the educational intervention and pocket card reminder (n = 520 admissions). Two internal medicine teams led by nonhospitalist physicians served as a control group (n = 590 admissions). Levels of documentation of 6 common comorbidities, expected length of stay, and expected mortality were measured at baseline and during the 9-month study period. The intervention was associated with increased documentation of anemia, fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, malnutrition, and obesity in the intervention group, both compared to baseline and compared to the control group during the study period. The expected length of stay increased in the intervention group during the study period. A simple educational intervention and pocket card reminder were associated with improved documentation and hospital quality measures at an academic medical center.
Chung, Grace Y; Brown, Gina; Gibson, Desmond
Melanoma incidence is increasing among Hispanics/Latinos in California. This community-based project reached out to a rural Hispanic/Latino community in North San Diego County to provide melanoma prevention and screening education. At a local community health fair, bilingual volunteer lay health workers led 10- to 15-minute-long information sessions on melanoma disease, risk factors, and skin self-examination techniques. Pearson chi-square analyses of participants' (N = 34) responses to pre- and postintervention evaluation surveys indicate significant increases in knowledge, risk awareness, and self-efficacy for self-screening. The results revealed that Hispanics/Latinos in a low socioeconomic stratum might be at moderate to high risk for developing melanoma. Their low annual income, low level of education, occupational sun-exposure, and lack of access to health care are likely factors that deter at-risk Hispanics/Latinos from seeking health care. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Cuaresma, Charlene F; Sy, Angela U; Nguyen, Tung T; Ho, Reginald C S; Gildengorin, Ginny L; Tsoh, Janice Y; Jo, Angela M; Tong, Elisa K; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Stewart, Susan L
Filipino colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates fall below Healthy People 2020 goals. In this study, the authors explore whether a lay health educator (LHE) approach can increase CRC screening among Filipino Americans ages 50 to 75 years in Hawai'i. A cluster randomized controlled trial from 2012 through 2015 compared an intervention, which consisted of LHEs delivering 2 education sessions and 2 telephone follow-up calls on CRC screening plus a CRC brochure versus an attention control, in which 2 lectures and 2 follow-up calls on nutrition and physical activity plus a CRC brochure were provided. The primary outcome was change in self-reported ever receipt of CRC screening at 6 months. Among 304 participants (77% women, 86% had > 10 years of residence in the United States), the proportion of participants who reported ever having received CRC screening increased significantly in the intervention group (from 80% to 89%; P = .0003), but not in the control group (from 73% to 74%; P = .60). After covariate adjustment, there was a significant intervention effect (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.5). There was no intervention effect on up-to-date screening. This first randomized controlled trial for CRC screening among Hawai'i's Filipinos used an LHE intervention with mixed, but promising, results. Cancer 2018;124:1535-42. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
Philip, Errol J; DuHamel, Katherine; Jandorf, Lina
Despite the acknowledged importance of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and its proven prognostic benefit, African American men and women simultaneously possess the highest rates of CRC-related incidence and mortality (Swan et al. in Cancer 97(6):1528-1540, 2003) and lowest screening rates in the United States (Polite et al. in Med Clin N Am 89(4):771-793, 2005). Effective, targeted interventions that promote CRC screening for this community are therefore critical. The current study evaluated the impact of a print-based educational intervention on screening behavior and associated patient-based factors, including cancer-related knowledge, fatalism, worry, and decisional balance (pros-cons). One hundred and eighteen individuals (mean age = 56.08, SD = 5.58) who had not undergone screening were recruited from two health clinics in New York City. Each participant received educational print materials regarding the need for screening, the process of undergoing screening, and the benefits of regular CRC screening. One in four individuals had undergone post-intervention screening at a three-month follow-up. Whereas all participants reported a decrease in cancer-related worry (p benefits and barriers of screening may be critical in the decision to undergo CRC screening. Future interventions to increase CRC-screening rates for this community may be improved by focusing on these patient-based factors.
The goals of this study are to: (1) examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the intermediate outcome variables of knowledge of breast cancer and risk factors, breast cancer beliefs, cancer attitudes, and coping skills...
The goals of this study are: (1) to examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the intermediate outcome variables of knowledge of breast cancer and risk factors, breast cancer beliefs, cancer attitudes, and coping...
Isaac, Carol; Kaatz, Anna; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly
Women are sparsely represented in leadership in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Cultural stereotypes about men, women, and leaders influence the attitudes, judgments, and decisions that others make about women and the choices women make for themselves. Multilevel interventions are needed to counteract…
Shulman, Marc D.
This action research project report was conducted because students' lack of sportsmanship skills in elementary school physical education was negatively affecting the physical activity level of many students. The teacher was spending classroom time giving attention to conflicts dealing with negative sportsmanship issues and therefore losing…
Lohan, Maria; Aventin, Áine; Maguire, Lisa; Clarke, Mike; Linden, Mark; McDaid, Lisa
The World Health Organisation, amongst others, recognises that adolescent men have a vital yet neglected role in reducing teenage pregnancies and that there is a pressing need for educational interventions designed especially for them. This study seeks to fill this gap by determining the feasibility of conducting an effectiveness trial of the If I Were Jack intervention in post-primary schools. This 4-week intervention aims to increase teenagers' intentions to avoid unintended pregnancy and a...
Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke (KIDS): development and implementation of a multiethnic health education intervention to increase stroke awareness among middle school students and their parents.
Mullen Conley, Kathleen; Juhl Majersik, Jennifer; Gonzales, Nicole R; Maddox, Katherine E; Pary, Jennifer K; Brown, Devin L; Moyé, Lemuel A; Espinosa, Nina; Grotta, James C; Morgenstern, Lewis B
The Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke (KIDS) project is a 3-year prospective, randomized, controlled, multiethnic school-based intervention study. Project goals include increasing knowledge of stroke signs and treatment and intention to immediately call 911 among Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) middle school students and their parents. This article describes the design, implementation, and interim evaluation of this theory-based intervention. Intervention students received a culturally appropriate stroke education program divided into four 50-minute classes each year during the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Each class session also included a homework assignment that involved the students' parents or other adult partners. Interim-test results indicate that this educational intervention was successful in improving students' stroke symptom and treatment knowledge and intent to call 911 upon witnessing a stroke compared with controls. The authors conclude that this school-based educational intervention to reduce delay time to hospital arrival for stroke shows early promise.
Tara L. LaRowe
the EPAO; scores showing the greatest increases were the Training and Education (14.5 ± 6.5 at 12-months vs. 2.4 ± 3.8 at baseline, p < 0.01 and Physical Activity Policy (18.6 ± 4.6 at 12-months vs. 2.0 ± 4.1 at baseline, p < 0.01. Conclusions Active Early promoted improvements in providing structured (i.e. teacher-led physical activity beyond the recommended 60 daily minutes using low- to no-cost strategies along with training and environmental changes. Furthermore, it was observed that Active Early positively impacted child physical activity levels by the end of the intervention. However, resources, training, and technical assistance may be necessary for ECE programs to be successful beyond the use of the Active Early guide. Implementing local-level physical activity policies combined with support from local and statewide partners has the potential to influence higher standards for regulated ECE programs.
Lohan, Maria; Aventin, Aine; Maguire, Lisa; Clarke, Mike; Linden, Mark; McDaid, Lisa
The World Health Organisation, amongst others, recognises that adolescent men have a vital yet neglected role in reducing teenage pregnancies and that there is a pressing need for educational interventions designed especially for them. This study seeks to fill this gap by determining the feasibility of conducting an effectiveness trial of the If I Were Jack intervention in post-primary schools. This 4-week intervention aims to increase teenagers' intentions to avoid unintended pregnancy and addresses gender inequalities in sex education by explicitly focusing on young men. A cluster randomised feasibility trial with embedded process evaluation will determine: recruitment, participation and retention rates; quality of implementation; acceptability and feasibility of the intervention and trial procedures; and costs.
Yamaguchi, Sosei; Mino, Yoshio; Uddin, Shahir
There is a need to reduce stigma and increase awareness in order to prevent social exclusion of people with mental illness and to facilitate the use of mental health services in young people. The purpose of this review was to examine the effects of educational interventions to reduce stigmatization and improve awareness of mental health problems among young people. An electronic search using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Academic Search Complete was carried out for studies that evaluated the effectiveness of educational interventions. Forty eligible studies were identified. There were three types of educational interventions (Educational condition, Video-based Contact condition and Contact condition). Eighteen of 23 studies reported significant improvements in knowledge, 27 of 34 studies yielded significant changes in attitudes towards people with mental illness. Significant effects in social distance were found in 16 of 20 studies. Two of five studies significantly improved young people's awareness of mental illness. However, six studies reported difficulties in maintaining improved knowledge, attitudes and social distance in young people. Furthermore, the majority of studies did not measure the actual behavioral change. From the comparison of the three types of educational interventions, direct contact with people with mental illness (Contact condition) seems to be key in reducing stigmatization, while the components of Education and Video-based contact conditions are still arguable. Despite the demonstration of the positive effects of each educational intervention, their long-term effects are still unclear. Further research needs to involve measuring actual behavioral change and performing a long-term follow up. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke (KIDS): Development and Implementation of a Multi-Ethnic Health Education Intervention to Increase Stroke Awareness Among Middle School Students and Their Parents
Conley, Kathleen M; Majersik, Jennifer; Gonzales, Nicole R; Maddox, Katherine E; Pary, Jennifer K; Brown, Devin L; Moyé, Lemuel A; Espinosa, Nina; Grotta, James C; Morgenstern, Lewis B
The KIDS (Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke) Program is a three-year prospective, randomized, controlled, multiethnic school-based intervention study. Program goals include increasing knowledge of stroke signs and treatment and intention to immediately call 911 among Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) middle school students and their parents. This article describes the design, implementation and interim evaluation of this theory-based intervention. Intervention students received a culturally appropriate stroke education program divided into four 50-minute classes each year during the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Each class session also included a homework assignment that involved the students’ parents or other adult partners. Interim-test results indicate that this educational intervention was successful in improving students’ stroke symptom and treatment knowledge and intent to call 911 upon witnessing a stroke compared with controls (p<0.001). We conclude that this school-based educational intervention to reduce delay time to hospital arrival for stroke shows early promise. PMID:18332150
Ramadurg, Umesh Yamanappa; Gupta, Akash
Organ transplantation saves thousands of lives worldwide. Organ transplantation is a boon to the medical profession, as it helps in saving the lives of many diseased people. Globally, the prevalence of knowledge on organ donation was found to range from 60% to 85%, on using different knowledge variables. Knowledge, attitude and actions are interrelated and previous studies have shown that culture and religion were important external influences which affected the decision making process. So, students require further information on the organ donation process and they need opportunities to examine their own beliefs and attitudes, which can be addressed through educational interventions. Purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude and belief on/towards organ donation and the impact of an educational intervention on them. An educational interventional study with pre structured questions being administered to study subjects. In the present study, a total of 70 students consented to participate and all the 70 attended the pre-test and post-test after the classroom teaching. Among the 70 participants, 35(50%) were males and 35(50%) were females. A majority of the subjects were Hindus 64(91.4%) and only 3(4.30%) were Muslims. Sixty seven (95.7%) of the students had heard of the term, 'organ donation'. Most common reason given by the participants for organ donation was that it was done to save someone's life [61 (87.11%)]. Among the 70 study subjects, only 19(27.10%) knew about the organs that could be donated, whose number increased to 56(80%) after providing the educational intervention. The difference which was observed in their knowledge before and after providing the educational intervention was found to be statistically significant (t= 39.315, pchanges in the perceptions and intentions of the students regarding organ donations.
Valla, Jeffrey M; Williams, Wendy M
The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. "Now more than ever, the nation's changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia."-Irving P. McPhail..
Goldman, Samantha E.; Burke, Meghan M.
Although parent involvement is required by special education law and is important for all students, the literature synthesizing studies on parent involvement has focused on the general education parent population, often without addressing students with disabilities. The purpose of this review was to descriptively synthesize the literature on…
Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia; Wolf, Randi L; Basch, Corey H; Ullman, Ralph; Shmukler, Celia; King, Fionnuala; Neugut, Alfred I; Shea, Steven
This randomized controlled trial assessed different educational approaches for increasing colorectal cancer screening uptake in a sample of primarily non-US born urban minority individuals, over aged 50, with health insurance, and out of compliance with screening guidelines. In one group, participants were mailed printed educational material (n = 180); in a second, participants' primary care physicians received academic detailing to improve screening referral and follow-up practices (n = 185); in a third, physicians received academic detailing and participants received tailored telephone education (n = 199). Overall, 21.5% of participants (n = 121) received appropriate screening within one year of randomization. There were no statistically significant pairwise differences between groups in screening rate. Among those 60 years of age or older, however, the detailing plus telephone education group had a higher screening rate than the print group (27.3 vs. 7.7%, p = .02). Different kinds of interventions will be required to increase colorectal cancer screening among the increasingly small population segment that remains unscreened. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02392143.
Vinokur, Amiram D.; Merion, Robert M.; Couper, Mick P.; Jones, Eleanor G.; Dong, Yihui
A sample of 490 high school students from 81 schools in Michigan participated in an experiment in which they were randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental Web site. The experimental Web site provided exposure to educational material about the process of organ donation and organ transplantation. The control Web site provided…
Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group. The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4% were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3% were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3% were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the
Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping
This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID
Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Cumpston, Miranda; Peeters, Anna; Clemes, Stacy A
outcomes (total physical activity in METs, total time sitting in hours and minutes, objectively measured cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes risk factors, quality of life and injury), assess outcomes in the long term and undertake subgroup analyses based upon demographic subgroups (e.g. age, gender, educational status). Future studies should also compare different types of active intervention to test specific intervention components (eligibility, duration, step goal, step diary, settings), and settings (occupation, intervention provider). There was limited and low quality data providing insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical activity and improving subsequent health outcomes.
Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles
Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Segment of the Cochrane Register of Studies,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORT Discus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.org; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA); the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were searched and we contacted experts in the field. The searches were updated to 16 January 2014, unrestricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components
Xiong, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaohui; Wu, Tat Leong; Hall, Brian J
Standard precautions (SPs) are considered fundamental protective measures to manage health care-associated infections and to reduce occupational health hazards. This study intended to assess the effectiveness of a mixed media education intervention to enhance nursing students' knowledge, attitude, and compliance with SPs. A randomized controlled trial with 84 nursing students was conducted in a teaching hospital in Hubei, China. The intervention group (n = 42) attended 3 biweekly mixed media education sessions, consisting of lectures, videos, role-play, and feedback with 15-20 minutes of individual online supervision and feedback sessions following each class. The control group learned the same material through self-directed readings. Pre- and posttest assessments of knowledge, attitudes, and compliance were assessed with the Knowledge with Standard Precautions Questionnaire, Attitude with Standard Precautions Scale, and the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale, respectively. The Standard Bacterial Colony Index was used to assess handwashing effectiveness. At 6-week follow-up, performance on the Knowledge with Standard Precautions Questionnaire, Attitude with Standard Precautions Scale, and Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale were significantly improved in the intervention group compared with the control group (P media education intervention is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and compliance with SPs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baker, Philip Ra; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles
Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, The British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORTDiscus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.ca; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were followed up. We contacted experts in the field from the National Obesity Observatory Oxford, Oxford University; Queensland Health, Queensland University of Technology, the University of Central Queensland; the University of Tennessee and Washington University; and handsearched six relevant journals. The searches were last updated to the end of November 2009 and were not restricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials (RCT), quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series (ITS) studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies (PCCS) were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised
Poddar, Kavita H; Hosig, Kathy W; Anderson, Eileen S; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Duncan, Susan E
Dairy consumption declines substantially during young adulthood. Interventions that incorporate theory-based nutrition education can provide insight into factors associated with dietary choices. The aim of this experimental study was to improve outcome expectations, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and behavior related to dairy intake in college students using social cognitive theory. Students (n=294) enrolled in a personal health class were randomized to intervention (n=148) or comparison group (n=146). The 5-week intervention (March 2006 to April 2006) was conducted using an online course system; components included e-mail messages, posted information, and behavior checklists with tailored feedback. Multivariate analysis of covariance with age and sex as covariates (Pself-regulatory strategies (P=0.038) and self-efficacy for consuming three servings/day of dairy products (P=0.049), but not in outcome expectations or consumption of dairy products. A Web-based intervention designed to change dairy intake in college students was effective in modifying some social cognitive theory constructs; strategies that positively impact outcome expectations and social support through online interventions require further development. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tymms, Peter B; Curtis, Sarah E; Routen, Ash C; Thomson, Katie H; Bolden, David S; Bock, Susan; Dunn, Christine E; Cooper, Ashley R; Elliott, Julian G; Moore, Helen J; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Tiffin, Paul A; Kasim, Adetayo S
To assess the effectiveness of 2 interventions in improving the physical activity and well-being of secondary school children. A clustered randomised controlled trial; classes, 1 per school, were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention arms or a control group based on a 2×2 factorial design. The interventions were peer-mentoring and participative learning. Year 7 children (aged 11-12) in the peer-mentoring intervention were paired with year 9 children for 6 weekly mentoring meetings. Year 7 children in the participative learning arm took part in 6 weekly geography lessons using personalised physical activity and Global Positioning System (GPS) data. Year 7 children in the combined intervention received both interventions, with the year 9 children only participating in the mentoring sessions. 1494 year 7 students from 60 schools in the North of England took part in the trial. Of these, 43 students opted out of taking part in the evaluation measurements, 2 moved teaching group and 58 changed school. Valid accelerometry outcome data were collected for 892 students from 53 schools; and well-being outcome data were available for 927 students from 52 schools. The primary outcomes were mean minutes of accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity per day, and well-being as evaluated by the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. These data were collected 6 weeks after the intervention; a 12-month follow-up is planned. No significant effects (main or interaction) were observed for the outcomes. However, small positive differences were found for both outcomes for the participative learning intervention. These findings suggest that the 2 school-based interventions did not modify levels of physical activity or well-being within the period monitored. Change in physical activity may require more comprehensive individual behavioural intervention, and/or more system-based efforts to address wider environmental influences such as family, peers, physical environment
Full Text Available Introduction: Opportunities for the early detection of disease are not sufficiently being taken advantage of. Specific interventions could increase the uptake of prevention programmes. A comprehensive analysis of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions with reference to Germany is still needed. Objectives: This report aimed to describe and assess interventions to increase uptake in primary and secondary prevention and to explore the assessment of their cost-effectiveness. Methods: 29 scientific databases were systematically searched in a wide strategy. Additional references were located from bibliographies. All published systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed for inclusion without language restrictions. Teams of two reviewers identified the literature, extracted data and assessed the quality of the publications independently. Results: Four HTA reports and 22 systematic reviews were identified for the medical evaluation covering a variety of interventions. The economic evaluation was based on two HTA-reports, one meta-analysis and 15 studies. The evidence was consistent for the effectiveness of invitations and reminders aimed at users, and for prompts aimed at health care professionals. These interventions were the most commonly analysed. (Financial Incentives for users and professionals were identified in a small number of studies. Limited evidence was available for cost-effectiveness showing incremental costs for follow-up reminders and invitations by telephone. Evidence for ethical, social and legal aspects pointed to needs in vulnerable populations. Discussion: The material was heterogeneous regarding interventions used, study populations and settings. The majority of references originated from the United States and focused on secondary prevention. Approaching all target groups by invitations and reminders was recommended to increase uptake in prevention programmes in general. Conclusions: Further research
Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad
Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not
Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic
Groarke, J D
Ireland\\'s over 65 year population is growing. As incidence of coronary events rises with age, there is a growing population of elderly patients with cardiac disease. The changing age profile of patients treated by a tertiary hospital\\'s Cardiology service was quantified using Hospital Inpatient Enquiry data. 53% of CCU admissions were aged > or = 65 years, with admissions aged > or = 85 years in 2008 four times greater than in 2002. Percentages of patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions in 1997 aged > or = 70 years were 19% and 18% respectively. By 2007, these percentages had risen to 31% and 34% respectively--greatest increases were in the very elderly age categories. The proportion of ICD recipients aged > 70 years increased from 8% in 2003 to 25% by 2008. The proportion of elderly patients receiving advanced cardiac care is increasing. This trend will continue and has clear resource implications. Outcomes of interventions in the very old need further investigation, since the \\'old old\\' are under-represented in clinical trials.
Awareness tool for safe and responsible driving (OSCAR): a potential educational intervention for increasing interest, openness and knowledge about the abilities required and compensatory strategies among older drivers.
Levasseur, Mélanie; Audet, Thérèse; Gélinas, Isabelle; Bédard, Michel; Langlais, Marie-Ève; Therrien, France-Hélène; Renaud, Judith; Coallier, Jean-Claude; D'Amours, Monia
This pilot study aimed to verify the impact of the awareness tool for safe and responsible driving (OSCAR) on older adults' (1) interest, openness, and knowledge about the abilities and compensatory strategies required for safe driving; (2) awareness of changes that have occurred in their own driving abilities; and (3) actual utilization of compensatory strategies. A preexperimental design, including a pretest (T0) and posttest (T1) 8 to 10 weeks after exposure to the intervention, was used with 48 drivers aged between 67 and 84. The participants had a valid driving license and drove at least once a week. Overall, the results demonstrate that OSCAR increased interest, openness, and knowledge about the abilities and compensatory strategies of older drivers (P driving, OSCAR also improved awareness of the changes that could negatively impact safe driving and enhanced utilization of compensatory strategies. While promoting safe driving and the prevention of crashes and injuries, this intervention could ultimately help older adults maintain or increase their transportation mobility. More studies are needed to further evaluate OSCAR and identify ways to improve its effectiveness.
Abood, Doris A; Black, David R; Birnbaum, Rachel D
To evaluate the efficacy of a nutrition education intervention for college female athletes to improve nutrition knowledge, build self-efficacy with respect to making healthful dietary choices, and improve dietary intake. A pretest-posttest control group design was implemented. A women's soccer team (n =15) and a women's swim team (n = 15) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. The intervention focused on nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy in making healthful dietary choices, and dietary practices to demonstrate treatment effect. Dependent variables were nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy, and dietary practices. Independent variables were group assignment. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the results between groups, and the Fisher exact probability test was used to detect differences between groups in the number of positive dietary changes. Treatment participants significantly improved nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy (P nutrition education intervention research among athletes and demonstrates the ability to increase not only nutrition knowledge, which is typically reported, but also self-efficacy and improvement in overall positive dietary changes during an 8-week intervention.
Goldman, Dana; Smith, James P
This paper assesses how the relationship between health and educational attainment has changed over the last three decades. We examine trends in disease prevalence and self-reported health using the US National Health Interview Survey for five chronic conditions-arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and lung diseases. The sample is limited to non-Hispanic Whites ages 40-64 to focus on the value of education and not changing representation of minority populations. We find that health benefits associated with additional schooling rose over time by more than ten percentage points as measured by self-reported health status. This can be attributed to both a growing disparity by education in the probability of having major chronic diseases during middle age, and better health outcomes for those with each disease. The value of education in achieving better health has increased over the last 25 years; both in protecting against onset of disease and promoting better health outcomes amongst those with a disease. Besides better access to health insurance, the more educated increasingly adapted better health behaviors, particularly not smoking and engaging in vigorous exercise, and reaped the benefits of improving medical technology. Rising health disparities by education are an important social concern which may require targeted interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peters, Madelon L; Meevissen, Yvo M. C; Hanssen, Marjolein M
The present study compared the effects of a one week best possible self intervention and a one week gratitude intervention on life satisfaction and optimism. We hypothesized that both interventions would lead to similar increases in life satisfaction, but that only the best possible self intervention would increase optimism. The results partly confirmed the hypotheses: only the best possible self intervention led to increased optimism immediately after the intervention period, which further i...
Polcyn, Dawn M.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Perfect, Michelle M.; Obrzut, John E.
This study examined whether consistently implementing reading fluency interventions prior to referring students for a special education evaluation led to fewer overall special education referrals, as well as more accurate special education referrals. Results indicated that the implementation of a peer-mediated reading fluency intervention…
Background: Studies have shown that some children do not participate in sport or exercise because they did not establish early coordination and basic motor skills while at school. Basic motor skills form significant parts of the goals for students to achieve in the Swedish school subject Physical Education and Health (PEH). Aims: The aim was to…
Mendes,Karina Dal Sasso; Silva Junior,Orlando de Castro e; Ziviani,Luciana da Costa; Rossin,Fabiana Murad; Zago,Márcia Maria Fontão; Galvão,Cristina Maria
OBJECTIVE: The objective in this study was to analyze candidates' knowledge on the liver transplantation process before and after putting in practice an educational intervention. METHOD: A quasi-experimental, one-group pretest-posttest research design was adopted. The final sample included 15 subjects. Research data were collected between January and March 2010 in three phases, which were: pretest, implementation of the educational intervention (two meetings) and posttest. RESULTS: The result...
Full Text Available The present paper is focused on the application of quality principles in Greek Secondary Education and comprises of two interrelated parts. In the first part of this work definitions, a theoretical framework and multimodels of quality in education are introduced and discussed, in brief. Next, the initiatives applied for improving the quality of education are emphasized. Since 1996 and for more than a decade, a series of ESF interventions have been applied in Greece with measurable impact on improving the quality of Greek Secondary Education. The most important policy measures focused at Secondary Education together with their results are presented in the second part of the paper.
Priest, Naomi; Armstrong, Rebecca; Doyle, Jodie; Waters, Elizabeth
There is now compelling scientific evidence that increased levels of physical activity can bring wide-ranging health benefits. These benefits can extend beyond physical health to include other positive impacts relating to mental health and personal development. The sport and recreation sector is viewed as a priority area for increasing rates of physical activity. Participation rates in organised sport have been shown to be lower in females and to decline with age, and are reduced in lower socio-economic and minority groups including people from non-English speaking and Indigenous backgrounds. It is important to determine the most effective interventions that sporting organisations can use to increase people's participation. To update a review of all controlled studies evaluating interventions implemented through sporting organisations to increase participation. We updated the original (2004) searches in May 2007. We searched: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 2007); MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations (2004 to Week 3 April 2007); EMBASE (2004 to Week 17 2007); PsyclNFO (2004 to April Week 1 2007); CINAHL (2004 to Week 1 May 2007); SPORTDiscus (2004 to April 2007); Sociological Abstracts (2004 to 2007); Dissertation Abstracts (2004 to May 2007), and a number of freely-available online health promotion and sports-related databases. We used the internet extensively to search for studies and locate information generated by sporting bodies throughout the world. Controlled studies evaluating any intervention designed to increase active and/ or non-active participation in sport by people of all ages. Interventions could include: mass media campaigns; information or education sessions; management or organisational change strategies; policy changes, for example to improve the socio-cultural environment to encourage people of specific age, gender or ethnicity to participate; changes to
Linch, Graciele Fernanda da Costa; Lima, Ana Amélia Antunes; Souza, Emiliane Nogueira de; Nauderer, Tais Maria; Paz, Adriana Aparecida; da Costa, Cíntia
to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on the quality of nursing records. quasi-experimental study with before-and-after design conducted in a hospital. All the nurses in the cardiac intensive care unit of the hospital received the intervention, which consisted of weekly meetings during five months. To collect data, the instrument Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes was applied to the patients' charts in two moments: baseline and after intervention. the educational intervention had an impact on the quality of the records, since most of the items presented a significant increase in their mean values after the intervention, despite the low values in the two moments. the educational intervention proved to be effective at improving the quality of nursing records and a lack of quality was identified in the evaluated records, revealed by the low mean values and by the weakness of some questions presented in the items, which did not present a significant increase. Therefore, educational actions focused on real clinical cases may have positive implications for nursing practice.
Kim, J; Arrandale, V H; Kudla, I; Mardell, K; Lougheed, D; Holness, D L
Farmers are at increased risk of developing work-related respiratory diseases including asthma, but little is known about their occupational health and safety (OHS) knowledge and exposure prevention practices. Educational interventions may improve knowledge and practice related to prevention. To determine the feasibility of an educational intervention for farmers in a community health centre setting. This was a pilot study. Farmers were recruited by the community health centre and completed a questionnaire on symptoms, OHS knowledge and exposure prevention practices. The intervention group received education on work-related asthma and exposure control strategies, and was offered spirometry and respirator fit testing. All subjects were asked to repeat the questionnaire 6 months later. There were 68 study participants of whom 38 formed the intervention group. At baseline, almost 60% of farmers reported having received OHS training and were familiar with material safety data sheets (MSDSs); fewer (approximately 40%) reported knowledge of OHS legislation and availability of MSDSs. Approximately, two-thirds of subjects reported using respiratory protection. The response rate for repeating the questionnaire was 76% in the intervention group and 77% in the controls. Among the intervention subjects, statistically significant increases were observed in reported safety training, familiarity and availability of MSDSs and knowledge of OHS legislation. Gaps in OHS knowledge were observed. The educational intervention on OHS knowledge and exposure prevention practices in the community health centre setting was feasible. Larger, more-controlled studies should be undertaken as this study suggests a positive effect on OHS knowledge and prevention practices.
Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad
Breast milk is well recognised as the best food source for infants. The impact of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. To assess the effectiveness of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education for increasing BF initiation and duration. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register on 1 March 2016, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to 1 March 2016) and Scopus (January 1985 to 1 March 2016). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on the duration of BF. We included RCTs that only included antenatal interventions and excluded those that combined antenatal and intrapartum or postpartum BF education components. Cluster-randomised trials were included in this review. Quasi-randomised trials were not eligible for inclusion. We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This review update includes 24 studies (10,056 women). Twenty studies (9789 women) contribute data to analyses. Most studies took place in high-income countries such as the USA, UK, Canada and Australia. In the first five comparisons, we display the included trials according to type of intervention without pooling data. For the 'Summary of findings' we pooled data for a summary effect.Five included studies were cluster-randomised trials: all of these adjusted data and reported adjustments as odds ratios (OR). We have analysed the data using the generic inverse variance method and presented results as odds ratios, because we were
Mendenhall, Robert W.
Access to higher education is subject to many factors including affordability, time and geography. Distance education can deliver education to those that live far from a campus. Some of that distance education may be synchronous, or live, requiring students to be available at certain times. Flexibility and access are increased when the instruction…
Webb, Debb; Murphy, Dennis J.; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen
Three intervention models to reduce hazards and risks of farm work were tested: self-audit (n=73), youth safety and health program (n=64), and a community coalition for safety and health (n=17). Despite some difficulties, university researchers and agents did accomplish the primary goal: scientific evaluation of models of safety education. (SK)
Vulnerability to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among factory workers is a global problem. This study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention to increase AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use among young factory workers in Thailand. The intervention was a ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been causally linked to six cancers, and many disproportionately affect minorties. This study reports on the development and effectiveness of an intervention aimed at increasing HPV vaccine uptake among African American and Hispanic pediatric patients in safety-net clinics. Methods Formative research, community engagement, and theory guided development of the intervention. A clustered, non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial was conducted in four clinics providing healthcare for the underserved in Tennessee, U.S., with two intervention sites and two usual care sites. Patients aged 9-18 years (N = 408 and their mothers (N = 305 enrolled, with children clustered within families. The intervention consisted of two provider/staff training sessions and provision of patient education materials, consisting of a video/flyer promoting HPV vaccine. Medical records were reviewed before/after the initial visit and after 12 months. Results At the initial visit, provision of patient education materials and provider recommendation were higher at intervention sites versus usual care sites, and receipt of HPV vaccine was higher at intervention sites (45.4% versus 32.9% but not significantly after adjusting for patient’s age and mother’s education. Provider recommendation, but not education materials, increased the likelihood of vaccine receipt at the initial visit, although over one-third of intervention mothers cited the flyer/video as motivating vaccination. Completion of the 3-dose series at follow-up was lower in the intervention arm. Conclusions Future interventions should combine patient education, intensive provider/staff education, and patient reminders. Research should compare patient education focusing on HPV vaccine only versus all adolescent vaccines. Trial registration Retrospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02808832 , 9/12/16
Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne
in children. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study with 46 asthmatic, house dust mite allergic children. The aim was to investigate the association between indoor air quality in homes and severity of asthma, in particular the effect of increased ventilation rate and expected lower...... exposure to HDM on medication intake among these children. As a result of the intervention, the ventilation rate increased and the CO2 concentration fell significantly compared to baseline in the intervention group. The analyses of the effect of ventilation on health outcomes are being processed...
The objectives of this study are to assess undergraduate awareness of cancer risk factors, prevention strategies, and warning signs and to evaluate whether an educational intervention increases cancer awareness. This study adopts a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Of the 386 students who completed the pretest, only 35-39 % identified low fruit and vegetable intake, being overweight, and physical inactivity as cancer risk factors, and cancer warning signs. After the educational intervention, the analysis of variance of changes from baseline (the pretest score) for all four experimental groups were all significantly higher than those of the two control groups (p ≤.001), except for the change of the retention test score from the pretest score for experimental group 3. This study highlights the need to improve undergraduates' cancer awareness and the effectiveness of educational intervention.
Stewart, Glenn; Anokye, Nana Kwame; Pokhrel, Subhash
To identify interventions that will increase commuter cycling. All settings where commuter cycling might take place. Adults (aged 18+) in any country. Individual, group or environmental interventions including policies and infrastructure. A wide range of 'changes in commuter cycling' indicators, including frequency of cycling, change in workforce commuting mode, change in commuting population transport mode, use of infrastructure by defined populations and population modal shift. 12 studies from 6 countries (6 from the UK, 2 from Australia, 1 each from Sweden, Ireland, New Zealand and the USA) met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 2 studies were randomised control trials and the remainder preintervention and postintervention studies. The majority of studies (n=7) evaluated individual-based or group-based interventions and the rest environmental interventions. Individual-based or group-based interventions in 6/7 studies were found to increase commuter cycling of which the effect was significant in only 3/6 studies. Environmental interventions, however, had small but positive effects in much larger but more difficult to define populations. Almost all studies had substantial loss to follow-up. Despite commuter cycling prevalence varying widely between countries, robust evidence of what interventions will increase commuter cycling in low cycling prevalence nations is sparse. Wider environmental interventions that make cycling conducive appear to reach out to hard to define but larger populations. This could mean that environmental interventions, despite their small positive effects, have greater public health significance than individual-based or group-based measures because those interventions encourage a larger number of people to integrate physical activity into their everyday lives. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Muntaner, Adrià; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Palou, Pere
Physical inactivity is a health problem that affects people worldwide and has been identified as the fourth largest risk factor for overall mortality (contributing to 6% of deaths globally). Many researchers have tried to increase physical activity levels through traditional methods without much success. Thus, many researchers are turning to mobile technology as an emerging method for changing health behaviours. This systematic review sought to summarise and update the existing scientific literature on increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions, taking into account the methodological quality of the studies. The articles were identified by searching the PubMed, SCOPUS and SPORTDiscus databases for studies published between January 2003 and December 2013. Studies investigating efforts to increase physical activity through mobile phone or even personal digital assistant interventions were included. The search results allowed the inclusion of 11 studies that gave rise to 12 publications. Six of the articles included in this review reported significant increases in physical activity levels. The number of studies using mobile devices for interventions has increased exponentially in the last few years, but future investigations with better methodological quality are needed to draw stronger conclusions regarding how to increase physical activity through mobile device interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Afshari, Maryam
The consumption of fruit and vegetables in old ages is particularly important, so that the appropriate consumption amount leads to reduction in the risk of chronic diseases. To increase consumption of fruit and vegetables and modify consumption pattern in the elderlies, training programs and appropriate intervention can be designed and implemented. The study was done to assess and compare nutritional intervention-based training methods and education using theories and health education models for the consumption of fruits and vegetables in the elderlies. Electronic search using keywords of Country Review Information Bank (Magiran), Scientific Information Database, Pub Med, Science direct, Science, Biomed central from the beginning of March 2014 to end of April 2015 was performed. Ten interventional studies were assessed in this systematic study. The interventions were divided into two groups of studies, a total of five studies, theories and health education models were the basis of training intervention and the other five studies that include their interventions without the use of theories and health education models was carried out. Of ten interventional studies, three studies as before and after and seven studies as the intervention and control was performed. The results showed that education-based theory and health education models have a greater impact on the consumption of fruit and vegetables in the elderlies. The duration and interventions performing method, environmental factors and educational programs using appropriate models and theories are important on the effectiveness of interventions to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables in the elderliness.
Carey, M. E.; Mandalia, P. K.; Daly, H.
Aim: To develop and test a format of delivery of diabetes self-management education by paired professional and lay educators. Methods: We conducted an equivalence trial with non-randomized participant allocation to a Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 di...... educator role can provide equivalent patient benefits. This could provide a method that increases capacity, maintains quality and is cost-effective, while increasing access to self-management education.......Aim: To develop and test a format of delivery of diabetes self-management education by paired professional and lay educators. Methods: We conducted an equivalence trial with non-randomized participant allocation to a Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed Type 2...... diabetes (DESMOND) course, delivered in the standard format by two trained healthcare professional educators (to the control group) or by one trained lay educator and one professional educator (to the intervention group). A total of 260 people with Type 2 diabetes diagnosed within the previous 12 months...
Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah
Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The registration of clinical trials has been promoted to prevent publication bias and increase research transparency. Despite general agreement about the minimum amount of information needed for trial registration, we lack clear guidance on descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions in trial registries. We aimed to evaluate the quality of registry descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions assessed in ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs of patient education. Methods On 6 May 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the 10 trial registries accessible through the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We included trials evaluating an educational intervention (that is, designed to teach or train patients about their own health and dedicated to participants, their family members or home caregivers. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data related to the description of the experimental intervention, the centers, and the caregivers. Results We selected 268 of 642 potentially eligible studies and appraised a random sample of 150 records. All selected trials were registered in 4 registers, mainly ClinicalTrials.gov (61%. The median [interquartile range] target sample size was 205 [100 to 400] patients. The comparator was mainly usual care (47% or active treatment (47%. A minority of records (17%, 95% CI 11 to 23% reported an overall adequate description of the intervention (that is, description that reported the content, mode of delivery, number, frequency, duration of sessions and overall duration of the intervention. Further, for most reports (59%, important information about the content of the intervention was missing. The description of the mode of delivery of the intervention was reported for 52% of studies, the number of sessions for 74%, the frequency of sessions for 58%, the duration of each session for 45% and the overall duration for 63
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been considerable interest recently in developing and evaluating interventions to increase research use by clinicians. However, most work has focused on medical practices; and nursing is not well represented in existing systematic reviews. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Objective To assess the evidence on interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Methods A systematic review of research use in nursing was conducted using databases (Medline, CINAHL, Healthstar, ERIC, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Psychinfo, grey literature, ancestry searching (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, key informants, and manual searching of journals. Randomized controlled trials and controlled before- and after-studies were included if they included nurses, if the intervention was explicitly aimed at increasing research use or evidence-based practice, and if there was an explicit outcome to research use. Methodological quality was assessed using pre-existing tools. Data on interventions and outcomes were extracted and categorized using a pre-established taxonomy. Results Over 8,000 titles were screened. Three randomized controlled trials and one controlled before- and after-study met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Three investigators evaluated single interventions. The most common intervention was education. Investigators measured research use using a combination of surveys (three studies and compliance with guidelines (one study. Researcher-led educational meetings were ineffective in two studies. Educational meetings led by a local opinion leader (one study and the formation of multidisciplinary committees (one study were both effective at increasing research use. Conclusion Little is known about how to increase research use in
Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Lowe, Hilary; Stackhouse, Joy
There is some evidence that vocabulary intervention is effective for children, although further research is needed to confirm the impact of intervention within contexts of social disadvantage. Very little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to increase adolescent knowledge of cross-curriculum words. To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention programme designed to develop adolescents' knowledge of cross-curriculum words. Participants were 35 adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years who were at risk of educational underachievement with low scores on a range of assessments. Participants received a 10-week intervention programme in small groups, targeting 10 cross-curriculum words (e.g., 'summarize'). This was evaluated using a bespoke outcome measure (the Word Knowledge Profile). The study involved an AABA design, with a repeated baseline, delayed intervention cohort and blind assessment. Intervention included both semantic and phonological information about the target words and involved the adolescents using the words in multiple contexts. Results were promising and participants' knowledge of the targeted words significantly increased following intervention. Progress was demonstrated on the Word Knowledge Profile on the item requiring participants to define the word (for the summer intervention group only). This increase in depth of knowledge was seen on taught words but not on matched non-taught words. Cross-curriculum words are not consistently understood by adolescents at risk of low educational attainment within a low socio-economic context. A 10-week intervention programme resulted in some increases to the depth of knowledge of targeted cross-curriculum words. © 2017 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Ickes, Melinda J; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron
With the rapid increase in obesity rates among youth, efforts to increase physical activity (PA) have become a priority. School-based strategies for PA promotion must be cost-effective, unobtrusive, and linked to improved academic performance. Efforts to maximize recess PA are advocated because of both health and academic benefits. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recess interventions aimed to improve PA among youth, and make recommendations to develop related best practices. An extensive literature search was conducted to include all primary research articles evaluating any recess intervention with PA as an outcome. The included 13 interventions represented both settings within the U.S and internationally, among preschools and elementary/primary schools. A variety of strategies were used within the design and implementation of each of the interventions including: added equipment/materials, markings, zones, teacher involvement, active video games, activity of the week, and activity cards. Of the included studies, 95% demonstrated positive outcomes as a result of the recess intervention. A number of simple, low-cost strategies can be implemented to maximize the amount of recess time students are allotted. Long-term follow-up studies are warranted for each of the recess strategies identified to be effective.
Oct 16, 2017 ... aInstitute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Salaya, ... investigated the effectiveness of an intervention to increase AIDS ... with regular sexual partners among 699 young factory workers (aged 18–24 ...... tute of population and social research, Mahidol University, Publication no 338.
A multifaceted hospital-wide intervention increases hand hygiene compliance. B Patel, H Engelbrecht, H McDonald, V Morris, W Smythe. Abstract. Background. Hand hygiene is an important and basic practice that should be used by all healthcare staff to protect both themselves and their patients against infection.
Bigler, Amber M.; Hanegan, Nikki L.
Implementing biotechnology education through hands-on teaching methods should be considered by secondary biology teachers. This study is an experimental research design to examine increased student content knowledge in biotechnology after a hands-on biotechnology intervention. The teachers from both school groups participated in, Project Crawfish,…
Wang Xiuqing; Lv Shukun; Ma Shuxian; Shi Liang
By introducing patient education into the nursing care of interventional therapy, the medical workers can effectively help and encourage the patients to actively participate in and cooperate with the interventional therapy and related nursing care service. Besides, the relevant education and guidance can greatly help the patients to promote functional restoration and psychological recovery. This article systematically describes the approaches, the principles, the choice of the right moment for health education and the education contents in clinical interventional work. (authors)
Bonnie J. F. MEYER
Full Text Available In this review of the literature we examine empirical studies designed to teach the structure strategy to increase reading comprehension of expository texts. First, we review the research that has served as a foundation for many of the studies examining the effects of text structure instruction. Text structures generally can be grouped into six categories: comparison, problem-and solution, causation, sequence, collection, and description. Next, we provide a historical look at research of structure strategyinterventions. Strategy interventions employ modeling, practice, and feedback to teach students how to use text structure strategically and eventually automatically. Finally, we review recent text structure interventions for elementary school students. We present similarities and differences among these studies and applications for instruction. Our review of intervention research suggests that direct instruction, modeling, scaffolding, elaborated feedback, and adaptation of instruction to student performance are keys in teaching students to strategically use knowledge about text structure.
Ferrer, Rebecca A; Fisher, Jeffrey D; Buck, Ross; Amico, K Rivet
Emotions are key predictors of sexual risk behavior but have been largely ignored in theory-based intervention development. The present study aims to evaluate whether the addition of an emotional education intervention component to a traditional social-cognitive safer sex intervention increases intervention efficacy, compared with both a social-cognitive only intervention and a no intervention control condition. Young adults were randomized in small groups to receive the social-cognitive-emotional (SCE) intervention, the social-cognitive (SC) intervention, or standard of care. Analyses of data from 176 participants indicated that intervention arms reported similar increased condom use compared with the no intervention control arm at 3 months' postintervention (β = .06, p = .41, d = 0.08). However, at 6 months' postintervention, individuals in the SCE intervention arm reported increased condom use compared with both the SC intervention (β = .27, p = .04, d = 0.38) and control arms (β = .37, p emotional education component may facilitate sustained behavior change. An emotional education intervention module has the potential to facilitate sustained behavior change at delayed follow-up. Additional research is necessary to replicate findings in a larger sample and to determine the mediators of emotional education intervention efficacy.
Parmier, Matthieu; Gourieux, Bénédicte; Krummel, Thierry; Bazin-Kara, Dorothée; Dory, Anne; Hannedouche, Thierry
The treatment of end-stage renal disease requires a significant number of drug treatments. At patient level, daily management is somewhat difficult: Number of prescribed pills, medication side effects, treatment of asymptomatic diseases… The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of guidance tailored to each patient receiving hemodialysis, performed by the pharmacist (educational interventions). Adult haemodialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia despite phosphate binders were eligible for study entry. The study was controlled with a retrospective group. The primary end point was a change in serum phosphate levels. The secondary end points were therapy adherence, knowledge regarding phosphate management and patient satisfaction with the programme. Sixteen patients in each group participated in the study. The mean serum phosphate level at endpoint was decreased by 0.25 mmol/L in the intervention group (0.41 mmol/L for patients with expectancy for this reduction) and by 0.11 mmol/L in the control group. Five patients normalized their serum phosphate level in the intervention group against three patients in the control group. The mean score of adherence decreased from 1.75 to 1.50. The main factors affecting adherence were forgetfulness or carelessness in taking medications and number of daily doses. This study showed the feasibility of an improvement in serum phosphate level and adherence driven by therapeutic education, though effect was highly amplified by the motivation induced by pharmaceutical guidance. Patients emphasize the importance of the involvement of pharmacist in their care. Copyright Â© 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Maria L. Sheakley
Full Text Available Background: The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods: This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (n l=515 and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066. Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4 that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%. USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results: Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003. Discussion: Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum.
