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Sample records for education medical undergraduate

  1. Undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, L; Wass, J

    1993-01-23

    Pressures from students and teachers, from professional bodies, and from changes in the way health care is delivered are all forcing a rethink of how medical students should be taught. These pressures may be more intense in London but are not confined to it. The recommendation the Tomlinson report advocates that has been generally welcomed is for more investment in primary care in London. General practitioners have much to teach medical schools about effective ways of learning, but incentives for teaching students in general practice are currently low, organising such teaching is difficult and needs resources, and resistance within traditional medical school hierarchies needs to be overcome. Likewise, students value learning within local communities, but the effort demanded of public health departments and community organisations is great at a time when they are under greater pressure than ever before. The arguments over research that favour concentration in four multifaculty schools are less clear cut for undergraduate education, where personal support for students is important. An immediate concern is that the effort demanded for reorganising along the lines suggested by Tomlinson will not leave medical schools much energy for innovating.

  2. Undergraduate medical education.

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, L; Wass, J

    1993-01-01

    Pressures from students and teachers, from professional bodies, and from changes in the way health care is delivered are all forcing a rethink of how medical students should be taught. These pressures may be more intense in London but are not confined to it. The recommendation the Tomlinson report advocates that has been generally welcomed is for more investment in primary care in London. General practitioners have much to teach medical schools about effective ways of learning, but incentives...

  3. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  4. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  5. Medical Education: Should Undergraduate Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1960 the first 13 medical students fully trained in Nigeria to internationally accepted standard graduated from the then University College Ibadan, earning the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) London degree. Since then thousands of doctors trained to international standard have been produced from ...

  6. Migration of doctors for undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, James A; McKinley, Danette W; Boulet, John R

    2007-03-01

    Global shortages of healthcare workers in both developed and developing countries are of great concern. Research on physician migration typically focuses on medical school graduates, most often those seeking postgraduate training opportunities elsewhere. An overview of medical school migration patterns is presented in this paper. To put this phenomenon into the broader context of global physician migration, data is also presented on the distribution of medical schools, physician density, the flow of international medical graduates to the US, and the present composition of the US physician workforce. Results of the study indicate that many individuals leave their home country for undergraduate medical education. Given the movement of students and physicians, both for medical school and for advanced training opportunities, it is evident that some medical schools in the world are training doctors for their home country as well as for the international labor market. Overall, given the internationalization of medical education, collaborative efforts will be needed to develop an adequate, balanced, and well-trained global physician workforce.

  7. Humanities in undergraduate medical education: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousager, Jakob; Johannessen, Helle

    2010-06-01

    Humanities form an integral part of undergraduate medical curricula at numerous medical schools all over the world, and medical journals publish a considerable quantity of articles in this field. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the literature on humanities in undergraduate medical education seeks to provide evidence of a long-term impact of this integration of humanities in undergraduate medical education. Medline was searched for publications concerning the humanities in undergraduate medical education appearing from January 2000 to December 2008. All articles were manually sorted by the authors. Two hundred forty-five articles were included in the study. Following a qualitative analysis, the references included were categorized as "pleading the case," "course descriptions and evaluations," "seeking evidence of long-term impact," or "holding the horses." Two hundred twenty-four articles out of 245 either praised the (potential) effects of humanities on medical education or described existing or planned courses without offering substantial evidence of any long-term impact of these curricular activities on medical proficiency. Only 9 articles provided evidence of attempts to document long-term impacts using diverse test tools, and 10 articles presented relatively reserved attitudes toward humanities in undergraduate medical education. Evidence on the positive long-term impacts of integrating humanities into undergraduate medical education is sparse. This may pose a threat to the continued development of humanities-related activities in undergraduate medical education in the context of current demands for evidence to demonstrate educational effectiveness.

  8. Accreditation of undergraduate and graduate medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Deborah J; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation organizations such as the Liaison Committee for Medical Education (LCME), the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC), and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are charged with the difficult task of evaluating the educational quality...... of medical education programs in North America. Traditionally accreditation includes a more quantitative rather than qualitative judgment of the educational facilities, resources and teaching provided by the programs. The focus is on the educational process but the contributions of these to the outcomes...... are not at all clear. As medical education moves toward outcome-based education related to a broad and context-based concept of competence, the accreditation paradigm should change accordingly. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Aug...

  9. Sexual Health Competencies for Undergraduate Medical Education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Carey Roth; Eckstrand, Kristen L; Knudson, Gail; Koehler, Jean; Leibowitz, Scott; Tsai, Perry; Feldman, Jamie L

    2017-04-01

    The number of hours spent teaching sexual health content and skills in medical education continues to decrease despite the increase in sexual health issues faced by patients across the lifespan. In 2012 and 2014, experts across sexuality disciplines convened for the Summits on Medical School Education and Sexual Health to strategize and recommend approaches to improve sexual health education in medical education systems and practice settings. One of the summit recommendations was to develop sexual health competencies that could be implemented in undergraduate medical education curricula. To discuss the process of developing sexual health competencies for undergraduate medical education in North America and present the resulting competencies. From 2014 to 2016, a summit multidisciplinary subcommittee met through face-to-face, phone conference, and email meetings to review prior competency-based guidelines and then draft and vet general sexual health competencies for integration into undergraduate medical school curricula. The process built off the Association of American Medical Colleges' competency development process for training medical students to care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and gender non-conforming patients and individuals born with differences of sex development. This report presents the final 20 sexual health competencies and 34 qualifiers aligned with the 8 overall domains of competence. Development of a comprehensive set of sexual health competencies is a necessary first step in standardizing learning expectations for medical students upon completion of undergraduate training. It is hoped that these competencies will guide the development of sexual health curricula and assessment tools that can be shared across medical schools to ensure that all medical school graduates will be adequately trained and comfortable addressing the different sexual health concerns presented by patients across the lifespan. Bayer CR, Eckstrand KL, Knudson G, et

  10. Online Lectures in Undergraduate Medical Education: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Brandon; Coret, Alon; Qureshi, Aatif; Barron, Henry; Ayala, Ana Patricia; Law, Marcus

    2018-04-10

    The adoption of the flipped classroom in undergraduate medical education calls on students to learn from various self-paced tools-including online lectures-before attending in-class sessions. Hence, the design of online lectures merits special attention, given that applying multimedia design principles has been shown to enhance learning outcomes. The aim of this study was to understand how online lectures have been integrated into medical school curricula, and whether published literature employs well-accepted principles of multimedia design. This scoping review followed the methodology outlined by Arksey and O'Malley (2005). Databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Education Source, FRANCIS, ERIC, and ProQuest, were searched to find articles from 2006 to 2016 related to online lecture use in undergraduate medical education. In total, 45 articles met our inclusion criteria. Online lectures were used in preclinical and clinical years, covering basic sciences, clinical medicine, and clinical skills. The use of multimedia design principles was seldom reported. Almost all studies described high student satisfaction and improvement on knowledge tests following online lecture use. Integration of online lectures into undergraduate medical education is well-received by students and appears to improve learning outcomes. Future studies should apply established multimedia design principles to the development of online lectures to maximize their educational potential. ©Brandon Tang, Alon Coret, Aatif Qureshi, Henry Barron, Ana Patricia Ayala, Marcus Law. Originally published in JMIR Medical Education (http://mededu.jmir.org), 10.04.2018.

