Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip
Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…
O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark
Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…
Deborah M. Kazal-Thresher
Full Text Available Educational finance reforms and desegregation have both sought to address inequities in educational opportunities for minorities and low income families. The recent methods of addressing desegregation issues have tended to focus on attaining racial balance rather than educational quality, however. This paper explores how desegregation goals can be merged with educational finance reform to more systematically address educational quality in schools serving low income and minority populations. By moving toward centralized control over school financing, the inequity of school outcomes that are based on unequal school resources can be reduced. In addition, state determined expenditures when combined with desegregation monies, would meet the original intention of desegregation funds by clearly providing add-on monies for additional services for minority children, while at the same time, creating a better monitoring mechanism.
Benjamin W. Domingue
Full Text Available Recent studies have begun to uncover the genetic architecture of educational attainment. We build on this work using genome-wide data from siblings in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health. We measure the genetic predisposition of siblings to educational attainment using polygenic scores. We then test how polygenic scores are related to social environments and educational outcomes. In Add Health, genetic predisposition to educational attainment is patterned across the social environment. Participants with higher polygenic scores were more likely to grow up in socially advantaged families. Even so, the previously published genetic associations appear to be causal. Among pairs of siblings, the sibling with the higher polygenic score typically went on to complete more years of schooling as compared to their lower-scored co-sibling. We found subtle differences between sibling fixed-effect estimates of the genetic effect versus those based on unrelated individuals.
Jæger, Mads Meier
have a negative effect on educational attainment most studies cannot distinguish empirically between the CM and the RDH. In this paper I use the different theoretical predictions in the CM and RDH on the role of cognitive ability as a partial or complete mediator of the effect of sibship size......Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories - for substantively different reasons - predict that sibship size should...... to distinguish the two theories and to identify a unique RDH effect on educational attainment. Using sibling data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and a random effect Instrumental Variable model I find that, in addition to a negative effect on cognitive ability, sibship size also has a strong negative...
Catherine E. Gordon
Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.
Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).
This document reports the proceedings of a conference held to discuss the availability of educational resources and the financing of education in Canada. The conference focused specifically on the financial implications of redesigning educational institutions to be capable of flexible response to students' needs, making educational benefits more…
Wolfle, Lee M.
Interracial differences in the educational attainment process between whites and blacks were examined, using Joreskog and Sorbom's (1981) general method for the analysis of covariance structures. The basic model of educational attainment considers education to be a function of father's occupational status and education, mother's education,…
Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.
In the past thirty years educational attainments in the United States have stagnated, particularly for low-income Americans. As a result, income-related gaps in educational attainments have grown. These gaps are important because education has historically been the key mechanism for intergenerational socio-economic mobility in the U.S. While the…
Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…
Adrian Macris; Maria Macris
This paper sets forth the issue of financing higher education in Romania according tothe fundamental principles adopted by most of the countries of the European Union. Under suchcircumstances, the two components of financing State universities are minutely exhibited, namelybasic financing and complementary financing. At the same time, the extremely important matterrequiring the foundation of an efficient and competitive educational system demanded by the newenvironment also implies the provid...
McCabe, Marjorie; And Others
Three case studies are presented that highlight problem scenarios relating to beginning special education intern teachers and explain how the teachers attained success. The cases focus on classroom management, adaptation of the core curriculum, and knowledge of instructional practices. (JDD)
Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper implements a test of the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH) stating that sibship size has a negative causal effect on educational attainment. Most existing studies using conventional methods support the RDH. This paper implements an Instrumental Variable (IV) approach to testing...... the claim of a negative causal relationship between sibship size and educational attainment. Analyzing data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the empirical analysis demonstrates, first, that conventional OLS regression estimates sibship size to have a negative effect on educational attainment equal...... to about one-tenth of a year of schooling per sibling. Second, when applying the IV method to account for potential endogeneity, the negative effect of sibship size increases substantially to about one-third of a year of schooling per sibling....
Murray, Michael P; Sharmin, Raisa
Thousands of groundwater tube wells serving millions of Bangladeshis are arsenic contaminated. This study investigates the effect of these wells on the education attainment and school attendance of youths who rely on those wells for drinking water. The analysis combines data from the 2006 Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2006 MICS) and the National Hydrochemical Survey (NHS) of Bangladeshi tube wells' contamination conducted between 1998 and 2000. The study uses multiple regression analysis to estimate the differences in education attainment and school attendance among the following: (i) youths who live where tube wells are safe, (ii) youths who live where tube wells are unsafe but who report drinking from an arsenic-free source, and (iii) youths who live where tube wells are unsafe but who do not report drinking from an arsenic-free source. Controlling for other determinants of education attainment and school attendance, young Bangladeshi males who live where tube wells are unsafe (by Bangladeshis standards) but who report drinking from arsenic-free sources are found to have the same education attainment (among 19- to 21-year-olds) and school attendance (among 6- to 10-year-olds), on average, as corresponding young Bangladeshi males who live where wells are safe. But young Bangladeshi males who live where tube wells are unsafe and who do not report drinking from an arsenic-free source attain, on average, a half-year less education (among 19- to 21-year-olds) and attend school, on average, five to seven fewer days a year (among 6- to 10-year-olds) than do other Bagladeshi males of those ages. The estimated effects for females are of the same sign but much smaller in magnitude. Bangladeshi public health measures to shift drinking from unsafe to safe wells not only advance good health but also increase males' education attainment.
Lynn, Richard; Mikk, Jaan
We examine the correlations between the national IQs of Lynn and Vanhanen (Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations". Westport, CT: Praeger. Westport, CT: Praeger, Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2006). "IQ and global inequality". Athens, GA: Washington Summit Books.) and educational attainment scores in math and science for 10-…
Based on this, the study examines educational attainment, formal employment and contraceptives practices among working women in Lagos State University. Survey design was adopted for the study. Using Stratified and simple random sampling techniques, quantitative data was gathered through the administration of ...
Anthony, Peter; Gould, David; Smith, Gina
Systems archetypes are patterns of structure found in systems that are helpful in understanding some of the dynamics within them. The intent of this study was to examine educational attainment data using the success-to-the-successful archetype as a model to see if it helps to explain the inequality observed in the data. Data covering 1990 to 2009…
de Haan, M.
This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth
de Haan, Monique
This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…
Roč. 10, č. 2 (2001), s. 163-173 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition economies * educational attainment Subject RIV: AH - Economics
Monique de Haan
This paper investigates the effect of sibship size and birth order on educational attainment, for the United States and the Netherlands. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of sibship size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation with years of education for different family sizes separately; this avoids the problem that estimated ef...
Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara
Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851
Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B
Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee
The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents’ motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students’ basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students’ gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students’ school belonging, student–teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed. PMID:24588748
This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of Tennessee. The 17th largest state, Tennessee is home to 2.01% of the nation's inhabitants. Funding of K-12 education in Tennessee is accomplished via a formula known as the Basic Educational Program (BEP). This plan primarily utilizes school district enrollment numbers to…
Describes reasons for California's budget deficits and their impact on school finance. Offers five possible solutions to the school funding crises: Restructure the state's tax and revenue system, restore school district revenue-sharing abilities, initiate a top-to-bottom mandate review, provide greater fiscal and program flexibility, and revamp…
Payne, Bethan; Charonis, George-Konstantinos; Haaristo, Hanna-Stella; Maurer, Moritz; Kaiser, Florian; Siegrist, Rahel; McVitty, Debbie; Gruber, Angelika; Heerens, Nik; Xhomaqi, Brikena; Nötzl, Tina; Semjonov, Meeli; Primožic, Rok
Higher education plays a vital role in society and the quality, accessibility, and form of higher education is highly dependent on financing. Financing of higher education is conceived to be of central importance for the future creation and dissemination of knowledge and research. Therefore, the financing of higher education is a topic that has…
van Dongen, Jenny; Bonder, Marc Jan; Dekkers, Koen F.; Nivard, Michel G.; van Iterson, Maarten; Willemsen, Gonneke; Beekman, Marian; van der Spek, Ashley; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Franke, Lude; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.; BIOS consortium
Educational attainment is a key behavioural measure in studies of cognitive and physical health, and socioeconomic status. We measured DNA methylation at 410,746 CpGs (N = 4152) and identified 58 CpGs associated with educational attainment at loci characterized by pleiotropic functions shared with neuronal, immune and developmental processes. Associations overlapped with those for smoking behaviour, but remained after accounting for smoking at many CpGs: Effect sizes were on average 28% smaller and genome-wide significant at 11 CpGs after adjusting for smoking and were 62% smaller in never smokers. We examined sources and biological implications of education-related methylation differences, demonstrating correlations with maternal prenatal folate, smoking and air pollution signatures, and associations with gene expression in cis, dynamic methylation in foetal brain, and correlations between blood and brain. Our findings show that the methylome of lower-educated people resembles that of smokers beyond effects of their own smoking behaviour and shows traces of various other exposures.
Hill, Laura; Warren, Paul; Murphy, Patrick; Ugo, Iwunze; Pathak, Aditi
This document presents the technical appendices that accompany the full report, "Special Education Finance in California." The appendices include: (1) Problems with AB 602 and Other State Funding Programs for Special Education; (2) Additional Figures for Analysis of Distribution of Students with Disabilities; (3) Using Supplemental and…
Hill, Laura; Warren, Paul; Murphy, Patrick; Ugo, Iwunze; Pathak, Aditi
California's system of special education served about 718,000 students in 2014-15, or about 11.5 percent of the K-12 population. It is expensive, consuming some $12 billion in federal, state, and local dollars annually. Special education operates within a legal framework that sets it apart from the rest of the K-12 system. The state's enactment of…
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education correlate with National Standards in Personal Finance Education. A content analysis revealed that the National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education, established by the National Business Education Association…
The population in the United States is becoming more educated, but significant differences in educational attainment remain with regard to age, sex, race, and origin. Nevertheless, the educational attainment of young adults (25 to 29 years), which provides a glimpse of our country's future, indicates dramatic improvement by groups who have…
Barker, Mary; Lawrence, Wendy; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Siân; Baird, Janis; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus
Data from the Southampton Women's Survey have established that women of lower educational attainment have poorer quality diets than those of higher educational attainment. This relationship is strong and graded such that for every increase in level of educational qualification, there is an increase in the likelihood that a woman will have a better quality diet. It is not wholly explained by socio-economic status. Qualitative research carried out in Southampton suggests that women of lower educational attainment may have a poorer diet because they feel they lack control over the food choices they make for themselves and their families. We set out to investigate the relationship between educational attainment, perceived control and quality of diet in a sample of women from Southampton. Cross-sectional study using structured interviews in which women's diet, educational attainment and perceived control were assessed. 19 Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. 372 women, median age 28 years. Quality of diet assessed by prudent diet score produced from principal components analysis of 20-item food frequency questionnaire, and perceived control assessed by a validated questionnaire. Women of lower educational attainment tended to have lower prudent diet scores and lower perceived control scores than women of higher educational attainment. Having a lower prudent diet score was associated with consuming fewer vegetables and vegetable dishes, less wholemeal bread and vegetarian food, and more chips and roast potatoes, meat pies, Yorkshire puddings and pancakes, crisps and snacks, white bread and added sugar. In a regression model both lower educational attainment and lower perceived control were associated with lower prudent diet scores, independent of the effects of confounding factors. However there was an interaction effect such that lower perceived control was only related to prudent diet score in the group of women of lower educational attainment. Women
van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.
For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were
Biology Education Delivery for Attaining Health-specific Millennium ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This study investigated the strategies for ensuring effective delivery of Biology Education at the secondary school level ...
With the onset of new public management, there is a shift in the methods of financing of higher education institutions across the countries of the world, particularly emerging market economies, from public financing to private financing of higher education. Many countries adopted this shift very quickly while others have moved towards a gradual…
Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.
Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, this study revisited rural-nonrural disparities in educational attainment by considering a comprehensive set of factors that constrain and support youth's college enrollment and degree completion. Results showed that rural students were more advantaged in community social resources compared to nonrural students, and these resources were associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of bachelor's degree attainment. Yet results confirmed that rural students lagged behind nonrural students in attaining a bachelor's degree largely due to their lower socioeconomic background. The findings present a more comprehensive picture of the complexity of geographic residence in shaping college enrollment and degree attainment. PMID:24285873
Byrne, D. S.; And Others
Uses cluster analysis techniques to show that egalitarian policies in secondary education coupled with high financial inputs have measurable payoffs in higher attainment rates, based on Max Weber's notion of power'' within a community. (Author/JM)
Spielhofer, Thomas; Kerr, David; Gardiner, Clare
This document provides guidance on effective practice in delivering personal finance education in secondary schools. It is based on the findings from research carried out by NFER (the National Foundation for Educational Research) on behalf of pfeg (Personal Finance Education Group) as part of an evaluation of Learning Money Matters (LMM). This…
Hassan, Moshood Ayinde
The purpose of this study is to determine how adult and non formal education is financed in Nigeria; and to examine areas or forms of and the problems of financing adult and non-formal education in Nigeria. Survey research was used in order to carry out the study. Three hundred and twenty five (325) respondents from government agencies,…
Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.
In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989…
Lesley, Andres; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul
1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence analysis, they demonstrate that graduates leave high school with educ...
Harris, Paul C.
The purpose of this study is to explore the direct, indirect, and total effects of high school sports participation on educational attainment for Black males using the Educational Longitudinal Study (2002/2006), a large, nationally representative, database. A path analysis procedure for determining underlying causal relationships between variables…
Alberta Learning, Edmonton.
This guide is designed to help students in Alberta, Canada, plan and finance postsecondary education. A student who has made financial plans will have more options when it is time to choose an institution for postsecondary education. How to choose the right school depends on what a student wants from education and what he or she plans for the…
Human Resources Development Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).
This updated guide is designed to help students in Alberta, Canada, plan and finance postsecondary education. A student who has made financial plans will have more options when it is time to choose an institution for postsecondary education. How to choose the right school depends on what a student wants from education and what he or she plans for…
Macht, Stephanie Alexandra
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to "entrepreneurial finance education", an aspect of entrepreneurship education that is widely taught but neglected by the educational literature. It does so by exploring how social capital, a key resource for entrepreneurs, can be incorporated into entrepreneurial finance…
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Kriegbaum, Margit
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between educational attainment and coping strategies with unemployment in a random sample of 37- to 56-year-old Danish men and women in long-term unemployment. METHODS: Data were based on a survey among 575 men and 1......,064 women who had been unemployed at least 70% of the time during a three-year period (October 1996 to October 1999). The outcome measures were two scales for coping with unemployment, one for problem-solving coping, and one for avoidant coping. Educational attainment was measured by years of vocational...
Full Text Available The paper considers the problems of financing higher education institutions and focuses on formation of estimates of higher education institutions in Ukraine. The study established that the public and municipal education institutions financed by estimate and budget, which is determined by the amount and directions of use funds for implementation of functions and achieving the goals. The estimate has 2 components: general and special fund. The paper describes the practice of using general and special funds of higher education institutions. The results present the features of financing public and private higher education institutions. Public higher education institutions acutely feel the lack of financial resources. Tuition fees at public higher education institutions are calculated according to the requirements of the budget legislation. The conclusions suggest the prospects of financing higher education institutions in Ukraine. Higher education institutions need to give special attention to financial planning, optimization of financing sources and expenditures. It is necessary to reform the models, methods and forms of financing higher education sector.
Hoadley, Susan; Wood, Leigh N.; Tickle, Leonie; Kyng, Tim
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify threshold concepts that are the essential conceptual content of finance programmes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Conducted in three stages with finance academics and students, the study uses threshold concepts as both a theoretical framework and a research methodology. Findings: The…
Guarino, Cassandra M.; Galama, Titus; Constant, Louay; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Tanner, Jeffery C.; Goldman, Charles A.
Qatar's education reform, which included implementation of a new finance system, appears to be providing schools with adequate funding but is still struggling with issues of transparency and swift policy shifts that have been difficult to accommodate. [For full report, "Developing a School Finance System for K-12 Reform in Qatar", see…
Full Text Available This paper investigates the aggregate relationship between cohort fertility and female educational attainment in Croatia. Numerous demographic studies have examined the link between fertility and the level of education. However, newer research indicates that the field of education might also play a role when trying to explain fertility behavior. We contribute to existing literature on macro-level factors related to reproductive outcomes by considering both the level and field of education as possible sources of cohort fertility differentials. The main goal of the present study is to assess the effect of structural changes in educational attainment on cohort fertility decline by means of demographic decomposition techniques. Our analysis is based on detailed 2011 Census data, which provide information on the number of livebirths by mother’s year of birth, birth order, marital status and educational attainment (i.e. the level and field of education. The results of our decomposition analyses reveal the dominance of the structural effect in explaining the overall completed fertility decline in Croatia. We assumed that the changing distribution of women by field of education at least partially accounts for the observed patterns in completed fertility but found no strong evidence in support of the outlined hypothesis.
This report examines the financing of the two components of France's vocational education and training (VET) system. They are initial vocational training (IVT), which includes upper secondary and short forms of higher education, and continuing vocational training (CVT), which aims to help workers adapt to changes in working techniques and…
AJRH Managing Editor
Dependency of Quality Education for Attaining the Health-related. Sustainable Development Goals in Africa. Peter A. Okebukola. Chairman of Council, Crawford University, Igbesa,Ogun State, Nigeria; former Executive Secretary, National Universities. Commission, Nigeria; and Special Adviser to the Vice-Chancellor, ...
This chapter examines what we know about the disparity in postsecondary educational attainment between youth in foster care and their non-foster care peers, the reasons for it, and the policies and programs that have been developed to address that disparity. It also discusses the unique role that community colleges can play in reducing this…
This study examines the impact of fluctuations in the unemployment rate before high school graduation on educational attainment measured 30 years later. I find evidence that important heterogeneity is masked by estimating average effects across the ability distribution. Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this analysis…
Etcheverry, Emily J.; And Others
A Canadian university study of 308 students' time use in academic areas used a model relating variables of social background, social psychological characteristics, time use, and educational attainment. Findings suggested that, taking into account these other variables, the time students spend on academic activities and paid employment has little…
Martin, N.W.; Medland, S.E.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Lee, S.H.; Nyholt, D.R.; Madden, P.A.F.; Heath, A.C.; Montgomery, G.W.; Wright, M.J.; Martin, N.G.
Background: Correlations between Educational Attainment (EA) and measures of cognitive performance are as high as 0.8. This makes EA an attractive alternative phenotype for studies wishing to map genes affecting cognition due to the ease of collecting EA data compared to other cognitive phenotypes
Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.
Despite the fact that migraine headaches are common and debilitating, little is known about their effect on educational attainment. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the relationship between migraine headache and three outcomes: high school grade point average, the probability of graduating…
Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve
Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…
Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.
This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about...
Munk, Martin D.; Krarup, Troels Magelund
This article argues that there is a double recession in international mainstream research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical recession, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical recession, since cultural capital is now seen as a simple...
Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.
This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years; and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about certain isolated individual resources, disregarding…
Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.
This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children's educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level
Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.
This article analyzes the long-term effects of parental media socialization on children’s educational attainment. Data on 8316 individuals from 3257 families in the Netherlands is used to estimate hierarchical models that distinguish between family-specific (socialization) and individual-level
Examined the educational attainments of adult offspring of immigrants age 20-64 years, analyzing data from Canada's 1996 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. Contrary to second generation decline and segmented underclass assimilation found in the United States, Canadian adult visible-minority immigrant offspring did not have lower educational…
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities.
Graetz, Nicholas; Friedman, Joseph; Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron; Burstein, Roy; Biehl, Molly H.; Shields, Chloe; Mosser, Jonathan F.; Casey, Daniel C.; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Earl, Lucas; Reiner, Robert C.; Ray, Sarah E.; Fullman, Nancy; Levine, Aubrey J.; Stubbs, Rebecca W.; Mayala, Benjamin K.; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J.; Bhatt, Samir; Weiss, Daniel J.; Gething, Peter W.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Lim, Stephen S.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hay, Simon I.
Educational attainment for women of reproductive age is linked to reduced child and maternal mortality, lower fertility and improved reproductive health. Comparable analyses of attainment exist only at the national level, potentially obscuring patterns in subnational inequality. Evidence suggests that wide disparities between urban and rural populations exist, raising questions about where the majority of progress towards the education targets of the Sustainable Development Goals is occurring in African countries. Here we explore within-country inequalities by predicting years of schooling across five by five kilometre grids, generating estimates of average educational attainment by age and sex at subnational levels. Despite marked progress in attainment from 2000 to 2015 across Africa, substantial differences persist between locations and sexes. These differences have widened in many countries, particularly across the Sahel. These high-resolution, comparable estimates improve the ability of decision-makers to plan the precisely targeted interventions that will be necessary to deliver progress during the era of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna; Hayward, Mark D
To examine how disparities in adult disability by educational attainment vary across US states. We used the nationally representative data of more than 6 million adults aged 45 to 89 years in the 2010-2014 American Community Survey. We defined disability as difficulty with activities of daily living. We categorized education as low (less than high school), mid (high school or some college), or high (bachelor's or higher). We estimated age-standardized disability prevalence by educational attainment and state. We assessed whether the variation in disability across states occurs primarily among low-educated adults and whether it reflects the socioeconomic resources of low-educated adults and their surrounding contexts. Disparities in disability by education vary markedly across states-from a 20 percentage point disparity in Massachusetts to a 12-point disparity in Wyoming. Disparities vary across states mainly because the prevalence of disability among low-educated adults varies across states. Personal and contextual socioeconomic resources of low-educated adults account for 29% of the variation. Efforts to reduce disparities in disability by education should consider state and local strategies that reduce poverty among low-educated adults and their surrounding contexts.
The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…
Steer, Liesbet; Wathne, Cecilie
Much progress has been made in improving access to basic education in recent years, but international support has been less than promised and the "funding gap" to achieve universal primary education remains stubbornly present. This article identifies six interrelated factors that constrain such donor financing. Prioritization of basic education,…
Geske, Terry G.
An overview of recent state level policy developments and policy analysis research as related to equity and efficiency objectives in public school finance is presented. Emphasis is placed on identifying complementarities, rather than the tradeoffs, between equity and efficiency criteria. (Author/LC)
Barker, M.; Lawrence, W. T.; Skinner, T. C.
Objective: Women of lower educational attainment have less balanced and varied diets than women of higher educational attainment. The diets of women are vital to the long-term health of their offspring. The present study aimed to identify factors that influence the food choices of women with lower...... educational attainment and how women could be helped to improve those choices. Design: We conducted eight focus group discussions with women of lower educational attainment to identify these factors. We contrasted the results of these discussions with those from three focus group discussions with women...... of higher educational attainment. Setting: Southampton, UK. Subjects: Forty-two white Caucasian women of lower educational attainment and fourteen of higher educational attainment aged 18 to 44 years. Results: The dominant theme in discussions with women of lower educational attainment was their sense...
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
NONWHITE WOMEN AND MEN HAVE MADE SIGNIFICANT PROGRESS IN RAISING THEIR LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OVER THE LAST SEVERAL DECADES. THE MEDIAN YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED BY NONWHITE WOMEN AND MEN 25 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER IN MARCH 1966 WERE 9.6 YEARS AND 8.8 YEARS RESPECTIVELY. COMPARABLE MEDIANS IN APRIL 1940 WERE 6.1 YEARS AND 5.4 YEARS. MOST…
Ira N. Gang; Thomas Bauer
Recent studies exploring sibling rivalry in the allocation of household resources in the U.S. produce conflicting results. We contribute to this discussion by addressing the role of sibling rivalry in educational attainment in Germany. Using the German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP) we are able to distinguish how the effects of sibling rivalry vary by cultural affiliation, i.e., among families of West German, East German and foreign origin. We also point out and correct for a reference group pro...
Full Text Available In the context of still uncertain specific effects of climate change in specific locations, this paper examines whether education significantly increases coping capacity with regard to particular climatic changes, and whether it improves the resilience of people to climate risks in general. Our hypothesis is that investment in universal primary and secondary education around the world is the most effective strategy for preparing to cope with the still uncertain dangers associated with future climate. The empirical evidence presented for a cross-country time series of factors associated with past natural disaster fatalities since 1980 in 125 countries confirms this overriding importance of education in reducing impacts. We also present new projections of populations by age, sex, and level of educational attainment to 2050, thus providing an appropriate tool for anticipating societies' future adaptive capacities based on alternative education scenarios associated with different policies.
Zumeta, William; Breneman, David W.; Callan, Patrick M.; Finney, Joni E.
This ambitious book grows out of the realization that a convergence of economic, demographic, and political forces in the early twenty-first century requires a fundamental reexamination of the financing of American higher education. The authors identify and address basic issues and trends that cut across the sectors of higher education, focusing…
This paper estimates the impact of the Michigan school finance reform, "Proposal A," on education inputs and test scores. Using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy, I find that school districts in Michigan used the increase in educational spending generated through "Proposal A" to increase teacher salaries and reduce…
Encarnation, Dennis J.
The issue in government treatment of nonpublic education has never been whether governments should finance or regulate nonpublic schools, but rather how and how much, according to the author. This paper explores financial and regulatory policies shaping government involvement in nonpublic education. It first examines the types and magnitudes of…
Sun, Fengshou; Barrientos, Armando
Sustaining China's rapid economic growth in the future will come to depend in large part on the quantity and quality of the human resources it can mobilize. The paper considers the prospects for higher education financing, and highlights the importance of improving equity in access to higher education as a precondition for a sustainable expansion…
Sieben, I.J.P.; Graaf, P.M. de
The strong relationship between educational attainment and social attitudes and behaviour is often explained as an effect of schooling. However, educational attainment also reflects social origins. In order to obtain a view of the unbiased effect of educational attainment on social orientations,
Full Text Available The paper considers the ways to optimize financing public higher education institutions of Ukraine. Public higher education institutions acutely feel the lack of financial resources. The study describes that it is necessary to reform the models, methods and forms of financing higher education institutions. The paper explains the impact of autonomy of higher education institutions on their development. The autonomy level of university determines the possibilities for diversification from additional sources. The results found that more autonomy of higher education institutions will allow them effectively generate and use financial resources. The review outlines the diversification of financial resources public universities. One of the key factors of the university success is to implement the diversification strategy into the overall academic strategy and mission of the higher education institution. The analysis recommends the performance-based funding system and public higher education institutions achieve certain performance indicators. The performance-based funding system will promote higher competitiveness of education institutions and improve the quality of higher education in general. The conclusions suggest the development trends of financing public higher education institutions of Ukraine.
Verstegen, Deborah A.
Discusses need for reinventing state education finance systems to provide adequacy and equity aligned to standards-based reform. Provides initial specifications for "The New Finance." Examines in depth approaches for determining a base spending level considered adequate for the average child to reach high educational standards. (Contains…
Martins, Sónia; Paiva, José Artur; Simões, Mário R; Fernandes, Lia
Among cognitive reserve markers, educational attainment is the most widely studied, with several studies establishing a strong association with risk of dementia. However, it has not yet been fully examined in delirium. This study aims to analyse the relationship between educational attainment and delirium. The study included elderly hospitalised patients admitted (≥48 h) into an intermediate care unit (IMCU) of Intensive Care Medicine Service. Exclusion criteria were as follows: Glasgow Coma Scale (total≤11), blindness/deafness, inability to communicate or to speak Portuguese. The European Portuguese Version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was used for delirium assessment. The final sample (n=157) had a mean age of 78.8 (SD=7.6) the majority being female (52.2%), married (51.5%) and with low educational level (49%). According to CAM, 21% of the patients had delirium. The delirium group presented the fewest years of education (median 1 vs. 4), with statistical significance (p=0.003). Delirium was more frequent among male patients [odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.86; p=0.023], as well as those patients with lower education (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.95; p=0.016), and with respiratory disease (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.20-9.33; p=0.020), after controlling for age and medication. Similar to previous studies, these findings point to a negative correlation between education and delirium. This study appears as an attempt to contribute to the knowledge about the role of cognitive reserve in risk of delirium, particularly because is the first one that has been carried out in an IMCU, with lower educated elderly patients. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship considering other markers (e.g. cognitive activities), which can contribute to the definition of preventive strategies.
Voici la 17e édition du Rapport moral sur l’argent dans le monde, publié chaque année depuis 1994 par l’Association d’économie financière avec le soutien de la Caisse des Dépôts. Abordant une nouvelle fois les grands débats qui traversent actuellement le monde de la finance, il se consacre dans un premier temps à la lutte contre la criminalité et les délits financiers, et plus particulièrement à la lutte contre la corruption, la délinquance dans la finance et la fraude fiscale. Dans un second...
Full Text Available The number of UK full-time university students engaging in term-time employment (TTE is rising. Students engaging in TTE have previously been found to achieve less well academically than those who do not. This study aimed to explore patterns of TTE and academic achievement of undergraduates at a large UK higher education institution. Self-reported TTE hours were matched to attainment data for 1304 undergraduate students in levels 1-4 of study (SQCF levels 7-10. The majority of students in TTE (71%, n=621 reported undertaking TTE to cover essential living expenses. Compared to students not undertaking TTE, attainment was significantly better at low levels of TTE (1-10 hours, and only significantly worse when TTE was >30 hours/week. This pattern was magnified when job type was taken into account – students employed in skilled roles for ≤10 hours/week on average attained grades 7% higher than those not in TTE; students working >10 hours/week in unskilled positions showed a mean 1.6% lower grade. The impact of ‘academic potential’ (measured via incoming UCAS tariff was accounted for in the model. The finding that students engaging in some categories of TTE achieve better academic outcomes than their non-employed peers is worthy of further investigation. This study is unable to provide direct evidence of possible causation, but would tentatively suggest that students may benefit from taking on 10 or fewer hours of TTE per week.
Ces deux ouvrages tirent les enseignements de l’impact de la crise de la finance mondiale sur l’économie réelle et se focalisent, dans ce contexte, sur le financement du Mittelstand. Le banquier JASCHINSKI, lorsqu’il passe en revue le système bancaire allemand, constate ainsi que si les moyennes entreprises trouvent les crédits nécessaires auprès de leurs solides partenaires de toujours que sont les Sparkassen, les grandes sociétés, internationales, que compte le Mittelstand n’ont pas de part...
McMahon, Walter W., Ed.; Geske, Terry G., Ed.
Fiscal inefficiency in education is addressed in this book and ideas for achieving increased efficiency while more effectively using resources to maintain reasonable equality of opportunity in higher education are examined. Fourteen articles and authors that consider social efficiency, equity, and policy implications are as follows: "Efficiency…
Lingens, Hans G., Ed.
Germany ranks in the bottom fourth in spending on higher education in a comparison among Western industrial countries. Germany's status as a place for higher education is imperiled. There is a danger that in the near future, the very best and most promising of the upcoming generations will increasingly choose only professionally relevant training…
Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven
The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific…
Over the past few decades Islamic finance has been the fastest growing segment of the global system. The fast growing market has necessitated corresponding expansion of education and training facilities to increase appropriately the supply of skilled manpower. This called for a stock taking of the adequacy and suitability of the existing educational and training facilities in several directions. IRTI has launched a project to accomplish this work. The present working paper looks at the range,...
Over the past few decades Islamic finance has been the fastest growing segment of the global system. The fast growing market has necessitated corresponding expansion of education and training facilities to increase appropriately the supply of skilled manpower. This called for a stock taking of the adequacy and suitability of the existing educational and training facilities in several directions. IRTI has launched a project to accomplish this work. The present working paper looks at the range,...
Kugler, Adriana D; Kumar, Santosh
Using data from nationally representative household surveys, we test whether Indian parents make trade-offs between the number of children and investments in education. To address the endogeneity due to the joint determination of quantity and quality of children, we instrument family size with the gender of the first child, which is plausibly random. Given a strong son preference in India, parents tend to have more children if the firstborn is a girl. Our instrumental variable results show that children from larger families have lower educational attainment and are less likely to be enrolled in school, with larger effects for rural, poorer, and low-caste families as well as for families with illiterate mothers.
Gyekye, Seth; Salminen, Simo
From a practical perspective, understanding the impact of education on perceptions of workplace safety would benefit management’s decisions regarding workers’ adaptability, general work effectiveness, accident frequency, implementation of safety management policies, and handling of education-related accident characteristics. The current study thus examined the relationship between educational attainment and (i) safety perception, (ii) job satisfaction, (iii) compliance with safety management ...
Well-educated workers have higher wages, higher wage growth, and lower unemployment rates than workers with lower levels of educational attainment. While earnings have traditionally grown with educational attainment, the gaps have become more pronounced in recent years. While returns to education have increased, this research shows that…
Bisher veröffentlicht unter dem Titel: "Modern Finance" Das Buch beinhaltet ebenso einige Portraits: Die didaktische Erfahrung lehrt, dass man sich wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und Ansätze besser merken kann, wenn eine Assoziation zu jener Person bildlich konkret wird, der wir den betreffenden Denkansatz verdanken. Aus Fragen der Finanzierung und der Investitionsentscheidungen von Unternehmen ist in der Verschmelzung mit der Analyse von Kapitalmärkten ein grosses Gebiet entstanden, da...
Full Text Available The subject of this paper is preschool education as a determinant of students’ educational attainment in Serbia and factors that influence whether a Serbian child is included in preschool programmes. This paper aims 1 to assess how attendance of preschool programmes in Serbia affects a student’s educational attainment in terms of mathematical, reading, and scientific literacy; 2 to explore how preschool education differs for students who occupy different positions in the distribution of educational attainment; and 3 to examine the determinants of a child in Serbia receiving preschool education. The analysis is based on data from PISA2012 testing. In order to assess the significance and nature of the effect of preschool education on educational attainment in terms of mathematical, reading, and scientific literacy we use unconditional quantile regression. To analyse factors that affect whether a child is included in the preschool programme we apply probit regression. Unconditional quantile regression results suggest that the sign and intensity of the effect of preschool education for more than a year are positive and increasing. The results of the probit regression show that socio-economic family background and parental status in the labour market are the factors that determine whether the student will attend preschool education for more than a year. The results indicate that the educational system in Serbia reproduces poverty and social exclusion.