Phan, Hang Thi; Tran, Hang Thi Thuy; Tran, Hanh Thi My; Dinh, Anh Pham Phuong; Ngo, Ha Thanh; Theorell-Haglow, Jenny; Gordon, Christopher J
Hand hygiene compliance is the basis of infection control programs. In developing countries models to improve hand hygiene compliance to reduce healthcare acquired infections are required. The aim of this study was to determine hand hygiene compliance following an educational program in an obstetric and gynecological hospital in Vietnam. Health care workers from neonatal intensive care, delivery suite and a surgical ward from Hung Vuong Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam undertook a 4-h educational program targeting hand hygiene. Compliance was monitored monthly for six months following the intervention. Hand hygiene knowledge was assessed at baseline and after six months of the study. There were 7124 opportunities over 370 hand hygiene recording sessions with 1531 opportunities at baseline and 1620 at 6 months following the intervention. Hand hygiene compliance increased significantly from baseline across all sites (43.6% [95% Confidence interval CI: 41.1-46.1] to 63% [95% CI: 60.6-65.3]; p hygiene compliance increased significantly after intervention (p hygiene compliance for an extended period of time. Hand hygiene knowledge increased during the intervention. This hand hygiene model could be used in developing countries were resources are limited.
Walsh, Rachael Mae
While access to education may be increasing, equity still eludes the U.S. education system, specifically for low socioeconomic status students. Using both educational and deviance theoretical frames, this study examines the effectiveness of adolescent intervention programs with respect to educational attainment and deviant behaviors. The Education…
Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Harris, Muriel J; Newton, Samuel
OBJECTIVES: Hygiene education appears to be the commonest school-based intervention for preventing infectious diseases, especially in the developing world. Nevertheless, there remains a gap in literature regarding a school-specific theory-based framework for designing a hand hygiene educational...... (normative beliefs and motivation to comply). CONCLUSIONS: A framework underpinned by formalized psychosocial theories has relevance and could enhance the design of hand hygiene educational interventions, especially in schools....... of school-based hand hygiene educational interventions is summarized narratively. RESULTS: School-based hand hygiene educational interventions seeking to positively influence behavioural outcomes could consider enhancing psychosocial variables including behavioural capacity, attitudes and subjective norms...
Dignan, Mark; Shelton, Brent; Slone, Stacey A; Tolle, Cheri; Mohammad, Sohail; Schoenberg, Nancy; Pearce, Kevin; Van Meter, Emily; Ely, Gretchen
This report describes findings from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in primary care practices in Appalachian Kentucky. Sixty-six primary care practices were randomized to early or delayed intervention groups. The intervention was provided at practices using academic detailing, a method of education where providers receive information on a specific topic through personal contact. Data were collected in cross-sectional surveys of medical records at baseline and six months post-intervention. A total of 3844 medical records were reviewed at baseline and 3751 at the six-month follow-up. At baselines, colonoscopy was recommended more frequently (43.4%) than any other screening modality, followed by fecal occult blood testing (18.0%), flexible sigmoidoscopy (0.4%), and double-contrast barium enema (0.3%). Rates of documented screening results were higher for all practices at the six-month follow-up for colonoscopy (31.8% vs 29.6%) and fecal occult blood testing (12.2% vs 11.2%). For early intervention practices that recommended screening, colonoscopy rates increased by 15.7% at six months compared to an increase of 2.4% in the delayed intervention practices (p=.01). Using academic detailing to reach rural primary care providers with a CRC screening intervention was associated with an increase in colonoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schmidt, Mirko; Valkanover, Stefan; Roebers, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim
Most physical education intervention studies on the positive effect of sports on self-concept development have attempted to "increase" schoolchildren's self-concept without taking the "veridicality" of the self-concept into account. The present study investigated whether a 10-week intervention in physical education would lead…
Payne, Collin R.; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R.; Kelly, Michael P.
Objectives We assessed the efficacy of an easy-to-implement shopper marketing nutrition intervention in a pilot and two additional studies to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability or increasing shopper budgets. Methods We created grocery cart placards that detailed the number of produce items purchased (i.e., descriptive norm) at particular stores (i.e., provincial norm). The effect of these placards on produce spending was assessed across 971,706 individual person grocery store transactions aggregated by day. The pilot study designated a baseline period (in both control and intervention store) followed by installation of grocery cart placards (in the intervention store) for two weeks. The pilot study was conducted in Texas in 2012. In two additional stores, we designated baseline periods followed by 28 days of the same grocery cart placard intervention as in the pilot. Additional interventions were conducted in New Mexico in 2013. Results The pilot study resulted in a significant difference between average produce spending per day per person across treatment periods (i.e., intervention versus same time period in control) (16%) and the difference between average produce spending per day per person across stores in the control periods (4%); Furthermore, the same intervention in two additional stores resulted in significant produce spending increases of 12.4% and 7.5% per day per person respectively. In all stores, total spending did not change. Conclusions Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards) may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets. PMID:26844084
Methods: A quasi-experimental research design using pre-test and post-test ... Intervention: One hundred and twenty women were exposed to ten weeks health education intervention; sixty (n=60) experimental group exposed to postnatal care ...
Ni Caifang; Ouyang Yong
Interventional radiology now is facing many challenges. The education quality has declined, and the high-level professional talents have been lost. This paper aims to analyze the present situation of the postgraduate education and the relevant issues in the field of interventional radiology, and to make a preliminary exploration into how we can train the postgraduates to become qualified interventional radiologists with high comprehensive quality in order to meet the urgent requirements demanded by the development of interventional radiology. (authors)
Polinski, Jennifer M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Maclure, Malcolm; Marshall, Blair; Ramsden, Samuel; Dormuth, Colin
Tablet splitting, in which a higher-dose tablet is split to get 2 doses, reduces patients' drug costs. Statins can be split safely. General practitioners (GPs) may not direct their patients to split statins because of safety concerns or unawareness of costs. Medical chart inserts provide cost-effective education to physicians. The aim of this study was to assess whether providing GPs with statin-splitting chart inserts would increase splitting rates, and to identify predictors of splitting. In 2005 and 2006, we faxed a statin chart insert to British Columbia GPs with a request for a telephone interview. Consenting GPs were mailed 3 statin chart inserts and interviewed by phone (the intervention). In an interrupted time series, we compared monthly rates of statin-splitting prescriptions among intervention and nonintervention GPs before, during, and after the intervention. In multivariate logistic regressions accounting for patient clustering, predictors of splitting included physician and patient demographics and the specific statin prescribed. Of 5051 GPs reached, 282 (6%) agreed to the intervention. Before the intervention, GPs' splitting rate was 2.6%; after intervention, GPs' splitting rate was 7.5%. The rate for the nonintervention GPs was 4.4%. Intervention GPs were 1.68 (95% CI, 1.12-2.53) times more likely to prescribe splitting after the intervention than were nonintervention GPs. Other predictors were a patient's female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.18-1.34), lower patient income (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.18-1.34), and a lack of drug insurance (OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.69-2.04). An inexpensive intervention was effective in producing a sustained increase in GPs' splitting rate during 22 months of observed follow-up. Expanding statin-splitting education to all GPs might reduce prescription costs for many patients and payors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sandra Quiroz A.
Full Text Available In education the figure of Social Services, is in a process of maturation-recognized, especially in terms of functions and professional work. Currently in the school social worker is carrying out his work in interdisciplinary teams of teachers, psychologists and other related educational field professionals, the development of actions, often passively and quietly. In search of the definitions given by the FITS (International Federation of Social Workers said that through educational institutions can identify problems at individual, household and community level, considering this educational unit as a source of wealth for intervention and create opportunities for promotion and prevention social problems. The school environment is an area that can work in collaboration with the directors and management team to articulate the lines of action that are necessary to deal with any problems. That may arise in this area should guide the social worker, prevent and rehabilitate as specificity of their profession and recognize these bio-psycho-social changes that develop students and students who make up this educational unit, as during this educational process to develop their personality, learning social skills related to work in our society and interact with their environment. (Levels micro-meso-macro. It is for this and needs that arise in our youth and students is that we understand and incorporate processes involving atingentes for learning development issues and includes areas related to sex education, sexuality and identity to support families in this discovery.In education the figure of Social Services, is in a process of maturation-recognized, especially in terms of functions and professional work. Currently in the school social worker is carrying out his work in interdisciplinary teams of teachers, psychologists and other related educational field professionals, the development of actions, often passively andquietly. In search of the
Roger Edmund Thomas MD, PhD, CCFP, MRCGP
Full Text Available The purpose is to systematically review randomised controlled trials (RCTs to change family physicians’ laboratory test-ordering. We searched 15 electronic databases (no language/date limitations. We identified 29 RCTs (4,111 physicians, 175,563 patients. Six studies specifically focused on reducing unnecessary tests, 23 on increasing screening tests. Using Cochrane methodology 48.5% of studies were low risk-of-bias for randomisation, 7% concealment of randomisation, 17% blinding of participants/personnel, 21% blinding outcome assessors, 27.5% attrition, 93% selective reporting. Only six studies were low risk for both randomisation and attrition. Twelve studies performed a power computation, three an intention-to-treat analysis and 13 statistically controlled clustering. Unweighted averages were computed to compare intervention/control groups for tests assessed by >5 studies. The results were that fourteen studies assessed lipids (average 10% more tests than control, 14 diabetes (average 8% > control, 5 cervical smears, 2 INR, one each thyroid, fecal occult-blood, cotinine, throat-swabs, testing after prescribing, and urine-cultures. Six studies aimed to decrease test groups (average decrease 18%, and two to increase test groups. Intervention strategies: one study used education (no change: two feedback (one 5% increase, one 27% desired decrease; eight education + feedback (average increase in desired direction >control 4.9%, ten system change (average increase 14.9%, one system change + feedback (increases 5-44%, three education + system change (average increase 6%, three education + system change + feedback (average 7.7% increase, one delayed testing. The conclusions are that only six RCTs were assessed at low risk of bias from both randomisation and attrition. Nevertheless, despite methodological shortcomings studies that found large changes (e.g. >20% probably obtained real change.
Stiller-Ostrowski, Jennifer L; Gould, Daniel R; Covassin, Tracey
"Psychosocial Intervention and Referral" is 1 of the 12 content areas in athletic training education programs, but knowledge gained and skill usage after an educational intervention in this area have never been evaluated. To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention in increasing psychology-of-injury knowledge and skill usage in athletic training students (ATSs). Observational study. An accredited athletic training education program at a large Midwestern university. Participants included 26 ATSs divided into 2 groups: intervention group (4 men, 7 women; age = 21.4 +/- 0.67 years, grade point average = 3.37) and control group (7 men, 8 women; age = 21.5 +/- 3.8 years, grade point average = 3.27). All participants completed the Applied Sport Psychology for Athletic Trainers educational intervention. Psychology-of-injury knowledge tests and skill usage surveys were administered to all participants at the following intervals: baseline, intervention week 3, and intervention week 6. Retention tests were administered to intervention-group participants at 7 and 14 weeks after intervention. Analysis techniques included mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and repeated-measures ANOVA. The Applied Sport Psychology for Athletic Trainers educational intervention effectively increased psychology-of-injury knowledge (29-point increase from baseline to intervention week 6; F(2,23) = 29.358, P evaluating an educational intervention designed to improve ATSs' knowledge and skill usage revealed that the intervention was effective. Although both knowledge and skill usage scores decreased by the end of the retention period, the scores were still higher than baseline scores, indicating that the intervention was effective.
Lu Chuan; Liu Linxiang; Cheng Yongde
For recent years, although interventional radiology in China has achieved rapid development, it is still facing some rigorous challenges, such as the lack of personnel in interventional field and the flowing-away of certain patients who are definitely suitable for interventional therapy. This paper aims to discuss the reform of interventional radiology education for the undergraduates, postgraduates and clinical practitioners in the medical colleges in order to seek effective solutions to these issues the interventional radiology has confronted with. (authors)
Freilich, M.; Aluthge, D.; Bryant, R. M.; Knox, B.; McAdams, J.; Plummer, A.; Schlottman, N.; Stanley, Z.; Suglia, E.; Watson-Daniels, J.
Recognizing that racial, ethnic, and gender underrepresentation in science classrooms persists despite intervention programs and institutional commitments to diversity, a group of undergraduates from a variety of backgrounds and academic disciplines came together for a group independent study to (a) study the theoretical foundations of the current practice of science and of programs meant to increase diversity, (b) utilize the experiences of course participants and our peers to better understand the drivers of underrepresentation, and (c) design and implement interventions at Brown University. We will present on individual and small group projects designed by course members in collaboration with faculty. The projects emerged from an exploration of literature in history, philosophy, and sociology of science, as well as an examination of anthropological and psychological studies. We also evaluated the effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up approaches that have already been attempted in developing our projects. They focus on the specific problems faced by underrepresented minorities, women, LGBTQ+ people, and well-represented minorities. We will share experiences of faculty-student collaboration and engaged scholarship focused on representation in science and discuss student-designed interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As most genital chlamydia infections are asymptomatic, screening is the main way to detect and cases for treatment. We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the efficacy of interventions for increasing the uptake of chlamydia screening in primary care. Methods We reviewed studies which compared chlamydia screening in the presence and the absence of an intervention. The primary endpoints were screening rate or total tests. Results We identified 16 intervention strategies; 11 were randomised controlled trials and five observational studies, 10 targeted females only, five both males and females, and one males only. Of the 15 interventions among females, six were associated with significant increases in screening rates at the 0.05 level including a multifaceted quality improvement program that involved provision of a urine jar to patients at registration (44% in intervention clinics vs. 16% in the control clinic; linking screening to routine Pap smears (6.9% vs. 4.5%, computer alerts for doctors (12.2% vs. 10.6%; education workshops for clinic staff; internet-based continuing medical education (15.5% vs. 12.4%; and free sexual health consultations (16.8% vs. 13.2%. Of the six interventions targeting males, two found significant increases including the multifaceted quality improvement program in which urine jars were provided to patients at registration (45% vs. 15%; and the offering by doctors of a test to all presenting young male clients, prior to consultation (29 vs. 4%. Conclusions Interventions that promoted the universal offer of a chlamydia test in young people had the greatest impact on increasing screening in primary care.
Lu, Mingshan; Moritz, Sabina; Lorenzetti, Diane; Sykes, Lindsay; Straus, Sharon; Quan, Hude
The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear). 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective in increasing screening uptake. Intervention
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. Methods This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Results The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear. 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective
Teng, Ellen J; Friedman, Lois C
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a community intervention in increasing awareness of mental health issues and available resources among elderly Chinese Americans. Twenty-seven members of a community church received a 1-h didactic presentation, in English and Mandarin, and completed surveys regarding their help-seeking preferences before and after the intervention. Results were analyzed using a series of Wilcoxon matched-pair signed rank tests and comparing pre- and post-test scores. Findings indicated an increase (pmental health professional for psychiatric symptoms at post-test. A significant increase also was found in preference for consulting a physician for physical symptoms. The pilot educational intervention increased awareness of mental health and treatment issues and the role of mental health professionals, lending support to evaluate the intervention on a larger scale. Greater awareness of mental health among Chinese Americans can be promoted via education forums provided through faith-based organizations. Stigma of mental illness leads many Chinese individuals to seek help for psychiatric problems from primary care physicians. Integrating mental health practitioners in primary care settings may help decrease stigma and encourage appropriate help-seeking behavior.
Griffiths, Cara A.; Sagar, Ram; Geng, Yiqun; Primavesi, Lucia F.; Patel, Mitul K.; Passarelli, Melissa K.; Gilmore, Ian S.; Steven, Rory T.; Bunch, Josephine; Paul, Matthew J.; Davis, Benjamin G.
The pressing global issue of food insecurity due to population growth, diminishing land and variable climate can only be addressed in agriculture by improving both maximum crop yield potential and resilience. Genetic modification is one potential solution, but has yet to achieve worldwide acceptance, particularly for crops such as wheat. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), a central sugar signal in plants, regulates sucrose use and allocation, underpinning crop growth and development. Here we show that application of a chemical intervention strategy directly modulates T6P levels in planta. Plant-permeable analogues of T6P were designed and constructed based on a ‘signalling-precursor’ concept for permeability, ready uptake and sunlight-triggered release of T6P in planta. We show that chemical intervention in a potent sugar signal increases grain yield, whereas application to vegetative tissue improves recovery and resurrection from drought. This technology offers a means to combine increases in yield with crop stress resilience. Given the generality of the T6P pathway in plants and other small-molecule signals in biology, these studies suggest that suitable synthetic exogenous small-molecule signal precursors can be used to directly enhance plant performance and perhaps other organism function.
... can be significantly improved in rural areas, if the caregivers are adequately empowered through appropriate health education intervention though change in attitude and belief may require a longer and persistent effort. Keywords: Health education intervention, knowledge, malaria, nursing mothers, practice, rural Nigeria
Cundiff, JL; Zawadzki, MJ; Danube, CL; Shields, SA
© 2014 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. The harms of subtle sexism tend to be minimized despite negative cumulative effects, thus people may be less motivated to address subtle sexism. We tested the effectiveness of an experiential learning intervention, WAGES-Academic (Workshop Activity for Gender Equity Simulation-Academic), to educate about the harms of subtle sexism in the academic workplace. Across two studies, WAGES increased the recognition of everyday sexism a...
Palla Shana L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to change practice patterns among health care professionals have had mixed success. We tested the effectiveness of a practice centered intervention to increase screening for domestic violence in primary care practices. Methods A multifaceted intervention was conducted among primary care practice in North Carolina. All practices designated two individuals to serve as domestic violence resources persons, underwent initial training on screening for domestic violence, and participated in 3 lunch and learn sessions. Within this framework, practices selected the screening instrument, patient educational material, and content best suited for their environment. Effectiveness was evaluated using a pre/post cross-sectional telephone survey of a random selection of female patients from each practice. Results Seventeen practices were recruited and fifteen completed the study. Baseline screening for domestic violence was 16% with a range of 2% to 49%. An absolute increase in screening of 10% was achieved (range of increase 0 to 22%. After controlling for clustering by practice and other patient characteristics, female patients were 79% more likely to have been screened after the intervention (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.43–2.23. Conclusion An intervention that allowed practices to tailor certain aspects to fit their needs increased screening for domestic violence. Further studies testing this technique using other outcomes are needed.
Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney
Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066
Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney
Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.
Aneci Sobral Rocha
Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether incentives for practicing regular physical activities in fact help raising the frequency of exercising. Methods: Male and female subjects undergoing two to three assessments in the Check-Up Unit of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE were evaluated by noting any increase in levels of physical activity, improvements in mean metabolic unit numbers, and the sensitization index. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied to assess the sample. Results: There were 1,879 subjects – 1,559 (83% males and 320 (17% females – aged 20 to 76 years (mean age = 45.8 years, standard deviation ± 8.8 who underwent a Continued Health Review at the Center for Preventive Medicine of the HIAE, Check-Up Unit, Jardins. Initially, over half of the sample was insufficiently active (sedentary or poorly active; there were more women than men in this group. After the health review, most subjects increased their level of physical activity; this increase was higher among women. Males encouraged three times to exercising showed better results (increased level of physical activity as compared to males encouraged twice for exercising. The best results in females were found in the group that went through two evaluations. This result is due to the fact that the sample of females comprising the group that received incentives on three occasions was small. This was also the only group that showed no increase in mean metabolic units. The sensitization index assessment in the overall sample was very satisfactory, as the expected results were achieved. Conclusions: These results show that motivational interventions are effective for raising the level of physical activity. We concluded that to encourage the practice of regular physical activity through information programs about its health benefits is very important.
Lazowski, Rory A.; Hulleman, Chris S.
This meta-analysis provides an extensive and organized summary of intervention studies in education that are grounded in motivation theory. We identified 74 published and unpublished papers that experimentally manipulated an independent variable and measured an authentic educational outcome within an ecologically valid educational context. Our…
Brown, Katie N; Wengreen, Heidi J; Vitale, Tamara S; Anderson, Janet B
Assess the effectiveness of the integration of vegetable demonstration videos and tasting experiences into a college nutrition course to influence students' readiness to change vegetable intake, self-efficacy for vegetable preparation, and usual vegetable intake. Quasiexperimental, preintervention-postintervention comparisons. College nutrition course. Of the 376 students enrolled in the course, 186 completed the online assessments (145 female, 41 male; mean age, 20 years). Participants viewed online vegetable preparation videos and participated in vegetable tasting experiences that featured four target vegetables, one vegetable each month for 4 months. Preintervention and postintervention online surveys determined usual vegetable intake, readiness to change vegetable consumption, and self-efficacy of vegetable preparation. Chi-square distribution and paired sample t-tests were used to examine differences preintervention and postintervention. Stage of readiness to change vegetable intake shifted from contemplation toward preparation (p Online vegetable demonstration videos may be an effective and cost-efficient intervention for increasing self-efficacy of vegetable preparation and readiness to increase vegetable consumption among college students. More research is needed to determine long-term effects on vegetable consumption.
Full Text Available Objective: To promote awareness of healthy lifestyles, to help decrease the risk factors that cause cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, through Health Education (HE. Material and Methods: Between November and December 2014 in the prison of Soria, HE intervention in cardiovascular diseases was performed. Participation was offered to 160 inmates at the Prison. The intervention consisted of individual interviews with anthropometric assessment and review of medical records and three group sessions with theoretical and practical content of these diseases, as well as dietary recommendations, Mediterranean diet and exercise. Knowledge gained from surveys conducted for that purpose was evaluated. Results: A total of 33 (21% of 160. Average age 38.2 (35.2 to 41.3. Prevalence: Normal weight (BMI 18 to 24.9 18 (54.5%, overweight BMI (25.0 to 29.9 11 (33.3%, obesity (IBMI from 30 4 (12. 1%. Cardiovascular risk (CVR as ICC (waist hip ratio 10 (30% high risk, REGICOR 4 (12.1% moderate risk. Relative risk of comorbidity in 2 (6.0% had a slightly increased risk, 4 (12.1% had increased risk. Conclusions: HE interventions are necessary and effective in modifying lifestyles. The calculation of CVT should serve to implement preventive measures to reduce the factors of cardiovascular risk.
Ndrepepa, Gjin; Groha, Philipp; Lahmann, Anna L; Lohaus, Raphaela; Cassese, Salvatore; Schulz-Schüpke, Stefanie; Kufner, Sebastian; Mayer, Katharina; Bernlochner, Isabell; Byrne, Robert A; Fusaro, Massimiliano; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Schunkert, Heribert; Kastrati, Adnan
We aimed to assess the association between arterial hypertension and bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of arterial hypertension on bleeding risk of patients with coronary artery disease undergoing PCI is unknown. This study included 14,180 patients who underwent PCI. Bleeding was defined using the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria. Arterial hypertension was defined as treatment with antihypertensive drugs or a systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure value >90 mm Hg documented on at least 2 occasions. The primary outcome was bleeding rate within 30 days of PCI. Overall, 11,066 patients (78.0%) had arterial hypertension. Bleeding events occurred in 1,232 patients with arterial hypertension and 278 patients without arterial hypertension (11.1% vs 8.9%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.46, P arterial hypertension and 175 patients without arterial hypertension (6.6% vs 5.6%: OR = 1.19 [1.01-1.41], P = 0.049). Non-access-site bleeding occurred in 502 patients with and 103 patients without arterial hypertension (4.5% vs 3.3%; OR = 1.39 [1.12-1.72], P = 0.003). After adjustment, arterial hypertension was significantly associated with any bleeding (adjusted OR = 1.41 [1.19-1.67], P arterial hypertension increased the risk of non-access-site bleeding (P = 0.002), whereas systolic blood pressure at the time of PCI increased the risk of access site bleeding (P = 0.018). Arterial hypertension is associated with increased risk of bleeding during PCI procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hodder, Rebecca K; O'Brien, Kate M; Stacey, Fiona G; Wyse, Rebecca J; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Tzelepis, Flora; James, Erica L; Bartlem, Kate M; Nathan, Nicole K; Sutherland, Rachel; Robson, Emma; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke
Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Interventions to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, such as those focused on specific child-feeding strategies and parent nutrition education interventions in early childhood may therefore be an effective strategy in reducing this disease burden. To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and two clinical trials registries to identify eligible trials on 25 January 2018. We searched Proquest Dissertations and Theses in November 2017. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and handsearched three international nutrition journals. We contacted authors of included studies to identify further potentially relevant trials. We included randomised controlled trials, including cluster-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials, of any intervention primarily targeting consumption of fruit, vegetables or both among children aged five years and under, and incorporating a dietary or biochemical assessment of fruit or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of identified papers; a third review author resolved disagreements. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias of included studies; a third review author resolved disagreements. Due to unexplained heterogeneity, we used random-effects models in meta-analyses for the primary review outcomes where we identified sufficient trials. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs) to account for the heterogeneity of fruit and vegetable consumption measures. We conducted assessments of risks of bias and evaluated the quality of evidence (GRADE approach) using Cochrane procedures
Briesch, Amy M.; Daniels, Brian
A comprehensive self-management intervention was utilized to increase the on-task behavior of three African American students within an urban middle-school setting. The intervention was designed to necessitate minimal management on the part of the general education classroom teacher by utilizing an electronic prompting device, as well as a…
Bodurtha, Joann N; McClish, Donna; Gyure, Maria; Corona, Rosalie; Krist, Alexander H; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Maibauer, Alisa M; Borzelleca, Joseph; Bowen, Deborah J; Quillin, John M
Knowing family history is important for understanding cancer risk, yet communication within families is suboptimal. Providing strategies to enhance communication may be useful. Four hundred ninety women were recruited from urban, safety-net, hospital-based primary care women's health clinics. Participants were randomized to receive the KinFact intervention or the control handout on lowering risks for breast/colon cancer and screening recommendations. Cancer family history was reviewed with all participants. The 20-minute KinFact intervention, based in communication and behavior theory, included reviewing individualized breast/colon cancer risks and an interactive presentation about cancer and communication. Study outcomes included whether participants reported collecting family history, shared cancer risk information with relatives, and the frequency of communication with relatives. Data were collected at baseline, 1, 6, and 14 months. Overall, intervention participants were significantly more likely to gather family cancer information at follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01, 3.71) and to share familial cancer information with relatives (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.48). Communication frequency (1=not at all; 4=a lot) was significantly increased at follow-up (1.67 vs. 1.54). Differences were not modified by age, race, education, or family history. However, effects were modified by pregnancy status and genetic literacy. Intervention effects for information gathering and frequency were observed for nonpregnant women but not for pregnant women. Additionally, intervention effects were observed for information gathering in women with high genetic literacy, but not in women with low genetic literacy. The KinFact intervention successfully promoted family communication about cancer risk. Educating women to enhance their communication skills surrounding family history may allow them to partner more effectively with their families and ultimately
Hirshman, Brian R; Birukou, Alaiksandr; Martin, Michael K; Bigrigg, Michael W; Carley, Kathleen M
..., and a variety of other factors. The social simulation tool Construct was used to evaluate the effectiveness of several educational interventions on one stylized and four real cities to examine the types of behavior that could be...
Hirshman, Brian R; Martin, Michael; Bigrigg, Michael W; Carley, Kathleen M
.... It specifies the experimental design, describes parameters used, presents a series of results which explore the effect of literacy and information access on societal sub-populations, and identifies educational interventions which may and may not be effective.
Reinaerts, E.; De Nooijer, J.; De Vries, N. K.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how the intervention mapping (IM) protocol could be applied to the development of two school-based interventions. It provides an extensive description of the development, implementation and evaluation of two interventions which aimed to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among primary…
Biddle, Stuart J H; Braithwaite, Rock; Pearson, Natalie
Pre-adolescent girls are an important target population for physical activity behaviour change as it may enhance tracking into the crucial period of adolescence. The quantification of intervention effectiveness for this age group of girls has not been previously reported. Studies published in English up to and including August 2013 were located from computerised (MedLine, PsychInfo, Science Direct, Web of Science, EPPI centre databases, and Cochrane Library database) and manual searches. Intervention studies aimed at promoting physical activity, which included pre-adolescent girls aged 5-11 years, and a non-physical activity control/comparison group were included. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted. The average treatment effect for pre-adolescent girls involved in physical activity interventions was significant but small (g=0.314, p<.001). Moderator analyses showed larger effects for interventions that catered for girls only and used educational and multicomponent strategies. Interventions to increase physical activity in pre-adolescent girls show small but significant effects, suggesting that behaviour change may be challenging, but results suggest some strategies that could be successful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gentry, Sarah; L'Estrade Ehrstrom, Beatrice; Gauthier, Andrea; Alvarez, Julian; Wortley, David; van Rijswijk, Jurriaan; Car, Josip; Lilienthal, Anneliese; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Nikolaou, Charoula K.; Zary, Nabil
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the effectiveness of Serious Gaming and Gamification interventions for delivering pre- and post-registration health professional education compared with traditional learning, other types of eLearning, or other Serious Gaming and Gamification interventions. We will primarily assess the impact of these interventions on students' knowledge, skills, professional attitudes and satisfaction.
Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa
Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…
Highfield, Linda; Hartman, Marieke A.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Rodriguez, Serena A.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Bartholomew, L. Kay
This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI). We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt) to increase an intervention's fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI's essential elements (those re...
Research has demonstrated that siblings of chronically ill children can experience significant emotional and behavior changes; however, few studies have looked at the specific impact of pediatric hospitalization on the nonhospitalized child. Studies also indicate that children who receive age-appropriate information are better equipped to handle the stress and anxiety often associated with hospitalization.This study explored whether siblings of hospitalized children who received educational interventions had lower anxiety levels compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. A pretest-posttest experimental design was used with 50 subjects, ages 6-17 years, recruited from a children's hospital within a university medical center. Subjects were matched according to age, sex, and race, with 25 siblings each in the experimental and control groups. Siblings assigned to the experimental group received interventions from a standardized educational intervention protocol developed by the researcher. Interventions focused on teaching the sibling about hospitalization, illness or injury, and treatment for the patient, based on cognitive stages of development. All interventions were conducted by child life specialists on staff at the hospital with extensive training and experience in preparation and procedural teaching. Results shows that siblings who received educational interventions had significantly lower anxiety levels after interventions, compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. These findings have significant impact on children's health care and supporting family needs when a child is hospitalized.
Patel, B; Engelbrecht, H; McDonald, H; Morris, V; Smythe, W
Hand hygiene is an important and basic practice that should be used by all healthcare staff to protect both themselves and their patients against infection. Unfortunately hand hygiene compliance remains poor. To show an improvement in hand hygiene compliance using a multifaceted approach. This was a quasiexperimental pre-post intervention study design with a number of standardised interventions to promote hand hygiene. The World Health Organization hand hygiene multimodal (five-step) intervention approach was used. The study ran from June 2015 to August 2015 in 11 selected wards of a 975-bed tertiary and quaternary care public hospital (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa). The outcome was to assess improvement in hand hygiene compliance monthly over the 3 months, compared with non-intervention wards and compared with the wards' own performance measured in 2014. The study included both descriptive and analytical components. Post intervention, hand hygiene compliance showed a statistically significant improvement for before patient contact from 34% in 2014 to 76% in 2015 (p<0.05) and for after patient contact from 47% in 2014 to 82% in 2015 (p<0.05). The intervention improved hand hygiene compliance and can easily be replicated in other wards, resulting in sustaining a culture of hand hygiene improvement and behavioural change throughout the hospital.
Ludden, Geke D S; van Rompay, Thomas J L; Kelders, Saskia M; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C
Nowadays, technology is increasingly used to increase people's well-being. For example, many mobile and Web-based apps have been developed that can support people to become mentally fit or to manage their daily diet. However, analyses of current Web-based interventions show that many systems are only used by a specific group of users (eg, women, highly educated), and that even they often do not persist and drop out as the intervention unfolds. In this paper, we assess the impact of design features of Web-based interventions on reach and adherence and conclude that the power that design can have has not been used to its full potential. We propose looking at design research as a source of inspiration for new (to the field) design approaches. The paper goes on to specify and discuss three of these approaches: personalization, ambient information, and use of metaphors. Central to our viewpoint is the role of positive affect triggered by well-designed persuasive features to boost adherence and well-being. Finally, we discuss the future of persuasive eHealth interventions and suggest avenues for follow-up research.
Raymond, Michelle; Christensen, Krista Y; Thompson, Brooke; Anderson, Henry
Describe mercury exposures among women of childbearing age before and after an educational intervention. Women age 18 to 45 were recruited to participate in an educational intervention concerning fish consumption. Fish consumption habits and total mercury concentration in hair were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Regression models examined associations between mercury, fish consumption, and demographics. Overall, 234 women completed the study. On average, mercury concentrations increased by 0.01 ppm (parts per million) following the intervention, despite declines in fish consumption; however, women in the 90th percentile for mercury at baseline decreased concentrations significantly while maintaining high rates of fish consumption. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with fish consumption and certain demographic characteristics. The intervention reached individuals most at-risk. Healthcare providers should discuss fish consumption habits with women to encourage consumption of low-risk fish, and identify women needing education and counseling.
Full Text Available One hundred and five grape samples were collected during two consecutive years from 33 locations on seven oceanic islands of the Azores Archipelago. Grape samples were obtained from vineyards that were either abandoned or under regular cultivation involving common viticultural interventions, to evaluate the impact of regular human intervention on grape yeast biota diversity in vineyards. A total of 3150 yeast isolates were obtained and 23 yeast species were identified. The predominant species were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia terricola, Starmerella bacillaris and Issatchenkia hanoiensis. The species Barnettozyma californica, Candida azymoides and Pichia cecembensis were reported in grapes or wine-associated environments for the first time. A higher biodiversity was found in active vineyards where regular human intervention takes place (Shannon index: 1.89 and 1.53 in the first and second years, respectively when compared to the abandoned ones (Shannon index: 0.76 and 0.31. This finding goes against the assumptions that human intervention can destroy biodiversity and lead to homogeneity in the environment. Biodiversity indices were considerably lower in the year with the heaviest rainfall. This study is the first to report on the grape yeast communities from several abandoned vineyards that have undergone no human intervention.
Li, Fengliang; Zhou, Mengying; Fan, Baolong
Since China decided to expand its higher education, we have seen an increasing number of discussions of the relationship between educational expansion and equality. However, few studies have examined whether the expansion of distance higher education will improve educational equality among different regions. In this study, we analyzed the changes…
Nelson, Gary R; Filloux, Francis M; Kerr, Lynne M
In 2011, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) released guidelines for return seizure visits detailing 8 points that should be addressed during such visits. These guidelines are designed to improve routine follow-up care for epilepsy patients. The authors performed a quality improvement project aimed at increasing compliance with these guidelines after educating providers about them. The authors performed a chart review before and after an intervention which included: education regarding the guidelines, providing materials to remind providers of the guidelines, and templates to facilitate compliance. The authors reviewed charts at 2 and 6 months after the intervention. Significant improvement in documentation of 4 of the 8 measures was observed after this educational intervention. This suggests that simple educational interventions may help providers change practice and can improve compliance with new guidelines while requiring minimal time and resources to implement. © The Author(s) 2016.
As part of the National Clinical Programme on healthcare-associated infection prevention, a Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI) working group developed a quality improvement tool for prevention of surgical site infection (SS). We aimed to validate the effectiveness of an educational campaign, which utilises this quality improvement tool to prevent SSI in a tertiary hospital. Prior to the SSI educational campaign, surgical patients were prospectively audited and details of antibiotic administration recorded. Prophylactic antibiotic administration recommendations were delivered via poster and educational presentations. Post-intervention, the audit was repeated. 50 patients were audited pre-intervention, 45 post-intervention. Post-intervention, prophylaxis within 60 minutes prior to incision increased from 54% to 68% (p = 0.266). Appropriate postoperative prescribing improved from 71% to 92% (p = 0.075). A multifaceted educational program may be effective in changing SSI prevention practices.
Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Harris, Muriel J; Newton, Samuel; Gulis, Gabriel
Hygiene education appears to be the commonest school-based intervention for preventing infectious diseases, especially in the developing world. Nevertheless, there remains a gap in literature regarding a school-specific theory-based framework for designing a hand hygiene educational intervention in schools. We sought to suggest a framework underpinned by psychosocial theories towards bridging this knowledge gap. Furthermore, we sought to propound a more comprehensive definition of hand hygiene which could guide the conceptualisation of hand hygiene interventions in varied settings. Literature search was guided by a standardized tool and literature was retrieved on the basis of a predetermined inclusion criteria. Databases consulted include PubMed, ERIC, and EBSCO host (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, etc.). Evidence bordering on a theoretical framework to aid the design of school-based hand hygiene educational interventions is summarized narratively. School-based hand hygiene educational interventions seeking to positively influence behavioural outcomes could consider enhancing psychosocial variables including behavioural capacity, attitudes and subjective norms (normative beliefs and motivation to comply). A framework underpinned by formalized psychosocial theories has relevance and could enhance the design of hand hygiene educational interventions, especially in schools.
Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal
The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…
Poulsen, Tine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Lund, Rikke
AIM: To analyse if social capital modifies the effect of educational intervention of home visitors on mobility disability. Earlier studies have found that educational intervention of home visitors has a positive effect of older peoples' functional decline, but how social capital might modify....... RESULTS: We found that 80-year-olds living in municipalities with high bonding (B=0.089, p=0.0279) and high linking (B=0.0929; p=0.0217) had significant better mobility disability in average at 3-year follow up if their municipality had received intervention. CONCLUSIONS: With the unique design...... of the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits and with theory-based measures of social capital that distinguish between three aspects of social capital with focus on older people, this study contributes to the literature about the role of social capital for interventions on mobility disability....
Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Magnussen, Rikke
of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach......The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today’s teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often...... problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research...
Magnussen, Rikke; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach......The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often...... problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research...
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting
Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the
Wicks, K M
This paper illustrates one model of providing an integrated paediatric speech and language therapy service which attempts to meet the demands of both inclusive education and effective early intervention. A move has been made from location-oriented therapy provision to offering children and their families equal opportunities to have appropriate intervention according to need. The model incorporates the philosophy of inclusive education and supports the development of current specialist educational establishments into resource bases of expertise for children with special needs in mainstream schools.
Gatlin, Tricia K; Serafica, Reimund; Johnson, Michael
To systematically review published randomised controlled trials of peer education interventions among adults with type 2 diabetes. Systematic reviews have shown mixed results for peer support interventions to improve diabetes self-management. Given the effectiveness of diabetes education by healthcare professionals, peer education interventions may be a useful alternative approach. This review addressed that gap. Systematic review. A systematic search of published randomised controlled trials between 2006-2016 was conducted using the keywords diabetes, type 2 diabetes, randomised controlled trials, self-management, peer education and peer support. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Jadad scale. Seven studies were included in the final review, and the Jadad scores ranged from 8-10 of a possible 13 points. There was no consistent design, setting, or outcome measurement among the studies. There were two types of peer education interventions compared to traditional diabetes education: face-to-face or a combination of face-to-face and telephone/texting. The most common clinical outcome measure was HbA1c. Two of six studies showed statistically significant improvement in HbA1c between intervention and control groups. An increase in diabetes knowledge was also statistically significant in two of five studies. Peer education could be successful in improving clinical outcomes. No evidence was found indicating that healthcare provider education was superior in regard to clinical knowledge or behavioural or psychological outcome measures than peer education. HbA1c was statistically significantly lower in some peer education groups compared to control groups. There is evidence that peer education can be useful in achieving positive clinical outcomes such as decreasing HbA1c levels and increasing diabetes knowledge. A certified diabetes educator or a trained healthcare professional should not be overlooked though when using peer educators. © 2017
Wang, Shengnan; Smith, Helen; Peng, Zhuoxin; Xu, Biao; Wang, Weibing
This study used a system evaluation method to summarize China's experience on improving the coverage of hepatitis B vaccine, especially the strategies employed to improve the uptake of timely birth dosage. Identifying successful methods and strategies will provide strong evidence for policy makers and health workers in other countries with high hepatitis B prevalence.We conducted a literature review included English or Chinese literature carried out in mainland China, using PubMed, the Cochrane databases, Web of Knowledge, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang data, and other relevant databases.Nineteen articles about the effectiveness and impact of interventions on improving the coverage of hepatitis B vaccine were included. Strong or moderate evidence showed that reinforcing health education, training and supervision, providing subsidies for facility birth, strengthening the coordination among health care providers, and using out-of-cold-chain storage for vaccines were all important to improving vaccination coverage.We found evidence that community education was the most commonly used intervention, and out-reach programs such as out-of-cold chain strategy were more effective in increasing the coverage of vaccination in remote areas where the facility birth rate was respectively low. The essential impact factors were found to be strong government commitment and the cooperation of the different government departments.Public interventions relying on basic health care systems combined with outreach care services were critical elements in improving the hepatitis B vaccination rate in China. This success could not have occurred without exceptional national commitment.
Hospital-acquired infections remain a global concern, with prevalence .... precautionary measures such as hand washing. A baseline audit in. 2014 on hand hygiene at GSH reflected an average performance of. 34% for the hospital. ..... hand hygiene intervention based on WHO and continuous improvement methodology.
Poll, Gerard H.
Purpose: This review introduces emergentism, which is a leading theory of language development that states that language ability is the product of interactions between the child's language environment and his or her learning capabilities. The review suggests ways in which emergentism provides a theoretical rationale for interventions that are…
BackgroundThe number of caesarean sections (CS) is increasing globally, and repeat CS after a previous CS is a significant contributor to the overall CS rate. Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) can be seen as a real and viable option for most women with previous CS. To achieve success, however, women need the support of their clinicians (obstetricians and midwives). The aim of this study was to evaluate clinician-centred interventions designed to increase the rate of VBAC.MethodsThe bibliographic databases of The Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsychINFO and CINAHL were searched for randomised controlled trials, including cluster randomised trials that evaluated the effectiveness of any intervention targeted directly at clinicians aimed at increasing VBAC rates. Included studies were appraised independently by two reviewers. Data were extracted independently by three reviewers. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the quality assessment tool, `Effective Public Health Practice Project¿. The primary outcome measure was VBAC rates.Results238 citations were screened, 255 were excluded by title and abstract. 11 full-text papers were reviewed; eight were excluded, resulting in three included papers. One study evaluated the effectiveness of antepartum x-ray pelvimetry (XRP) in 306 women with one previous CS. One study evaluated the effects of external peer review on CS birth in 45 hospitals, and the third evaluated opinion leader education and audit and feedback in 16 hospitals. The use of external peer review, audit and feedback had no significant effect on VBAC rates. An educational strategy delivered by an opinion leader significantly increased VBAC rates. The use of XRP significantly increased CS rates.ConclusionsThis systematic review indicates that few studies have evaluated the effects of clinician-centred interventions on VBAC rates, and interventions are of varying types which limited the ability to meta-analyse data. A further limitation is that
Ho, Tai Mooi; Estrada, Dolors; Agudo, Josep; Arias, Piedad; Capillas, Raúl; Gibert, Elvira; Isnard, Mª Mar; Solé, Mª José; Salvadó, Anna
It is accepted that patient education can be beneficial in the treatment of chronic diseases. We conducted an educational intervention (EI) in hypertensive patients seen at Primary Care centres (PCC) and specialised Hypertension Units (SHU). To assess patient's knowledge of hypertension and to verify the impact of this educational initiative. A multicentre quasi-experimental study with the participation of 120 patients with hypertension. EI consisted of oral and written information which included the definition of hypertension, causes, cardiovascular risk factors and means of control. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess patient's knowledge before and after EI. Sixty-two (52%) patients were from PCC and 58 (48%) from SHU (mean age: 61 ± 13.3 years, 59% were women). There were no differences in baseline characteristics between patients attending at PCC and SHU. The definition of hypertension (blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or ≥90 mmHg was known by 48% and 99% of the participants before and after EI, respectively (p hypertension was related to kidneys (54%) and eyes (58%). After EI this knowledge increased to 100% (p hypertension. However, further studies are needed to assess if EI produces behaviour changes in the long term, as this might enhance optimal blood pressure control to prevent kidney disease or delay its progression. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
Scheirer, Mary Ann; Kraut, Robert E.
Literature linking self-concept and achievement, and evaluation research on educational programs to improve self-concept are analyzed in terms of several self-concept theories. Evidence for a causal connection between self-concept and achievement is negative. Researchers have failed to explore other theoretical approaches to educational change.…
Hogan, Robert; Nimmer, Natalie
The history of education in many developing nations is a template of ineffectual and expensive instruction. Despite nearly half a century of higher education in the Pacific, up to 50% of the teachers in many countries such as the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands still have no more than a high school…
Robinson, Mona C.; Lewis, Denise; Henderson, DeAnna; Flowers, Carl R.
Counselor education programs across the country often fail to attract, enroll and graduate students in proportion that reflects the diversity of the nation. As our country's demography changes, the impact of race and ethnicity within the client-counselor relationship is likely to have greater importance and, as such, counselor education programs…
Full Text Available Chronotherapy involves altering the timing of medication administration in coordination with the body’s circadian rhythms to improve the overall control of disease and to minimise treatment side effects. Training on chronotherapy requires students to map different topics learnt in earlier years of their professional degree and apply these concepts clinically. This requires strategic educational design. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop, implement and evaluate an educational intervention focusing on the application of chronotherapy for final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. An educational intervention utilizing multiple learning strategies for enhancing chronotherapy related awareness was designed and implemented in the final year undergraduate pharmacy cohort at the University of Sydney Australia (2013. A custom-designed questionnaire measuring awareness about (13 items scored 0 or 1, and attitudes (12 items scored on a Likert scale of 1–5 towards chronotherapy was administered pre and post intervention to evaluate its impact. The pre-intervention mean total awareness and attitude scores were 6.5 ± 2.0 (score range 0–13 and 47.4 ± 6.9 (score range 12–60 respectively. The mean total post-intervention scores were significantly higher for total awareness (10.1 ± 1.9 and attitude (54.0 ± 6.0. Carefully designed educational interventions utilising pedagogic principles for pharmacy students can improve awareness of and enhance positive attitudes toward pharmacists’ roles in optimizing drug therapy using chronotherapy.