  11. Scenario-based teaching in undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kunj Patel, Omar El Tokhy Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UKWe read with great interest the study by Frost et al1 which highlights the importance of scenario-based teaching (SBT of clinical communication in medical undergraduate pediatrics teaching. SBT involves students navigating a storyline based around a complex problem, running in parallel with case-based learning. We were impressed by the results of the SBT program at Cardiff University School of Medicine. As medical students currently on our pediatric rotation at Imperial College London, we have experienced at first hand the benefits of SBT. Throughout the placement, it continues to help us tackle the complexities which arise when communicating with children and their families. We have noted its particular benefit in breaking bad news to families. Without effective teaching on this particular scenario, a failure to grasp this skill could exacerbate patient and parent concerns. Much like the authors of this study highlight,1 we believe specific teaching on communication skills should be a mandatory part of medical undergraduate education at every institution. Imperial College School of Medicine has developed a similar teaching style which has been unparalleled in its benefit to us during our pediatric rotation. Although there is scant literature available specifically addressing communicating with children and parents at undergraduate level, the use of SBT throughout undergraduate medical teaching should not be underestimated. Read the original paper by Frost et al

  12. Introduction of basic obstetrical ultrasound screening in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, A; Solomayer, E-F; Takacs, Z; Juhasz-Boes, I; Joukhadar, R; Radosa, J C; Mavrova, R; Marc, W; Volk, T; Meyberg-Solomayer, G

    2016-09-01

    Teaching ultrasound procedures to undergraduates has recently been proposed to improve the quality of medical education. We address the impact of applying standardized ultrasound teaching to our undergraduates. Medical students received an additional theoretical and practical course involving hands-on ultrasound screening during their mandatory practical training week in obstetrics and gynecology. The students' theoretical knowledge and fetal image recognition skills were tested before and after the course. After the course, the students were asked to answer a course evaluation questionnaire. To standardize the teaching procedure, we used Peyton's 4-Step Approach to teach the skills needed for a German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine Level 1 ultrasound examiner. The multiple-choice question scores after the course showed statistically significant improvement (50 vs. 80 %; P education that should be further evaluated, standardized, and developed.

  13. Twelve tips for integrating leadership development into undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; McKimm, Judy; Swanwick, Tim

    2017-10-26

    Healthcare systems need effective leadership. All healthcare professionals can and should "learn to lead" and this requires a clear focus on leadership development from the earliest stages of a career. Within medicine, undergraduate students should be provided with opportunities to thrive and develop their skills in terms of leadership, management and followership. Drawing from the existing evidence base, the authors' expertise and the latest "thought leadership", these 12 tips provide practical guidance to universities and associated provider organizations, and to academic and clinical faculty, on how to integrate leadership development into their undergraduate medical programs. These 12 tips will help educators provide medical education that incorporates leadership as a core part of a professional's identity, and help students gain a deeper understanding of themselves and the teams, organizations and system they work within.

  14. Radiation Oncology in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, Kristopher E.B.; Duncan, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To review the published literature pertaining to radiation oncology in undergraduate medical education. Methods and Materials: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update and EMBASE databases were searched for the 11-year period of January 1, 1998, through the last week of March 2009. A medical librarian used an extensive list of indexed subject headings and text words. Results: The search returned 640 article references, but only seven contained significant information pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates. One article described a comprehensive oncology curriculum including recommended radiation oncology teaching objectives and sample student evaluations, two described integrating radiation oncology teaching into a radiology rotation, two described multidisciplinary anatomy-based courses intended to reinforce principles of tumor biology and radiotherapy planning, one described an exercise designed to test clinical reasoning skills within radiation oncology cases, and one described a Web-based curriculum involving oncologic physics. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review of the literature pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates, and it demonstrates the paucity of published work in this area of medical education. Teaching radiation oncology should begin early in the undergraduate process, should be mandatory for all students, and should impart knowledge relevant to future general practitioners rather than detailed information relevant only to oncologists. Educators should make use of available model curricula and should integrate radiation oncology teaching into existing curricula or construct stand-alone oncology rotations where the principles of radiation oncology can be conveyed. Assessments of student knowledge and curriculum effectiveness are critical.

  15. Diagnostic imaging in undergraduate medical education: an expanding role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiologists have been involved in anatomy instruction for medical students for decades. However, recent technical advances in radiology, such as multiplanar imaging, 'virtual endoscopy', functional and molecular imaging, and spectroscopy, offer new ways in which to use imaging for teaching basic sciences to medical students. The broad dissemination of picture archiving and communications systems is making such images readily available to medical schools, providing new opportunities for the incorporation of diagnostic imaging into the undergraduate medical curriculum. Current reforms in the medical curriculum and the establishment of new medical schools in the UK further underline the prospects for an expanding role for imaging in medical education. This article reviews the methods by which diagnostic imaging can be used to support the learning of anatomy and other basic sciences

  16. The hidden curriculum in undergraduate medical education: qualitative study of medical students' perceptions of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, Heidi; Seale, Clive

    2004-10-02

    To study medical students' views about the quality of the teaching they receive during their undergraduate training, especially in terms of the hidden curriculum. Semistructured interviews with individual students. One medical school in the United Kingdom. 36 undergraduate medical students, across all stages of their training, selected by random and quota sampling, stratified by sex and ethnicity, with the whole medical school population as a sampling frame. Medical students' experiences and perceptions of the quality of teaching received during their undergraduate training. Students reported many examples of positive role models and effective, approachable teachers, with valued characteristics perceived according to traditional gendered stereotypes. They also described a hierarchical and competitive atmosphere in the medical school, in which haphazard instruction and teaching by humiliation occur, especially during the clinical training years. Following on from the recent reforms of the manifest curriculum, the hidden curriculum now needs attention to produce the necessary fundamental changes in the culture of undergraduate medical education.