Goldblatt, Steven M.; Wood, R. Craig
This chapter presents an up-to-date analysis of prevailing state wage laws that affect educational facility construction or renovation and highlights relevant prevailing wage litigation in many states. Currently, 13 states have no prevailing wage laws for public works. The other 37 states and the District of Columbia do have prevailing wage laws…
Full Text Available Currently, Spanish universities meet the educational needs of the students with a wide offer of courses and the opportunity to study at all levels. They appear as an attractive option in the context of the relatively low cost of living compared to other countries in the EU area and under conditions of a tax system controlled by the Government. Starting from the assumption that the financing model of the academic education public institutions represents the foundation of their modernization in the current society based on changes and evolution, in this paper we propose to bring into the light of the concerns of those who are interested, through a persuasive exhibit, the Spanish model and its specific features. To this end, our debate will begin with a description of the Spanish system of academic education under the decentralized model of financing imprint, continuing with the presentation of specific skills in terms of funding on the triptych template: state - autonomous communities - universities. Subsequently, our investigative approach will focus on detailing the tertiary education financing sources: public resources, private and patrimonial revenues. The end of our presentation will be intended for conclusions, through which we aim to advance our vision regarding the investigated problems. In fact, the paper is intended to be a precursor step in carrying out a comparative study between the academic education funding mechanism in Romania and the Spanish one.
Lawrence, Wendy; Skinner, Chas; Haslam, Cheryl
Women of lower educational attainment are more likely to eat unhealthy diets than women of higher educational attainment. To identify influences on the food choices of women with lower educational attainment, 11 focus groups (eight with women of lower, and three with women of higher educational...... attainment) were held. Using a semi-structured discussion guide, environmental, social, historical and psychological factors known to be associated with food choice were explored. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Compared to women of higher educational attainment, women...... of lower educational attainment had less control over their families' food choices, less support for attempts to eat healthily, fewer opportunities to observe and learn good food-related practices, more negative affect, more perceived environmental constraints and more ambiguous beliefs about...
Régulièrement au cœur de l'actualité, les trois agences de notation (Standard & Poor's, Moody's et Fitch) règnent sur le monde de la finance internationale. Mais quelles sont-elles et à qui appartiennent-elles véritablement ? Détenues par de puissants fonds d'investissements, elles ont progressivement renforcé leurs rôles et pouvoirs. L'auteur interpelle le citoyen sur un système dans lequel les fonds d'investissements profitent des agences de notation (et de leur rôle de « gardien des marché...
Les investisseurs financiers et a fortiori les hedge fonds sont accusés de tous les maux. Ces « sauterelles » tomberaient sur les entreprises allemandes pour s’enrichir en les dépeçant. Un journaliste économique du quotidien des affaires Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung publie là un portrait objectif et factuel de ces « nouvelles stars » de la finance mondiale. Un portrait de branche, doublé d’une analyse de l’impact sur le « capitalisme rhénan » de la montée en puissance de ces nouveaux acteur...
Nelson, Scott M; Haig, Caroline; McConnachie, Alex; Sattar, Naveed; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George D; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lindsay, Robert S
To determine if first trimester maternal thyroid dysfunction is a critical determinant of child scholastic performance and overall educational attainment. Prospective cohort study. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in the UK. 4615 mother-child pairs with an available first trimester sample (median 10 weeks gestation, interquartile range 8-12). Free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies assessed as continuous measures and the seven clinical categories of maternal thyroid function. Five age-specific national curriculum assessments in 3580 children at entry stage assessment at 54 months, increasing up to 4461 children at their final school assessment at age 15. No strong evidence of clinically meaningful associations of first trimester free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone levels with entry stage assessment score or Standard Assessment Test scores at any of the key stages was found. Associations of maternal free thyroxine or thyroid stimulating hormone with the total number of General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSEs) passed (range 0-16) were all close to the null: free thyroxine, rate ratio per pmol/L 1.00 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.01); and thyroid stimulating hormone, rate ratio 0.98 (0.94 to 1.02). No important relationship was observed when more detailed capped scores of GCSEs allowing for both the number and grade of pass or when language, mathematics, and science performance were examined individually or when all educational assessments undertaken by an individual from school entry to leaving were considered. 200 (4.3%) mothers were newly identified as having hypothyroidism or subclinical hypothyroidism and 97 (2.1%) subclinical hyperthyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Children of mothers with thyroid dysfunction attained an equivalent number of GCSEs and equivalent grades as children of mothers with euthyroidism. Maternal thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy does not have a
Geske, Terry G.; Johnston, Mary Jo
Describes current practices in Illinois where a personnel reimbursement formula is used to finance special education. Summarizes the basic components of the Resource Cost Model (RCM), a complex school finance formula, and compares and contrasts RCM with Illinois' current method of financing special education. (MLF)
Verstegen, Deborah A.; Knoeppel, Robert C.
This research investigates state finance policies for public elementary and secondary education using survey methodology. The purpose is to update the existing knowledge base in the field as well as to provide a compendium of finance and policy options that are being used across the states to finance school for lawmakers, educators and others.…
Bekareva S. V.
Full Text Available The article highlights the experience in scientific research organized for the Bachelor foreign students of Economics Department of Novosibirsk National Research State University (NSU who study finance on the third year of the educational program “International Finance”. It was specially created for the students of Chinese-Russian Institute, Harbin, China. This item of the educational program is new and was approved for the first time in the 2016/2017 academic year. It is supposed that its application will favor development of the students’ skills and intensification of the international professors’ cooperation.
Full Text Available This article deals with the analysis of education attainment level across the 252 NUTS 2 regions of the European Union (EU with consideration of the spatial aspect. Since the individual EU regions cannot be seen as isolated, the main aim of this article is to assess the impact of location on the education attainment level (percentage of population aged 25–64 with at least upper secondary education during the period 2007–2015, as well as to investigate the impact of regional growth 2014/2007 on the education attainment level in 2015. The spatial analysis proved the existence of positive spatial autocorrelation and persistence of disparities in education attainment level across EU regions during the analysed period. The results of econometric analysis confirmed the expected positive impact of economic growth on education attainment level as well as the necessity to incorporate the spatial dimension into the model.
Zeng, Wu; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Rubio-Jovel, Karla; Reyes-Garcia; Victoria; Godoy, Ricardo
Evidence from industrial nations suggests that sibling composition is associated with children's educational attainment, particularly if parents face resource constraints. If sibling composition is associated with educational attainment, then those associations should be stronger in poor societies of developing nations. We use data from a…
Ryan, Camille L.; Bauman, Kurt
This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The report examines educational attainment of the adult population by demographic and social characteristics such as age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and disability status, as well as differences in…
A. Okbay (Aysu); J.P. Beauchamp (Jonathan); Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); J.J. Lee (James J.); T.H. Pers (Tune); Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A.); P. Turley (Patrick); Chen, G.-B. (Guo-Bo); V. Emilsson (Valur); Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Oskarsson, S. (Sven); Pickrell, J.K. (Joseph K.); Thom, K. (Kevin); Timshel, P. (Pascal); R. de Vlaming (Ronald); A. Abdellaoui (Abdel); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); J. Bacelis (Jonas); C. Baumbach (Clemens); Bjornsdottir, G. (Gyda); J.H. Brandsma (Johan); Pina Concas, M. (Maria); J. Derringer; Furlotte, N.A. (Nicholas A.); T.E. Galesloot (Tessel); S. Girotto; Gupta, R. (Richa); L.M. Hall (Leanne M.); S.E. Harris (Sarah); E. Hofer; Horikoshi, M. (Momoko); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer E.); Kaasik, K. (Kadri); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); R. Karlsson (Robert); A. Kong (Augustine); J. Lahti (Jari); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); Deleeuw, C. (Christiaan); P.A. Lind (Penelope); Lindgren, K.-O. (Karl-Oskar); Liu, T. (Tian); M. Mangino (Massimo); J. Marten (Jonathan); E. Mihailov (Evelin); M. Miller (Mike); P.J. van der Most (Peter); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); A. Payton (Antony); N. Pervjakova (Natalia); W.J. Peyrot (Wouter ); Qian, Y. (Yong); O. Raitakari (Olli); Rueedi, R. (Rico); Salvi, E. (Erika); Schmidt, B. (Börge); Schraut, K.E. (Katharina E.); Shi, J. (Jianxin); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R.A. Poot (Raymond); B. St Pourcain (Beate); A. Teumer (Alexander); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); N. Verweij (Niek); D. Vuckovic (Dragana); Wellmann, J. (Juergen); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); Yang, J. (Jingyun); Zhao, W. (Wei); Zhu, Z. (Zhihong); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); N. Amin (Najaf); Bakshi, A. (Andrew); S.E. Baumeister (Sebastian); G. Biino (Ginevra); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); P.A. Boyle (Patricia); H. Campbell (Harry); Cappuccio, F.P. (Francesco P.); G. Davies (Gail); J.E. de Neve (Jan-Emmanuel); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); I. Demuth (Ilja); Ding, J. (Jun); Eibich, P. (Peter); Eisele, L. (Lewin); N. Eklund (Niina); D.M. Evans (David); J.D. Faul (Jessica D.); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A.J. Forstner (Andreas); I. Gandin (Ilaria); Gunnarsson, B. (Bjarni); B.V. Halldorsson (Bjarni); T.B. Harris (Tamara); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); L.J. Hocking; G. Homuth (Georg); M. Horan (Mike); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); P.L. de Jager (Philip); P.K. Joshi (Peter); A. Juqessur (Astanand); M. Kaakinen (Marika); M. Kähönen (Mika); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); Keltigangas-Järvinen, L. (Liisa); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); I. Kolcic (Ivana); Koskinen, S. (Seppo); A. Kraja (Aldi); Kroh, M. (Martin); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); A. Latvala (Antti); L.J. Launer (Lenore); Lebreton, M.P. (Maël P.); D.F. Levinson (Douglas F.); P. Lichtenstein (Paul); P. Lichtner (Peter); D.C. Liewald (David C.); A. Loukola (Anu); P.A. Madden (Pamela); R. Mägi (Reedik); Mäki-Opas, T. (Tomi); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); P. Marques-Vidal; Meddens, G.A. (Gerardus A.); G. Mcmahon (George); C. Meisinger (Christa); T. Meitinger (Thomas); Milaneschi, Y. (Yusplitri); L. Milani (Lili); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); R. Myhre (Ronny); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); W.E.R. Ollier (William); A. Palotie (Aarno); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); K. Petrovic (Katja); D.J. Porteous (David J.); K. Räikkönen (Katri); Ring, S.M. (Susan M.); A. Robino (Antonietta); O. Rostapshova (Olga); I. Rudan (Igor); A. Rustichini (Aldo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Sanders, A.R. (Alan R.); A.-P. Sarin; R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R.J. Scott (Rodney); B.H. Smith (Blair); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); J.A. Staessen (Jan); E. Steinhagen-Thiessen (Elisabeth); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Terracciano; M.D. Tobin (Martin); S. Ulivi (Shelia); S. Vaccargiu (Simona); L. Quaye (Lydia); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); C. Venturini (Cristina); A.A.E. Vinkhuyzen (Anna A.); U. Völker (Uwe); Völzke, H. (Henry); J.M. Vonk (Judith); D. Vozzi (Diego); J. Waage (Johannes); E.B. Ware (Erin B.); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); J. Attia (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); Berger, K. (Klaus); L. Bertram (Lars); H. Bisgaard (Hans); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); U. Bültmann (Ute); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); F. Cucca (Francesco); D. Cusi (Daniele); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K. Hagen (Knut); B. Franke (Barbara); L. Franke (Lude); P. Gasparini (Paolo); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); C. Gieger (Christian); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); J. Gratten (Jacob); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); P. van der Harst (Pim); C. Hayward (Caroline); D.A. Hinds (David A.); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.G. Iacono (William); B. Jacobsson (Bo); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); K.-H. JöCkel (Karl-Heinz); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Lehrer, S.F. (Steven F.); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. McGue (Matt); A. Metspalu (Andres); N. Pendleton (Neil); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); M. Perola (Markus); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Pirastu (Mario); O. Polasek (Ozren); D. Posthuma (Danielle); C. Power (Christopher); M.A. Province (Mike); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); Schlessinger, D. (David); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); T.D. Spector (Timothy); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); A.R. Thurik (Roy); Timpson, N.J. (Nicholas J.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); J.Y. Tung (Joyce Y.); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Vitart, V. (Veronique); P. Vollenweider (Peter); D.R. Weir (David); J.F. Wilson (James F.); A.F. Wright (Alan); Conley, D.C. (Dalton C.); R.F. Krueger; G.D. Smith; Hofman, A. (Albert); D. Laibson (David); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M.N. Meyer (Michelle N.); J. Yang (Joanna); M. Johannesson (Magnus); P.M. Visscher (Peter); T. Esko (Tõnu); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); D. Cesarini (David); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.)
textabstractEducational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that
Christie, Pamela; Shannon, Michael
Uses Canadian census data to examine effects of gender differences in educational attainment on the gender earnings gap for full-time, full-year Canadian workers. These educational attainment differences account for virtually none of the gender earnings gap in 1985 and 1990. Gender differences in field of study matter somewhat more. (Contains 17…
Mayer, Susan E.
This paper estimates the effect of the growth in income inequality on mean educational attainment and on the disparity in educational attainment between rich and poor children. The effect of income inequality that is due to the nonlinear effect of a family's own income is separated from the effect due to interpersonal interactions. Data from the…
Okbay, A.; Beauchamp, J.; Fontana, M.A.; Lee, J.J.; Pers, T.H.; Rietveld, C.A.; Turley, P.; Chen, G.B.; Emilsson, V.; Meddens, S.F.W.; de Vlaming, R.; Abdellaoui, A.; Peyrot, W.; Vinkhuyzen, A.A.E.; Hottenga, J.J.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Laibson, D.; Medland, S.E.; Meyer, M.N.; Yang, J.; Johannesson, M.; Visscher, P.M.; Esko, T.; Koellinger, P.D.; Cesarini, D.; Benjamin, D.J.
Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our
Auletto, Amy; Kim, Taeyeon; Marias, Rachel
Despite increasingly egalitarian attitudes toward women in the Middle East and North Africa, nations in this region continue to rank among the lowest in measures of gender equality. Using survey data, we examine the relationship between educational attainment and support for women. We find that increased educational attainment is predictive of…
Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan P.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Lee, James J.; Pers, Tune H.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Turley, Patrick; Chen, Guo-Bo; Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S. Fleur W.; Oskarsson, Sven; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Thom, Kevin; Timshel, Pascal; de Vlaming, Ronald; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Bacelis, Jonas; Baumbach, Clemens; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Brandsma, Johannes H.; Concas, Maria Pina; Derringer, Jaime; Furlotte, Nicholas A.; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Girotto, Giorgia; Gupta, Richa; Hall, Leanne M.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hofer, Edith; Horikoshi, Momoko; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Kaasik, Kadri; Kalafati, Ioanna P.; Karlsson, Robert; Kong, Augustine; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J.; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Lind, Penelope A.; Lindgren, Karl-Oskar; Liu, Tian; van der Most, Peter J.; Verweij, Niek; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Vonk, Judith M.; Bultmann, Ute; Franke, Lude; van der Harst, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals(1). Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends
Knippels, M.C.P.J.; van Dam, F.W.
The PARRISE (Promoting Attainment of Responsible Research & Innovation in Science Education) project aims at introducing the concept of Responsible Research and Innovation in primary and secondary education. It does so by combining inquiry-based learning and citizenship education with
Roos, Leslie L; Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth
Understanding the processes across childhood and adolescence that affect later life inequalities depends on many variables for a large number of individuals measured over substantial time periods. Linkable administrative data were used to generate birth cohorts and to study pathways of inequity in childhood and early adolescence leading to differences in educational attainment. Advantages and disadvantages of using large administrative data bases for such research were highlighted. Children born in Manitoba, Canada between 1982 and 1995 were followed until age 19 (N = 89,763), with many time-invariant measures serving as controls. Five time-varying predictors of high school graduation-three social and two health-were modelled using logistic regression and a framework for examining predictors across the life course. For each time-varying predictor, six temporal patterns were tested: full, accumulation of risk, sensitive period, and three critical period models. Predictors measured in early adolescence generated the highest odds ratios, suggesting the importance of adolescence. Full models provided the best fit for the three time-varying social measures. Residence in a low-income neighborhood was a particularly influential predictor of not graduating from high school. The transmission of risk across developmental periods was also highlighted; exposure in one period had significant implications for subsequent life stages. This study advances life course epidemiology, using administrative data to clarify the relationships among several measures of social behavior, cognitive development, and health. Analyses of temporal patterns can be useful in studying such other outcomes as educational achievement, teen pregnancy, and workforce participation.
Leslie L Roos
Full Text Available Understanding the processes across childhood and adolescence that affect later life inequalities depends on many variables for a large number of individuals measured over substantial time periods. Linkable administrative data were used to generate birth cohorts and to study pathways of inequity in childhood and early adolescence leading to differences in educational attainment. Advantages and disadvantages of using large administrative data bases for such research were highlighted.Children born in Manitoba, Canada between 1982 and 1995 were followed until age 19 (N = 89,763, with many time-invariant measures serving as controls. Five time-varying predictors of high school graduation-three social and two health-were modelled using logistic regression and a framework for examining predictors across the life course. For each time-varying predictor, six temporal patterns were tested: full, accumulation of risk, sensitive period, and three critical period models.Predictors measured in early adolescence generated the highest odds ratios, suggesting the importance of adolescence. Full models provided the best fit for the three time-varying social measures. Residence in a low-income neighborhood was a particularly influential predictor of not graduating from high school. The transmission of risk across developmental periods was also highlighted; exposure in one period had significant implications for subsequent life stages.This study advances life course epidemiology, using administrative data to clarify the relationships among several measures of social behavior, cognitive development, and health. Analyses of temporal patterns can be useful in studying such other outcomes as educational achievement, teen pregnancy, and workforce participation.
Suetomi, Kaori; Murray, Nadezhda
The conditions required for a reform of the educational finance system as the foundation of compulsory education are 1) devolution to schools and introduction of national standards in order to deal with "individual equality" while compensating for the insufficiency of "aspectual equality," and 2) dealing with educational needs…
Ahmad, Qazi Kholiquzzaman
The main objective of the study is to gain an understanding on educational expenditure at primary and secondary levels in Bangladesh. In estimating educational expenditure by source, it has been sought to determine: (1) sources of financing of primary and secondary education; (2) rural-urban variation; (3) variation between boys and girls; (4)…
Frolova, Victoria; Dolina, Olga; Shpil'kina, Tatyana
In the current conditions of global competition, the development of new mining technologies, the requirements to labor resources, their skills and creative potential are increasing. The tasks facing the mining industry cannot be solved without highly qualified personnel, especially managers, engineers and technicians, specialists who possess the knowledge and competences necessary for the development of science and technology of mining, and ensuring mining industrial safety. The authors analyze personnel problems and financing of mining higher education, conclude that there is a need to develop social partnership and diversify the sources of funding for training, advanced training and retraining of personnel for mining and processing of solid mineral deposits.
Full Text Available In the current conditions of global competition, the development of new mining technologies, the requirements to labor resources, their skills and creative potential are increasing. The tasks facing the mining industry cannot be solved without highly qualified personnel, especially managers, engineers and technicians, specialists who possess the knowledge and competences necessary for the development of science and technology of mining, and ensuring mining industrial safety. The authors analyze personnel problems and financing of mining higher education, conclude that there is a need to develop social partnership and diversify the sources of funding for training, advanced training and retraining of personnel for mining and processing of solid mineral deposits.
Kim, Su Hyun
Diabetes education is a critical element of care for people with diabetes. However, the associations between diabetes education and self-care or health outcomes have not been clearly demonstrated at a national level. The aims of this study were to examine the associations of attendance of diabetes education classes with health behaviours and glycaemic control, and to understand whether these associations were moderated by level of educational attainment. Data were analysed for 456 adults from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V, collected from January 2010 to December 2012. No significant differences were observed between patients who had attended diabetes education classes and those who had never attended for factors such as smoking, drinking, exercise, nutrition therapy or glycaemic control. There was a significant interaction effect between receiving diabetes education and level of educational attainment on obtaining optimal glycaemic control. Attending diabetes education was positively associated with optimal glycaemic control among patients with more than a high school education but was negatively associated with it among those with less than middle school education. Diabetes education programmes need to be tailored to the needs and cognitive capacities of the target population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Gjerdevik, Miriam; Grydeland, Thomas B; Washko, George R; Coxson, Harvey O; Silverman, Edwin K; Gulsvik, Amund; Bakke, Per S
Low educational attainment is a risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is limited knowledge on the relationship between educational level and computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT). We hypothesized that low educational attainment is associated with increased emphysema and AWT in ever-smokers with and without COPD. We included 462 and 485 ever-smokers with and without COPD in a cross-sectional study, aged 40-86 years. The sample was divided into groups reflecting educational attainment: primary, secondary, and university. We performed linear regression to examine associations between educational attainment and both emphysema and AWT separately for those with and without COPD. We adjusted for sex, age, smoking status, age of onset of smoking, pack-years, height, and body mass index. Compared with university education, in subjects with COPD, primary education was associated with a 68.1% (95% confidence interval = 14.2-147.6%; P = 0.01) relative increase in emphysema and secondary education was associated with a 50.6% (95% confidence interval = 5.7-114.6%; P = 0.02) relative increase. There was a nonsignificant trend toward an association between lower educational attainment and increased emphysema among those without COPD (P = 0.18), yet greater age appeared to modify this association (P = 0.01). We did not detect significant linear relationships between educational attainment and AWT in subjects with or without COPD. Lower educational attainment was associated with increased emphysema among adults with COPD. Among those without COPD, this association was more pronounced with increasing age. No significant linear relationship between educational attainment and AWT was found. Clinicians treating adults with emphysema should keep in mind that factors related to low education beyond that of smoking and occupational dust exposure might be of importance to the disease.
Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.
This handbook attempts to improve policy development and decision making relative to financing postsecondary education. Sections cover: (1) descriptions and comparisons of selected reports relative to recommendations for postsecondary financing; (2) position statements and/or comments on postsecondary financing from certain cooperative sponsoring…
Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary
Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nelson, F. Howard
Reviews the United States' fiscal situation and the outlook for local, state, and federal government support of education. Focuses on the impact of decentralization of education financing under a conservative government and on the influence of federal budget deficits on school finance. Includes suggestions for educators in seeking financial…
Tron, Esther, Ed.
Section 1203 of the Education Amendments of 1978 mandated the undertaking of studies concerning the adequate financing of elementary and secondary education in the 1980s. Created to carry out this mandate, the School Finance Project established as one of its goals reporting to Congress on issues implicit in funding educational adequacy. Several…
The purpose of this article is to discuss how best to finance higher education in low-income countries of sub-Saharan Africa, drawing on benefits and drawbacks of the prevalent models of higher education finance, and lessons to be learned from countries which have seen greater expansion of their higher education systems in recent decades. Two main…
Barker, M.; Lawrence, W.; Woadden, J.
Women who leave school with few or no educational qualifications are less likely to have diets that meet current recommendations than women who attain more qualifications at school. We hypothesise that lower 'food involvement', meaning that food has a lower level of importance in their lives......, explains the poorer quality diets of women of lower educational attainment. We administered Bell and Marshall [(2003). The construct of food involvement in behavioral research: Scale development and validation. Appetite, 40, 235-244.] Food Involvement scale to 242 women of varied educational attainment......, of whom 127 were also asked how often they ate fruit and vegetables. Women's food involvement decreased with decreasing educational attainment. Forty-two percent of women who had no educational qualifications were in the lowest quarter of the food involvement score, compared with 12% of women with degrees...
Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J; Russo, Rosemary; Roberts, Brent W; Damian, Rodica
People who are perceived as good looking or as having a pleasant personality enjoy many advantages, including higher educational attainment. This study examines (1) whether associations between physical/personality attractiveness and educational attainment vary by parental socioeconomic resources and (2) whether parental socioeconomic resources predict these forms of attractiveness. Based on the theory of resource substitution with structural amplification, we hypothesized that both types of attractiveness would have a stronger association with educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds (resource substitution), but also that people from disadvantaged backgrounds would be less likely to be perceived as attractive (amplification). This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health-including repeated interviewer ratings of respondents' attractiveness-and trait-state structural equation models to examine the moderation (substitution) and mediation (amplification) of physical and personality attractiveness in the link between parental socioeconomic resources and educational attainment. Both perceived personality and physical attractiveness have stronger associations with educational attainment for people from families with lower levels of parental education (substitution). Further, parental education and income are associated with both dimensions of perceived attractiveness, and personality attractiveness is positively associated with educational attainment (amplification). Results do not differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Further, associations between perceived attractiveness and educational attainment remain after accounting for unmeasured family-level confounders using a sibling fixed-effects model. Perceived attractiveness, particularly personality attractiveness, is a more important psychosocial resource for educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds than for people from advantaged
Emily Joy Callander
Full Text Available Education attainment will impact upon an individual’s capacity to engage in the labour force, their living standards and hence their poverty status. As such, education should be included in measures of poverty. However, it is not known what a sufficient level of education to have a decent standard of living is. Using the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers different levels of education attainment were tested for their association with labour force participation and income. Based upon this, it was concluded that Year 12 or higher is a sufficient level of education attainment for 15 to 64 year olds; and Year 10 or higher for people over the age of 65 years. This is in line with current government policies to improve Year 12 completion rates. Knowing what a ‘sufficient level of education attainment’ is, allows education to be included in multidimensional measures of poverty that view education as a key dimension of disadvantage.
Eijck, C.J.M. van; Graaf, P.M. de
We investigated the effects of the Big Five personality traits (extroversion, friendliness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness) on educational attainment in the Netherlands, using data from the '1998 Family Survey Dutch Population'. All five basic personality traits have
Abasiama A. Akpan
www.globaljournalseries.com; Info@globaljournalseries.com ... TOOL FOR ATTAINING MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL ... However, new variants have continued to emerge as ... process, whatever the content, level and ... formal education system that is consciously .... employment creation through effective teaching.
Okbay, Aysu; P. Beauchamp, Jonathan; Alan Fontana, Mark
-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural......Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals1. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends...... development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals...
Scheeren, L.; Das, M.; Liefbroer, A.C.
To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the strong association between family background and children’s educational attainment, we examined intergenerational transmission within families where genetic transmission is absent. Specifically, we investigated the effect of parent’s
Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah
Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions......, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women...... of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control...
Verstegen, Deborah A.
This research investigates state finance policies for public education using survey methodology. The purpose is to update previous work and the existing knowledge base in the field as well as to provide a compendium of finance and policy options that are used across the states to finance public elementary and secondary schools. Chief state school…
Malik Amer Atta; Shabnam Razzaq Khan; Shehla Sheikh; Fahmida Akbar
This research work was focused on the “comparative study of parental involvement and private tuition regarding educational attainments of students at secondary school level”. A sample of 80 students of 10th class from ten different secondary schools was taken. To analyze the results t-test was used. In this comparison it was conducted that parental involvement turn out significant effect on student educational attainments as compared to private tuition. On the bases of results researcher has ...
This doctoral thesis examines the long-term impact of birth order on health, and educational attainment. Swedish register data is used to link individuals to their siblings, thereby allowing members of the sibling group to be compared to one another. This thesis consists of an introductory chapter summarizing empirical research on the relationship between birth order and educational attainment, intelligence, health, and personality, as well the theoretical frameworks that have been developed ...
Yhnell, E; Wood, H; Baker, M.D; Amici-Dargan, S; Taylor, C; Randerson, P; Shore, A
Since the introduction of the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma Qualification (WBQ) in 2003, an increasing number of students are applying to higher education institutions (HEIs) with this qualification. The advanced-level WBQ is regarded as equivalent to one General Certificate of Education A-Level (GCE A-Level). This study assesses the impact of attaining the WBQ in addition to three GCE A-Levels on overall university degree performance in comparison to attaining four GCE A-Levels, in th...
Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); Lee, James J.; Pers, Tune; Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A.); Turley, Patrick; Chen, G.-B. (Guo-Bo); Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Oskarsson, S. (Sven); Pickrell, J.K. (Joseph K.); Thom, K. (Kevin); Timshel, P. (Pascal); Vlaming, Ronald
textabstractEducational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 geno...
Full Text Available According to the theory of human capital improvement of education attainment results in increase of income of human capital’s owner. This issue is interest to majority of wage earners, all the more at the economic crisis. Authors of this paper analyze presence and closeness of connection between worker’s education attainment and amount of salary on data of Kaluga region. In the paper probable reasons and discrepancy of revealed issue.
Ryberg, Renee; Bauldry, Shawn; Schultz, Michael A.; Steinhoff, Annekatrin; Shanahan, Michael
Research based in the United States, with its relatively open educational system, has found that personality mediates the relationship between parents’ and child’s educational attainment and this meditational pattern is especially beneficial to students from less-educated households. Yet in highly structured, competitive educational systems, personal characteristics may not predict attainment or may be more or less consequential at different points in the educational career. We examine the salience of personality in the educational attainment process in the German educational system. Data come from a longitudinal sample of 682 seventeen to twenty-five year-olds (54% female) from the 2005 and 2015 German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Results show that adolescent personality traits — openness, neuroticism, and conscientiousness — are associated with educational attainment, but personality plays a negligible role in the intergenerational transmission of education. Personality is influential before the decision about the type of secondary degree that a student will pursue (during adolescence). After that turning point, when students have entered different pathways through the system, personality is less salient. Cross-national comparisons in a life course framework broaden the scope of current research on non-cognitive skills and processes of socioeconomic attainment, alerting the analyst to the importance of both institutional structures and the changing importance of these skills at different points in the life course. PMID:28707154
Ryberg, Renee; Bauldry, Shawn; Schultz, Michael A; Steinhoff, Annekatrin; Shanahan, Michael
Research based in the United States, with its relatively open educational system, has found that personality mediates the relationship between parents' and child's educational attainment and this mediational pattern is especially beneficial to students from less-educated households. Yet in highly structured, competitive educational systems, personality characteristics may not predict attainment or may be more or less consequential at different points in the educational career. We examine the salience of personality in the educational attainment process in the German educational system. Data come from a longitudinal sample of 682 17 to 25 year-olds (54% female) from the 2005 and 2015 German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Results show that adolescent personality traits-openness, neuroticism, and conscientiousness-are associated with educational attainment, but personality plays a negligible role in the intergenerational transmission of education. Personality is influential before the decision about the type of secondary degree that a student will pursue (during adolescence). After that turning point, when students have entered different pathways through the system, personality is less salient. Cross-national comparisons in a life course framework broaden the scope of current research on non-cognitive skills and processes of socioeconomic attainment, alerting the analyst to the importance of both institutional structures and the changing importance of these skills at different points in the life course.
The link between the funding of higher education and the attainment of higher education transformation goals in South Africa, especially access by students from previously under-represented communities, is the main focus of this paper. Specifically, the paper examines three questions: (a) How does public funding of higher education encourage (or…
This presentation from a Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking and Information webinar covers financing and project economics issues related to solar project development in the higher education sector.
Full Text Available Before exploring the selectivity of educational attainment in detail, this article extensively describes the contours of educational systems in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. These countries provide an interesting setting in view of their post-secondary education expansion and differentiation, as well as their variation in the degree of vocational orientation at the secondary level. Drawing on high quality, national micro data, we find that students from disadvantaged family backgrounds who manage to enter post-secondary education are ʽdivertedʼ to second-tier post-secondary institutions, while long-term university programs are more likely to be dominated by students whose parents have an academic background. At the secondary level, we confirm the patterns of negative selection among students from lower social backgrounds into lower vocational programs. This diversion effect at the secondary level is especially pronounced in CEE countries that inherited a strong secondary vocational system and reinstalled early tracking.
It supports the reform and development of people’s social life, having a profound and extensive influence to the spread of school education and social development. Based on the powerful communication function of wechat, this research discusses the possibility of using wechat to strengthen the education reform, and expounds the application to promote the education reform and accelerate the auxiliary education development from two aspects of connecting the family, school, society and all other various education channels and promoting teachers’ professional development.
Le Hellard, Stéphanie; Wang, Yunpeng; Witoelar, Aree
. Here we investigated the shared genetic architecture between SCZ and educational attainment, which is regarded as a "proxy phenotype" for cognitive abilities, but may also reflect other traits. We applied a conditional false discovery rate (condFDR) method to GWAS of SCZ (n = 82 315), college...... completion ("College," n = 95 427), and years of education ("EduYears," n = 101 069). Variants associated with College or EduYears showed enrichment of association with SCZ, demonstrating polygenic overlap. This was confirmed by an increased replication rate in SCZ. By applying a condFDR threshold ... of these loci had effects in opposite directions. Our results provide evidence for polygenic overlap between SCZ and educational attainment, and identify novel pleiotropic loci. Other studies have reported genetic overlap between SCZ and cognition, or SCZ and educational attainment, with negative correlation...
Thomas, Robert G.
This paper describes the use of tuition tax credits and vouchers as political alternatives of choice and competition in a progressive society. School and public administration theorists identify two distinct finance models: the rational and the political. The first part of this paper examines and describes these two models. The next part…
Although the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment has been confirmed by many researchers, its mechanism still remains controversial. Parent-child communication has been regarded as one of the important mediators. The present study primarily aimed to examine the potentially mediating role of parent-child communication in the transmission of educational attainment, based on a sample of 366 Chinese fifth and sixth graders. Parent-child communication was measured against the three levels of the parents' communication ability, the quality of the father-child and mother-child communications, and the relation between the two dyadic communications. The results duplicated the positive effect of parents' educational attainment on children's academic achievement. Moreover, it was found that parents' communication ability alone played a mediating role, and that the three levels of parent-child communication constructed a "mediator chain" between the parents' educational attainment and the children's academic achievement. Finally, the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment in China and the mediating role of the three levels of parent-child communication were discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony
We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…
Irvin, Matthew; Byun, Soo-yong; Smiley, Whitney S.; Hutchins, Bryan C.
Our study examined the relation of advanced math course taking to the educational attainment of rural youth. We used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002. Regression analyses demonstrated that when previous math achievement is accounted for, rural students take advanced math at a significantly lower rate than urban students.…
Project SHARE (Staff Helping Attain Relevant Education), a project funded by Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, was in its third and final year of operation in 1992-93, in eight primary schools in the Bronx, Brooklyn, and Manhattan (New York). The project served 141 limited English proficient students from low-income families…
Morton, Rachael L.; Schlackow, Iryna; Staplin, Natalie; Gray, Alastair; Cass, Alan; Haynes, Richard; Emberson, Jonathan; Herrington, William; Landray, Martin J.; Baigent, Colin; Mihaylova, Borislava; de Zeeuw, Dick; Navis, Gerjan
Background: The inverse association between educational attainment and mortality is well established, but its relevance to vascular events and renal progression in a population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is less clear. This study aims to determine the association between highest educational
Erarslan, Ayse Burcin
Using a data from a purposive sample of 216 women and 218 men in Turkey, the relationship between educational attainment and the amount of negative spillover from job-to-home and home-to-job was examined. It was hypothesized that men and women with higher levels of education have less amount of negative spillover in both directions. Certain work…
Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.