Rauniar, G P; Das, B P; Manandhar, T R; Bhattacharya, S K
Irrational use of drugs as well as inappropriate and over drug prescribing leads to unnecessary expenditures and emergence of resistant bacterial strains. Feedback intervention on drug prescribing habits and face to face educational intervention of prescription audit would be effective in rationalizing prescribing practices. To measure the impact of educational feedback intervention on the prescribing behavior of dental surgeons. Prospective audit of twelve hundred outpatients prescriptions in dental OPD at BPKIHS of those dental surgeon who attended the educational intervention session was collected randomly by trained persons on customized data collection sheet before and after educational intervention. A total 1200 prescription were collected, 300 before and 300 after intervention period at the internal of one month, three months and six months. Majority of the prescriptions (39.33%) contained four drugs but after intervention, prescriptions contained mostly one drug, 73% in first month, 78.67% in third month and 65.34% in six month. Mean number of drugs per prescription after intervention were decreased. There was increased number of generic names of drugs after intervention. Amoxicillin, Metronidazole, Chlorhexidine, Povidone iodine gargle, Nimesulide, Ibuprofen, Ibuprofen + paracetamol, and Paracetamol were most commonly prescribed by dental prescribers before and after intervention. Selection of antimicrobial was done on empirical basis which was correct because Amoxicillin concentration reaches effectively in gingival crevicular fluid and Metronidazole covered effectively against anaerobic bacteria were found in orodental infection. The uses of topical anti-infective preparation as irrigants of choice that can kill majority of micro-organisms found is root canal and dental tubules and minimize systemic use of antimicrobials. Nimesulide prescribing needs to be rationalized. Feedback educational intervention of prescription audit is effective to improve their
Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; O'Brien, Kate M; Wyse, Rebecca J; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Tzelepis, Flora; James, Erica L; Bartlem, Kate M; Nathan, Nicole K; Sutherland, Rachel; Robson, Emma; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke
vegetable intake. Thirteen trials examined the impact of parent nutrition education in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Eight studies examined the impact of multicomponent interventions (e.g. parent nutrition education and preschool policy changes) in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. One study examined the effect of a nutrition intervention delivered to children in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake.We judged 14 of the 55 included trials as free from high risks of bias across all domains; performance, detection and attrition bias were the most common domains judged at high risk of bias for the remaining studies.Meta-analysis of trials examining child-feeding practices versus no intervention revealed a positive effect on child vegetable consumption (SMD 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.61; n = 1509; 11 studies; very low-quality evidence), equivalent to a mean difference of 4.03 g of vegetables. There were no short-term differences in child consumption of fruit and vegetables in meta-analyses of trials examining parent nutrition education versus no intervention (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.28; n = 3023; 10 studies; very low-quality evidence) or multicomponent interventions versus no intervention (SMD 0.28, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.63; n = 1861; 4 studies; very low-quality evidence).Insufficient data were available to assess long-term effectiveness, cost effectiveness and unintended adverse consequences of interventions. Studies reported receiving governmental or charitable funds, except for three studies reporting industry funding. Despite identifying 55 eligible trials of various intervention approaches, the evidence for how to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption remains sparse. There was very low-quality evidence that child-feeding practice interventions are effective in increasing vegetable consumption in children aged five years and younger, however the effect size was very small and long-term follow-up is required
Ofstead, Cori L; Sherman, Bruce W; Wetzler, Harry P; Dirlam Langlay, Alexandra M; Mueller, Natalie J; Ward, Jeremy M; Ritter, Daniel R; Poland, Gregory A
To increase influenza vaccination rates among industrial employees and their families through a campaign at a large corporation. This prospective, multisite study used employee surveys and claims data to evaluate an evidence-based worksite vaccination program. Vaccination rates among insured employees and dependents (N = 13,520) increased significantly after the intervention (P employees received vaccine at employer-sponsored events. There was a strong association between employee and family vaccination status. Primary reasons for receiving the vaccine were economic (free 84%; convenient 80%; avoid absenteeism 82%), rather than health-related. Knowledge was associated with vaccination, but customized education did not change beliefs. Worksite programs can demonstrably increase vaccination rates among industrial employees and families. Consideration should be given to repositioning vaccination from medical treatment to community initiatives offered with other worksite health promotion programs.
Bond, G R; Drake, R E; Luciano, A
Young adults with early psychosis want to pursue normal roles - education and employment. This paper summarises the empirical literature on the effectiveness of early intervention programmes for employment and education outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of employment/education outcomes for early intervention programmes, distinguishing three programme types: (1) those providing supported employment, (2) those providing unspecified vocational services and (3) those without vocational services. We summarised findings for 28 studies. Eleven studies evaluated early intervention programmes providing supported employment. In eight studies that reported employment outcomes separately from education outcomes, the employment rate during follow-up for supported employment patients was 49%, compared with 29% for patients receiving usual services. The two groups did not differ on enrolment in education. In four controlled studies, meta-analysis showed that the employment rate for supported employment participants was significantly higher than for control participants, odds ratio = 3.66 [1.93-6.93], p < 0.0001. Five studies (four descriptive and one quasi-experimental) of early intervention programmes evaluating unspecified vocational services were inconclusive. Twelve studies of early intervention programmes without vocational services were methodologically heterogeneous, using diverse methods for evaluating vocational/educational outcomes and precluding a satisfactory meta-analytic synthesis. Among studies with comparison groups, 7 of 11 (64%) reported significant vocational/education outcomes favouring early intervention over usual services. In early intervention programmes, supported employment moderately increases employment rates but not rates of enrolment in education. These improvements are in addition to the modest effects early programmes alone have on vocational/educational outcomes compared with usual services.
Larson, Janet L; Covey, Margaret K; Kapella, Mary C; Alex, Charles G; McAuley, Edward
People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lead sedentary lives and could benefit from increasing their physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention could increase physical activity and functional performance when delivered in the context of 4 months of upper body resistance training with a 12-month follow-up. IN THIS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL, SUBJECTS WERE ASSIGNED TO: exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention with upper body resistance training (SE-UBR), health education with upper body resistance training (ED-UBR), or health education with gentle chair exercises (ED-Chair). Physical activity was measured with an accelerometer and functional performance was measured with the Functional Performance Inventory. Forty-nine people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease completed 4 months of training and provided valid accelerometry data, and 34 also provided accelerometry data at 12 months of follow-up. The self-efficacy enhancing intervention emphasized meeting physical activity guidelines and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Differences were observed in light physical activity (LPA) after 4 months of training, time by group interaction effect (P=0.045). The SE-UBR group increased time spent in LPA by +20.68±29.30 minutes/day and the other groups decreased time spent in LPA by -22.43±47.88 minutes/day and -25.73±51.76 minutes/day. Changes in LPA were not sustained at 12-month follow-up. There were no significant changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time, or functional performance. Subjects spent most of their waking hours sedentary: 72%±9% for SE-UBR, 68%±10% for ED-UBR, and 74%±9% for ED-Chair. The self-efficacy enhancing intervention produced a modest short-term increase in LPA. Further work is needed to increase the magnitude and duration of effect, possibly by targeting LPA.
Fulton, A M; Murphy, K R; Anderson, S L
This study focused upon an intervention program that allowed adolescent mothers to have major input in identifying knowledge they needed concerning their children's growth and their own parenting skills. Seventy-six females participated in the 4-month program. A pretest-posttest design was used to measure changes in self-esteem, knowledge of child development, and tendencies toward inappropriate interactions with children. Analysis of effectiveness of this program indicated that it had been effective. Results revealed significant differences between pre- and posttest measures of child development knowledge in the areas of infant and toddler development. Further analysis indicated a significant change in the subjects' child abuse potential at the end of the program. No significant difference could be found in measures of self-esteem between the beginning and end of the program. A 10-month follow-up study coordinated between two public agencies found that none of the adolescent parents who had completed the program had been reported for child abuse or neglect. The results support the importance of short-term intervention programs for adolescent parents.
Full Text Available Abstract Experiences in early childhood have a great influence on a child's physical and mental development. Early childhood interventions are widely accepted as an effective way to prevent learning difficulties and to promote healthy development for children with special needs. For this reason, it is important for teachers who will work with children with special needs or children who are at risk to have sufficient knowledge about early childhood intervention and be competent in this area. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the views of preservice special education teachers about early childhood intervention. This study used quantitative research method and a questionnaire form was used to collect the data. The results are discussed in detail with reference to relevant literature. Implications and recommendations for further research are also provided in order to improve the quality of education policies, programs and practices related with early childhood intervention and increase awareness and knowledge related with early childhood interventions among teacher candidates.
Full Text Available Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses’ knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300 were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ2 = 86.34, p = 0.00, and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4% and post-test (66.6% (χ2 = 73.2, p = 0.00. When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly
Chalker-Scott, Linda; Daniels, Catherine H.; Martini, Nicole
The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary group of faculty, staff, and students with expertise in applied plant and soil sciences and an interest in Extension education. The team's primary mission is to create current, relevant, and peer-reviewed materials as Extension publications for home gardeners. The average yearly…
Utah System of Higher Education, 2016
For Fall 2016, of the 175,509 students enrolled in the Utah System of Higher Education at third week, 69,535 (39.6 %) are participating in some form of technology delivered instruction. Of that total, 54,269 (30.9%) enrolled in at least one online class. Despite availability of online courses and degrees, students prefer using online courses to…
Karanth, Siddharth S; Lairson, David R; Savas, Lara S; Vernon, Sally W; Fernández, María E
Mobile technology is opening new avenues for healthcare providers to create and implement tailored and personalized health education programs. We estimate and compare the cost of developing an i-Pad based tailored interactive multimedia intervention (TIMI) and a print based (Photonovella) intervention to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization. The development costs of the interventions were calculated using a societal perspective. Direct cost included the cost of planning the study, conducting focus groups, and developing the intervention materials by the research staff. Costs also included the amount paid to the vendors who produced the TIMI and Photonovella. Micro cost data on the staff time and materials were recorded in logs for tracking personnel time, meeting time, supplies and software purchases. The costs were adjusted for inflation and reported in 2015 USD. The total cost of developing the Photonovella was $66,468 and the cost of developing the TIMI was $135,978. The amortized annual cost for the interventions calculated at a 3% discount rate and over a 7-year period was $10,669 per year for the Photonovella and $21,825 per year for the TIMI intervention. The results would inform decision makers when planning and investing in the development of interactive multimedia health interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sahyouni, Ronald; Mahmoodi, Amin; Tran, Diem K; Tran, Peter; Chen, Jefferson W
Neurological surgeons oftentimes educate patients and their families on complex medical conditions and treatment options. Time constraints and varied linguistic and cultural backgrounds limit the amount of information that can be disbursed. In this study, we assessed the linguistic validity of interactive educational interventions in non-English-speaking patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and concussion and their families. A total of 273 English-, Spanish-, Korean-, and Vietnamese-speaking neurotrauma patients (n =124) and family members (n =149) completed a presurvey to evaluate their incipient understanding, interacted with an iPad-based iBook (Apple) on concussion or TBI in their native language, completed a postsurvey to gauge changes in understanding, and then consulted with their neurosurgeon. All participants (124 patients and 149 family members) had significantly increased (95% confidence interval [CI], P cultural background. Caucasian participants scored significantly higher than the combination of all ethnicities on both the baseline survey (95% CI, P cultural background. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Francis, Grace L.; McMullen, Victoria B.; Blue-Banning, Martha; Haines, Shana
Social skills instruction is as important for many students with disabilities as instruction in core academic subjects. Frequently, students with autism require individualized social skills instruction to experience success in general education settings. Literacy-based behavioral Interventions (LBBIs) are an effective intervention that instructors…
Hamoda, Reem E; Gander, Jennifer C; McPherson, Laura J; Arriola, Kimberly J; Cobb, Loren; Pastan, Stephen O; Plantinga, Laura; Browne, Teri; Hartmann, Erica; Mulloy, Laura; Zayas, Carlos; Krisher, Jenna; Patzer, Rachel E
The Reducing Disparities in Access to kidNey Transplantation Community Study (RaDIANT) was an End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Network 6-developed, dialysis facility-level randomized trial testing the effectiveness of a 1-year multicomponent education and quality improvement intervention in increasing referral for kidney transplant evaluation among selected Georgia dialysis facilities. To assess implementation of the RaDIANT intervention, we conducted a process evaluation at the conclusion of the intervention period (January-December 2014). We administered a 20-item survey to the staff involved with transplant education in 67 dialysis facilities randomized to participate in intervention activities. Survey items assessed facility participation in the intervention (fidelity and reach), helpfulness and willingness to continue intervention activities (sustainability), suggestions for improving intervention components (sustainability), and factors that may have influenced participation and study outcomes (context). We defined high fidelity to the intervention as completing 11 or more activities, and high participation in an activity as having at least 75% participation across intervention facilities. Staff from 65 of the 67 dialysis facilities completed the questionnaire, and more than half (50.8%) reported high adherence (fidelity) to RaDIANT intervention requirements. Nearly two-thirds (63.1%) of facilities reported that RaDIANT intervention activities were helpful or very helpful, with 90.8% of facilities willing to continue at least one intervention component beyond the study period. Intervention components with high participation emphasized staff and patient-level education, including in-service staff orientations, patient and family education programs, and patient educational materials. Suggested improvements for intervention activities emphasized addressing financial barriers to transplantation, with financial education materials perceived as most helpful among Ra
Ginossar, Tamar; Nelson, Sara
The innovative educational communication interventions described in this paper include the use of bi-lingual, low literacy level websites and training created by low income Latina women to increase access to health care, health information, and the internet. We focus on one grassroots intervention, aimed at increasing access to health care for…
Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen
focusing on immigrant families with children with type 1 diabetes is described. The intervention included the development of adapted educational material and guidelines, and a subsequent re-education of children, adolescents and parents from 37 families. The study demonstrated that it was possible......Ethnic minorities may constitute vulnerable groups within Western health care systems as their ability to master severe chronic diseases could be affected by barriers such as different culture and health/illness beliefs, communication problems and limited educational background. An intervention...... to improve health outcome. During the study, the knowledge of diabetes increased, but with considerable differences between the families. HbA(1c) also decreased significantly during the intervention, but increased during follow-up. The paper discusses possible explanations and suggestions for optimising...
Arija Victoria; Martín Núria; Canela Teresa; Anguera Carme; Castelao Ana I; García-Barco Montserrat; García-Campo Antoni; González-Bravo Ana I; Lucena Carme; Martínez Teresa; Fernández-Barrés Silvia; Pedret Roser; Badia Waleska; Basora Josep
Abstract Background Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods/Design Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of t...
Skogrand, Linda; Torres, Eliza; Higginbotham, Brian J.
This program evaluation was conducted by interviewing 40 low-income participants in a relationship education (RE) program for stepfamilies to determine specific benefits of a group-formatted intervention. The benefits that were most often identified were learning from others and having personal stepfamily challenges normalized. Participants also…
Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine
The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…
The paper outlines guidelines for developing policy on use of nontraditional educational interventions (such as timeout, aversive stimulation, biofeedback, behavior modification, relaxation therapy, and group meetings) with behavior disordered students. A model policy statement on the use of isolation rooms is presented. Such a statement should…
Aug 8, 2014 ... a group of Nigerian dental students and dentists to smoking cessation counseling in the dental clinic. Methods: A ... E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ... Impact of an educational intervention on smoking counseling practice among Nigerian dentists and dental students. Omolara Uti, Oyinkansola Sofola.
Wilhelmson, Lena; Åberg, Marie Moström; Backström, Tomas; Olsson, Bengt Köping
The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of an educative research intervention to influence the quality of the learning outcome in the workplace as interpreted from the perspectives of adult learning theory. The research project was designed as a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. In this article, quantitative survey data were…
Full Text Available We present an investigation that seeks to understand a specific case of a young female, attending secondary and then higher education school, who was diagnosed with dyslexia in the primary school and then ceased to have expert support after the start of the 5th grade. This study has as its main goal to identify the changes resulting from the implementation of specific activities, established in the intervention and rehabilitation program in the specific difficulty of learning- Dyslexia. Moreover, we want to see if these changes result in success in basic areas of development and in the academic area of reading. The intervention and rehabilitation was performed for three months in areas where the student had difficulties.Keywords: Dyslexia; secondary and higher education; intervention and rehabilitation
Albrecht, Martina; Kupfer, Ramona; Reissmann, Daniel R; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Köpke, Sascha
Associations between nursing home residents' oral health status and quality of life, respiratory tract infections, and nutritional status have been reported. Educational interventions for nurses or residents, or both, focusing on knowledge and skills related to oral health management may have the potential to improve residents' oral health. To assess the effects of oral health educational interventions for nursing home staff or residents, or both, to maintain or improve the oral health of nursing home residents. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Trials Register (to 18 January 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 12), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 18 January 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 18 January 2016), CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 18 January 2016), and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 18 January 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 18 January 2016. In addition, we searched reference lists of identified articles and contacted experts in the field. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs comparing oral health educational programmes for nursing staff or residents, or both with usual care or any other oral healthcare intervention. Two review authors independently screened articles retrieved from the searches for relevance, extracted data from included studies, assessed risk of bias for each included study, and evaluated the overall quality of the evidence. We retrieved data about the development and evaluation processes of complex interventions on the basis of the Criteria for Reporting the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in healthcare: revised guideline (CReDECI 2). We contacted authors of relevant studies for additional information. We included nine RCTs involving
Fenske, Robert H.; Geranios, Christine A.; Keller, Jonathan E.; Moore, David E.
This report addresses issues related to the increasing growth of early intervention programs to encourage high school graduation and college attendance among students from low-income and minority groups. It first presents a brief review of the societal goals of equality for the nation's education system. It then defines the programs "early…
Scorpiniti, A; Lorusso, A; L'Abbate, N
Here we describe a workplace intervention aimed at reducing the risk of low back pain in nursing personnel. The intervention we carried out included a specific ergonomic training and an exercise program according to the Feldenkrais Method. After the intervention, we evaluated its effect on the execution of manual handling activities in nurses. We found an increased rate of correct manual handling in the post-intervention period.
DeShazo, Jonathan; Harris, Lynne; Pratt, Wanda
The purpose of this study is (1) to identify diabetes education video games and pilot studies in the literature, (2) to review themes in diabetes video game design and evaluation, and (3) to evaluate the potential role of educational video games in diabetes self-management education. Studies were systematically identified for inclusion from Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL, EMBASE, Psychinfo, IEEE Xplore, and ACM Digital Library. Features of each video game intervention were reviewed and coded based on an existing taxonomy of diabetes interventions framework. Nine studies featuring 11 video games for diabetes care were identified. Video games for diabetes have typically targeted children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and used situation problem-solving methods to teach diet, exercise, self-monitored blood glucose, and medication adherence. Evaluations have shown positive outcomes in knowledge, disease management adherence, and clinical outcomes. Video games for diabetes education show potential as effective educational interventions. Yet we found that improvements are needed in expanding the target audience, tailoring the intervention, and using theoretical frameworks. In the future, the reach and effectiveness of educational video games for diabetes education could be improved by expanding the target audience beyond juvenile type 1 diabetes mellitus, the use of tailoring, and increased use of theoretical frameworks.
Schaepe, Christiane; Bergjan, Manuela
To review the current literature on educational interventions used in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Educational interventions have become increasingly relevant because they play a key role in helping individuals to actively participate in their therapy and to manage their chronic condition. The paper will focus on two areas: (a) educational interventions for individuals living with PD and (b) educational interventions for PD nurses. A narrative review of primary research. Electronic searches of the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC and Cochrane Library (2006-2013) databases were undertaken using terms such as peritoneal dialysis, insertive training, curriculum, nursing education, train the trainer, coach the coach, tutor the tutor, and patient education were used. All studies were reviewed by two researchers. Titles and abstracts of 555 studies were screened and read. Full text articles retrieved were further screened against the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant data on the educational interventions for people receiving PD and nurse training programs were extracted and synthesized narratively. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Most of them focused on educational intervention programs for people undergoing PD. Findings on the link between the PD trainer's background and peritonitis rates among individuals undergoing PD are inconsistent. PD learners should be taught self-management skills as well as technical skills. They might also benefit from receiving decision-making aids. Older people, people with co-morbidities and people with low educational status need more time to acquire self-care skills and are more likely to develop peritonitis. Home visits have the potential to improve learning outcomes. Re-training needs should be assessed and fulfilled as appropriate. Case and disease management programs have been shown to have positive outcomes for individuals receiving PD. Educational interventions for PD remain an under-researched area, despite the
Haughtigan, Kara; Main, Eve; Bragg-Underwood, Tonya; Watkins, Cecilia
Cosmetologists frequently develop occupational skin disease related to workplace exposures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an educational intervention to increase cosmetology students' occupational skin disease knowledge and use of preventive practices. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, behaviors, intentions, expectancies, and expectations. A 20-minute verbal presentation and printed two-page educational handout were provided for participants. Statistically significant increases in knowledge, frequency of glove use, and frequency of moisturizer use were found, but the frequency of handwashing did not increase. In addition, the Behavioral Strategies subscale, the Intention subscale, and the Expectancies subscale showed statistically significant improvements. The results of this study suggest an educational intervention can increase cosmetology students' knowledge of occupational skin diseases and their use of preventive strategies.
Rosen, Brittany L; Bishop, James M; McDonald, Skye L; Kahn, Jessica A; Kreps, Gary L
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates fall far short of Healthy People 2020 objectives. A leading reason is that clinicians do not recommend the vaccine consistently and strongly to girls and boys in the age group recommended for vaccination. Although Web-based HPV vaccine educational interventions for clinicians have been created to promote vaccination recommendations, rigorous evaluations of these interventions have not been conducted. Such evaluations are important to maximize the efficacy of educational interventions in promoting clinician recommendations for HPV vaccination. The objectives of our study were (1) to expand previous research by systematically identifying HPV vaccine Web-based educational interventions developed for clinicians and (2) to evaluate the quality of these Web-based educational interventions as defined by access, content, design, user evaluation, interactivity, and use of theory or models to create the interventions. Current HPV vaccine Web-based educational interventions were identified from general search engines (ie, Google), continuing medical education search engines, health department websites, and professional organization websites. Web-based educational interventions were included if they were created for clinicians (defined as individuals qualified to deliver health care services, such as physicians, clinical nurses, and school nurses, to patients aged 9 to 26 years), delivered information about the HPV vaccine and how to increase vaccination rates, and provided continuing education credits. The interventions' content and usability were analyzed using 6 key indicators: access, content, design, evaluation, interactivity, and use of theory or models. A total of 21 interventions were identified, out of which 7 (33%) were webinars, 7 (33%) were videos or lectures, and 7 (33%) were other (eg, text articles, website modules). Of the 21 interventions, 17 (81%) identified the purpose of the intervention, 12 (57%) provided the
Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Maas, J.
Purpose – In general, active participation increases learning outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to explore how: information and communication technologies (ICT) can be used to improve the participation of students during lectures and the effect of ICT on the learning outcomes of students.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This study aimed to assess the impact of a condom distribution and peer education intervention targeting places where people meet new sexual partners on condom use and sexual risk taking among people socializing there. Methods The 2005 baseline survey assessed the presence of HIV preventive activities and sexual risk taking in places where people meet new sexual partners in Livingstone. One township was selected for a non-randomised intervention study on condom distribution and peer education in high risk venues in 2009. The presence of HIV preventive activities in the venues during the intervention was monitored by an external person. The intervention was evaluated after one year with a follow-up survey in the intervention township and a comparison township. In addition, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Results Young people between 17-32 years of age were recruited as peer educators, and 40% were females. Out of 72 persons trained before the intervention, 38 quit, and another 11 had to be recruited. The percentage of venues where condoms were reported to always be available at least doubled in both townships, but was significantly higher in the intervention vs. the control venues in both surveys (84% vs. 33% in the follow-up. There was a reduction in reported sexual risk taking among guests socializing in the venues in both areas, but reporting of recent condom use increased more among people interviewed in the intervention (57% to 84% than in the
Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Zyaambo, Cosmas; Michelo, Charles; Fylkesnes, Knut
The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This study aimed to assess the impact of a condom distribution and peer education intervention targeting places where people meet new sexual partners on condom use and sexual risk taking among people socializing there. The 2005 baseline survey assessed the presence of HIV preventive activities and sexual risk taking in places where people meet new sexual partners in Livingstone. One township was selected for a non-randomised intervention study on condom distribution and peer education in high risk venues in 2009. The presence of HIV preventive activities in the venues during the intervention was monitored by an external person. The intervention was evaluated after one year with a follow-up survey in the intervention township and a comparison township. In addition, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Young people between 17-32 years of age were recruited as peer educators, and 40% were females. Out of 72 persons trained before the intervention, 38 quit, and another 11 had to be recruited. The percentage of venues where condoms were reported to always be available at least doubled in both townships, but was significantly higher in the intervention vs. the control venues in both surveys (84% vs. 33% in the follow-up). There was a reduction in reported sexual risk taking among guests socializing in the venues in both areas, but reporting of recent condom use increased more among people interviewed in the intervention (57% to 84%) than in the control community (55% to 68%). It is likely that the
Lee, Eunice; Menon, Usha; Nandy, Karabi; Szalacha, Laura; Kviz, Frederick; Cho, Young; Miller, Arlene; Park, Hanjong
To assess the efficacy of Korean Immigrants and Mammography-Culture-Specific Health Intervention (KIM-CHI), an educational program for Korean American (KA) couples designed to improve mammography uptake among KA women. A two-group cluster randomized, longitudinal, controlled design. 50 KA religious organizations in the Chicago area. 428 married KA women 40 years of age or older who had not had a mammogram in the past year. The women and their husbands were recruited from 50 KA religious organizations. Couples were randomly assigned to intervention or attention control groups. Those in the KIM-CHI program (n = 211 couples) were compared to an attention control group (n = 217 couples) at baseline, as well as at 6 and 15 months postintervention on mammogram uptake. Sociodemographic variables and mammography uptake were measured. Level of acculturation was measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. Researchers asked questions about healthcare resources and use, health insurance status, usual source of care, physical examinations in the past two years, family history of breast cancer, and history of mammography. The KIM-CHI group showed statistically significant increases in mammography uptake compared to the attention control group at 6 months and 15 months postintervention. The culturally targeted KIM-CHI program was effective in increasing mammogram uptake among nonadherent KA women. Nurses and healthcare providers should consider specific health beliefs as well as inclusion of husbands or significant others. They also should target education to be culturally relevant for KA women to effectively improve frequency of breast cancer screening.
Full Text Available Janet L Larson,1,2 Margaret K Covey,2 Mary C Kapella,2 Charles G Alex,3,4 Edward McAuley,5 1Division of Acute, Critical and Long-Term Care Programs, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Edward Hines Jr VA Hospital, Hines, IL, 4Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oaklawn, IL, 5Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagne, Urbana, IL, USA Background: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lead sedentary lives and could benefit from increasing their physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention could increase physical activity and functional performance when delivered in the context of 4 months of upper body resistance training with a 12-month follow-up. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, subjects were assigned to: exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention with upper body resistance training (SE-UBR, health education with upper body resistance training (ED-UBR, or health education with gentle chair exercises (ED-Chair. Physical activity was measured with an accelerometer and functional performance was measured with the Functional Performance Inventory. Forty-nine people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease completed 4 months of training and provided valid accelerometry data, and 34 also provided accelerometry data at 12 months of follow-up. The self-efficacy enhancing intervention emphasized meeting physical activity guidelines and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results: Differences were observed in light physical activity (LPA after 4 months of training, time by group interaction effect (P=0.045. The SE-UBR group increased time spent in
Ciciriello, Sabina; Johnston, Renea V; Osborne, Richard H; Wicks, Ian; deKroo, Tanya; Clerehan, Rosemary; O'Neill, Clare; Buchbinder, Rachelle
Health consumers increasingly want access to accurate, evidence-based information about their medications. Currently, education about medications (that is, information that is designed to achieve health or illness related learning) is provided predominantly via spoken communication between the health provider and consumer, sometimes supplemented with written materials. There is evidence, however, that current educational methods are not meeting consumer needs. Multimedia educational programs offer many potential advantages over traditional forms of education delivery. To assess the effects of multimedia patient education interventions about prescribed and over-the-counter medications in people of all ages, including children and carers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2011), EMBASE (1974 to June 2011), CINAHL (1982 to June 2011), PsycINFO (1967 to June 2011), ERIC (1966 to June 2011), ProQuest Dissertation & Theses Database (to June 2011) and reference lists of articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of multimedia-based patient education about prescribed or over-the-counter medications in people of all ages, including children and carers, if the intervention had been targeted for their use. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Where possible, we contacted study authors to obtain missing information. We identified 24 studies that enrolled a total of 8112 participants. However, there was significant heterogeneity in the comparators used and the outcomes measured, which limited the ability to pool data. Many of the studies did not report sufficient information in their methods to allow judgment of their risk of bias. From the information that was reported, three of the studies had a high risk of selection bias and one was at high risk of bias due to lack of blinding of the outcome
Madigan, S M; Fleming, P; Wright, M E; Stevenson, M; Macauley, D
Patients with enteral feeding tubes are increasingly managed in their home environment and these patients require support from a range of healthcare professionals. A cluster randomised trial of an educational intervention was undertaken among General Practitioners and nurses both in the community and in nursing home caring for patients recently discharged to primary care. This was a short, duration (nutrition education programme delivered in the work place soon after the patient was discharged from hospital. The primary outcome was an improvement in knowledge immediately after the intervention and the secondary outcome was knowledge at 6 months. Those in the intervention group had improved knowledge, which was significantly greater than those in the control group (P work-based targeted nutrition education programme is effective for improving knowledge among general practitioners and nurses both in the community and in nursing homes. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Doaa Mohammed Youssef
Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of nutritional knowledge following interventional educational sessions in chronic dialysis patients, we studied 40 children on chronic regular hemodialysis (HD at the beginning and after six months of nutrition educational sessions using a predesigned questionnaire. We also measured the anthropometric parameters of nutrition to evaluate the impact of this education on the health of patients. We found a highly statistically significant increase in patients′ scores and in adequate knowledge using the questionnaire after the educational sessions. Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in body mass index and weight after educational sessions for six months. Moreover, there were no significant decreases in serum phosphorus, ferritin, iron and creatinine, in contrast with no significant increase in hemoglobin, serum calcium, blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin. We conclude that nutritional education is significantly effective with regard to the level of knowledge, but not with regard to the attitude and practice in children on chronic HD.
Youssef, Doaa Mohammed; Abo Al Fotoh, Mohammad Nagib; Elibehidy, Rabab Mohamed; Ramadan, Shreen Magdy Ahmad; Mohammad, Ehab Mohammady
To evaluate the impact of nutritional knowledge following interventional educational sessions in chronic dialysis patients, we studied 40 children on chronic regular hemodialysis (HD) at the beginning and after six months of nutrition educational sessions using a predesigned questionnaire. We also measured the anthropometric parameters of nutrition to evaluate the impact of this education on the health of patients. We found a highly statistically significant increase in patients' scores and in adequate knowledge using the questionnaire after the educational sessions. Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in body mass index and weight after educational sessions for six months. Moreover, there were no significant decreases in serum phosphorus, ferritin, iron and creatinine, in contrast with no significant increase in hemoglobin, serum calcium, blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin. We conclude that nutritional education is significantly effective with regard to the level of knowledge, but not with regard to the attitude and practice in children on chronic HD.
Evans Philip H
Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop more efficient programmes for promoting dietary and/or physical activity change (in order to prevent type 2 diabetes it is critical to ensure that the intervention components and characteristics most strongly associated with effectiveness are included. The aim of this systematic review of reviews was to identify intervention components that are associated with increased change in diet and/or physical activity in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews of interventions targeting diet and/or physical activity in adults at risk of developing type 2 diabetes from 1998 to 2008. Two reviewers independently selected reviews and rated methodological quality. Individual analyses from reviews relating effectiveness to intervention components were extracted, graded for evidence quality and summarised. Results Of 3856 identified articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria and 129 analyses related intervention components to effectiveness. These included causal analyses (based on randomisation of participants to different intervention conditions and associative analyses (e.g. meta-regression. Overall, interventions produced clinically meaningful weight loss (3-5 kg at 12 months; 2-3 kg at 36 months and increased physical activity (30-60 mins/week of moderate activity at 12-18 months. Based on causal analyses, intervention effectiveness was increased by engaging social support, targeting both diet and physical activity, and using well-defined/established behaviour change techniques. Increased effectiveness was also associated with increased contact frequency and using a specific cluster of "self-regulatory" behaviour change techniques (e.g. goal-setting, self-monitoring. No clear relationships were found between effectiveness and intervention setting, delivery mode, study population or delivery provider. Evidence on long
Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Stavropoulou, Charitini; Papastefanou, Noni; Lionis, Christos
Effective communication is a vital component of patient-centered consultations with favorable treatment outcomes. This study aimed in testing the effectiveness of a personalized, communication training program for dermatologists in their practices. Fifteen dermatologists were offered the educational intervention NO.TE.S. (Non-Technical Skills). Depending on the dermatologists' needs, seven to nine sessions with a 60-min duration were performed, focusing on: patient-centered care, principles of Neurolinguistic Programming, a guide to the medical interview, principles of motivational interviewing and self-care. After the program's completion, participants completed anonymously an 18-item evaluation questionnaire. All 14 participants would suggest NO.TE.S to a colleague. According to the main themes identified, their participation led to (i) re-consideration of the physician-patient relationship, (ii) more conscious application of the patient-centered model, (iii) improvement in communication skills, (iv) awareness of medical interview guides, (v) increase in self-confidence, and (vi) techniques of self-care. Eleven physicians (78.6%) declared improvement in patients' satisfaction, 14 (100%) in their own satisfaction, seven (50%) in adherence to therapeutic plan and seven (50%) in treatment outcomes. The one-to-one coaching is a convenient and well-received personalized means of enhancing clinical communication in dermatologists, leading to more patient-centered medical encounters with better treatment outcomes.
Hernández Contreras, Natividad; Noguerol Oliva, Jagiorkis; Cantelar de Francisco, C Nereyda; Sánchez Valdés, C Lizet; Hernández Alvarez, C Hilda; Cabrera Cantelar, Nereyda
Aedes aegypti is a common vector in Cuba, which damages human health. Santiago de Cuba is one of the provinces with high number of mosquito foci in a sustained way. Therefore, it is very important, from the social viewpoint, to carry out educational interventions with anti-vector campaign workers in Mella municipality in this province. to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on dengue, Aedes aegypti and monitoring actions with anti-vector program workers from Mella municipality in Santiago de Cuba. a quasi-experimental research was conducted before and after the educational intervention from November to December, 2010. Lectures and workshops were given in each of the three health areas of the municipality. The sample was made up of 64 workers. The addressed topics were dengue, Aedes aegypti and actions to control them. An Excel database was created. Wilconxon's sign tests were applied to check changes in knowledge. SPSS statistical processor was used (11.5 version). before the educational interveption, the knowledge on dengue was broader than those on the rest of the addressed topics. After the intervention, except for the responses about the disease, the rest of the topics increased their initial assessment values. The topic Aedes aegypti had the highest number of satisfactory answers (100 %), followed by actions to control the vector (90 %). the educational strategy was effective, since it achieved high impact on the increase of knowledge of the anti-vector campaign workers in Mella municipality, Santiago de Cuba province.
Full Text Available
Background: Long-term interventions based on the active involvement of students, carried out by properly prepared staff using didactic support material (brochures, games etc. including the participation/involvement of mothers or associates in community interventions; seem to be the most effective ones. This study evaluates the effectiveness of nutrition education interventions carried out by teachers with active didactic methodologies.
Methods: The research was carried out by administering a frequency of food intake questionnaire, before and after the intervention. To compare the answers given before and after the educational intervention the Wilcoxon-test was applied to dependent data discriminating the group with “sufficient implementation” of the project versus “insufficient implementation”.
Results: Our data demonstrates that a substantial percentage of children do not report an adequate nutritional intake, making education interventions not only opportune but necessary. In both groups there was an increase in the number of subjects having breakfast, particularly in terms of bread and biscuits intake. In the group with “sufficient implementation” there was an increase in the intake of all kinds of food with respect to the previous day’s intake and a decrease in the intake of meat, fish and legumes consumed during the previous week; in the group with “insufficient implementation” only fish intake increased significantly while vegetable intake decreased in a non-significant way. So this educational intervention appears to have been particularly effective in modifying breakfast habits and reducing snack.
Ghisi, Gabriela Lima de Melo; Abdallah, Flavia; Grace, Sherry L; Thomas, Scott; Oh, Paul
(1) To investigate the impact of education on patients' knowledge; (2) to determine if educational interventions are related to health behavior change in cardiac patients; and (3) to describe the nature of educational interventions. A literature search of several electronic databases was conducted for published articles from database inception to August 2012. Eligible articles included cardiac patients, and described delivery of educational interventions by a healthcare provider. Outcomes were knowledge, smoking, physical activity, dietary habits, response to symptoms, medication adherence, and psychosocial well-being. Articles were reviewed by 2 authors independently. Overall, 42 articles were included, of which 23 (55%) were randomized controlled trials, and 16 (38%) were considered "good" quality. Eleven studies (26%) assessed knowledge, and 10 showed a significant increase with education. With regard to outcomes, educational interventions were significantly and positively related to physical activity, dietary habits, and smoking cessation. The nature of interventions was poorly described and most frequently delivered post-discharge, by a nurse, and in groups. Findings support the benefits of educational interventions in CHD, though increase in patients' knowledge and behavior change. Future reporting of education interventions should be more explicitly characterized, in order to be reproducible and assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malik, Sumaira H; Blake, Holly; Suggs, L Suzanne
The benefits of an active lifestyle are widely documented, yet studies show that only a small proportion of adults engage in sufficient levels of physical activity. The workplace presents an ideal avenue for delivering initiatives to promote physical activity, overcoming commonly cited barriers such as a 'lack of time' and providing access to a large intersection of society. The purpose of this study was to (1) explore the types of interventions workplaces implement to promote physical activity among staff, (2) describe the characteristics of those interventions, (3) understand whether these interventions positively impact on activity levels, and (4) assess the methodological quality of studies. A systematic review of workplace physical activity interventions published up to April 2011 was conducted to identify types of interventions and their outcomes. Of the 58 studies included, the majority utilized health promotion initiatives. There were six physical activity/exercise interventions, 13 counselling/support interventions, and 39 health promotion messages/information interventions. Thirty-two of these studies showed a statistically significant increase in a measure of physical activity against a control group at follow-up. While the studies included in this review show some evidence that workplace physical activity interventions can be efficacious, overall the results are inconclusive. Despite the proliferation of research in this area, there is still a need for more well-designed studies to fully determine the effectiveness of workplace interventions for increasing physical activity and to identify the types of interventions that show the most promise. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob
INTRODUCTION: Adaptation to living with a stoma is complex, and studies have shown that stoma creation has a great impact on patients' health related quality of life. The objective was to explore the effect of a structured patient education program on health related quality of life. Therefore, we...... included 50 patients in the study. Health related quality of life was measured before hospital discharge, three months and six months after stoma creation. The program included educational interventions involving lay-teachers, alongside health professional teachers. RESULTS: We found a significant rise...... in health related quality of life baseline (p = 0.045) with lower scores in the intervention group compared with the intervention group. However, there were no significant differences in the demographic variables at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Educational activities aimed at increase in knowledge and focusing...
Mathes, Tim; Großpietsch, Kirsten; Neugebauer, Edmund A M; Pieper, Dawid
Immunosuppressive drugs have to be taken through the whole duration of kidney transplant survival to avoid rejection. Low adherence can increase the risk of allograft rejection. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of adherence-enhancing interventions (AEI) in kidney transplantation recipients taking immunosuppressive drugs. A search was performed in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The search was performed in May 2016. We included comparative studies on AEI for kidney transplant recipients taking immunosuppressive drugs. The primary outcome was medication adherence. All identified articles were screened according to the predefined inclusion criteria. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Study selection and risk of bias assessment were performed by two reviewers independently. Data were extracted in standardized tables. Data extraction was verified by a second reviewer. All discrepancies were resolved through discussion. Data were synthesized in a structured narrative way. There is no registered or published protocol for this systematic review. We identified 12 studies. The number of participants ranged from 24 to 1830. Nine studies included adults, two children, and one adults and children. Risk of bias was high. The main reasons for high risk of bias were inadequate allocation sequence (confounding) and that studies were not blinded. Eleven studies evaluated AEI consisting of educational and/or behavioral components. All these studies showed an effect direction in favor of the intervention. Intervention effect was only moderate. Most adherence measures in studies on educational and behavioral interventions showed statistically significant differences. Studies that combined educational and behavioral intervention components showed larger effects. All studies that were statistically significant were multimodal. Studies that included an individualized component and more intensive interventions showed larger effects. One
Williams, Daniel; Tricomi, Gian; Gupta, Jay; Janise, Annie
Little is known about the efficacy of current interventions to mitigate burnout among medical students and residents, despite its association with mood disorders, absenteeism, low job satisfaction, and medical errors. This review summarizes the efficacy data of burnout interventions and how each modality is used. OVID-SP Medline, Google Scholar and PsychINFO were searched for combinations of medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: premedical students, medical students, internships, intern, medical graduate, clinical clerkship, and residents in combination with a keyword group of burnout, professional burnout, suicide, attempted suicide, and prevention. Studies with data on the efficacy from burnout prevention programs were included for review. Nineteen studies were selected for inclusion in this review. Eleven different types of interventions and combinations of interventions were used. There were six studies on the impact of the 2003 duty-hour restrictions by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education on burnout. Other approaches included self-development groups, conversion to a pass-fail grading system and training in mindfulness, communication, and stress management. Half of the intervention approaches had at least one study demonstrating benefit in reducing burnout. Self-development groups, the Respiratory One Method for relaxation, and conversion to a pass-fail grading system appear to reduce burnout. The burnout data on mindfulness training and the 2003 resident duty-hour restrictions are mixed. There were no studies available on burnout among premedical students or suicide prevention among medical students or residents. There is a growing body of evidence-based interventions to mitigate burnout which can be used in the development of future programs. More research is needed to identify and intervene against burnout earlier in the medical education pipeline, including at the undergraduate level.
Collin R. Payne
Conclusions: Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets.
Dave, Jayna M; Thompson, Deborah I; Svendsen-Sanchez, Ann; McNeill, Lorna Haughton; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria
The focus of this article is the development of a nutrition education intervention for food bank clients. Formative research using mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) and community-based participatory research principles was conducted to assess the nutrition education needs of clients obtaining service from the Houston Food Bank (HFB). Participants were HFB and pantry staff and clients. Interview data were coded and analyzed using grounded theory approach. Themes were then identified. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequencies and descriptives. Data were used to tailor the curriculum to the target population. Six HFB staff, 49 pantry staff from 17 pantries, and 54 clients from 10 pantries participated in interviews and focus groups and completed questionnaires. The participants provided opinion on the current nutrition education provided via the food bank and made suggestions on strategies for development of an intervention. Their feedback was used to develop the six-session intervention curriculum to be delivered over 6 months. This research provides evidence that it is critical for members of the target audience be included in formative research to develop behavior change programs that are relevant and appealing and target their needs and interests.
Carmen L.G. de Aymar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to study the perception of a Neonatal Intensive Care team on pain assessment and management before and after an educational intervention created and implemented in the unit. METHODS: intervention study developed as action research, in three phases. In Phase 1, a quantitative study was performed to identify how professionals perceive pain management in the unit. In Phase 2, an educational intervention was carried out, using the Operational Group (OG, which defined strategies to be adopted to seek improvements in pain assessment and management. In Phase 3, the initial questionnaire was reapplied to assess professionals' perceptions about the subject after the intervention. All professionals directly working in newborn care were included. RESULTS: the perception of professionals about pain management and assessment in the unit showed a statistically significant difference between the two phases of research, highlighting the increase in frequency of reference for evaluation and use of some method of pain relief procedures for most analyzed procedures. Participation in training (one of the strategies defined by the operational group was reported by 86.4% of the professionals. They reported the use of scales for pain assessment, established by the protocol adopted in the service after the intervention, with a frequency of 94.4%. Changes in pain assessment and management were perceived by 79.6% of the participants. CONCLUSION: the professionals involved in the educational intervention observed changes in pain management in the unit and related them to the strategies defined and implemented by the OG.
Barretto Cardoso, Laís Souza; de Souza-Machado, Carolina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir
Objective. To review the literature on the impact of educational asthma interventions in schools regarding the knowledge and morbidity of the disease among children and adolescents. Methods. A systematic review was conducted for controlled clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of educational asthma interventions for students, asthmatic or nonasthmatic, families, and school staff. Databases were CENTRAL, PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SciELO. Articles published in any language were considered, in the period from 2005 to 2014, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results. Seventeen articles were selected (N = 5,879 subjects). 94% of the interventions (16 of 17 studies) were applied in developed countries that were led by health professionals and most of them targeted asthmatics. Asthma education promotes the improvement of knowledge about the disease in at least one of the evaluated areas. 29% of the interventions (5 of 17 studies) showed a reduction of the asthma symptoms, 35% (6 of 17 studies) reduction of the hospitalization instances and emergency visits, 29% (5 of 17 studies) reduction of school absenteeism, and 41% (7 of 17 studies) increase in the quality of life of the individuals. Conclusions. Educational interventions in schools raise the awareness of asthma and weaken the impact of morbidity indicators. PMID:27656097
Ana Carla Carvalho Coelho
Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on the impact of educational asthma interventions in schools regarding the knowledge and morbidity of the disease among children and adolescents. Methods. A systematic review was conducted for controlled clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of educational asthma interventions for students, asthmatic or nonasthmatic, families, and school staff. Databases were CENTRAL, PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SciELO. Articles published in any language were considered, in the period from 2005 to 2014, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results. Seventeen articles were selected (N=5,879 subjects. 94% of the interventions (16 of 17 studies were applied in developed countries that were led by health professionals and most of them targeted asthmatics. Asthma education promotes the improvement of knowledge about the disease in at least one of the evaluated areas. 29% of the interventions (5 of 17 studies showed a reduction of the asthma symptoms, 35% (6 of 17 studies reduction of the hospitalization instances and emergency visits, 29% (5 of 17 studies reduction of school absenteeism, and 41% (7 of 17 studies increase in the quality of life of the individuals. Conclusions. Educational interventions in schools raise the awareness of asthma and weaken the impact of morbidity indicators.
Aadahl, M; Smith, L von Huth; Toft, U
Aim To examine the effect of a multifactorial lifestyle intervention on 5-year change in physical activity (PA) and to explore whether length of education had an impact on the effect of the intervention. Methods Two random samples (high intervention group A, n=11 708; low intervention group B, n......-based multifactorial lifestyle intervention did not influence social inequality in PA. Keywords Lifestyle, Exercise, Randomised Intervention Study, Ischemic Heart Disease, Socioeconomic Position....