  17. Public health has no place in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A

    1994-12-01

    It is time to review the reasons for including public health in medical education. Undergraduate medical students are interested above all in the diagnosis and treatment of individual cases of disease; population-based health care means little to most students, and is seldom regarded as important. Should public health teachers concentrate their efforts in other areas, where students are more receptive? This paper presents arguments for and against the proposition that public health has no place in the undergraduate medical course. In favour of the proposition, it is argued that the clinical imperative is so firmly entrenched in the minds of students and in the cultures of medical schools that public health will always be diminished and elbowed to one side in medical curricula. Moreover, the major gains in the health of populations will be won in other arenas. Therefore public health should rupture the links with medical schools that were formed in another age and, in any event, are now weakening as public health strikes a new identity. The effort that currently goes into teaching unwilling medical students would have better returns if it was invested elsewhere. Against the proposition, it is argued that the health of populations will not be improved without participation of all groups with an interest in and an influence on health care. No group is more influential in the organization and delivery of health services than the medical profession, so it would be foolish for public health to withdraw from medical education. Moreover, effective medical practice requires an ability to think in terms of populations as well as individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: a nationwide survey at German medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix

    2009-05-12

    Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education in emergency medical care.

  19. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermann Arnd

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  20. Cooperative learning in the first year of undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive research data indicating that cooperative learning promotes higher achievement, the creation of positive relationships, and greater psychological health for students at all levels in their education, cooperative learning as a teaching strategy is still underutilized in undergraduate medical education. Methods A cooperative learning task was introduced as part of the mandatory first Year undergraduate Pathology course. The task was to create an 8.5" × 11" poster summary of pre-assigned content in self-chosen groups of four or five students. On the designated "Poster Day," the posters were displayed and evaluated by the students using a group product evaluation. Students also completed an individual group process reflection survey. An objective evaluation of their understanding was gauged at the midterm examination by specific content-related questions. Results Majority (91–96% of students judged the group products to be relevant, effective, easy-to-understand, and clearly communicated. The majority of the students (90–100% agreed that their group process skills of time management, task collaboration, decision-making and task execution were effective in completing this exercise. This activity created a dynamic learning environment as was reflected in the students' positive, professional discussion, and evaluation of their posters. The content-related questions on the midterm examination were answered correctly by 70–92% of the students. This was a mutually enriching experience for the instructor and students. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that cooperative learning as a teaching strategy can be effectively incorporated to address both content and interpersonal skill development in the early years of undergraduate medical education.

  1. Undergraduate Medical Education Research in Malaysia: Time for a Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus; Hamzah, Jemaima Che; Chin, Tan Geok; Siraj, Harlina Halizah; Idrus, Ruszymah; Mohamad, Nabishah; Raymond, Azman Ali

    2015-01-01

    Special Study Module (SSM) is a mandatory research module implemented in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the student research activities and to find out the outcome measures in terms of publication. It was a retrospective study done on SSM research projects at UKM. The SSM research is conducted from beginning of year-4 until 1(st) seven weeks of year-5. In year-4, students are assigned to a faculty-supervisor in small groups and spend every Thursday afternoon to plan and carry the research. Whole first seven weeks of year-5, students are placed with their supervisor continuously to collect data, do analysis, write report and present in the scientific conference. Outcomes of 5-years SSM research-projects starting from 2008/2009 to 2012/2013 academic session were analyzed. Total 257 projects were completed and presented in annual scientific meetings from which 57 (22.2%) articles were published in peer reviewed journals. Mandatory undergraduate student research project brings an opportunity to develop students' capacity building from conception to final report writing and thereby narrowing the gap between education and practice. Medical schools should implement research module to bring changes in research and publication culture of undergraduate medical education.

  2. Undergraduate Medical Education Research in Malaysia: Time for a Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus; Hamzah, Jemaima Che; Chin, Tan Geok; Siraj, Harlina Halizah; Idrus, Ruszymah; Mohamad, Nabishah; Raymond, Azman Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Special Study Module (SSM) is a mandatory research module implemented in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the student research activities and to find out the outcome measures in terms of publication. Methods: It was a retrospective study done on SSM research projects at UKM. The SSM research is conducted from beginning of year-4 until 1st seven weeks of year-5. In year-4, students are assigned to a faculty-supervisor in small groups and spend every Thursday afternoon to plan and carry the research. Whole first seven weeks of year-5, students are placed with their supervisor continuously to collect data, do analysis, write report and present in the scientific conference. Outcomes of 5-years SSM research-projects starting from 2008/2009 to 2012/2013 academic session were analyzed. Results: Total 257 projects were completed and presented in annual scientific meetings from which 57 (22.2%) articles were published in peer reviewed journals. Conclusion: Mandatory undergraduate student research project brings an opportunity to develop students’ capacity building from conception to final report writing and thereby narrowing the gap between education and practice. Medical schools should implement research module to bring changes in research and publication culture of undergraduate medical education. PMID:26150832

  3. Clinical skills temporal degradation assessment in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joseph; Viscusi, Rebecca; Ratesic, Adam; Johnstone, Cameron; Kelley, Ross; Tegethoff, Angela M; Bates, Jessica; Situ-Lacasse, Elaine H; Adamas-Rappaport, William J; Amini, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Medical students' ability to learn clinical procedures and competently apply these skills is an essential component of medical education. Complex skills with limited opportunity for practice have been shown to degrade without continued refresher training. To our knowledge there is no evidence that objectively evaluates temporal degradation of clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate temporal retention of clinical skills among third year medical students. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at four separate time intervals in the cadaver laboratory at a public medical school. Forty-five novice third year medical students were evaluated for retention of skills in the following three procedures: pigtail thoracostomy, femoral line placement, and endotracheal intubation. Prior to the start of third-year medical clerkships, medical students participated in a two-hour didactic session designed to teach clinically relevant materials including the procedures. Prior to the start of their respective surgery clerkships, students were asked to perform the same three procedures and were evaluated by trained emergency medicine and surgery faculty for retention rates, using three validated checklists. Students were then reassessed at six week intervals in four separate groups based on the start date of their respective surgical clerkships. We compared the evaluation results between students tested one week after training and those tested at three later dates for statistically significant differences in score distribution using a one-tailed Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U-test for non-parametric rank-sum analysis. Retention rates were shown to have a statistically significant decline between six and 12 weeks for all three procedural skills. In the instruction of medical students, skill degradation should be considered when teaching complex technical skills. Based on the statistically significant decline in procedural skills noted

  4. Cross-cultural undergraduate medical education in North America: theoretical concepts and educational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2011-04-01

    Cross-cultural undergraduate medical education in North America lacks conceptual clarity. Consequently, school curricula are unsystematic, nonuniform, and fragmented. This article provides a literature review about available conceptual models of cross-cultural medical education. The clarification of these models may inform the development of effective educational programs to enable students to provide better quality care to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. The approaches to cross-cultural health education can be organized under the rubric of two specific conceptual models: cultural competence and critical culturalism. The variation in the conception of culture adopted in these two models results in differences in all curricular components: learning outcomes, content, educational strategies, teaching methods, student assessment, and program evaluation. Medical schools could benefit from more theoretical guidance on the learning outcomes, content, and educational strategies provided to them by governing and licensing bodies. More student assessments and program evaluations are needed in order to appraise the effectiveness of cross-cultural undergraduate medical education.