College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…
Schulz, Wiebke; Schunck, Reinhard; Diewald, Martin; Johnson, Wendy
Educational attainment in adolescence is of paramount importance for attaining higher education and for shaping subsequent life chances. Sociological accounts focus on the role of differences in socioeconomic resources in intergenerational reproduction of educational inequalities. These often disregard the intergenerational transmission of cognitive ability and the importance of children's cognitive ability to educational attainment. Psychological perspectives stress the importance of cognitive ability for educational attainment but underemphasize potentially different roles of specific socioeconomic resources in shaping educational outcomes, as well as individual differences in cognitive ability. By integrating two strands of research, a clearer picture of the pathways linking the family of origin, cognitive ability, and early educational outcomes can be reached. Using the population-based TwinLife study in Germany, we investigated multidimensional pathways linking parental socioeconomic position to their children's cognitive ability and academic track attendance in the secondary school. The sample included twins (N = 4008), respectively ages 11 and 17, and siblings (N = 801). We observed strong genetic influences on cognitive ability, whereas shared environmental influences were much more important for academic tracking. In multilevel analyses, separate dimensions of socioeconomic resources influenced child cognitive ability, controlling parental cognitive ability. Controlling adolescent cognitive ability and parental cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic resources also directly affected track attendance. This indicated that it is crucial to investigate the intertwined influences on educational outcomes in adolescence of both cognitive ability and the characteristics of the family of origin.
Guthrie, James W.
In light of the passage of Proposition 13 in California, which requires rethinking of the state's school financing structure, the author assesses the advantages and disadvantages of complete state financing v retaining some proportion of the revenue function at the local level. (Author/SJL)
Cohen, Alison K; Kazi, Chandni; Headen, Irene; Rehkopf, David H; Hendrick, C Emily; Patil, Divya; Abrams, Barbara
Education is an important social determinant of many health outcomes, but the relationship between educational attainment and the amount of weight gained over the course of a woman's pregnancy (gestational weight gain [GWG]) has not been established clearly. We used data from 1979 through 2010 for women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979) cohort (n = 6,344 pregnancies from 2,769 women). We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the association between educational attainment and GWG adequacy (as defined by 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines), controlling for diverse social factors from across the life course (e.g., income, wealth, educational aspirations and expectations) and considering effect measure modification by race/ethnicity and prepregnancy overweight status. In most cases, women with more education had increased odds of gaining a recommended amount of gestational weight, independent of educational aspirations and educational expectations and relatively robust to sensitivity analyses. This trend manifested itself in a few different ways. Those with less education had higher odds of inadequate GWG than those with more education. Among those who were not overweight before pregnancy, those with less education had higher odds of excessive GWG than college graduates. Among women who were White, those with less than a high school degree had higher odds of excessive GWG than those with more education. The relationship between educational attainment and GWG is nuanced and nonlinear. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bougroum, Mohammed; Ibourk, Aomar
This paper explores the higher education financing policy in Morocco in light of the central issue of equity. First, it surveys the current situation, using a critical approach to the present financing policy, and looking at the three dimensions of adequacy, efficiency, and equity. Second, it describes the principal policy challenges in financing…
This paper is of the opinion that inadequate finance is detrimental to the development of visual arts education in Nigeria. It opines that since it is a capital intensive programme, there is the need for concerted efforts to ensure that finance does not decimate the programme. The paper gave suggestions on how to reduce the ...
Ron Balsera, Maria; Klees, Steven J.; Archer, David
This forum seeks to problematise issues related to the lack of resources to adequately finance public education systems. It explores potential solutions based on increased domestic resource mobilisation through progressive taxation in order to meet the growing financing gap needed to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4. While many…
Lawrence, Wendy; Skinner, Chas; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Barker, David; Cooper, Cyrus; Jackson, Alan; Barker, Mary
Women of lower educational attainment are more likely to eat unhealthy diets than women of higher educational attainment. To identify influences on the food choices of women with lower educational attainment, 11 focus groups (eight with women of lower, and three with women of higher educational attainment) were held. Using a semi-structured discussion guide, environmental, social, historical and psychological factors known to be associated with food choice were explored. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Compared to women of higher educational attainment, women of lower educational attainment had less control over their families' food choices, less support for attempts to eat healthily, fewer opportunities to observe and learn good food-related practices, more negative affect, more perceived environmental constraints and more ambiguous beliefs about the consequences of eating a nutritious diet. These findings provide a starting point for taking forward the design of an intervention to improve the diets of young women.
Richardson, John T E
This investigation studied attainment in students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who were taking modules by distance learning with the Open University in 2012. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had no additional disabilities were just as likely as nondisabled students to complete their modules, but they were less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had additional disabilities were less likely to complete their modules, less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed than were nondisabled students. Nevertheless, around 40% of students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties obtained good grades (i.e. those that would lead to a bachelor's degree with first-class or upper second-class honours). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pere, Engjell; Minxhozi, Luljeta
In many countries, reforms in higher education have follow-on effects on social and economic development. This article relates mainly to economic and financial issues regarding the development of higher education. Starting from the notable increase in demand for higher education and the budgetary constraints on public education financing, we argue…
This paper presents education finance trends for Bangladesh since 2000. It shows that while government spending on education as a proportion of national income has stagnated, it has increased in real terms. Real increases in education spending have resulted in substantial increases in per student spending in basic education. At primary, enrolment…
Full Text Available This paper devotes to the development analysis of cardiovascular disease mortality rate by sex, age, education, and leading causes of deaths during the period of 1996-2014 in the Slovak Republic. Survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model were conducted to estimate the impact of sex and education level on the probability of death due to cardiovascular diseases at different age. According to our results, standardised mortality rates decreased by an average of 31.5% for both sexes. The leading causes of death were hearth failure and cardiomyopathy for persons under 30 years of age. The myocardial infarction, chronic ischemic heart disease and atherosclerosis were the most common causes of death for adults, as well as seniors. Women represented a lower level of hazard rate than men and primary education group reported the lowest level of hazard rate in comparison to the other education groups.
Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Kronborg, Gitte
.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.4) for population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. CONCLUSION: With free and equal access to healthcare, low educational attainment might increase risk of HIV infection among heterosexual individuals, but was not associated......OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus...... or intravenous drug abuse identified in the Danish HIV Cohort Study and 5108 individually matched population controls. METHODS: Data on educational attainment, categorized as low, medium, or high, were identified in The Danish Attainment Register. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to estimate odds ratios...
Full Text Available Background: In this paper we study the long-term consequences of parental divorce in a comparative perspective. Special attention is paid to the heterogeneity of the consequences of divorce for children's educational attainment by parental education. Objective: The study attempts to establish whether the parental breakup penalty for tertiary education attainment varies by socioeconomic background, and whether it depends on the societal context. Methods: Data are drawn from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey, covering 14 countries. We estimate multi-level random-slope models for the completion of tertiary education. Results: The results show that parental divorce is negatively associated with children's tertiary education attainment. Across the 14 countries considered in this study, children of separated parents have a probability of achieving a university degree that is on average seven percentage points lower than that of children from intact families. The breakup penalty is stronger for children of highly educated parents, and is independent of the degree of diffusion of divorce. In countries with early selection into educational tracks, divorce appears to have more negative consequences for the children of poorly educated mothers. Conclusions: For children in most countries, parental divorce is associated with a lower probability of attaining a university degree. The divorce penalty is larger for children with highly educated parents. This equalizing pattern is accentuated in countries with a comprehensive educational system. Comments: Future research on the heterogeneous consequences of parental divorce should addressthe issue of self-selection into divorce, which might lead to an overestimation of the negative effect of divorce on students with highly educated parents. It should also further investigate the micro mechanisms underlying the divorce penalty.
Burt, Isaac; Lewis, Sally V.; Beverly, Monifa G.; Patel, Samir H.
Research indicates that highly educated individuals endure hardships in finding suitable romantic partners. Romantic hardships affect social and emotional adjustment levels, leading to low self-efficacy in relationship decision making. To address the need for research pertaining to this topic, the authors explored the experiences of eight…
van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.
Since the mid-1960's the Netherlands has had an immigration surplus, mainly because of manpower recruitment from Turkey and Morocco and immigration from the former Dutch colony of Surinam.Immigrants have a weak labor market position, which is related to their educational level and language
Augustine, Jennifer March; Crosnoe, Robert
In this study, we take a dynamic approach to studying the connections among mothers' education, their depression, and their children's academic trajectories during elementary school. Applying latent growth curve modeling to longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth…
Sutin, Angelina R; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio
This research examines whether parental educational attainment and subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with adult offspring well-being and self-beliefs (broadly defined). Participants from the Health and Retirement Study were included if they completed the leave-behind questionnaire in 2006 or 2008 ( N =10,827; M age =68.38; SD =9.81; range=50-101). Participants reported on their own and both parents educational attainment, subjective childhood financial situation, and financial difficulties in childhood at study entry and on well-being in 2006/2008. Linear regression was used to examine the association between offspring education, parental education, childhood SES and three aspects of well-being and self-beliefs: positive affect (e.g., positive emotions, optimism), negative affect (e.g., loneliness, hostility), and cognitive evaluation (e.g., life satisfaction). Participants with more education reported higher well-being (median β=.12). Parental educational attainment, subjective childhood SES, and a significant financial event during childhood were associated with more positive affect, less negative affect, and higher life satisfaction (median β=.05); these associations held controlling for offspring education. The educational and financial environment of childhood may hamper well-being into older adulthood; the offspring's own experiences and achievements do not completely attenuate the association with these aspects of the childhood environment.
Full Text Available This paper explores published articles that report on theological education in the Hispanic/Latino community. It looks at U.S. demographic changes and the needs of the Latino community to provide civic and church leadership within their communities. The article reports on past efforts, and challenges, to increase Latino enrollment in graduate theological education. It looks at current strategies by Asociación para la Educación Teológica Hispana (AETH to collaborate with American Theological Schools (ATS and the American Theological Library Association (ATLA to certify unaccredited Bible Institutes so that the educational standards will be strengthened and create a clearer pathway for Latinas/os to enter ATS accredited member schools. The purpose of the paper is to present the AETH commission report and discuss ways to help strengthen ways to meet the informational needs of students in Bible Institutes as well as provide more resources that will meet the needs of the Latino community.
Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Korinek, Kim
Prenatal care coverage in Vietnam has been improving, but ethnic minority women still lag behind in receiving adequate level and type of care. This paper examines ethnic disparities in prenatal care utilization by comparing two groups of ethnic minority and majority women. We examine the roots of ethnic disparity in prenatal care utilization, focusing on how education and media exposure change health behaviours and lessen disparities. We rely on the 2002 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey to draw our sample, predictors and the three dimensions of prenatal care, including timing of onset, frequency of visits, and type of provider. Results from multinomial-, and binary-logistic regression provide evidence that ethnic minority women are less likely to obtain frequent prenatal care and seek care from professional providers than their majority counterparts. However, we find that ethnic minority women are more likely to obtain early care compared to ethnic majority women. Results for predicted probabilities suggest that education and media exposure positively influenced prenatal care behaviours with higher level of education and media exposure associating with accelerated probability of meeting prenatal care requirements. Our results imply the needs for expansion of media access and schools as well as positive health messages being broadcasted in culturally competent ways.
Full Text Available The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years.We report results from 3,639 Chinese women with recurrent MDD and 3,800 controls. Highly significant odds ratios (ORs were observed between MDD and full time employment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25-0.46, logP = 78, social status (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77-0.87, logP = 13.3 and education attainment (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86-0.90, logP = 6.8. We found a monotonic relationship between increasing age and increasing levels of educational attainment. Those with only primary school education have significantly more episodes of MDD (mean 6.5, P-value = 0.009 and have a clinically more severe disorder, while those with higher educational attainment are likely to manifest more comorbid anxiety disorders.In China lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased rates of MDD, as it is elsewhere in the world. Significantly more episodes of MDD occur among those with lower educational attainment (rather than longer episodes of disease, consistent with the hypothesis that the lower socioeconomic position increases the likelihood of developing MDD. The phenomenology of MDD varies according to the degree of educational attainment: higher educational attainment not only appears to protect against MDD but alters its presentation, to a more anxious phenotype.
Kubota, Yasuhiko; Heiss, Gerardo; MacLehose, Richard F; Roetker, Nicholas S; Folsom, Aaron R
Estimates of lifetime risk may help raise awareness of the extent to which educational inequalities are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). To estimate lifetime risks of CVD according to categories of educational attainment. Participants were followed from 1987 through December 31, 2013. All CVD events (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke) were confirmed by physician review and International Classification of Diseases codes. A total of 13 948 whites and African Americans who were 45 to 64 years old and free of CVD at baseline were included from 4 US communities (Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; and suburbs of Minneapolis, Minnesota). The data analysis was performed from June 7 to August 31, 2016. Educational attainment. We used a life table approach to estimate lifetime risks of CVD from age 45 through 85 years according to educational attainment. We adjusted for competing risks of death from underlying causes other than CVD. The sample of 13 948 participants was 56% female and 27% African American. During 269 210 person-years of follow-up, we documented 4512 CVD events and 2401 non-CVD deaths. Educational attainment displayed an inverse dose-response relation with cumulative risk of CVD, which became evident in middle age, with the most striking gap between those not completing vs completing high school. In men, lifetime risks of CVD were 59.0% (95% CI, 54.0%-64.1%) for grade school, 52.5% (95% CI, 47.7%-56.8%) for high school education without graduation, 50.9% (95% CI, 47.3%-53.9%) for high school graduation, 47.2% (95% CI, 41.5%-52.5%) for vocational school, 46.4% (95% CI, 42.8%-49.6%) for college with or without graduation, and 42.2% (95% CI, 36.6%-47.0%) for graduate/professional school; in women, 50.8% (95% CI, 45.7%-55.8%), 49.3% (95% CI, 45.1%-53.1%), 36.3% (95% CI, 33.4%-39.1%), 32.2% (95% CI, 26.0%-37.3%), 32.8% (95% CI, 29.1%-35.9%), and 28.0% (95% CI, 21
The paper investigated Civic Education as a collaborative dimension of Social Studies Education in attainment of political ethics in Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design. The sample for the study consisted of 580 Social Studies teachers selected from thirty secondary schools in the three senatorial districts of Delta State. The…
Eggens, Lilian; van der Werf, M. P. C.; Bosker, R. J.
In this paper, the influence of personal networks and social support on study attainment of students in university education is examined. Furthermore, the paper aimed at clarifying the possible mediating role of achievement motivation, time spent on studying and working, procrastination and
Stern, Jonathan M. B.
This study uses a comprehensive dataset on secondary school students in Brazil to examine the impact of private school enrollment on educational attainment in São Paulo. The results show that private school students (across all levels of tuition) perform better than their public school counterparts on Brazil's high school exit exam, even after…
The main question in this article is: Do differences in socialization conditions offer an explanation for the negative effect of one-parent families on children's educational attainment? The research design was an ex post facto experiment based on matched pairs, in which the experimental group
Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor
This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…
F.R. Hubers (Frank); H.D. Webbink (Dinand)
markdownabstractThis study investigates the long-term effects of peace-time military conscription on educational attainment and earnings by exploiting a policy change that exempted a complete birth cohort from military service. We find that compulsory military service decreases the proportion of
Bergman, Andrea; Kong, Grace; Pope, Alice
There are many benefits for emerging adults, both financial and personal, in obtaining a General Education Development (GED®) credential (Ou, 2008). However, little is known about the correlates of GED® credential attainment in "disconnected" emerging adults attending GED® programs. Our goal was to examine whether externalizing…
Jackson-Kersey, Rachel; Spray, Christopher
The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Amotivation Inventory in Physical Education (AI-PE). In addition, the study sought to identify the relationships between students' amotivation, physical self-concept, and teacher ratings of National Curriculum attainment levels in PE. Students ("N" = 510) from a…
Keith, Verna M.; Finlay, Barbara
Examined combined sample of national data to determine impact of parental divorce on children. Found parental divorce associated with lower educational attainment and earlier age at marriage for sons and daughters. Daughters of divorced parents had higher probability of being divorced. For sons of divorced parents, probability of ever marrying and…
Ryan, Camille L.; Siebens, Julie
This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected in the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2005-2009 ACS 5-year estimates. It also uses data from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) collected in 2009 and earlier, as well as monthly…
This report provides information on basic educational trends and attainment levels across many segments of the population. The findings are based on data collected in the 2003 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) and refer to the population 25 years and over unless otherwise specified. The population…
To test the effect of ability grouping on grades and the attainment of higher education, this study examines a naturally occurring experiment--an admission reform that dramatically increased ability sorting between schools in the municipality of Stockholm. Following six cohorts of students (N = 79,020) from the age of 16 to 26, I find a mean…
Fruiht, Veronica M; Wray-Lake, Laura
Having an adult mentor during adolescence has been found to predict academic success. Building on previous work, the present study examined interactions between the type of mentor (i.e., kin, teacher, friend, or community), the time that mentor became important (i.e., before, during, or after high school), and the ethnicity of the protégé in predicting educational attainment in young adulthood. Analyses used Waves III and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,409). Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 27 (M = 21.75, SD = 1.79). The sample was 56.7 % female and nationally representative of ethnic diversity. Analyses showed that having a teacher-mentor was more predictive of educational attainment than having other types of mentors and that overall, having a mentor after high school predicts the most educational attainment. Kin- and community-mentors appeared to be more important to educational attainment during and before high school, respectively. Findings were consistent across ethnic groups. Overall, results highlight the value of teacher-mentors throughout childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood and our study further suggests that different types of mentors may be particularly useful at specific points in development.
Hentges, Rochelle F.; Wang, Ming-Te
This study utilized life history theory to test a developmental cascade model linking harsh parenting to low educational attainment. Multigroup models were examined to test for potential gender differences. The sample consisted of 1,482 adolescents followed up for 9 years starting in seventh grade (M[subscript age] = 12.74). Results supported…
Khattab, Nabil; Modood, Tariq
This study compares the educational attainment of Muslim and Christian White-British boys and girls at the following junctions: Key Stage 2, Key Stage 3, GCSE, getting into universities and achieving a place at a Russell Group university. The study utilises the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England waves 1-6 with linked data from the…
Despite strong trends in most Western countries towards gender equality in educational attainments, men are still considerably more likely to obtain doctoral degrees. Using data comprising nearly all students graduating from Norwegian universities during 1981-1996, separate event history analyses are carried out of recruitment to and completion of…
Emily Joy Callander
Full Text Available This paper assesses whether attaining a higher education improves the chances of employment in adulthood amongst those who had a chronic health condition in adolescence. Using longitudinal analysis of twelve waves of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, conducted between 2001 and 2012, a cohort of adolescents aged 15 to 21 in Wave 1 were followed through to age 24 (n=624. The results show that those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence were2.4 times more likely to not be employed at age 24 compared to those who did not have a chronic health condition (95% CI: 1.4 – 4.4, p=0.0024. The results were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment at age 24, health status at age 24 and household income poverty status at age 24. Amongst those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence there was no significant difference in the likelihood of being employed for those with a Year 12 and below (p=0.1087 level of education attainment or those with a Diploma, Certificate III or IV (p=0.6366 compared to those with a university degree. Education attainment was not shown to mitigate the impact of having a chronic health condition during adolescence on adult employment outcomes. Keywords: employment; chronic health conditions; poverty; living standards; longitudinal.
Sims, David P.
"Rose v. Council for Better Education" (1989) is often considered a transition point in education finance litigation, heralding an era of increasing concern for measurable adequacy of education across a broad spectrum of student needs. Prior research suggests that post-Rose lawsuits had less effect on the distribution of school spending…
Lin, Tingjin; Zhang, Shujian; Shi, Shuai
Comparative analyses of basic education financing among districts and counties within Shanghai municipality show that basic education in the developed city is as fiscally unequal as it is in other provincial administrative areas. But the tendency to expand education disparities in Shanghai has been reversed since 2005 owing to the education…
Golden, April Michelle
Providing inclusive and equitable quality education for all children will require sustained cooperation and investment from donor and partner nations worldwide. As a multi-stakeholder funding mechanism, the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) is an important Education Diplomacy model. The 2018 Dakar Financing Conference is a vibrant…
Scherr, Kyle C.; Madon, Stephanie; Guyll, Max; Willard, Jennifer; Spoth, Richard
This research examined whether self-verification acts as a general mediational process of self-fulfilling prophecies. The authors tested this hypothesis by examining whether self-verification processes mediated self-fulfilling prophecy effects within a different context and with a different belief and a different outcome than has been used in prior research. Results of longitudinal data obtained from mothers and their adolescents (N = 332) indicated that mothers’ beliefs about their adolescents’ educational outcomes had a significant indirect effect on adolescents’ academic attainment through adolescents’ educational aspirations. This effect, observed over a six year span, provided evidence that mothers’ self-fulfilling effects occurred, in part, because mothers’ false beliefs influenced their adolescents’ own educational aspirations which adolescents then self-verified through their educational attainment. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21357755
Scherr, Kyle C; Madon, Stephanie; Guyll, Max; Willard, Jennifer; Spoth, Richard
This research examined whether self-verification acts as a general mediational process of self-fulfilling prophecies. The authors tested this hypothesis by examining whether self-verification processes mediated self-fulfilling prophecy effects within a different context and with a different belief and a different outcome than has been used in prior research. Results of longitudinal data obtained from mothers and their adolescents (N=332) indicated that mothers' beliefs about their adolescents' educational outcomes had a significant indirect effect on adolescents' academic attainment through adolescents' educational aspirations. This effect, observed over a 6-year span, provided evidence that mothers' self-fulfilling effects occurred, in part, because mothers' false beliefs influenced their adolescents' own educational aspirations, which adolescents then self-verified through their educational attainment. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.
Adams, Adrienne E; Greeson, Megan R; Kennedy, Angie C; Tolman, Richard M
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, widespread problem that negatively affects women's lives, including their economic status. The current study explored whether the financial harm associated with IPV begins as early as adolescence. With longitudinal data from a sample of 498 women currently or formerly receiving welfare, we used latent growth curve modeling to examine the relationships between adolescent IPV, educational attainment, and women's earnings. We found that women who had been victimized by a partner during adolescence obtained less education compared with nonvictimized women, with victimization indirectly influencing women's earnings via educational attainment. The findings support the need for intervention strategies aimed at preventing IPV and promoting women's educational and career development over the life course.
We use data from the West German 1970 census to explore the link between being born during or shortly after World War II and educational and labor market outcomes 25 years later. We document, for the first time, that men and women born in the relatively short period between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly and substantially lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this new finding are put ...
Abdellaoui, Abdel; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; Brooks, Andrew; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Geus, Eco J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.
Individuals with a higher education are more likely to migrate, increasing the chance of meeting a spouse with a different ancestral background. In this context, the presence of strong educational assortment can result in greater ancestry differences within more educated spouse pairs, while less educated individuals are more likely to mate with someone with whom they share more ancestry. We examined the association between educational attainment and F roh (= the proportion of the genome consisting of runs of homozygosity [ROHs]) in ~2,000 subjects of Dutch ancestry. The subjects’ own educational attainment showed a nominally significant negative association with F roh (p = .045), while the contribution of parental education to offspring F roh was highly significant (father: p migration rates among more educated parents. Parental education also showed a high spouse correlation (Spearman’s ρ = .66, p = 3 × 10-262). We show that less educated parents are less likely to mate with the more mobile parents with a higher education, creating systematic differences in homozygosity due to ancestry differences not directly captured by ancestry-informative principal components (PCs). Understanding how behaviors influence the genomic structure of a population is highly valuable for studies on the genetic etiology of behavioral, cognitive, and social traits. PMID:25734509
Johnson, Wendy; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.
Previous studies have established that family social background and individual mental ability and educational attainment contribute to adult social class attainment. We propose that social class of origin acts as ballast, restraining otherwise meritocratic social class movement, and that education is the primary means through which social class…
Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee
This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students’ motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained = 177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted = 384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West, & Im, 2014). This model consists of a General factor (student’s overall motivation for educational attainment), and three specific factors: student perceived Teacher Educational Expectations, Peer Educational Aspirations, and Value of Education. Measurement invariance between retained and promoted groups was established. Retained students scored significantly higher than promoted students on each specific factor but not on the General factor. Results showed that the retained and promoted students did not significantly differ on the General factor. The retained students had significantly higher scores on each specific factor than the promoted students. The results suggested that grade retention may not have the negative effects so widely assumed in the published literature; it is an expensive intervention with minimal evidence of benefits to the retained student. PMID:25636258
Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee
This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students' motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained=177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted=384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West & Im, 2014). This model consists of a General factor (student's overall motivation for educational attainment), and three specific factors: student perceived Teacher Educational Expectations, Peer Educational Aspirations, and Value of Education. Measurement invariance between retained and promoted groups was established. Retained students scored significantly higher than promoted students on each specific factor but not on the General factor. Results showed that the retained and promoted students did not significantly differ on the General factor. The retained students had significantly higher scores on each specific factor than those of the promoted students. The results suggested that grade retention may not have the negative effects so widely assumed in the published literature; it is an expensive intervention with minimal evidence of benefits to the retained student. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Reynolds, John R
How consequential is family socioeconomic status for maintaining plans to get a bachelor's degree during the transition to adulthood? This article examines persistence and change in educational expectations, focusing on the extent to which family socioeconomic status shapes overtime trajectories of bachelor's degree expectations, how the influence involves the timing of family formation and full-time work vs. college attendance, and how persistence in expectations is consequential for getting a 4-year degree. The findings, based on the high school senior classes of 1987-1990, demonstrate that adolescents from higher socioeconomic status families are much more likely to hold onto their expectations to earn 4-year degrees, both in the early years after high school and, for those who do not earn degrees within that period, on through their 20s. These more persistent expectations in young adulthood, more so than adolescent expectations, help explain the greater success of young people from higher socioeconomic status backgrounds in earning a 4-year degree. Persistence of expectations to earn a bachelor's degree in the years after high school is shaped by stratified pathways of school, work, and family roles in the transition to adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnston, William R
An emerging approach to studying associations between neighborhood contexts and educational outcomes is to estimate the outcomes of adolescents growing up in neighborhoods that are experiencing economic growth in comparison to peers that reside in economically stable or declining communities. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), I examine the association between education attainment and changes in socioeconomic advantage in urban neighborhoods between 1990 and 2000. I find that residing in a neighborhood that experiences economic improvements has a positive association with educational attainment for urban adolescents. Furthermore, race-based analyses suggest consistently positive associations for all race subgroups, lending support to protective models of neighborhood effects that argue high neighborhood SES supports positive outcomes for adolescents residing in these contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Existing research provides strong evidence that children with more educated parents have higher academic expectations for themselves, but has yet to consider how an increase in the education of lower educated mothers might alter the expectations of their children. In light of the historic increase in U.S. mothers' pursuit of additional education, this study investigates this timely question using data from a nationally representative, intergenerational sample of U.S. children and mothers participating in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth ( n mothers = 3,265; n children = 8,027). Combining random and fixed effects procedures, the findings revealed that that an increase in mothers' educational attainment is linked to an increase in their children's expectations to earn a Bachelor's degree. Increased maternal education did not, however, buffer against the risk that children will downgrade these expectations upon approaching the end of high school. These results have theoretical importance to traditional models of status attainment, which typically view parental education as a stable feature of family background; extend a small but burgeoning literature that explores whether and why increased maternal education improves the mobility prospects of their children; and speak to current two-generation policy approaches that aim to leverage trends in mothers education to reduce inequality for future generations.
The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of workplace financial education on workers' personal finances and work outcomes and determine relationships among financial management (attitudes, knowledge and behaviors), financial well-being, personal finance-work conflict, and work outcomes with data of white-collar workers in an insurance company in mid-western states. Research questions were (1) What are the profiles of financial attitudes, financial knowledge, financial behav...
Stephen L. Morgan
Full Text Available After introducing alternative perspectives on assimilation and acculturation, we use the 2002-2012 waves of the Education Longitudinal Study to model differences in educational attainment for students sampled as high school sophomores in 2002. We focus on patterns observed for the growing Mexican immigrant population, analyzing separately the trajectories of 1st, 1.5th, 2nd, and 3rd+ generation Mexican immigrant students, in comparison to 3rd+ generation students who self-identify as non-Hispanic whites and students who self-identify as non-Hispanic blacks or African Americans. The results suggest that the dissonant acculturation mechanism associated with the segmented assimilation perspective is mostly unhelpful for explaining patterns of educational attainment, especially for the crucial groups of 1.5th and 2nd generation Mexican immigrant students. Instead, standard measures of family background can account for large portions of group differences in bachelor’s degree attainment, with or without additional adjustments for behavioral commitment to schooling, occupational plans, and educational expectations. The broad structure of inequality in the United States, as well as the rising costs of bachelor’s degrees, should be the primary source of concern when considering the prospects for the incorporation of the children of recent Mexican immigrants into the mainstream.
von Kobyletzki, Laura Beate; Beckman, Linda; Smeeth, Liam; McKee, Martin; Abuabara, Katrina; Langan, Sinead
Introduction Childhood allergic diseases may prevent affected children from achieving their academic potential. Potential mechanisms include absence from school due to illness and medical appointments. Experience of symptoms in classes or leisure time, and stigma associated with visible signs and symptoms, including skin disease, requirements for medication during school time or the need for specific diets, may also contribute to reduced educational attainment. Studies have investigated the association between specific allergic diseases and educational attainment. The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature on allergic diseases, educational attainment and occupational status, and if possible, calculate meta-analytic summary estimates for the associations. Methods Systematic electronic searches in Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO and education Resources Information Center (ERIC); hand search in reference lists of included papers and conference reports; search for unpublished studies in clinical trial registers and the New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report; data extraction; and study quality assessment (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) will be performed. Analysis Data will be summarised descriptively, and meta-analysis including meta-regression to explore sources of heterogeneities will be performed if possible. Ethics and dissemination Dissemination in a peer-reviewed, open-access, international scientific journal is planned. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017058036. PMID:29025838
Demmler, Joanne C; Hill, Rebecca A; Rahman, Muhammad A; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Healy, Melanie A; Paranjothy, Shantini; Murphy, Simon; Fletcher, Adam; Hewitt, Gillian; John, Ann; Lyons, Ronan A; Brophy, Sinead T
To examine the effect of educational attainment in primary school on later adolescent health. Education data attainments at age 7 and 11 were linked with (1) primary and secondary care injury consultation/admissions and (2) the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. Cox regression was carried out to examine if attainment in primary school predicts time to injury in adolescence. Pupils that achieve attainment at age 7 but not at age 11 (i.e., declining attainment over time in primary school) are more likely to have an injury during adolescence. These children are also more likely to self-report drinking in adolescence. Interventions aimed at children with declining attainment in primary school could help to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walsemann, Katrina M.; Lindley, Lisa L.; Gentile, Danielle; Welihindha, Shehan V.
Researchers know relatively little about the educational attainment of sexual minorities, despite the fact that educational attainment is consistently associated with a range of social, economic, and health outcomes. We examined whether sexual attraction in adolescence and early adulthood was associated with educational attainment in early adulthood among a nationally representative sample of US young adults. We analyzed Waves I and IV restricted data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=14,111). Sexual orientation was assessed using self-reports of romantic attraction in Waves I (adolescence) and IV (adulthood). Multinomial regression models were estimated and all analyses were stratified by gender. Women attracted to the same-sex in adulthood only had lower educational attainment compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Men attracted to the same-sex in adolescence only had lower educational attainment compared to men attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Adolescent experiences and academic performance attenuated educational disparities among men and women. Adjustment for adolescent experiences also revealed a suppression effect; women attracted to the same-sex in adolescence and adulthood had lower predicted probabilities of having a high school diploma or less compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Our findings challenge previous research documenting higher educational attainment among sexual minorities in the US. Additional population-based studies documenting the educational attainment of sexual minority adults are needed. PMID:25382888
Kabbani, Nader; Salloum, Siba
This article examines the implications for access and equity of the Syrian government's efforts to reform higher education in the country over the past decade. In the context of social and economic reforms that are moving the county from a state-controlled to a social market economy, it focuses on adequacy in financing higher education, as well as…
This study analyses the policies for financing higher education in six Arab countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, and Tunisia. It assesses the adequacy of spending on higher education, the efficiency with which resources are utilized, and the equity implications of resource allocations. Based on six detailed case studies, this…
Carnoy, Martin; Froumin, Isak; Loyalka, Prashant K.; Tilak, Jandhyala B.
Because higher education serves both public and private interests, the way it is conceived and financed is contested politically, appearing in different forms in different societies. What is public and private in education is a political--social construct, subject to various political forces, primarily interpreted through the prism of the state.…
Clouston, Sean A P; Kuh, Diana; Herd, Pamela; Elliott, Jane; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M
Educational attainment is highly correlated with social inequalities in adult cognitive health; however, the nature of this correlation is in dispute. Recently, researchers have argued that educational inequalities are an artefact of selection by individual differences in prior cognitive ability, which both drives educational attainment and tracks across the rest of the life course. Although few would deny that educational attainment is at least partly determined by prior cognitive ability, a complementary, yet controversial, view is that education has a direct causal and lasting benefit on cognitive development. We use observational data from three birth cohorts, with cognition measured in adolescence and adulthood. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the relationship between adolescent cognition and adult fluid cognition and to test the sensitivity of our analyses to sample selection, projection and backdoor biases using propensity score matching. We find that having a university education is correlated with higher fluid cognition in adulthood, after adjustment for adolescent cognition. We do not find that adolescent cognition, gender or parental social class consistently modify this effect; however, women benefited more in the 1946 sample from Great Britain. In all three birth cohorts, substantial educational benefit remained after adjustment for adolescent cognition and parental social class, offsetting an effect equivalent of 0.5 to 1.5 standard deviations lower adolescent cognition. We also find that the likelihood of earning a university degree depends in part on adolescent cognition, gender and parental social class. We conclude that inequalities in adult cognition derive in part from educational experiences after adolescence.