McNulty, Cliodna A M; Hogan, Angela H; Ricketts, Ellie J; Wallace, Louise; Oliver, Isabel; Campbell, Rona; Kalwij, Sebastian; O'Connell, Elaine; Charlett, Andre
To determine if a structured complex intervention increases opportunistic chlamydia screening testing of patients aged 15-24 years attending English general practitioner (GP) practices. A prospective, Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with a modified Zelen design involving 160 practices in South West England in 2010. The intervention was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It comprised of practice-based education with up to two additional contacts to increase the importance of screening to GP staff and their confidence to offer tests through skill development (including videos). Practical resources (targets, posters, invitation cards, computer reminders, newsletters including feedback) aimed to actively influence social cognitions of staff, increasing their testing intention. Data from 76 intervention and 81 control practices were analysed. In intervention practices, chlamydia screening test rates were 2.43/100 15-24-year-olds registered preintervention, 4.34 during intervention and 3.46 postintervention; controls testing rates were 2.61/100 registered patients prior intervention, 3.0 during intervention and 2.82 postintervention. During the intervention period, testing in intervention practices was 1.76 times as great (CI 1.24 to 2.48) as controls; this persisted for 9 months postintervention (1.57 times as great, CI 1.27 to 2.30). Chlamydia infections detected increased in intervention practices from 2.1/1000 registered 15-24-year-olds prior intervention to 2.5 during the intervention compared with 2.0 and 2.3/1000 in controls (Estimated Rate Ratio intervention versus controls 1.4 (CI 1.01 to 1.93). This complex intervention doubled chlamydia screening tests in fully engaged practices. The modified Zelen design gave realistic measures of practice full engagement (63%) and efficacy of this educational intervention in general practice; it should be used more often. The trial was registered on the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio database
Koekkoek, Bauke; van Meijel, Berno; Schene, Aart; Hutschemaekers, Giel
Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a structured intervention aimed at prevention and management of ineffective behaviours by long-term non-psychotic patients and their treating clinicians. The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to guide the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of the intervention. Qualitative (individual and group interviews), quantitative (survey), and mixed methods (Delphi-procedure) research was used to gain a broad perspective of the problem. Empirical findings, theoretical models, and existing evidence were combined to construct a program tailored to the needs of the target groups. A structured program to increase effective illness behaviour in long-term non-psychotic patients and effective professional behaviour in their treating clinicians was developed, consisting of three subsequent stages and four substantial components, that is described in detail. Implementation took place and evaluation of the intervention is being carried out. Intervention Mapping proved to be a suitable method to develop a structured intervention for a multi-faceted problem in mental health care.
Crutzen, Rik; Nurmi, Johanna; Beattie, Marguerite; Dombrowski, Stephan; Knittle, Keegan; Hankonen, Nelli
Motivation is a proximal determinant of behavior in many psychological theories, and increasing motivation is central to most behavior change interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to fill a gap in the literature by identifying features of behavior change interventions associated with favorable changes in three prominent motivational constructs: intention, stage of change and autonomous motivation. A systematic literature search identified 88 intervention studies (N = ...
Farris, Jaelyn R; Bert, Shannon S Carothers; Nicholson, Jody S; Glass, Kerrie; Borkowski, John G
This study assessed the secondary effects of a parent training intervention program on maternal adjustment, with a focus on understanding ways in which program efficacy differed for participants as a function of whether or not their children had behavior problems. Mothers (N = 99) of toddlers (2-3 years of age) were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of intervention: (1) informational booklet (2) booklet + face-to-face parent training sessions, or (3) booklet + web-based parent training sessions. Findings indicated that all levels of intervention were associated with increases in maternal well-being for participants with typically developing children. Mothers of toddlers with behavior problems, however, did not benefit from receiving only the booklet but significantly benefitted from receiving either the face-to-face or web-based interventions. Findings are discussed in terms of efficient and efficacious program dissemination and the resulting implications for public policy.
Julian Cristia; Alejo Czerwonko; Pablo Garofalo
In policy circles a lively debate exists regarding the effects on educational outcomes of introducing computers in schools. A number of empirical studies have measured its effect on test scores. There is a lack of empirical evidence, however, on the effects of this type of intervention on drop-out and repetition rates, variables that have a direct impact on years of education. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature. To this end, we analyze rich longitudinal censal data from Peru a...
This paper provides an insight into energy efficiency interventions studies, focusing on issues arising in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) in particular. Based on a review of the context for energy efficiency and carbon reduction programmes in the UK and the trends in higher education sector, existing external and internal policies and initiatives and their relevant issues are extensively discussed. To explore the efficacy of some internal intervention strategies, such as technical, non-technical and management interventions, a survey was conducted among UK higher education institutions between February and April 2008. Consultation responses show that there are a relatively high percentage of institutions (83%) that have embarked on both technical and non-technical initiatives, which is a demonstration to the joined-up approach in such area. Major barriers for intervention studies are also identified, including lack of methodology, non-clarity of energy demand and consumption issues, difficulty in establishing assessment boundaries, problems with regards to indices and their effectiveness and so on. Besides establishing clear targets for carbon reductions within the sector, it is concluded that it is important to develop systems for effectively measuring and evaluating the impact of different policies, regulations and schemes in the future as the first step to explore. - Research Highlights: → The research provides an insight into energy efficiency interventions studies, focusing particularly on issues arising in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). → Based on a review of the context for energy efficiency and carbon reduction programmes in the UK and the trends in higher education sector, existing external and internal policies and initiatives, and their relevant issues are extensively discussed. → To explore the efficacy of some internal intervention strategies, such as technical, non-technical and management interventions, a survey was conducted
Amiri, Parisa; Hamzavi Zarghani, Najmeh; Nazeri, Pantea; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Karimi, Mehrdad; Amouzegar, Atieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun
Because of their increased need for iodine, pregnant women are among the high-risk groups for iodine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program on the iodine nutrition status of pregnant women. In this randomized controlled trial, 100 pregnant women were randomly selected from five healthcare centers in the southern region of Tehran, the capital of Iran. In the intervention group, pregnant women received a four-month educational program, which included two face-to-face educational sessions, using a researcher-designed educational pamphlet in the second and third trimesters, and two follow-up telephone calls. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) scores, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and salt iodine content were assessed at baseline and four months after the intervention. At baseline, there were significant associations between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.38, p = 0.03) between practice and UIC (r = 0.28, p = 0.01) and between UIC and iodine content of salt (r = 0.24, p = 0.009). Although a significant difference was found in mean KAP scores between the two groups after the educational intervention, scores were significantly higher in the intervention group compared with controls (p educational intervention increasing KAP among women regarding the importance of iodine and iodized salt consumption during pregnancy, their iodine status did not improve. Considering the main socio-environmental determinants of iodine deficiency, in particular, the monitoring of salt fortification, prescribing iodine containing supplements as well as improving health literacy in pregnant women seem essential strategies.
Zhou, Xing; Chen, Rao-Sheng; Zheng, De-Ren; Li, Jian-Ren; Cheng, Xiao-Bo; Ao, Jian-Qiu; Liu, He-Xing
To evaluate the effect of a new mode of health education in schools. In the Zhaiqian Primary School, Yanrui Town, Yushan County in a hilly schistosomiasis endemic area, a new mode of health education intervention, i. e. "rewards and punishment + advise others by using one's experience + teachers' participation" was carried out, and the knowledge, attitude and practice of schistosomiasis prevention of the pupils, and the schistosome infection rates of the pupils were investigated and the results were analyzed and compared before and after the intervention. Among 204 pupils investigated, the awareness rate of schistosomiasis prevention knowledge increased from 26.47% before the intervention to 86.76% and 99.51% one and two years after the intervention, respectively; the rate of correct attitude increased from 17.04% to 73.04% and 100%, respectively; the rate of the infested water contact decreased from 83.33% to 26.96% and 0, respectively; the schistosome infection rate decreased from 2.94% to 0.49% and 0, respectively. The health education of schistosomiasis prevention in schools is necessary, and the new mode of health education, "rewards and punishment + advise others by using one's experience + teachers' participation" is effective in the prevention from schistosome infection in pupils.
Vitolins, Mara Z; Crandall, Sonia; Miller, David; Ip, Eddie; Marion, Gail; Spangler, John G
Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States. However, physicians feel poorly trained to address the obesity epidemic. This article examines effective training methods for overweight and obesity intervention in undergraduate medical education. Using indexing terms related to overweight, obesity, and medical student education, we conducted a literature searched PubMed PsycINFO, Cochrane, and ERIC for relevant articles in English. References from articles identified were also reviewed to located additional articles. We included all studies that incorporated process or outcome evaluations of obesity educational interventions for U.S. medical students. Of an initial 168 citations, 40 abstracts were retrieved; 11 studies were found to be pertinent to medical student obesity education, but only 5 included intervention and evaluation elements. Quality criteria for inclusion consisted of explicit evaluation of the educational methods used. Data extraction identified participants (e.g., year of medical students), interventions, evaluations, and results. These 5 studies successfully used a variety of teaching methods including hands on training, didactic lectures, role-playing, and standardized patient interaction to increase medical students' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding overweight and obesity intervention. Two studies addressed medical student bias toward overweight and obese patients. No studies addressed health disparities in the epidemiology and bias of obesity. Despite the commonly cited "obesity epidemic," there are very few published studies that report the effectiveness of medical school obesity educational programs. Gaps still exist within undergraduate medical education including specific training that addresses obesity and long-term studies showing that such training is retained.
Doubova, Svetlana V.; Martinez-Vega, Ingrid Patricia; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo
To evaluate the effect of an internet-based educational intervention to increase knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), attitudes and self-efficacy toward consistent condom use in Mexican adolescents. A field trial with an intervention and control group was conducted in 14- to 15-year-old students in two secondary schools. The…
Smith, Jessi L.; Handley, Ian M.; Zale, Alexander V.; Rushing, Sara; Potvin, Martha A.
Workforce homogeneity limits creativity, discovery, and job satisfaction; nonetheless, the vast majority of university faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are men. We conducted a randomized and controlled three-step faculty search intervention based in self-determination theory aimed at increasing the number of women faculty in STEM at one US university where increasing diversity had historically proved elusive. Results show that the numbers of women candidates considered for and offered tenure-track positions were significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with those in controls. Searches in the intervention were 6.3 times more likely to make an offer to a woman candidate, and women who were made an offer were 5.8 times more likely to accept the offer from an intervention search. Although the focus was on increasing women faculty within STEM, the intervention can be adapted to other scientific and academic communities to advance diversity along any dimension.
Bellicha, Alice; Kieusseian, Aurélie; Fontvieille, Anne-Marie; Tataranni, Antonio; Copin, Nane; Charreire, Hélène; Oppert, Jean-Michel
Stair climbing helps to accumulate short bouts of physical activity throughout the day as a strategy for attaining recommended physical activity levels. There exists a need for effective long-term stair-climbing interventions that can be transferred to various worksite settings. The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate short- and long-term effectiveness of a worksite stair-climbing intervention using an objective measurement of stair climbing and a controlled design; and 2) to perform a process evaluation of the intervention. We performed a controlled before-and-after study. The study was conducted in two corporate buildings of the same company located in Paris (France), between September, 2013 and September, 2014. The status of either "intervention site" or "control site" was assigned by the investigators. Participants were on-site employees (intervention site: n = 783; control site: n = 545 at baseline). Two one-month intervention phases using signs (intervention phase 1) and enhancement of stairwell aesthetics (intervention phase 2) were performed. The main outcome was the change in stair climbing, measured with automatic counters and expressed in absolute counts/day/100 employees and percent change compared to baseline. Qualitative outcomes were used to describe the intervention process. Stair climbing significantly increased at the intervention site (+18.7%) but decreased at the control site (-13.3%) during the second intervention phase (difference between sites: +4.6 counts/day/100 employees, p levels at the intervention site, but a significant difference between sites was found (intervention site vs. control site: +2.9 counts/day/100 employees, p level after the end of the study. This study shows a successful stair-climbing intervention at the worksite. The main barriers to adoption and implementation were related to location and visibility of posters. Process evaluation was useful in identifying these barriers throughout the study, and in
Kalisch Ellett, Lisa M; Pratt, N L; Sluggett, J K; Ramsay, E N; Kerr, M; LeBlanc, V T; Barratt, J D; Roughead, E E
Osteoporosis interventions targeting older Australians and clinicians were conducted in 2008 and 2011 as part of a national quality improvement program underpinned by behavioural theory and stakeholder engagement. Uptake of bone mineral density (BMD) tests among targeted men and women increased after both interventions and sustained increases in osteoporosis treatment were observed among men targeted in 2008. Educational interventions incorporating patient-specific prescriber feedback have improved osteoporosis screening and treatment among at-risk patients in clinical trials but have not been evaluated nationally. This study assessed uptake of BMD testing and osteoporosis medicines following two national Australian quality improvement initiatives targeting women (70-79 years) and men (75-85 years) at risk of osteoporosis. Administrative health claims data were used to determine monthly rates of BMD testing and initiation of osteoporosis medicines in the 9-months post-intervention among targeted men and women compared to older cohorts of men and women. Log binomial regression models were used to assess differences between groups. In 2008 91,794 patients were targeted and 52,427 were targeted in 2011. There was a twofold increase in BMD testing after each intervention among targeted patients compared to controls (p theory and stakeholder engagement that target both primary care clinicians and patients can improve osteoporosis screening and management at the national level.
Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Huang, Bin; Slap, Gail B.; Gordon, Judith S.
We conducted a randomized trial of parents and their 9- to 16-year-old children to pilot test an emergency department (ED)-based intervention designed to increase parent-child tobacco communication. Intervention group (IG) parents received verbal/written instructions on how to relay anti-tobacco messages to their children; control group (CG)…
Block, Jason P; Chandra, Amitabh; McManus, Katherine D; Willett, Walter C
We investigated whether a price increase on regular (sugary) soft drinks and an educational intervention would reduce their sales. We implemented a 5-phase intervention at the Brigham and Women's Hospital cafeteria in Boston, Massachusetts. After posting existing prices of regular and diet soft drinks and water during baseline, we imposed several interventions in series: a price increase of 35% on regular soft drinks, a reversion to baseline prices (washout), an educational campaign, and a combination price and educational period. We collected data from a comparison site, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, also in Boston, for the final 3 phases. Sales of regular soft drinks declined by 26% during the price increase phase. This reduction in sales persisted throughout the study period, with an additional decline of 18% during the combination phase compared with the washout period. Education had no independent effect on sales. Analysis of the comparison site showed no change in regular soft drink sales during the study period. A price increase may be an effective policy mechanism to decrease sales of regular soda. Further multisite studies in varied populations are warranted to confirm these results.
Kwang, Ng Beng; Mahayudin, Tasneem; Yien, Hii Ling; Abdul Karim, Abdul Kadir; Teik, Chew Kah; Shan, Lim Pei
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Studies evaluating the effect of health education on knowledge and perception of cervical cancer have generated conflicting results. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of educational intervention towards knowledge of HPV vacccination for cervical cancer prevention among pre-university students in Malaysia. This was an experimental before and after study performed between October 2014 and March 2015. Five hundred and eighty students were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. All were required to complete both pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires. Those in the intervention group were given an information leaflet to read before answering the post-intervention questionnaire. Almost half (48.3%) of the students had poor knowledge, with a score less than 5, and only 51 (8.8%) exhibited good knowledge, with a score of 11 and above. After educational intervention, the number of students with poor knowledge was reduced to 177 (29.3%) and the number of students who exhibited good knowledge increased to 148 (25.5%). Students from the intervention group demonstrated significant higher total scores in knowledge regarding 'HPV infection and cervical cancer' (p=0.000) and 'HPV vaccination and cervical cancer prevention' (p=0.000) during post-intervention as compared to the control group. Knowledge on HPV infection and vaccination is low among pre-university students. Educational intervention in the form of information leaflets appears effective in creating awareness and improving knowledge.
Fátima H. Cecchetto
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Childhood obesity is an important health problem worldwide. In this context, there is a need for the development and evaluation of innovative educational interventions targeting prevention and formation of health habits. Objectives: To ascertain the impact of ludic workshops on children’s knowledge, self-care, and body weight. Methods: This was a randomized, clinical study with 79 students aged 7-11 years, conducted from March to November 2012. Anthropometric measurements were collected and two questionnaires (Typical Day of Physical Activities and Food Intake, in Portuguese, and the CARDIOKIDS, a questionnaire of knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors were applied at baseline, at the end of intervention, and three months thereafter. The intervention consisted of eight playful workshops, which involved the presentation of a play. Results: Seventy-nine students were randomized to the intervention (n = 40 or the control group (n = 39. Mean age was 10.0 ± 1.1 years. After eight weeks, the intervention group showed significant improvement in the knowledge score (p < 0.001. There was an increase in physical activity scores in both groups, but with no difference between the groups at the end of intervention (p = 0.209. A reduction in the BMI percentile was observed in the intervention group, but there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups after the intervention. Conclusions: Playful interventions may improve knowledge and physical activity levels in children and, when combined with other strategies, may be beneficial to prevent child obesity and improve self-care.
Shiina, Akihiro; Niitsu, Tomihisa; Sato, Aiko; Omiya, Soichiro; Nagata, Takako; Tomoto, Aika; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Yoshito; Iyo, Masaomi
To evaluate the effect of educational intervention on individuals' knowledge of and attitudes toward forensic mental health. We conducted a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward various ideas about forensic mental health. The respondents attended a 1-h seminar regarding forensic mental health after answering the questionnaire. On completion of the seminar, the respondents answered another questionnaire containing many of the same questions as contained in the pre-seminar questionnaire. A total of 86 individuals attended the seminar, and 78 responded to the questionnaire. Only 13 (18.8%) participants were supportive of the concept of criminal responsibility initially, and there was a statistically significant increase in those who became more supportive after the seminar, with 22 (33%) being supportive after the seminar (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P criminal responsibility after the intervention. These results suggest that public attitudes toward criminal responsibility and mental health can be influenced via educational interventions.
Harris, Brendan Ryan; Bennett, William E
There has been a significant increase in prescription of acid suppression therapy to infants despite limited support for efficacy and safety. Prior studies have shown that educational interventions can improve clinician practices. Our aim is to implement an educational module with high-yield evidence to decrease the rate of prescribing these medications. Chart review of infants seen by residents after completing module was performed. Twelve clinic sessions before and after intervention were examined. 28 residents completed the intervention and required clinics. Before implementation, 1.8% of infants seen were prescribed acid suppression with none receiving proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). After completion, 0.8% of infants were prescribed acid suppression and 1 patient received PPI. This was not a significant change. The study was unsuccessful in effecting changes in provider prescribing practices. Although, this is not the outcome expected, it is encouraging to have a low initial rate of PPI therapy prescribed patients.
Ayash, Claudia; Axelrod, Deborah; Nejmeh-Khoury, Sana; Aziz, Arwa; Yusr, Afrah; Gany, Francesca M
Although the number of Arab Americans is growing in the United States, there is very little data available on this population's cancer incidence and screening practices. Moreover, there are few interventions addressing their unique needs. This study aims to determine effective strategies for increasing breast cancer screening in at-risk underserved Arab American women. AMBER utilizes a community based participatory approach to conduct formative research and program interventions, including culturally appropriate Arabic language breast cancer education, screening coordination, and cultural competency training for healthcare professionals in New York City. In 2 years, 597 women were educated, 189 underserved women were identified as being in need of assistance, 68 were screened, one new case of breast cancer was detected, and four active cases in need of follow-up reconnected with care. The AMBER model is an important intervention for breast cancer screening and care in the underserved Arab American community.
Full Text Available Currently, in the Bologna context, university teaching methods focus on the student and on a learning experience based on practical methods. Under the guidance of teachers, students in the second year of the first Environmental Health Course at the Polytechnic Institute of Beja have designed and developed the following nine community intervention projects relating to environmental health: dangerous products (mercury; habitability and geriatrics; health education and the environment; drinking water; information and communication in environmental health; efficient use of resources in public buildings; child development in outdoor spaces; and allergenic factors in housing. This pedagogical action takes place over three semesters, corresponding to the three distinct phases: design, implementation and evaluation / dissemination. To ensure the viability of the projects, each group of three students has established partnerships with various entities, such as city and parish councils, hospitals, schools, consumer cooperatives, companies dealing with hazardous waste, the Youth Institute and other commercial enterprises. Although it has not been possible to evaluate the whole project, preliminary results suggest that the planned activities have been very successful, with health benefits for the people involved, through environmental improvements or an increase in empowerment. It was also possible to achieve economic gains and contribute to the conservation of the environment. The students were able to gain skills and knowledge in a teaching model characterized by the absence of lectures in which students, assisted by teachers, take decisions and independent action, simulating a real context of professional practice. This experience suggests that, by utilizing the Bologna method, the polytechnic institutions may improve their real contribution to the health of communities.
Lobos Fernández, Luz Lorena; Leyton Dinamarca, Bárbara; Kain Bercovich, Juliana; Vio del Río, Fernando
The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive intervention in nutrition education and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity in primary school children of low socioeconomic status in Macul county in Chile, with a two year follow-up (2008 and 2009) of the children. The intervention consisted in teacher nutrition training in healthy eating and the implementation of educational material based on Chilean dietary guidelines. In addition, there was an increase in physical education classes to 3-4 hours per week and physical education teachers were recruited for that purpose. Weight, height and six minutes walk test (6MWT) were measured and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z score, prevalence of normal, overweight and obese children were calculated with WHO 2007reference. Changes between baseline and BMI Z in each period and 6MWT/height, and changes in nutrition knowledge through questionnaires were measured. There was no significant difference in BMI Z score between the initial and final periods and in the evolution of the nutritional status of children. Nutrition knowledge improved significantly between the two measurements. There was a significant increase in 6MWT/height (10 meters between baseline and follow-up, p educational interventions are required according to the reality of each community to obtain a positive impact to prevent childhood obesity in primary schools. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: School plays an important role in solving society’s health problems. Teachers are assigned a double role, that of the educator and that of the carrier of health-related behaviours and attitudes.Aim: The present study aims at investigating: a the type and frequency of health education programs in secondary schools, and b the teachers’ voluntary un-compensated contribution in promoting health-related behaviours by acting as role-models.Method: The data collection period lasted two months in the beginning of the school year 2007-2008. We used a 4-section questionnaire. The initial sample of 287 teachers which was selected by cluster random sampling, were secondary education teachers with permanent positions, working in 4 junior high-schools, 3 general high-schools, and 2 vocational high-schools in Larissa county. The final sample consisted of 216 teachers (response rate 75.3%.Results: 25% of the participants had attented seminars in health education, while 60% had read some handbook on Health Education in the last five years. 96 had participated in an organised health education program, and 70 were in charge of one. In 30% of the programs, the subjects were about mental health and they usually lasted about 6 to 12 months. 83% of the participants stated that they advise students, at least once per semester, on relaxation and satisfaction from life.Conclusion: The teachers’ socio-demographic and pedagogic profile, and their previous experience on health issues, may constitute prognostic indicators for their voluntary teaching of health education and, moreover, they are related with a teacher’s decision to get involed in health education interventions.
Mhimbira, Francis A; Cuevas, Luis E; Dacombe, Russell; Mkopi, Abdallah; Sinclair, David
Pulmonary tuberculosis is usually diagnosed when symptomatic individuals seek care at healthcare facilities, and healthcare workers have a minimal role in promoting the health-seeking behaviour. However, some policy specialists believe the healthcare system could be more active in tuberculosis diagnosis to increase tuberculosis case detection. To evaluate the effectiveness of different strategies to increase tuberculosis case detection through improving access (geographical, financial, educational) to tuberculosis diagnosis at primary healthcare or community-level services. We searched the following databases for relevant studies up to 19 December 2016: the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library, Issue 12, 2016; MEDLINE; Embase; Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index; BIOSIS Previews; and Scopus. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) for ongoing trials. Randomized and non-randomized controlled studies comparing any intervention that aims to improve access to a tuberculosis diagnosis, with no intervention or an alternative intervention. Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We compared interventions using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included nine cluster-randomized trials, one individual randomized trial, and seven non-randomized controlled studies. Nine studies were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe), six in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Nepal, and Pakistan), and two in South America (Brazil and Colombia); which are all high tuberculosis prevalence areas.Tuberculosis outreach
Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Krotov, Yakov E.; Tkacheva, Oksana N.; Kruchkov, Konstantin V.; Korotaev, Ivan S.
The urgency of problem under investigation due to fact that increasing demand of the information technology infrastructure development in current conditions of educational institutions functioning, including formation of the information-educational environment point of view. Offered organizational and economic model of constructing processes for…
Neyzi, O; Olgun, P; Kutluay, T; Uzel, N; Saner, G; Gökçay, G; Taşdelen, E; Akar, U
This study was designed to search for an effective method to promote exclusive breast feeding among Turkish city women delivering in hospitals. Four hundred and forty-two primiparae with uncomplicated deliveries and with healthy infants with birthweights of greater than 2500 g were exposed to a group educational session on breast feeding after birth, followed by one repeat session at home. Four hundred and ninety-nine women served as controls. All homes were visited monthly for 6 months by independent observers and data relevant to the feeding of the infants were collected. Weight measurements of 176 infants were taken at age 4 months. The study and control mothers were similar in sociodemographic characteristics which reflected a low socio-economic/educational background but relatively good housing conditions. Although significant differences in frequency of exclusive breast feeding were found between the study and control groups, the impact of the intervention was much lower than our expectations and short-lived. Type of feeding was not related to sex or birthweight of the infant, nor to maternal variables. Weight at age 4 months was within normal limits and similar in the study and control groups. It was concluded that lack of up-to-date information on infant feeding was the main obstacle to breast feeding in urban groups in Turkey, and that the impact of an educational intervention limited to the first week after delivery was lost within the first 2 months.
Rusakaniko, S; Mbizvo, M T; Kasule, J; Gupta, V; Kinoti, S N; Mpanju-Shumbushu, W; Sebina-Zziwa, J; Mwateba, R; Padayachy, J
Unwanted teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections and the attendant morbidity and mortality necessitate the need for understanding factors influencing adolescent sexuality and the implementation of programmes designed to improve their knowledge, reproductive behaviour, sexual and reproductive health. To determine the impact of an intervention package on knowledge levels of various reproductive health issues through trend analysis. Randomized controlled trial of a health education intervention in schools stratified for representativeness. Rural and urban secondary schools in Zimbabwe. 1,689 students recruited from 11 secondary schools in Mashonaland Central. Knowledge level before and after intervention. The demographic characteristics of the pupils at baseline, five months and nine months were comparable between the two groups. There was an overall increase in knowledge on menstruation. Students from the intervention schools were more likely to have correct knowledge over time on aspects of reproductive biology. A significant linear trend (p = 0.017) was observed in the area of family planning and contraception. A linear decreasing trend (p = 0.001) was observed on pregnancy risk. Though not significantly linear, the general trend of knowledge levels in all the areas of reproductive health, pregnancy risk, STDs and HIV/AIDS showed an upward trend, from 20% to 96%. Worth noting was that in all the areas the intervention group had knowledge above that in the control group. The reproductive health education intervention had an impact on aspects of reproductive biology and contraception as measured by the increased scoring at follow up when comparing intervention and control schools. The overall findings point to the need for early school based reproductive health education programmes incooperating correct information on reproductive biology and the prevention of subsequent reproductive morbidity by imparting information on non-risk behaviour during the early
Albert, David A; Bruzelius, Emilie; Ward, Angela; Gordon, Judith S
The aims of this mixed-methods study were to assess tobacco treatment behaviors among residents and faculty in dental specialty postdoctoral programs and to explore factors in training and practice related to tobacco treatment education. Surveys and focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of participants at three postdoctoral residency programs in New York City. Surveys assessed tobacco cessation training and behaviors. Focus groups explored barriers to implementing tobacco cessation treatment in educational settings. Data were collected between May and December 2013. Among the 160 faculty and residents identified as potentially eligible for the study, 60 were invited by program directors to participate, and 50 subsequently completed the survey and participated in a focus group (response rate of 31.3%). Survey results indicated high levels of asking patients about tobacco use and advising patients to quit. In contrast, specific tobacco cessation assistance and follow-up care occurred less frequently. There were statistically significant differences in tobacco cessation intervention across the specialties surveyed, but not between residents and faculty. Focus group comments were grouped into three broad areas: clinician factors, organizational support, and structural and contextual factors. Focus group results indicated that participants experienced significant organizational and structural barriers to learning about and providing tobacco treatment. Participants from each specialty indicated that multi-level barriers impeded their provision of evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions in postdoctoral educational settings. They suggested that didactic education should be reinforced by organizational- and systems-level changes to facilitate comprehensive tobacco education and effective cessation treatment in future dental practice.
Malmir, Shabnam; Barati, Majid; Khani Jeihooni, Ali; Bashirian, Saeed; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi
Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to prevent cervical cancer among marginalized Iranianwomen based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a theoretical framework. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 143 women of Kermanshah City in western Iran during 2017. Participants were recruited through cluster and simple random sampling and randomly divided into experimental (n=72) and control groups (n=71). All completed a self-administered questionnaire including PMT constructs and demographic variables. An intervention over six sessions was then applied to the experimental group. Reassessment was conducted three months after the intervention, with data was analyzed with SPSS-16 using chi-square, McNemar, paired T- and independent T-tests. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of PMT, and cervical cancer screening behavior showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention (P>0.05). The educational manipulation had significant effects on the experimental groups’ average response for perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived reward, self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost and protection motivation (all p health centers were significantly increased after 3 months in the experimental (P=0.048), but notthe control group (P>0.05). Conclusions: The results show that applying an educational intervention based on PMT might help prevent cervical cancer and improve regular Pap smear testing. Creative Commons Attribution License
Yuri Arnold Domínguez
Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyles incorporated in early ages could influence the most important behaviours and risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease in order to reduce the incidence of this condition during adulthood. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the educational-participatory intervention on students' knowledge as to cardiovascular risk factors. Material: An educational intervention with a quasi-experimental design was conducted from April 2007 to October 2008 in eighth grade junior high school students from Old Havana (the intervention group and Center Havana (the control group. The nonparametric Chi square tests from McNemar and Mantel-Haenszel were used. Results: There were significant statistical associations with a confidence limit of 95% between initial and final state of knowledge in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in the intervention group (p = 0.0001, in the control group (p = 0.035 and between the study group versus the control group after the intervention (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: An educational-participatory program for health promotion and prevention of major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (inadequate dietary habits, smoking and physical inactivity among adolescents, contributes to increase their knowledge and encourages the adoption of healthy daily habits and lifestyles.
Wu, Justine P; Bennett, Ian; Levine, Jeffrey P; Aguirre, Abigail Calkins; Bellamy, Scarlett; Fleischman, Joan
We aimed to assess the effect of an educational intervention on the interest in and support for abortion training among family medicine residents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey before and after an educational lecture on medical and surgical abortion in primary care among 89 residents in 10 New Jersey family medicine programs. Before the lecture, there was more interest in medical abortion training than surgical abortion. Resident interest in surgical abortion and overall support for abortion training increased after the educational intervention (p<.01). Efforts to develop educational programs on early abortion care may facilitate the integration of abortion training in family medicine.
Results indicate that this mHealth intervention is engaging and promising for increasing PA among adolescents with ADHD, and warrant further study. Implications for improving ADHD symptoms and overall functioning for this undertreated population are discussed.
Lakestani, Nelly; Donaldson, Morag L
This study aimed to investigate whether preschool children can learn how to interpret dogs' behaviours, with the purpose of helping avoid dog bites. Three- to five-year-old children (N = 70) were tested on their ability to answer questions about dogs' emotional states before and after participating in either an educational intervention about dog behaviour (intervention group) or an activity about wild animals (control group). Children who had received training about dog behaviour (intervention group) were significantly better at judging the dogs' emotional states after the intervention compared to before. The frequency with which they referred to relevant behaviours in justifying their judgements also increased significantly. In contrast, the control group's performance did not differ significantly between the two testing times. These results indicate that preschool children can be taught how to correctly interpret dogs' behaviours. This implies that incorporating such training into prevention programmes may contribute to reducing dog bite incidents.
Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Eftekhar, Hassan; Majdzadeh, Reza; Montazeri, Ali; Delavari, Alireza
Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of death in the world. There are few published studies that have used theory-based interventions designed to increase colorectal cancer screening in community lay health organizations. The present study was guided by the theoretical concepts of the preventive health model. Twelve health clubs of a municipal district in Tehran were randomized to two study groups with equal ratio. The control group received usual services throughout the study while the intervention group also received a theory-based educational program on colorectal cancer screening plus a reminder call. Screening behavior, the main outcome, was assessed 4 months after randomization. A total of 360 members aged 50 and older from 12 health clubs completed a baseline survey. Participants in the intervention group reported increased knowledge of colorectal cancer and screening tests at 4 months follow-up (p's theory-based intervention significantly improved self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, efficacy of screening, social support, and intention to be screened for colorectal cancer, from baseline to 4 months follow-up (p's theory-based intervention was found to have a significant effect on colorectal cancer screening use as measured by self-report. The findings could have implications for colorectal cancer screening program development and implementation in primary health care settings and through other community organizations.
Hansberry, David R; Kraus, Carl; Agarwal, Nitin; Baker, Stephen R; Gonzales, Sharon F
The Internet is frequently accessed by patients as a resource for medical knowledge. However, the provided material is typically written at a level well above the recommended 7th grade level. A clear understanding of the capabilities, limitations, risks, and benefits of interventional radiology by patients, both current and prospective, is hindered when the textual information offered to the public is pitched at a level of sophistication too high for general comprehension. In January 2013, all 25 patient education resources from the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology Society of Europe (CIRSE) Web site ( http://www.cirse.org ) and all 31 resources from the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) Web site ( http://www.sirweb.org ) were analyzed for their specific level of readability using ten quantitative scales: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Gunning fog index, New Fog Count, Coleman-Liau index, FORCAST formula, Fry graph, Raygor Readability Estimate, and New Dale-Chall. Collectively, the patient education resources on the CIRSE Web site are written at the 12.3 grade level, while the resources on the SIR Web site are written at the 14.5 grade level. Educational health care materials available on both the CIRSE and the SIR Web sites are presented in language in the aggregate that could be too difficult for many lay people to fully understand. Given the complex nature of vascular and interventional radiology, it may be advantageous to rewrite these educational resources at a lower reading level to increase comprehension.
Glasson, Colleen; Chapman, Kathy; Wilson, Tamara; Gander, Kristi; Hughes, Clare; Hudson, Nayerra; James, Erica
To determine if localised programmes that are successful in engaging the community can add value to larger fruit and vegetable mass-media campaigns by evaluating the results of the Eat It To Beat It programme. The Eat It To Beat It programme is a multi-strategy intervention that uses community-based education and ‘below the line’ social marketing to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in parents. This programme was evaluated by a controlled before-and-after study with repeat cross-sectional data collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with 1403 parents before the intervention (2008) and 1401 following intervention delivery (2011). The intervention area was the Hunter region and the control area was the New England region of New South Wales, Australia. Parents of primary school-aged children (Kindergarten to Year 6). The programme achieved improvements in knowledge of recommended intakes for fruit and vegetables and some positive changes in knowledge of serving size for vegetables. Exposure to the programme resulted in a net increase of 0.5 servings of fruit and vegetables daily for those who recalled the programme compared with those who did not (P = 0.004). Increased intake of fruit and vegetables was significantly associated with increasing exposure to programme strategies. The Eat It To Beat It programme demonstrates that an increase in consumption of fruit and vegetables can be achieved by programmes that build on the successes of larger mass-media and social-marketing campaigns.This suggests that funding for localised, community-based programmes should be increased.
Yuni Sufyanti Arief
Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple Intelligences can be incresed by playing stimulation with educative playing instrument. Educative playing is the activity that uses educate ways and instrument. Educative playing very important to increase speech development, cognitive, socialisation with the environment and also increse the streght and skill of child’s body. Method: Design used in this study was quasy experiment design. The population was preschool children 4–5 years old in working area of Mojo Public Health Centre of Surabaya. The sample was preschool children 4–5 years old that spesiﬁc in inclution criteria of this study. Data were analyzed by wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the ordinal data pre and post intervention and mann withney u-test that compare between intervention group and control group with level of signiﬁ cance of α ≤ 0.05. Result: The result of speech development that analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that controlled group had p = 0.157 and intervention group had p = 0.005 and the result of mann whitney test was p = 0.03. The result of kinesthetic development by wilcoxon signed rank test showed that controlled group has p = 0.317 and intervention group has p = 0.005, and analyzed by mann whitney test in kinesthetic development showed the result of p = 0.02. Discussion: Educative playing instrument (picture cards, play dough, origami and meronce increased speech and ﬁne motoric development of preschool children 4–5 years old in Mojo Indah Kindergarten of Surabaya. Educative playing instrument is the activity that makes the playing function optimally in child development and this activity can increase the child development such as physical, speech, cognitive and social adaptation.
Tyurina, Yulia; Troyanskaya, Maria
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the perspectives of increase of effectiveness of university education, related to the use of private educational resources. Design/Methodology/ Approach: In order to determine the dependence of effectiveness of university education on the use of private educational resources, this work uses the…
Dittus, Patricia J; Harper, Christopher R; Becasen, Jeffrey S; Donatello, Robin A; Ethier, Kathleen A
Adolescent males are less likely to receive health care and have lower levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge than adolescent females. The purpose of this study was to determine if a school-based structural intervention focused on school nurses increases receipt of condoms and SRH information among male students. Interventions to improve student access to sexual and reproductive health care were implemented in six urban high schools with a matched set of comparison schools. Interventions included working with school nurses to improve access to sexual and reproductive health care, including the provision of condoms and information about pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention and services. Intervention effects were assessed through five cross-sectional yearly surveys, and analyses include data from 13,740 male students. Nurses in intervention schools changed their interactions with male students who visited them for services, such that, among those who reported they went to the school nurse for any reason in the previous year, those in intervention schools reported significant increases in receipt of sexual health services over the course of the study compared with students in comparison schools. Further, these results translated into population-level effects. Among all male students surveyed, those in intervention schools were more likely than those in comparison schools to report increases in receipt of sexual health services from school nurses. With a minimal investment of resources, school nurses can become important sources of SRH information and condoms for male high school students. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Griffin, Bronwyn; Watt, Kerrianne; Kimble, Roy; Shields, Linda
There is a growing body of literature regarding low speed vehicle runover (LSVRO) events among children. To date, no literature exists on evaluation of interventions to address this serious childhood injury. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour regarding LSVROs were assessed via survey at a shopping centre (pre-intervention), then five months later (post-intervention), to investigate the effect of a population level educational intervention in Queensland, Australia. Participants' knowledge regarding frequency of LSVRO events was poor. No participant demonstrated 'adequate behaviour' in relation to four safe driveway behaviours pre-intervention; this increased at post-intervention ( p experience reflects the 'real-world' challenges associated with implementing prevention strategies. We suggest a multi-faceted approach involving media (including social media), legislative changes, subsidies (for reversing cameras), and education to prevent LSVROs.
Highfield, Linda; Hartman, Marieke A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Rodriguez, Serena A; Fernandez, Maria E; Bartholomew, L Kay
This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI). We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt) to increase an intervention's fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI's essential elements (those responsible for effectiveness). We present a case study of a project in which we used IM Adapt to find, adapt, implement, and evaluate an EBI to improve mammography adherence for African American women in a new practice setting in Houston, Texas. IM Adapt includes the following (1) assess needs and organizational capacity; (2) find EBIs; (3) plan adaptations based on fit assessments; (4) make adaptations; (5) plan for implementation; and (6) plan for evaluation of the adapted EBI. The case study shows an example of how public health researchers and practitioners can use the tool to make it easier to find and use EBIs, thus encouraging greater uptake. IM Adapt adds to existing dissemination and adaptation models by providing detailed guidance on how to decide on effective adaptation, while maintaining the essential elements of the EBI.
McClish, Donna; Gyure, Maria; Corona, Rosalie; Krist, Alexander H.; Rodríguez, Vivian M.; Maibauer, Alisa M.; Borzelleca, Joseph; Bowen, Deborah J.; Quillin, John M.
Abstract Background: Knowing family history is important for understanding cancer risk, yet communication within families is suboptimal. Providing strategies to enhance communication may be useful. Methods: Four hundred ninety women were recruited from urban, safety-net, hospital-based primary care women's health clinics. Participants were randomized to receive the KinFact intervention or the control handout on lowering risks for breast/colon cancer and screening recommendations. Cancer family history was reviewed with all participants. The 20-minute KinFact intervention, based in communication and behavior theory, included reviewing individualized breast/colon cancer risks and an interactive presentation about cancer and communication. Study outcomes included whether participants reported collecting family history, shared cancer risk information with relatives, and the frequency of communication with relatives. Data were collected at baseline, 1, 6, and 14 months. Results: Overall, intervention participants were significantly more likely to gather family cancer information at follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01, 3.71) and to share familial cancer information with relatives (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.48). Communication frequency (1=not at all; 4=a lot) was significantly increased at follow-up (1.67 vs. 1.54). Differences were not modified by age, race, education, or family history. However, effects were modified by pregnancy status and genetic literacy. Intervention effects for information gathering and frequency were observed for nonpregnant women but not for pregnant women. Additionally, intervention effects were observed for information gathering in women with high genetic literacy, but not in women with low genetic literacy. Conclusions: The KinFact intervention successfully promoted family communication about cancer risk. Educating women to enhance their communication skills surrounding family history may allow them to partner
Full Text Available The ever-increasing visitation in parks and protected areas continues to present a considerable challenge for worldwide land managers with allowing recreational use while preserving natural conditions. In China, the fast expanding visitation in protected areas is quickly damaging the natural resources and precious culture without effective visitor education, while regulation and site management are also gaining very limited efficacy. We propose a differential equation to describe the ecological tourism system. Shown by the theoretical proof and numerical simulation, the ecological tourism system is unstable without any perturbed factors, especially visitor educational intervention, because the solution of the dynamic system explodes in a finite time given any initial value. Supposing that the intrinsic increasing rate of stakeholders in the systems stochastically perturbed by the visitor educational intervention, we discover that the stochastic dynamic model can effectively suppress the explosion of the solution. As such, we demonstrate that the tourism system can develop steadily and safely even under a large amount of visitors in public vacation, when employing continuous visitor education intervention programmes.
Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Naqvi, Rahat; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page
Sociocultural theories state that learning results from people participating in contexts where social interaction is facilitated. There is a need to create such facilitated pedagogical spaces where participants can share their ways of knowing and doing. The aim of this exploratory study was to introduce pedagogical space for sociocultural interaction using 'Identity Text'. Identity Texts are sociocultural artifacts produced by participants, which can be written, spoken, visual, musical, or multimodal. In 2013, participants of an international medical education fellowship program were asked to create their own Identity Texts to promote discussion about participants' cultural backgrounds. Thematic analysis was used to make the analysis relevant to studying the pedagogical utility of the intervention. The Identity Text intervention created two spaces: a 'reflective space', which helped participants reflect on sensitive topics such as institutional environments, roles in interdisciplinary teams, and gender discrimination, and a 'narrative space', which allowed participants to tell powerful stories that provided cultural insights and challenged cultural hegemony; they described the conscious and subconscious transformation in identity that evolved secondary to struggles with local power dynamics and social demands involving the impact of family, peers, and country of origin. While the impact of providing pedagogical space using Identity Text on cognitive engagement and enhanced learning requires further research, the findings of this study suggest that it is a useful pedagogical strategy to support cross-cultural education.
Full Text Available Background: Sociocultural theories state that learning results from people participating in contexts where social interaction is facilitated. There is a need to create such facilitated pedagogical spaces where participants can share their ways of knowing and doing. The aim of this exploratory study was to introduce pedagogical space for sociocultural interaction using ‘Identity Text’. Methods: Identity Texts are sociocultural artifacts produced by participants, which can be written, spoken, visual, musical, or multimodal. In 2013, participants of an international medical education fellowship program were asked to create their own Identity Texts to promote discussion about participants’ cultural backgrounds. Thematic analysis was used to make the analysis relevant to studying the pedagogical utility of the intervention. Result: The Identity Text intervention created two spaces: a ‘reflective space’, which helped participants reflect on sensitive topics such as institutional environments, roles in interdisciplinary teams, and gender discrimination, and a ‘narrative space’, which allowed participants to tell powerful stories that provided cultural insights and challenged cultural hegemony; they described the conscious and subconscious transformation in identity that evolved secondary to struggles with local power dynamics and social demands involving the impact of family, peers, and country of origin. Conclusion: While the impact of providing pedagogical space using Identity Text on cognitive engagement and enhanced learning requires further research, the findings of this study suggest that it is a useful pedagogical strategy to support cross-cultural education.
Terndrup, Thomas E; Ali, Sameer; Hulse, Steve; Shaffer, Michele; Lloyd, Tom
Elders who utilize the emergency department (ED) may have little prospective knowledge of appropriate expectations during an ED encounter. Improving elder orientation to ED expectations is important for satisfaction and health education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multi-media education intervention as a method for informing independently living elders about ED care. The program delivered messages categorically as, the number of tests, providers, decisions and disposition decision making. Interventional trial of representative elders over 59 years of age comparing pre and post multimedia program exposure. A brief (0.3 hour) video that chronicled the key events after a hypothetical 911 call for chest pain was shown. The video used a clinical narrator, 15 ED health care providers, and 2 professional actors for the patient and spouse. Pre- and post-video tests results were obtained with audience response technology (ART) assessed learning using a 4 point Likert scale. Valid data from 142 participants were analyzed pre to post rankings (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests). The following four learning objectives showed significant improvements: number of tests expected [median differences on a 4-point Likert scale with 95% confidence intervals: 0.50 (0.00, 1.00)]; number of providers expected 1.0 (1.00, 1.50); communications 1.0 (1.00, 1.50); and pre-hospital medical treatment 0.50 (0.00, 1.00). Elders (96%) judged the intervention as improving their ability to cope with an ED encounter. A short video with graphic side-bar information is an effective educational strategy to improve elder understanding of expectations during a hypothetical ED encounter following calling 911.
Thomas E. Terndrup
Full Text Available Introduction: Elders who utilize the emergency department (ED may have little prospectiveknowledge of appropriate expectations during an ED encounter. Improving elder orientation toED expectations is important for satisfaction and health education. The purpose of this study wasto evaluate a multi-media education intervention as a method for informing independently livingelders about ED care. The program delivered messages categorically as, the number of tests,providers, decisions and disposition decision making.Methods: Interventional trial of representative elders over 59 years of age comparing pre andpost multimedia program exposure. A brief (0.3 hour video that chronicled the key events after ahypothetical 911 call for chest pain was shown. The video used a clinical narrator, 15 ED healthcare providers, and 2 professional actors for the patient and spouse. Pre- and post-video testsresults were obtained with audience response technology (ART assessed learning using a 4point Likert scale.Results: Valid data from 142 participants were analyzed pre to post rankings (Wilcoxon signedranktests. The following four learning objectives showed significant improvements: number oftests expected [median differences on a 4-point Likert scale with 95% confidence intervals: 0.50(0.00, 1.00]; number of providers expected 1.0 (1.00, 1.50; communications 1.0 (1.00, 1.50;and pre-hospital medical treatment 0.50 (0.00, 1.00. Elders (96% judged the intervention asimproving their ability to cope with an ED encounter.Conclusion: A short video with graphic side-bar information is an effective educational strategy toimprove elder understanding of expectations during a hypothetical ED encounter following calling911.