  5. Weighing the cost of educational inflation in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Ronald; Busche, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Woloschuk, Wayne; Chadbolt, Karen; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    Despite the fact that the length of medical school training has remained stable for many years, the expectations of graduating medical students (and the schools that train them) continue to increase. In this Reflection, the authors discuss motives for educational inflation and suggest that these are likely innocent, well-intentioned, and subconscious-and include both a propensity to increase expectations of ourselves and others over time, and a reluctance to reduce training content and expectations. They then discuss potential risks of educational inflation, including reduced emphasis on core knowledge and clinical skills, and adverse effects on the emotional, psychological, and financial wellbeing of students. While acknowledging the need to change curricula to improve learning and clinical outcomes, the authors proffer that it is naïve to assume that we can inflate educational expectations at no additional cost. They suggest that before implementing and/or mandating change, we should consider of all the costs that medical schools and students might incur, including opportunity costs and the impact on the emotional and financial wellbeing of students. They propose a cost-effectiveness framework for medical education and advocate prioritization of interventions that improve learning outcomes with no additional costs or are cost-saving without adversely impacting learning outcomes. When there is an additional cost for improved learning outcomes or a decline in learning outcomes as a result of cost saving interventions, they suggest careful consideration and justification of this trade-off. And when there are neither improved learning outcomes nor cost savings they recommend resisting the urge to change.

  6. Development of national competency-based learning objectives "Medical Informatics" for undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, R; Stausberg, J; Dugas, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a catalogue of competency-based learning objectives "Medical Informatics" for undergraduate medical education (abbreviated NKLM-MI in German). The development followed a multi-level annotation and consensus process. For each learning objective a reason why a physician needs this competence was required. In addition, each objective was categorized according to the competence context (A = covered by medical informatics, B = core subject of medical informatics, C = optional subject of medical informatics), the competence level (1 = referenced knowledge, 2 = applied knowledge, 3 = routine knowledge) and a CanMEDS competence role (medical expert, communicator, collaborator, manager, health advocate, professional, scholar). Overall 42 objectives in seven areas (medical documentation and information processing, medical classifications and terminologies, information systems in healthcare, health telematics and telemedicine, data protection and security, access to medical knowledge and medical signal-/image processing) were identified, defined and consented. With the NKLM-MI the competences in the field of medical informatics vital to a first year resident physician are identified, defined and operationalized. These competencies are consistent with the recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA). The NKLM-MI will be submitted to the National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education. The next step is implementation of these objectives by the faculties.

  7. A systematic review of factors influencing student ratings in undergraduate medical education course evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Schiekirka, Sarah; Raupach, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Background Student ratings are a popular source of course evaluations in undergraduate medical education. Data on the reliability and validity of such ratings have mostly been derived from studies unrelated to medical education. Since medical education differs considerably from other higher education settings, an analysis of factors influencing overall student ratings with a specific focus on medical education was needed. Methods For the purpose of this systematic review, online databases (Pu...

  8. Undergraduate radiology education in the era of dynamism in medical curriculum: An educational perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, Thomas N.B., E-mail: T.Pascual@iaea.org [Section of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Chhem, Rethy, E-mail: R.Chhem@iaea.org [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Wang, Shih-Chang, E-mail: shih-chang.wang@sydney.edu.au [University of Sydney Discipline of Imaging, University of Sydney, Department of Radiology, Westmead Hospital, Hawkesbury Road, Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Vujnovic, Sasa, E-mail: svujnovic@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Clinical Center Banja Luka, Zdrave Korda 1, 51000 Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

    2011-06-15

    Radiology undergraduate curriculum has undergone a tremendous transformation in the decades reflecting a change in the structure, content and delivery of instruction. These changes are not unique to the discipline, but rather a response in the cycle of the re-engineering process in the medical curriculum in order to ensure its proper role into the ever-changing context. Radiology education is now more integrated across the curriculum than ever. The diversity of how radiology is being taught within the medical undergraduate curriculum is extensive and promising with the expanding role of the radiologist in the spectrum within the medical curriculum. A strong interface between the medical student and the clinicians must always be integrated in the learning process in order to convey the essential and practical use of the different aspects of radiology essential to the student's career as a future clinician. With the recent advancement in educational and technological innovations, radiology education is mobilized in the most pioneering ways, stimulating a rekindled interest in the field of medical imaging. This paper describes the increasing interest in current role of undergraduate radiology education in the context of constant medical curriculum innovations and in the digital age.

  9. Undergraduate radiology education in the era of dynamism in medical curriculum: An educational perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, Thomas N.B.; Chhem, Rethy; Wang, Shih-Chang; Vujnovic, Sasa

    2011-01-01

    Radiology undergraduate curriculum has undergone a tremendous transformation in the decades reflecting a change in the structure, content and delivery of instruction. These changes are not unique to the discipline, but rather a response in the cycle of the re-engineering process in the medical curriculum in order to ensure its proper role into the ever-changing context. Radiology education is now more integrated across the curriculum than ever. The diversity of how radiology is being taught within the medical undergraduate curriculum is extensive and promising with the expanding role of the radiologist in the spectrum within the medical curriculum. A strong interface between the medical student and the clinicians must always be integrated in the learning process in order to convey the essential and practical use of the different aspects of radiology essential to the student's career as a future clinician. With the recent advancement in educational and technological innovations, radiology education is mobilized in the most pioneering ways, stimulating a rekindled interest in the field of medical imaging. This paper describes the increasing interest in current role of undergraduate radiology education in the context of constant medical curriculum innovations and in the digital age.

  10. Teaching Medical Ethics in Graduate and Undergraduate Medical Education: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Santiago; Phuoc, Vania; Throneberry, Steven; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McCullough, Laurence; Coverdale, John

    2017-08-01

    One objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to psychiatry residents. In order to gain insights from other disciplines that have published research in this area, a second objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to residents across all other specialties of training and on teaching medical students. PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched for controlled trials on teaching medical ethics with quantitative outcomes. Search terms included ethics, bioethics, medical ethics, medical students, residents/registrars, teaching, education, outcomes, and controlled trials. Nine studies were found that met inclusion criteria, including five randomized controlled trails and four controlled non-randomized trials. Subjects included medical students (5 studies), surgical residents (2 studies), internal medicine house officers (1 study), and family medicine preceptors and their medical students (1 study). Teaching methods, course content, and outcome measures varied considerably across studies. Common methodological issues included a lack of concealment of allocation, a lack of blinding, and generally low numbers of subjects as learners. One randomized controlled trial which taught surgical residents using a standardized patient was judged to be especially methodologically rigorous. None of the trials incorporated psychiatry residents. Ethics educators should undertake additional rigorously controlled trials in order to secure a strong evidence base for the design of medical ethics curricula. Psychiatry ethics educators can also benefit from the findings of trials in other disciplines and in undergraduate medical education.