Clouston, Sean AP; Kuh, Diana; Herd, Pamela; Elliott, Jane; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M
Background Educational attainment is highly correlated with social inequalities in adult cognitive health; however, the nature of this correlation is in dispute. Recently, researchers have argued that educational inequalities are an artefact of selection by individual differences in prior cognitive ability, which both drives educational attainment and tracks across the rest of the life course. Although few would deny that educational attainment is at least partly determined by prior cognitive ability, a complementary, yet controversial, view is that education has a direct causal and lasting benefit on cognitive development. Methods We use observational data from three birth cohorts, with cognition measured in adolescence and adulthood. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the relationship between adolescent cognition and adult fluid cognition and to test the sensitivity of our analyses to sample selection, projection and backdoor biases using propensity score matching. Results We find that having a university education is correlated with higher fluid cognition in adulthood, after adjustment for adolescent cognition. We do not find that adolescent cognition, gender or parental social class consistently modify this effect; however, women benefited more in the 1946 sample from Great Britain. Conclusions In all three birth cohorts, substantial educational benefit remained after adjustment for adolescent cognition and parental social class, offsetting an effect equivalent of 0.5 to 1.5 standard deviations lower adolescent cognition. We also find that the likelihood of earning a university degree depends in part on adolescent cognition, gender and parental social class. We conclude that inequalities in adult cognition derive in part from educational experiences after adolescence. PMID:23108707
Greene, Meridith E; Rolfson, Ola; Nemes, Szilard; Gordon, Max; Malchau, Henrik; Garellick, Göran
Age, sex, and medical comorbidities may be associated with differences in patient-reported outcome scores after THA. Highest level of education may be a surrogate for socioeconomic status, but the degree to which this is associated with patient-reported outcomes after THA is not known. We investigated the national Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register for the association of education attainment on patient-reported outcomes 1 year after THA; specifically, we evaluated level of education attainment against health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pain reduction, and satisfaction with treatment 1 year after THA. All THAs for osteoarthritis performed from 2005 through 2007 with complete patient-reported outcome measures (representing 49% of the THAs performed for this diagnosis) were selected from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. These cases were merged with national databases containing education attainment, marital status, and comorbidities (n = 11,464; mean age of patients, 64 years). The patient-reported outcome measure protocol included the HRQoL measure EuroQol five-dimension scale (EQ-5D), a VAS for pain, the Charnley classification survey, and a VAS addressing THA satisfaction. Linear regression analyses determined the association of preoperative patient factors with patient-reported outcomes. High education attainment was associated with higher HRQoL (EQ-5D index ß(high) = 0.03 ± 0.01; EQ VAS ß(high) = 2.6 ± 0.5) after THA, whereas those with low and medium education were at risk for lower HRQoL. High education was associated with less pain after treatment (ß(high) = -3.3 ± 0.05). Individuals with low or medium education were at risk for less satisfaction with THA (p education to a greater extent. Identification of patients who will benefit most from THA and educating those at risk for poorer outcomes, like patients with low and medium education, ultimately may improve patient satisfaction, HRQoL, pain, and the cost utility of THA. Level III
Guthrie, James W.
This article contends that a new concept of education finance has emerged in response to substantial alterations in the U.S. education policy environment. The major distinction between modern and old is that the latter was principally concerned with arrangements of inputs in K-12 schooling. The former, modern-era education finance, is concerned…
Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Medland, Sarah E.; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benke, Kelly S.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Boatman, Jeffrey A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Davies, Gail; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S.; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R.; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H.; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Polašek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P.; Rizzi, Thais S.; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; van der Loos, Matthijs J.H.M.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K.; Cucca, Francesco; de Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Elderson, Martin F.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E.; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mäkinen, Tomi E.; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J.; Snieder, Harold; Pourcain, Beate St; Starr, John M.; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; Rooij, Frank JAan; Van Wagoner, David R.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Krueger, Robert F.; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.
A genome-wide association study of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent SNPs are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (R2 ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈ 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics. PMID:23722424
Potter, Sharyn; Howard, Rebecca; Murphy, Sharon; Moynihan, Mary M
To examine the well-documented mental and physical health problems suffered by undergraduate women sexually assaulted while on campus with an exploration of how the trauma impacts a survivor's lifetime education trajectory and career attainment. In November and December 2015, researchers recruited US participants using an online crowdsourcing tool and a Listserv for sexual violence prevention and response professionals. Of 316 women who completed initial screening, 89 qualified to complete a Qualtrics survey. Eighty-one participants completed the online survey, and 32 participated in phone interviews. Ninety-one percent of the participants reported health problems related to the assault that they attributed to difficulties they faced in their attainment of their education and career goals. The findings suggest the importance of simultaneously examining the effects of human capital losses and mental and physical health problems attributed to the costly public health problem of campus sexual assault.
Freese, Jeremy; Jao, Yu-Han
Classical behavioral genetics models for twin and other family designs decompose traits into heritability, shared environment, and nonshared environment components. Estimates of heritability of adult traits are pervasively observed to be far higher than those of shared environment, which has been used to make broad claims about the impotence of upbringing. However, the most commonly studied nondemographic variable in many areas of social science, educational attainment, exhibits robustly high estimates both for heritability and for shared environment. When previously noticed, the usual explanation has emphasized family resources, but evidence suggests this is unlikely to explain the anomalous high estimates for shared environment of educational attainment. We articulate eight potential complementary explanations and discuss evidence of their prospective contributions to resolving the puzzle. In so doing, we hope to further consideration of how behavioral genetics findings may advance studies of social stratification beyond the effort to articulate specific genetic influences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Beaman, Lori; Duflo, Esther; Pande, Rohini; Topalova, Petia
Exploiting a randomized natural experiment in India, we show that female leadership influences adolescent girls’ career aspirations and educational attainment. A 1993 law reserved leadership positions for women in randomly selected village councils. Using 8,453 surveys of adolescents aged 11–15 and their parents in 495 villages, we find that, compared to villages that were never reserved, the gender gap in aspirations closed by 25% in parents and 32% in adolescents in villages assigned to a female leader for two election cycles. The gender gap in adolescent educational attainment is erased and girls spent less time on household chores. We find no evidence of changes in young women’s labor market opportunities, suggesting that the impact of women leaders primarily reflects a role model effect. PMID:22245740
Beaman, Lori; Duflo, Esther; Pande, Rohini; Topalova, Petia
Exploiting a randomized natural experiment in India, we show that female leadership influences adolescent girls' career aspirations and educational attainment. A 1993 law reserved leadership positions for women in randomly selected village councils. Using 8453 surveys of adolescents aged 11 to 15 and their parents in 495 villages, we found that, relative to villages in which such positions were never reserved, the gender gap in aspirations closed by 20% in parents and 32% in adolescents in villages assigned a female leader for two election cycles. The gender gap in adolescent educational attainment was erased, and girls spent less time on household chores. We found no evidence of changes in young women's labor market opportunities, which suggests that the impact of women leaders primarily reflects a role model effect.
Katharina E. Pink
Full Text Available From an evolutionary point of view, sex differences in intergenerational transmission of income may be influenced by the Trivers-Willard (T-W effect: Low status parents should invest more in daughters, whereas high status parents are expected to invest more in sons. This bias in parental investment may result in status-dependent sex biased parental support for higher education and educational attainment and should therefore affect the level of intergenerational income transmission for the sons and daughters. We used the data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS to model the effect of parental financial investment on the child's income and educational attainment controlling for the number of siblings. The observed sex differences in intergenerational income transmission demonstrate that sons profited more from parental income and education in terms of their own income than daughters. Furthermore, we showed that fathers with a high socioeconomic index (SEI invest more in their sons' education in terms of completed years of education and financial support during college. In contrast daughters of low SEI fathers completed more years of education and received more financial support than sons of low SEI fathers. However, the pattern in intergenerational income transmission might be better explained as a product of sociological factors and reproductive trade-offs in later life rather than as a consequence of the T-W effect.
[Purpose] This article attempts to define the relationship between physical activity and educational attainment of working-age adults from Wroclaw. [Subjects and Methods] The study surveyed 2,174 participants aged 18?64 years, 984 men and 1,190 women. To evaluate their physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. [Results] Most of the participants performed low-intensity levels of physical activity. Men were characterized by generally higher physical activity...
Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.
This study examined how educational expectations parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children’s attainment, and how parents’ own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study that followed participants from ages 18 to 64. Compared to the norm, parents with mild intellectual deficits expected thei...
Alison Booth; Hiau Joo Kee
We use unique retrospective family background data from the 2003 British Household Panel Survey to explore the degree to which family size and birth order affect a child's subsequent educational attainment. Theory suggests a trade off between child quantity and 'quality'. Family size might adversely affect the production of child quality within a family. A number of arguments also suggest that siblings are unlikely to receive equal shares of the resources devoted by parents to their childr...
von Kobyletzki, Laura Beate; Beckman, Linda; Smeeth, Liam; McKee, Martin; Quint, Jennifer K; Abuabara, Katrina; Langan, Sinead
Introduction Childhood allergic diseases may prevent affected children from achieving their academic potential. Potential mechanisms include absence from school due to illness and medical appointments. Experience of symptoms in classes or leisure time, and stigma associated with visible signs and symptoms, including skin disease, requirements for medication during school time or the need for specific diets, may also contribute to reduced educational attainment. Studies have investigated the a...
Kayeyi, Nkomba; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Fylkesnes, Knut
Investigations of the association between socio-economic position indicators and HIV in East, Central and Southern Africa have chiefly focused on factors that pertain to individual-level characteristics. This study investigated the effect of neighbourhood educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in selected urban and rural areas in Zambia. This study re-analysed data from a cross-sectional population survey conducted in Zambia in 2003. The analyses were restricted to women aged 15-24 years (n = 1295). Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 10 urban and 10 rural clusters. A measure for neighbourhood-level educational attainment was constructed by aggregating individual-level years-in-school. Multi-level mixed effects regression models were run to examine the neighbourhood-level educational effect on HIV prevalence after adjusting for individual-level underlying variables (education, currently a student, marital status) and selected proximate determinants (ever given birth, sexual activity, lifetime sexual partners). HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years was 12.5% in the urban and 6.8% in the rural clusters. Neighbourhood educational attainment was found to be a strong determinant of HIV infection in both urban and rural population, i.e. HIV prevalence decreased substantially by increasing level of neighbourhood education. The likelihood of infection in low vs. high educational attainment of neighbourhoods was 3.4 times among rural women and 1.8 times higher among the urban women after adjusting for age and other individual-level underlying variables, including education. However, the association was not significant for urban young women after this adjustment. After adjusting for level of education in the neighbourhood, the effect of the individual-level education differed by residence, i.e. a strong protective effect among urban women whereas tending to be a risk factor among rural women. The findings suggested structural
Veldman, Karin; Bültmann, Ute; Stewart, Roy E.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background This study examines if mental health problems at age 11 and changes in mental health problems between age 11 and 16 predict educational attainment of adolescents at age 19, overall and stratified by gender. Methods Data from 1711 adolescents (76.8% from initial cohort) of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9year follow-up, were used. Mental health problems (externalizing, internalizing and attention problems) were measured by the Youth Self Report and the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 11 and 16. Difference scores for mental health problems between age 11 and 16 were calculated. Educational attainment was assessed at age 19. Results Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 were significantly associated with low educational attainment at age 19 (crude model). When adjusted for demographic variables and the other mental health problems, only the association for attention problems remained significant (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval: 3.19, 2.11–4.83). Increasing externalizing problems between age 11 and 16 also predicted low educational attainment at age 19 (OR 3.12, 1.83–5.32). Among girls, increasing internalizing problems between age 11 and 16 predicted low educational attainment (OR 2.21, 1.25–3.94). For boys, no significant association was found for increasing internalizing problems and low educational attainment. For increasing attention problems between age 11 and 16 no significant association with low educational attainment was found. Conclusions Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 and an increase of these problems during adolescence predicted low educational attainment at age 19. Early treatment of these mental health problems may improve educational attainment, and reduce socioeconomic health differences in adulthood. PMID:25047692
Alberto Álvarez de Sotomayor
Full Text Available The influence that co-ethnic relationships and coethnic networks have on the educational attainment of immigrant students is a topic that has often been researched within the sociology of migrations. During the last years, the concept of social capital has been privileged in the analysis of this topic, highlighting fundamentally the positive effect of such relationships and networks over the educational attainment of immigrant pupils. Nevertheless, the opposite outcome is shown by a second type of literature that focuses on the analysis of a particular form of this kind of relationship: the one that occurs inside the peer groups. Researches included within this second sort of literature usually highlight the negative effects of these co-ethnic relationships on immigrant students. The purpose of this article is to make a dialectic contrast between both tendencies in the literature, which allows us to face the analysis of the association between co-ethnic relationships and the educational attainment of immigrant pupils from a critical perspective. As a result, this paper underlines the ambivalence of the «ethnic factor» that is implicit in this kind of relationships
Byhoff, Elena; Hamati, Mary C; Power, Robyn; Burgard, Sarah A; Chopra, Vineet
Understanding the relationship between increasing educational attainment and mortality reduction has important policy and public health implications. This systematic review of the literature establishes a taxonomy to facilitate evaluation of the association between educational attainment and early mortality. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed and hand searches of references for English-language primary data analyses using education as an independent variable and mortality as a dependent variable. Initial searches were undertaken in February 2015 and updated in April 2016. One thousand, seven hundred and eleven unique articles were identified, 418 manuscripts were screened and 262 eligible studies were included in the review. After an iterative review process, the literature was divided into four study domains: (1) all-cause mortality (n = 68, 26.0%), (2) outcome-specific mortality (n = 89, 34.0%), (3) explanatory pathways (n = 51, 19.5%), and (4) trends over time (n = 54, 20.6%). These four domains comprise a novel taxonomy that can be implemented to better quantify the relationship between education and mortality. We propose an organizational taxonomy for the education-mortality literature based upon study characteristics that will allow for a more in-depth understanding of this association. Our review suggests that studies that include mediators or subgroups can explain part, but not all, of the relationship between education and early mortality. PROSPERO registration # CRD42015017182 .
Full Text Available This is the second of two companion papers addressing the association between educational attainment and fertility for some sixty educational groups of Swedish women, defined according to field of education as well as level of education. The first paper is about childlessness and education, the present one about the mean number of children ever born. We find that ultimate fertility decreases somewhat with an increasing educational level, but its dependence on the field of education is much more impressive. In general, educational groups with relatively little childlessness also have relatively high ultimate fertility, and educational groups with much childlessness have relatively low ultimate fertility. In particular, women educated for the teaching or health-care professions have less childlessness and a higher ultimate fertility than others. Conversely, women with an education for esthetic or (non-teacher humanist occupations have unusually high fractions childless and low ultimate fertility. Women with religious educations stand out by having very high fractions childless but quite ordinary mean ultimate fertility nevertheless; such women have very little childbearing outside of marriage. Women with research degrees have remarkably ordinary childbearing behavior; they do not forego motherhood to the extent that some theories would predict.
Melkevik, Ole; Hauge, Lars Johan; Bendtsen, Pernille
BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression....... This study aims to investigate whether delayed HS completion is associated with symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood and whether it interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom-levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood. METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 149...... participants from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 3) between 30 and 46 years of age in 2006. The outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression as measured by the HADS scale. Variables measuring educational attainment were obtained from the National Educational Database in Norway. We used...
Gaysina, Darya; Gardner, Michael P; Richards, Marcus; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav
Adult cognition and age-related cognitive decline can be influenced by dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis with concomitant changes in cortisol levels. However, very little is known about the role of childhood cognition and educational attainment in this relationship. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, the present study investigated: (1) associations between cortisol levels and patterns and cognitive function in midlife; (2) direct and interactive effects of childhood cognition, educational attainment and cortisol on cognitive function in midlife. Verbal memory, letter search speed and reaction time were assessed at age 60-64 years. Salivary cortisol samples (wakening, 30 min after wakening and evening) were collected at the same age. Childhood cognitive ability was measured at ages 8, 11, and 15, and educational level was reported at age 26. Associations between cortisol, childhood cognition, educational attainment and cognitive function in midlife were tested using linear regression and structural equation modelling approaches. Higher evening cortisol level was associated with slower reaction time and lower verbal memory. These associations were independent of childhood cognition and education as well as a range of other potential confounders. Childhood cognition and education were not directly associated with evening cortisol. However, there was a significant interaction effect between childhood cognition and evening cortisol on reaction time (p=.002): higher evening cortisol was associated with slower reaction time only among those with low childhood cognitive ability. There was little evidence of associations between the other cortisol measures and cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Smith, Brad; Forkner, Emma; Krasuski, Richard A; Galbreath, Autumn Dawn; Freeman, Gregory L
The objective of this study was to assess whether educational attainment moderates outcomes in the intervention group in a trial of disease management in heart failure (HF). Data were collected from a sample of 654 patients enrolled in the disease management arm of a community- based study of HF patients. The full sample was used to analyze two primary outcomes- all-cause mortality and cardiac event-free survival. Two other primary outcomes- rates of HF-related emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient admissions-and secondary outcomes (patient self-confidence in managing HF symptoms and daily dietary sodium intake in milligrams) were analyzed in a smaller sample of 602 patients who completed at least 6 months of disease management. One-way analysis of variance and chi (2) tests were used to assess differences in baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Survival analyses were conducted with proportional hazards regression, while negative binomial regression was used to assess educational differences in ED usage and inpatient admissions. Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to assess whether secondary outcomes differed across educational strata and/or over time. All outcome analyses were adjusted for confounders. Patients with the least education fared the poorest for all-cause mortality, but education- related differences failed to achieve statistical significance. No education-related differences were observed for cardiac event-free survival, or for the rates of inpatient admission and ED usage. For secondary outcomes, sodium intake differed significantly by education (p = 0.04), with the largest drop (-838 mg/day) observed in the least well-educated group. Confidence increased an approximately equal amount (2.1-3.0 points on a 100-point scale) across all educational strata (p = ns). Low educational attainment may not be a barrier to effective disease management.
Developing countries place a high premium on education because it is believed to correlate with economic development. Similarly, Botswana adopted an education-for-development policy when it became independent in 1966. Providentially, it discovered and mined minerals, particularly diamonds, and funded education. Unfortunately, Botswana is a…
controversy. The article discusses these funding challenges. It argues that the current higher education funding conundrum will hamstring the achievement of the important higher education policy goals articulated in the National Plan on Higher Education. The article finally argues for a shift towards a redistributive funding ...
Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Temple, Judy A
Educational attainment is the leading social determinant of health, but few studies of prevention programs have examined whether the programs are associated with educational attainment outcomes after the mid-20s, especially for large-scale programs that provide a longer duration of services. To examine the association between a preschool to third grade intervention and educational attainment at midlife and differences by program duration, sex, and parental educational level. This matched-group, alternative intervention study assessed 1539 low-income minority children born in 1979 or 1980 who grew up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. The comparison group included 550 children primarily from randomly selected schools participating in the usual early intervention. A total of 989 children who entered preschool in 1983 or 1984 and completed kindergarten in 1986 were included in the Chicago Longitudinal Study and were followed up for 27 to 30 years after the end of a multicomponent intervention. A total of 1398 participants (90.8%) in the original sample had educational attainment records at 35 years of age. The study was performed from January 1, 2002, through May 31, 2015. The Child-Parent Center Program provides school-based educational enrichment and comprehensive family services from preschool to third grade (ages 3-9 years). Educational outcomes from administrative records and self-report included school dropout, 4-year high school graduation, years of education, postsecondary credential, and earned degrees from associate's to master's or higher. A total of 1539 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [0.32] years; 1423 [92.9%] black and 108 [7.1%] Hispanic) were included in the study. After weighting on 2 propensity scores, preschool participants had higher rates of postsecondary degree completion, including associate's degree or higher (15.7% vs 10.7%; difference, 5.0%; 95% CI, 1.0%-9.0%), master's degree (4.2% vs 1.5%; difference, 2.7%; 95% CI, 1
Duca Ioana; Postole Mirela-Anca; Ciobanasu Marilena
The scientific steps taken by the authors emphasize the importance of higher education financing by the diversification of financing sources and their correlation with the social dimension. Besides the analysis of the social dimension concept, the research also approaches its application by opening the opportunities offer for more members of society to be involved in the higher education system. Furthermore the authors of the research present some financing models, pointing out the performanc...
This paper studies the trends in the financing of elementary education in India over the past decade. In 1994 the Indian Supreme Court issued a directive to universalize free and compulsory elementary education, but that in a changing economic milieu where social service expenditures have often been reduced in other countries, it is important to…
Salmi, Jamil; Hauptman, Arthur M.
In recent decades, a growing number of countries have sought innovative solutions to the substantial challenges they face in financing tertiary education. One of the principal challenges is that the demand for education beyond the secondary level in most countries around the world is growing far faster than the ability or willingness of…
Over the last five years there has been a significant increase in the number of children in care. Despite service provision, the outcomes for these children differ significantly from their counterparts, particularly in relation to educational attainment. While 68% of children in care have special needs, this does not explain the difference in attainment for 32% of children in care. Research indicates that stereotyping, lower expectations and the experience of care are significant factors. Although positive work is being done, the differences in outcomes for children in care suggest further emphasis is needed. Experiences in early life impact on outcomes across the lifespan and it is here where as school nurses and health visitors, we can make a positive contribution for children in care.
Full Text Available Background: Although higher socioeconomic status (SES indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. Aims: To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. Methods: This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2017 (n = 3217. HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites (n = 1868; 82% or Blacks (n = 409; 18%. The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. Results: In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. Conclusions: In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.
Assari, Shervin; Mistry, Ritesh
Although higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017 ( n = 3217). HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites ( n = 1868; 82%) or Blacks ( n = 409; 18%). The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day) smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender) were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.
Kaplan, Robert M; Fang, Zhengyi; Kirby, James
Using data from the nationally representative Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS), we explored the extent to which health care utilization and health risk-taking, together with previously examined mediators, can explain the education-health gradient above and beyond what can be explained by previously examined mediators such as age, race, and poverty status. Health was measured using the Physical Component Score (PCS) from the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form (SF-12). Educational attainment was self-reported and categorized as 1 (less than high school), 2 (high school graduate or GED), 3 (some college), 4 (bachelor's degree), and 5 (graduate degree). In bivariate analysis, we found systematic graded relationships between educational attainment and health including, SF-12 PCS scores, self-rated health, and activity limitations. In addition, education was associated with having more office visits and outpatient visits and less risk tolerance. Those with less education were also more likely to be uninsured throughout the year. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that adjustment for age, race, poverty status and marital status explained part, but not nearly all, of the relationship between education and health. Adding a variety of variables on health care and attitudes to the models provided no additional explanatory power. This pattern of results persisted even after stratifying on the number of self-reported chronic conditions. Our findings provide no evidence that access to and use of health care explains the education-health gradient. However, more research is necessary to conclusively rule out medical care as a mediator between education and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Jarman, M; Lawrence, W; Ntani, G; Tinati, T; Pease, A; Black, C; Baird, J; Barker, M
Women of lower educational attainment tend to have poorer quality diets and lower food involvement (an indicator of the priority given to food) than women of higher educational attainment. The present study reports a study of the role of food involvement in the relationship between educational attainment and quality of diet in young women. The first phase uses six focus group discussions (n = 28) to explore the function of food involvement in shaping the food choices of women of lower and higher educational attainment with young children. The second phase is a survey that examines the relationship between educational attainment and quality of diet in women, and explores the role of mediating factors identified by the focus group discussions. The focus groups suggested that lower food involvement in women of lower educational attainment might be associated with negative affect (i.e. an observable expression of negative emotion), and that this might mean that they did not place a high priority on eating a good quality diet. In support of this hypothesis, the survey of 1010 UK women found that 14% of the effect of educational attainment on food involvement was mediated through the woman's affect (P ≤ 0.001), and that 9% of the effect of educational attainment on quality of diet was mediated through food involvement (P ≤ 0.001). Women who leave school with fewer qualifications may have poorer quality diets than women with more qualifications because they tend to have a lower level of food involvement, partly attributed to a more negative affect. Interventions to improve women's mood may benefit their quality of diet. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Christiansen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
on type and level of education enables us to focus on the shared features between human capital and stock investments. An innovative finance-labor approach is applied to study the educational asset market. A risk-return trade-off is revealed which is not directly related to the length of education.......Like the stock market, the human capital market consists of a wide range of assets, i.e. educations. Each young individual chooses the educational asset that matches his preferred combination of risk and return in terms of future income. A unique register-based data set with exact information...
Foster, Laura Rasmussen; Klein, Steve; Elliott, Barbara
The "Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006" ("Perkins IV" or "Act") authorizes federal funding for career and technical education (CTE) and specifies a formula for distributing those funds. Allocations at the secondary level are based on the number of youths ages 5-17 who reside within a local…
Vossensteyn, Johan J.
While higher education is regarded of high priority in boosting economic development, public budgets to sustain expansion of higher education systems remain limited around the globe. In practice, this situation of fiscal stress creates an impetus for governments to develop various strategies to meet
Verstegen, Deborah A.
Over time, issues of justice and fairness in education finance have been addressed by the courts in all but five states. The key focus has been on illegitimate disparities in funding between rich and poor school districts caused by the happenstance of unequal local wealth. Recently, attention has turned to the relationship between funding gaps and…
Chukwu, Leo C.; Chinyelugo, Agada Fidelia; Eze, S. G. N.
The paper explained the concept university and the objectives of university education. Sustainable development and its purpose were then explained. The paper went further to analyze the various sources of financing the universities, including; the governments, endowment, and consultancy amongst others. The role of the universities in the…
Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2015
Since the turn of the 21st century, universities in Canada have undergone significant changes. Student enrollment has exploded. This issue of the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) Education Review provides an analysis of the current state of university finances in Canada, as well as longer-term trends in university revenues and…
Abdullahi, N. J. K.; Abdulkareem, A. Y.
This study investigated strategies of financing universal basic education for sustainable national development by school managers in North-Central Zone, Nigeria. Specifically the purpose was to determine the relationship between commercial based income and sustainable national development as well as to examine the relationship between agricultural…
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7312] Notice of Certification; Foreign Military Financing, and International Military Education and Training; Guatemala AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. The... internationally recognized human rights; (B) the Guatemalan Air Force, Navy, and Army Corps of Engineers are...
Lucey, Thomas A.; Bates, Alan
This article describes findings from a research survey that measured agreement with items that concerned financial morality. The authors analyzed the responses of 382 teacher education majors and finance majors at a Midwestern institution of higher learning in the USA. The study found highest agreement with items measuring business…
Conklin, Kristin D.
Discusses why the current economic downturn for public institutions requires that policy makers respond with new financing policies that reflect the simultaneous convergence of state deficits, changing demographics, and the information economy's voracious demand for a more educated workforce. Presents strategies for states to behave as investors…
Byrne, Marann; Chughtai, Aamir Ali; Flood, Barbara; Willis, Pauline
The central aim of the present study was to examine the levels of job satisfaction among accounting and finance academics in Irish higher education institutions. Additionally, this research sought to uncover the factors linked to the overall job satisfaction of these teachers. The findings showed that while, participants were generally satisfied…
Dean, Andy C.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine A.; London, Edythe D.
We sought to test the hypothesis that methamphetamine use interferes with both the quantity and quality of one's education, such that the years of education obtained by methamphetamine dependent individuals serves to underestimate general cognitive functioning and overestimate the quality of academic learning. Thirty-six methamphetamine-dependent participants and 42 healthy comparison subjects completed cognitive tests and self-report measures in Los Angeles, California. An overall cognitive battery score was used to assess general cognition, and vocabulary knowledge was used as a proxy for the quality of academic learning. Linear regression procedures were used for analyses. Supporting the hypothesis that methamphetamine use interferes with the quantity of education, we found that a) earlier onset of methamphetamine use was associated with fewer years of education (p battery score (p < .01); and c) greater differences between methamphetamine-dependent participants' predicted and actual educational attainment were associated with an earlier onset of MA use (p ≤ .01). Supporting the hypothesis that methamphetamine use interferes with the quality of education, years of education received prior to the onset of methamphetamine use was a better predictor of a proxy for academic learning, vocabulary knowledge, than was the total years of education obtained. Results support the hypothesis that methamphetamine use interferes with the quantity and quality of educational exposure, leading to under- and overestimation of cognitive function and academic learning, respectively. PMID:22206606
Dean, Andy C; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine A; London, Edythe D
We sought to test the hypothesis that methamphetamine use interferes with both the quantity and quality of one's education, such that the years of education obtained by methamphetamine dependent individuals serves to underestimate general cognitive functioning and overestimate the quality of academic learning. Thirty-six methamphetamine-dependent participants and 42 healthy comparison subjects completed cognitive tests and self-report measures in Los Angeles, California. An overall cognitive battery score was used to assess general cognition, and vocabulary knowledge was used as a proxy for the quality of academic learning. Linear regression procedures were used for analyses. Supporting the hypothesis that methamphetamine use interferes with the quantity of education, we found that (a) earlier onset of methamphetamine use was associated with fewer years of education (pbattery score (p<.01); and (c) greater differences between methamphetamine-dependent participants' predicted and actual educational attainment were associated with an earlier onset of MA use (p≤.01). Supporting the hypothesis that methamphetamine use interferes with the quality of education, years of education received prior to the onset of methamphetamine use was a better predictor of a proxy for academic learning, vocabulary knowledge, than was the total years of education obtained. Results support the hypothesis that methamphetamine use interferes with the quantity and quality of educational exposure, leading to under- and overestimation of cognitive function and academic learning, respectively. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Marphatia, Akanksha A; Devakumar, Delan; Wells, Jonathan C K; Saville, Naomi; Reid, Alice; Costello, Anthony; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David
Factors acting before children are born or reach school-going age may explain why some do not complete primary education. Many relevant factors relate to maternal phenotype, but few studies have tested for independent associations of maternal factors relative to those characterizing the family in general. Using data from a longitudinal study of 838 children in Dhanusha, Nepal, we used logistic regression models to test whether indices of maternal somatic and educational capital, or family economic capital, were independently associated with children having had ≤2 versus 3+ years of schooling at a mean age of 8.5 years. We also tested whether maternal age, children's early growth, and urban/rural location mediated such associations. Children had a higher risk of completing less schooling if their mothers were short, thin, anemic, and uneducated. Independently, lower family material assets and land acreage also increased children's odds of less schooling. There was an indication of gender differences, with the risk of poor educational attainment in girls associated with low maternal somatic and educational capital, whereas in boys the relevant factors were low maternal education and family land ownership. Our analysis demonstrates that, independent of broader indices of family capital such as land or material assets, children's educational attainment is associated with factors embodied in maternal phenotype. Both somatic and educational maternal capital appeared important. A composite index of maternal capital could provide a new measurable proxy, prior to school entry, for identifying children at risk of completing fewer years of schooling. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:687-698, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Devakumar, Delan; Wells, Jonathan C.K.; Saville, Naomi; Reid, Alice; Costello, Anthony; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David
Objectives Factors acting before children are born or reach school‐going age may explain why some do not complete primary education. Many relevant factors relate to maternal phenotype, but few studies have tested for independent associations of maternal factors relative to those characterizing the family in general. Methods Using data from a longitudinal study of 838 children in Dhanusha, Nepal, we used logistic regression models to test whether indices of maternal somatic and educational capital, or family economic capital, were independently associated with children having had ≤2 versus 3+ years of schooling at a mean age of 8.5 years. We also tested whether maternal age, children's early growth, and urban/rural location mediated such associations. Results Children had a higher risk of completing less schooling if their mothers were short, thin, anemic, and uneducated. Independently, lower family material assets and land acreage also increased children's odds of less schooling. There was an indication of gender differences, with the risk of poor educational attainment in girls associated with low maternal somatic and educational capital, whereas in boys the relevant factors were low maternal education and family land ownership. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that, independent of broader indices of family capital such as land or material assets, children's educational attainment is associated with factors embodied in maternal phenotype. Both somatic and educational maternal capital appeared important. A composite index of maternal capital could provide a new measurable proxy, prior to school entry, for identifying children at risk of completing fewer years of schooling. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:687–698, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27135632
Reported maternal education is an important predictor of pregnancy outcomes. Like income, it is believed to allow women to locate in more favorable conditions than less educated or affluent peers. We examine the effect of reported educational attainment on term birth weight (birt...
Rud, Iryna; Van Klaveren, Chris; Groot, Wim; Maassen van den Brink, Henriëtte
The empirical literature on education and crime suggests that both criminal behavior and educational attainment are transferred from parents to children. However, the impact of criminal behavior of parents on educational outcomes of children is generally ignored, even though the entailed social
Rud, I.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
The empirical literature on education and crime suggests that both criminal behavior and educational attainment are transferred from parents to children. However, the impact of criminal behavior of parents on educational outcomes of children is generally ignored, even though the entailed social
Rud, I.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
The empirical literature on education and crime suggests that both criminal behavior and educational attainment are transferred from parents to children. However, the impact of criminal involvement of parents on educational outcomes of children tends to be ignored, even though the entailed social
Full Text Available Turbulent economic environment after overwhelming the last crisis period is typical for present days as well as permanent increasing dependability of all our activities on information and communication technology (ICT. Although the global economic crisis was the reason for disinvestment into ICT in 2009 there is expected that ICT will generate almost 5.8 million new jobs in Europe till year 2013 and they have to be saturated also by adequately qualified ICT specialists.This contribution presents the research in the progress focused on the tertiary education system in the Czech Republic. We are predicting trends in education and especially in ICT education in Europe and in the Czech Republic as well for next ten years. We can expect that future ten years period will be critical not only for the Czech tertiary education system, but also for the Czech Republic because number of ICT students will be decreasing and number of ICT specialist demanded by labor market will be increasing. From macroeconomic point of view we can expect that also state subventions into state governed tertiary education system will decrease in the whole Europe.Some recommendations, proposals and forecasts for further development of education system are presented at the end of this contribution.