Tang, Fengmin; Zhu, Guoxing; Jiao, Zheng; Ma, Chunlai; Chen, Nianzu; Wang, Bin
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of medication education and behavioral intervention on Chinese patients with epilepsy and to compare the difference between them. A total of 109 patients with epilepsy who did not to take their antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) more than once were randomly assigned to two intervention groups: the medication education group (group I) and the medication education with behavioral intervention group (group II). Group I was initially provided with medication education in the form of oral education and written materials, and this education was reinforced by monthly calls from the pharmacist over the next six months. The behavioral intervention provided to group II consisted of a modified medication schedule which was based on cue-dose training therapy. The outcomes that were evaluated both in the beginning and in the end of the study included adherence, which was measured using the four-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4), the number of seizures, knowledge of AEDs, and the number of patients who missed a dose of their AEDs. Differences within and between the groups were analyzed. After intervention, the adherence and knowledge of AEDs increased greatly in all patients, and the number of patients who had seizures or missed AEDs decreased. However, no significant differences were observed between groups I and II. The observed changes were (group I vs group II, p value) increased adherence: 62.3% vs 64.3%, 0.827; increased knowledge of AEDs: 88.7% vs 80.4%, 0.231; and improved seizure control: 64.2% vs 64.3%, 0.988. In addition, the percentage of patients who forgot to take their AEDs decreased to 45.0% from more than 70%, and 44.9% of these patients took the missed AEDs as soon as they remembered. These findings clearly demonstrate that medication education and reinforced telephone calls from pharmacists can help to increase adherence to AEDs, the knowledge of patients regarding AEDs, and seizure control
Abatayo, Anna Lou; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
in a lab. Participants play a minimum effort game repeated 5 times under fixed matching with a one-time behavioral instruction in either the first or second round. Since coordination behavior may vary across countries, we run experiments in Denmark, Spain and Ghana, and map cross-country rankings...... in coordination with known national measures of fractualization, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation. Our results show that exogenous interventions increase subsequent coordination, with earlier interventions yielding better coordination than later interventions. We also find that cross......-country rankings in coordination map with published national measures of fractualization, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation....
Full Text Available There is a growing body of literature regarding low speed vehicle runover (LSVRO events among children. To date, no literature exists on evaluation of interventions to address this serious childhood injury. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour regarding LSVROs were assessed via survey at a shopping centre (pre-intervention, then five months later (post-intervention, to investigate the effect of a population level educational intervention in Queensland, Australia. Participants’ knowledge regarding frequency of LSVRO events was poor. No participant demonstrated ‘adequate behaviour’ in relation to four safe driveway behaviours pre-intervention; this increased at post-intervention (p < 0.05. Most of the sample perceived other’s driveway behaviour as inadequate, and this reduced significantly (<0.05. Perceived effectiveness of LSVRO prevention strategies increased from pre- to post-intervention, but not significantly. TV was the greatest source of knowledge regarding LSVROs pre- and post-intervention. This study provides some evidence that the educational campaign and opportunistic media engagement were successful in increasing awareness and improving behaviour regarding LSVROs. While there are several limitations to this study, our experience reflects the ‘real-world’ challenges associated with implementing prevention strategies. We suggest a multi-faceted approach involving media (including social media, legislative changes, subsidies (for reversing cameras, and education to prevent LSVROs.
Haque, S.E.; Rahman, M.; Itsuko, K.; Mutahara, M.; Sakisaka, K.
Objectives: To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Design: Intervention study. Setting: Araihazar area, Bangladesh. Participants:
Brixval, Carina S; Axelsen, Solveig F; Thygesen, Lau C
Antenatal education in small classes may increase childbirth self-efficacy. In this randomised trial we assessed the effect of a structured antenatal programme versus auditorium-based lectures on childbirth self-efficacy measured by three single items. We found that women in the intervention group...... reported statistically significant higher levels of confidence in their ability to cope at home during labour compared to the control group. Likewise, the intervention had a positive effect on the women's confidence in own ability to handle the birth process....
Saeterdal, Ingvil; Lewin, Simon; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Glenton, Claire; Munabi-Babigumira, Susan
assessed risk of bias in all included studies. We included two cluster-randomised trials that compared interventions aimed at communities to routine immunisation practices. In one study from India, families, teachers, children and village leaders were encouraged to attend information meetings where they received information about childhood vaccination and could ask questions. In the second study from Pakistan, people who were considered to be trusted in the community were invited to meetings to discuss vaccine coverage rates in their community and the costs and benefits of childhood vaccination. They were asked to develop local action plans and to share the information they had been given and continue the discussions in their communities.The trials show low certainty evidence that interventions aimed at communities to inform and educate about childhood vaccination may improve knowledge of vaccines or vaccine-preventable diseases among intervention participants (adjusted mean difference 0.121, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.055 to 0.189). These interventions probably increase the number of children who are vaccinated. The study from India showed that the intervention probably increased the number of children who received vaccinations (risk ratio (RR) 1.67, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.31; moderate certainty evidence). The study from Pakistan showed that there is probably an increase in the uptake of both measles (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.58) and DPT (diptheria, pertussis and tetanus) (RR 2.17, 95% CI 1.43 to 3.29) vaccines (both moderate certainty evidence), but there may be little or no difference in the number of children who received polio vaccine (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.05; low certainty evidence). There is also low certainty evidence that these interventions may change attitudes in favour of vaccination among parents with young children (adjusted mean difference 0.054, 95% CI 0.013 to 0.105), but they may make little or no difference to the involvement of mothers in decision
Leeves, Gareth D.
The returns to education have been increasing. It is suggested that high-skilled workers' social capital investment has been adversely affected by the increasing incentives to devote human capital to career development. Lower social capital is linked to reduced economic growth and innovation and higher transaction costs and is detrimental to…
Cooper, Joseph J; Roig Llesuy, Joan
There are no studies investigating physicians' knowledge of catatonia. The authors aimed to assess and increase physicians' awareness of catatonia. A survey with clinical questions about catatonia was administered, followed by a brief online teaching module about catatonia and a post-education survey. Twenty-one psychiatry residents (response rate, 70%) and 36 internal medicine residents (response rate, 34%) participated in the pre-education survey. Psychiatry residents identified 75% of the correct answers about catatonia, compared to 32% correct by internal medicine residents (p online education module and second survey, which resulted in a significant improvement in correct response rates from 60 to 83% in all the participants (p online module improved resident physicians' knowledge of catatonia. Educational strategies to improve recognition of catatonia should be implemented.
Kothe, Emily J; Mullan, Barbara A
Fresh Facts is a 30-day email-delivered intervention designed to increase the fruit and vegetable consumption of Australian young adults. This study investigated the extent to which the program was acceptable to members of the target audience and examined the relationships between participant and intervention characteristics, attrition, effectiveness, and acceptability ratings. Young adults were randomised to two levels of message frequency: high-frequency (n = 102), low-frequency (n = 173). Individuals in the high-frequency group received daily emails while individuals in the low-frequency group received an email every 3 days. Individuals in the high-frequency group were more likely to indicate that they received too many emails than individuals in the low-frequency group. No other differences in acceptability were observed. Baseline beliefs about fruit and vegetables were an important predictor of intervention acceptability. In turn, acceptability was associated with a number of indicators of intervention success, including change in fruit and vegetable consumption. The findings highlight the importance of considering the relationship between these intervention and participant factors and acceptability in intervention design and evaluation. Results support the ongoing use of email-based interventions to target fruit and vegetable consumption within young adults. However, the relationships between beliefs about fruit and vegetable consumption and acceptability suggest that this intervention may be differentially effective depending on individual's existing beliefs about fruit and vegetable consumption. As such, there is a pressing need to consider these factors in future research in order to minimize attrition and maximize intervention effectiveness when interventions are implemented outside of a research context.
Zelig, Ari; Harwayne-Gidansky, Ilana; Gault, Allison; Wang, Julie
The growing prevalence of food allergies indicates a responsibility among primary care providers to ensure that their patients receive accurate diagnosis and management. To improve physician knowledge and management of food allergies by implementing educational and electronic medical record interventions. Pre- and posttest scores of pediatric residents and faculty were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of an educational session designed to improve knowledge of food allergy management. One year later, a best practice advisory was implemented in the electronic medical record to alert providers to consider allergy referral whenever a diagnosis code for food allergy or epinephrine autoinjector prescription was entered. A review of charts 6 months before and 6 months after each intervention was completed to determine the impact of both interventions. Outcome measurements included referrals to an allergy clinic, prescription of self-injectable epinephrine, and documentation that written emergency action plans were provided. There was a significant increase in test scores immediately after the educational intervention (mean, 56.2 versus 84.3%; p management of children with food allergies at our pediatrics clinic. Further studies are needed to identify effective strategies to improve management of food allergies by primary care physicians.
Ludden, Geke D.S.; van Rompay, Thomas J.L.; Kelders, Saskia M.; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.
Nowadays, technology is increasingly used to increase people’s well-being. For example, many mobile and Web-based apps have been developed that can support people to become mentally fit or to manage their daily diet. However, analyses of current Web-based interventions show that many systems are
Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Willemsen, M.C.; Leerdam, F.J.M. van; Spruijt, R.D.; Hira Sing, R.A.
Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and
Jessica L. Krok-Schoen
Full Text Available Objective. To test the effectiveness of a colorectal cancer (CRC screening intervention among adults living in Ohio Appalachia. Methods. We conducted a group-randomized trial of a county-level intervention among adults living in 12 Ohio Appalachian counties who received a media campaign and clinic intervention focused on either CRC screening or fruits and vegetables. Participants’ percentage within CRC screening guidelines was assessed with cross-sectional surveys conducted annually for four years, and validated with medical record review of screening. Results. On average, screening data were obtained on 564 intervention and 559 comparison participants per year. There was no difference in the Wave 4 CRC screening rates of intervention and comparison counties (35.2% versus 31.4%. Multivariate analyses found that high perceived risk of CRC, willingness to have a CRC test if recommended by a doctor, doctor recommendation of a CRC screening test, and patient-physician communication about changes in bowel habits, family history of CRC, and eating fruits and vegetables were significant (p<0.05 predictors of being within CRC screening guidelines. Conclusions. The intervention was not effective in increasing CRC rates among Ohio Appalachian adults. Future research should determine how media and clinic-based interventions can be modified to improve CRC screening rates among this underserved population.
Chisholm, Katharine Elizabeth; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max
With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors' knowledge. If efficacious the intervention could provide a
Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele
A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular activities. The parents of fourth-grade pupils (10-11 years at baseline) completed questionnaires before intervention in spring 2008 (N = 348) and after intervention in spring 2010 (N = 358). A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether time (2008/2010) and group (intervention/control) influenced parents' perceptions and experiences of parental involvement, health education and health support received from the school. Compared with controls, the intervention schools' parents experienced greater involvement ethos (Cohen's d = 0.57, P education (Cohen's d = 0.60, P = 0.02) and health support (Cohen's d = 0.35, P = 0.02). Health education participation among parents increased only partially during the intervention (Cohen's d = -0.12, P = 0.193). School health interventions based on schools' needs may have the potential to influence positively the relationship between home and school and increase the visibility of health education. The study was undertaken within the Schools for Health in Europe program.
Kure-Biegel, Nanna; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
BACKGROUND: Individual-based interventions aim to improve patient self-management of chronic disease and to improve lifestyle among people at high risk, to reduce the prevalence of diseases contributing to health inequality. The present study investigates risk factors for uncompleted health...... interventions, via a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. METHODS: From a health centre in Copenhagen, questionnaire data on educational level, gender, age, and cohabitation status from 104 participants in health interventions were used to examine risks for dropout. Qualitative telephone...... with low socioeconomic status will most likely have reduced opportunities for making healthy choices, in this case, completing the intervention, and this may increase health inequality....
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nutrition is important during childhood for growth and to help prevent infections and other diseases and educational interventions will be effective. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of educational intervention on promoting healthy eating behaviors among primary school students of Kermanshah City, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 135 primary school students were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. Data were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire before and after the intervention in the areas of knowledge, attitude, practice and demographic variables. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, and paired t test with the SPSS-13 software. Results: Results showed that after the educational intervention the mean scores of knowledge, attitudes and practice were increased significantly in the experimental group (P0.05. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the educational intervention was effective in creating positive changes in knowledge, attitude and especially behaviors of the students about healthy eating. According to the appropriate education in schools and low-cost and effective nutritional education, the need to extend this type of training programs seems necessary.
Scourboutakos, Mary J; Mah, Catherine L; Murphy, Sarah A; Mazza, Frank N; Barrett, Nathanael; McFadden, Bill; L'Abbé, Mary R
To test the effect of a nutrition intervention that included education and 2 labeling components on students' food choices. Repeat cross-sectional study taking place on 6 dinner occasions before and 6 afterward. The study was conducted during dinner meals in a buffet-style dining hall in a university campus residence, where students paid a set price and consumed all they cared to eat. University students (n = 368 to 510) visited the cafeteria on each of the data collection dates. Fruit and vegetable consumption were encouraged; sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was discouraged using physical activity calorie equivalent labeling. Beverage choices and vegetable/fruit bar visits. Logistic regression was used to compare the proportion of student who selected each beverage, fruit, or vegetable before and after the intervention, while controlling for menu and gender as covariates. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of students selecting a sugar-sweetened beverage before vs after the intervention (49% vs 41%, respectively; P = .004) and an increase in students choosing water (43% vs 54%, respectively; P < .001). There was a significant increase in students who took fruit after the intervention (36%; P < .001) vs before (30%). The number of students visiting the vegetable bar significantly increased from 60% to 72% (P < .001). This intervention may be a way to encourage healthy dietary choices in campus dining halls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hu, Chuanlai; Ye, Dongqing; Li, Yingchun; Huang, Yongling; Li, Li; Gao, Yongqing; Wang, Sufang
To evaluate the impact of nutrition education in kindergartens and to promote healthy dietary habits in children. Prospective cohort study. Four kindergartens with 1252 children were randomized to the intervention group and three with 850 children to the control group. The personal nutritional knowledge, attitudes and dietary behaviours of the parents were also investigated. Each month, children and parents in the intervention group participated in nutrition education activities. The main outcome measures were anthropometrics and diet-related behaviours of the children and the nutritional knowledge and attitudes of the parents at baseline, 6 months (mid-term) and 1 year (post-test). Baseline demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also collected. Seven kindergartens from Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, eastern China. Two thousand one hundred and two 4- to 6-year-old pre-schoolers from seven kindergartens participated. The prevalence of children's unhealthy diet-related behaviours decreased significantly and good lifestyle behaviours increased in the group receiving nutrition education compared with controls. Parental eating habits and attitudes to planning their children's diets also changed appreciably in the intervention group compared with the control group (P education improves pre-schoolers' lifestyle behaviours and brings about beneficial changes in parents' attitudes to planning their children's diets and their own personal eating habits.
Arija, Victoria; Martín, Núria; Canela, Teresa; Anguera, Carme; Castelao, Ana I; García-Barco, Montserrat; García-Campo, Antoni; González-Bravo, Ana I; Lucena, Carme; Martínez, Teresa; Fernández-Barrés, Silvia; Pedret, Roser; Badia, Waleska; Basora, Josep
Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions.The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain). These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0-6-12 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test), cognitive state (Pfeiffer test), mood status (Yesavage test), and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin.Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits) up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patient's nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters.Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention.The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis. The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of view: diet, anthropometry and biochemistry in dependent patients at
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods/Design Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain. These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0–6–12 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA, food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test, cognitive state (Pfeiffer test, mood status (Yesavage test, and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin. Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patient’s nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters. Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention. The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis. Discussion The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of
Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A
Clinicians perform therapeutic interventions, such as stretching, manual therapy, electrotherapy, ultrasound, and exercises, to increase ankle dorsiflexion. However, authors of previous studies have not determined which intervention or combination of interventions is most effective. To determine the magnitude of therapeutic intervention effects on and the most effective therapeutic interventions for restoring normal ankle dorsiflexion after ankle sprain. We performed a comprehensive literature search in Web of Science and EBSCO HOST from 1965 to May 29, 2011, with 19 search terms related to ankle sprain, dorsiflexion, and intervention and by cross-referencing pertinent articles. Eligible studies had to be written in English and include the means and standard deviations of both pretreatment and posttreatment in patients with acute, subacute, or chronic ankle sprains. Outcomes of interest included various joint mobilizations, stretching, local vibration, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, electrical stimulation, and mental-relaxation interventions. We extracted data on dorsiflexion improvements among various therapeutic applications by calculating Cohen d effect sizes with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and evaluated the methodologic quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. In total, 9 studies (PEDro score = 5.22 ± 1.92) met the inclusion criteria. Static-stretching interventions with a home exercise program had the strongest effects on increasing dorsiflexion in patients 2 weeks after acute ankle sprains (Cohen d = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.12, 2.42). The range of effect sizes for movement with mobilization on ankle dorsiflexion among individuals with recurrent ankle sprains was small (Cohen d range = 0.14 to 0.39). Static-stretching intervention as a part of standardized care yielded the strongest effects on dorsiflexion after acute ankle sprains. The existing evidence suggests that clinicians need to consider what may be the limiting factor of
Full Text Available This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI. We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt to increase an intervention’s fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI’s essential elements (those responsible for effectiveness. We present a case study of a project in which we used IM Adapt to find, adapt, implement, and evaluate an EBI to improve mammography adherence for African American women in a new practice setting in Houston, Texas. IM Adapt includes the following (1 assess needs and organizational capacity; (2 find EBIs; (3 plan adaptations based on fit assessments; (4 make adaptations; (5 plan for implementation; and (6 plan for evaluation of the adapted EBI. The case study shows an example of how public health researchers and practitioners can use the tool to make it easier to find and use EBIs, thus encouraging greater uptake. IM Adapt adds to existing dissemination and adaptation models by providing detailed guidance on how to decide on effective adaptation, while maintaining the essential elements of the EBI.
Harackiewicz, Judith M; Priniski, Stacy J
Many theoretically based interventions have been developed over the past two decades to improve educational outcomes in higher education. Based in social-psychological and motivation theories, well-crafted interventions have proven remarkably effective because they target specific educational problems and the processes that underlie them. In this review, we evaluate the current state of the literature on targeted interventions in higher education with an eye to emerging theoretical and conceptual questions about intervention science. We review three types of interventions, which focus on the value students perceive in academic tasks, their framing of academic challenges, and their personal values, respectively. We consider interventions that (a) target academic outcomes (e.g., grades, major or career plans, course taking, retention) in higher education, as well as the pipeline to college, and (b) have been evaluated in at least two studies. Finally, we discuss implications for intervention science moving forward.
Roberto Dair García de la Rosa
Full Text Available Introduction. Sexually transmitted diseases are among the leading health problems of humankind. They are highly prevalent diseases that cause distress, disability and significant severe complications. These infections do not have high mortality rates in general, with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, and Hepatitis B that cause a significant number of deaths. Objective. To improve the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among a group of teenagers of Bernabé Boza Technical School, county of Camagüey, and assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods. Knowledge assessments were conducted before and after the intervention in Bernabé Boza Technical School between January and June 2012. The sample universe was 120 students who comprised the complete second year enrollment. Results. There was a predominance of female sixteen-year-old teenagers. The knowledge level about features of sexually transmitted diseases increased significantly after the intervention among the teenagers in the study (71.7% versus 95.8% p<0.0001, route of infection (74.2% versus 100% p<0.0001, and prevention (20% versus 91.7% p<0.0001. Conclusion. The educational intervention increased significantly the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among the teenagers, Thus, this is an important educational tool in this age group.
Nielsen, Dorthe; Ryg, Jesper; Nissen, Nis
of osteoporosis may be increased by a group-based multidisciplinary education programme. Methods: Three hundred patients, aged 45-81 years, recently diagnosed with osteoporosis and started on specific treatment, were randomized to either the ‘‘school'' or ‘‘control'' group. Teaching was performed by nurses...... level, the higher the gain in knowledge during the course (Rho520.25, pv0.01). Conclusions: A group-based multidisciplinary education programme significantly increases patients' knowledge of the disease.....
Härkänen, Marja; Voutilainen, Ari; Turunen, Elina; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri
The aim of this study is to evaluate the nature, quality and effectiveness of educational interventions designed to increase the medication administration skills and safety of registered nurses working in hospitals. A systematic review with meta-analysis. Intervention studies designed to increase the medication administration skills and safety of nurses, indexed in one or more databases (CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, PsycInfo, or Medic), and published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2000 and April 2015. The nature of the interventions was evaluated by narrative analysis, the quality of studies was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practise Project Quality Assessment Tool and the effectiveness of the interventions was ascertained by calculating effect sizes and conducting a meta-analysis. A total of 755 studies were identified and 14 intervention studies were reviewed. Interventions differed by their nature, including traditional classroom training, simulation, e-learning, slide show presentations, interactive CD-ROM programme, and the use of posters and pamphlets. All interventions appeared to improve medication administration safety and skills based on original p-values. Only five studies reached strong (n=1) or moderate (n=4) quality ratings and one of them had to be omitted from the meta-analysis due unclear measures of dispersion. The meta-analysis favoured the interventions, the pooled effect size (Hedges' g) was large, 1.06. The most effective interventions were a blended learning programme including e-learning and a 60-min PowerPoint presentation. The least effective educational intervention, an interactive internet-based e-learning course, was reported in the study that achieved the only strong quality rating. It is challenging to recommend any specific intervention, because all educational interventions seem to have a positive effect, although the size of the effect greatly varies. In the future, studies sharing similar contents and
Full Text Available An exploratory study of quasi-experimental approach that aimed to verify the impact of an educational intervention on attitudes and knowledge of nurses towards alcohol use and associated problems. The sample included 185 nurses, divided into two groups: 84 submitted to a training course and formed the experimental group. Data were collected through a knowledge survey and an attitude scale. The attitudes of the participants of both groups were positive. There were no significant differences between groups in relation to knowledge. The strongest predictors of positive attitudes were possessed preparation to act with chemical dependents (OR = 2.18, "have received increased workload during graduation on the theme, 'alcohol and other drugs'" (OR = 1.70, and "completed graduate school" (OR = 2.59. The educational intervention had a positive impact on the attitudes of nurses towards alcoholics, work and interpersonal relationships with such clientele.
Silva, Elayne Cristina Soares; Fernandes, Maria Neyrian de Fátima; Sá, Márcia Caroline Nascimento; Mota de Souza, Layane; Gordon, Ariadne Siqueira de Araújo; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Silva de Araújo, Thábyta; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Maia, Carlos Colares; Machado, Ana Larissa Gomes; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Alexandrino da Silva, Leonardo; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha
Early guidance emphasizes the provision of information to families about growth and normal development in childhood such as specific information about security at home. This research aimed to analyze mothers' knowledge about the prevention of accidents in childhood before and after an educational intervention. It was conducted as a quasi-experimental study with 155 mothers in a Basic Health Unit in northeastern of Brazil in April and May of 2015. The data were collected in two stages through a self-report questionnaire performed before and after the educational intervention by the subjects. The results revealed a significant increase in knowledge about prevention of accidents in childhood in all the self-applied questions (paccidents in childhood. PMID:27583061
Rote, Aubrianne E; Klos, Lori A; Brondino, Michael J; Harley, Amy E; Swartz, Ann M
Facebook may be a useful tool to provide a social support group to encourage increases in physical activity. This study examines the efficacy of a Facebook social support group to increase steps/day in young women. Female college freshmen (N = 63) were randomized to one of two 8-week interventions: a Facebook Social Support Group (n = 32) or a Standard Walking Intervention (n = 31). Participants in both groups received weekly step goals and tracked steps/day with a pedometer. Women in the Facebook Social Support Group were also enrolled in a Facebook group and asked to post information about their steps/day and provide feedback to one another. Women in both intervention arms significantly increased steps/day pre- to postintervention (F(8,425) = 94.43, P Facebook Social Support Group increased steps/day significantly more (F(1,138) = 11.34, P Facebook to offer a social support group to increase physical activity in young women. Women in the Facebook Social Support Group increased walking by approximately 1.5 miles/day more than women in the Standard Walking Intervention which, if maintained, could have a profound impact on their future health.
Murray, Nancy; Kelder, Steve; Parcel, Guy; Orpinas, Pamela
Describes development of an intervention program for Hispanic parents to reduce violence by increased monitoring of their middle school students. Program development used a five-step guided intervention mapping process. Student surveys and parent interviews provided data to inform program design. Intervention mapping ensured involvement with the…
Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin
Teenagers face significant risks when using increasingly popular social network sites. Prevention and intervention efforts to raise awareness about these risks and to change risky behavior (so-called "e-safety" interventions) are essential for the wellbeing of these minors. However, several studies have revealed that while school interventions often affect awareness, they have only a limited impact on pupils' unsafe behavior. Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior and theories about parental involvement, we hypothesized that involving parents in an e-safety intervention would positively influence pupils' intentions and behavior. In a quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-test measures involving 207 pupils in secondary education, we compared the impact of an intervention without parental involvement with one that included active parental involvement by means of a homework task. We found that whereas parental involvement was not necessary to improve the intervention's impact on risk awareness, it did change intentions to engage in certain unsafe behavior, such as posting personal and sexual information on the profile page of a social network site, and in reducing existing problematic behavior. This beneficial impact was particularly evident for boys. These findings suggest that developing prevention campaigns with active parental involvement is well worth the effort. Researchers and developers should therefore focus on other efficient strategies to involve parents.
Rönngren, Ylva; Björk, Annette; Audulv, Åsa; Enmarker, Ingela; Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Haage, David
Although persons with severe mental illness face an increased risk of mortality and of developing negative health outcomes, research has shown that lifestyle interventions can sufficiently support their health. In response, this study examined a nurse-led lifestyle intervention developed in cooperation with members of municipal and county councils to gauge its impact on the quality of life, cognitive performance, walking capacity, and body composition of persons with severe mental illness. Lasting 26 weeks and involving 38 persons with severe mental illness, the intervention prioritised two components: the interpersonal relationships of persons with severe mental illness, staff, and group leaders and group education about physical and mental health. Pre-post intervention measurements of quality of life collected with the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, cognitive performance with the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale, walking capacity with a 6-min walk test, and body composition in terms of waist circumference and body mass index were analysed using a nonparametric test Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results suggest that the intervention afforded significant improvements in the health-related variables of quality of life, cognitive performance, walking capacity, and waist circumference for persons with severe mental illness. However, long-term studies with control groups and that examine parameters related to cardiovascular risk factors are essential to ensure the sustained impact of the intervention. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Alfred, Millicent; Ubogaya, Karolina; Chen, Xing; Wint, Diana; Worral, Priscilla Sandford
Patient satisfaction is a driving force for healthcare organizations to enhance patient services. As the Asian population in the United States is increasing at a significant rate, it is important to understand the needs of this population to implement culturally focused services that will lead to increased Asian in-patient satisfaction. The objective of the systematic review was to identify the best available evidence on the effectiveness of culturally focused interventions in increasing satisfaction of hospitalized adult Asian patients. This review considered studies that included Asian adults, 18 years of age and older, who were admitted to acute-care hospitals in countries where Asians are a minority culture. This review considered studies that included any intervention or sets of interventions implemented by hospitals for the purpose of making the hospital experience consistent with the cultural preferences of adult Asian in-patients. Satisfaction of adult Asian hospitalized patients as measured by self-report satisfaction scales or tools considered by accrediting and/or governing bodies to be acceptable sources of evidence of patients' perceptions of their care. This review first considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs and quasi-experimental studies. As no RCTs or quasi-experimental studies were found, the reviewers also considered before and after studies, cohort studies and case-control studies for inclusion. This review also considered for inclusion descriptive study designs including case series, individual case reports and descriptive cross-sectional studies related to the adult Asian population in acute-care hospital settings. Three descriptive studies were selected in the review. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies in English and Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese) languages. A search of MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Educational Research
Harada, Kazuhiro; Masumoto, Kouhei; Katagiri, Keiko; Fukuzawa, Ai; Chogahara, Makoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Okada, Shuichi
Strengthening neighborhood social networks is important for promoting health among older adults. However, effective intervention strategies aimed at increasing older adults' social networks have not yet been established. The present study examined whether a university-led community intervention that provided communication opportunities could increase older Japanese adults' neighborhood social networks. The present study used a quasi-experimental design. Before the intervention, using postal mail, we carried out a baseline questionnaire survey that was sent to all people living in the Tsurukabuto community aged ≥60 years (n = 1769), of whom 1068 responded. For the community intervention, 18 event-based programs were provided over the course of 1 year at Kobe University. Academic staff at Kobe University organized all the programs. During the program, social interactions among participants were promoted. A follow-up survey was distributed to those who responded to the baseline survey, and 710 individuals answered the question about their participation in the intervention programs (138 respondents were participants, 572 were non-participants). The neighborhood social network was measured in both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Analysis of covariance showed that the changes in neighborhood social network among participants in the program was significantly higher than the changes among non-participants (P = 0.046) after adjusting for the baseline score of social network. The present study found that participants of the intervention expanded their neighborhood social network, but non-participants did not. This finding shows that community interventions using university resources could increase older adults' neighborhood social networks. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 462-469. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Jackson, K; Ersser, S J; Dennis, H; Farasat, H; More, A
The systematic support of parents of children with eczema is essential to their effective management; however, we have few models of support. This study examines the rationale, evidence base and development of a large-scale, structured, theory-based, nurse-led intervention, the 'Eczema Education Programme' (EEP), for parents of children with eczema. To outline development of the EEP, model of delivery, determine its feasibility and evaluate this based on service access and parental satisfaction data. Parent-child dyads meeting EEP referral criteria were recruited and demographic information recorded. A questionnaire survey of parental satisfaction was conducted 4 weeks post EEP; parental focus groups at 6 weeks provided comparative qualitative data. Descriptive statistics were derived from the questionnaire data using Predictive Analytics Software (PASW); content analysis was applied to focus group data. A total of 356 parents attended the EEP during the evaluation period. Service access was achieved for those in a challenging population. Both survey data (n = 146 parents, 57%) and focus group data (n = 21) revealed a significant level of parental satisfaction with the programme. It was feasible to provide the EEP as an adjunct to normal clinical care on a large scale, achieving a high level of patient/parent satisfaction and access within an urban area of multiple deprivation and high mobility. The intervention is transferable and the results are generalizable to other ethnically diverse child eczema populations within metropolitan areas in Britain. A multicentre RCT is required to test the effectiveness of this intervention on a larger scale. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Full Text Available Background: Immunization has been regarded as the most cost-effective intervention for child health promotion. Even after improvements, the developing countries are still struggling with low coverage rates, immunization failure, high rates of adverse events following immunization (AEFI etc. The present study was conducted to assess the role of educational intervention in improving immunization delivery services. Methodology: It was a pre-post intervention observational study carried out in immunization clinics of two tertiary care hospitals. The data from pre and post educational intervention assessment was compared and analyzed using SPSS 10.0. Results: At both clinics there was 40% and 45% increase in cleaning of the spoon used for administration of vitamin A. Post-intervention there was 40% increase in use of hub cutter at both the centres. After intervention, there was 30% and 35% increase in the delivery of four key messages by staff nurse. Conclusion: Unlike Doctors, the health staff is not motivated for regular touch with the theory part of their work field and continued knowledge up-gradation. This strategy of periodic re-orientation of the topic in the form of educational intervention may help in improving service delivery to the beneficiaries. Further research is required in this aspect.
Toft, U; Winkler, L L; Mikkelsen, B E; Bloch, P; Glümer, C
To examine the effects of two interventions on consumer purchases of fruits and vegetables (F&V) on the Danish island of Bornholm: a 20% discount on F&V combined with improved shelf-space allocation, and improved shelf-space allocation alone. A space management intervention to promote F&V sales was performed in two large discount supermarkets on Bornholm in Denmark for 3 months (September-November 2012). In addition, a 20% discount on F&V was introduced for 3 months in one of the supermarkets ('space + price'). The effect was evaluated using sales data from the two intervention supermarkets and three control supermarkets from the same supermarket chain but in Odsherred, Denmark (control area). Both the effect on sales of fresh F&V and potential unhealthy substitution effects were evaluated using multi-level regression analyses. During the price intervention period, the index number for sales of fresh vegetables increased by 22.2% (P=0.001) in the 'space + price' intervention supermarket compared with the control supermarkets. Furthermore, the index number for the sale of organic fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 12.1% (P=0.04) and the sale of the total amount of fruit and vegetables (fresh, frozen, dried and canned) increased by 15.3% (P=0.01) compared with the control supermarkets. In the 'space only' intervention supermarket no significant increase in the sale of fruit and vegetables was found. No unhealthy substitution effects were found. In conclusion, a 20% price reduction on F&V significantly increased sales of F&V. The effect was most pronounced on vegetables and no negative/unhealthy substitution effects were found.
Howard, Kerry A; Griffiths, Kathleen M; McKetin, Rebecca; Ma, Jennifer
There is disagreement in the literature as to whether biological attribution increases or decreases stigma. This study investigated the effect of an online biological intervention on stigma and help-seeking intentions for depression among adolescents. A three-arm, pre-post test, double-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) was used to compare the effects of a biological and a psychosocial intervention delivered online. Participants comprised secondary school students (N = 327) aged 16-19 years. Outcome measures included anticipated self-stigma for depression (primary), personal stigma, help-seeking intention for depression, and biological and psychosocial attribution. Neither the biological nor the psychosocial educational intervention significantly reduced anticipated self-stigma or personal stigma for depression relative to the control. However, a small increase in help-seeking intention for depression relative to the control was found for the biological educational condition. The study was undertaken over a single session and it is unknown whether the intervention effect on help-seeking intentions was sustained or would translate into help-seeking behaviour. A brief online biological education intervention did not alter stigma, but did promote a small increase in help-seeking intentions for depression among adolescents. This type of intervention may be a practical means for facilitating help-seeking among adolescents with current or future depression treatment needs.
Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Hazavehei
Full Text Available Introduction: The present study as a systematic review investigated and analyzed interventions based on models and theories of health education and promotion in the field of physical activity in women. Materials and Methods: Three electronic databases, including Springer, Biomed Central and Science Direct were searched systematically. Only studies were selected that were quantitative, interventional and in English language as well as those that used at least one of the models and theories of health education and health promotion. Finally, 13 studies were reviewed that met the inclusion criteria and published from 2000 to 2013. Results: Of 13 studies reviewed, 10 studies measured levels of physical activity before and after the intervention, which nine interventions increased physical activity in the intervention group compared to the control group. Studies were conducted in different settings of health promotion including health care centers, community setting and workplace. The most widely used model was the Transtheoretical Model applied in eight of investigations. Conclusion: It is suggested to focus more on physical activity and duration of interventions to increase the efficacy of interventions. It is suggested to measure changes of physical activity habits in experimental and control groups in interventions based on the transtheoretical model to prepare a complementary scale to assess the efficacy of interventions. According to the results, no study had focused on changes in institutional policies or general health or providing changes in environment related to physical activity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with coronary heart disease often do not follow prescribed physical activity recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease not attending structured cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Methods Parallel randomised controlled trial comparing 6-month multi-component behavioural change intervention (n = 71 with usual care (n = 85 was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan, Middle East. Intervention included one face-to-face individualised consultation, 6 telephone support calls (for goal-setting, feedback and self-monitoring and 18 reminder text messages. Patients were randomly allocated to the two groups by opening opaque sealed sequence envelopes. The patients and the researcher who provided the intervention and assessed the outcomes were not blinded. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Primary outcome was physical activity level, secondary outcomes were blood pressure, body mass index, exercise self-efficacy for exercise and health-related quality of life. Results Intervention and control groups were comparable at baseline. Moderate physical activity significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (mean change (SD of frequency: 0.23 (0.87 days/week versus -.06 (0.40; duration: 15.53 (90.15 minutes/week versus −3.67 (22.60 minutes/week; intensity: 31.05 (105.98 Metabolic equivalents (METs versus 14.68 (90.40 METs. Effect size was 0.03 for moderate PA frequency, 0.02 for moderate PA duration and 0.01 for moderate PA intensity. Walking significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (mean change (SD of frequency: 3.15 (2.75 days/week versus 0.37 (1.83 days/week; duration: 150.90 (124.47 minutes/week versus 24.05 (195.93 minutes/week; intensity: 495.12 (413.74 METs versus14.62 (265.06 METs. Effect size was 0.36 for walking
Alsaleh, Eman; Windle, Richard; Blake, Holly
Patients with coronary heart disease often do not follow prescribed physical activity recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease not attending structured cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Parallel randomised controlled trial comparing 6-month multi-component behavioural change intervention (n = 71) with usual care (n = 85) was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan, Middle East. Intervention included one face-to-face individualised consultation, 6 telephone support calls (for goal-setting, feedback and self-monitoring) and 18 reminder text messages. Patients were randomly allocated to the two groups by opening opaque sealed sequence envelopes. The patients and the researcher who provided the intervention and assessed the outcomes were not blinded. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Primary outcome was physical activity level, secondary outcomes were blood pressure, body mass index, exercise self-efficacy for exercise and health-related quality of life. Intervention and control groups were comparable at baseline. Moderate physical activity significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (mean change (SD) of frequency: 0.23 (0.87) days/week versus -.06 (0.40); duration: 15.53 (90.15) minutes/week versus -3.67 (22.60) minutes/week; intensity: 31.05 (105.98) Metabolic equivalents (METs) versus 14.68 (90.40) METs). Effect size was 0.03 for moderate PA frequency, 0.02 for moderate PA duration and 0.01 for moderate PA intensity. Walking significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (mean change (SD) of frequency: 3.15 (2.75) days/week versus 0.37 (1.83) days/week; duration: 150.90 (124.47) minutes/week versus 24.05 (195.93) minutes/week; intensity: 495.12 (413.74) METs versus14.62 (265.06) METs). Effect size was 0.36 for walking frequency, 0.05 for walking duration, 0
This increased interest in educational and professional training of the girl child in higher institutions of learning bespoke a silent revolution that will impact the structure and coloration of the labour market and the working class in the nearest future. Using secondary data from the archives of the University, supplemented with ...
Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde
Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.
Garbutt, Jane M; Dodd, Sherry; Walling, Emily; Lee, Amanda A; Kulka, Katharine; Lobb, Rebecca
communication skill training with graded tasks and modeling, feedback of coverage rates, goal setting, and social support. These strategies were combined in an implementation intervention to be delivered using practice facilitation, educational outreach visits, and cyclical small tests of change. Using CFIR, the BCW and the TDF facilitated the development of a pragmatic, multi-component implementation intervention to increase use of the HPV vaccine in the primary care setting.
Tatiana Barbieri Bombarda
Full Text Available Considering the importance of records in the professional practice of occupational therapy, it is necessary to instill a more insightful look at the effectiveness of practitioners’ notes, as well as encourage the development of research–oriented documentary practice. The preparation of records arises from the need to have information from the service as a means of guidance and oversight of the service provided and on the adopted technical responsibility, as well as from the fact that the notes are a valuable data providing resource for research. The present study sought to identify and characterize occupational therapists in the state of Sao Paulo who work in inclusive education and how the records of their interventional practices are performed. A structured questionnaire as a tool available on the website for specific predetermined time was used as the study instrument, and the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Participants were 55 occupational therapists working in the inclusive education process registered in the 3rd region of the Regional Council of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy. The results demonstrated that free narrative was the most commonly used registration model and that information related to the process of custody of notes was fragmented. These data showed weakness in the systematization of records, which is believed to result in improvement of the profession, a factor that demonstrates the necessity and temporality of the scientific production on this issue.
Drake, Gareth; de C Williams, Amanda C
The objective of this review was to examine the effects of nursing education interventions on clinical outcomes for acute pain management in hospital settings, relating interventions to health care behavior change theory. Three databases were searched for nursing education interventions from 2002 to 2015 in acute hospital settings with clinical outcomes reported. Methodological quality was rated as strong, moderate, or weak using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for quantitative studies. The 12 eligible studies used varied didactic and interactive teaching methods. Several studies had weaknesses attributable to selection biases, uncontrolled confounders, and lack of blinding of outcome assessors. No studies made reference to behavior change theory in their design. Eight of the 12 studies investigated nursing documentation of pain assessment as the main outcome, with the majority reporting positive effects of education interventions on nursing pain assessment. Of the remaining studies, two reported mixed findings on patient self-report of pain scores as the key measure, one reported improvements in patient satisfaction with pain management after a nursing intervention, and one study found an increase in nurses' delivery of a relaxation treatment following an intervention. Improvements in design and evaluation of nursing education interventions are suggested, drawing on behavior change theory and emphasizing the relational, contextual, and emotionally demanding nature of nursing pain management in hospital settings. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Soto Rodríguez, Anxela; García Soidán, José Luís; Arias Gómez, María Jesús; Del Álamo Alonso, Alberto; Leirós Rodríguez, Raquel; Pérez Fernández, María Reyes
Randomised clinical trial performed in two urban health centres in Spain. To evaluate if educational intervention in women of perimenopausal age with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidaemia could achieve significant changes in the reduction of biochemical and haemodynamic risk parameters. The study included 320 women aged between 45 and 60 years old who were diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidaemia. They were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=160) and the control group (n=160). The intervention group received three educational sessions and the control group received an informative leaflet sent by mail. Haemodynamic and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and one year later in both groups. Women in the intervention group showed a decrease in low density lipoprotein (P=.034), (-5.89±29.8; 95% CI: -13.1/0.27) and an increase in high density lipoprotein (P=.013), (2.71±10.6; 95% CI: -1.36/6.20), as well as improvements in systolic blood pressure (P=.016), (-2.16±11.8; 95% CI: -4.4/0.01) and frequency (P=.003), (-1.46±10.3; 95% CI: -3.34/0.42) compared to women in the control group. Women in the control group significantly increased glucose (P=.04), (4.84±15.5; 95% CI: -0.75/31.3) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (P=.031), (3.61±14.7; 95% CI: 0.87/6.36) levels more than those in the experimental group. An educational intervention can be an effective method of reducing the parameters associated with an increased likelihood of cardiovascular disease in women at perimenopausal age with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidaemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lane, Justin D.; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca; Gast, David L.
The purpose of this review was to identify naturalistic language interventions for increasing spontaneous expressive language (defined in this review as absence of verbal prompt or other verbalization from adults or peers) in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Also, the methodological rigor and effectiveness of each study were evaluated…
Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai
Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…
Kattelmann, Kendra K; Conti, Kibbe; Ren, Cuirong
The Northern Plains Indians of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe have experienced significant lifestyle and dietary changes over the past seven generations that have resulted in increased rates of diabetes and obesity. The objective of this study was to determine if Northern Plains Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are randomized to receive culturally adapted educational lessons based on the Medicine Wheel Model for Nutrition in addition to their usual dietary education will have better control of their type 2 diabetes than a nonintervention, usual care group who received only the usual dietary education from their personal providers. A 6-month, randomized, controlled trial was conducted January 2005 through December 2005, with participants randomized to the education intervention or usual care control group. The education group received six nutrition lessons based on the Medicine Wheel Model for Nutrition. The usual care group received the usual dietary education from their personal providers. One hundred fourteen Northern Plains Indians from Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe aged 18 to 65 years, with type 2 diabetes. Weight, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c, fasting serum glucose and lipid parameters, circulating insulin, and blood pressure were measured at the beginning and completion. Diet histories, physical activity, and dietary satiety surveys were measured at baseline and monthly through completion. Differences were determined using Student t tests, chi(2) tests, and analysis of variance. The education group had a significant weight loss (1.4+/-0.4 kg, Pnutrition intervention promoted small but positive changes in weight. Greater frequency and longer duration of educational support may be needed to influence blood glucose and lipid parameters.
George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H
The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from baseline to follow-up 4 to 6 months after the household received the intervention. This was assessed through a pre- and postintervention quiz concerning knowledge of arsenic. Respondents were between 18 and 102 years of age, with an average age of 37 years; 99.9% were female. The knowledge of arsenic quiz scores for study participants were significantly higher at follow-up compared with baseline. The intervention was effective in increasing awareness of the safe uses of arsenic-contaminated water and dispelling the misconception that boiling water removes arsenic. At follow-up, nearly all respondents were able to correctly identify the meaning of a red (contaminated) and green (arsenic safe) well relative to arsenic (99%). The educational program also significantly increased the proportion of respondents who were able to correctly identify the health implications of arsenic exposure. However, the intervention was not effective in dispelling the misconceptions in the population that arsenicosis is contagious and that illnesses such as cholera, diarrhea, and vomiting could be caused by arsenic. Further research is needed to develop effective communication strategies to dispel these misconceptions. This study demonstrates that a household-level arsenic educational program can be used to significantly increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh.
Rosa María Osés Bargas
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to foster the first grade students’ self-regulatory learning skills in a public elemental secondary school through an educational intervention program that allows them to acquire effective study skills to improve academic performance. The whole population of first grade (226 classified into six classrooms labeled from A to F was participated. The Flores and Cerino (2000 Self-regulation Questionnaire was used. It was an applied research with a time series design with static groups (Mertens, 2005. The outcomes show that the educational intervention program had an impact only on support and meta-cognitive factors in classroom A, and on the cognitive factor in classrooms A and D. In conclusion, it is important to point out the professors’ meaningful role in teaching these processes as well as the use of other methods to assess the development of the sel-regulation processes.
Hervier, B; Magar, Y; Allab, F; Richard, K; Neves, Y; Danjou, S; Amoura, Z; Ayçaguer, S
Though recommended, participation of patients with specific expertise in therapeutic education programs (TEP) is rare. This work reports the experience of a national reference centre for rare systemic diseases. Involvement of "expert patients" (EP) has been planned from the development of a TEP dedicated to systemic lupus: patients' roles and required expertise have been defined and linked to the pedagogical tools. Such patients have been recruited during individual interviews and called to participate to specific pedagogical training. EP intervention have been evaluated by questionnaire to EP and health care providers. Three EP's functions have been identified: sharing experiences, giving "tips and tricks" and promoting dialogue. EP's interventions has been organised into a hierarchy (from sharing to co-animation). Among 298 patients enrolled in the TEP, 25 (8.4%) have been identified as possible EP. Eight of them (32%) benefited from a specific training of 12 hours. Among these patients, two (25%) regularly participate to the education sessions. For EP as well as for health care providers, EP's intervention seems beneficial (visual scale scores of 7.5 and 9.5, respectively). Though difficult to organise, EP's intervention in TEP dedicated to rare systemic diseases seems useful and would earn to be increase. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Rozek, Christopher S; Svoboda, Ryan C; Harackiewicz, Judith M; Hulleman, Chris S; Hyde, Janet S
During high school, developing competence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is critically important as preparation to pursue STEM careers, yet students in the United States lag behind other countries, ranking 35th in mathematics and 27th in science achievement internationally. Given the importance of STEM careers as drivers of modern economies, this deficiency in preparation for STEM careers threatens the United States' continued economic progress. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term effects of a theory-based intervention designed to help parents convey the importance of mathematics and science courses to their high-school-aged children. A prior report on this intervention showed that it promoted STEM course-taking in high school; in the current follow-up study, we found that the intervention improved mathematics and science standardized test scores on a college preparatory examination (ACT) for adolescents by 12 percentile points. Greater high-school STEM preparation (STEM course-taking and ACT scores) was associated with increased STEM career pursuit (i.e., STEM career interest, the number of college STEM courses, and students' attitudes toward STEM) 5 y after the intervention. These results suggest that the intervention can affect STEM career pursuit indirectly by increasing high-school STEM preparation. This finding underscores the importance of targeting high-school STEM preparation to increase STEM career pursuit. Overall, these findings demonstrate that a motivational intervention with parents can have important effects on STEM preparation in high school, as well as downstream effects on STEM career pursuit 5 y later.