  11. Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate medical programs: a survey of educators and learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, V.C.; Berry, S.; Hsu, T.; North, S.; Neville, A.; Chan, K.; Verma, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The oncology education framework currently in use in Canadian medical training programs is unknown, and the needs of learners have not been fully assessed to determine whether they are adequately prepared to manage patients with cancer. Methods To assess the oncology education framework currently in use at Canadian medical schools and residency training programs for family (fm) and internal medicine (im), and to evaluate opinions about the content and utility of standard oncology education objectives, a Web survey was designed and sent to educators and learners. The survey recipients included undergraduate medical education curriculum committee members (umeccms), directors of fm and im programs, oncologists, medical students, and fm and im residents. Results Survey responses were received from 677 educators and learners. Oncology education was felt to be inadequate in their respective programs by 58% of umeccms, 57% of fm program directors, and 50% of im program directors. For learners, oncology education was thought to be inadequate by 67% of medical students, 86% of fm residents, and 63% of im residents. When comparing teaching of medical subspecialty–related diseases, all groups agreed that their trainees were least prepared to manage patients with cancer. A standard set of oncology objectives was thought to be possibly or definitely useful for undergraduate learners by 59% of respondents overall and by 61% of postgraduate learners. Conclusions Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate fm and im training programs are currently thought to be inadequate by a majority of educators and learners. Developing a standard set of oncology objectives might address the needs of learners. PMID:24523624

  12. Health economics education in undergraduate medical training: introducing the health economics education (HEe) website

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. PMID:24034906

  13. Health economics education in undergraduate medical training: introducing the health economics education (HEe) website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Raymond; Mistry, Hema; Frew, Emma

    2013-09-13

    In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula.

  14. The relevance of basic sciences in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C; Grant, T; McLoughlin, P; Last, J

    2016-02-01

    Evolving and changing undergraduate medical curricula raise concerns that there will no longer be a place for basic sciences. National and international trends show that 5-year programmes with a pre-requisite for school chemistry are growing more prevalent. National reports in Ireland show a decline in the availability of school chemistry and physics. This observational cohort study considers if the basic sciences of physics, chemistry and biology should be a prerequisite to entering medical school, be part of the core medical curriculum or if they have a place in the practice of medicine. Comparisons of means, correlation and linear regression analysis assessed the degree of association between predictors (school and university basic sciences) and outcomes (year and degree GPA) for entrants to a 6-year Irish medical programme between 2006 and 2009 (n = 352). We found no statistically significant difference in medical programme performance between students with/without prior basic science knowledge. The Irish school exit exam and its components were mainly weak predictors of performance (-0.043 ≥ r ≤ 0.396). Success in year one of medicine, which includes a basic science curriculum, was indicative of later success (0.194 ≥ r (2) ≤ 0.534). University basic sciences were found to be more predictive than school sciences in undergraduate medical performance in our institution. The increasing emphasis of basic sciences in medical practice and the declining availability of school sciences should mandate medical schools in Ireland to consider how removing basic sciences from the curriculum might impact on future applicants.

  15. Junior doctors and undergraduate teaching: the influence of gender on the provision of medical education.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prichard, David

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: International experience has demonstrated that the medical profession is becoming less dominated by men. This "feminization of medicine" has been a topic of much debate in the medical literature. As the gender ratio in the profession changes, it is likely that a greater proportion of undergraduate education will be provided by women. Whether this shift away from the male-dominated provision of medical education will have an effect on undergraduate education is unknown. PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to clarify whether there are differences between the attitudes and practices of male and female junior doctors regarding the practice of undergraduate teaching. METHOD: A survey methodology among a cohort of nonconsultant hospital doctors in a major Irish teaching hospital was utilized. The overall response rate was 93%. The cohort held a positive attitude toward teaching undergraduates, and the majority were actively engaged in this activity. Doctors of both genders expressed a willingness to undertake teacher training. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the genders regarding the self-reported quantity of teaching provided to undergraduates. Male doctors perceived themselves as more confident educators when compared to female doctors, but this is likely to reflect cohort demographics in which a greater proportion of male doctors were more senior. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that male and female doctors have similar attitudes toward, and practices in, voluntary undergraduate teaching. As a result, any gender shift in medicine is unlikely to result in a significant change in junior doctors\\' attitudes toward undergraduate medical education.

  16. Junior doctors and undergraduate teaching: the influence of gender on the provision of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, David; Collins, Niamh; Boohan, Mairead; Wall, Catherine

    2011-04-01

    International experience has demonstrated that the medical profession is becoming less dominated by men. This "feminization of medicine" has been a topic of much debate in the medical literature. As the gender ratio in the profession changes, it is likely that a greater proportion of undergraduate education will be provided by women. Whether this shift away from the male-dominated provision of medical education will have an effect on undergraduate education is unknown. The aim of this research was to clarify whether there are differences between the attitudes and practices of male and female junior doctors regarding the practice of undergraduate teaching. A survey methodology among a cohort of nonconsultant hospital doctors in a major Irish teaching hospital was utilized. The overall response rate was 93%. The cohort held a positive attitude toward teaching undergraduates, and the majority were actively engaged in this activity. Doctors of both genders expressed a willingness to undertake teacher training. There were no significant differences between the genders regarding the self-reported quantity of teaching provided to undergraduates. Male doctors perceived themselves as more confident educators when compared to female doctors, but this is likely to reflect cohort demographics in which a greater proportion of male doctors were more senior. This study demonstrates that male and female doctors have similar attitudes toward, and practices in, voluntary undergraduate teaching. As a result, any gender shift in medicine is unlikely to result in a significant change in junior doctors' attitudes toward undergraduate medical education.

  17. Educational Scholarship and Technology: Resources for a Changing Undergraduate Medical Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Brandon N; Corral, Irma; John, Nadyah Janine; Shelton, P G

    2017-06-01

    Returning to the original emphasis of higher education, universities have increasingly recognized the value and scholarship of teaching, and medical schools have been part of this educational scholarship movement. At the same time, the preferred learning styles of a new generation of medical students and advancements in technology have driven a need to incorporate technology into psychiatry undergraduate medical education (UGME). Educators need to understand how to find, access, and utilize such educational technology. This article provides a brief historical context for the return to education as scholarship, along with a discussion of some of the advantages to this approach, as well as several recent examples. Next, the educational needs of the current generation of medical students, particularly their preference to have technology incorporated into their education, will be discussed. Following this, we briefly review the educational scholarship of two newer approaches to psychiatry UGME that incorporate technology. We also offer the reader some resources for accessing up-to-date educational scholarship for psychiatry UGME, many of which take advantage of technology themselves. We conclude by discussing the need for promotion of educational scholarship.