Martins, Silvia S; Kim, June H; Chen, Lian-Yu; Levin, Deysia; Keyes, Katherine M; Cerdá, Magdalena; Storr, Carla L
Little is known about nonmedical use of prescription drugs among non-college-attending young adults in the United States. Data were drawn from 36,781 young adults (ages 18-22 years) from the 2008-2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health public use files. The adjusted main effects for current educational attainment, along with its interaction with gender and race/ethnicity, were considered. Compared to those attending college, non-college-attending young adults with at least and less than a HS degree had a higher prevalence of past-year nonmedical use of prescription opioids [NMUPO 13.1 and 13.2 %, respectively, vs. 11.3 %, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) 1.21 (1.11-1.33) and 1.25 (1.12-1.40)], yet lower prevalence of prescription stimulant use. Among users, regardless of drug type, non-college-attending youth were more likely to have past-year disorder secondary to use [e.g., NMUPO 17.4 and 19.1 %, respectively, vs. 11.7 %, aORs 1.55 (1.22-1.98) and 1.75 (1.35-2.28)]. Educational attainment interacted with gender and race: (1) among nonmedical users of prescription opioids, females who completed high school but were not enrolled in college had a significantly greater risk of opioid disorder (compared to female college students) than the same comparison for men; and (2) the risk for nonmedical use of prescription opioids was negligible across educational attainment groups for Hispanics, which was significantly different than the increased risk shown for non-Hispanic whites. There is a need for young adult prevention and intervention programs to target nonmedical prescription drug use beyond college campuses.
Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey
Research finds lower levels of academic performance among sexual minority high school students, but some studies suggest sexual minorities have higher levels of educational attainment in adulthood. To further our understanding of how and why sexual orientation is associated with educational success, this study turns attention to the pathways to college completion, examining points along educational trajectories in which sexual minorities fall behind or surpass their heterosexual peers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we find that sexual minority women are less likely than women with no same-sex sexuality to complete college, in part due to their high school performance and transition into college. Men who experience same-sex sexuality only in adolescence struggle in high school, but men who experience same-sex sexuality for the first time in adulthood are more likely to earn a college degree than men who do not experience same-sex sexuality.
Friis, Karina; Lasgaard, Mathias; Rowlands, Gill
behavior (smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet) and obesity. The study included respondents ages 25 years or older drawn from a large population-based survey conducted in 2013 (N = 29,473). Two scales from the Health Literacy Questionnaire were used: (a) Understanding health information well enough...... to know what to do and (b) Ability to actively engage with health care providers. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted using the Karlson-Holm-Breen method. The study showed that health literacy in general and the ability to understand health information in particular mediated the relationship......Individuals with a lower education level frequently have unhealthier behaviors than individuals with a higher education level, but the pathway is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether health literacy mediates the association between educational attainment and health...
Cheng, Feng; Wang, Yifang; Wu, Xixian; Su, Zhuqing
The current study shows that parental punitive discipline places children at risk of developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Although some studies have analyzed the reasons for the use of discipline methods, little to no research has analyzed the moderating effects. In this study, we examine the relationship between maternal negative emotional expression and mothers' use of disciplinary methods (psychological aggression, corporal punishment and physical maltreatment) and the moderating effects of educational attainment in Chinese societies. Five hundred and sixteen mothers with preschool-aged children were recruited to participate in this research. The Chinese versions of the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ) and the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) were used to measure the mothers' negative emotional expression and discipline, respectively. The results suggested that the mothers' negative emotional expression was positively related to their disciplinary behaviors. Moreover, maternal educational attainment moderated the association between negative emotional expression and discipline. The findings of the current study highlight the importance of considering how mothers' educational backgrounds may interact with their emotions to influence maternal disciplinary behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Breslau, Joshua; Lane, Michael; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C
As part of a larger investigation of the adverse effects of mental disorders on role functioning, we examined the associations of early-onset mental disorders with subsequent educational attainment in a large nationally representative survey of the US adult population. Diagnoses and age of onset for each of 17 DSM-IV disorders were assessed through retrospective self-report with the fully structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI). Survival analysis was used to examine the associations between early-onset DSM-IV/CIDI disorders and subsequent termination of schooling with controls for socio-demographic characteristics and childhood adversities (i.e. childhood traumatic events, childhood neglect, parental mental illness, family disruption, and low parental educational attainment). Mental disorders were found to be significantly associated with termination of schooling prior to completion of each of four educational milestones (primary school graduation, high school graduation, college entry, college graduation), with odds ratios in the range of 1.3-7.0. The proportion of school terminations attributable to mental disorders was largest for high school graduation (10.2%) but also meaningful for primary school graduation (3.8%), college entry (4.4%) and college graduation (2.6%). These results add to a growing body of evidence documenting a wide variety of adverse life course effects of mental disorders.
Cinnirella, Francesco; Piopiunik, Marc; Winter, Joachim
Height is positively associated with educational attainment. We investigate the mechanisms behind this relationship using data on German pre-teen students. We show that taller children are more likely to enroll in Gymnasium, the most academic secondary school track, and that primary school teachers...... provide more favorable school track decisions to taller students. We find that a 1 cm increase in height is associated with a 1.6 percentage points increase in the probability of attending Gymnasium. This holds even when controlling for academic achievement and parental background. In addition, we present...
Davis, Jason; Brazil, Noli
Estimating the effects of international migration on left-behind children's educational attainment is complicated by the potential offsetting effects of fathers' absences and household remittances. Most research has not separated these aspects of international migration on children's human capital outcomes. We address this deficiency by using instrumental variables to isolate the effects of fathers' international migration absences from international household remittances on student enrollment and grade progression in Guatemala. Results indicate that fathers' absences and household international remittances are negatively related to enrollment, providing evidence for a culture of migration effect. For students who remain in school, household international remittances neutralize the harmful influence of fathers' absences on grade progression.
Child poverty is a growing problem that adversely affects both future society and the poor children themselves. This paper's purpose is to investigate the intergenerational links between education and poverty. Israel serves as an interesting case study because it has exhibited an incremental trend in child poverty between 1980 and 2010 (from 5% to…
Ehrenberg, Ronald G.
In this paper, the author argues that a combination of short- and longer-run economic and political forces pose a threat to the well-being of the nation's doctoral programs. After briefly touching on the impact of current economic problems on doctoral education at private universities, he then discusses the growing pressure on academia to expand…
McMahon, Walter W.
A new approach is suggested that depends on and measures how spending on higher and basic education is really an investment in the future, not consumption spending. This is a vital distinction because investment in human capital contributes heavily to growth and development, but also to higher state tax revenue and lower Medicaid, child care,…
Based on current research and conventional wisdom, financial education should begin at an early age. With the exception of a few generally underutilized in-school banking programs, Maryland's Lower Eastern Shore, like so many other areas across the nation, has few or no school-based financial literacy programs. A partnership with 23 public,…
Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb. Dept. of Business Education and Administration Services.
Designed to be used with the General Marketing Curriculum Guide (ED 156 860), this guide is intended to provide the curriculum coordinator with a basis for planning a comprehensive program in the field of marketing and to allow marketing and distributive education teacher-coordinators maximum flexibility. It contains job competency sheets in ten…
Sorensen, Aage B.
This paper analyzes the properties of the process of social and economic attainments in two contrasting situations: (1) when the process of attainment generates the distribution of attainments, and (2) when the structure of attainments is seen as exogenously determined. It is argued that the neoclassical economic theory of earnings determination…
Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan P.; Fontana, Mark A.; Lee, James J.; Pers, Tune H.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Turley, Patrick; Chen, Guo-Bo; Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S. Fleur W.; Oskarsson, Sven; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Thom, Kevin; Timshel, Pascal; de Vlaming, Ronald; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Bacelis, Jonas; Baumbach, Clemens; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Brandsma, Johannes H.; Concas, Maria Pina; Derringer, Jaime; Furlotte, Nicholas A.; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Girotto, Giorgia; Gupta, Richa; Hall, Leanne M.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hofer, Edith; Horikoshi, Momoko; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Kaasik, Kadri; Kalafati, Ioanna P.; Karlsson, Robert; Kong, Augustine; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J.; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Lind, Penelope A.; Lindgren, Karl-Oskar; Liu, Tian; Mangino, Massimo; Marten, Jonathan; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B.; van der Most, Peter J.; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Payton, Antony; Pervjakova, Natalia; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rueedi, Rico; Salvi, Erika; Schmidt, Börge; Schraut, Katharina E.; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert V.; Poot, Raymond A.; Pourcain, Beate; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Verweij, Niek; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhihong; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Biino, Ginevra; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boyle, Patricia A.; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Davies, Gail; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deloukas, Panos; Demuth, Ilja; Ding, Jun; Eibich, Peter; Eisele, Lewin; Eklund, Niina; Evans68, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Forstner, Andreas J.; Gandin, Ilaria; Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Homuth, Georg; Horan, Michael A.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Jager, Philip L.; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika A.; Kähönen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M.; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kroh, Martin; Kutalik, Zoltan; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lebreton, Maël P.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C.M.; Loukola, Anu; Madden, Pamela A.; Mägi, Reedik; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meddens, Gerardus A.; McMahon, George; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Milaneschi, Yusplitri; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Myhre, Ronny; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Ollier, William E.R.; Palotie, Aarno; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Porteous, David J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Ring, Susan M.; Robino, Antonietta; Rostapshova, Olga; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Rodney J.; Smith, Blair H.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Strauch, Konstantin; Terracciano, Antonio; Tobin, Martin D.; Ulivi, Sheila; Vaccargiu, Simona; Quaye, Lydia; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Venturini, Cristina; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Vonk, Judith M.; Vozzi, Diego; Waage, Johannes; Ware, Erin B.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Attia, John R.; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bultmann, Ute; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Franke, Barbara; Franke, Lude; Gasparini, Paolo; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Gratten, Jacob; Groenen, Patrick J.F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Hinds, David A.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G.; Jacobsson, Bo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lehrer, Steven F.; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Pendleton, Neil; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Perola, Markus; Pirastu, Nicola; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Power, Christine; Province, Michael A.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tiemeier, Henning; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vitart, Veronique; Vollenweider, Peter; Weir, David R.; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Laibson, David I.; Medland, Sarah E.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Yang, Jian; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M.; Esko, Tõnu; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J.
Summary Educational attainment (EA) is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are also estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals1. We report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for EA that extends our earlier discovery sample1,2 of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We now identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioral phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because EA is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:27225129
Maslow, Gary; Haydon, Abigail A; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn T
Youth with childhood-onset chronic illness (COCI) are at risk of poor educational attainment. Specific protective factors that promote college graduation in this population have not been studied previously. In this study, we examine the role protective factors during adolescence play in promoting college graduation among young adults with COCI. Data were collected from 10,925 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Protective factors present before 18 years of age included mentoring, parent relationship quality, school connectedness, and religious attendance. College graduation was the outcome of interest assessed when participants had a mean age of 28 years. Analysis was stratified by presence of COCI. About 2% of participants (N = 230) had 1 of 4 COCIs (cancer, diabetes, epilepsy, or heart disease). All 4 protective factors were associated with college graduation for youth without COCI. In the final multivariate model, only school connectedness was associated with college graduation for youth with COCI. School connectedness is of particular importance in promoting educational attainment for youth with COCI. © 2012, American School Health Association.
Blume, Josefine; Rothenfusser, Eva; Schlaier, Jürgen; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Lange, Max
To explore the relationship of motor burden and educational attainment in patients with advanced stage PD. We included 102 consecutive patients who underwent a complete evaluation for DBS surgery, including detailed neuropsychological testing and UPDRSIII in a standardized Levodopa challenge. Years of education (YoE) were calculated as the highest grade attained in secondary school plus years for post-secondary training. The OFF medication UPDRS-III score was associated with YoE (p=0.006; t=-2.82) and age (p=0.007; t=-2.75) in our multivariable linear regression model even while including disease duration (p=0.8; t=0.21), presence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (p=0.9; t=0.16) or current IQ (p=0.2; t=1.25) as additional covariables. In a subgroup of 60 patients two years after DBS, the ON/ON UPDRS score was associated with YoE (p=0.01; t=-2.42) and diagnosis of PD dementia (p=0.05, t=1.95), while age (p=0.08, t=1.75), disease duration (p=0.6t=0.48) and LEDD (p=0.3; t=1.05) showed no significant association to ON/ON UPDRS score. We found an inverse correlation between years of education and lower (better) UPDRS -III motor score after adjusting for important covariables. Education may lead to an increased ability to compensate disturbances in basal ganglia circuits affecting not only for cognitive, but also for motor aspects of PD. Thus, educational attainment may play an important role in the concept of motor reserve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guthrie, James W.
Policymakers continue to face major challenges in education finance, despite a history of reforms. Today's challenges include ensuring financial adequacy, maintaining gains in distributional equality, coping with the increasing need for teachers, satisfying public preference for diversity in schools and programs, and devising performance…
Hendrick, C. Emily; Cohen, Alison K.; Deardorff, Julianna
BACKGROUND Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In the current study, we examine the roles of socio-cultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women’s lifetime educational attainment. METHODS Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (N = 3889), we conducted sequential multivariate linear regression analyses to investigate the influences of macro-level and family-level socio-cultural contextual factors in youth (region of country, urbanicity, race/ethnicity, year of birth, household composition, mother’s education, mother’s age at first birth) and early menarche, a marker of early pubertal development, on women’s educational attainment after age 24. RESULTS Pubertal timing and all socio-cultural factors in youth, other than year of birth, predicted women’s lifetime educational attainment in bivariate models. Family factors had the strongest associations. When family factors were added to multivariate models, geographic region in youth and pubertal timing were no longer significant. CONCLUSION Our findings provide additional evidence that family factors should be considered when developing comprehensive and inclusive interventions in childhood and adolescence to promote lifetime educational attainment among girls. PMID:26830508
Jakobsen, Vibeke; Smith, Nina
This paper analyses the educational attainment of young first generation immigrants in Denmark who are children of the ‘guest workers’ who immigrated from Turkey, Pakistan and Ex-Yugoslavia in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Beside the traditional intergenerational transmission mechanism, we...... analyse potential immigrant-specific factors as language proficiency, attending mother-tongue courses and expectations concerning out or return migration from Denmark. The results show that intergenerational transmission effects are strong among ‘guest worker’ immigrants, especially among men. Other...... important factors are Danish language proficiency, age at first marriage and a number variables reflecting parents’ and own attitudes concerning education, marriage and family. However, the ‘guest worker’ immigrants are not a homogenous group. The analyses reveal large differences between Turkish, Pakistani...
Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier
for the statistical analysis. Our results are, first, that controlling for the three types of capital we explain a considerable part of the social class effect on educational attainment, and, second, that cultural and social capital are the key predictors of educational attainment.......This paper analyzes how much of the effect of social class on children’s choice of secondary education in Denmark can be decomposed into the influence of parental economic, cultural, and social capital. Following mobility regime theory, we propose that in the Scandinavian mobility regime to which...... Denmark belongs, the effect of social class on educational attainment should be explained primarily by non-economic forms of capital. We use an extremely rich Danish longitudinal survey to construct empirical measures of economic, cultural, and social capital and an extended random effect framework...
Orstavik, Ragnhild E; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Røysamb, Espen; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
In many Western countries, women now reach educational levels comparable to men, although their income remains considerably lower. For the past decades, it has become increasingly clear that these measures of socio-economic status are influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Less is known about the relationship between education and income, and sex differences. The aim of this study was to explore genetic and environmental factors influencing education and income in a large cohort of young Norwegian twins, with special emphasis on gender differences. National register data on educational level and income were obtained for 7,710 twins (aged 29-41 years). Bivariate Cholesky models were applied to estimate qualitative and quantitative gender differences in genetic and environmental influences, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the correlation between education and income, and genetic correlations within and between sexes and phenotypes. The phenotypic correlation between educational level and income was 0.34 (0.32-0.39) for men and 0.45 (0.43-0.48) for women. An ACE model with both qualitative and quantitative sex differences fitted the data best. The genetic correlation between men and women (rg) was 0.66 (0.22-1.00) for educational attainment and 0.38 (0.01-0.75) for income, and between the two phenotypes 0.31 (0.08-0.52) for men and 0.72 (0.64-0.85) for women. Our results imply that, in relatively egalitarian societies with state-supported access to higher education and political awareness of gender equality, genetic factors may play an important role in explaining sex differences in the relationship between education and income.
Bluestone, Barry; And Others
A proposal written by a group of economists suggests investing a portion of the Social Security surplus in a revolving loan fund designed to enable American students and workers to finance their own post-secondary education, vocational training, or re-training. The plan would make available to every American a line of credit to finance the costs…
Goertz, Margaret E.; Weiss, Michael
Education finance policy in New Jersey has been shaped by over 30 years of school finance litigation. Through its decisions in "Robinson v. Cahill" (1973-1976) and "Abbott v. Burke" (1985-2005), the justices of New Jersey's supreme court have defined the state's constitutional guarantee of a "thorough and efficient"…
Clement, Thomas; LeMire, Steven; Silvernagel, Craig
The authors examine whether U.S. college-level entrepreneurship education demonstrates a bias favoring venture capital (VC) financing while marginalizing trade credit financing, and the resulting impact on entrepreneurship students. A sample of U.S. business textbooks and survey data from entrepreneurship students reveals a significant bias toward…
Healey, F. Henry; Crouch, Luis; Hanna, Rafik
Egypt, currently in the throes of major political change, will likely undergo reforms of various sorts in the next few years. Some of these reforms are likely to give local entities, including schools, greater control over education finances. In 2007, the Government of Egypt began to decentralize some non-personnel recurrent finances from the…
Green, Preston C., III.
Since the separate-but-equal era, students attending schools with high concentrations of Black students have attempted to improve the quality of their educations through school finance litigation. Because of the negative effects of racial isolation, Black students might consider mounting school finance litigation to force states to explicitly…
Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Curtis, David S; Doan, Stacey N; Coe, Christopher L
The current study examined the prospective effects of educational attainment on proinflammatory physiology among African American and white adults. Participants were 1192 African Americans and 1487 whites who participated in Year 5 (mean [standard deviation] age = 30 [3.5] years), and Year 20 (mean [standard deviation] age = 45 [3.5]) of an ongoing longitudinal study. Initial analyses focused on age-related changes in fibrinogen across racial groups, and parallel analyses for C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 assessed at Year 20. Models then estimated the effects of educational attainment on changes in inflammation for African Americans and whites before and after controlling for four blocks of covariates: a) early life adversity, b) health and health behaviors at baseline, c) employment and financial measures at baseline and follow-up, and d) psychosocial stresses in adulthood. African Americans had larger increases in fibrinogen over time than whites (B = 24.93, standard error = 3.24, p educational attainment were weaker for African Americans than for whites (B = 10.11, standard error = 3.29, p = .002), and only 8% of this difference was explained by covariates. Analyses for C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 yielded consistent results. The effects of educational attainment on inflammation levels were stronger for white than for African American participants. Why African Americans do not show the same health benefits with educational attainment is an important question for health disparities research.
EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.
Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275
Chatzitheochari, Stella; Platt, Lucinda
Childhood disability has been largely overlooked in social stratification and life course research. As a result, we know remarkably little about mechanisms behind well-documented disability differentials in educational outcomes. This study investigates educational transitions of disabled youth using data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. We draw on social stratification literature on primary and secondary effects as well as that on stigma and labelling in order to explain disabled young people's educational outcomes. We find that disability differentials in transition rates to full-time academic upper secondary education and to university are largely the result of primary effects, reflected in differences in school performance between disabled and non-disabled young people. However, we also find evidence for secondary effects, with similarly achieving disabled young people less likely to pursue full-time academic upper secondary education compared to their non-disabled peers. We examine the extent to which these effects can be explained by disabled youth's suppressed educational expectations as well as their experiences of being bullied at school, which we link to the stigma experienced by disabled young people and their families. We find that educational expectations play an important role at crucial transitions in the English school system, while the effect of bullying is considerably smaller. By drawing attention to different social processes contributing to disability differentials in attainment, our study moves beyond medical models that implicitly assume a naturalized association of disability with poor educational outcomes, and demonstrates the parallels of disability with other ascriptive inequalities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.
Wong, Phoebe; Ng, Peggy M. L.; Mak, Connie K. Y.; Chan, Jason K. Y.
The higher education sector in Hong Kong has restructured substantially from elite to mass higher education since the introduction of education reform by the Hong Kong government in 2000. To stay ahead in this competitive environment in the education sector, management teams of self-financing institutions have to compete for students and identify…
Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
Assessing educational outcomes in high-risk populations is crucial for defining long-term outcomes. As standardized tests are costly and time-consuming, we assessed the use of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale (TAAS) as an outcome measure. Three hundred and forty three children in mainstream schools aged 10 to 11 years (144 males, 199 females; 190 extremely preterm and 153 term; mean age 10 y 9 mo, SD 5.5 mo, range 9 y 8 mo-12 y 3 mo) were assessed using the reading and mathematics scales of the criterion standard Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd (UK) edition (WIAT-II). Class teachers completed the TAAS, a seven-item questionnaire for assessing academic attainment. The TAAS was also completed at 6 years of age for 266 children. Cronbach's alpha 0.95 indicated excellent internal consistency, and the correlation between TAAS scores at 6 and 11 years indicated good test-retest reliability (r=0.77, pscale studies. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.
Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P; Sobanski, Esther; Postma, Maarten J
To estimate the long-term fiscal consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the German government and social insurance system based on differences in educational attainment and the resulting differences in lifetime earnings compared with non-ADHD cohorts. Differences in educational attainment between ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts were linked to education-specific earnings data. Direct and indirect tax rates and social insurance contributions were linked to differences in lifetime, education-specific earnings to derive lost tax revenue in Germany associated with ADHD. For ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts we derived the age-specific discounted net taxes paid by deducting lifetime transfers from lifetime gross taxes paid. The lifetime net tax revenue for a non-ADHD individual was approximately EUR 80,000 higher compared to an untreated ADHD individual. The fiscal burden of untreated ADHD, based on a cohort of n=31,844 born in 2010, was estimated at EUR 2.5 billion in net tax revenue losses compared with an equally-sized non-ADHD cohort. ADHD interventions providing a small improvement in educational attainment resulted in fiscal benefits from increases in lifetime tax gains. ADHD results in long-term financial loss due to lower education attainment and lifetime reduced earnings and resulting lifetime taxes and social contributions paid. Investments in ADHD interventions allowing more children to achieve their educational potential may offer fiscal benefits generating a positive rate of return.
Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L
There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note
Zbar, Ariella; Surkan, Pamela J; Fombonne, Eric; Melchior, Maria
Children who experience behavioral difficulties often have short and long-term school problems. However, the relationship between emotional difficulties and later academic achievement has not been thoroughly examined. Using data from the French TEMPO study (n = 666, follow-up 1991, 1999, 2009, mean age = 10.5, sd = 4.9 at baseline), we studied associations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms in: (a) childhood and (b) adolescence and educational attainment by young adulthood (educational attainment; however, in multivariate models only the association with childhood internalizing symptoms remained statistically significant (OR = 1.75, 95 % CI 1.00-3.02). Supporting children with internalizing problems early on could help improve their long-term educational attainment.
Davis, Jason; Brazil, Noli
Estimating the effects of international migration on left-behind children’s educational attainment is complicated by the potential offsetting effects of fathers’ absences and household remittances. Most research has not separated these aspects of international migration on children’s human capital outcomes. We address this deficiency by using instrumental variables to isolate the effects of fathers’ international migration absences from international household remittances on student enrollment and grade progression in Guatemala. Results indicate that fathers’ absences and household international remittances are negatively related to enrollment, providing evidence for a culture of migration effect. For students who remain in school, household international remittances neutralize the harmful influence of fathers’ absences on grade progression. PMID:27293309
Petrovskiy, Igor V.; Agapova, Elena N.
The aim of the research is to develop the policy and strategy recommendations to increase the quality of higher education in Russian Federation. The study examines the significance of equal educational opportunities and the influence of this factor on the educational systems of developing countries. Transformational processes in the domain of…
Boman, Tomas; Kjellberg, Anders; Danermark, Berth; Boman, Eva
More knowledge is needed of occupational attainment of persons with disabilities, i.e., the relationship between their educational level and their profession, and factors of importance for this relationship. To compare occupational attainment among persons with and without a disability. 3396 informants with disabilities and 19,004 non-disabled informants participated (control group) in a survey study by Statistics Sweden.The informants with disabilities were divided into six groups. Occupational attainment did not differ between the disability groups, neither between persons with and without a disability. Follow-up analysis showed that men with disabilities with primary or secondary school had an occupation above their educational level to a significantly larger extent than women with disabilities. This pattern was even clearer in comparison with the control group. Persons without disabilities, with secondary or higher education, were more successful in the labor market than persons with disabilities. Occupational attainment increased with age in both groups. Young women with disabilities who only have primary or secondary education run a higher risk of having a job that is below their educational level than men at the same educational level. This indicates discriminating mechanisms in the society related to gender and ability.
Full Text Available The issue of mixed educational financing is rarely evoked in the literature, although the financial contribution of parents in the public educational system can be significant. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the mixed system and public and private ‘extreme’ systems in terms of economic growth and social disparity. For developing countries and for heterogeneous individuals, the mixed system is widely preferred. For homogeneous agents the public and private systems cannot lead to better economic performance than the mixed system. The public system always reduces social inequality, in contrast to the mixed and private systems, which generate the same level of inequality.
Carliner, Hannah; Sarvet, Aaron L; Gordon, Allegra R; Hasin, Deborah S
While gender inequality has been a topic of concern for decades, little is known about the relationship between gender discrimination and illicit drug use. Further, whether this association varies by education level is unknown. Among 19,209 women participants in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005), we used logistic regression to test the association between gender discrimination (measured with four items from the Experiences of Discrimination instrument) and three outcomes: past-year illicit drug use, frequent drug use, and drug use disorders. We then tested whether associations differed by education level. Gender discrimination was reported by 9% of women and was associated with past-year drug use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-3.29], frequent drug use (aOR = 2.82; CI 1.99-4.00), and past-year drug use disorders (aOR = 3.15; CI 2.16-4.61). All specific domains of gender discrimination (on the job, in public, with institutions, being called a sexist name) were associated with all drug use outcomes. The association between gender discrimination and past-year drug use was stronger among women with less than a high school education (aOR = 6.33; CI 3.38-11.85) compared to those with more education (aOR = 2.45; CI 1.97-3.04; p interaction Gender discrimination is consistently and strongly associated with illicit drug use and drug use disorders among U.S. women, with significantly higher odds for drug use among women with less than a high school education. Future research should examine whether explicitly addressing distress from discrimination could benefit women in drug treatment, especially among clients with lower educational attainment.
Oketch, Moses; Mutisya, Maurice; Sagwe, Jackline
There is a sound research base attesting to the importance of parental involvement and to the many potential benefits it can offer for children's education. This study sought to examine differences in parental aspirations (as a mechanism of parental involvement in their children's education) for their children's educational attainment between slum…
Amadu J. Kaba
Full Text Available This research argues that despite all of the obstacles that African Americans have confronted in the history of the United States, they have made substantial progress in higher education attainment from the 1970s to the beginning of the 21st century. It reveals that the rise in attainment of college and university degrees has resulted in a substantial increase in living standards and that African Americans are making important economic, social and political contributions to the United States. I present several reasons why black males are not performing as well as black females in higher education attainment. Analyses are also presented regarding the current and future implications of the growing gap between black males and black females.
Salleh, I. Mohd; Mat Rani, M.
This paper aims to discuss the effectiveness of the Learning Outcome Attainment Measurement System in assisting Outcome Based Education (OBE) for Aviation Engineering Higher Education in Malaysia. Direct assessments are discussed to show the implementation processes that become a key role in the successful outcome measurement system. A case study presented in this paper involves investigation on the implementation of the system in Aircraft Structure course for Bachelor in Aircraft Engineering Technology program in UniKL-MIAT. The data has been collected for five semesters, starting from July 2014 until July 2016. The study instruments used include the report generated in Learning Outcomes Measurements System (LOAMS) that contains information on the course learning outcomes (CLO) individual and course average performance reports. The report derived from LOAMS is analyzed and the data analysis has revealed that there is a positive significant correlation between the individual performance and the average performance reports. The results for analysis of variance has further revealed that there is a significant difference in OBE grade score among the report. Independent samples F-test results, on the other hand, indicate that the variances of the two populations are unequal.
Belsky, Daniel W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Corcoran, David L; Domingue, Benjamin; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
Previous genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) of >100,000 individuals identified molecular-genetic predictors of educational attainment. We undertook in-depth life-course investigation of the polygenic score derived from this GWAS using the four-decade Dunedin Study (N=918). There were five main findings. First, polygenic scores predicted adult economic outcomes over and above completed education. Second, genes and environments were correlated; children with higher polygenic scores were born into better-off homes. Third, polygenic scores predicted children’s adult outcomes net of social-class origins; children with higher scores tended to be upwardly-socially-mobile. Fourth, polygenic scores predicted behavior across the life-course, from learning to talk earlier to acquiring reading skills more quickly, through geographic mobility and mate choice, on to financial planning for retirement. Fifth, polygenic-score associations were mediated by psychological characteristics including intelligence, self-control, and interpersonal skill. Effects were small. Factors connecting DNA sequence with life outcomes may provide targets for interventions to promote population-wide positive development. PMID:27251486
Zajacova, Anna; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki
This Short Communication builds on recent findings that documented an anomaly in the education-health gradient: adults who attended college but did not earn a BA (the subbaccalaureate group) reported an equal or higher level of health problems than adults with high school (HS) diploma. Our aim is to test whether this anomaly holds when we eliminate potential reporting differences, by examining biomarker levels in the subbaccalaureate vs HS groups. Using the restricted 1999-2012 NHANES, we estimate models of biomarkers for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as a function of educational attainment, including three subbaccalaureate levels: "some college", vocational associate degree (AA), and academic AA. The data show that adults with "some college" or vocational AA have no systematic advantage over HS graduates in most biomarker indices while academic AA is associated with a significantly better risk profile compared to HS. The findings indicate that the adults with some college and vocational AA degrees do not benefit from their college experience in terms of improved physiological risk profile. This pattern underscores the need to understand and explain the anomalous health pattern that concerns 28% of American adults in the subbaccalaureate group among whom many reap little health payoffs to postsecondary schooling.
Jansen, Philip R; Polderman, Tinca J C; Bolhuis, Koen; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Posthuma, Danielle; Tiemeier, Henning
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies in adults have identified numerous genetic variants related to psychiatric disorders and related traits, such as schizophrenia and educational attainment. However, the effects of these genetic variants on behaviour in the general population remain to be
Nichols, Andrew Howard
Improving college degree attainment is essential as the United States seeks to remain economically competitive in a globalized marketplace. As the economy continues to evolve and become increasingly more complex, it is critical that our education system provides our youth with the skills, ingenuity, and critical thinking abilities that can…
Using longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study, this study explored conditions under which the effects of risk factors for low educational attainment might be moderated. Two different risk factors, hyperactivity and maternal authoritarian parenting attitudes, were studied. The results showed that on the whole these two risk factors…
Greve, Aja Neergaard; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
,531) the presence of a mental disorder in the parents were associated with significantly lower offspring scores on a test of general intelligence, the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP), and higher educational attainment in parents was significantly associated with higher BPP test scores in offspring. A significant...
Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P.; Sobanski, Esther; Postma, Maarten J.
Objective: To estimate the long-term fiscal consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the German government and social insurance system based on differences in educational attainment and the resulting differences in lifetime earnings compared with non-ADHD cohorts. Methods:
Harris, Linda Hall; Thompson, John L.
The manual discusses Project SAIL's (a special dropout prevention program) use of Goal Attainment Scaling as part of individualized education plans in the treatment of troubled adolescents and in overall program evaluation. The scaling is characterized as an explicit, respectful treatment contact through which the adolescent can learn to set…
Johnson, S; Hennessy, E; Smith, R; Trikic, R; Wolke, D; Marlow, N
To assess academic attainment and special educational needs (SEN) in extremely preterm children in middle childhood. Of 307 extremely preterm (special school. In mainstream schools, 105 (57%) extremely preterm children had SEN (OR 10; 6 to 18) and 103 (55%) required SEN resource provision (OR 10; 6 to 18). Teachers rated 50% of extremely preterm children as having below average attainment compared with 5% of classmates (OR 18; 8 to 41). Extremely preterm children who entered compulsory education an academic year early due to preterm birth had similar academic attainment but required more SEN support (OR 2; 1.0 to 3.6). Extremely preterm survivors remain at high risk for learning impairments and poor academic attainment in middle childhood. A significant proportion require full-time specialist education and over half of those attending mainstream schools require additional health or educational resources to access the national curriculum. The prevalence and impact of SEN are likely to increase as these children approach the transition to secondary school.
Ward, M.E.; McMahon, G.; St. Pourcain, B.; Evans, D.M.; Rietveld, C.A.; Benjamin, D.J.; Koellinger, P.D.; Cesarini, D.; Davey Smith, G.; Timpson, N.J.
Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and
Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars R.
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the importance of task persistence in young adolescence for successful educational and occupational attainment in middle adulthood. Data from age 13 (N = 1,092) and adult age (age 43 for women, N = 569 and age 47 for men, N = 393) were taken from the Swedish longitudinal research program…
Marks, Gary N; Mooi-Reci, Irma
The paper examines changes in the influence of family background, including socioeconomic and social background variables on educational attainment in Australia for cohorts born between 1890 and 1982. We test hypotheses from modernization theory on sibling data using random effects models and find: (i) substantial declines in the influence of family background on educational attainment (indicated by the sibling intraclass correlations); (ii) declines in the effects of both economic and cultural socioeconomic background variables; (iii) changes in the effects of some social background variables (e.g., family size); (iv) and declines in the extent that socioeconomic and social background factors account for variation in educational attainment. Unmeasured family background factors are more important, and proportionally increasingly so, for educational attainment than the measured socioeconomic and social background factors analyzed. Fixed effects models showed steeper declines in the effects of socioeconomic background variables than in standard analyses suggesting that unmeasured family factors associated with socioeconomic background obscure the full extent of the decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ward, Julia B; Feinstein, Lydia; Vines, Anissa I; Robinson, Whitney R; Haan, Mary N; Aiello, Allison E
Despite growing evidence that discrimination may contribute to poor mental health, few studies have assessed this association among US Latinos. Furthermore, the interaction between discrimination and educational attainment in shaping Latino mental health is virtually unexplored. This study aims to examine the association between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms and the modifying role of education among a population of Mexican-origin adults. We utilized population-based data from 629 Mexican-origin adults (mean age = 52.8 years) participating the Niños Lifestyle and Diabetes Study (2013-2014). Perceived discrimination was defined as responding 'sometimes' or 'often' to at least one item on the 9-item Everyday Discrimination Scale. High depressive symptoms were defined as scoring ≥10 on the CESD-10. We used log-binomial and linear-binomial models to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and prevalence differences (PD), respectively, of high depressive symptoms for levels of perceived discrimination. Final models were adjusted for age, sex, education, cultural orientation, and nativity. General estimating equations were employed to account for within-family clustering. Prevalence of perceived discrimination and high depressive symptoms were 49.5% and 29.2%, respectively. Participants experiencing discrimination had higher depressive symptom prevalence than those never or rarely experiencing discrimination [PR = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46-2.58; PD = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.12-0.27]. The strength of this association varied by education level. The association between discrimination and depressive symptoms was stronger among those with >12 years of education (PR = 2.69; PD = 0.24) compared to those with ≤12 years of education (PR = 1.36; PD = 0.09). US Latinos suffer a high burden of depressive symptoms, and discrimination may be an important driver of this burden. Our results suggest that effortful coping strategies, such
Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till
Individuals' educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15-34) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily) in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44), but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25-34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics.
Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till
Introduction Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15–34) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily) in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Results Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44), but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25–34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. Conclusions HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics. PMID:26902392
Woolf, Katherine; Viney, Rowena; Rich, Antonia; Jayaweera, Hirosha; Griffin, Ann
To explore how representatives from organisations with responsibility for doctors in training perceive risks to the educational progression of UK medical graduates from black and minority ethnic groups (BME UKGs), and graduates of non-UK medical schools (international medical graduates (IMGs)). To identify the barriers to and facilitators of change. Qualitative semistructured individual and group interview study. Postgraduate medical education in the UK. Individuals with roles in examinations and/or curriculum design from UK medical Royal Colleges. Employees of NHS Employers. Representatives from 11 medical Royal Colleges (n=29) and NHS Employers (n=2) took part (55% medically qualified, 61% male, 71% white British/Irish, 23% Asian/Asian British, 6% missing ethnicity). Risks were perceived as significant, although more so for IMGs than for BME UKGs. Participants based significance ratings on evidence obtained largely through personal experience. A lack of evidence led to downgrading of significance. Participants were pessimistic about effecting change, two main barriers being sensitivities around race and the isolation of interventions. Participants felt that organisations should acknowledge problems, but felt concerned about being transparent without a solution; and talking about race with trainees was felt to be difficult. Participants mentioned 63 schemes aiming to address differential attainment, but these were typically local or specialty-specific, were not aimed at BME UKGs and were largely unevaluated. Participants felt that national change was needed, but only felt empowered to effect change locally or within their specialty. Representatives from organisations responsible for training doctors perceived the risks faced by BME UKGs and IMGs as significant but difficult to change. Strategies to help organisations address these risks include: increased openness to discussing race (including ethnic differences in attainment among UKGs); better sharing of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity not only affects physical growth and health of children but also their intellectual development, school attendance and academic performance. However, most evidences are based on studies in high income countries. Although food insecurity is common in Ethiopia, to what extent it affects school attendance and educational attainment of adolescents is not explored. We hypothesized that food insecure adolescents would be more likely to be absent from school and have lower grades attained after 1 year compared to their food secure peers. Methods We used data from 2009 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years from two consecutive surveys of a five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. A stratified random sampling was used to select participants. Regression analyses were used to compare school absenteeism and the highest grade attained after 1 year of follow-up in food secure and insecure adolescents. The analysis was adjusted for demographic factors, reported illness and workload. Results Significantly more (33.0% food insecure adolescents were absent from school compared with their food secure peers (17.8%, P Conclusions Adolescent and household food insecurity are positively associated with school absenteeism and a lower educational attainment. Programs aiming to achieve universal access to primary education in food insecure environments should integrate interventions to ensure food security of adolescents.
Background Food insecurity not only affects physical growth and health of children but also their intellectual development, school attendance and academic performance. However, most evidences are based on studies in high income countries. Although food insecurity is common in Ethiopia, to what extent it affects school attendance and educational attainment of adolescents is not explored. We hypothesized that food insecure adolescents would be more likely to be absent from school and have lower grades attained after 1 year compared to their food secure peers. Methods We used data from 2009 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years from two consecutive surveys of a five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. A stratified random sampling was used to select participants. Regression analyses were used to compare school absenteeism and the highest grade attained after 1 year of follow-up in food secure and insecure adolescents. The analysis was adjusted for demographic factors, reported illness and workload. Results Significantly more (33.0%) food insecure adolescents were absent from school compared with their food secure peers (17.8%, P absenteeism. Similarly after controlling for household income and gender of the household head, adolescent food insecurity(P absenteeism and a lower educational attainment. Programs aiming to achieve universal access to primary education in food insecure environments should integrate interventions to ensure food security of adolescents. PMID:21477343
Belachew, Tefera; Hadley, Craig; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick
Food insecurity not only affects physical growth and health of children but also their intellectual development, school attendance and academic performance. However, most evidences are based on studies in high income countries. Although food insecurity is common in Ethiopia, to what extent it affects school attendance and educational attainment of adolescents is not explored. We hypothesized that food insecure adolescents would be more likely to be absent from school and have lower grades attained after 1 year compared to their food secure peers. We used data from 2009 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years from two consecutive surveys of a five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. A stratified random sampling was used to select participants. Regression analyses were used to compare school absenteeism and the highest grade attained after 1 year of follow-up in food secure and insecure adolescents. The analysis was adjusted for demographic factors, reported illness and workload. Significantly more (33.0%) food insecure adolescents were absent from school compared with their food secure peers (17.8%, P absenteeism. Similarly after controlling for household income and gender of the household head, adolescent food insecurity(P absenteeism and a lower educational attainment. Programs aiming to achieve universal access to primary education in food insecure environments should integrate interventions to ensure food security of adolescents.
Past work quantifying the emergy basis for the U.S. economy, the U.S. education system and the educational attainment of the population through 2011 is brought up to date with the most recent data available from the U.S. Statistical Abstracts as well as other critical information...
Gakidou, Emmanuela; Cowling, Krycia; Lozano, Rafael; Murray, Christopher J L
In addition to the inherent importance of education and its essential role in economic growth, education and health are strongly related. We updated previous systematic assessments of educational attainment, and estimated the contribution of improvements in women's education to reductions in child mortality in the past 40 years. We compiled 915 censuses and nationally representative surveys, and estimated mean number of years of education by age and sex. By use of a first-differences model, we investigated the association between child mortality and women's educational attainment, controlling for income per person and HIV seroprevalence. We then computed counterfactual estimates of child mortality for every country year between 1970 and 2009. The global mean number of years of education increased from 4·7 years (95% uncertainty interval 4·4-5·1) to 8·3 years (8·0-8·6) for men (aged ≥25 years) and from 3·5 years (3·2-3·9) to 7·1 years (6·7 -7·5) for women (aged ≥25 years). For women of reproductive age (15-44 years) in developing countries, the years of schooling increased from 2·2 years (2·0-2·4) to 7·2 years (6·8-7·6). By 2009, in 87 countries, women (aged 25-34 years) had higher educational attainment than had men (aged 25-34 years). Of 8·2 million fewer deaths in children younger than 5 years between 1970 and 2009, we estimated that 4·2 million (51·2%) could be attributed to increased educational attainment in women of reproductive age. The substantial increase in education, especially of women, and the reversal of the gender gap have important implications not only for health but also for the status and roles of women in society. The continued increase in educational attainment even in some of the poorest countries suggests that rapid progress in terms of Millennium Development Goal 4 might be possible. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tiago de Oliveira, Isabel
Full Text Available AbstractThis analysis of the Portuguese case shows a non-linear relationship betweenthe number of children and education in recent years. Using the data from tenyears before this hypothesis was confirmed, and we can see that the generaldecline in Portuguese fertility within the last decade was due to the fertilitydecrease of the less educated people, although partly attenuated by the fertilityincrease of the upper social groups. The reasons for a non-linear relationshipare discussed within the context of female employment rates and salarydifferentials by educational attainment. The main hypothesis is that differencesin fertility are related to an ‘education-work’ effect amongst those in the lesseducated groups and to an ‘education-income’ effect amongst the moreeducated.RésuméL’analyse de cas de la situation au Portugal démontre une relation non linéaireentre le nombre d’enfants et le niveau de scolarité au cours des dernièresannées. Les données recueillies pendant les dix dernières années ont étéétudiées avant de confirmer cette hypothèse ; nous avons pu voir que le déclingénéral dans le taux de fécondité au Portugal pendant la dernière décade étaitcausé par un déclin de fécondité chez les personnes moins éduquées ; ceci a étépartiellement atténué par une hausse dans le taux de fécondité dans les classessupérieures. Les raisons de cette relation non linéaire sont discutées dans lecontexte des taux d’emploi des femmes et les différentiels de salaire selon lesniveaux de scolarité. L’hypothèse majeure est que les différences dans les tauxde fécondité sont reliés à un effet « scolarité-travail » parmi les groupes moinséduqués et à un effet « scolarité-salaire » parmi les classes mieux éduqués.
Davies, G; Marioni, R E; Liewald, D C; Hill, W D; Hagenaars, S P; Harris, S E; Ritchie, S J; Luciano, M; Fawns-Ritchie, C; Lyall, D; Cullen, B; Cox, S R; Hayward, C; Porteous, D J; Evans, J; McIntosh, A M; Gallacher, J; Craddock, N; Pell, J P; Smith, D J; Gale, C R; Deary, I J
People's differences in cognitive functions are partly heritable and are associated with important life outcomes. Previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies of cognitive functions have found evidence for polygenic effects yet, to date, there are few replicated genetic associations. Here we use data from the UK Biobank sample to investigate the genetic contributions to variation in tests of three cognitive functions and in educational attainment. GWA analyses were performed for verbal–numerical reasoning (N=36 035), memory (N=112 067), reaction time (N=111 483) and for the attainment of a college or a university degree (N=111 114). We report genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based associations in 20 genomic regions, and significant gene-based findings in 46 regions. These include findings in the ATXN2, CYP2DG, APBA1 and CADM2 genes. We report replication of these hits in published GWA studies of cognitive function, educational attainment and childhood intelligence. There is also replication, in UK Biobank, of SNP hits reported previously in GWA studies of educational attainment and cognitive function. GCTA-GREML analyses, using common SNPs (minor allele frequency>0.01), indicated significant SNP-based heritabilities of 31% (s.e.m.=1.8%) for verbal–numerical reasoning, 5% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for memory, 11% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for reaction time and 21% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for educational attainment. Polygenic score analyses indicate that up to 5% of the variance in cognitive test scores can be predicted in an independent cohort. The genomic regions identified include several novel loci, some of which have been associated with intracranial volume, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27046643
BUZOIANU Daniela Angela
Full Text Available In Petroleum and Gas University, besides teaching and research activities, a priority is non-formal education area. In the academic center of Ploiesti, the activities of non-formal education take place through Center for Porjects, Programs and Cultural - Artistic events (CPPECA and Student’s Culture House, located in the University campus (CCS. The mission of the Center for Projects, Programs and Cultural - Artistic events and Student’s Culture House is: - To offer a big diversity of activities in non-formal education area for students and teachers; - To become an essential and defining pillar in continous formation of young people. The purpose is to promote excellence also in non-formal education fied , starting from the value and tradition of university education in Romanian oil area The Center for Project, Programs and Cultural - Artistic events (CPPECA and Student’s House of Culture have: • An educational function; • A real multidirectional cultural vocation through: - initiating,implementing and developing cultural projects and programs; - organizing and developing specific events like shows, festivals, national and international contests. The paper presents practical aspects in development and implementation of financing projects in non-formal education field.
Quay, Richard H.
A bibliography of Joel S. Berke, James W. Guthrie, and Michael W. Kirst on politics and educational finance is presented. Specific topics include the following: whether financial support of public schools should be assumed completely by states, school finance policies and practices, school finance reform versus the spending and tax limitation…
Marriott, Pru; Tan, Siew Min; Marriott, Neil
Finance is a popular programme of study in UK higher education despite it being a challenging subject that requires students to understand and apply complex and abstract mathematical models and academic theories. Educational simulation is an active learning method found to be useful in enhancing students' learning experience, but there has been…
Few studies have investigated if mother's interest and father's interest in child's education are linked to educational attainment via their impact on child's self-esteem and locus of control. (1) To investigate (after controlling for known confounding factors) the long-term effect of mother's and father's interest in child's education at age 10 and child's locus of control and self-esteem at age 10 in educational attainment at age 26; and (2) to explore if mother's interest and father's interest in child's education are linked to child's educational attainment via their effect in increasing child's self-esteem and internal locus of control. The study used longitudinal data from sweeps of the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70). The initial sample was those 1,737 men and 2,033 women with valid data on age 10 self-esteem, locus of control, father's interest, mother's interest, and age 26 educational attainment. Of these, 1,326 men and 1,578 women were included in the final analysis. The birth to age 10 factors that were controlled for were birth weight, parental social class, socio-economic disadvantage, emotional/behavioural problems, cognitive ability, and mother's educational attainment. At the multivariate level, internal locus of control and mother's interest (but not self-esteem) were significantly related to educational attainment in both men and women. Father's interest was a significant predictor of educational attainment only in women. Parent's interest was not linked to educational attainment via its impact on child's self-esteem or locus of control. Self-esteem predicted educational attainment in both genders by increasing internal locus of control, and fathers' interest predicted educational attainment in men by increasing mother's involvement. Although mothers' and fathers' interest in their children's education were not linked to educational attainment via their impact on children's self-esteem or locus of control, they were significant predictors of
Beaujouan, Eva; Brzozowska, Zuzanna; Zeman, Kryštof
During the twentieth century, trends in childlessness varied strongly across European countries while educational attainment grew continuously across them. Using census and large-scale survey data from 13 European countries, we investigated the relationship between these two factors among women born between 1916 and 1965. Up to the 1940 birth cohort, the share of women childless at age 40+ decreased universally. Afterwards, the trends diverged across countries. The results suggest that the overall trends were related mainly to changing rates of childlessness within educational groups and only marginally to changes in the educational composition of the population. Over time, childlessness levels of the medium-educated and high-educated became closer to those of the low-educated, but the difference in level between the two better educated groups remained stable in Western and Southern Europe and increased slightly in the East. PMID:27545484
Arpino, Bruno; Gumà, Jordi; Julià, Albert
We examine to what extent the effect of early-life conditions (health and socioeconomic status) on health in later life is mediated by educational attainment and life-course trajectories (fertility, partnership, employment). Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (N = 12,034), we apply, separately by gender, multichannel sequence analysis and cluster analysis to obtain groups of similar family and employment histories. The KHB method is used to disentangle direct and indirect effects of early-life conditions on health. Early-life-conditions indirectly impact on health in later life as result of their influence on education and family and employment trajectories. For example, between 22% and 42% of the effect of low parental socio-economic status at childhood on the three considered health outcomes at older age is explained by educational attainment for women. Even higher percentages are found for men (35% - 57%). On the contrary, the positive effect of poor health at childhood on poor health at older ages is not significantly mediated by education and life-course trajectories. Education captures most of the mediating effect of parental socio-economic status. More specifically, between 66% and 75% of the indirect effect of low parental socio-economic status at childhood on the three considered health outcomes at older age is explained by educational attainment for women. Again, higher percentages are found for men (86% - 93%). Early-life conditions, especially socioeconomic status, influence family and employment trajectories indirectly through their impact on education. We also find a persistent direct impact of early-life conditions on health at older ages. Our findings demonstrate that early-life experiences influence education and life-course trajectories and health in later life, suggesting that public investments in children are expected to produce long lasting effects on people's lives throughout the different phases of their
Marcu, Mircea I; Kellermann, Arthur L; Hunter, Christine; Curtis, Jerri; Rice, Charles; Wilensky, Gail R
To understand the long-term economic implications of key pathways for financing a medical school education. The authors calculated the net present value (NPV) of cash flow over a 30-year career for a 2013 matriculant associated with (1) self-financing, (2) federally guaranteed loans, (3) the Public Service Loan Forgiveness program, (4) the National Health Service Corps, (5) the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program, and (6) matriculation at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. They calculated the NPV for students pursuing one of four specialties in two cities with divergent tax policies. Borrowers were assumed to have a median level of debt ($180,000), and conservative projections of inflation, discount rates, and income growth were employed. Sensitivity analyses examined different discount and income growth rates, alternative repayment strategies, and various lengths of public-sector service by scholarship recipients. For those wealthy enough to pay cash or fortunate enough to secure a no-strings scholarship, self-financing produced the highest NPV in almost every scenario. Borrowers start practice $300,000 to $400,000 behind their peers who secure a national service scholarship, but those who enter a highly paid specialty, such as orthopedic surgery, overtake their national service counterparts 4 to 11 years after residency. Those in lower-paid specialties take much longer. Borrowers who enter primary care never close the gap. Over time, the value of a medical degree offsets the high up-front cost. Debt avoidance confers substantial economic benefits, particularly for students interested in primary care.
Balderston, F. E.
The paper discusses alternative forms of financing for postsecondary education. Most will agree that higher education is too costly to leave to the natural devices of the marketplace. The basic fiscal alternatives are: (1) to privatize the offerings of educational services and the decision to buy them; (2) to make the offering of educational…
Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Lundin, Andreas; Melin, Bo
Intelligence and its relationship to achievement is a classical question within psychology. In accordance with earlier British studies, the present study, based on conscription data and follow-ups for Swedish men born 1949-51 (N = 36,156), found that when adjusting for attained social position, people with a high social position of origin tend to have higher intelligence and level of education than people with a lower social position of origin. These results could be seen to contradict the claim that more merit, at least when operationalized as intelligence or education, is required from people with a low social position of origin in order to attain a certain social level. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Ahmad, Fahd A; White, Andrew J; Hiller, Katherine M; Amini, Richard; Jeffe, Donna B
This study aimed to assess residents' and fellows' knowledge of finance principles that may affect their personal financial health. A cross-sectional, anonymous, web-based survey was administered to a convenience sample of residents and fellows at two academic medical centers. Respondents answered 20 questions on personal finance and 28 questions about their own financial planning, attitudes, and debt. Questions regarding satisfaction with one's financial condition and investment-risk tolerance used a 10-point Likert scale (1=lowest, 10=highest). Of 2,010 trainees, 422 (21%) responded (median age 30 years; interquartile range, 28-33). The mean quiz score was 52.0% (SD = 19.1). Of 299 (71%) respondents with student loan debt, 144 (48%) owed over $200,000. Many respondents had other debt, including 86 (21%) with credit card debt. Of 262 respondents with retirement savings, 142 (52%) had saved less than $25,000. Respondents' mean satisfaction with their current personal financial condition was 4.8 (SD = 2.5) and investment-risk tolerance was 5.3 (SD = 2.3). Indebted trainees reported lower satisfaction than trainees without debt (4.4 vs. 6.2, F (1,419) = 41.57, p < .001). Knowledge was moderately correlated with investment-risk tolerance (r=0.41, p < .001), and weakly correlated with satisfaction with financial status (r=0.23, p < .001). Residents and fellows had low financial literacy and investment-risk tolerance, high debt, and deficits in their financial preparedness. Adding personal financial education to the medical education curriculum would benefit trainees. Providing education in areas such as budgeting, estate planning, investment strategies, and retirement planning early in training can offer significant long-term benefits.
Feyza BALAN; Seda OZEKICIOGLU; Cuneyt KILIC
The entrepreneurship has been evaluated as playing a central role in explaining economic growth by many economists and policy makers. This role has recently been the subject of a growing literature. However, entrepreneurship literature generally has been focused on evaluating the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth. This study will evaluate the causal relationships among women’s and men’s entrepreneurship, women’s and men’s educational attainment and per capita GDP in...
Hamoonga, Twaambo Euphemia; Likwa, Rosemary Ndonyo; Musonda, Patrick; Michelo, Charles
The high burden of cervical cancer in Zambia prompted the Ministry of Health and partners to develop the cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia (CCPPZ) in 2006. Despite this intervention more women continue to die from the disease and there is little understanding of factors that may be linked with abnormal cervical lesions in the general population. We therefore examined if educational attainment is associated with abnormal cervical lesions among Zambian women aged 15 to 49 years. This study used data from the cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia, where a total of 14,294 women aged 15 to 49 years were screened for cervical cancer at nine health facilities between October 2013 and September 2014. The data represents women from six provinces of Zambia, namely Southern, Central, Copperbelt, Luapula, North-western and Eastern provinces. Step-wise logistic regression analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for educational attainment with presence of abnormal cervical lesions as outcome. Multiple imputation was further used to obtain the imputed stabilized estimates for educational attainment. The prevalence of abnormal cervical lesions, using the Visual Inspection with Acetic-acid (VIA) test was 10.7% (n = 1523). Educational attainment was inversely associated with abnormal cervical lesions (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI:0.70-0.81, AOR = 0.74; 95% CI:0.68-0.81 and AOR = 0.46; 95% CI:0.41-0.51) among women with primary, secondary and tertiary education, respectively, compared to those with no formal education. We find reduced likelihood of abnormal cervical lesions in educated women, suggesting a differential imbalance with women who have no formal education. These findings may be a reflection of inequalities associated with access to cervical cancer screening, making the service inadequately accessible for lower educated groups. This
Russell, Catherine Georgina; Taki, Sarah; Azadi, Leva; Campbell, Karen J; Laws, Rachel; Elliott, Rosalind; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth
Infancy is an important period for the promotion of healthy eating, diet and weight. However little is known about how best to engage caregivers of infants in healthy eating programs. This is particularly true for caregivers, infants and children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds who experience greater rates of overweight and obesity yet are more challenging to reach in health programs. Behaviour change interventions targeting parent-infant feeding interactions are more likely to be effective if assumptions about what needs to change for the target behaviours to occur are identified. As such we explored the precursors of key obesity promoting infant feeding practices in mothers with low educational attainment. One-on-one semi-structured telephone interviews were developed around the Capability Opportunity Motivation Behaviour (COM-B) framework and applied to parental feeding practices associated with infant excess or healthy weight gain. The target behaviours and their competing alternatives were (a) initiating breastfeeding/formula feeding, (b) prolonging breastfeeding/replacing breast milk with formula, (c) best practice formula preparation/sub-optimal formula preparation, (d) delaying the introduction of solid foods until around six months of age/introducing solids earlier than four months of age, and (e) introducing healthy first foods/introducing unhealthy first foods, and (f) feeding to appetite/use of non-nutritive (i.e., feeding for reasons other than hunger) feeding. The participants' education level was used as the indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage. Two researchers independently undertook thematic analysis. Participants were 29 mothers of infants aged 2-11 months. The COM-B elements of Social and Environmental Opportunity, Psychological Capability, and Reflective Motivation were the key elements identified as determinants of a mother's likelihood to adopt the healthy target behaviours although the relative importance of each of the
Integrating Postsecondary Education Interventions to Help Low-Income Students Succeed. Testimony of Alexander Mayer, Deputy Director, Postsecondary Education, MDRC, Before the California State Assembly Higher Education Committee and the Budget Subcommittee on Education Finance
This document presents the testimony of MDRC's Alex Mayer, the Deputy Director for Postsecondary Education at MDRC. The three points that Alex Mayer emphasizes in this testimony before the California State Assembly Higher Education Committee and the Budget Subcommittee on Education Finance on integrating postsecondary education interventions to…
Lawlor, D A; Clark, H; Davey Smith, G; Leon, D A
The mechanisms underlying the observed association of childhood intelligence with body mass index (BMI) are unclear and few studies of this association have been prospective in design. Prospective study in a birth cohort of 5467 individuals who were born in Aberdeen, Scotland between 1950 and 1956 and who responded to a follow-up survey in 2001. Comparison of associations within sibling pairs of the same family to associations between different families in 643 sibling pairs (1286 individuals) who are participants in the main cohort. Childhood intelligence (age 7 years) and educational attainment were both inversely associated with adult BMI (mean age 48 years): the sex- and age-adjusted mean change in adult BMI per s.d. of intelligence was -0.35 kg/m(2) (95% CI: -0.49, -0.21 kg/m(2)) and per unit increase in educational category (seven categories) was -0.28 kg/m(2) (95% CI: -0.34, -0.22). On adjustment for education the association between childhood intelligence and adult BMI attenuated to the null (-0.03 kg/m(2) (-0.19, 0.13 kg/m(2))); other potential confounding or mediating factors had little or only modest effects on this association. The association between education and adult BMI was not affected by adjustment for childhood intelligence or other potential covariates. The within sibling-pair effect of education on adult BMI (-0.06 kg/m(2) (95% CI: -0.26, 0.14)) was weaker than the effect between different families (-0.37 kg/m(2) (95%CI: -0.58, -0.17)), P-value for difference of within sibling and between family effect=0.03. The association of childhood intelligence with adult BMI is attenuated to the null on adjustment for educational attainment, whereas the association of educational attainment with adult BMI appears to be independent of childhood intelligence and other measured covariates. However, our family analyses suggest that fixed family and neighbourhood factors, which are closely matched in siblings of a similar age, explain much of the association
Kinsey, Tracy; Jemal, Ahmedin; Liff, Jonathan; Ward, Elizabeth; Thun, Michael
Background Death rates for the four major cancer sites (lung, breast, prostate, and colon and rectum) have declined steadily in the United States among persons aged 25?64 years since the early 1990s. We used national data to examine these trends in relation to educational attainment. Methods We calculated age-standardized death rates for each of the four cancers by level of education among 25- to 64-year-old non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black men and women for 1993 through 2001 using d...
Student loans program is one of the most controversial phenomena in financing higher education in Ghana, but its importance as a cost sharing mechanism is incontestable. This paper describes the challenge of financing higher education in Ghana. It provides a critique of the Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT) Student Loans Scheme,…
Itegi, Florence M.
The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of strategic planning in improving the quality of education. The quality of education is directly linked to the effort expended in making arrangements or preparations of educational objectives and determining the requisite resources to facilitate the training, instruction or study that leads to the…
Whipps, Mackenzie D M
Prior research in high-income countries finds that young mothers tend to breastfeed their infants for shorter durations than older mothers; however, there are gaps in our understanding of the processes by which age influences breastfeeding. Research aim: The primary objective of this study was to test the mediating effects of parity and education attainment on the association between maternal age and two breastfeeding outcomes: total duration and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. This study was a secondary data analysis of the IFPS II, a prospective, longitudinal study of ~ 4,900 American mothers. Robust and bias-corrected regression analyses tested the direct effect of age and the indirect effects of age through parity and education for each outcome of interest. Parity and education attainment together explain nearly all of the association between maternal age and both measures of breastfeeding duration. The mediating role of education is significantly larger than parity for both outcomes. These findings indicate that maternal age primarily indexes parity and education but contributes minimally to breastfeeding duration via a direct effect. The findings have implications for intervention development and targeting strategies.
This paper examines the use of online information resources by Economics, Finance, and Marketing 3rd year students in a cooperative education program and explores some possible factors and issues that influence how students use these resources. The nature of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) programs, the business information environment, and the…
The purpose of this volume is to analyze the problems of school finance in Madagascar, including those that have arisen in the past decade and those anticipated in the present decade (through 1980). More generally, this book examines past and future connections between the economic and educational systems in Madagascar. The author examines the…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.
The transcript of a hearing before the Senate Committee on Finance concerning tax incentives for education is presented. The statements of committee members and public witnesses testimony, both oral and written, are provided, as well as letters of support. Current tax expenditures for financial aid to college students, including student loan…
Kantarevic, Jasmin; Mechoulan, Stephane
We examine the implications of being early in the birth order, and whether a pattern exists within large families of falling then rising attainment with respect to birth order. Unlike other studies using U.S. data, we go beyond grade for age and look at racial differences. Drawing from OLS and fixed effects estimations, we find that being…
Menard, Lauren Ann
Dwindling American financial satisfaction and growing college degree attainment were revealed in national social survey data spanning more than four decades (N = 57,061). Against these backdrops, associations between being financially satisfied and having a college degree grew stronger in each decade, with the strongest association between…
Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.
The conceptualization and measurement of education finance equity and adequacy has engaged researchers for more than three decades. At the same time, calls for increased academic accountability and higher student achievement in K-12 public education have reached new levels at both the national and state levels. Aligning these represents an…
Greve, Aja Neergaard; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
for developing schizophrenia. Based on these findings, we aim to investigate if the association between educational achievement in parents and intelligence in their offspring is influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents. In a large population-based sample of young adult male conscripts (n = 156......,531) the presence of a mental disorder in the parents were associated with significantly lower offspring scores on a test of general intelligence, the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP), and higher educational attainment in parents was significantly associated with higher BPP test scores in offspring. A significant...... interaction suggested that the positive association between maternal education and offspring intelligence was stronger in offspring of mothers with schizophrenia compared to the control group (p = 0.03). The associations between parental education and offspring intelligence are also observed when restricting...
Mann, Bryan A.; Smith, William C.; Baker, David P.
Research about innovation adoption underplays the role of educational attainment in the individual consumption of technology; consequently, past research underestimates the importance education plays independent of wealth in diffusion, particularly as absolute levels of formal education rise worldwide. Using data from the Programme for…
Cunningham, Timothy J; Ford, Earl S; Chapman, Daniel P; Liu, Yong; Croft, Janet B
Prior studies have documented disparities in short and long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia by educational attainment and race/ethnicity separately. We examined both independent and interactive effects of these factors with a broader range of sleep indicators in a racially/ethnically diverse sample. We analyzed 2012 National Health Interview Survey data from 33,865 adults aged ≥18years. Sleep-related symptomatology included short sleep duration (≤6h), long sleep duration (≥9h), fatigue >3days, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia. Bivariate analyses with chi-square tests and log-linear regression were performed. The overall age-adjusted prevalence was 29.1% for short sleep duration, 8.5% for long sleep duration, 15.1% for fatigue, 12.6% for excessive daytime sleepiness, and 18.8% for insomnia. Educational attainment and race/ethnicity were independently related to the five sleep-related symptoms. Among Whites, the likelihood of most sleep indicators increased as educational attainment decreased; relationships varied for the other racial/ethnic groups. For short sleep duration, the educational attainment-by-race/ethnicity interaction effect was significant for African Americans (peducational attainment and race/ethnicity simultaneously to more fully understand disparities in sleep health. Increased understanding of the mechanisms linking sociodemographic factors to sleep health is needed to determine whether policies and programs to increase educational attainment may also reduce these disparities within an increasingly diverse population. Published by Elsevier Inc.
El Massah, Suzanna Sobhy; Fadly, Dalia
Purpose: The study uses data drawn from a senior finance major cohort of 78 female undergraduates at Zayed University (ZU)-UAE to investigate factors, which increase the likelihood of achieving better academic performance in an Islamic finance course based on information about socioeconomic background of female students. The paper aims to discuss…
Poole, Wendy; Sen, Vicheth; Fallon, Gerald
Multiple forms of privatization are emerging in the Canadian public sector, including public-private partnerships. This article focuses on one approach to public-private partnerships called "social finance," and a network of public, private, and not-for-profit organizations that promotes social finance as a means of funding public…
Baker, Bruce; Levin, Jesse
Pennsylvania has historically operated one of the nation's least equitable state school finance systems, and within that system exist some of the nation's most fiscally disadvantaged public school districts. The persistent inequalities of Pennsylvania's school finance system are not entirely a result of simple lack of effort, as policies intended…
In many developing countries, the translation of political objectives to action projects is made difficult by the lack of training of staff of the ministry of education planning and managing units. This booklet deals with the implementation of these projects within the framework of the planning process. After defining projects, chapter 1 shows the…
Bailit, Howard L; Beazoglou, Tryfon
This article examines dental school financial trends from 2004-05 to 2011-12, based on data from the American Dental Association (ADA) annual financial survey completed by all U.S. dental schools. For public schools, revenues from tuition and fees increased 68.6%, and state support declined 17.2% over the examined period. For private schools, revenues from tuition and fees increased 38.9%, and university indirect subsidies declined 77.9% over the same period. The major factors affecting dental school expenditures were the number of students and postdoctoral students, faculty practice, and research. The findings suggest that dental schools are now more dependent financially on tuition and fees than in the past. Schools have been able to pass on increases in operating costs to students and specialty postdoctoral students. Now that growth in dentists' incomes is slowing and student debt is at an all-time high, this financing strategy may not be sustainable in the long run. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."
Thompson, Kris; Coon, Jill; Handford, Leandrea
With the move to the doctor of physical therapy (DPT) degree and increasing tuition costs, there is concern about financing entry-level education. The purposes of this study were to identify how students finance their DPT education and to describe the financial impact after graduation. A written survey was used to collect data on financing DPT education, student debt, and the financial impact on graduates. There were 92 subjects who had graduated from one program. Frequencies as well as nonparametric statistics using cross-tabulations and chi-squared statistics were calculated. The response rate was 55%. Of the respondents, 86% had student loans, 66% worked during school, 57% received some family assistance, and 21% had some scholarship support. The amount of monthly loan repayment was not statistically related to the ability to save for a house, the ability to obtain a loan for a house or car, or the decision to have children. Saving for the future (p = 0.016) and lifestyle choices (p = 0.035) were related to the amount of monthly loan repayment. Major sources of funding were student loans, employment income, and/or family assistance. Respondent's ability to save for the future and lifestyle choices were negatively impacted when loan debt increased. Physical therapist education programs should consider offering debt planning and counseling.
Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.
This report is a collection of five state case studies comprising a major component of the first phase of the project, "Changing Direction: Integrating Higher Education Financial Aid and Financing Policies." The project explored state-level strategies to better align financing and financial aid policies and support more informed decision…
In recent years, sociological research investigating grandparent effects in three-generation social mobility has proliferated, mostly focusing on the question of whether grandparents have a direct effect on their grandchildren's social attainment. This study hypothesizes that prior research has overlooked family structure as an important factor that moderates grandparents' direct effects. Capitalizing on a counterfactual causal framework and multigenerational data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examines the direct effect of grandparents' years of education on grandchildren's years of educational attainment and heterogeneity in the effects associated with family structure. The results show that for both African Americans and whites, grandparent effects are the strongest for grandchildren who grew up in two-parent families, followed by those in single-parent families with divorced parents. The weakest effects were marked in single-parent families with unmarried parents. These findings suggest that the increasing diversity of family forms has led to diverging social mobility trajectories for families across generations.
Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W; Vernberg, Eric; Sacco, Frank C; Little, Todd D
The impact of a bullying and violence prevention program on education attainment was studied in five elementary schools (K-5), over a 5-year period. A multiple baseline design was used and academic attainment test scores of 1,106 students were monitored before and after the introduction of the program across the school district. This sample was contrasted with an equivalent control sample of 1,100 students from the school district who attended schools that did not join the program. Program participation was associated with pronounced improvements in the students' achievement test scores. Notable reductions in the scores of those students who left schools with active programs were also observed. This simple, low-cost anti-violence intervention, involves all those who work in schools, not just students. It appears to significantly benefit educational performance of children in the participating elementary schools. The program focuses attention on the interaction between the bully, victim and audience of bystanders who are seen as pivotal in either promoting or ameliorating violence. Buy in to the philosophy by teachers & administration is high, because the format allows each school to create materials with its own personal stamp, and since there is no classroom curriculum add on, the burden to teachers is vastly reduced. Psychiatrists who work with schools could easily assist a school to put the program in place as part of their consultation work.
Bernardi, Fabrizio; Boertien, Diederik
In recent years, researchers have become increasingly interested in how the effects of parental separation on children's educational attainment vary with social background. On the one hand, parents with more resources might be better able to prevent possible adverse events like separation to affect their children's outcomes. On the other hand, children from higher social backgrounds might have more resources to lose from a parental separation. A wide range of empirical studies on the issue have come to inconsistent conclusions, with support found for both perspectives. The aim of this paper is to monitor the influence of methodological and operational choices on the different results observed across studies. We focus on aspects such as the operationalization of key variables, the measurement of inequality in absolute and relative terms and the different strategies used to address endogeneity. We study the effects of parental separation on educational attainment for a cohort of British children born in 1970 and find that conclusions change depending on whether social background is measured using the mother's or father's characteristics and whether relative or absolute differences between groups are considered. Results are relatively insensitive to the operationalization of dependent variables and the treatment of missing data. When using data from Understanding Society instead of the British Cohort Study, results also did not change. We reflect on how these findings can explain the contradictory results from earlier studies on the topic, and how heterogeneity in the effects of parental separation by socio-economic background should be interpreted.
Virtue U. Ekhosuehi
Full Text Available The subject of replenishment of infrastructure in Nigerian public universities has been of great concern to stakeholders in the educational system. How to obtain an appropriate replenishment plan that would give the desired infrastructure for a university after a certain period of time is a long-standing problem. We attempt to find a solution to this problem from an engineering perspective based on optimal control theory. The revenue generated through the payment of school fees and the costs of investment in infrastructure are used to construct the objective function. The state variables are the amount budgeted for such an investment and the stock of infrastructure, while the rate of replenishment is used as the control variable. The problem is solved by utilising Pontryagin's principle. The dynamics of the replenishment plan is illustrated with an example. The results show that there should be a steady in-crease in the amount budgeted, in order to attain the desired infrastructure. (original abstract
James-Todd, Tamarra; Janevic, Teresa; Brown, Florence M; Savitz, David A
More women are entering pregnancy with pre-existing diabetes. Disease severity, glycaemic control, and predictors of pregnancy complications may differ by race/ethnicity or educational attainment, leading to differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes. We used linked New York City hospital record and birth certificate data for 6291 singleton births among women with pre-existing diabetes between 1995 and 2003. We defined maternal race/ethnicity as non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, South Asian, and East Asian, and education level as 12 years. Our outcomes were pre-eclampsia, preterm birth (PTB) (pregnancy complications. Non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and South Asian women with pre-existing diabetes may benefit from targeted interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes. © 2013 The Authors. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bangladesh has made significant progress in terms of improving student access and gender disparity at primary and secondary levels of education. Currently, the major concern is the quality of education. In the national interest, the government of Bangladesh has undertaken a number of intervention programmes to increase the quality of primary and secondary education. Recently, researchers and practitioners are more engaged in investigating the quality of education, particularly at primary and ...
Rajasenan, D.; Bijith, G. A.; Rajeev, B.
Education and education exclusion are two mammoth social and political challenges in a society characterized by diverse social groups. Although "self-financing regime" helped to barricade the outflow of money from the state, it also hampered the "social equity" in education and hence germinated the seed of education exclusion…
Aja Neergaard Greve
Full Text Available Results from twin, family, and adoption studies all suggest that general intelligence is highly heritable. Several studies have shown lower premorbid intelligence in individuals before the onset of both mood disorders and psychosis, as well as in children and adolescents at genetic high risk for developing schizophrenia. Based on these findings, we aim to investigate if the association between educational achievement in parents and intelligence in their offspring is influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents. In a large population-based sample of young adult male conscripts (n = 156,531 the presence of a mental disorder in the parents were associated with significantly lower offspring scores on a test of general intelligence, the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP, and higher educational attainment in parents was significantly associated with higher BPP test scores in offspring. A significant interaction suggested that the positive association between maternal education and offspring intelligence was stronger in offspring of mothers with schizophrenia compared to the control group (p = 0.03. The associations between parental education and offspring intelligence are also observed when restricting the sample to conscripts whose parents are diagnosed after 30 years of age. In conclusion, findings from this study show a more positive effect of education on offspring intelligence in mothers with schizophrenia compared to mothers from the control group. This effect could have both environmental and genetic explanations.
Bloom, Benjamin S.
Twelve chapters describe an 18-nation study of educational attainment at the elementary and secondary school levels. Professional researchers participated in the project, developed through UNESCO and conducted under the auspices of educational research centers in Australia, Belgium, Chile, England, the Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France,…
BENLIGIRAY, Serdar; ONAY, Ahmet
The objective of this study is to explore business courses performance factors with a focus on accounting and finance. Course score interrelations are assumed to represent interpretable constructs of these factors. Factor analysis is proposed to identify the constructs that explain the correlations. Factor analysis results identify three sub-groups of business core courses. The first group is labeled as management-oriented courses. Accounting, finance and economics courses are separated in tw...
Full Text Available Naoya Emoto,1,2 Fumitaka Okajima,1,2 Hitoshi Sugihara,2 Rei Goto3 1Department of Endocrinology, Nippon Medical School Chiba-Hokusoh Hospital, Chiba, 2Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, 3Graduate School of Business Administration, Keio University, Kanagawa, Japan Background: We have recently reported that the attitude of patients toward risk could be a factor in the progression of diabetic complications. In general, risk preference is closely related to socioeconomic status (SES, which includes factors such as age, sex, income, and educational attainment.Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of SES and behavioral propensity on the progress of diabetic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Methods: We conducted a survey of 238 patients with difficult-to-control T2DM treated at a hospital in Japan using a modified behavioral economics questionnaire that included questions related to SES. The patients had been referred by general practitioners or other departments in the hospital because of poor metabolic control or unstable complications.Results: Educational attainment was significantly associated with progression of retinopathy in patients <65 years of age. Educational attainment of a high school diploma (12 years of education or lower was a significant risk factor, but there were no differences among levels of attainment beyond high school (13–16 years or more of education. Behavioral propensities were also weakly associated with complications, but not as much as educational attainment. Personal income level and economic status did not show an association with the retinopathy levels.Conclusion: Lower educational attainment is a strong risk factor for diabetic retinopathy, and it is independent of the economic status. The result suggests that cognitive function may play an important role in the progression of diabetic retinopathy in
Chapa, Jorge; De La Rosa, Belinda
Data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics indicate that Latinos lag behind non-Latinos in education and in other socioeconomic characteristics. Although there are some positive indications such as the decrease of individuals and children living in poverty and an increase in the number of individuals working…
To date no major study exists on the impact of the Great Famine on patterns of participation in superior education in Ireland, or on the impact of superior education on the life courses and inheritance potential of boys from small farming families. This paper provides a historical analysis and interpretation of patterns of participation in…
Yhnell, Emma; Wood, Heather; Baker, Mathew; Amici-Dargan, Sheila; Taylor, Chris; Randerson, Peter; Shore, Andrew
Since the introduction of the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma Qualification (WBQ) in 2003, an increasing number of students are applying to higher education institutions (HEIs) with this qualification. The advanced-level WBQ is regarded as equivalent to one General Certificate of Education A-Level (GCE A-Level). This study assesses the impact…
St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Bugler, Myfanwy; Robinson, Jamey; Clough, Peter; McGeown, Sarah P.; Perry, John
Mental toughness has frequently been associated with successful performance in sport; however, recent research suggests that it may also be related to academic performance in Higher Education. In a series of three exploratory studies, we examined the relationship between mental toughness and different aspects of educational performance in…
Propero, Moises; Russell, Amy Catherine; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal
This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation).…
The transition to post-secondary vocational education in the Netherlands appears to be difficult for many students. Dropout rates peak in the first year after the transition to senior vocational education (SVE, or MBO in Dutch). To enhance the school careers of students in SVE, we need to find out
Takagi, Daisuke; Kondo, Naoki; Takada, Misato; Hashimoto, Hideki
Evidence consistently shows that low education is associated with unhealthy behaviors. A recent study in behavioral economics argued that high time preferences - the tendency to prefer immediate gain to later reward - explain the limited self-control of individuals in making preventive health-related choices. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of time preference on the associations between education and smoking, binge drinking and overweight in young and middle-aged adults living in a Japanese metropolitan area, using a quantitatively measured time discount rate. A population-based probabilistic sample of residents of 25-50 years of age living in four municipalities within Japanese metropolitan areas where economic disparity is relatively large was obtained from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE). Respondents answered the questionnaire items using a computer-aided personal instrument (CAPI). Data from 3457 respondents were used in this study. Time preferences measured as categorical responses were converted into a continuous number of time discount rates by using the maximum likelihood method. Smoking habit, binge drinking, and body mass index were regressed on educational attainment with demographics and other confounders. The mediating effects of the time discount rate were examined with the bootstrapping method. Results showed that the time discount rate did not mediate the association between education and binge drinking and BMI. Even for smoking, the mediating effect of time discount rate was quite limited, indicating that the proportion of total effect of education mediated was only 4.3% for men and 3.0% for women. The results suggest that modifying time preferences through educational intervention has only limited efficacy in closing disparities in health-related behaviors, and that other mediators fostered by schooling, such as knowledge/skills, group norms and supportive peers
Timm, K. M.; Warburton, J.; Owens, R.; Warnick, W. K.
PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded International Polar Year (IPY) project in which K-12 educators participate in hands-on field experiences in the polar regions, working closely with IPY scientists as a pathway to improving science education. Developing long-term teacher- researcher collaborations through PolarTREC ensures up-to-date climate change science content will permeate the K-12 education system long after the IPY. By infusing education with the cutting edge science from the polar regions, PolarTREC has already shown an increase in student and public knowledge of and interest in the polar regions and global climate change. Preliminary evaluations have shown that PolarTREC's program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes regarding the importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today's world. Researchers have been overwhelmingly satisfied with PolarTREC and cited several specific strengths, including the program's crucial link between the teachers' field research experiences and their classroom and the extensive training provided to teachers prior to their expedition. This presentation will focus on other successful components of the PolarTREC program and how researchers and organizations might use these tools to reach out to the public for long-term impacts. Best practices include strategies for working with educators and the development of an internet-based platform for teachers and researchers to interact with the public, combining several communication tools such as online journals and forums, real-time Internet seminars, lesson plans, activities, audio, and other educational resources that address a broad range of scientific
Towards the Education Nation: Revisiting the Impact of Financial Aid, College Experience, and Institutional Context on Baccalaureate Degree Attainment Using a Propensity Score Matching, Multilevel Modeling Approach
To compete in the global marketplace, the U.S. economy heavily relies on higher education institutions to educate the college graduates and knowledge workers needed to create the innovative products and services of tomorrow. And yet, where once America led the world in educational attainment, recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development indicates that the U.S. now ranks only 15th among major industrialized nations in college completion rates. As a result, increas...
Rautiainen, Elina; Vallimies-Patomäki, Marjukka
The aim of this study was to generate information of postgraduate education in clinical nursing in the EU member states. Data were collected via a structured electronic questionnaire and the questionnaire was sent to the government chief nurses in 26 EU countries in May 2013. Response rate was 46% (n=12). In total, 42 domains of specialization were identified. The most common domains were intensive care, mental health, operating room, emergency care, and pediatrics. Specialization programs were organized by university in two of the respondent countries, as residency program in one country, and as a mix of them in four countries. Regulation practices varied remarkably between the countries: scope of practice, subjects, entry requirements, length of education, description of the minimum competence requirements, and education standards related to the specialization programs were most often regulated by act, decree or other regulation. In some of the countries, no registration was required beyond the initial registration, whereas in some others, registration practices varied depending on the specialization program. New information was gathered on the regulation practices of postgraduate education in clinical nursing in the European Region concerning title provision, entry requirements, and financing practices. The awarded title on specialization programs depended on the level of postgraduate education, and the title might vary between the domains. General clinical experience was included in the entry requirements in seven countries. The government was mainly responsible for financing the postgraduate education in four countries, employer in three countries, and in the rest of the countries, there was a combination of different financiers. The importance of knowledge exchange on postgraduate education across the European countries needs to be acknowledged. Information provided by this study on international regulation practices provides useful information for the policy
Bradley, Michael G.; Graham, John W.
Investigates the relationship between educational attainment and married couples' efficiency at managing their assets. Using 1976 data, this study of over 750 Illinois couples disclosed little empirical evidence that education imparts efficiency to the realm of personal finance. Includes 6 tables, 5 notes, and 17 references. (MLH)
Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard
Improving education achievement in Luxembourg is a priority for strengthening productivity growth and enhancing residents' employment prospects in the private sector, where employers mainly hire cross-border workers. Student achievement in Luxembourg is below the OECD average according to the 2003 OECD PISA study, with the performance gap between…
Schoon, Ingrid, Ed.; Silbereisen, Rainer K., Ed.
Among the many life transitions that individuals must master throughout their lives, the transition to adulthood ranks very high in terms of importance, complexity and uniqueness. It involves the completion of education, and the assumption of new social roles and responsibilities, at a time when previous institutional structures that guided…
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Duncan, Greg J.; Kalil, Ariel
One of the most alarming social trends in the past 40 years is the increasing educational disadvantage of children raised in low-income families. Differences between low- and high-income children in reading and math achievement are much larger now than they were several decades ago, as are differences in college graduation rates. What might…
Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian
This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…
Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.
As this report illustrates, nearly one in four adult workers today has completed college, while in 1970 just one in seven had as much formal schooling. This growth, together with the higher labor force participation rates of college graduates, has generated significant increases in the college-educated work force. Other factors include women's…
Covarrubias, Alejandro; Liou, Daniel D.
This policy brief contextualizes the most recent data on mobility of Asian American students within the K to Ph.D. educational system in the new, so-called, colorblind post-racial America. Achievement data on Asian Americans are often presented in the same breath with Whites when compared to the academic achievement of African American, and…
Covarrubias, Alejandro; Liou, Daniel D.
Background: Prevailing perceptions of Asian Americans as model minorities have long situated this population within postracial discourse, an assumption that highlights their educational success as evidence of the declining significance of race and racism, placing them as models of success for other people of color. Despite evidence to repudiate…
Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna
The UK's National Learning Targets for Education and Training, embracing 11- to 21-year-olds, adults, and employers, promote a credentialist approach to economic and social development. This article shows how the steel industry measures up. Using qualifications-based targets as a proxy for adult workforce capability is misguided. (Contains 40…
Emonds, Viktor; van Tubergen, F.A.
In this article, we have used panel data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey (N = 3,337) to test several mechanisms (English proficiency, friends with native parents, parental socioeconomic status [SES], educational attitudes, bilingualism, and family stability) by which mixed
The aim of the SABER-school finance initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable data about education finance systems across countries. SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes; (iii) overseeing service delivery; (iv) budgeting with adequate an...
King, Elizabeth; Patrinos, Harry; Rogers, Halsey
The aim of the SABER-school finance initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable data about education finance systems across countries. SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes; (iii) overseeing…
Overholster, George; Klein, Steven
A new class of financial tools is being developed to promote human capital investments that benefit society. Social innovation financing (SIF) entails raising private capital to support promising social interventions, with the expectation that those providing the funding will eventually be repaid. Funds are allocated based on service providers'…
Zhu, Wenzhong; Zhu, Zhengguo; Fang, Shuqiong; Pan, Wentsao
Chinese government puts forward a concept: five in one, putting environment in the same significant position as economy, politics, society and culture, which highlights the significance of environment. With the continuous increase of environmental awareness, many scholars pay more attention to green finance. However, the researches based on…
Ng, Peggy; Galbraith, Craig
The purpose of this study is to examine how the dimensions of strategic enrolment management (SEM) tie to the success metrics in the area of enrolment, retention and graduation from senior and programme management perspectives of a self-financed institution in Hong Kong. The literature on SEM has demonstrated that managing enrolment is a global…
Benligiray, Serdar; Onay, Ahmet
The objective of this study is to explore business courses performance factors with a focus on accounting and finance. Course score interrelations are assumed to represent interpretable constructs of these factors. Factor analysis is proposed to identify the constructs that explain the correlations. Factor analysis results identify three…
Luthra, Renee Reichl; Soehl, Thomas
One in five U.S. residents under the age of 18 has at least one foreign-born parent. Given the large proportion of immigrants with very low levels of schooling, the strength of the intergenerational transmission of education between immigrant parent and child has important repercussions for the future of social stratification in the United States. We find that the educational transmission process between parent and child is much weaker in immigrant families than in native families and, among immigrants, differs significantly across national origins. We demonstrate how this variation causes a substantial overestimation of the importance of parental education in immigrant families in studies that use aggregate data. We also show that the common practice of "controlling" for family human capital using parental years of schooling is problematic when comparing families from different origin countries and especially when comparing native and immigrant families. We link these findings to analytical and empirical distinctions between group- and individual-level processes in intergenerational transmission.
Ovseiko, Pavel V; Buchan, Alastair M
The 2010-2015 Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition government proposed introducing a radical decentralisation reform of the organisation, financing, and planning of medical workforce education and training in England. However, following public deliberation and parliamentary scrutiny of the government's proposals, it had to abandon and alter its original proposals to the extent that they failed to achieve their original decentralisation objectives. This failed decentralisation attempt provides important lessons about the policy process and content of both workforce governance and health system reforms in Europe and beyond. The organisation, financing, and planning of medical workforce education is as an issue of national importance and should remain in the stewardship of the national government. Future reform efforts seeking to enhance the skills of the workforce needed to deliver high-quality care for patients in the 21st century will have a greater chance of succeeding if they are clearly articulated through engagement with stakeholders, and focus on the delivery of undergraduate and postgraduate multi-professional education and training in universities and teaching hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Garner, Catherine L.
This report uses newly developed techniques of statistical analysis to assess the separate and joint influences of home, school, and neighborhood in Lothian (Scotland, United Kingdom) and to show that deprivation in each of these areas depresses young people's educational attainment. The results reported here come from the first phase of a…
van Gerven, P.W.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; Bekers, O.; Ausems, E.E.B.; Jolles, J.
Objective: We investigated suspected longitudinal interaction effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and educational attainment on cognitive decline in normal aging. Method: Our sample consisted of 571 healthy, nondemented adults aged between 49 and 82 years. Linear mixed-models analyses were
von Stumm, Sophie; Macintyre, Sally; Batty, David G.; Clark, Heather; Deary, Ian J.
In a birth cohort of 6281 men from Aberdeen, Scotland, social class of origin, childhood intelligence, childhood behavior disturbance and education were examined as predictors of status attainment in midlife (46 to 51 years). Social class of origin, intelligence and behavior disturbance were conceptualized as correlated predictors, whose effects…
Gargiulo, Richard Michael
Examined were the effects of verbal labels alone and in combination with two types of instruction on the concept attainment of 80 educable mentally retarded and 80 normal boys of school age matched for mental age. For learning the concept "equilateral triangle" Ss were randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatment conditions: verbal…
Murakami, Keiko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Hashimoto, Hideki
Associations between education and obesity have been consistently reported among women in developed countries, but few studies have considered the influence of marital status and husbands' education. This study aimed to examine differences in the association between education and overweight/obesity by marital status and to determine the contribution of husbands' education to overweight/obesity among community-dwelling Japanese women. A questionnaire survey was conducted from 2010 to 2011 among residents aged 25-50 years in Japanese metropolitan areas. Of 2145 women who agreed to participate and completed the survey, 582 were unmarried and 1563 were married. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 . Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine whether women's or their husbands' education was associated with overweight/obesity after adjusting for age, work status, and equivalent income. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 11.9% among unmarried women and 10.3% among married women. Women's own education was significantly associated with overweight/obesity among unmarried women but not among married women. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of high school education or lower compared with university education or higher was 3.21 (95% confidence interval: 1.59-6.51) among unmarried women. Among married women, husbands' education was significantly associated with overweight/obesity: women whose husbands' educational attainment was high school or lower had significantly higher odds of overweight/obesity than did those whose husbands had a university education or higher (1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-2.55). Among married women whose educational attainment was college or higher, women whose husbands' educational attainment was high school or lower had a significantly higher risk for overweight/obesity when compared with women whose husbands' educational attainment was college or higher. Associations between women's own
There is increasing awareness that supply subsidies for health and education services often fail to benefit those that are most vulnerable in a community. This recognition has led to a growing interest in and experimentation with, consumer-led demand side financing systems (CL-DSF). These mechanisms place purchasing power in the hands of consumers to spend on specific services at accredited facilities. International evidence in education and health sectors suggest a limited success of CL-DSF in raising the consumption of key services amongst priority groups. There is also some evidence that vouchers can be used to improve targeting of vulnerable groups. There is very little positive evidence on the effect of CL-DSF on service quality as a consequence of greater competition. Location of services relative to population means that areas with more provider choice, particularly in the private sector, tend to be dominated by higher and middle-income households. Extending CL-DSF in low-income countries requires the development of capacity in administering these financing schemes and also accrediting providers. Schemes could focus primarily on fixed packages of key services aimed at easily identifiable groups. Piloting and robust evaluation is required to fill the evidence gap on the impact of these mechanisms. Extending demand financing to less predictable services, such as hospital coverage for the population, is likely to require the development of a voucher scheme to purchase insurance. This suggests an already developed insurance market and is unlikely to be appropriate in most low-income countries for some time.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore business courses performance factors with a focus on accounting and finance. Course score interrelations are assumed to represent interpretable constructs of these factors. Factor analysis is proposed to identify the constructs that explain the correlations. Factor analysis results identify three sub-groups of business core courses. The first group is labeled as management-oriented courses. Accounting, finance and economics courses are separated in two groups: the prior courses group and the subsequent courses group. The clustering order of these three groups was attributed to underlying performance factor similarities. Then, the groups are compared by the pre-assessed ratings of course specific skills and knowledge. The comparison suggests that course requirements for skills and knowledge were the latent variables for the factor analysis. Moreover, multivariate regression analyses are employed to reveal the required level of verbal and quantitative skills for the groups. Management-oriented courses are differentiated from others with requiring verbal skills, managerial skills and knowledge more. Introductory courses require quantitative and analytical reasoning skills more than the subsequent courses in accounting, finance and economics. Mathematics course score fails to be a suitable proxy of numerical processing skills as an accounting course performance factor.
Hack, Walter G.
This report discusses several kinds of Federal aid to education and decides that a Federal foundation program is the best type. Arguments in favor of such a program are that (1) contemporary societal problems require a national policy (including a federally financed education program), (2) equity of financial responsibility for the educational…
Full Text Available Nowadays in Romania, projects financed from nonrefundable external funds post-accession are an important additional source of funding for public institutions of academic education in the somber context of the budgetary underfunding and under the significant decrease in the number of the students that are paying tuition fees. In these circumstances, this paper focuses on the accounting codification and instrumentation of the operations afferent to the projects financed from structural funds, materializing into a pragmatic approach in which we aim to present the accounting reflection of the specific accounting operations in the case of the University of Craiova, as public beneficiary of post-accession external grants, based on the principle of expenses reimbursement. In order to achieve our desideration, we shall consider issues related to the interpretation of the applicable referential in full correlation with the practice size in the context of the accounting capitalization of the financial allocations facilitated by the contracts signed between the public institutions of higher education and the pan-European financier.
Attainment data on England's school pupils are more extensive in coverage, detail, quantity, accessibility and of higher quality than monitoring statistics routinely available in other European countries. These data facilitate investigation of low attainment in England's schools and its relationship to ethnicity, gender and poverty. This article…
Regenstein, Marsha; Snyder, John E; Jewers, Mariellen Malloy; Nocella, Kiki; Mullan, Fitzhugh
Despite considerable federal investment, graduate medical education financing is neither transparent for estimating residency training costs nor accountable for effectively producing a physician workforce that matches the nation's health care needs. The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program's authorization in 2010 provided an opportunity to establish a more transparent financing mechanism. We developed a standardized methodology for quantifying the necessary investment to train primary care physicians in high-need communities. The THCGME Costing Instrument was designed utilizing guidance from site visits, financial documentation, and expert review. It collects educational outlays, patient service expenses and revenues from residents' ambulatory and inpatient care, and payer mix. The instrument was fielded from April to November 2015 in 43 THCGME-funded residency programs of varying specialties and organizational structures. Of the 43 programs, 36 programs (84%) submitted THCGME Costing Instruments. The THCGME Costing Instrument collected standardized, detailed cost data on residency labor (n = 36), administration and educational outlays (n = 33), ambulatory care visits and payer mix (n = 30), patient service expenses (n = 26), and revenues generated by residents (n = 26), in contrast to Medicare cost reports, which include only costs incurred by residency programs. The THCGME Costing Instrument provides a model for calculating evidence-based costs and revenues of community-based residency programs, and it enhances accountability by offering an approach that estimates residency costs and revenues in a range of settings. The instrument may have feasibility and utility for application in other residency training settings.
Connecticut State Board of Education, Hartford.
These Connecticut vocational and technical performance standards and competencies are a guide for overall quality attainment in these seven vocational and technical program areas: agricultural science technology education; business and finance technology education; cooperative work education; family and consumer sciences education; marketing…
St. Pierre, Eileen; Richert, Charlotte; Routh, Susan; Lockwood, Rachel; Simpson, Mickey
States are recognizing the need for personal financial education and have begun requiring it as a condition for high school graduation. Responding to teacher requests to help them meet state-mandated financial education requirements, FCS educators in the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service developed a financial education tool kit. This article…
Valentim, Silvani S.
This study examined a Preparatory Course for Blacks and the Economically Disadvantaged (PBED) in a poor area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The PBED is an alternative educational project that offers regular classes on evenings and weekends using volunteer labor, donated space, and contributions from students who can afford it. Case studies were used…
Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing
Background: Few studies have investigated if mother's interest and father's interest in child's education are linked to educational attainment via their impact on child's self-esteem and locus of control. Aims: (1) To investigate (after controlling for known confounding factors) the long-term effect of mother's and father's interest in child's…
P. Quiry; Y. Le Fur; A. Salvi; M. Dallocchio; P. Vernimmen
Corporate Finance: Theory and Practice, 3rd Edition, the website www.vernimmen.com and the Vernimmen.com newsletter are all written and created by an author team who are both investment bankers/corporate financiers and academics. This book covers the theory and practice of Corporate Finance from a truly European perspective. It shows how to use financial theory to solve practical problems and is written for students of corporate finance and financial analysis and practising corporate financie...
Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...
This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project
Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark; Butcher, Lee; Lin, Jue; Brydon, Lena; Kivimäki, Mika; Marmot, Michael; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Erusalimsky, Jorge D
Low socioeconomic status (SES) may be associated with accelerated biological aging, but findings relating SES with telomere length have been inconsistent. We tested the hypotheses that shorter telomere length and telomerase activity would be related more robustly to education, an early life indicator of socioeconomic position, than to current indicators of socioeconomic circumstances. Healthy men and women aged 53-76 years from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort provided blood samples from which telomere length was assessed in 448 and telomerase activity in 416. Educational attainment was classified into four levels, while household income and grade of employment were measured as indicators of current socioeconomic circumstances. Age, gender, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, body mass index and physical activity were included as covariates. We found that lower educational attainment was associated with shorter telomere length after controlling statistically for biological and behavioral covariates. Neither household income nor employment grade was related to telomere length. The association between telomere length and education remained significant after adjusting for current socioeconomic circumstances. In men, highest levels of telomerase activity were found in the lowest education group. We conclude that low SES defined in terms of education but not current socioeconomic circumstances is associated with shortened telomeres. Low educational attainment may be an indicator of long-term SES trajectories, and be associated with accumulated allostatic load resulting in telomere shortening. Education may also promote problem-solving skills leading to reduced biological stress responsivity, with favorable consequences for biological aging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haussen, Tina; Uebelmesser, Silke
In higher education systems that are partly tax funded, a country might not be willing to subsidize the education of international students who might leave after graduation. This paper analyzes how student migration affects governmental decisions regarding the private funding share of higher education for 22 OECD countries for the period of…
Full Text Available Th e paper deals with the development of wage distribution by the educational attainment in the Czech Republicin the years 2003–2010, examining forty wage distributions as the object of research and the grossmonthly wage in CZK as the research variable. It analyses the development of the wage distribution in timeand the gross monthly wage in relation to the level of educational attainment. It also pursues the developmentof a minimum wage in the monitored period. Th e author gives special attention to the lowest guaranteed wagelevels classifi ed according to wage classes and work capability assessment, comparing the minimum wage tothat of subsistence. Th e forecasts of future wage distribution are an integral component of the research, the fi -nancial standing of Czech households being evaluated in an international context within the European Union
Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…
Van Gerven, Pascal W M; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Ausems, Eleonora E B; Bekers, Otto; Jolles, Jelle
We investigated suspected longitudinal interaction effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and educational attainment on cognitive decline in normal aging. Our sample consisted of 571 healthy, nondemented adults aged between 49 and 82 years. Linear mixed-models analyses were performed with four measurement time points: baseline, 3-year, 6-year, and 12-year follow-up. Covariates included age at baseline, sex, and self-perceived physical and mental health. Dependent measures were global cognitive functioning (Mini-Mental State Examination; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975), Stroop performance (Stroop Color-Word Test; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2006a), set-shifting performance (Concept Shifting Test; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2006b), cognitive speed (Letter-Digit Substitution Test; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2006c), verbal learning (Verbal Learning Test: Sum of five trials; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2005), and long-term memory (Verbal Learning Test: Delayed recall). We found only faint evidence that older, high-educated carriers of the APOE-ε4 allele (irrespective of zygosity) show a more pronounced decline than younger, low-educated carriers and noncarriers (irrespective of educational attainment). Moreover, this outcome was confined to concept-shifting performance and was especially observable between 6- and 12-year follow-ups. No protective effects of higher education were found on any of the six cognitive measures. We conclude that the combination of APOE-ε4 allele and high educational attainment may be a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline in older age, as has been reported before, but only to a very limited extent. Moreover, we conclude that, within the cognitive reserve framework, education does not have significant protective power against age-related cognitive decline.
Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.
Goetz, Joseph; Cude, Brenda J.; Nielsen, Robert B.; Chatterjee, Swarn; Mimura, Yoko
Using online survey responses from 509 undergraduate students, three financial education methods (on-campus financial counseling center, online financial management resources, and in-person educational workshops) were examined. Using a social constructionist framework, the analysis controlled for various demographic and financial factors. The…
Verstegen, Deborah A.
The purpose of this article is to describe and compare individual state funding systems for public elementary and secondary education in the United States. States' major education funding systems are described as well as funding mechanisms for students with disabilities; English language learners (ELL); gifted and talented students; and low income…
In America free public education is a constitutional value. Yet, although free public education for all is a constitutional value, America's public schools remain ravaged by "savage inequalities", many of which are the direct result of significant financial disparities. Given the obvious conflict between the constitutional value of free public…
Aleman, Enrique, Jr.
In this article, the author seeks to re-imagine the political and policy roles of educational leaders of color, offering an alternative method for educational leadership, advocacy, and policy analysis. The author uses critical race theory (CRT) and Latina/o critical (LatCrit) theory to problematize the way politically-active Mexican American…
Using Castells' four principal functions of universities, this article examines several key dilemmas relating to governance of higher education in SE Asia, (specifically Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam). While all five nations value universities highly, and aspire to widen access to higher education, none can provide public…
This paper assesses the adequacy, efficiency, and equity of higher education in Lebanon in both the public and private sectors, while highlighting challenges that are specific to Lebanon. It concludes by discussing various approaches and strategies to remedy the challenges facing higher education in Lebanon.
Wurster, Stanley R.
This paper first examines the economics of higher education and the five economic problems that face institutions of higher learning: inflation, expansion of educational services, fluctuating student enrollments, need for an enlarged and modernized capital plant, and uncertain sources of income. The paper then reviews the trends and potential of…
Koehler, John E.; Williams, Albert P., Jr.
To increase the supply of doctors, the government has become directly involved in physician education. Of the $673 million appropriated for health manpower programs in 1972, 55% was for medical schools. Legislation to date has emphasized expansion of medical education output in the aggregate, but increasing attention has been directed to the…
Despite the promise of equal educational opportunities for all, most public schools in the townships of South Africa have remained poorly funded and thus have become dysfunctional. As a result most poor parents from townships have started to transfer their children to schools with better resources and education facilities in the suburban areas.…
Bamiteko, Racheal Modupe; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Bukar, Ibrahim Bulama
This study examined the attitude of academic community towards physically challenged students in the University of Maiduguri as it affect the financing of inclusive education for sustainable development in Nigeria. Four objectives, two research questions and two hypotheses were set and tested for the study. Descriptive survey was adopted as a…
Wong, Phoebe; Mak, Connie; Ng, Peggy M. L.; Zhao, Jessie
This study explores the interrelationships between self-concept, motivation and academic and social experience among students from self-financing higher education institutions in Hong Kong. Although prior studies have investigated different aspects of self that drive various types of motivation in students' academic and social experience, most of…
West, Anne; Sparkes, Jo; Balabanov, Todor
The use of demand-side financing mechanisms and vouchers for postcompulsory secondary-level education was examined through case studies of funding practices in the following countries: Austria; France; the United Kingdom; the United States; and Wallonia (the French community of Belgium). Different models of voucher use were identified in the…
Powers, Blake; Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph C.; Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)
For space to be truly commercialized, businesses of all sizes and types must be involved, from foundries to agricultural research initiatives. Achieving this goal, however, requires three separate but integrated educational efforts to support it. The first is to educate industry leaders about the possibilities available through such research, while dispelling some of the myths and misinformation educate the financial community about the economic benefits that result both from the research and the leveraging of private research dollars through the use of space and microgravity research. The third is to educate the public about the tangible benefits that come directly to them from such efforts, the economic benefits to national economies from same, and the other less tangible benefits that will cascade from commercial operations. Together, these steps will educate and provide the framework necessary to help advance space commercialization.