Murray, N; Kelder, S; Parcel, G; Orpinas, P
This paper describes development of Padres Trabajando por la Paz, a violence prevention intervention for Hispanic parents to increase parental monitoring. The intervention was developed using an innovative new program planning process: intervention mapping. Theory and empirical evidence broadly defined performance objectives and determinants of parental monitoring. These objectives were further refined through group and individual interviews with the target parent group. Learning objectives for the intervention guided the content of the intervention that used modeling as the primary method and role model stories as a strategy delivered through newsletters. Stage-matching members of the target population for their readiness to implement the parental monitoring behaviors further refined the social cognitive message design strategies. Intervention mapping provides an explicit theory- and data-driven guide for intervention development that maximizes intervention impact for a specific target population.
Schoenfelder, Erin; Moreno, Megan; Wilner, Molly; Whitlock, Kathryn B; Mendoza, Jason A
Physical activity (PA) reduces symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); interventions to increase PA may improve functioning and health for adolescents with ADHD. Mobile health (mHealth) technology and social media constitute promising interactive modalities for engaging adolescents-who are at highest risk for ADHD treatment drop-out-in interventions to increase PA. The current pilot study evaluated feasibility and acceptability of an innovative intervention incorporating an mHealth-linked wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Flex) and a Facebook group to increase PA among adolescents with ADHD. 11 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (age 14-18, m = 15.5; 54% female) participated in a 4-week trial utilizing the Fitbit Flex in conjunction with (1) weekly personalized step count goals (2) social support through a Facebook group and (3) daily text messages about PA. The study took place in the greater Seattle, Washington area in the fall of 2015. Adolescents completed online surveys twice per week to rate their ADHD symptoms and positive and negative mood states, and parents rated adolescent ADHD symptoms weekly. Participants were adherent to the study protocol and acceptability of the intervention was high. Linear mixed models indicated that participants significantly increased their average weekly steps over the course of the study and demonstrated improvements in both adolescent and parent-reported ADHD Inattentive symptoms. Results indicate that this mHealth intervention is engaging and promising for increasing PA among adolescents with ADHD, and warrant further study. Implications for improving ADHD symptoms and overall functioning for this undertreated population are discussed.
Agrawal, Sacha; Saluja, Inderpal; Kaczorowski, Janusz
There is increasing evidence that physicians may be compromised by their interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. The authors aimed to develop and determine the effect of an educational intervention to inform family medicine residents about pharmaceutical marketing. Confidential, self-administered questionnaires were administered to family medicine residents at McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, immediately before and after a two-part, 2.5-hour educational intervention. The curriculum consisted of (1) a faculty-led debate and discussion of a systematic review of physician-pharmaceutical industry interactions, and (2) an interactive workshop that included a presentation highlighting key empirical findings, a video illustrating techniques to optimize pharmaceutical sales representatives' visits, and small- and large-group problem-based discussions. Residents were asked about their attitudes toward five marketing strategies: drug samples, industry-sponsored continuing medical education, one-on-one interactions with sales representatives, free meals, and gifts worth less than CAN $10. A total of 37 residents responded to both questionnaires. After the intervention residents had more cautious attitudes, rating marketing strategies on a five-point Likert scale as less ethically appropriate (-0.41, p marketing. Its long-term sustainability and effect on behavior remain unknown.
Sanz-Martos, Sebastián; López-Medina, Isabel M; Álvarez-García, Cristina; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen
To assess the effectiveness of the interventions to prevent a pregnancy in adolescence. Systematic review. The following databases were consulted: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Cuiden Plus, LILACS, and IME, in order to identify interventions aimed at preventing a pregnancy in adolescence. A total of 24 primary investigations, in which an educational program to prevent a pregnancy in the adolescence was evaluated, were selected. The quality of the selected studies was assessed according to the CASPe scale. Educational programs for the modification of the teenage pregnancy rate show inconclusive results, as there are 2 studies that find a reduction, and 2 that find that there are no significant changes. For secondary outcomes, it was found that educational programs are effective for increasing the knowledge level about sexuality and contraceptive methods and changing attitudes about the risk of a teenage pregnancy or the use of contraceptive methods. There are no statistically significant differences between the studies with a positive and negative outcome (P>.05) for any of the results analysed in this review. There is no a single intervention modality that is the most effective for prevention of a teenage pregnancy. More research is needed with a longitudinal approach that assess not only intermediate results, but also a modification in the pregnancy rate. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Haastrup, Peter; Paulsen, Maja Skov; Zwisler, Jon Eik
Background: Guideline and reimbursement modifications have been introduced to optimize prescribing of antisecretory medication in Danish general practice. Impacts of the interventions have not been evaluated. Objectives: To analyse developments in prescribing of antisecretory medication in Denmark...... increased substantially during the past decade. Both number of users and the average individual use have increased. The prescribing of ulcerogenic drugs to the elderly has stagnated in the same time range. Reimbursement modifications and scientific guidelines do not seem to have had a substantial influence...
Shackleton, Nichola; Jamal, Farah; Viner, Russell M; Dickson, Kelly; Patton, George; Bonell, Christopher
Health education in school classrooms can be effective in promoting sexual health and preventing violence and substance use but effects are patchy and often short term. Classroom education is also challenging because of schools' increasing focus on academic-performance metrics. Other school-based approaches are possible, such as healthy school policies, improving how schools respond to bullying, and parent outreach, which go beyond health education to address broader health determinants. Existing systematic reviews include such interventions but often alongside traditional health education. There is scope for a systematic review of reviews to assess and synthesize evidence across existing reviews to develop an overview of the potential of alternative school-based approaches. We searched 12 databases to identify reviews published after 1980. Data were reviewed by two researchers. Quality was assessed using a modified Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews checklist and results were synthesized narratively. We screened 7,544 unique references and included 22 reviews. Our syntheses suggest that multicomponent school-based interventions, for example, including school policy changes, parent involvement, and work with local communities, are effective for promoting sexual health and preventing bullying and smoking. There is less evidence that such intervention can reduce alcohol and drug use. Economic incentives to keep girls in school can reduce teenage pregnancies. School clinics can promote smoking cessation. There is little evidence that, on their own, sexual-health clinics, antismoking policies, and various approaches targeting at-risk students are effective. There is good evidence that various whole-school health interventions are effective in preventing teenage pregnancy, smoking, and bullying. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although the characterization of teenagers and young population at risk of social exclusion has been thoroughly investigated, that’s not the case of the intervention strategies used. This article refers to a research performed between 2011 and 2012 which advances on the description, categorization and study of effective intervention strategies, so they can be used as an information source for good professional performance, reproducible and useful to improve the situation of teenagers at risk.From a research-action approach, the contributions from the professionals working with this population, collected from about a hundred tests and seven discussion groups, are a direct and well-documented source of knowledge. This information is useful in order to underline the most relevant elements of this intervention, as well as the obstacles, limitations and practices that can be improved in this field of work.Part of the results and the discussion about them are, among others, the proposals of effective intervention in conflictive familiar dynamics, the worrying and increasing violence, teenagers migratory grief and its effects of risk and marginalization, the limited and weak participation of teenagers in their own life decision making and the important educational needs of the group of people working with this population.Furthermore, relevant strategic elements are shaped as the base of the intervention with teenagers at risk situation. Among those elements we find the flexibility to deal with uncertain situations, the link, empathy and affective proximity as necessary tools in socio-educational action, the contextualization of intervention in conflict situations and the debate about resilience and its contributions to the field of Social Pedagogy.
Barkley, Sherry A; Fahrenwald, Nancy L
Adherence to independent exercise is an essential outcome of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), yet limited theory-based interventions to improve adherence exist. This study tested the effects of an intervention based on Bandura's conceptualization of self-efficacy. The self-efficacy coaching intervention (SCI), a supplement to standard care, was designed to increase self-efficacy for independent exercise and independent exercise behavior in CR. We examined whether the SCI vs. attention control (AC) resulted in improved exercise self-efficacy (ESE), barriers self-efficacy (BARSE), and minutes of independent exercise for CR participants (n = 65). While between-group differences did not reach significance (p > .10) for any of the outcome measures, significant within-group changes were noted in BARSE scores and independent exercise (p exercise for the AC group was also significant (p =. 006). Further study is needed to explore whether short-term changes translate into maintenance of independent exercise participation after program completion.
Raymond, M.; Baeseman, J.; Xavier, J.; Kaiser, B.; Vendrell-Simon, B.
The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) grew out of the 4th International Polar Year (IPY-4) 2007-08 and is an international and interdisciplinary organization of over 1200 undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere from more than 40 countries. Our aims are to stimulate interdisciplinary and international research collaborations, and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education and outreach. As potentially one of the major legacies of IPY-4, APECS members have been at the forefront of increasing scientific knowledge and public interest in the polar regions, centered around global climate change, and enhancing scientific understanding, media attention, primary and secondary school (K-12) educational programs, undergraduate institutions, and public literacy campaigns. Research and Educational Outreach activities by APECS members during IPY-4 have improved both our understanding and the communication of all aspects of the Polar Regions and the importance of their broader global connections. APECS National Committees have run Polar Contests where young researchers partnered with teachers and students to develop curriculum and activities to share their research, have participated in many field based communication exchanges and are mentoring youth to pursue careers in science, and enhancing the public perception of scientists through photo, video and museum exhibits. In cooperation with the IPY Teachers Network and the IPY IPO, APECS is developing a polar education resource book that will feature education and outreach activities by young researchers, as well as provide examples of classroom activities for teachers to incorporate polar literacy into their curriculum and a How-To guide for researchers interested in conducting education and outreach. As young researchers interactively share their excitement and
McLean, Michelle; Gibbs, Trevor J
Globally, as medical education undergoes significant reform towards more "learner-centred" approaches, specific implications arise for medical educators and learners. Although this learner-centredness is grounded in educational theory, a point of discussion would be whether the application and practice of these new curricula alleviate or exacerbate student difficulties and levels of stress. This commentary will argue that while this reform in medical education is laudable, with positive implications for learning, medical educators may not have understood or perhaps not embraced "learner-centredness" in its entirety. During their training, medical students are expected to be "patient-centred". They are asked to apply a biopsychosocial model, which takes cognisance of all aspects of a patient's well-being. While many medical schools profess that their curricula reflect these principles, in reality, many may not always practice what they preach. Medical training all too often remains grounded in the biomedical model, with the cognitive domain overshadowing the psychosocial development and needs of learners. Entrusted by parents and society with the education and training of future healthcare professionals, medical education needs to move to a "learner-centred philosophy", in which the "whole" student is acknowledged. As undergraduate and post-graduate students increasingly apply their skills in an international arena, this learner-centredness should equally encapsulate the gender, cultural and religious diversity of both patients and students. Appropriate support structures, role models and faculty development are required to develop skills, attitudes and professional behaviour that will allow our graduates to become caring and sensitive healthcare providers.
Lunthita M. Duthely
Full Text Available Population studies paint a dismal picture of the mental health status of adolescents, in the US and worldwide. Positive psychology, which takes a preventative approach to keeping individuals in higher states of well-being, is being implemented increasingly among youth, with the goal of avoiding future mental health and psychological problems. In this study, a novel intervention, which fused the practice of meditation with gratitude visualizations, was tested among adolescents. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the extent to which the intervention affected life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and measured gratitude, among a culturally diverse cohort of adolescents. Instrumentation consisted of three positive psychology measures—the Student Life Satisfaction Scale, the School Satisfaction Subscale, and the Gratitude Questionnaire-Six-Item Form. Participants were randomly assigned either to the delayed-intervention, no-treatment control group or to the experimental group. The four-week intervention was manualized primarily from the heart-centered gratitude visualizations outlined in a happiness and positive emotions handbook, The Jewels of Happiness: Inspiration and Wisdom to Guide Your Life-Journey. The intervention significantly affected life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and gratitude of the experimental group, when compared to the control group. Medium to large effect sizes were detected using the ANCOVA statistical test.
Jiryaee, Nasrin; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Taleban, Roya
Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1) goal-setting strategy and 2) group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference.
Full Text Available Background: Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Materials and Methods: Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1 goal-setting strategy and 2 group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Results: Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P < 0.05. BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and well-being score were significantly different in the goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study presented the effects of using the goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference.
Connell, Louise A; McMahon, Naoimh E; Tyson, Sarah F; Watkins, Caroline L; Eng, Janice J
Current approaches to upper limb rehabilitation are not sufficient to drive neural reorganization and maximize recovery after stroke. To address this evidence-practice gap, a knowledge translation intervention using the Behaviour Change Wheel was developed. The intervention involves collaboratively working with stroke therapy teams to change their practice and increase therapy intensity by therapists prescribing supplementary self-directed arm exercise. The purposes of this case series are: (1) to provide an illustrative example of how a research-informed process changed clinical practice and (2) to report on staff members' and patients' perceptions of the utility of the developed intervention. A participatory action research approach was used in 3 stroke rehabilitation units in the United Kingdom. The intervention aimed to change 4 therapist-level behaviors: (1) screening patients for suitability for supplementary self-directed arm exercise, (2) provision of exercises, (3) involving family and caregivers in assisting with exercises, and (4) monitoring and progressing exercises. Data on changes in practice were collected by therapy teams using a bespoke audit tool. Utility of the intervention was explored in qualitative interviews with patients and staff. Components of the intervention were successfully embedded in 2 of the 3 stroke units. At these sites, almost all admitted patients were screened for suitability for supplementary self-directed exercise. Exercises were provided to 77%, 70%, and 88% of suitable patients across the 3 sites. Involving family and caregivers and monitoring and progressing exercises were not performed consistently. This case series is an example of how a rigorous research-informed knowledge translation process resulted in practice change. Research is needed to demonstrate that these changes can translate into increased intensity of upper limb exercise and affect patient outcomes. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.
Susanto, Novie; Putranto, Thomas Triadi; Prastawa, Heru; Ulfa, Ema Amalia
Semarang city has the potential landslides were quite high in almost all regions. The previous research shows that the Manyaran and Kembang Arum is classified as "not ready" with vulnerability-prone of landslide areas. Therefore, design and implementation of cognitive interventions in human are needed to educate and improve the preparedness of the residents against landslide. This study aims to implement the various cognitive interventions to the residents in landslide areas and analysis of the different interventions toward the preparedness index. The study is conducted on 40 respondents from Kembang Arum and 40 respondents from Manyaran. They are aged ≥ 17 years, illiteracy and a RT/RW/PKK cadres. The independent variables in this study are Knowledge and Attitude, Emergency Planning, Warning System, and Resources Mobilization. The dependent variable is the preparedness index. The design of cognitive interventions is generated according to the demographic characteristics of the respondent and the result of Fault Tree Analysis. The preparedness index of the residents against landslides in Kembang Arum increases about 71.71% and in Manyaran up to 90.06%. Implementation of cognitive interventions with module, video and discussion in the Manyaran is more effective than using posters, videos and discussions in Kembang Arum.
Mukherjee, Trena I; Pillai, Veena; Ali, Siti Hafizah; Altice, Frederick L; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Wickersham, Jeffrey A
Approximately 40%-90% of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Malaysia have hepatitis C (HCV). PWID continue to be disproportionately affected by HCV due to their lack of knowledge, perceived risk and interest in HCV treatment. Education interventions may be an effective strategy for increasing HCV knowledge in PWID, and harm reduction services are uniquely positioned to implement and deploy such interventions. We recruited 176 clients from methadone maintenance treatment (MMT: N=110) and needle/syringe programs (NSP: N=66) between November 2015 and August 2016. After baseline knowledge assessments, clients participated in a standardized, 45-min HCV education program and completed post-intervention knowledge assessments to measure change in knowledge and treatment interest. Participants were mostly male (96.3%), Malay (94.9%), and in their early 40s (mean=42.6years). Following the intervention, overall knowledge scores and treatment interest in MMT clients increased by 68% and 16%, respectively (pMalaysia. Integrating a brief, but comprehensive HCV education session within harm reduction services may be a low-cost and effective strategy in improving overall HCV knowledge and risk behaviors in resource-limited settings. In order to be an effective public health approach, however, education interventions must be paired with strategies that improve social, economic and political outcomes for PWID. Doing so may reduce HCV disparities by increasing screening and treatment interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Magaña, Sandra; Lopez, Kristina; Machalicek, Wendy
The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among Latino children, later diagnosis, limited access to bicultural specialist support, and worsened health outcomes when compared to non-Latinos points to the need for a culturally relevant parent education intervention. This pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a culturally derived intervention, Parents Taking Action, for 19 Spanish-speaking mothers of children with ASD. This study introduces the Promotora de Salud Model of intervention delivery to the autism field. A mixed-methods design including one group pre- and posttest design and focus groups was used to evaluate the outcomes of PTA. We found that the intervention was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. We also found significant increases in empowerment oriented outcomes for parents between pre- and posttest suggesting that the intervention is promising. Suggestions for future research and practice are offered. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Harris, Alex H S; Brown, Randall; Dawes, Michael; Dieperink, Eric; Myrick, Donald Hugh; Gerould, Heather; Wagner, Todd H; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Hagedorn, Hildi J
Over 16 million Americans meet diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD), but only 7.8% of them receive formal treatment each year. Safe and effective pharmacological treatments for AUD exist; however, they are rarely prescribed. Therefore, we developed and pilot tested a multifaceted implementation intervention to improve consideration and receipt of effective pharmacologic treatments for AUD, focusing on primary care settings where patients have the most frequent contact with healthcare systems. The intervention included training of local providers to serve as champions and a website for primary care providers that included educational materials, a case-finding dashboard, and contact information for local and national clinical experts. We also mailed patients educational material about treatment options. The intervention was implemented at three large facilities of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). An interrupted time series design, analyzed with segmented logistic regression, was used to evaluate the intervention's effects. The odds of a patient with AUD receiving one of the AUD medications was increasing throughout the pre-implementation period, and the rate of change (slope) increased significantly in the implementation period. Translating these numbers into percentages, at baseline 2.9% of patients filled a prescription for an AUD medication within 30days of a primary care visit. This increased to 3.8% by the end of the pre-implementation period (increasing 0.037% per month), and increased to 5.2% by the end of the implementation period (increasing 0.142% per month). However, the intervention effect was not significant when control sites were added, suggesting that improvement may have been driven by secular trends rather than solely by this intervention. Although the intervention was feasible, it was not effective. Continued analysis of process and implementation data including qualitative interviews with key stakeholders, may elucidate the
Choi, Aery; Kim, Yun Kyung; Eun, Byung Wook; Jo, Dae Sun
Purpose Seasonal influenza can be prevented by vaccination. Disease prevention in children aged vaccinate their children, the identification of drivers and barriers to vaccination is essential to increase influenza vaccination coverage. Methods A total of 639 parents participated in the pre- and posteducational survey and 450 parents participated in the study via telephone interviews. The participating parents were asked to rank their agreement with each statement of the survey questionnaire on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree), and the scores between pre- and postintervention were compared. Results Before the educational intervention, 105 out of 639 participants reported not to agree to vaccinate their children against influenza. After the intervention, 46 out of the 105 parents changed their opinions about childhood vaccination. The physicians' recommendation received the highest agreement score and was the most important driver to vaccination, whereas the cost of vaccination was the strongest factor for not vaccinating children. In general, the participants significantly changed the agreement scores between pre- and postintervention. However, the unfavorable opinions about vaccination and the convenience of receiving the influenza vaccine did not change significantly. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that a specific educational intervention involving caregivers is very effective in increasing the influenza vaccination coverage of children aged less than 60 months. PMID:29042867
De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G
Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers. © 2014 World Obesity.
Bzowyckyj, Andrew S; Dow, Alan; Knab, Mary S
Health professions education programs can have direct effects on patients and communities as well as on learners. However, few studies have examined the patient and community outcomes of educational interventions. To better integrate education and health care delivery, educators and researchers would benefit from a unifying framework to guide the planning of educational interventions and evaluation of their impact on patients.The authors of this Perspective mirrored approaches from Miller's pyramid of educational assessment and Moore and colleagues' framework for evaluating continuing professional development to propose a conceptual framework for evaluating the impact of educational interventions on patients and communities. This proposed framework, which complements these existing frameworks for evaluating the impact of educational interventions on learners, includes four levels: (1) interaction; (2) acceptability; (3) individual outcomes (i.e., knowledge, skills, activation, behaviors, and individual health indicators); and (4) population outcomes (i.e., community health indicators, capacity, and disparities). The authors describe measures and outcomes at each level and provide an example of the application of their new conceptual framework.The authors encourage educators and researchers to use this conceptual framework to evaluate the impact of educational interventions on patients and to more clearly identify and define which educational interventions strengthen communities and enhance overall health outcomes.
Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen
Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…
Katigbak, Carina; Flaherty, Erin; Chao, Ying-Yu; Nguyen, Tam; Cheung, Daphne; Yiu-Cho Kwan, Rick
Physical activity (PA) is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. For older adults, engaging in PA is shown to improve cardiac status, reduce cognitive, and functional decline, and improve overall quality of life. However, only 17% of Asian American adults meet the 2008 federal recommended guidelines for aerobic and muscle strengthening activity; and there is a paucity of data reporting on older Asian Americans - a rapidly growing, underserved group. While data pertaining to Asian Americans is frequently reported at the aggregate level, this masks differences (eg, language, culture, income) among Asian ethnic subgroups that may impact health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to identify intervention, and cultural adaptation strategies in studies promoting PA for older Asian Americans. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify interventions published between 1996-2016 focused on improving PA among older Asian Americans (> 60 years old). Data were abstracted to examine intervention study designs, cultural adaptation strategies, theoretical frameworks, and physical activity measures. Nine studies met the review's inclusion criteria. Community-based recruitment approaches were widely used, and all studies employed cultural adaptation to varying degrees. Most studies reported improvements in PA outcomes, focused on Chinese Americans, and relied on self-reports of PA, while few aimed to increase PA using a multi-component approach. Future studies would benefit from larger sample sizes, a wider representation of Asian ethnic subgroups, and concentrated efforts to implement deep level adaptations that may increase the salience and sustainability of these interventions.
Annear, Michael J
Dementia education disseminated through massive open online courses (MOOCs) has the potential to improve knowledge and care provision among health professionals and lay people. The potential learning effects of a dementia MOOC were assessed using a reliable and valid measure with international volunteers ( N = 3,649) who completed the measure before and after online education. Evaluation of learning effects suggests that the MOOC significantly increased dementia knowledge by at least 17% across six cohorts. Knowledge was improved by the MOOC in three ways: it significantly improved overall understanding of dementia for diverse cohorts; it reduced knowledge disparity within occupational and lay cohorts; and it reduced knowledge disparity across occupational and lay cohorts. The capacity of a dementia MOOC to significantly improve knowledge and reach a wide audience may lead to population-level improvements in understanding about dementia. This may foster improvements in treatment and quality of care for people with dementia.
Smith, Michael J; Bayehi, Antoinette Derjani
This paper examines whether improving physical ergonomics working conditions affects worker productivity in a call centre with computer-intensive work. A field study was conducted at a catalogue retail service organization to explore the impact of ergonomics improvements on worker production. There were three levels of ergonomics interventions, each adding incrementally to the previous one. The first level was ergonomics training for all computer users accompanied by workstation ergonomics analysis leading to specific customized adjustments to better fit each worker (Group C). The second level added specific workstation accessories to improve the worker fit if the ergonomics analysis indicated a need for them (Group B). The third level met Group B requirements plus an improved chair (Group A). Productivity data was gathered from 72 volunteer participants who received ergonomics improvements to their workstations and 370 control subjects working in the same departments. Daily company records of production outputs for each worker were taken before ergonomics intervention (baseline) and 12 months after ergonomics intervention. Productivity improvement from baseline to 12 months post-intervention was examined across all ergonomics conditions combined, and also compared to the control group. The findings showed that worker performance increased for 50% of the ergonomics improvement participants and decreased for 50%. Overall, there was a 4.87% output increase for the ergonomics improvement group as compared to a 3.46% output decrease for the control group. The level of productivity increase varied by the type of the ergonomics improvements with Group C showing the best improvement (9.43%). Even though the average production improved, caution must be used in interpreting the findings since the ergonomics interventions were not successful for one-half of the participants.
Zhou, Kai-Ge; Wu, Zhi-Fan; Sun, Xiao-Sheng
Health communication and behavior intervention are main measures adopted in health education. Behavior intervention among these measures is the direct one to affect individual and group behaviors. Patients demand more than health information communication, but rely on health intervention service and related products. This essay starts from…
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 requires empirically based interventions to be used when treating chronic problem behaviors. The fundamental part of behavior modification is the ability to demonstrate that behavior change occurred due to the intervention. This can only be accomplished when the intervention is…
Carla FJ Nooijen
Full Text Available Questions: For people with subacute spinal cord injury, does rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioural intervention to promote physical activity lead to a more active lifestyle than rehabilitation alone? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinded assessors. Participants: Forty-five adults with subacute spinal cord injury who were undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and were dependent on a manual wheelchair. The spinal cord injuries were characterised as: tetraplegia 33%; motor complete 62%; mean time since injury 150 days (SD 74. Intervention: All participants received regular rehabilitation, including handcycle training. Only the experimental group received a behavioural intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge. This intervention involved 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach who was trained in motivational interviewing; it began 2 months before and ended 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was physical activity, which was objectively measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor 2 months before discharge, at discharge, and 6 and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The accelerometry data were analysed as total wheeled physical activity, sedentary time and motility. Self-reported physical activity was a secondary outcome. Results: The behavioural intervention significantly increased wheeled physical activity (overall between-group difference from generalised estimating equation 21 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 35. This difference was evident 6 months after discharge (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 48 and maintained at 12 months after discharge (25 minutes per day, 95% CI 1 to 50. No significant intervention effect was found for sedentary time or motility. Self-reported physical activity also significantly improved. Conclusion: The behavioural
Over the past 20 years, we have seen both increasing demand to improve the quality of education in the United States and a new supply of improvement practices generated by external set-vice providers...
Davies, Ryan R; Radtke, Wolfgang A; Klenk, Dore; Pizarro, Christian
Despite increasing use of bilateral branch pulmonary artery banding (bPAB), both as a temporary stabilizing treatment and as part of comprehensive hybrid management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, little is known about the long-term outcomes of the pulmonary arteries (PAs) in banded patients. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with ductal-dependent systemic circulation (2001-2013) undergoing bPAB placement at a single institution (bPAB, n = 50); patients who underwent a stage I Norwood procedure (Norwood, n = 53) were used for comparison. The need for PA interventions (surgical arterioplasty, balloon angioplasty, and stent implantation) and PA growth were assessed. Bands were in place for a median of 76 days. PA growth and size were similar between groups, but bPAB patients required more interventions (1.4 ± 2.9 vs 0.5 ± 1.2, P = .01). In competing risks analysis, only 20% of bPAB patients were alive and free from intervention at 5 years after bPAB removal. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression of operative interventions within the bPAB group demonstrated the following risk factors: subsequent 2-ventricle repairs (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-6.7), smallest band diameter (HR per additional millimeter, 0.059; 95% CI, 0.004-0.849), and duration of band placement more than 90 days (HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.0-12.6). Hemodynamics and Fontan candidacy did not differ between groups. Patients with bPAB require additional interventions at earlier time points than Norwood patients. Patients with smaller bands and longer duration of banding are at high risk. Despite stenoses requiring additional interventions, Fontan candidacy is maintained. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Building capacity for education research among clinical educators in the health professions: A BEME (Best Evidence Medical Education) Systematic Review of the outcomes of interventions: BEME Guide No. 34.
Ahmed, Rabia; Farooq, Ameer; Storie, Dale; Hartling, Lisa; Oswald, Anna
There is a growing desire for health professions educators to generate high-quality education research; yet, few of them encounter the training to do so. In response, health professions faculties have increasingly been devoting resources to provide members with the skills necessary for education research. The form and impact of these efforts have not been reviewed, though such a synthesis could be useful for practice. The objectives of this systematic review were to (1) identify interventions aimed at building capacity for education research among health professions clinical educators and (2) review the outcomes of these interventions. We developed a systematic review protocol based on our pilot scoping search. This protocol underwent peer review and was prospectively registered with the Best Evidence Medical Education Collaboration. Based on this protocol, we conducted a comprehensive search of health professions' databases and related grey literature. Systematic methods were applied: two independent reviewers completed title screening and full text review for inclusion, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment. Studies were included if they reported outcomes for interventions designed to increase capacity for health professions clinical educators to conduct education research. We conducted a qualitative synthesis of the evidence which included detailed reporting of intervention characteristics and outcomes. Our search returned 14, 149 results, 241 of which were retained after title and abstract screening, and 30 of which met inclusion criteria after full text review. Seven groups of interventions were identified, the most frequent being teaching scholars programs (n = 10), health professions education fellowships (n = 3) or master's programs (n = 4). The most commonly measured outcome was change related to enhanced scholarly outputs (grants, papers, abstracts, and presentations) post-intervention. Unfortunately, most of the included
Tajima, Osamu; Yabe, Hitoshi; Katoh, Kyoichi; Ueki, Junko; Nakamura, Kimiyuki; Nakatani, Akira; Wakamatsu, Osamu; Satoh, Tsugio; Nakazawa, Yasuo
As interventional radiology (IVR) has become widespread recently, skin injury caused by exposure to radiation have been reported in academic meetings, and are a major concern in academic circles. In 1986, The Japanese Society of Circulation Imaging Technology (CITEC)'s organized a group to engage in an actual condition survey on cineangiography. We have studied exposed doses to patients in the event of cardiac catheterization using ancate data available in Japan and made efforts to spread methods of reducing exposure doses through academic meetings and medical journal. In 1998, we set up the Radiation Exposure Control Committee. The committee's objectives were to reduce exposure doses to patients and operators during cardiovascular examinations, and establish concrete of technical methods and protection guidelines for exposed dose reduction. We have studied presentations at academic meetings and study meetings, etc., and classified the results into the following 5 categories: methods of reducing radiation by X-ray equipment, methods of reducing exposure using X-ray protection devices, exposure dosimetry, clinical cases of radiation exposure, and QC, QA. The committee issued a textbook based on the reports and have educated, guided and enlightened radiological technologists, nurses and ME by holding the 'Seminar for reduction technique of radiation exposure in circulator organs.' (author)
Pretty much everyone knows that our genes have at least something to do with how able or how high achieving we are. Some believe that we should not speak of this common knowledge, nor inquire into how genetic influence works or what it might mean. If we do not keep an open mind to the fact of genetic influence on academic achievement, however, then we cannot explore its possible implications. And if we do not consider the implications, then we cannot, as a society, harness any potential benefits or avoid possible pitfalls. So that's what this essay is about-exploring what behavioral genetics research might be able to offer to educational theory, policy, and practice. We cannot yet use biological information to make accurate predictions for all children. We do know, however, that academic achievement is heritable, which is to say that differences between individuals are influenced by differences in their DNA. If genes are part of the problem for some pupils (to take the negative spin on this), then it seems likely that studying them could be part of a solution. And that's what behavioral geneticists are trying to do-to chart and understand pathways from DNA to behavior and to identify interventions that can maximize outcomes for all. The fact is, though, that we have an awfully long way to go. © 2015 The Hastings Center.
Aragones, Abraham; Schwartz, Mark D; Shah, Nirav R; Gany, Francesca M
Latino immigrants face a higher burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) and screening rates are low. To assess the effectiveness of a multilevel intervention in increasing the rate of CRC screening among Latino immigrants. A randomized controlled trial, with randomization at the physician level. Pairs of 65 primary care physicians and 65 Latino immigrant patients participated, 31 in the intervention and 34 in the control group. CRC educational video in Spanish on a portable personal digital video display device accompanied by a brochure with key information for the patient, and a patient-delivered paper-based reminder for their physician. Completed CRC screening, physician recommendation for CRC screening, and patient adherence to physician recommended CRC screening. The overall rate of completed screening for CRC was 55% for the intervention and 18% for the control group (p = 0.002). Physicians recommended CRC screening for 61% of patients in the intervention group versus 41% in the control group (p = 0.08). Of those that received a recommendation, 90% in the intervention group adhered to it versus 26% in the control group (p = 0.007). The intervention was successful in increasing rates of completed CRC screening primarily through increasing adherence after screening was recommended. Additional efforts should focus on developing new strategies to increase physician recommendation for CRC screening, while employing effective patient adherence interventions.
Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Tagliabue, Claudia; Umbrello, Giulia; Madini, Barbara; Di Pietro, Giada; Principi, Nicola
Data regarding the use of technology to improve adolescent knowledge on vaccines are scarce. The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether different web-based educational programmes for adolescents might increase their vaccination coverage. Overall, 917 unvaccinated adolescents (389 males, 42.4%; mean age ± standard deviation, 14.0 ± 2.2 years) were randomized 1:1:1 into the following groups: no intervention (n = 334), website educational program only (n = 281), or website plus face to face lesson (n = 302) groups. The use of the website plus the lesson significantly increased the overall knowledge of various aspects of vaccine-preventable disease and reduced the fear of vaccines (p education of adolescents while considering all of the vaccines recommended for this age group. Our results demonstrate the possibility of increasing vaccination coverage by using a website based educational program with tailored information. However, to be most effective, this program should be supplemented with face-to-face discussions of vaccines at school and at home. Thus, specific education should also include teachers and parents so that they will be prepared to discuss with adolescents what is true and false in the vaccination field.
Casla, Soraya; Hojman, Pernille; Cubedo, Ricardo
BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been demonstrated to increase survival in breast cancer patients, but few breast cancer patients meet the general recommendations for physical activity. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if a supervised integrated counseling and group-based exercise...... program could increase leisure-time activity in women with breast cancer. METHODS: This pilot project, designed as a single-arm study with pre-post testing, consisted of 24 classes of combined aerobic and strength exercise training as well as classes on dietary and health behavior. A total of 48 women...... with breast cancer who were undergoing or had recently completed anticancer treatment completed the study. Leisure-time physical activity, grip strength, functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), and depression were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at the 12-week follow-up after intervention...
Legault, Lisa; Gutsell, Jennifer N; Inzlicht, Michael
Although prejudice-reduction policies and interventions abound, is it possible that some of them result in the precise opposite of their intended effect--an increase in prejudice? We examined this question by exploring the impact of motivation-based prejudice-reduction interventions and assessing whether certain popular practices might in fact increase prejudice. In two experiments, participants received detailed information on, or were primed with, the goal of prejudice reduction; the information and primes either encouraged autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice or emphasized the societal requirement to control prejudice. Ironically, motivating people to reduce prejudice by emphasizing external control produced more explicit and implicit prejudice than did not intervening at all. Conversely, participants in whom autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice was induced displayed less explicit and implicit prejudice compared with no-treatment control participants. We outline strategies for effectively reducing prejudice and discuss the detrimental consequences of enforcing antiprejudice standards.
A 3-year physical activity intervention program increases the gain in bone mineral and bone width in prepubertal girls but not boys: the prospective copenhagen school child interventions study (CoSCIS).
Hasselstrøm, H A; Karlsson, M K; Hansen, S E; Grønfeldt, V; Froberg, K; Andersen, L B
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing the amount of time spent in physical education classes on bone mineral accrual and gain in bone size in prepubertal Danish children. A total of 135 boys and 108 girls, aged 6-8 years, were included in a school-based curriculum intervention program where the usual time spent in physical education classes was doubled to four classes (180 min) per week. The control group comprised age-matched children (62 boys and 76 girls) recruited from a separate community who completed the usual Danish school curriculum of physical activity (90 min/week). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC; g), bone mineral density (g/cm(2)), and bone width at the calcaneus and distal forearm before and after 3 years of intervention. Anthropometrics and Tanner stages were evaluated on the same occasions. General physical activity was measured with an accelerometer worn for 4 days. In girls, the intervention group had a 12.5% increase (P = 0.04) in distal forearm BMC and a 13.2% increase (P = 0.005) in distal forearm scanned area compared with girls in the control group. No differences were found between the intervention and control groups in boys. Increasing the frequency of physical education classes for prepubertal children is associated with a higher accrual of bone mineral and higher gain in bone size after 3 years in girls but not in boys.
Eaton, Julian; Nwefoh, Emeka; Okafor, Godwin; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu; Nwaubani, Kenneth; Henderson, Claire
Mental health services in Nigeria consist mainly of large government psychiatric hospitals and there are very few mental health professionals to serve the large population of the country. However, more recently, community mental health services, which have been shown to improve access to care and clinical outcomes are beginning to develop in some locations. Despite efforts to promote more accessible services, low levels of knowledge about effective treatment of mental disorders means that even where these services are available, a very small proportion of people utilise these services. Therefore interventions to increase service use are an essential component of health system. This intervention was designed to increase use of a mental health services through the work of community-based Village Health Workers. Fifteen Village Health Workers in each Local Government Area (district) were selected and trained to create mental health awareness in communities. Their function also include identification and referral of persons with mental illness to trained mental health nurses in the clinics. Attendance data prior to and after intervention were collected and compared. The incident rate for initial period of intervention is five times higher than the baseline rate (95% CI; 3.42-7.56; p awareness raising using volunteers in communities as part of health programme implementation can increase services use by a population. Mechanisms such as informing populations of the existence of a service which they were previously lacking; explanation of causation of mental illness and achieving community leaders' support for a new service can make investment in services more efficient by increasing attendance.
Avlund, K; Vass, M; Kvist, K
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether immediate effects of a 3-year educational intervention in primary health care were confirmed 18 months after the end of the intervention. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A controlled 3-year intervention study in 34 Danish municipalities with randomization and intervent......: The effect of a brief, feasible educational intervention for primary care professionals is sustained in women 1(1/2) years after the end of the intervention.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether immediate effects of a 3-year educational intervention in primary health care were confirmed 18 months after the end of the intervention. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A controlled 3-year intervention study in 34 Danish municipalities with randomization...... and intervention at municipality level. The 17 intervention municipality visitors received regular education, and GPs were introduced to a short assessment program. The effect was measured at the individual level by questions about functional ability at the end of the intervention period and 1(1/2) years later; 4...
Malboeuf-Hurtubise, Catherine; Joussemet, Mireille; Taylor, Geneviève; Lacourse, Eric
Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) have been increasingly implemented in schools to foster better emotional regulation skills for students with special education needs such as learning disabilities (LDs). This pilot study aimed to evaluate the impact of a MBI on the need satisfaction of elementary students with severe LDs. A prospective…
Anttila, Heidi; Suoranta, Jutta; Malmivaara, Antti
We conducted a criteria-based appraisal of systematic reviews on the effectiveness of physiotherapy and conductive education interventions in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Computerized bibliographic databases were searched without language restriction up to August 2007. Reviews on trials...... physiotherapy and occupational therapy interventions. Conclusions in the other reviews should be interpreted cautiously, although, because of the poor quality of the primary studies, most reviews drew no conclusions on the effectiveness of the reviewed interventions. Reviews on complex interventions...
Hidalgo García, María Victoria; Menéndez Álvarez-Dardet, Susana; Sánchez Hidalgo, José; Lorence Lara, Bárbara; Jiménez García, Lucía
Intervention with at-risk families has changed greatly over recent decades. Thus, intervention based on welfare and deficit theory has given way to preventive intervention that seeks to strengthen and preserve families. Within the framework of this approach, there are psycho-educational programs for parents, the main characteristics of which are presented in this paper. An example of this kind of preventive intervention for parents is the family program coordinated by the Seville Cit...
Niurka Fleites Santana; Yosmel Álvarez González; Iván Arlé González Duque; Jayce Díaz Díaz
Background:The studies accomplished in the worldwide space on pregnancy in adolescence demonstrate the need of an integral attention that would help the family in young people's education.Objective: to implement a program of educational intervention that contribute to modify young people's knowledges on pregnancy in adolescence.Methods: Study of educational intervention in teens of San Francisco community, belonging to the Municipality of Agua Blanca, San Francisco clinic, Portuguesa State, d...
Macdonald, Heather M; Kontulainen, Saija A; Khan, Karim M; McKay, Heather A
This 16-month randomized, controlled school-based study compared change in tibial bone strength between 281 boys and girls participating in a daily program of physical activity (Action Schools! BC) and 129 same-sex controls. The simple, pragmatic intervention increased distal tibia bone strength in prepubertal boys; it had no effect in early pubertal boys or pre or early pubertal girls. Numerous school-based exercise interventions have proven effective for enhancing BMC, but none have used pQCT to evaluate the effects of increased loading on bone strength during growth. Thus, our aim was to determine whether a daily program of physical activity, Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) would improve tibial bone strength in boys and girls who were pre- (Tanner stage 1) or early pubertal (Tanner stage 2 or 3) at baseline. Ten schools were randomized to intervention (INT, 7 schools) or control (CON, 3 schools). The bone-loading component of AS! BC included a daily jumping program (Bounce at the Bell) plus 15 minutes/day of classroom physical activity in addition to regular physical education. We used pQCT to compare 16-month change in bone strength index (BSI, mg2/mm4) at the distal tibia (8% site) and polar strength strain index (SSIp, mm3) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) in 281 boys and girls participating in AS! BC and 129 same-sex controls. We used a linear mixed effects model to analyze our data. Children were 10.2+/-0.6 years at baseline. Intervention boys tended to have a greater increase in BSI (+774.6 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 672.7, 876.4) than CON boys (+650.9 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 496.4, 805.4), but the difference was only significant in prepubertal boys (p=0.03 for group x maturity interaction). Intervention boys also tended to have a greater increase in SSIp (+198.6 mm3; 95% CI: 182.9, 214.3) than CON boys (+177.1 mm3; 95% CI: 153.5, 200.7). Change in BSI and SSIp was similar between CON and INT girls. Our findings suggest that a simple, pragmatic program of daily activity
Full Text Available The study investigated how policy intervention could have significant impact on beneficiaries. Using quasi-experimental design, 360 pupils from participating and non-participating schools in a feeding program were selected from a rural setting. Instrument for data collection was validated, pre-tested and administered on cross-section of respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and regression analyses. Findings show that significant differences existed in educational outcomes as participating pupils performed better in core subjects of English Language, Mathematics and Integrated Science. In terms of socio-economic determinants, findings show that selected variables such as sex of pupils and number of dependents in the family had directly impacted on the performance of pupils. The study also found causal link between the school feeding intervention and others as one of the multiplier effects was not only an increased enrolments by almost a quarter, but reduced dropout and absenteeism rates. This implied that the policy environments was sufficiently pro-poor and effective since it has strengthened the standard of foundational primary school and completion rate envisaged in the educational policy. It is recommended that further policy options that would facilitate the scaling-up of the program in the entire intervention area be formulated.
Ribeiro, Clarisse; Sarmento E Castro, Rui; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Fernandes, Lia
Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is the main prognostic factor associated with HIV disease progression and death. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psycho-educational program to promote adherence to HAART in HIV patients. A longitudinal study (n = 102) over 9 months in an Infectious Diseases Hospital was carried out. Adherence to HAART was measured with standardized scales and values of viral load. Two groups were defined: adherents and non-adherents. In the latter, a psycho-educational program was implemented and 6 months later measured adherence to HAART. Knowledge about the infection, CD4 T lymphocytes and HIV-ribonucleic acid values were measured before and after this program. The sample was predominantly male (70%), heterosexual (78%), with a mean age of 49 (SD = 12.7) years, and 48% of participants were not adhering to HAART. After the program, non-adherence decreased to 21.6%. Knowledge about the infection increased from 79 to 97%. A significant increase in CD4 T lymphocytes (mean 540-580) and a decrease in viral load (mean 5411-3052) were observed, the latter of statistical significance. This program seems to be feasible and efficient, improving adherence to HAART.
Arriola, Kimberly; Robinson, Dana H.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Perryman, Jennie P.
This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of "Project ACTS: About Choices in Transplantation and Sharing," which was developed to increase readiness for organ and tissue donation among African American adults. Nine churches (N = 425 participants) were randomly assigned to receive donation education materials currently available to consumers…
Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Jonsdottir, Helga; Benediktsson, Rafn
To analyze which factors contribute to improvement in glycemic control in educational interventions in type 2 diabetes reported in randomized controlled trials (RCT) published in 2001-2005. Papers were extracted from Medline and Scopus using educational intervention and adults with type 2 diabetes as keywords. Inclusion criteria were RCT design. Data were analyzed with a data-mining program. Of 464 titles extracted, 21 articles reporting 18 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data mining showed that for initial glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level education intervention achieved a small change in HbA1c level, or from +0.1 to -0.7%. For initial HbA1c > or = 8.0%, a significant drop in HbA1c level of 0.8-2.5% was found. Data mining indicated that duration, educational content and intensity of education did not predict changes in HbA1c levels. Initial HbA1c level is the single most important factor affecting improvements in glycemic control in response to patient education. Data mining is an appropriate and sufficiently sensitive method to analyze outcomes of educational interventions. Diversity in conceptualization of interventions and diversity of instruments used for outcome measurements could have hampered actual discovery of effective educational practices. Participation in educational interventions generally seems to benefit people with type 2 diabetes. Use of standardized instruments is encouraged as it gives better opportunities to identify conclusive results with consequent development of clinical guidelines.
Adedoyin, A Christson; Sherr, Michael E; Adedoyin, Oreoluwa O; Royse, David D; Jackson, Mary S; Adu-Boahene, Akosua B
Cancer incidence and mortality is a significant area of health disparity between African Americans and Caucasians. In the current article the authors used a systematic review design to examine the characteristics of different cancer media education intervention (CMEI) to increase access to cancer screenings for African Americans within a 30 year period (1980-2010). Ten computerized databases were searched using inclusion-exclusion criteria. Consequently, 179 potential studies were identified, and later reduced to 41 eligible studies through the inclusion-exclusion criteria. The eligible studies had a combined sample size of N = 12,764 respondents. The findings revealed that multi-media intervention strategies were the most common media intervention that led to increased cancer screenings among African Americans. The authors conclude with a call for social workers to be more involved in developing and following up with culturally appropriate media strategies that can increase the likelihood of early detection and successful treatment, thus reducing this important area of health disparity.