  18. The masked educator-innovative simulation in an Australian undergraduate Medical Sonography and Medical Imaging program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Searl, Kerry; Bowman, Anita; McAllister, Margaret; Cowling, Cynthia; Spuur, Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Clinical learning experiences for sonography and medical imaging students can sometimes involve the practice of technical procedures with less of a focus on developing communication skills with patients. Whilst patient-based simulation scenarios have been widely reported in other health education programmes, there is a paucity of research in sonography and medical imaging. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of Mask-Ed™ (KRS Simulation) in the learning and teaching of clinical communication skills to undergraduate medical sonography and medical imaging students. Mask-Ed™ (KRS Simulation) is a simulation technique where the educator is hidden behind wearable realistic silicone body props including masks. Focus group interviews were conducted with 11 undergraduate medical sonography and medical imaging students at CQUniversity, Australia. The number of participants was limited to the size of the cohort of students enrolled in the course. Prior to these interviews participants were engaged in learning activities that featured the use of the Mask-Ed™ (KRS Simulation) method. Thematic analysis was employed to explore how the introduction of Mask-Ed™ (KRS Simulation) contributed to students' learning in relation to clinical communication skills. Key themes included: benefits of interacting with someone real rather than another student, learning made fun, awareness of empathy, therapeutic communication skills, engaged problem solving and purposeful reflection. Mask-Ed™ (KRS Simulation) combined with interactive sessions with an expert facilitator, contributed positively to students' learning in relation to clinical communication skills. Participants believed that interacting with someone real, as in the Mask-Ed characters was beneficial. In addition to the learning being described as fun, participants gained an awareness of empathy, therapeutic communication skills, engaged problem solving and purposeful reflection.

  19. Flipped classroom instructional approach in undergraduate medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Arain, Fazal Manzoor; Enam, Syed Ather

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In this study we implemented the “flipped classroom” model to enhance active learning in medical students taking neurosciences module at Aga Khan University, Karachi. Methods: Ninety eight undergraduate medical students participated in this study. The study was conducted from January till March 2017. Study material was provided to students in form of video lecture and reading material for the non-face to face sitting, while face to face time was spent on activities such as case solving, group discussions, and quizzes to consolidate learning under the supervision of faculty. To ensure deeper learning, we used pre- and post-class quizzes, work sheets and blog posts for each session. Student feedback was recorded via a likert scale survey. Results: Eighty four percent students gave positive responses towards utility of flipped classroom in terms of being highly interactive, thought provoking and activity lead learning. Seventy five percent of the class completed the pre-session preparation. Students reported that their queries and misconceptions were cleared in a much better way in the face-to-face session as compared to the traditional setting (4.09 ±1.04). Conclusion: Flipped classroom(FCR) teaching and learning pedagogy is an effective way of enhancing student engagement and active learning. Thus, this pedagogy can be used as an effective tool in medical schools. PMID:29492071

  20. Flipped classroom instructional approach in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Arain, Fazal Manzoor; Enam, Syed Ather

    2017-01-01

    In this study we implemented the "flipped classroom" model to enhance active learning in medical students taking neurosciences module at Aga Khan University, Karachi. Ninety eight undergraduate medical students participated in this study. The study was conducted from January till March 2017. Study material was provided to students in form of video lecture and reading material for the non-face to face sitting, while face to face time was spent on activities such as case solving, group discussions, and quizzes to consolidate learning under the supervision of faculty. To ensure deeper learning, we used pre- and post-class quizzes, work sheets and blog posts for each session. Student feedback was recorded via a likert scale survey. Eighty four percent students gave positive responses towards utility of flipped classroom in terms of being highly interactive, thought provoking and activity lead learning. Seventy five percent of the class completed the pre-session preparation. Students reported that their queries and misconceptions were cleared in a much better way in the face-to-face session as compared to the traditional setting (4.09 ±1.04). Flipped classroom(FCR) teaching and learning pedagogy is an effective way of enhancing student engagement and active learning. Thus, this pedagogy can be used as an effective tool in medical schools.

  1. Canadian medical students' perceptions of public health education in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Ingrid V; Hau, Monica; Buxton, Jane A; Elliott, Lawrence J; Harvey, Bart J; Hockin, James C; Mowat, David L

    2009-09-01

    To understand the perceptions and attitudes of Canadian medical students toward their undergraduate medical public health curriculum and to identify student suggestions and priorities for curriculum change. Five focus groups of 11 or 12 medical students from all years of medical school were recruited at McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine, and University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine between February and April 2006. A professional facilitator was hired to conduct the focus groups using a unique, computer-based facilitation system. Questions in both the focus group and an accompanying survey sought to determine medical students' understanding and exposure to public health and how this impacted their attitudes and choices toward careers in the public health medical specialty of community medicine. The transcripts were independently reviewed and analyzed by each of the authors to identify themes. Four major themes related to students' desired curriculum change were identified: (1) poor educational experiences in public health courses, (2) lack of positive role models, especially exposure to community medicine specialists, (3) emphasis on statistics and epidemiology, and (4) negative attitudes toward public health topics. Students are disillusioned, disengaged, and disappointed with the public health curriculum currently being provided at the Canadian medical schools studied. Many medical students would prefer a public health curriculum that is more challenging and has more applied field experience and exposure to public health physician role models.

  2. Improving Undergraduate Medical Education about Pain Assessment and Management: A Qualitative Descriptive Study of Stakeholders’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Paul Tellier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain is one of the most common reasons for individuals to seek medical advice, yet it remains poorly managed. One of the main reasons that poor pain management persists is the lack of adequate knowledge and skills of practicing clinicians, which stems from a perceived lack of pain education during the training of undergraduate medical students.

  3. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  4. Incorporation of medical informatics and information technology as core components of undergraduate medical education - time for change!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Anthony; Kushniruk, Andre

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that Information Technology (IT) is a highly desirable and a very necessary ingredient of modern health care. Review of available literature reveals a paucity of medical informatics and information technology courses in undergraduate medical curricula and a lack of research to assess the effectiveness of medical informatics in undergraduate medical education. The need for such initiatives is discussed and a pilot project is described that evaluated the effectiveness of education in the use of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) applications. Educational activities, for example, could be medical students conducting virtual medical encounters or interacting with EMR applications. An EMR application, which was used in several related projects, has been adapted to the educational environment: standardized patient records can be created and cloned so that individual students can interact with a "standard" patient and alter the patient's data.