Mario Roberto Dal Poz
Full Text Available Abstract: The article analyzes the configuration and trends in institutions of Higher Education and their relationship as components of the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC. The expansion of higher education is part of the transition from elite to mass systems, with tensions between quantitative and qualitative aspects. Such changes reflect different cultures and are related to international phenomena such as globalization, economic transformations, the development of new information and communication technologies, and the emergence of an international knowledge network. The scale and content of these changes vary according to the expansion and institutional reconfiguration of educational systems, as well as the link between state and society. Market expansion for private higher education stirs competition, shapes business clusters, modifies training processes, and raises new public policy challenges.
Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis
Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...
Littlecott, Hannah J; Long, Sara; Hawkins, Jemma; Murphy, Simon; Hewitt, Gillian; Eccles, Gemma; Fletcher, Adam; Moore, Graham F
Implementing health improvement is often perceived as diverting resource away from schools' core business, reflecting an assumption of a "zero-sum game" between health and education. There is some evidence that health behaviors may affect young people's educational outcomes. However, associations between implementation of school health improvement and educational outcomes remains underinvestigated. The study linked school-level data on free school meal (FSM) entitlement, educational outcomes, and school attendance, obtained from government websites, with data from the School Environment Questionnaire (SEQ) on health improvement activity collected in Wales (2015/2016). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and linear regression models tested the extent of association between health improvement activity and attendance and educational outcomes. SEQ data were provided by 100/115 network schools (87%), of whom data on educational performance were obtained from 97. The percentage of pupils entitled to FSM predicted most of the between-school variance in achievement and attendance. Linear regression models demonstrated significant positive associations of all measures of health improvement activity with attainment at Key Stage (KS) 3, apart from mental health education in the curriculum and organizational commitment to health. Student and parent involvement in planning health activities were associated with improved school attendance. There were no significant associations between health improvement and KS4 attainment. Implementing health improvement activity does not have a detrimental effect on schools' educational performance. There is tentative evidence of the reverse, with better educational outcomes in schools with more extensive health improvement policies and practices. Further research should investigate processes by which this occurs and variations by socioeconomic status.
William R. Kerr; Ramana Nanda
We review the recent literature on the financing of innovation, inclusive of large companies and new startups. This research strand has been very active over the past five years, generating important new findings, questioning some long-held beliefs, and creating its own puzzles. Our review outlines the growing body of work that documents a role for debt financing related to innovation. We highlight the new literature on learning and experimentation across multi-stage innovation projects and h...
Metcalfe, Amy; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne C
Under Canada's Employment Insurance system, parents are entitled to receive up to 50 weeks of parental leave at 55 % of salary. Despite this national policy, women with higher education are more likely to delay childbearing. This analysis aimed to assess the association between workplace support, educational attainment and the timing of first births. Women who had recently given birth to their first live-born infant and lived in Alberta, Canada, were randomly selected to participate in a telephone survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between workplace support, educational attainment and timing of first pregnancy. Among 835 women with a planned pregnancy, 26 % agreed that support or lack of support for pregnant women at their workplace affected their decision about when to begin their family. After controlling for age and income, women who had completed a post-graduate degree were three times (OR 3.39, 95 % CI 1.69-6.81) more likely to indicate that support or lack of support for pregnant women in their workplace affected their childbearing decisions. In spite of national policies, and the potential risks associated with delayed childbearing, workplace support impacts timing of pregnancy, particularly for highly educated women.
Checchi, D; Ichino, A; Rustichini, A
A centralised and egalitarian school system reduces the cost of education for poor families, and so it should reduce income inequality and make intergenerational mobility easier. In this paper we provide evidence that Italy, compared to the USA, displays less income inequality, as expected given the
Education is currently one of the key resources that enable countries to flourish and grow economically; as world experience has shown, the importance of this factor will increase steadily. To a large extent, the full-fledged restructuring of the Russian economy depends on the character and effectiveness of transformations in Russia's system of…
At no time in recent history has the importance of adult education been greater and the funding more threatened. Despite the fact that as many as 93 million adults in the U.S. may need basic skills services to improve their economic prospects, funding for these services is stagnating at the federal level and being slashed in statehouses and state…
This paper provides three pieces of analysis. First, an economic theory account of the reasons that governments may have to intervene in the market for education is offered. This account is based on insights from both the neoclassical (market) paradigm and the information paradigm. Second, it
Geulayov, G; Metcalfe, C; Gunnell, D
Few studies have investigated the impact of parental suicide attempt (SA) on offspring outcomes other than mental health. We investigated the association of parental SA with offspring educational attainment in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Parental SA was prospectively recorded from pregnancy until the study children were 11 years old. National school test results (ages 11-16 years) were obtained by record linkage. Multilevel regression models quantified the association between parental SA and offspring outcomes. Data were available for 6667 mother-child and 3054 father-child pairs. Adolescents whose mothers had attempted suicide were less likely than their peers to achieve the expected educational level by age 14 years [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.95] in models controlling for relevant confounders, including parental education and depression. At age 16 years, adolescents whose mothers had attempted suicide were less likely to obtain the expected educational level (five or more qualifications at grade A*-C) (aOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.43-1.00) in models controlling for relevant confounders and parental education; however, after additionally controlling for maternal depression the results were consistent with chance (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.48-1.13). Findings in relation to paternal SA were consistent with those of maternal SA but power was limited due to lower response rate amongst fathers. Maternal SA was associated with diminished educational performance at age 14 years. Educational attainment during adolescence can have substantial effect on future opportunities and well-being and these offspring may benefit from interventions.
Ding, Weili; Lu, Ming
Lacking guidance of general equilibrium (GE) theories in public economics and the corresponding proper mechanisms, China has not surprisingly witnessed an inequality in educational expenditures across regions as well as insufficiency of funds for education in poor areas. It is wrongly thought that what happens is due to the decentralized financing…
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Catalog of Federal... developed for the Assistive Technology (AT) Alternative Financing Program (AFP) in fiscal year (FY) 2012 to...
Rommel, John; Simpson, Ross; Mounsey, John Paul; Chung, Eugene; Schwartz, Jennifer; Pursell, Irion; Gehi, Anil
Atherosclerosis development is a complex process, with inflammation, indicated by elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as a potential mediator. Obesity, physical activity, and depression have all been reported to affect hs-CRP. However, these factors are interconnected, and their relative individual importance remains unclear. From a separate prospective cohort study, 289 patients were selected for the present substudy. We assessed the relation of a variety of potential predictors and hs-CRP. Obesity, physical activity, and depression, in addition to several other potential factors, were analyzed in bivariate and multivariate linear regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. In unadjusted analyses, mild-to-moderate and severe depression were associated with increased hs-CRP compared to no or minimal depression. Vigorous physical activity was associated with decreased hs-CRP compared to no physical activity. All classes of obesity were associated with increased hs-CRP. In addition, attaining a college or graduate degree was associated with decreased hs-CRP compared to high school or less educational attainment. On multivariate analysis, depression was no longer associated with increased hs-CRP. Physical activity remained associated with decreased hs-CRP but only at vigorous levels. Educational attainment also remained associated but only at the collegiate or professional education level. Ultimately, obesity remained the greatest absolute predictor of elevated hs-CRP. In conclusion, in analyses of multiple factors potentially predictive of elevated hs-CRP in a large population of patients with subclinical coronary heart disease, we found the most important predictor to be obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poz, Mario Roberto Dal; Couto, Maria Helena Costa; Franco, Thais de Andrade Vidaurre
The article analyzes the configuration and trends in institutions of Higher Education and their relationship as components of the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC). The expansion of higher education is part of the transition from elite to mass systems, with tensions between quantitative and qualitative aspects. Such changes reflect different cultures and are related to international phenomena such as globalization, economic transformations, the development of new information and communication technologies, and the emergence of an international knowledge network. The scale and content of these changes vary according to the expansion and institutional reconfiguration of educational systems, as well as the link between state and society. Market expansion for private higher education stirs competition, shapes business clusters, modifies training processes, and raises new public policy challenges. Resumo: Este artigo analisa a configuração e as tendências das instituições de Ensino Superior de saúde no seu relacionamento enquanto componentes do Complexo Econômico Industrial da Saúde (CEIS). A expansão do Ensino Superior é parte da transição de sistemas de elite para sistemas de massa, com tensionamentos entre aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos. Essas mudanças refletem diferentes culturas e se relacionam com fenômenos de escopo mundial como globalização, transformações econômicas, desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias de comunicação e informação, e emergência de uma rede internacional de conhecimento. A escala e o conteúdo dessas mudanças variam com a ampliação dos sistemas de ensino e na reconfiguração institucional, bem como na articulação entre Estado e sociedade. A ampliação do mercado privado no ensino acirra a competitividade, conformando conglomerados empresariais, alterando processos de formação e forjando novos desafios para as políticas públicas.
Stepp, Stephanie D; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Morris, Nancy A
Objective We examined trajectories of adolescent social competence as a resilience factor among at-risk youth. To examine potential mechanisms of this resilience process, we investigated the putative mediating effect of peer delinquency on the relation between adolescent social competence and young adult delinquency seriousness and educational attainment. Method Participants (n = 257) were screened to be at risk for antisocial behaviour at age 13 years. Data were derived from an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of antisocial and delinquent behaviour among inner-city boys, the Pittsburgh Youth Study. We used data collected from participants when aged 13 years until they were aged 25.5 years for our study. Results Results indicated that boys with high levels of social competence decreased their involvement with deviant peers throughout adolescence, which, in turn, predicted less serious forms of delinquency in early adulthood. Social competence had a direct effect on educational attainment in early adulthood, as boys who developed social competencies in adolescence went further in school irrespective of their involvement with delinquent peers. Conclusions Results suggest that promoting the development of social competencies and reducing involvement with delinquent peers will protect at-risk youth from engaging in serious delinquency in early adulthood while increasing their educational success. PMID:21878156
Vogel, Christina; Lewis, Daniel; Ntani, Georgia; Cummins, Steven; Cooper, Cyrus; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis
There is evidence that food outlet access differs according to level of neighbourhood deprivation but little is known about how individual circumstances affect associations between food outlet access and diet. This study explored the relationship between dietary quality and a measure of overall food environment, representing the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlet access in individualised activity spaces. Furthermore, this study is the first to assess effect modification of level of educational attainment on this relationship. A total of 839 mothers with young children from Hampshire, United Kingdom (UK) completed a cross-sectional survey including a 20-item food frequency questionnaire to measure diet and questions about demographic characteristics and frequently visited locations including home, children's centre, general practitioner, work, main food shop and physical activity location. Dietary information was used to calculate a standardised dietary quality score for each mother. Individualised activity spaces were produced by creating a 1000m buffer around frequently visited locations using ArcGIS. Cross-sectional observational food outlet data were overlaid onto activity spaces to derive an overall food environment score for each mother. These scores represented the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlets using weightings to characterise the proportion of healthy or unhealthy foods sold in each outlet type. Food outlet access was dominated by the presence of unhealthy food outlets; only 1% of mothers were exposed to a healthy overall food environment in their daily activities. Level of educational attainment moderated the relationship between overall food environment and diet (mid vs low, p = 0.06; high vs low, p = 0.04). Adjusted stratified linear regression analyses showed poorer food environments were associated with better dietary quality among mothers with degrees (β = -0.02; 95%CI: -0.03, -0.001) and a tendency toward poorer
Li, Yue; Bates, Timothy
Mindset theory predicts that children’s IQ and school grades are positively linked to their belief that basic ability is malleable rather than fixed. We test this prediction in three experimental studies (total n = 624 individually-tested 10-12-year-olds). Two studies included active-control conditions to test effects of fixed-ability beliefs independent of motivation. In addition, we tested whether children’s own mindsets relate to real-life IQ, educational attainment in longitudinal analyse...
Quantitative finance is a field that has risen to prominence over the last few decades. It encompasses the complex models and calculations that value financial contracts, particularly those which reference events in the future, and apply probabilities to these events. While adding greatly to the flexibility of the market available to corporations and investors, it has also been blamed for worsening the impact of financial crises. But what exactly does quantitative finance encompass, and where did these ideas and models originate? We show that the mathematics behind finance and behind games of chance have tracked each other closely over the centuries and that many well-known physicists and mathematicians have contributed to the field.
Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.
Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence
This article examines the innovative techniques the participants in the Vidalia, Mississippi hydropower project used to overcome the numerous obstacles to the financing of the project. The topics of the article are early obstacles, funding and permitting, hydrology questions, matching income to debt, unorthodox provisions and a tough closing
HEALTH & FINANCE. Patrick Thokwa Masobe. Patrick Thokwa Masobe completed his undergraduate studies at Grinnel/. University in the USA, and a Master. Degreefrom the University of London in. 1995. He is wrrently employed by the national Department of Health, where he led the task team charged with making.
One of the major challenges in todays post-crisis finance environment is calculating the sensitivities of complex products for hedging and risk management. Historically, these derivatives have been determined using bump-and-revalue, but due to the increasing magnitude of these computations does...
Full Text Available Higher education is a mixed commodity. Considering its attribute, it is a service benefiting its users directly and society indirectly. Therefore it is necessary that higher education be catered continuously. In this context, higher education institutions should prompt the dynamics of societal development and lead the society toward better future. One of fundamental task for universities is to provide positive externalities for the entire society. However, universities often face important financial difficulties to extent the externalities they provide. In recent years alternative resources also are employed in financing higher education. For instance it is universally accepted application that some of the costs of higher education are accrued to the direct beneficiaries or the students. In some countries however higher education is solely funded by public resources because higher education in these countries is considered as public good. However in the recent years, a widespread belief suggests that public resources are not fit for efficient use, therefore alternative means of higher education finance are being explored. One such means appears to be an income-contingent system or student borrowing system. This method eases the burden of public finance and allows for students to assume a partial cost of higher education.
Multimedia / Photos Videos Publications Bloggers DoD Websites Personal Finance Resources As part of the finance director said here recently. Story Security Expert Advises Troops to Safeguard Personal, Financial education in personal finance that commanders say goes a long way in promoting battle readiness. Story
公司金融学是金融学专业的核心主干课程,随着本科高等教育应用型人才培养的需要,其学科地位日益凸显.本文对公司金融的学科定位问题进行分析,对公司金融的理论体系进行了探讨,并对未来公司金融学发展方向做出展望.%Corporate finance is a core and main course for finance specialty, and its discipline position is increasingly highlighted with the demand of applied talent cultivation in undergraduate higher education. This paper analyzes the discipline orientation of corporate finance, explores the theory system of corporate finance, and makes a prospect of the future development of Corporate Fi-nance.
Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin
The remaining years of healthy life expectancy (RYH) at age 65 years can be calculated as RYH (65) = healthy life expectancy-aged 65 years. This study confirms the associations between socioeconomic indicators and the RYH (65) in 148 countries. The RYH data were obtained from the World Health Organization. Significant positive correlations between RYH (65) in men and women and the socioeconomic indicators national income, education level, and improved drinking water were found. Finally, the predictors of RYH (65) in men and women were used to build a model of the RYH using higher socioeconomic indicators (R(2 )= 0.744, p educational attainment, national income level, and improved water quality influenced the RYH at 65 years. Therefore, policymaking to improve these country-level socioeconomic factors is expected to have latent effects on RYH in older age. © The Author(s) 2016.
Waga, Duncan; Makori, Esther; Rabah, Kefa
Kenya Educational and Research fraternity has highly qualified human resource capacity with globally gained experiences. However each research entity works in disparity due to the absence of a common digital platform while educational units don't even have the basic infrastructure. For sustainability of Education and research progression,…
Kaufman, Alan S; Kaufman, James C; Liu, Xin; Johnson, Cheryl K
Educational attainment and gender differences on fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), and academic skills in reading, math, and writing were analyzed for stratified adult samples ranging in age from 22 to 90 years. The data sources were the adult portions of the standardization samples of the second editions of Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (N = 570) and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Brief Form (N = 555). Five univariate analysis of covariance were conducted with age as the covariate. Correlational analysis supplemented the covariate analyses to better understand the relationship of the five variables to education. All variables related significantly and substantially to years of formal schooling, an important finding in view of the key nature of this background variable for conducting neuropsychological assessments, as elaborated by Heaton and his colleagues. Surprisingly, Gf related just as strongly to education as did the school-related Gc. Among academic skill areas, math correlated higher with years of formal schooling than did either reading or writing. Women significantly outperformed men on the writing test and the reverse was true for the math test; other gender differences were not significant. These analyses fill a gap in the literature regarding the nature of gender and education differences in academic skills for heterogeneous samples of normal adults between young adulthood and old age and have practical implications for neuropsychological assessment.
Cornish, Rosie P; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Davies, Amy; Macleod, John
Most epidemiological studies have missing information, leading to reduced power and potential bias. Estimates of exposure-outcome associations will generally be biased if the outcome variable is missing not at random (MNAR). Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the missing study outcome allows assessment of whether this outcome is MNAR and the evaluation of bias. We examined this in relation to the association between infant breastfeeding and IQ at 15 years, where a proxy for IQ was available through linkage to school attainment data. Subjects were those who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in 1990-91 (n = 13 795), of whom 5023 had IQ measured at age 15. For those with missing IQ, 7030 (79%) had information on educational attainment at age 16 obtained through linkage to the National Pupil Database. The association between duration of breastfeeding and IQ was estimated using a complete case analysis, multiple imputation and inverse probability-of-missingness weighting; these estimates were then compared with those derived from analyses informed by the linkage. IQ at 15 was MNAR-individuals with higher attainment were less likely to have missing IQ data, even after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. All the approaches underestimated the association between breastfeeding and IQ compared with analyses informed by linkage. Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the outcome variable allows the MNAR assumption to be tested and more efficient analyses to be performed. Under certain circumstances, this may produce unbiased results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Full Text Available The objective of this Study was to investigate the opinions of graduate students on the level of quality of educational services at the Faculty of Finance and Banking in Sana’a. The researchers used a questionnaire to collect the data. The questionnaire consisted of six sections: textbooks, instructional aids, library services, faculty, admission and registration procedures, and infrastructure. The main research question focused the level of the quality educational services provided at the faculty of Finance and Banking in Sana’a. The population of the study consisted of 379 students where 150 were randomly selected. To answer the research question, the researchers used the descriptive method. to The research results showed that the students had a high satisfaction level of the services provided. In addition, the results showed that there were no differences among graduate students’ opinions based on gender, age, program, area of specialization, and payment of tuition fees. Keywords: Service quality, Faculty of finance and banking, Graduate studies.
The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...
Pu, Christy; Huang, Nicole; Tang, Gao-Jun; Chou, Yiing-Jenq
Several studies have demonstrated that perceived financial status has a significant impact on health status among the elderly. However, little is known about whether such a subjective perception interacts with objective socioeconomic status (SES) measures such as education that affect the individual's health. This research used data from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle Age and Elderly in Taiwan (SHLS) conducted by the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health in Taiwan. Waves 1996, 1999 and 2003 were used. The sample consisted of 2,387 elderly persons. The interactive effects of self-rated satisfaction with financial position and educational attainment were estimated. Self-rated health (SRH), depressive symptom (measured by CES-D) and mortality were used to measure health outcomes. Significant interaction effect was found for depressive symptoms. Among those who were dissatisfied with their financial position, those who were illiterate had an odds ratio (OR) of 8.3 (95% CI 4.9 to 14.0) for having depressive symptoms compared with those who were very satisfied with their financial position. The corresponding OR for those with college or above was only 2.7 (95% CI 1.0 to 7.3). No significant interaction effect was found for SRH and mortality. Although poor financial satisfaction was found to be related to poorer health, the strongest association for this effect was observed among those with low educational attainment, and this is especially true for depressive symptoms. Subjective financial status among the elderly should be explored in conjunction with traditional measures of SES.
It is widely known that educational attainment has considerable influence on the prevalence of disability among native-born non-Hispanic older adults in the US. However, few studies have examined whether educational attainment has a similar effect on disability among foreign-born Asian older adults. If it does not have a similar effect on these adults, why not, and is its effect influenced by the age at which they immigrated to the US? This study addresses these questions by using the 2006 American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample (ACS PUMS). Logistic regression analyses reveal that education has differential effects on the two racial groups. Education protects foreign-born Asians less than native-born non-Hispanic whites. In addition, Asian adults who immigrated earlier are less likely to experience disability. Interestingly, the interaction between age at immigration and educational attainment for foreign-born Asian older adults indicates that less educated Asians are more likely to benefit from early immigration. Heterogeneity within the Asian group is also examined. The findings suggest that educational attainment has differential effects not only on the two racial groups but also on the foreign-born Asian group depending on age at immigration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bates, Timothy C; Maher, Brion S; Medland, Sarah E; McAloney, Kerrie; Wright, Margaret J; Hansell, Narelle K; Kendler, Kenneth S; Martin, Nicholas G; Gillespie, Nathan A
Research on environmental and genetic pathways to complex traits such as educational attainment (EA) is confounded by uncertainty over whether correlations reflect effects of transmitted parental genes, causal family environments, or some, possibly interactive, mixture of both. Thus, an aggregate of thousands of alleles associated with EA (a polygenic risk score; PRS) may tap parental behaviors and home environments promoting EA in the offspring. New methods for unpicking and determining these causal pathways are required. Here, we utilize the fact that parents pass, at random, 50% of their genome to a given offspring to create independent scores for the transmitted alleles (conventional EA PRS) and a parental score based on alleles not transmitted to the offspring (EA VP_PRS). The formal effect of non-transmitted alleles on offspring attainment was tested in 2,333 genotyped twins for whom high-quality measures of EA, assessed at age 17 years, were available, and whose parents were also genotyped. Four key findings were observed. First, the EA PRS and EA VP_PRS were empirically independent, validating the virtual-parent design. Second, in this family-based design, children's own EA PRS significantly predicted their EA (β = 0.15), ruling out stratification confounds as a cause of the association of attainment with the EA PRS. Third, parental EA PRS predicted the SES environment parents provided to offspring (β = 0.20), and parental SES and offspring EA were significantly associated (β = 0.33). This would suggest that the EA PRS is at least as strongly linked to social competence as it is to EA, leading to higher attained SES in parents and, therefore, a higher experienced SES for children. In a full structural equation model taking account of family genetic relatedness across multiple siblings the non-transmitted allele effects were estimated at similar values; but, in this more complex model, confidence intervals included zero. A test using the forthcoming EA3
Verweij, K.J.H.; Huizink, A.C.; Agrawal, A.; Martin, N.G.; Lynskey, M.T.
Background: Several studies have shown that early cannabis use is correlated with poor educational performance including high school drop-out. The predominant explanation for this relationship is that cannabis use causes disengagement from education. Another explanation is that the association
Staklis, Sandra; Klein, Steven
Since the mid-1990s, the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) has required all students concentrating in career and technical education (CTE) programs to complete a standardized technical skill assessment at or near the end of their program. Results of technical skill assessments are used for a number of purposes, including recognizing…
King, Allison; Herron, Sonya; McKinstry, Robert; Bacak, Stephen; Armstrong, Melissa; White, Desiree; DeBaun, Michael
The primary objective of this study was to improve the educational success of children with sickle-cell disease (SCD) and cerebral infarcts. A prospective intervention trial was conducted; a multidisciplinary team was created to maximize educational resources for children with SCD and cerebral infarcts. Students were evaluated systematically…
Ashtiani, Mariam; Feliciano, Cynthia
Youth from advantaged backgrounds have more social relationships that provide access to resources facilitating their educational success than those from low-income families. Does access to and mobilization of social capital also relate to success among the few low-income youth who "overcome the odds" and persist in higher education?…
Effect of goal attainment theory based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: Randomized study.
Park, Moonkyoung; Song, Rhayun; Jeong, Jin-Ok
Effect of goal-attainment-theory-based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: randomized study BACKGROUND: The behavioral modification strategies should be explored at the time of admission to lead the maximum effect of cardiovascular risk management. This randomized study aimed to elucidate the effects of a nurse-led theory-based education program in individuals with a first episode of acute myocardial infarction on cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The study involved a convenience sample of 64 patients with acute myocardial infarction who were randomly assigned to either the education group or the control group. The goal-attainment-based education program was designed to set the mutually agreed goals of risk management and the behavioral modification strategies for achieving those goals. Those in the control group received routine management only. The participants in both groups were contacted at 6-8 weeks and at 6 months after discharge to measure outcome variables. Repeated measure ANOVA was conducted using SPSSWIN (version 20.0) to determine the significance of differences in outcome variables over 6 months between the groups. Both groups showed significant positive changes in cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The 2-year risk of cardiovascular disease was significantly reduced in both study groups, but with no significant interaction effect (F=2.01, p=0.142). The performance and maintenance of health behaviors (F=3.75, p=0.029) and the mental component of quality of life (F=4.03, p=0.020) were significantly better in the education group than the control group. Applying a goal-oriented education program at an early stage of hospital management improved and maintained blood glucose, health behaviors, and mental component of the quality of life up to six months in
Mandell, David S.; Machefsky, Aliza; Rubin, David; Feudtner, Chris; Pita, Susmita; Rosenbaum, Sara
BACKGROUND Recent changes to Medicaid policy may have unintended consequences in the education system. This study estimated the potential financial impact of the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) on school districts by calculating Medicaid-reimbursed behavioral health care expenditures for school-aged children in general and children in special education in particular. METHODS Medicaid claims and special education records of youth ages 6 to 18 years in Philadelphia, PA, were merged for calendar year 2002. Behavioral health care volume, type, and expenditures were compared between Medicaid-enrolled children receiving and not receiving special education. RESULTS Significant overlap existed among the 126,533 children who were either Medicaid enrolled (114,257) or received special education (27,620). Medicaid-reimbursed behavioral health care was used by 21% of children receiving special education (37% of those Medicaid enrolled) and 15% of other Medicaid-enrolled children. Total expenditures were $197.8 million, 40% of which was spent on the 5728 children in special education and 60% of which was spent on 15,092 other children. CONCLUSIONS Medicaid-reimbursed behavioral health services disproportionately support special education students, with expenditures equivalent to 4% of Philadelphia’s $2 billion education budget. The results suggest that special education programs depend on Medicaid-reimbursed services, the financing of which the DRA may jeopardize. PMID:18808472
The basic objectives of the Spanish National Energy Plan are summarized as (1) To obtain maximum guarantees for continuity of supplies, (2) Reduce the cost of energy supplies to the maximum possible degree, (3) Reduce the difference in the balance of payments due to importation of primary energy sources, (4) Pro-mote the rational use of energy with the aim of moderating the growth rates in demand without affecting economic development (5) Reduce to an economical minimum the effect on the environment of energy-producing installations, and (6) Contribute to the technological development of the country and promote research in the energy field. To fulfil these objectives, the following forecasts are made: With the Gross National Product increasing at a rate of 5% or 6%, the demand on primary energy sources in 1985 will be 173 or 194 million e.c.t. (equivalent coal tons), i.e. annual growth rates of energy consumption of 6% and 7.2% respectively, compared with growths during the last decade of 9.2%. It is projected that generation of electrical energy from nuclear sources will grow to attain in a share of approximately 60% by 1985, i.e. an installed nuclear power level of 23.8.GW. The cost of the Spanish National Energy Plan, particularly the cost and financing of the nuclear program, is reviewed. Finally, the growing need for self-financing is stressed. (B.P.)
Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Wangen, Knut R
Although there is a broad societal interest in socioeconomic differences in survival after an acute myocardial infarction, only a few studies have investigated how such differences relate to the survival in general population groups. We aimed to investigate education-specific survival after acute myocardial infarction and to compare this with the survival of corresponding groups in the general population. Our study included the entire population of Norwegian patients admitted to hospitals for acute myocardial infarction during 2008-2010, with a 6- year follow-up period. Patient survival was measured relative to the expected survival in the general population for three educational groups: primary, secondary and tertiary. Education, sex, age and calendar year-specific expected survival were obtained from population life tables and adjusted for the presence of infarction-related mortality. Six-year patient survivals were 56.3% (55.3-57.2) and 65.5% (65.6-69.3) for the primary and tertiary educational groups (95% CIs), respectively. Also 6-year relative survival was markedly lower for the primary educational group: 70.2% (68.6-71.8) versus 81.2% (77.4-84.4). Throughout the follow-up period, patient survival tended to remain lower than the survival in the general population with the same educational background. Both patient survival and relative survival after acute myocardial infarction are positively associated with educational level. Our findings may suggest that secondary prevention has been more effective for the highly educated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Gniesha Y. Dinwiddie
Full Text Available Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs. Socioeconomic status (SES is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP, an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years and post high school (i.e., associates degree educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001 and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001 compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001 and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001. These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond
Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Gelaye, Bizu; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A
To use wrist-actrigrphy to collect objective measures of sleep and to characterise actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities. We also assessed the extent to which, if at all, caregivers' education is associated with children's sleep disturbances. Cross-sectional study. A rehabilitation centre in the Patagonia region, Chile. This study was conducted among 125 children aged 6-12 years with disabilities (boys: 55.2%) and their primary caregivers in Chile. Children wore ActiSleep monitors for 7 days. A general linear model was fitted to generate least-square means and SEs of sleep efficiency (proportion of the sleep period spent asleep) across caregivers' education levels adjusting for children's age, sex, disability type, caregiver-child relationship and caregivers' age. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate ORs and 95% CIs of longer sleep latency (≥ 30 min) and longer wake after sleep onset (WASO) (≥ 90 min) (a measure of sleep fragmentation) in relation to caregivers' educational attainment. Median sleep latency was 27.3 min, WASO 88.1 min and sleep duration 8.0 h. Mean sleep efficiency was 80.0%. Caregivers' education was positively and significantly associated with children's sleep efficiency (p trendeducation, and 81.9% (SE=1.0) among children of caregivers >high school education. Compared to children whose caregivers had >high school, children of caregivers with education is associated with more sleep disturbances. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Economic crises are a recurrent phenomenon in American society, yet there is little knowledge of the impacts on educational opportunity. Using data from a large high school district as a case study, this research explores the impact of the Great Recession (2007-2009) on high school senior graduation rates in an area at the epicenter of the…
Williams, Randolph, Jr.
From 1959 to 1964, approximately 1,700 Black children in Prince Edward County, Virginia were denied schooling, due to the county leaders' decision to close schools--a defiant response to federal racial desegregation mandates stemming from "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954, 1955). Yet from one of the most extreme cases of injustice in…
Arum, Richard; LaFree, Gary
Little is known about the relationship between school characteristics, such as teacher-student ratios, and the risk of incarceration in adulthood. Educational skeptics argue that investment in schools has little effect on outcomes, such as criminality or the risk of incarceration, because criminal propensities are fixed at an early age and…
Στην εισαγωγή της παρούσας εργασίας δίνεται ο ορισμός του project financing, τα ιστορικά στοιχεία και οι τάσεις αγοράς του. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο αναφέρεται γιατί οι εταιρείες προτιμούν την χρηματοδότηση με project financing. Γίνεται λόγος για τα πλεονεκτήματά του έναντι της άμεσης χρηματοδότησης, καθώς και για τα μειονεκτήματα του project financing. Στο δεύτερο κεφάλαιο παρουσιάζονται τα χρηματοοικονομικά στοιχεία και ο ρόλος του χρηματοοικονομικού συμβούλου. Στην τρίτη ενότητα γίνεται η αναγνώ...
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Gustavo Yamada; Juan F. Castro; Arlette Beltran; Maria A. Cardenas
We propose a model that accounts for the potential feedback between schooling performance, human capital accumulation and long run GDP growth, and links these results with poverty incidence. Our simulation exercise takes into account targets for education indicators and GDP growth itself (as arguments in our planner's loss function) and provides two conclusions: (i) with additional funds which amount to 1 percent of GDP each year, public intervention could, by year 2015, add an extra 0.89 and...
Hawkins, Jaclynn M.
Objectives. This study assessed possible associations between recessions and changes in the magnitude of social disparities in foregone health care, building on previous studies that have linked recessions to lowered health care use. Methods. Data from the 2006 to 2010 waves of the National Health Interview Study were used to examine levels of foregone medical, dental and mental health care and prescribed medications. Differences by race/ethnicity and education were compared before the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009, during the early recession, and later in the recession and in its immediate wake. Results. Foregone care rose for working-aged adults overall in the 2 recessionary periods compared with the pre-recession. For multiple types of pre-recession care, foregoing care was more common for African Americans and Hispanics and less common for Asian Americans than for Whites. Less-educated individuals were more likely to forego all types of care pre-recession. Most disparities in foregone care were stable during the recession, though the African American–White gap in foregone medical care increased, as did the Hispanic–White gap and education gap in foregone dental care. Conclusions. Our findings support the fundamental cause hypothesis, as even during a recession in which more advantaged groups may have had unusually high risk of losing financial assets and employer-provided health insurance, they maintained their relative advantage in access to health care. Attention to the macroeconomic context of social disparities in health care use is warranted. PMID:24328647
The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools.
McManus, I C; Dewberry, Chris; Nicholson, Sandra; Dowell, Jonathan S
Most UK medical schools use aptitude tests during student selection, but large-scale studies of predictive validity are rare. This study assesses the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), and its four sub-scales, along with measures of educational attainment, individual and contextual socio-economic background factors, as predictors of performance in the first year of medical school training. A prospective study of 4,811 students in 12 UK medical schools taking the UKCAT from 2006 to 2008 as a part of the medical school application, for whom first year medical school examination results were available in 2008 to 2010. UKCAT scores and educational attainment measures (General Certificate of Education (GCE): A-levels, and so on; or Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA): Scottish Highers, and so on) were significant predictors of outcome. UKCAT predicted outcome better in female students than male students, and better in mature than non-mature students. Incremental validity of UKCAT taking educational attainment into account was significant, but small. Medical school performance was also affected by sex (male students performing less well), ethnicity (non-White students performing less well), and a contextual measure of secondary schooling, students from secondary schools with greater average attainment at A-level (irrespective of public or private sector) performing less well. Multilevel modeling showed no differences between medical schools in predictive ability of the various measures. UKCAT sub-scales predicted similarly, except that Verbal Reasoning correlated positively with performance on Theory examinations, but negatively with Skills assessments. This collaborative study in 12 medical schools shows the power of large-scale studies of medical education for answering previously unanswerable but important questions about medical student selection, education and training. UKCAT has predictive validity as a predictor of medical school outcome