Vidoni, Carla; Lee, Chang-Hung; Azevedo, L. B.
A dependent group contingency strategy called Fair Play Game was applied to promote increase in number of steps during physical education classes for sixth-grade students. Results from a multiple baseline design across three classes showed that the mean number of steps for baseline vs. intervention were: Class 1: 43 vs. 64 steps/minute; Class 2:…
Bartholomew, L K; Parcel, G S; Kok, G
The practice of health education involves three major program-planning activities: needs assessment, program development, and evaluation. Over the past 20 years, significant enhancements have been made to the conceptual base and practice of health education. Models that outline explicit procedures and detailed conceptualization of community assessment and evaluation have been developed. Other advancements include the application of theory to health education and promotion program development and implementation. However, there remains a need for more explicit specification of the processes by which one uses theory and empirical findings to develop interventions. This article presents the origins, purpose, and description of Intervention Mapping, a framework for health education intervention development. Intervention Mapping is composed of five steps: (1) creating a matrix of proximal program objectives, (2) selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical strategies, (3) designing and organizing a program, (4) specifying adoption and implementation plans, and (5) generating program evaluation plans.
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. Discussion The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors
Kaufman, Jessica; Synnot, Anneliese; Ryan, Rebecca; Hill, Sophie; Horey, Dell; Willis, Natalie; Lin, Vivian; Robinson, Priscilla
Childhood vaccination (also described as immunisation) is an important and effective way to reduce childhood illness and death. However, there are many children who do not receive the recommended vaccines because their parents do not know why vaccination is important, do not understand how, where or when to get their children vaccinated, disagree with vaccination as a public health measure, or have concerns about vaccine safety.Face to face interventions to inform or educate parents about routine childhood vaccination may improve vaccination rates and parental knowledge or understanding of vaccination. Such interventions may describe or explain the practical and logistical factors associated with vaccination, and enable parents to understand the meaning and relevance of vaccination for their family or community. To assess the effects of face to face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination on immunisation uptake and parental knowledge. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1946 to July 2012); EMBASE + Embase Classic (OvidSP) (1947 to July 2012); CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1981 to July 2012); PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1806 to July 2012); Global Health (CAB) (1910 to July 2012); Global Health Library (WHO) (searched July 2012); Google Scholar (searched September 2012), ISI Web of Science (searched September 2012) and reference lists of relevant articles. We searched for ongoing trials in The International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (searched August 2012) and for grey literature in The Grey Literature Report and OpenGrey (searched August 2012). We also contacted authors of included studies and experts in the field. There were no language or date restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs evaluating the effects of face to face interventions delivered to individual parents or groups of parents to inform or educate
Lopez-Gonzalez, Elena; Herdeiro, Maria T; Piñeiro-Lamas, María; Figueiras, Adolfo
The yellow-card scheme continues to be one of the principal methods for signal generation in pharmacovigilance. Nevertheless, under-reporting, one of its disadvantages, delays alert signals and has a negative influence on public health. Educational interventions in pharmacovigilance may have a positive impact on the spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). To assess the duration of the effect and effectiveness of an educational intervention in pharmacovigilance designed to improve ADR reporting in a robust pharmacovigilance system. A spatial, cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted covering all National Health System physicians in the northwest of Spain and targeting those who were actively engaged in clinical practice (n = 7,498). Of these, 2,120 were assigned in three spatial clusters to the intervention group (six hospitals and 138 primary care centers) and 3,614 in four clusters to the control group (seven hospitals and 267 primary care centers). The educational intervention consisted of two complementary approaches--one active (group sessions), the other passive (educational material, reporting form)-implemented from November 2007 to December 2008, with a follow-up period of 8 months. Intervention participation was 53.7 % in a hospital setting and 60.5 % in primary care settings. ADR reporting in the intervention group increased by 65.4 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 8.2-153.4) across the follow-up. The ADR reporting rate per 1,000 physicians/year in the intervention group rose from 28.1 to 39.6 following the intervention (51.7 and 27.4 in the first and second 4-month period, respectively). For the intervention group, relative risk (RR) was 2.31 (95 % CI: 1.46-3.68) and 1.04 (95 % CI: 0.61-1.77) in the first and second 4-month period, respectively adjusted to baseline values. There was an increase in unexpected ADR reporting (RR 2.06, 95 % CI 1.19-3.55). Pharmacovigilance educational interventions that have proved effective can be
van Velthuijsen, Eveline L; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Warnier, Ron M J; Ambergen, Ton; Mulder, Wubbo J; Verhey, Frans R J; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M
Delirium is a common and serious complication of hospitalisation in older adults. It can lead to prolonged hospital stay, institutionalisation, and even death. However, it often remains unrecognised or is not managed adequately. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an educational intervention for nursing staff on three aspects of clinical practice concerning delirium in older hospitalised patients: the frequency and correctness of screening for delirium using the 13-item Delirium Observation Screening score (DOS), and the frequency of geriatric consultations requested for older patients. The a priori expectations were that there would be an increase in all three of these outcomes. We designed an educational intervention and implemented this on two inpatient hospital units. Before providing the educational session, the nursing staff was asked to fill out two questionnaires about delirium in older hospitalised patients. The educational session was then tailored to each unit based on the results of these questionnaires. Additionally, posters and flyers with information on the screening and management of delirium were provided and participants were shown where to find additional information. Relevant data (outcomes, demographics and background patient data) were collected retrospectively from digital medical files. Data was retrospectively collected for four different time points: three pre-test and one post-test. There was a significant increase in frequency of delirium screening (P = 0.001), and both units showed an increase in the correctness of the screening. No significant effect of the educational intervention was found for the proportion of patients who received a geriatric consultation (P = 0.083). The educational intervention was fairly successful in making positive changes in clinical practice: after the educational session an improvement in the frequency and correctness of screening for delirium was observed. A trend, though not
Early childhood education (ECE) intervention programs nowadays are the core of the educational disadvantage policy in the Netherlands. They offer institutional compensatory activities to young children who lack educational stimulation in the home environment. Target groups mainly comprise children from deprived socioeconomic backgrounds and of…
Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Olagoke; Pauly, Mark
The purpose of this study was to compare two different methods to teach educators about HIV/AIDS. Sixty educators were selected from eight schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to undergo HIV/AIDS training using an interactive CD-ROM intervention. Another sixty educators from other schools were selected to undergo a two-day Life Skills…
Thompson, Carl; Stapley, Sally
Despite the growing popularity of decision making in nursing curricula, the effectiveness of educational interventions to improve nursing judgement and decision making is unknown. We sought to synthesise and summarise the comparative evidence for educational interventions to improve nursing judgements and clinical decisions. A systematic review. Electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, OpenSIGLE conference proceedings and hand searching nursing journals. Studies published since 1960, reporting any educational intervention that aimed to improve nurses' clinical judgements or decision making were included. Studies were assessed for relevance and quality. Data extracted included study design; educational setting; the nature of participants; whether the study was concerned with the clinical application of skills or the application of theory; the type of decision targeted by the intervention (e.g. diagnostic reasoning) and whether the evaluation of the intervention focused on efficacy or effectiveness. A narrative approach to study synthesis was used due to heterogeneity in interventions, study samples, outcomes and settings and incomplete reporting of effect sizes. From 5262 initial citations 24 studies were included in the review. A variety of educational approaches were reported. Study quality and content reporting was generally poor. Pedagogical theories were widely used but use of decision theory (with the exception of subjective expected utility theory implicit in decision analysis) was rare. The effectiveness and efficacy of interventions was mixed. Educational interventions to improve nurses' judgements and decisions are complex and the evidence from comparative studies does little to reduce the uncertainty about 'what works'. Nurse educators need to pay attention to decision, as well as pedagogical, theory in the design of interventions. Study design and
Yusoff, Hafzan; Wan Daud, Wan Nudri; Ahmad, Zulkifli
This study was carried out to compare the effect between nutrition education intervention and non-nutrition education intervention on awareness regarding iron deficiency among schooling adolescents in Tanah Merah, one of rural district in Kelantan, Malaysia. This study which was started in year 2010 involved 280 respondents (223 girls, 57 boys, age: 16 yr) from schools in Tanah Merah. The selection criteria were based on hemoglobin level (Hb = 7 - 11.9 g/dL for girls; Hb = 7 - 12.9 g/dL for boys). They were divided into 2 groups. The first group received nutrition education package (Nutrition education, NE), whereas another group was entitled to receive non-nutrition education intervention (Non-Nutrition Education, NNE) (supplement only). Both interventions were implemented for 3 months. The changes in awareness among respondents of both groups were evaluated using multi-choices questionnaire. Nutrition education receiver group (NE) demonstrated improvement in awareness at post-intervention. No substantial improvement was demonstrated by the counterpart group (NNE). Multimedia nutrition education program conducted at school setting was in fact practical and effective in improving awareness on iron deficiency among anemic adolescents.
Full Text Available This work describes some of the consequences of new regulations on nurseries in the Madrid area that are related to ratios and group size (especially after the decree 18/2008. Analyses are based on educators and education staff’s point of view. Special emphasis is made on consequences on children behavior. Two hundred and seventy seven professionals that belonged to more than 53 nurseries of Madrid area voluntarily answered a survey with open questions about educative process and child’s behavior. Qualitative and quantitative analyses show that, from educator’s point of view, increasing ratio child-educator has consequences in the variables explored. Main effects were found for the activities made in classrooms (loosing educative standards, hygiene and supply routines (loosing intrinsic values and autonomy support, space and time distribution, support staff organization and relation with families (reduced to quick information interchanges. Directors, classroom tutors and support educators perceive these changes in a similar fashion. The vast majority perceived changes on children’s behavior- increases in the number of conflicts and anxiety. These results agree with previous research on the influence of child-educators ratios and group size on quality of education. Implications for child development are discussed. This paper is published in Spanish.
Robinson, Christie; Graham, Joy
The objective of this study was to assess perceived Internet health literacy of HIV-positive people before and after an Internet health information educational intervention. We developed a 50-min educational intervention on basic computer skills and online health information evaluation. We administered a demographic survey and a validated health literacy survey (eHEALS) at baseline, immediately after, and 3 months the class. Changes in scores between the surveys were analysed. Eighteen HIV-positive participants were included in the final analysis. Before the intervention, most respondents' assessment of their ability to access Internet health information was unfavourable. Post-intervention, the majority of respondents agreed or strongly agreed they were able to access and identify Internet health information resources. The increase in self-assessed skill level was statistically significant for all eight items eHEALS (P Internet health information educational intervention HIV-positive people with baseline low perceived Internet health literacy significantly improves confidence in finding and using Internet health information resources. Studies with larger numbers of participants should be undertaken to determine if brief interventions improve self-care, patient outcomes and use of emergency services. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.
Zeinomar, Nur; Moslehi, Roxana
We determined the effectiveness of a community-based breast cancer education intervention among understudied populations in the New York State (NYS) Capital Region by assessing and comparing baseline and post-education breast cancer knowledge. Participants included 417 students recruited from five colleges/universities and 67 women from four community group organizations. Baseline and post-education knowledge was assessed via self-administered mostly multiple-choice questionnaires. An open-ended question soliciting opinions about public health prevention strategies against breast cancer was included on college/university students' questionnaires. Effectiveness of education intervention was estimated through a paired t test. Stratified analysis was done using demographic and descriptive variables. Answers to the open-ended questions were analyzed qualitatively. The mean percentage of correct answers increased from 39.9% at baseline to 80.8% post-education (P raising awareness about modifiable risk factors and inspiring proactive thinking about public health prevention strategies. This community-based education intervention was effective in increasing breast cancer knowledge among demographically diverse groups with low levels of baseline knowledge in the NYS Capital Region. Our findings provide leads for future public health prevention strategies.
Sanchez, Katherine; Eghaneyan, Brittany H; Trivedi, Madhukar H
Barriers to depression treatment among Hispanic populations include persistent stigma, inadequate doctor patient communication (DPC) and resultant sub-optimal use of anti-depressant medications. Stigma is primarily perpetuated due to inadequate disease literacy and cultural factors. Common concerns about depression treatments among Hispanics include fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications. The current manuscript presents the study protocol for the Depression Screening and Education: Options to Reduce Barriers to Treatment (DESEO) study funded by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Grants to Support the Hispanic Health Services Research Grant Program. DESEO will implement universal screening with a self-report depression screening tool (the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)) that is presented through a customized web application and a Depression Education Intervention (DEI) designed to increase disease literacy, and dispel myths about depression and its treatment among Hispanic patients thus reducing stigma and increasing treatment engagement. This project will be conducted at one community health center whose patient population is majority Hispanic. The target enrollment for recruitment is 350 patients over the 24-month study period. A one-group, pretest-posttest design will be used to asses knowledge of depression and its treatment and related stigma before, immediately after, and one month post intervention. Primary care settings often are the gateway to identifying undiagnosed mental health disorders, particularly for people with comorbid physical health conditions. This study is unique in that it aims to examine the specific role of patient education as an intervention to increase engagement in depression treatment. By participating in the DEI, it is expected that patients will have time to understand treatment
Hafzan Yusoff; Wan Nudri Wan Daud; Zulkifli Ahmad
Background This study was carried out to compare the effect between nutrition education intervention and non-nutrition education intervention on awareness regarding iron deficiency among schooling adolescents in Tanah Merah, one of rural district in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods: This study which was started in year 2010 involved 280 respondents (223 girls, 57 boys, age: 16 yr) from schools in Tanah Merah. The selection criteria were based on hemoglobin level (Hb = 7 ? 11.9 g/dL for girls; Hb =...
Hoeeg, Didde; Grabowski, Dan; Christensen, Ulla
Purpose: To treat childhood obesity, health education interventions are often aimed at the whole family. However, such interventions seem to have a relatively limited effect on weight loss. The purpose of this paper is to examine how families enrolled in a family-based health education intervention manage the intervention in their daily lives and…
Eze, Christian N; Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C
High rates of poor knowledge of, and negative attitudes towards people with epilepsy (PWE) are generally found among school teachers. Their first aid epilepsy management skills are poor. It remains unknown if this is different among trainee teachers and whether educational intervention might reduce these rates. We examined the effect of health education on the knowledge, attitudes, and first aid management of epilepsy on trainee teachers in Nigeria. Baseline data and socio-demographic determinants were collected from 226 randomly selected trainee teachers, at the Federal College of Education, Lagos, Nigeria, with self-administered questionnaires. They received a health intervention comprising an hour and half epilepsy lecture followed by a discussion. Baseline knowledge of, and attitudes towards PWE and their first aid epilepsy management skills were compared to post-interventional follow-up data collected twelve weeks later with similar questionnaires. At baseline the majority (61.9%) and largest proportion (44.2%) of respondents had negative attitudes and poor knowledge of epilepsy, respectively. The knowledge of, and attitudes towards epilepsy, and the first aid management skill increased in most respondents, post-intervention. The proportion of respondents with poor knowledge and negative attitudes dropped by 15.5% (pfirst aid management skills increased by 25.0% (pfirst aid management. This emphasizes the potential benefit of incorporating an epilepsy tailored intervention programme into teachers' training curricula. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doyle-Lucas, Ashley F; Davy, Brenda M
The purpose of this investigation was to develop, implement, and evaluate a theoretically based nutritional education intervention through a DVD lecture series (three 30-minute classes) in summer intensive programs for pre-professional, adolescent ballet dancers. Objectives of this intervention program were to increase knowledge of basic sports nutrition principles and the Female Athlete Triad and promote self-efficacy for adopting healthier dietary habits. Dancers ranging from 13 to 18 years old who were attending summer intensive programs affiliated with professional ballet companies were recruited. Group One (n = 231) participated in the nutrition education program, while Group Two the control participants (n = 90) did not. Assessments of the participants' dietary status consisted of a demographic questionnaire, a Sports Nutrition Knowledge and Behavior Questionnaire, and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The intervention group was assessed at baseline, immediately post-program, and at six weeks post-program. The control group was assessed at baseline and at six weeks post-baseline. The intervention program was effective at increasing nutrition knowledge, perceived susceptibility to the Female Athlete Triad, and self-efficacy constructs. Improvements in dietary intake were also observed among intervention group participants. To improve overall health and performance nutrition education should be incorporated into the training regimens of adolescent dancers. This potentially replicable DVD-based program may be an effective, low-cost mechanism for doing that.
Full Text Available Background. Pacifier use decreases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. An emergency department (ED visit may provide an opportunistic ‘teachable moment’ for parents.Objectives. To test the hypotheses (1 that caregivers were less familiar with the role of pacifiers in sudden infant death (SIDS prevention than other recommendations, and (2 that an ED educational intervention would increase pacifier use in infants younger than six months, and (3 that otitis media would not occur more frequently in pacifier users.Methods. We did an intervention-group-only longitudinal study in a county hospital ED. We measured pacifier use infants and baseline knowledge of SIDs prevention recommendations in caregivers. We followed up three months later to determine pacifier use, and 12 months later to determine episodes of otitis media.Results. We analyzed data for 780 infants. Parents knew of advice against co-sleeping in 469/780 (60%, smoking in 660/776 (85%, and prone sleeping in 613/780 (79%. Only 268/777 (35% knew the recommendation to offer a pacifier at bedtime. At enrollment 449/780 (58% did not use a pacifier. Of 210/338 infants aged less than 6 months followed up 41/112 (37% non-users had started using a pacifier at bedtime (NNT 3. Over the same period, 37/98 (38% users had discontinued their pacifier. Otitis media did not differ between users and non-users at 12 months.Conclusion. Caregiver knowledge of the role of pacifiers in SIDS prevention was less than for other recommendations. Our educational intervention appeared to increase pacifier use. Pacifier use was not associated with increased otitis media.
Welker, Kristen; Nabors, Laura; Lang, Myia; Bernstein, Jonathan
This review examined the impact of environmental change and educational interventions targeting young children from minority groups living in urban environments and who were from low-income families. A scoping methodology was used to find research across six databases, including CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. 299 studies were identified. Duplicates were removed leaving 159 studies. After reviewing for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 manuscripts were identified for this study: 11 featured home-environment change interventions and 12 emphasized education of children. Studies were reviewed to determine key interventions and outcomes for children. Both environmental interventions and educational programs had positive outcomes. Interventions did not always impact health outcomes, such as emergency department visits. Results indicated many of the environmental change and education interventions improved asthma management and some symptoms. A multipronged approach may be a good method for targeting both education and change in the home and school environment to promote the well-being of young children in urban areas. New research with careful documentation of information about study participants, dose of intervention (i.e., number and duration of sessions, booster sessions) and specific intervention components also will provide guidance for future research.
Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F
The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.
O'Connor, Amanda; Blewitt, Claire; Nolan, Andrea; Skouteris, Helen
Supporting children's social and emotional learning benefits all elements of children's development and has been associated with positive mental health and wellbeing, development of values and life skills. However, literature relating to the creation of interventions designed for use within the early childhood education and care settings to support children's social and emotional skills and learning is lacking. Intervention Mapping (IM) is a systematic intervention development framework, utilising principles centred on participatory co-design methods, multiple theoretical approaches and existing literature to enable effective decision-making during the development process. Early childhood pedagogical programs are also shaped by these principles; however, educators tend to draw on implicit knowledge when working with families. IM offers this sector the opportunity to formally incorporate theoretical, evidence-based research into the development of early childhood education and care social and emotional interventions. Emerging literature indicates IM is useful for designing health and wellbeing interventions for children within early childhood education and care settings. Considering the similar underlying principles of IM, existing applications within early childhood education and care and development of interventions beyond health behaviour change, it is recommended IM be utilised to design early childhood education and care interventions focusing on supporting children's social and emotional development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dauenhauer, Brian; Keating, Xiaofen; Lambdin, Dolly; Knipe, Robert
Our goal as physical educators is to help all students develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to be physically active for a lifetime. Despite efforts to address the diverse needs of students through quality physical education, the reality is that some students still need additional support beyond physical education to achieve their full…
Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah
Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…
Rai, Herleen; Knighton, Shanina; Zabarsky, Trina F; Donskey, Curtis J
We conducted a randomized trial of a simple educational intervention encouraging patients to perform hand hygiene at 5 specific moments, including on entry of health care personnel into their room as a reminder of the importance of hand hygiene. The intervention resulted in a significant increase in patient hand hygiene. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Aurora Mª Auxiliadora Morales Martín
Full Text Available Childhood and adolescence are shaped as fundamental pillars of our society, in them lies the future of it. Administrations, as constitutional guarantors of their proper future development, have as their unavoidable obligation their protection. The school environment is a privileged area to safeguard these fundamental rights. In the educational field, therefore, both preventive actions are necessary in the educational environment itself, as well as those of information and notification to other Specialized Services. For this purpose, educational inspection maintains as a primary duty to maintain the best interest of the child as a basis for intervention in all situations that may harm children and adolescents, from an eminently preventive approach. Prevention is one of the guiding principles of administrative action. Thus, the intervention should be carried out on progressively differentiated levels, from less to more, in primary, secondary and tertiary interventions, focusing on primary and secondary prevention in the education sector. Both the organization and the functional elements of the schools are prepared to attend to these tasks, either within the elements of the center (basic documents or in the intervention protocols before situations of bullying, abuse or gender violence, between others. In any case, the plans of action of the Educational Inspectorate include the supervision and advisory work in these subjects as a habitual and necessary work, for which concrete measures are established within its structure and its operation.
Ruslan A. Abramov
Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research is identification of the objective and subjective factors influencing professional self-realization of graduates of the field of study «Public and Municipal Administration».Methods. The authors have conducted anonymous opinion survey of prestigious economic universities undergraduates (bachelor and master degree course and graduates specialized in this sphere. The questions were about correspondence of gained academic qualification and actual occupation, the importance of degree certificate, satisfaction with education quality, attitude to different aspects of studying etc. In order to make relevant conclusions, the authors apply comparative, statistical, eneralization and induction methods.Results. Informants’ answers helped to count out the percentage of graduates whose occupation is connected with public administration, understand the reasons of choosing relevant master course, assess the significance of acquired competence and qualification for job placement at governmental organizations. The main scientific result of the research is working out a system of recommendations aimed at increasing demand for graduates specialized in the sphere of civil service, and, consequently, improving the efficiency of investment in management training. It is specified that the most important issues in this regard are forethought of career choice, students’ vision of academic planning, and approach to teaching, practice-oriented type of education.Scientific novelty. Having organized the data and compared it with previous surveys’ results, the authors reveal the factors essential to professional success and application of knowledge as well as correlation of these factors which means meeting the objective of the research.Practical significance. The presented materials can be used for the further modernization of the process of educational planning and taken into notice while developing academic programs for the
Sharafkhani, Naser; Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Ranjbaran, Mehdi
Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a theory-based educational intervention program on the level of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs among nurses in terms of the adoption of preventive behaviors. Methods This pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 nurses who were recruited through the multistage sampling method. The nurses were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The participants were evaluated before and 3 months after the educational intervention. A multidimensional questionnaire was prepared based on the theoretical structures of the HBM to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results There was no significant difference in the mean values of HBM constructs prior to the intervention between the intervention and control groups. However, after the administration of the educational program, the mean scores of knowledge and HBM constructs significantly increased in the intervention group when compared with the control group (p educational intervention based on the HBM was effective in improving the nurses' scores of knowledge and HBM constructs; therefore, theory-based health educational strategies are suggested as an effective alternative to traditional educational interventions.
Olumide, A O; Owoaje, E T
It is essential for drivers employed in the formal sector to have good knowledge of road safety in order to safeguard their lives and those of the staff they are employed to drive. The study was conducted to determine the effect of a road safety education intervention on road safety knowledge of drivers employed in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A quasi-experimental study of 98 intervention and 78 control drivers selected using a cluster sampling technique was conducted. The intervention comprised a two-day training on road safety and first aid. The drivers' knowledge of road safety was measured at baseline, immediately and 4-months post-intervention. Aggregate scores of road safety knowledge were computed giving minimum and maximum obtainable scores of 0 and 16 respectively. Change in mean scores over the three measurement periods was assessed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Independent t-test was used to compare the scores between intervention and control drivers at each of the assessment periods. Twenty-nine drivers did not complete the study (attrition rate = 16.5%). At baseline, mean road safety knowledge scores for the intervention and control drivers were 12.7±2.2 and 12.9± 2.3 (p = 0.510) respectively. Immediately and four months post intervention, the scores of the intervention drivers were 13.8±1.9 and 12.8±1.6; while scores for the controls were 13.3±2.0 and 13.2±1.8. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the increase in knowledge over the three assessment periods was not statistically significant. The intervention resulted in an initial increase in road safety knowledge of the intervention drivers. However, this was not sustained to the forth month post-intervention. This finding suggests periodic refresher trainings to sustain the knowledge acquired.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Satisfaction with marital life is the most important issue in the joint life, which has the greatest effect on durability and failure of couple’s lives. Based on this, the main goal of the present research is to study the effectiveness of teaching intervention based on internal locus of control in increasing marital adjustment and satisfaction has been investigated. Materials and Methods: The research design was pre- and post-test with control group. Statistical population of this research includes 100 married students of Farhangian University of Babol, Iran. To determine the sample, initially 100 questionnaires of Rotter’s locus of control and Spanier’s marital adjustment were distributed among the married students. Among this population, 42 couples both had external locus of control and suffered marital maladjustment, 20 couples were selected by simple randomized method and were placed into two experimental and control groups, such that 10 couples were placed in the experimental group and 10 couples were placed in control group. Data were analyzed using the independent t-test method. Results: Research results showed that, since effectiveness of training communicational skills based on internal locus of control on increasing marital attachment of couples was calculated t-value (t = 6.04 and (t= 4.71 for women and men, respectively with degree of freedom of 19 is bigger than t-value in the table (t = 2.53 therefore, null hypothesis is rejected and with confidence degree of 99%. Conclusion: Teaching intervention based on internal control can be used as one of the intervention models for couples who suffer from marital dissatisfaction and think of divorce.
Sniehotta, Falko F; Presseau, Justin; Hobbs, Nicola; Araújo-Soares, Vera
To investigate the suitability of N-of-1 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as a means of testing the effectiveness of behavior change techniques based on self-regulation theory (goal setting and self-monitoring) for promoting walking in healthy adult volunteers. A series of N-of-1 RCTs in 10 normal and overweight adults ages 19-67 (M = 36.9 years). We randomly allocated 60 days within each individual to text message-prompted daily goal-setting and/or self-monitoring interventions in accordance with a 2 (step-count goal prompt vs. alternative goal prompt) × 2 (self-monitoring: open vs. blinded Omron-HJ-113-E pedometer) factorial design. Aggregated data were analyzed using random intercept multilevel models. Single cases were analyzed individually. The primary outcome was daily pedometer step counts over 60 days. Single-case analyses showed that 4 participants significantly increased walking: 2 on self-monitoring days and 2 on goal-setting days, compared with control days. Six participants did not benefit from the interventions. In aggregated analyses, mean step counts were higher on goal-setting days (8,499.9 vs. 7,956.3) and on self-monitoring days (8,630.3 vs. 7,825.9). Multilevel analyses showed a significant effect of the self-monitoring condition (p = .01), the goal-setting condition approached significance (p = .08), and there was a small linear increase in walking over time (p = .03). N-of-1 randomized trials are a suitable means to test behavioral interventions in individual participants.
Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi
Aims and objectives To describe the orthopaedic nurses' experiences regarding the relevance of an educational intervention and their personal and contextual barriers to participation in the intervention. Background One of the largest barriers against nurses' research usage in clinical practice...... is the lack of participation. A previous survey identified 32 orthopaedic nurses as interested in participating in nursing research. An educational intervention was conducted to increase the orthopaedic nurses' research knowledge and competencies. However, only an average of six nurses participated. Design...... A triangulation convergence model was applied through a mixed methods design to combine quantitative results and qualitative findings for evaluation. Methods Data were collected from 2013–2014 from 32 orthopaedic nurses in a Danish regional hospital through a newly developed 21-item questionnaire and two focus...
Ismail, S Y; Luchtenburg, A E; Timman, R; Zuidema, W C; Boonstra, C; Weimar, W; Busschbach, J J V; Massey, E K
Our aim was to develop and test an educational program to support well-informed decision making among patients and their social network regarding living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). One hundred sixty-three patients who were unable to find a living donor were randomized to standard care or standard care plus home-based education. In the education condition, patients and members of their social network participated in home-based educational meetings and discussed renal replacement therapy options. Patients and invitees completed pre-post self-report questionnaires measuring knowledge, risk perception, communication, self-efficacy and subjective norm. LDKT activities were observed for 6 months postintervention. Patients in the experimental group showed significantly more improvements in knowledge (p communication (p = 0.012) compared with the control group. The invitees showed pre-post increases in knowledge (p decision making and promotes access to LDKT. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Background Few studies regarding Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards medicines among school teachers have been carried out in Nepal. Obtaining baseline KAP is important to note deficiencies and plan appropriate interventions. School teachers have to know about medicines as they can be an important source of information about rational and safe use of medicines. The department of Clinical Pharmacology, KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, conducted a study regarding KAP of school teachers about medicines before and after an educational intervention from April 2011 to December 2011. Methods The study was done in selected schools of Lalitpur district. Teachers were selected on a voluntary basis after obtaining written informed consent. Gender, ethnic or caste group, native place, age, educational qualifications, subject taught were noted. An educational intervention using a combination of methods like presentations, brainstorming sessions, interactive discussions using posters and distribution of information leaflets about the use of medicines was conducted. The KAP and overall scores among subgroups according to gender, age, level of education, subject, ethnicity, type of school (primary vs. secondary and government vs. private school) were studied. KAP and overall scores before and after the intervention was compared using Wilcoxon signed ranks test as the scores were not normally distributed. Results A total of 393 teachers participated before and after the intervention. The median (interquartile range) knowledge, attitude and practice scores before the intervention were 63 (10), 23 (5) and 270 (48) respectively while the overall score was 356. The median knowledge, attitude and practice scores after the intervention were 71 (10), 28 (5) and 270 (48) respectively while the overall score increased to 369. Maximum possible score of knowledge, attitude and practice were 100, 40 and 320 respectively. Scores improved significantly for knowledge (pattitude
H. Volkan Acar
Full Text Available Studies for acupuncture that has been used as a medical therapeutic method for thousands of years in Far East, is being increased in Western world. In parallel to this increase, there raised several methodologic problems. The most important one of these is the choice of control procedure. If a valid and credible control method has not been chosen, these ‘placebo acupuncture’ or ‘sham acupuncture’ controls could make a negative impact on the study results. In this paper, these different sham acupuncture methods are dis-cussed to find an optimal control procedure. The second major problem which was encountered with acupuncture studies is related with the reporting of interventions. Like CONSORT checklist in conventional medicine, STRICTA recommendations list is prepared for the controlled acupuncture trials. In conclusion, to choose a valid and credible control procedure and to follow CONSORT checklist and STRICTA recommendations will improve the quality of acupuncture studies.
Dundas, Ingrid; Binder, Per Einar; Hansen, Tia G.B.
negative self-directed thinking; as well as for self-compassion, anxiety and depression. Concluding, a short self-compassion course seems an effective method of increasing self-compassion and perceived control over one's life for university students, as well as increasing mental health.......The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of a two-week self-compassion course on healthy self-regulation (personal growth self-efficacy and healthy impulse control) and unhealthy self-regulation (self-judgment and habitual negative self-directed thinking) in university students. We...... also examined the effects on self-compassion, anxiety and depression. Students (N = 158, 85% women, mean age = 25 years) were randomized to an intervention group and a waiting-list control group in a multi-baseline randomized control trial. Healthy self-control was measured by the Personal Growth...
Carbone, Meredith K; Gugliucci, Marilyn R
Delirium, an acute confusional state, is experienced by many older adults. Although there is substantial research on risk factors and etiology, we hypothesized that there is a dearth of information on educating the family caregivers of delirious older patients. A date-specific (2000-2013) literature review of articles, written in English, was conducted in several major databases using keyword searches. This systematic review focused on 2 objectives: (1) investigate published studies on the impact of delirium on the family regarding caring for a loved one; and (2) determine if there are interventions that have provided family caregivers with education and/or coping skills to recognize and/or manage delirium. A systematic elimination provided outcomes that met both objectives. Thirty articles addressed impact on family caregivers (objective 1); only 7 addressed caregiver education regarding the delirious state of a loved one (objective 2). Few studies consider the impact of delirium on family caregivers and even fewer studies focus on how to manage delirium in loved ones. With increased risks to older adult patients, high cost of care, and the preventable nature of delirium, family caregiver education may be an important tactic to improve outcomes for both patient and caregiver. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Joel Gittelsohn; Katherine Lee
Interventions that change the food environment, provide nutrition education, and employ behavioral economics strategies can potentially contribute to healthier diets and reduce the risk of chronic disease, but no attempt has been made to integrate these into the same conceptual framework. We present case studies of three multilevel, integrated interventions implemented by Johns Hopkins University between 2004–2011. We develop a conceptual model based on these case studies. Interventions and p...
Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila
Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents' nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. This study was a kind of field trial that conducted on 63 girl teenagers from junior high schools of Isfahan in 2016 that were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool which was a researcher made questionnaire was completed in both groups before and 1 month after the intervention. The intervention included three training sessions for parents and giving educational compact disc and forwarding SMS. To analysis of data independent t -test and paired t -test were used. Paired t -test showed that in intervention group the average score of fruit ( P = 0.03) and in control group the average score of vegetables ( P < 0.05) were significant statistical difference, but in other aspects of nutritional behaviors was not a significant difference. Independent t -test showed that after intervention, mean scores nutritional behavior of adolescent girls in both groups had no significant differences. No significant difference was in the nutritional behaviors before and after the intervention. Hence, just educating the parents is not enough for achieving appropriate nutritional behaviors in the adolescents.
Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.
Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…
Best, Nakia C.; Oppewal, Sonda; Travers, Debbie
School nurses intervene with students, parents, and school staff to advance the health and academic success of students. We conducted an integrative literature review of published research to describe the types of school nurse interventions and health and education outcome measures and to examine how school nurse interventions were linked to…
Kroeger, Lori A.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas; O'Brien, Beth A.
Research Findings: This article describes major theories and research on math cognition across the fields of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and education and connects these literatures to intervention practices. Commercially available math intervention programs were identified and evaluated using the following questions: (a) Did neuroscience…
Cagle, John G.; Kovacs, Pamela J.
Education is a frequently used social work intervention. Yet it seems to be an underappreciated and a deceptively complex intervention that social workers may not be adequately prepared to use. Reliable, accessible information is essential as it helps prevent unnecessary crises, facilitates coping, and promotes self-determination. This article…
Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K.; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra
Background: Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among…
Somerville, Ros; Ayre, Kate; Tunbridge, Daniel; Cole, Katy; Stollery, Richard; Sanders, Mary
This study evaluates the efficacy of a mathematics intervention devised by Essex Educational Psychology Service (EPS), UK. The intervention was designed to develop understanding and skills across four key domains within arithmetical development, by applying the principles of errorless learning, distributed practice and teaching to mastery. A…
Despite the prevalence of HIV and other infectious diseases in U.S. prisons, and the mix of infected and high-risk prisoners in crowded and volatile living conditions, federal and state prisons have reduced or eliminated prevention education programs addressing HIV and other infectious diseases for incarcerated populations. Nurses' knowledge, education, and licensure place them in a position to influence prison policy in developing and implementing educational programs for inmates and staff. Their role as advocates for patients in prison and their separation from the more punitive aspects of corrections also enable nurses to earn the trust of inmate populations. These factors identify nurses as the staff best suited within corrections to implement inmate prevention education. Training inmate educators to provide peer prevention and strategies for risk reduction have potential to modify inmate behaviors both within the facility and following release. Selection criteria for peer educator recruitment, prison-sensitive issues, and suggested training activities are discussed.
Carey, M E; Mandalia, P K; Daly, H; Gray, L J; Hale, R; Martin Stacey, L; Taub, N; Skinner, T C; Stone, M; Heller, S; Khunti, K; Davies, M J
To develop and test a format of delivery of diabetes self-management education by paired professional and lay educators. We conducted an equivalence trial with non-randomized participant allocation to a Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 diabetes (DESMOND) course, delivered in the standard format by two trained healthcare professional educators (to the control group) or by one trained lay educator and one professional educator (to the intervention group). A total of 260 people with Type 2 diabetes diagnosed within the previous 12 months were referred for self-management education as part of routine care and attended either a control or intervention format DESMOND course. The primary outcome measure was change in illness coherence score (derived from the Diabetes Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised) between baseline and 4 months after attending education sessions. Secondary outcome measures included change in HbA1c level. The trial was conducted in four primary care organizations across England and Scotland. The 95% CI for the between-group difference in positive change in coherence scores was within the pre-set limits of equivalence (difference = 0.22, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52). Equivalent changes related to secondary outcome measures were also observed, including equivalent reductions in HbA1c levels. Diabetes education delivered jointly by a trained lay person and a healthcare professional educator with the same educator role can provide equivalent patient benefits. This could provide a method that increases capacity, maintains quality and is cost-effective, while increasing access to self-management education. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.
Maheri, Aghbabak; Tol, Azar; Sadeghi, Roya
INTRODUCTION: Internet addiction refers to the excessive use of the internet that causes mental, social, and physical problems. According to the high prevalence of internet addiction among university students, this study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention on preventive behaviors of internet addiction among Tehran University of Medical Sciences students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a quasi-experimental study conducted among female college students who live in the dormitories of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Two-stage cluster sampling was used for selection of eighty participants in each study groups; data were collected using “Young's Internet Addiction” and unstructured questionnaire. Validity and reliability of unstructured questionnaire were evaluated by expert panel and were reported as Cronbach's alpha. Information of study groups before and 4 months after the intervention was compared using statistical methods by SPSS 16. RESULTS: After the intervention, the mean scores of internet addiction, perceived barriers construct, and the prevalence of internet addiction significantly decreased in the intervention group than that in the control group and the mean scores of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs (susceptibility, severity, benefits, self-efficacy) significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: Education based on the HBM was effective on the reduction and prevention of internet addiction among female college students, and educational interventions in this field are highly recommended. PMID:28852654
Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Sakisaka, Kayako
To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Intervention study. Araihazar area, Bangladesh. 416 adolescent female students aged 11-16 years, in grade 6-8, and living with their parents. A school-based health education study conducted from April 2012 to April 2013. We randomly selected 3 of 26 high schools in the study area. We delivered 6 months of educational intervention by trained (by an obstetrician and gynaecologist) research assistants (RAs) on menstrual hygiene among school girls. RAs read the questionnaire and participants answered. The changes in knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding menstruation, menstrual disorders experienced, and the restrictions and behaviours practiced by menstruating adolescents were compared between the baseline and the follow-up assessments. After health education, participants reported a significant improvement (pmenstruation (78.6% vs 59.6%). The programme produced significant changes in the knowledge, beliefs and practices of menstrual hygiene, complications from lack of hygiene, and the behaviour and restrictions of the menstruating adolescents. These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a health education programme for adolescents on menstrual hygiene in secondary schools serving rural Bangladesh. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Gana, Godwin Jiya; Oche, Mansur O; Ango, Jessica Timane; Kaoje, Aminu Umar; Awosan, Kehinde Joseph; Raji, Ismail A
Cervical cancer is the most common female genital tract carcinoma worldwide. It is increasingly becoming the leading carcinoma seen among women in the developing world. The aim of our study was to showcase the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge of cervical cancer and subsequently the uptake of Pap smear test amongst market women in Niger state, Nigeria. The state has a rich network of markets in all the local government areas because of the fishing activities, bountiful agricultural produce yearly and its situation to the North of the national capital, Abuja. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two groups with pre and post intervention data collection. Sample size was determined based on a previous similar study done in Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used for recruiting the study participants. SPSS statistical software was used for data entry, editing and analysis. Respondents' knowledge of cervical cancer were comparable at pre-intervention but were statistically significantly better (P<0.0001) at post-intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group for every variable measured. However, there was only a (Fisher's exact, P=0.621) compared to the control group. This study showed an increase in knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear test however the uptake of Pap smear test remained low even after intervention. This underscores the need for sustained intervention programs to eventually translate knowledge acquired to habitual practice.
The main focus here is to examine the benefits of defining and developing an engineering curriculum for elementary schools. Like many other international educational systems, Australian educational settings have been seeking to effectively implement science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. However, current assumptions…
Young, Rebekah; Nix, Sheree; Wholohan, Aaron; Bradhurst, Rachael; Reed, Lloyd
Ankle joint equinus, or restricted dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), has been linked to a range of pathologies of relevance to clinical practitioners. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of conservative interventions on ankle joint ROM in healthy individuals and athletic populations. Keyword searches of Embase, Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL databases were performed with the final search being run in August 2013. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they assessed the effect of a non-surgical intervention on ankle joint dorsiflexion in healthy populations. Studies were quality rated using a standard quality assessment scale. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and results were pooled where study methods were homogenous. Twenty-three studies met eligibility criteria, with a total of 734 study participants. Results suggest that there is some evidence to support the efficacy of static stretching alone (SMDs: range 0.70 to 1.69) and static stretching in combination with ultrasound (SMDs: range 0.91 to 0.95), diathermy (SMD 1.12), diathermy and ice (SMD 1.16), heel raise exercises (SMDs: range 0.70 to 0.77), superficial moist heat (SMDs: range 0.65 to 0.84) and warm up (SMD 0.87) in improving ankle joint dorsiflexion ROM. Some evidence exists to support the efficacy of stretching alone and stretching in combination with other therapies in increasing ankle joint ROM in healthy individuals. There is a paucity of quality evidence to support the efficacy of other non-surgical interventions, thus further research in this area is warranted.
Conner, Matthew David
. The second questionnaire, adapted from a survey developed for the Starr County Diabetes Education Study (Garcia et al, 2001), measured general diabetes and diabetes management knowledge. A comparison group, a total of 19 students, also completed both surveys during the study period. Results: Significant increases (p<0.05) were seen in the post-intervention study group in general diabetes knowledge, diabetes management knowledge, and awareness of diabetes prevention strategies, when compared to the baseline study group and comparison group.
Sherri G. Homan
Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02 and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003. The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.
Full Text Available Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease and cancer. Vietnamese Americans are at high risk of HCV infection, with men having the highest US incidence of liver cancer. This study examines an intervention to improve HCV knowledge among Vietnamese Americans. Study Seven Vietnamese community-based organizations in Pennsylvania and New Jersey recruited a total of 306 Vietnamese participants from 2010 to 2011. Results Average knowledge scores for pretest and posttest were 3.32 and 5.88, respectively (maximum 10. After adjusting for confounding variables, age and higher education were positively associated with higher pretest scores and having a physician who spoke English or Vietnamese was negatively associated with higher pretest scores. Additionally, after adjusting for confounding variables, household income, education, and having an HCV-infected family member significantly increased knowledge scores. Conclusions Promotion and development of HCV educational programs can increase HCV knowledge among race and ethnic groups, such as Vietnamese Americans. Giving timely information to at-risk groups provides the opportunity to correct misconceptions, decrease HCV risk behaviors, and encourage testing that might improve timely HCV diagnosis and treatment.
Staiano, Amanda E; Beyl, Robbie A; Hsia, Daniel S; Jarrell, Amber R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Mantzor, Savarra; Newton, Robert L; Tyson, Patrice
This study examined the influence of step goals with pedometers to improve children's weight loss, physical activity, and psychosocial health during obesity treatment. Overweight and obese children ages 8-17 years (n = 105) participated in a 10-week family-based weight management intervention, including physical activity, nutrition, and behavioral modification. A quasi-experimental design was used to group eight cohorts into three conditions: no pedometer (n = 24), pedometer only (n = 25), and pedometer with step goals (i.e., 500 steps/day weekly increase above baseline; n = 56). Height and weight were measured at baseline and week 10 and used to calculate BMI. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine difference by condition for change in weight, BMI, and BMI z-score, controlling for age and baseline value. Differences in steps per day and psychosocial health were compared between the two pedometer conditions. Participants were 12.4 ± 2.5 years of age, including 70% girls and 64% African Americans. The pedometer with goals condition significantly reduced BMI (p = 0.02) and BMI z-score (p = 0.01) compared with the no-pedometer group. The pedometer with goals condition significantly increased steps per day (+1185 ± 425 steps/day) compared with the pedometer-only condition (-162 ± 620 steps/day; p goals was an effective approach to produce weight loss. Further work is needed to increase the strength of interventions to achieve clinically meaningful weight reduction for children with obesity.
Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Sossa-Briceño, Monica P; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A
Asthma educational interventions have been shown to improve several clinically and economically important outcomes. However, these interventions are costly in themselves and could lead to even higher disease costs. A cost-effectiveness threshold analysis would be helpful in determining the threshold value of the cost of educational interventions, leading to these interventions being cost-effective. The aim of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness threshold analysis to determine the level at which the cost of a pediatric asthma educational intervention would be cost-effective and cost-saving. A Markov-type model was developed in order to estimate costs and health outcomes of a simulated cohort of pediatric patients with persistent asthma treated over a 12-month period. Effectiveness parameters were obtained from a single uncontrolled before-and-after study performed with Colombian asthmatic children. Cost data were obtained from official databases provided by the Colombian Ministry of Health. The main outcome was the variable "quality-adjusted life-years" (QALYs). A deterministic threshold sensitivity analysis showed that the asthma educational intervention will be cost-saving to the health system if its cost is under US$513.20. Additionally, the analysis showed that the cost of the intervention would have to be below US$967.40 in order to be cost-effective. This study identified the level at which the cost of a pediatric asthma educational intervention will be cost-effective and cost-saving for the health system in Colombia. Our findings could be a useful aid for decision makers in efficiently allocating limited resources when planning asthma educational interventions for pediatric patients.
Jeane Barcelos Soriano
and generate an increasing search for better professional education and responsibility for tasks specifi c to the area, as well as a concern with the ethical factors of professional intervention in physical education. The purpose of this study was to understand how physical education professionals describe and interpret the consequences of their professional intervention, based on the error perspective. Information was obtained by means of a semi-structure interview, conducted with 11 professionals who were not part of the school system, and who had 7 – 25 years of professional education. The data treatment followed the characteristics of the content analysis, establishing later the analysis categories, namely: 1 Academic Education and Professional Identity, which includes the characteristics and circumstances of professional education, identity and culture and 2 Professional intervention and Accreditation, which includes aspects connected to professional legitimacy and the accreditation process. This study allowed us to consider that, while Physical Education professionals are concerned with the quality of the services offered in the area, they do not clearly defi ne what constitutes a professional error in the area, and neither do they evaluate the consequences of their professional intervention based on this perspective.