  5. Science of health care delivery milestones for undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havyer, Rachel D; Norby, Suzanne M; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Starr, Stephanie R; Lang, Tara R; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Reed, Darcy A

    2017-08-25

    The changing healthcare landscape requires physicians to develop new knowledge and skills such as high-value care, systems improvement, population health, and team-based care, which together may be referred to as the Science of Health Care Delivery (SHCD). To engender public trust and confidence, educators must be able to meaningfully assess physicians' abilities in SHCD. We aimed to develop a novel set of SHCD milestones based on published Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones that can be used by medical schools to assess medical students' competence in SHCD. We reviewed all ACGME milestones for 25 specialties available in September 2013. We used an iterative, qualitative process to group the ACGME milestones into SHCD content domains, from which SHCD milestones were derived. The SHCD milestones were categorized within the current ACGME core competencies and were also mapped to Association of American Medical Colleges' Entrustable Professional Activities (AAMC EPAs). Fifteen SHCD sub-competencies and corresponding milestones are provided, grouped within ACGME core competencies and mapped to multiple AAMC EPAs. This novel set of milestones, grounded within the existing ACGME competencies, defines fundamental expectations within SHCD that can be used and adapted by medical schools in the assessment of medical students in this emerging curricular area. These milestones provide a blueprint for SHCD content and assessment as ongoing revisions to milestones and curricula occur.

  6. Formative assessment in undergraduate medical education: concept, implementation and hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Ayesha; Shamim, Muhammad Shahid; Aly, Syed Moyn; Chundrigar, Tariq; Alam, Shams Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Formative assessment, described as "the process of appraising, judging or evaluating students' work or performance and using this to shape and improve students' competence", is generally missing from medical schools of Pakistan. Progressive institutions conduct "formative assessment" as a fleeting part of the curriculum by using various methods that may or may not include feedback to learners. The most important factor in the success of formative assessment is the quality of feedback, shown to have the maximum impact on student accomplishment. Inclusion of formative assessment into the curriculum and its implementation will require the following: Enabling Environment, Faculty and student Training, Role of Department of Medical Education (DME). Many issues can be predicted that may jeopardize the effectiveness of formative assessment including faculty resistance, lack of motivation from students and faculty and paucity of commitment from the top administration. For improvement in medical education in Pakistan, we need to develop a system considered worthy by national and international standards. This paper will give an overview of formative assessment, its implications and recommendations for implementation in medical institutes of Pakistan.

  7. A community-based approach for integrating geriatrics and gerontology into undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Iveris L; Mora, Jorge Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Medical school accreditation requirements require educational opportunities in geriatrics. Twenty-six minimum graduating competencies in geriatrics have recently been identified for medical students. The authors describe how these competencies are being integrated into a new medical curriculum through coursework and community-based experiences. This approach is intended to expose students to older adults from diverse communities and adequately prepare students to address the complex and individual needs of these patients. Initial results indicate proficiency in the minimum geriatric competencies covered. The growth and diversity of the older adult population makes it important to integrate and evaluate geriatrics education in undergraduate medical education.

  8. Student perceptions of evaluation in undergraduate medical education: A qualitative study from one medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiekirka Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation is an integral part of medical education. Despite a wide use of various evaluation tools, little is known about student perceptions regarding the purpose and desired consequences of evaluation. Such knowledge is important to facilitate interpretation of evaluation results. The aims of this study were to elicit student views on the purpose of evaluation, indicators of teaching quality, evaluation tools and possible consequences drawn from evaluation data. Methods This qualitative study involved 17 undergraduate medical students in Years 3 and 4 participating in 3 focus group interviews. Content analysis was conducted by two different researchers. Results Evaluation was viewed as a means to facilitate improvements within medical education. Teaching quality was believed to be dependent on content, process, teacher and student characteristics as well as learning outcome, with an emphasis on the latter. Students preferred online evaluations over paper-and-pencil forms and suggested circulating results among all faculty and students. Students strongly favoured the allocation of rewards and incentives for good teaching to individual teachers. Conclusions In addition to assessing structural aspects of teaching, evaluation tools need to adequately address learning outcome. The use of reliable and valid evaluation methods is a prerequisite for resource allocation to individual teachers based on evaluation results.

  9. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  10. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y.; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Catton, Pamela; Giuliani, Meredith E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  11. [Undergraduate education of medical technologists to promote scientific and technological literacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Akizawa, Hirotsugu

    2010-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly important for today's medical technologists to receive proper training on the safety of medical treatment and healthcare in order to accommodate the rapid changes and advancement in medical technology. In particular, because of the increase of hospital-acquired infections, the role of medical technologists involved in infection control has become much more important. In addition, particularly in Japan, the career options available to students graduating with a degree in medical technology have become much more diverse, ranging from research laboratories to clinical services; however, undergraduate education for medical technologists is limited. It is therefore deemed necessary for undergraduate students to be provided with adequate training from their universities by offering a wider selection of classes in this subject area. In this paper, we summarize our preliminary findings on the trial lessons that are offered to medical technology students in their microbiology class. These lessons are designed to enhance students' academic potential and to engage their interest.

  12. Incorporation of integrative medicine education into undergraduate medical education: a longitudinal study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saswati Mahapatra; Anjali Bhagra; Bisrat Fekadu; Zhuo Li; Brent A.Bauer; Dietlind L.Wahner-Roedler

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Integrative medicine (IM) combines complementary medical approaches into conventional medicine and considers the whole person.We implemented a longitudinal IM short-course curriculum into our medical school education.This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the curriculum via knowledge and attitude surveys regarding IM among students.METHODS:A mandatory short IM curriculum across all years of medical school was created and taught by IM professionals and physician faculty members with expertise in integrative therapies.Graduating classes of 2015 and 2016 completed the same survey in their first and third years of medical school.Paired data analysis was done,and only students who completed surveys at both time points were included in final analyses.RESULTS:Of 52 students in each class,17 (33%) in the class of 2015 and 22 (42%) in the class of 2016 completed both surveys.After the IM curriculum,students' knowledge of and comfort with several IM therapies—biofeedback,mindfulness,and the use of St.John's wort—improved significantly.Students' personal health practices also improved,including better sleep,exercise,and stress management for the class of 2015.Students graduating in 2016 reported decreased alcohol use in their third year compared with their first year.CONCLUSION:It is feasible to incorporate IM education into undergraduate medical education,and this is associated with improvement in students' knowledge of IM and personal health practices.