Ha, Amy S; Lonsdale, Chris; Lubans, David R; Ng, Johan Y Y
The Self-determined Exercise and Learning For FITness (SELF-FIT) is a multi-component school-based intervention based on tenets of self-determination theory. SELF-FIT aims to increase students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education lessons, and enhance their autonomous motivation towards fitness activities. Using a cluster randomized controlled trial, we aim to examine the effects of the intervention on students' MVPA during school physical education. Secondary 2 students (approximately aged 14 years) from 26 classes in 26 different schools will be recruited. After baseline assessments, students will be randomized into either the experimental group or wait-list control group using a matched-pair randomization. Teachers allocated to the experimental group will attend two half-day workshops and deliver the SELF-FIT intervention for 8 weeks. The main intervention components include training teachers to teach in more need supportive ways, and conducting fitness exercises using a fitness dice with interchangeable faces. Other motivational components, such as playing music during classes, are also included. The primary outcome of the trial is students' MVPA during PE lessons. Secondary outcomes include students' leisure-time MVPA, perceived need support from teachers, need satisfaction, autonomous motivation towards physical education, intention to engage in physical activity, psychological well-being, and health-related fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness). Quantitative data will be analyzed using multilevel modeling approaches. Focus group interviews will also be conducted to assess students' perceptions of the intervention. The SELF-FIT intervention has been designed to improve students' health and well-being by using high-intensity activities in classes delivered by teachers who have been trained to be autonomy needs supportive. If successful, scalable interventions based on SELF-FIT could be applied in physical
Tawfik, Mirella Youssef
This study aims to investigate the impact of a health belief model (HBM)-based educational intervention on knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, gestational and postpartum weight in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cluster randomized controlled trial was performed, with randomization at the level of Primary Health Care centers in three Egyptian cities. Eligible women with GDM were enrolled at 24 weeks pregnancy. The intervention group (n = 103) received health education intervention based on the HBM construct. Control subjects (n = 98) received the usual care. The outcomes measured were: women's knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, gestational weight gain (GWG), and postpartum weight retention. Patients were investigated at baseline, at end of pregnancy, and at 6 weeks postpartum. After the intervention, percentages of women who had high knowledge and beliefs scores had significantly increased from less than 50 % to more than 70 % in the intervention group (p < 0.001). More women in the intervention group reported practicing exclusive breast feeding (85.4 %) and screening for T2DM (43.7 %) at 6 weeks postpartum compared to the control group (63.3 and 19.4 % respectively) (p < 0.001). More women with excessive body mass index in the intervention group (65 %) compared to the control group (11.6 %) were meeting recommended GWG (p < 0.001), and postpartum weight (37.7, and 20.3 % respectively) (p < 0.01). This intervention significantly improved knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, and gestational and postpartum weight in patients with GDM. Further research is needed for investigating the effectiveness of applying early, multi-phase, and longer intervention.
Pietrosimone, Brian; McLeod, Michelle M; Florea, David; Gribble, Phillip A; Tevald, Michael A
The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of EMG-BF on vastus lateralis corticomotor excitability, measured via motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes elicited using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). We also determined the effect of EMG-BF on isometric knee extensor strength. Fifteen healthy participants volunteered for this crossover study with two sessions held one-week apart. Participants were randomly assigned to condition order, during which five intervention MVICs were performed with or without EMG-BF. MEP amplitudes were collected with TMS during five knee extension contractions (5% of MVIC) at baseline and again during intervention MVICs within each session. During the control condition, participants were instructed to perform the same number of MVICs without any EMG-BF. Percent change scores were used to calculate the change in peak-to-peak MEP amplitudes that occurred during EMG-BF and Control MVICs compared to the baseline MEPs. Peak knee extension torque was recorded during MVICs prior to TMS for each condition. EMG-BF produced significantly increased MEP change scores and significantly greater torque than the control condition. The results of the current study suggest that EMG-BF may be a viable clinical method for targeting corticomotor excitability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This book presents guidance for educators on recognizing and responding to different forms of child maltreatment as well as ideas on the formation of a school reporting protocol and a Child Protection Team. The 11 chapters are: (1) "Why Are Educators So Important in the Lives of Abused and Neglected Children?"; (2) "How Can We…
Responds to criticisms of Lovaas' treatment methods of children with autism and highlights relevant data presented in Jordan and Jones' (1998) report to the Department for Education and Employment in Great Britain. Discusses approaches of the Higashi method and Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communications Handicapped Children…
Zivković, M; Bjegović, V; Vuković, D; Marinković, J
Contemporary health-education intervention programs are increasingly used as a tool for improving health of school children [1-4]. Since 1992 a Network of 13 elementary Health Promoting Schools established in Yugoslavia (though not yet admitted to the European Network) has been operational. The Project was approved by the Ministries of Health, Education and Ecology from the very beginning, and financially supported by the Government of Serbia since 1995. The team of up to 40 health professionals, school principals and school project managers worked together for four years to change the working conditions in schools knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of school children and staff in order to improve their health . The goal of this paper is to present results of health education intervention in changing of hygienic conditions in schools, as well as some of the attitudes, behaviour and knowledge of pupils and their parents. The study took place before and after the intervention--at two points in time--during 1993 and 1996. The tri-angular approach including (1) pupils, (2) schools (teachers, school environment), and (3) parents, was used. A random pretest and post-test study design with control group (12 experimental and two control schools) has been implemented. The multiphase cluster sample was employed in order to represent all of the country typical regions. Six types of especially designed questionnaires were used to provide comparable variables in the sample of pupils, their parents and teachers. Exception were 1st-graders and 4th-graders for whom information were gathered by means of a "draw-and-write" investigation technique . The response rate was 88.70% before and 98.28% after intervention. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS/PC software. Schools are somewhat less overcrowded, much cleaner and better maintained after the four-year intervention. Toilets are in a better condition, but there is still much more to be done
Damen, Marie Louise; Van Klaveren, Chris
This study examines whether Cultural and Artistic Education in the Netherlands caused students to participate more in high cultural events. A unique feature of the intervention was that students were free to choose the type of cultural event they participated in. So the intervention relied on the
Diane L. Gorgas
Full Text Available Introduction: Emotional Intelligence (EI is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM residents. Methods: This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT, a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre and after (post training, and at six-months post training (follow up; and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results: Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%, 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p<0.05. Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%, but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77. We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion: Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant
Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Odeneye, Ebun; Banks, Bahby; Shandor Miles, Margaret; Roman Isler, Malika
Minorities are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the rural Southeast; therefore, it is important to develop targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to support rural minority participation in HIV/AIDS research. Using intervention mapping, we developed a comprehensive multilevel intervention for service providers (SPs) and people…
Josef I. Ruzek
Full Text Available Internet-facilitated interventions may offer numerous advantages in reaching the large numbers of military service men and women exposed to traumatic events. The Internet is now a primary source of health-related information for consumers and research has shown the effectiveness of web-based interventions in addressing a range of mental health problems.Clinicians can learn how to bring Internet education and intervention into routine care, to help clients better understand mental health issues and learn skills for self-management of problems.The Afterdeployment.org (AD Internet site can be used by health care professionals serving U.S. military personnel returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, and their families. The site currently addresses 18 key domains of functioning, including post-traumatic stress, sleep, anger, alcohol and drugs, and military sexual trauma. It provides an extensive amount of client and family education that is suitable for immediate use by clients and providers, as well as the kinds of interactive workshop content and self-assessment tools that have been shown to be helpful in other treatment contexts. AD can be utilized in clinical practice in a variety of ways: as an adjunct to treatment for PTSD, to supplement existing treatments for a range of post-deployment problems, or as the primary focus of treatment for a client.AD represents a kind of service that is likely to become increasingly available in coming years and that is important for mental health providers to actively explore as a tool for extending their reach, improving their efficiency, and improving quality of care.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.
Tamim, Suha Rahif
The purpose of this study was to explore how health education professionals create ehealth and mhealth education interventions. Three research questions led this qualitative study. The first research question focused on the use of learning theories, instructional models, and instructional design models. The second research question focused on the…
This paper outlines the development and implementation of an online educational intervention designed to enhance moral reasoning in higher level tax students. Before decisions are made about how to behave ethically, cognitive moral reasoning takes place. The importance of education in developing morally sensitive individuals who use principled…
Murphy, H. R.; Rayman, G.; Skinner, T. C.
Background: A systematic review of the literature in 2000 revealed numerous methodological shortcomings in education research, but in recent years progress has been made in the quantity and quality of psycho-educational intervention studies. Summary of contents: This review focuses on diabetes ed...
Christel, Deborah A.
The purpose of this work was to explore the effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at reducing weight bias. Senior fashion students (n = 11) enrolled in a 16 week special topics course, "plus-size swimwear design," completed assignments of selected obesity related educational readings and guided critical reflection. Student…
Scott, Matthew; Taylor, Stephen; Chesterton, Paul; Vogt, Stefan; Eaves, Daniel Lloyd
Rehabilitation professionals typically use motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO) to increase physical strength for injury prevention and recovery. Here we compared hamstring force gains for MI during AO (AO + MI) against two pure MI training groups. Over a 3-week intervention physically fit adults imagined Nordic hamstring exercises in both legs and synchronized this with a demonstration of the same action (AO + MI), or they purely imagined this action (pure MI), or imagined upper-limb actions (pure MI-control). Eccentric hamstring strength gains were assessed using ANOVAs, and magnitude-based inference (MBI) analyses determined the likelihood of clinical/practical benefits for the interventions. Hamstring strength only increased significantly following AO + MI training. This effect was lateralized to the right leg, potentially reflecting a left-hemispheric dominance in motor simulation. MBIs: The right leg within-group treatment effect size for AO + MI was moderate and likely beneficial (d = 0.36), and only small and possibly beneficial for pure MI (0.23). Relative to pure MI-control, effects were possibly beneficial and moderate for AO + MI (0.72), although small for pure MI (0.39). Since hamstring strength predicts injury prevalence, our findings point to the advantage of combined AO + MI interventions, over and above pure MI, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation While hamstring strains are the most common injury across the many sports involving sprinting and jumping, Nordic hamstring exercises are among the most effective methods for building eccentric hamstring strength, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. In the acute injury phase it is crucial not to overload damaged soft tissues, and so non-physical rehabilitation techniques are well suited to this phase. Rehabilitation professionals typically use either motor imagery or action observation techniques to safely improve physical
Morvarid Ghasab Shirazi
Full Text Available BackgroundNutrition behaviors of adolescent girls is of serious health concerns. Although nutrition education interventions in Iran have met with some success, most of them could not promote nutrition behavioral changes. The aim of our study is to determine a school-based nutrition education intervention to improve adolescents’ nutrition behaviors and behavioral mediators based on the social cognitive theory (SCT.Materials and MethodsThis study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants will be all student girls in grade 6 and 7, their parents and teachers in Isfahan governmental schools. This multi component school-based intervention include adolescents’ nutrition education package, parents’ nutrition massages, participatory homework, parents and teachers nutrition education package, supportive group, and collaboration with decision makers. Changing in nutrition behaviors including breakfast, fruit and vegetable, snack and fast food consumption will be examined, as primary outcome. Secondary outcome will be behavioral mediators such as knowledge, self-efficacy, intention, situation, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectations and expectancies, in adolescent girls. The outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and after 3 and 6-month follow-up.DiscussionThis study evaluates a school-based, guided SCT intervention, designed to improve healthy dietary behaviors, nutrition knowledge of adolescent girls. Few behavioral interventions have targeted this high-risk population in Iran. The intervention seems to be promising and has the potential to bridge the gap of the limited program outcomes of nutrition education in Iranian adolescents.
Mangala, S; Gopinath, D; Narasimhamurthy, N S; Shivaram, C
A pre and post comparison study was carried out in the field practice area of M.S. Ramaiah Medical College Bangalore, Karnataka to assess the impact of educational intervention on the knowledge of mothers of under five children on home management of diarrhoeal diseases. Sample of 225 mothers were included in the study. The study was conducted in 3 stages. Stage I--initial knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers was assessed. Stage II--one to one educational intervention was conducted and supported by audiovisual aids and live demonstration. Stage III--included post intervention knowledge, attitude and practice after 2 months and 2 years. After the educational intervention, there was significant improvement on knowledge of mothers regarding definition of diarrhoea (P rational drug therapy during diarrhoea (P change in knowledge before and after the educational intervention. The overall knowledge scores improved significantly after 2 months (P < 0.001) as well as 2 years (P < 0.001) of the educational intervention. Though the proportion of mothers retaining the knowledge at the end of 2 years dropped, yet there was significant improvement (P < 0.001) when compared to the baseline study.
Gupta, Ashish O; Rorke, Jeanne; Abubakar, Kabir
We aimed to develop an educational tool to improve the radiograph quality, sustain this improvement overtime, and reduce the number of repeat radiographs. A three phase quality control study was conducted at a tertiary care NICU. A retrospective data collection (phase1) revealed suboptimal radiograph quality and led to an educational intervention and development of X-ray preparation checklist (primary intervention), followed by a prospective data collection for 4 months (phase 2). At the end of phase 2, interim analysis revealed a gradual decline in radiograph quality, which prompted a more comprehensive educational session with constructive feedback to the NICU staff (secondary intervention), followed by another data collection for 6 months (phase 3). There was a significant improvement in the quality of radiographs obtained after primary educational intervention (phase 2) compared with phase 1 (p quality declined but still remained significantly better than phase 1. Secondary intervention resulted in significant improvement in radiograph quality to > 95% in all domains of image quality. No radiographs were repeated in phase 3, compared with 5.8% (16/277) in phase 1. A structured, collaborated educational intervention successfully improves the radiograph quality and decreases the need for repeat radiographs and radiation exposure in the neonates. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Jiménez Trujano, Laura; Morán Peña, Laura
This work sought to evaluate the effect of an educational intervention centered on the analysis of clinical cases to inquire on conceptual learning in students on the theme of nursing care of women with complicated puerperium. This was a quasi-experimental study with before and after evaluation. Two groups of students participated from the eighth semester of the nursing program, which professionalized individuals who were already nursing technicians: the study group (n = 33) was taught the theme of nursing care to women with complicated puerperium with the case analysis technique and the control group (n = 27) received traditional teaching. A self-applied question here was used related to the thematic unit, which included three clinical cases and the resolution of a total of 37 questions related to set cases. This questionnaire was the same applied before and after the intervention. The pre-intervention mean score was similar in both groups (26 during the study and 27 during the intervention). Upon completing the educational intervention, the post-intervention scores were equal in both groups (27 points). The intra-group analysis showed that in the study group the intervention produced a slight change in conceptual learning, which was statistically significant. During the post-hoc analysis differences in scores were found in students who worked in hospitals with tier three level of care. Educational intervention favored conceptual learning slightly in the study group. It is necessary to explore other intervening variables that propitiate this learning in the program.
Full Text Available Higher education institutions face a lot of challenges in the contemporary context. Labour market is s strict evaluator of the graduates’ competences and skills and thus, of the study programmes. An attractive university is a university with a large demand for studies, with many partners and projects, with a high visibility at national and international level, with a considerable research production. At present, the lack of resources characterizes the difficult situation for decision making process which is a real challenge for the academic leadership. On one hand, the competiton requires the need of continuous development and of differentiation strategy while on the other hand, insufficient financial, human, material, informational resources, including time as a specific restriction generate huge opportunities and threats for institutions. Possibilities of being efficient are to be explored. The aim of this paper is to explore possible strategies to increase productivity in higher education institutions. Main objectives of the study are the following: a. to define productivity in higher education institutions, on the basis of the academics’ perceptions, as well as of students’ perceptions; b. to provide a diagnosis of the current state of the prductivity in higher education institutions; c. to contribute to new clarifications on leadership strategies for increasing productivity in higher education institutions. Based on the literature review, the paper reveal proper answers to questions, such as: what is productivity, how is it measured, what is its impact, which are the increasing possibilities in business context. The study methodology is also based on a questionnaire dedicated to the two groups of respondents – academics and students. Their perceptions are then compared in order to reveal the common view. Main output of the research include: a. A new conceptual clarification for the productivity in higher education institutions; b. A
Taylor, L Elaine; Harris, Heather S
Child sexual abuse and exploitation are an increasing public health problem. In spite of the fact that nurses are in a unique position to identify and intervene in the lives of children suffering from abuse due to their role in providing health care in a variety of settings, nursing curricula does not routinely include this focus. The goal was to document the effectiveness of the Stewards of Children child sexual abuse training as an effective educational intervention to increase the knowledge level of undergraduate nursing students on how to prevent, recognize, and react responsibly to child sexual abuse and trafficking. Undergraduate nursing students were required to take the Stewards of Children training in their last semester prior to graduation. Students in the study were given a pre-test prior to the class and a post-test following the class. Pre- and post-tests were graded and the results were compared along with an item indicating the participants' perception of the educational intervention in improving their confidence and competence in this area. Data analysis revealed that post-test scores following training were significantly improved: pre-test mean=45.5%; post-test mean score=91.9%. The statistical significance of the improvement was marked, pChildren training. Students also reported a high level of confidence in how to prevent abuse and react skillfully when child sexual abuse had occurred. The authors concluded that Stewards of Children is an effective option to educate nursing students on this topic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Reisener, Carmen D.; Lancaster, Amity Lewis; McMullin, W. Arrel; Ho, Tuan
At present, the incidence rates of children identified with autism spectrum disorders are on the rise, leading to an increased number of school-aged children needing specialized services in public schools. Most intervention efforts in the school setting focus on behavioral interventions and/or communication and social skills remediation services…
Jan 28, 2013 ... sovereign country, develop their ethical character, appreciate the value of leisure and .... problems, personal hygiene, puberty, sports, reproductive system education, aging, sex ..... Build new morality and remove falsity among ...
Amemori, Masamitsu; Virtanen, Jorma; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kinnunen, Taru H; Murtomaa, Heikki
Tobacco use adversely affects oral health. Clinical guidelines recommend that oral health professionals promote tobacco abstinence and provide patients who use tobacco with brief tobacco use cessation counselling. Research shows that these guidelines are seldom implemented successfully. This study aimed to evaluate two interventions to enhance tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) counselling among oral health professionals in Finland. We used a cluster-randomized community trial to test educational and fee-for-service interventions in enhancing TUPAC counselling among a sample of dentists (n=73) and dental hygienists (n=22) in Finland. Educational intervention consisted of 1 day of training, including lectures, interactive sessions, multimedia demonstrations and a role play session with standard patient cases. Fee-for-service intervention consisted of monetary compensation for providing tobacco use prevention or cessation counselling. TUPAC counselling procedures provided were reported and measured using an electronic dental records system. In data analysis, intent-to-treat principles were followed at both individual and cluster levels. Descriptive analysis included chi-square and t-tests. A general linear model for repeated measures was used to compare the outcome measures by intervention group. Of 95 providers, 73 participated (76.8%). In preventive counselling, there was no statistically significant time effect or group-by-time interaction. In cessation counselling, statistically significant group-by-time interaction was found after a 6-month follow-up (F=2.31; P=0.007), indicating that counselling activity increased significantly in intervention groups. On average, dental hygienists showed greater activity in tobacco prevention (F=12.13; P=0.001) and cessation counselling (F=30.19; PTUPAC counselling performance. Other approaches than monetary incentives may be needed to enhance the effectiveness of educational intervention. Further studies with focus
Vandelanotte, Corneel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Sallis, James F; Spittaels, Heleen; Brug, Johannes
Little evidence exists about the effectiveness of "interactive" computer-tailored interventions and about the combined effectiveness of tailored interventions on physical activity and diet. Furthermore, it is unknown whether they should be executed sequentially or simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effectiveness of interactive computer-tailored interventions for increasing physical activity and decreasing fat intake and (b) which intervening mode, sequential or simultaneous, is most effective in behavior change. Participants (N = 771) were randomly assigned to receive (a) the physical activity and fat intake interventions simultaneously at baseline, (b) the physical activity intervention at baseline and the fat intake intervention 3 months later, (c) the fat intake intervention at baseline and the physical activity intervention 3 months later, or (d) a place in the control group. Six months postbaseline, the results showed that the tailored interventions produced significantly higher physical activity scores, F(2, 573) = 11.4, p physical activity intervention, the simultaneous mode appeared to work better than the sequential mode.
MacDougall, L A; Gyorkos, T W; Leffondré, K; Abrahamowicz, M; Tessier, D; Ward, B J; MacLean, J D
Increases in travel-related illness require new partnerships to ensure travelers are prepared for health risks abroad. The travel agent is one such partner and efforts to encourage travel agents to refer at-risk travelers to travel health clinics may help in reducing travel-attributable morbidity. A health promotion intervention encouraging travel agents to refer at-risk travelers to travel health clinics was evaluated. Information on the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of travel agents before and after the intervention was compared using two self-administered questionnaires. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the mean difference in overall scores to evaluate the overall impact of the intervention and also subscores for each of the behavioral construct groupings (attitudes, barriers, intent, and subjective norms). Multiple regression techniques were used to evaluate which travel agent characteristics were independently associated with a stronger effect of the intervention. A small improvement in travel agents overall attitudes and beliefs (p =.03) was found, in particular their intention to refer (p =.01). Sixty-five percent of travel agents self-reported an increase in referral behavior; owners or managers of the agency were significantly more likely to do so than other travel agents (OR = 7.25; 95% CI: 1.64 32.06). Older travel agents, those that worked longer hours and those with some past referral experience, had significantly higher post-intervention scores. Travel agents can be willing partners in referral, and agencies should be encouraged to develop specific referral policies. Future research may be directed toward investigating the role of health education in certification curricula, the effectiveness of different types of health promotion interventions, including Internet-facilitated interventions, and the direct impact that such interventions would have on travelers attending travel health clinics.
Full Text Available Current immunisation levels in England currently fall slightly below the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization, and the three-year trend for vaccination uptake is downwards. Attitudes towards vaccination can affect future decisions on whether or not to vaccinate, and this can have significant public health implications. Interventions can impact future vaccination decisions, and these interventions can take several forms. Relatively little work has been reported on the use of vaccination interventions in young people, who form the next generation of individuals likely to make vaccination decisions.We investigated the impact of two different types of educational intervention on attitudes towards vaccination in young people in England. A cohort of young people (n = 63 was recruited via a local school. This group was divided into three sub-groups; one (n = 21 received a presentation-based intervention, one (n = 26 received an interactive simulation-based intervention, and the third (n = 16 received no intervention. Participants supplied information on (1 their attitudes towards vaccination, and (2 their information needs and views on personal choice concerning vaccination, at three time points: immediately before and after the intervention, and after six months.Neither intervention had a significant effect on participants' attitudes towards vaccination. However, the group receiving the presentation-based intervention saw a sustained uplift in confidence about information needs, which was not observed in the simulation-based intervention group.Our findings with young people are consistent with previous work on vaccination interventions aimed at adults, which have shown limited effectiveness, and which can actually reduce intention to vaccinate. Our findings on the most effective mode of delivery for the intervention should inform future discussion in the growing "games for health" domain, which proposes the use of interactive digital
Carolan, Kate; Verran, Joanna; Crossley, Matthew; Redfern, James; Whitton, Nicola
Background Current immunisation levels in England currently fall slightly below the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization, and the three-year trend for vaccination uptake is downwards. Attitudes towards vaccination can affect future decisions on whether or not to vaccinate, and this can have significant public health implications. Interventions can impact future vaccination decisions, and these interventions can take several forms. Relatively little work has been reported on the use of vaccination interventions in young people, who form the next generation of individuals likely to make vaccination decisions. Method We investigated the impact of two different types of educational intervention on attitudes towards vaccination in young people in England. A cohort of young people (n = 63) was recruited via a local school. This group was divided into three sub-groups; one (n = 21) received a presentation-based intervention, one (n = 26) received an interactive simulation-based intervention, and the third (n = 16) received no intervention. Participants supplied information on (1) their attitudes towards vaccination, and (2) their information needs and views on personal choice concerning vaccination, at three time points: immediately before and after the intervention, and after six months. Results Neither intervention had a significant effect on participants’ attitudes towards vaccination. However, the group receiving the presentation-based intervention saw a sustained uplift in confidence about information needs, which was not observed in the simulation-based intervention group. Discussion Our findings with young people are consistent with previous work on vaccination interventions aimed at adults, which have shown limited effectiveness, and which can actually reduce intention to vaccinate. Our findings on the most effective mode of delivery for the intervention should inform future discussion in the growing “games for health” domain, which
Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be
Elizabeth S. Bryant
Full Text Available Background: Previous research has suggested a positive relationship between fundamental movement skills (FMS mastery and physical activity (PA level. Research conducted on interventions to improve FMS mastery is equivocal and further research is needed. Methods: An intervention group of 82 children (35 boys and 47 girls and a control group of 83 children (42 boys and 41 girls were recruited from Years 4 and 5 (mean age ± SD = 8.3 ± 0.4 years of two schools in Central England. The intervention included a combination of circuits and dancing to music. Pre and post intervention tests were conducted. Tests included: subjective assessment of eight FMS; objective measurement of two FMS; four day pedometer step count recording; height and mass for Body Mass Index (BMI; and the completion of Harter et al.’s (1982 self-perception questionnaire. Results: Following a two (pre to post by two (intervention and control group mixed-model ANOVA it was highlighted that the intervention group improved mastery in all eight FMS, and increased both daily steps and physical self-perception. Conclusions: It can be concluded that focussing one Physical Education (PE lesson per week on the development of FMS has had a positive benefit on FMS, PA level and physical self-perception for the children in this study.
Fleming, Michele J.; Grace, Diana M.
Regional and rural students in Australia face unique challenges when aspiring to higher education. These challenges reflect systematic disadvantage experienced by rural and regional populations as a whole. In an effort to redress these inequities, and aided by the Australian Government's Higher Education Participation and Partnerships Program…
The future of accounting education has already arrived at the Department of Accountancy at the University of Illinois-Champaign, United States' top accounting school. "Project Discovery" is a 5-year-old program that incorporates many current trends in educational innovation, such as writing across the curriculum, collaborative learning,…
Wilson, Jeni; Shrimpton, Bradley
This paper examines the educational implications for students with Tourette syndrome (TS) and outlines a multi-dimensional approach for improving their education. It presents data from two qualitative studies in Australia. TS is a debilitating neurological disorder that causes involuntary vocal and motor tics. The first study investigated the…
Doblecki-Lewis, Susanne; Chang, Aileen; Jiddou-Yaldoo, Renee; Tomashek, Kay M; Stanek, Danielle; Anil, Leena; Lichtenberger, Paola
Failure to recognize and appropriately manage dengue early in the clinical course may result in late initiation of supportive treatment for severe disease. In Florida, travel-related and autochthonous dengue occur and are likely under-recognized. The objective of this study was to evaluate physician knowledge of dengue and its management before and after an educational intervention in Florida. From 2012-13 we conducted 14 grand-rounds style lectures on dengue clinical management attended by 413 physicians, and analyzed data from the pre- and post-tests. Of those attending, 231 and 220 completed the pre-and post-tests, respectively. Overall, the mean pre-test score for knowledge-based questions was 74.3 and average post-test score was 94.2%, indicating a mean increase of 19.9% (P dengue recognition and management also increased. Non-US trained physicians and those who had treated more than ten dengue cases performed significantly better in the pre-test. Post-test scores did not differ by subgroup. The train-the-trainer approach with grand-rounds style presentations appear to be an effective intervention to improve knowledge of dengue among physicians.
Solomon, Susan; Simiyon, Manjula; Vedachalam, Ahalya
This study was done to determine the effectiveness of a lecture and exposure to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) followed by interaction with patient, on medical students' knowledge about and attitude towards electroconvulsive therapy. A questionnaire was administered to second year medical students to determine their baseline knowledge about and attitude towards electroconvulsive therapy. Following this, they underwent two educational interventions, a lecture on ECT and exposure to the procedure and interaction with the patient and relative, and their knowledge and attitude were reassessed after each intervention using the same questionnaire. Eighty-one students completed all the three assessments. Students' knowledge about ECT at baseline was minimal (mean 3.58 out of 12). Their knowledge increased significantly after the lecture (mean 10.3), and there was further increase following exposure to the procedure and subsequent interaction with the patient and relative (mean 11.1). At baseline, students had an overall negative attitude towards ECT. There was significant improvement on all attitude items following the lecture. Exposure to the procedure resulted in further improvement in attitude regarding whether ECT is a cruel treatment and has to be used as a last resort. Exposure to ECT in lecture and clinical scenarios followed by interaction with the patient should be included in the undergraduate medical curriculum to improve students' knowledge and attitude about this safe, effective, and potentially lifesaving treatment modality.
Kotwani, Anita; Chhabra, Sunil K
Denial of having a chronic condition, poor knowledge of the disease process and lack of adherence to standard treatment are often considered to be important factors that increase morbidity in asthma. We evaluated the effect of standard treatment guidelines and asthma education programme on asthma control among patients enrolled from a referral health facility of Delhi in India. Fifty patients who visited the health facility first time for treatment of asthma were enrolled after confirming the diagnosis of asthma by symptoms and reversible spirometry. Patients were interviewed at baseline using three researcher-administered questionnaires - quality of asthma management questionnaire, asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) and asthma knowledge questionnaire (AKQ). All patients were given pharmacotherapy according to standard treatment guidelines. In addition, every alternate patient was also given a face-to-face educational intervention. Patients were followed up at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The ACQ was used at each visit, and AKQ was reassessed at the twelfth week. The paired t test was used to detect significant changes in various domains of asthma control. The knowledge of asthma among patients and the care provided by previous health-care providers were found to be poor at baseline assessment. The application of standard treatment guidelines improved asthma control by the second week and the changes became significant by the fourth week, which persisted till the twelfth week (p Standard treatment guidelines and asthma education improved asthma control.
The Amagugu Intervention: A conceptual framework for increasing HIV disclosure and parent-led communication about health and HIV prevention among HIV-infected parents with HIV-uninfected primary school-aged children
Tamsen Jean Rochat
Full Text Available Advances in access to HIV prevention and treatment have reduced vertical transmission of HIV, with most children born to HIV-infected parents being HIV-uninfected themselves. A major challenge that HIV-infected parents face is disclosure of their HIV status to their predominantly HIV-uninfected children. Their children enter middle childhood and early adolescence facing many challenges associated with parental illness and hospitalisation, often exacerbated by stigma and a lack of access to health education and support. Increasingly, evidence suggests that primary school-aged children have the developmental capacity to grasp concepts of health and illness, including HIV, and that in the absence of parent-led communication and education about these issues, HIV-exposed children may be at increased risk of psychological and social problems. The Amagugu intervention is a six-session home-based intervention, delivered by lay counsellors, which aims to increase parenting capacity to disclose their HIV status and offer health education to their primary school-aged children. The intervention includes information and activities on disclosure, health care engagement and custody planning. An uncontrolled pre-post evaluation study with 281 families showed the intervention was feasible, acceptable and effective in increasing maternal disclosure. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the conceptual model of the Amagugu intervention, as developed post-evaluation, showing the proposed pathways of risk that Amagugu aims to disrupt through its intervention targets, mechanisms and activities; and to present a summary of results from the large scale evaluation study of Amagugu to demonstrate the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention model. This relatively low-intensity home-based intervention led to: increased HIV disclosure to children, improvements in mental health for mother and child, and improved health care engagement and custody planning for
Berggren, E; Orrevall, Y; Olin, A Ödlund; Strang, P; Szulkin, R; Törnkvist, L
Evaluate the effectiveness of a continuing educational intervention on primary health care professionals' familiarity with information important to nutritional care in a palliative phase, their collaboration with other caregivers, and their level of knowledge about important aspects of nutritional care. Observational cohort study. 10 primary health care centers in Stockholm County, Sweden. 140 district nurses/registered nurses and general practitioners/physicians working with home care. 87 professionals participated in the intervention group (IG) and 53 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of a web-based program offering factual knowledge; a practical exercise linking existing and new knowledge, abilities, and skills; and a case seminar facilitating reflection. The intervention's effects were measured by a computer-based study-specific questionnaire before and after the intervention, which took approximately 1 month. The CG completed the questionnaire twice (1 month between response occasions). The intervention effects, odds ratios, were estimated by an ordinal logistic regression. In the intra-group analyses, statistically significant changes occurred in the IG's responses to 28 of 32 items and the CG's responses to 4 of 32 items. In the inter-group analyses, statistically significant effects occurred in 20 of 32 statements: all 14 statements that assessed familiarity with important concepts and all 4 statements about collaboration with other caregivers but only 2 of the 14 statements concerning level of knowledge. The intervention effect varied between 2.5 and 12.0. The intervention was effective in increasing familiarity with information important to nutritional care in a palliative phase and collaboration with other caregivers, both of which may create prerequisites for better nutritional care. However, the intervention needs to be revised to better increase the professionals' level of knowledge about important aspects of nutritional care.
Alamgir, Hasanat; Drebit, Sharla; Li, Helen Guiyun; Kidd, Catherine; Tam, Helen; Fast, Catherine
To reduce the risk of patient handling-related musculoskeletal injury, overhead ceiling lifts have been installed in health care facilities. To increase ceiling lift usage for a variety of patient handling tasks, a peer coaching and mentoring program was implemented among the direct care staff in the long-term care subsector in British Columbia, Canada. They received a 4-day training program on body mechanics, ergonomics, patient-handling techniques, ceiling lift usage, in addition to coaching skills. A questionnaire was administered among staff before and after the intervention to evaluate the program's effectiveness. There were 403 and 200 respondents to the pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires. In general, staff perceived the peer-coaching program to be effective. The number of staff who reported to be using ceiling lifts "often and always" went higher from 64.5% to 80.5% (<0.001) after coaching program implementation. Furthermore, staff reported that they were using the ceiling lifts for more types of tasks post-intervention. Staff reported that the peer coaching program has increased their safety awareness at work and confidence in using the ceiling lifts. The findings suggest that this educational model can increase the uptake of mechanical interventions for occupational health and safety initiatives. It appears that the training led to a greater awareness of the availability of or increased perceptions of the number of ceiling lifts, presumably through coaches advocating their use. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Damen, M.-L.; van Klaveren, C.
This study examines whether Cultural and Artistic Education that was implemented by the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science in 1999 caused students to participate more in high cultural events. A unique feature of the intervention was that students were free to choose the type of
Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar
Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors. PMID:27462632
Brown, H.E.; Atkin, A.J.; Panter, J.; Corder, K.; Wong, G.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Sluijs, E.
Introduction: Despite the established relationship between physical activity and health, data suggest that many children are insufficiently active, and that levels decline into adolescence. Engaging the family in interventions may increase and maintain children's physical activity levels at the
Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Ford, Kathleen; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Prasartkul, Pramote
Vulnerability to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among factory workers is a global problem. This study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention to increase AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use among young factory workers in Thailand. The intervention was a workplace program designed to engage the private sector in HIV prevention. A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2008 to measure program outcomes in factories in Thailand was used in this study. The workplace intervention included the development of policies for management of HIV-positive employees, training sessions for managers and workers, and distribution of educational materials and condoms. A multi-level analysis was used to investigate the effect of HIV/AIDS prevention program components at the workplace on HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use with regular sexual partners among 699 young factory workers (aged 18-24 years), controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. Interventions related to the management and services component including workplace AIDS policy formulation, condom services programs and behavioral change campaigns were found to be significantly related to increased AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use with regular partners. The effect of the HIV/AIDS training for managers, peer leaders and workers was positive but not statistically significant. With some revision of program components, scaling up of workplace interventions and the engagement of the private sector in HIV prevention should be seriously considered.
Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.
Full Text Available The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n=21 recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35–73 were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool.
Thorsteinsen, Kjærsti; Vittersø, Joar; Svendsen, Gunnvald Bendix
The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n = 21) recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35-73) were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool.
Bleakley, Alan; Allard, Jon; Hobbs, Adrian
Changing teamwork climate in healthcare through a collective shift in attitudes and values may be a necessary precursor to establishing a positive teamwork culture, where innovations can be more readily embedded and sustained. A complex educational intervention was initiated across an entire UK Trust's surgical provision, and then sustained. Attitudes towards teamwork were measured longitudinally to examine if the intervention produced sustainable results. The research aimed to test whether sustaining a complex education intervention to improve teamwork would result in an incremental, longitudinal improvement in attitudes and values towards teamwork. The intervention's larger aim is to progress the historical default position of multi-professional work to authentic inter-professional teamwork, as a positive values climate translates in time into behavioural change defining a safety culture. Attitudes were measured at three points across all surgical team personnel over a period of 4 years, using a validated Safety Attitudes Questionnaire with a focus on the 'teamwork climate' domain. Pre- and post-intervention 'teamwork climate' scores were compared to give a longitudinal measure as a test of sustainability. Mean 'teamwork climate' scores improved incrementally and significantly following the series of educational interventions, showing that practitioners' valuing of teamwork activity can be improved and sustained. Longitudinal positive change in attitudes and values towards teamwork can be sustained, suggesting that a deliberate, designed complex intervention can shape a safety climate as a necessary prerequisite for the establishment of a sustainable safety culture.
Poulsen, Tine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Vass, Mikkel; Avlund, Kirsten
To analyse if social capital modifies the effect of educational intervention of home visitors on mobility disability. Earlier studies have found that educational intervention of home visitors has a positive effect of older peoples' functional decline, but how social capital might modify this effect is still unknown. We used the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits - a prospective cohort study including 2863 75-year-olds and 1171 80-year-olds in 34 Danish municipalities - to analyse the modifying effect of different aspects of social capital on the effect of educational intervention of home visitors on functional decline. The three measures of social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) were measured at contextual level. Data was analysed with multivariate linear regression model using generalised estimating equations to account for repeated measurements. We found that 80-year-olds living in municipalities with high bonding (B=0.089, p=0.0279) and high linking (B=0.0929; p=0.0217) had significant better mobility disability in average at 3-year follow up if their municipality had received intervention. With the unique design of the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits and with theory-based measures of social capital that distinguish between three aspects of social capital with focus on older people, this study contributes to the literature about the role of social capital for interventions on mobility disability.
Full Text Available Background: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved in medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. Objective of the study was to explore the effectiveness of humor when used as intervention in large group teaching over negative emotions amongst students. Method: The present Interventional, Randomized control trial study was carried out on medical students of 4th Semester of RMCH, Bareilly, which has total 90 students. Using simple random sampling lottery method the whole class was divided in two groups-A and B consisting of 45 students each. Group A as control group and Group B experimental group. In first and last lecture of both groups Dass-21 was used as measuring scale, for depression, anxiety and stress and results were compared to see the effect of humor on these three negative emotions. Result: Comparison of Severe and Extremely severe Stress: In Group A 40.54% in class -1 increased to 47.54% in class- 4, while in group B initial 13.15 % was reduced to 0 % (highly significant. Anxiety: In group A, after Class 1 -57.45% increased to 61.11% after class 4, while in group B, after class 1- 23.68% reduced to 2.27% only (highly significant. Depression: In group A, after Class 1 - 40.53% & 41.66 % after class 4 (not significant, while in group B, after class 1- 18.41% reduced to 0% (highly significant. Conclusion: In present study humor was found to be very effective intervention in relieving students on their negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress to a larger extent. Further research would justify the use of humor as an effective teaching aid in medical education.
Soto Rodríguez, Anxela; García Soidán, José Luís; de Toro Santos, Manuel; Lagoa Labrador, Fiz; Failde Garrido, José M; Pérez Fernández, María Reyes
To assess whether an educational intervention in perimenopausal women with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidaemia would improve adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and achieve changes in anthropometric parameters. Randomized clinical trial of parallel groups: 320 women (45-60 years) in 2 urban primary care services. hip and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), total, visceral and trunk fat (bioimpedance measures) and adherence to Mediterranean diet (MEDAS-14 questionnaire). Intervention group: 3 interactive workshops on prevention of cardiovascular disease, and control group: information by post. Two hundred and thirty women completed the study (113 control group and 117 intervention group). The differences between groups were significant in all parameters one year later. In the intragroup comparison, the intervention group maintained their BMI and improved adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The control group increased their BMI, abdominal and hip circumference and fat parameters (total, visceral and trunk fat). A simple educational intervention in perimenopausal women with cardiovascular risk can improve their healthy habits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Carlesso, Lisa C; Gross, Anita R; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, David M; Santaguida, P Lina
Examination of practice patterns compared to existing evidence identifies knowledge to practice gaps. To describe the utilization of pharmacological, patient education, primary psychological interventions and relaxation therapies in patients with neck pain by clinicians. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the use of these interventions amongst 326 clinicians treating patients with neck pain. Nineteen countries participated. Results were analyzed by usage amongst physical therapists (39%) and chiropractors (35%), as they were the predominant respondents. Patient education (95%) and relaxation therapies (59%) were the most utilized interventions. Tests of subgroup differences determined that physical therapists used patient education significantly more than chiropractors. Use of medications and primary psychological interventions were reported by most to be outside of scope of practice. The high rate of patient education is consistent with supporting evidence. However, usage of relaxation therapies is contrary to evidence suggesting no benefit for improved pain or function for chronic neck pain. This survey indicates that patient education and relaxation therapies are common treatments provided by chiropractors and physical therapists for patients with neck pain. Future research should address gaps associated with variable practice patterns and knowledge translation to reduce usage of interventions shown to be ineffective.
A correctional educator reflects on methods that improve instructional effectiveness. These include teacher-student collaboration, clear goals, student accountability, positive classroom atmosphere, high expectations, and mutual respect. (SK)
What Works Clearinghouse, 2014
Character education is an inclusive concept regarding all aspects of how families, schools, and related social institutions support the positive character development of children and adults. "Character" in this context refers to the moral and ethical qualities of persons as well as the demonstration of those qualities in their emotional…
Thanks largely to the work of Kabat-Zinn and associates applications of mindfulness-based practices have grown exponentially over the last decade or so, particularly in the fields of education, psychology, psychotherapy and mind-body health. Having its origins in Buddhist traditions, the more recent secular and therapeutic applications of the…
... reduced (p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that adopting a relatively simple educational tool, making use of a clinical performance dashboard indicator and benchmarking practice can significantly reduce the level of neonatal sepsis while also reducing contaminated blood cultures.
Hall, Ronald E.
Per the Bleaching Syndrome, people of color, including African, Asian, and Latino Americans, are both victims and perpetrators of color discrimination. The Bleaching Syndrome encompasses perceptual, psychological, and behavioral sectors that affect students' schooling experiences. Education professionals, including teachers, administrators, and…
providing skills needed for the target participants to obtain employment or vocational trades ... difficulties if provided at an adequate level, in preventing child abuse and neglect and ... training of non-formal education programmes, show that learning readily occurs when .... it at the market place or motor parks. This extends to ...
Charalampopoulos, Dimitrios; Hesketh, Kathryn R; Amin, Rakesh; Paes, Veena Mazarello; Viner, Russell M; Stephenson, Terence
To synthesise evidence from UK-based randomised trials of psycho-educational interventions in children and young people (CYP) with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) to inform the evidence-base for adoption of such interventions into the NHS. We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science up to March 2016. Two reviewers independently selected UK-based randomised trials comparing psycho-educational interventions for improving management of T1D for CYP with a control group of usual care or attention control. The main outcome was glycaemic control measured by percentage of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); secondary outcomes included psychosocial functioning, diabetes knowledge, adverse and other clinical outcomes. A narrative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted. Pooled effect sizes of standardised mean difference (SMD) were calculated. Ten eligible trials of three educational and seven psycho-educational interventions were identified. Most interventions were delivered by non-psychologists and targeted adolescents with more than one year duration of diabetes. Meta-analysis of nine of these trials (N = 1,838 participants) showed a non-significant reduction in HbA1c attributable to the intervention (pooled SMD = -0.06, 95% CI: -0.21 to 0.09). Psycho-educational interventions aiming to increase children's self-efficacy had a moderate, beneficial effect (SMD = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.87). No benefits on diabetes knowledge and other indicators of psychosocial functioning were identified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of particular psycho-educational programme for CYP with T1D in the UK. Further trials with sufficient power and reporting standards are needed. Future trials could consider active involvement of psychological specialists in the delivery of psychologically informed interventions and implementation of psycho-educational interventions earlier in the course of the disease. PROSPERO CRD42015010701.
Thomas, Barbara; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg; Lafreniere, Kathryn D; Delahunt, Tabitha D
Health education programs supported by women's groups or workplaces have been successful in reaching large populations and changing intentions to perform breast health behaviors. This study examined the responses women working in the automotive industry had to two health education interventions, mailed pamphlets, and a combination of mailed material and classes at the worksite compared to a control group. A quasi-experimental design was used. Of the 948 women completing the pre-test, 437 also completed the post-test and were highly representative of the initial sample. The findings suggest that although the mailed information produced some change in practices and intentions, the classes in combination with the mailed pamphlets produced greater change. In addition, confidence in breast self examination as a method of detecting an existing breast lump increased from pre-test to post-test across all age groups. The reported influences on the women's decisions related to breast health varied across the life span. The results of this study can be used to support the development of effective health promotion programs for use at workplaces to increase the likelihood of women engaging in healthy breast practices.
Fox, Caroline S; Gurary, Ellen B; Ryan, John; Bonaca, Marc; Barry, Karen; Loscalzo, Joseph; Massaro, Joseph
A prior randomized controlled trial of social media exposure at Circulation determined that social media did not increase 30-day page views. Whether insufficient social media intensity contributed to these results is uncertain. Original article manuscripts were randomized to social media exposure compared with no social media exposure (control) at Circulation beginning in January 2015. Social media exposure consisted of Facebook and Twitter posts on the journal's accounts. To increase social media intensity, a larger base of followers was built using advertising and organic growth, and posts were presented in triplicate and boosted on Facebook and retweeted on Twitter. The primary outcome was 30-day page views. Stopping rules were established at the point that 50% of the manuscripts were randomized and had 30-day follow-up to compare groups on 30-day page views. The trial was stopped for futility on September 26, 2015. Overall, 74 manuscripts were randomized to receive social media exposure, and 78 manuscripts were randomized to the control arm. The intervention and control arms were similar based on article type (P=0.85), geographic location of the corresponding author (P=0.33), and whether the manuscript had an editorial (P=0.80). Median number of 30-day page views was 499.5 in the social media arm and 450.5 in the control arm; there was no evidence of a treatment effect (P=0.38). There were no statistically significant interactions of treatment by manuscript type (P=0.86), by corresponding author (P=0.35), by trimester of publication date (P=0.34), or by editorial status (P=0.79). A more intensive social media strategy did not result in increased 30-day page views of original research. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
... 32 CFR Part 57 Provision of Early Intervention and Special Education Services to Eligible DoD...-2011-OS-0095] RIN 0790-AI77 Provision of Early Intervention and Special Education Services to Eligible... (EIS) to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families, as well as special education and...
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Interv