  13. Visual analytics in healthcare education: exploring novel ways to analyze and represent big data in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitsis, Christos; Nilsson, Gunnar; Zary, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The big data present in the medical curriculum that informs undergraduate medical education is beyond human abilities to perceive and analyze. The medical curriculum is the main tool used by teachers and directors to plan, design, and deliver teaching and assessment activities and student evaluations in medical education in a continuous effort to improve it. Big data remains largely unexploited for medical education improvement purposes. The emerging research field of visual analytics has the advantage of combining data analysis and manipulation techniques, information and knowledge representation, and human cognitive strength to perceive and recognize visual patterns. Nevertheless, there is a lack of research on the use and benefits of visual analytics in medical education. Methods. The present study is based on analyzing the data in the medical curriculum of an undergraduate medical program as it concerns teaching activities, assessment methods and learning outcomes in order to explore visual analytics as a tool for finding ways of representing big data from undergraduate medical education for improvement purposes. Cytoscape software was employed to build networks of the identified aspects and visualize them. Results. After the analysis of the curriculum data, eleven aspects were identified. Further analysis and visualization of the identified aspects with Cytoscape resulted in building an abstract model of the examined data that presented three different approaches; (i) learning outcomes and teaching methods, (ii) examination and learning outcomes, and (iii) teaching methods, learning outcomes, examination results, and gap analysis. Discussion. This study identified aspects of medical curriculum that play an important role in how medical education is conducted. The implementation of visual analytics revealed three novel ways of representing big data in the undergraduate medical education context. It appears to be a useful tool to explore such data

  14. Visual analytics in healthcare education: exploring novel ways to analyze and represent big data in undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Vaitsis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The big data present in the medical curriculum that informs undergraduate medical education is beyond human abilities to perceive and analyze. The medical curriculum is the main tool used by teachers and directors to plan, design, and deliver teaching and assessment activities and student evaluations in medical education in a continuous effort to improve it. Big data remains largely unexploited for medical education improvement purposes. The emerging research field of visual analytics has the advantage of combining data analysis and manipulation techniques, information and knowledge representation, and human cognitive strength to perceive and recognize visual patterns. Nevertheless, there is a lack of research on the use and benefits of visual analytics in medical education.Methods. The present study is based on analyzing the data in the medical curriculum of an undergraduate medical program as it concerns teaching activities, assessment methods and learning outcomes in order to explore visual analytics as a tool for finding ways of representing big data from undergraduate medical education for improvement purposes. Cytoscape software was employed to build networks of the identified aspects and visualize them.Results. After the analysis of the curriculum data, eleven aspects were identified. Further analysis and visualization of the identified aspects with Cytoscape resulted in building an abstract model of the examined data that presented three different approaches; (i learning outcomes and teaching methods, (ii examination and learning outcomes, and (iii teaching methods, learning outcomes, examination results, and gap analysis.Discussion. This study identified aspects of medical curriculum that play an important role in how medical education is conducted. The implementation of visual analytics revealed three novel ways of representing big data in the undergraduate medical education context. It appears to be a useful tool to

  15. Mentoring portfolio use in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Driessen, Erik; Ter Braak, Edith; Scheele, Fedde; Slaets, Joris; Van Der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Mentoring is widely acknowledged as being crucial for portfolio learning. The aim of this study is to examine how mentoring portfolio use has been implemented in undergraduate and postgraduate settings. Method: The results of interviews with six key persons involved in setting up portfolio use

  16. Team Based Learning (TBL) in Undergraduate Medical Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine if modified Team Based Learning (TBL) was more effective than Traditional Didactic Lecture (TDL) in improving knowledge outcomes about Diabetes management in fourth year medical students and to check the students view about the TBL method in comparison with their earlier experience with TDL. Study Design: A comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from January to February 2011 in 4 weeks. Methodology: Modification of the original TBL method as described by Michaelsen was done to accommodate the educational system. A total of 7 sessions were allotted to teach non-communicable diseases to fourth year MBBS students. Session which was scheduled for teaching Diabetes mellitus was conducted first by TDL and three weeks later with the TBL session. MCQ based tests were administered to self paired groups of students first after the TDL session and then after the TBL session. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare post-TDL and post-TBL test scores of the students. Students views about the TBL session compared to the TDL session were checked by using pre-tested questionnaire. Results: Seventy two, fourth year MBBS students participated in this TBL session. Majority were females 49 (68.1%). There was improvement of test scores of students after the TBL session when compared to the test scores after TDL session (p < 0.001). Majority of the respondents noted that TBL session was a better learning strategy compared to TDL. Conclusion: The 72 students included in the study achieved higher mean test scores on test questions that assessed their knowledge of Diabetes mellitus content learned using the TBL strategy compared with TDL method (p < 0.001). TBL learning method was favoured by a majority of medical students compared to the TDL session. (author)

  17. A systematic review of factors influencing student ratings in undergraduate medical education course evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiekirka, Sarah; Raupach, Tobias

    2015-03-05

    Student ratings are a popular source of course evaluations in undergraduate medical education. Data on the reliability and validity of such ratings have mostly been derived from studies unrelated to medical education. Since medical education differs considerably from other higher education settings, an analysis of factors influencing overall student ratings with a specific focus on medical education was needed. For the purpose of this systematic review, online databases (PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of Science) were searched up to August 1st, 2013. Original research articles on the use of student ratings in course evaluations in undergraduate medical education were eligible for inclusion. Included studies considered the format of evaluation tools and assessed the association of independent and dependent (i.e., overall course ratings) variables. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were checked by two independent reviewers, and results were synthesised in a narrative review. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative research (2 studies) indicated that overall course ratings are mainly influenced by student satisfaction with teaching and exam difficulty rather than objective determinants of high quality teaching. Quantitative research (23 studies) yielded various influencing factors related to four categories: student characteristics, exposure to teaching, satisfaction with examinations and the evaluation process itself. Female gender, greater initial interest in course content, higher exam scores and higher satisfaction with exams were associated with more positive overall course ratings. Due to the heterogeneity and methodological limitations of included studies, results must be interpreted with caution. Medical educators need to be aware of various influences on student ratings when developing data collection instruments and interpreting evaluation results. More research into the reliability and validity of overall course ratings as typically used in the

  18. Development of a mission-based funding model for undergraduate medical education: incorporation of quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro-Green, Alex; Roe, David; Soto-Greene, Maria; Joffe, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Increasing financial pressures, along with a desire to realign resources with institutional priorities, has resulted in the adoption of mission-based funding (MBF) at many medical schools. The lack of inclusion of quality and the time and expense in developing and implementing mission based funding are major deficiencies in the models reported to date. In academic year 2002-2003 New Jersey Medical School developed a model that included both quantity and quality in the education metric and that was departmentally based. Eighty percent of the undergraduate medical education allocation was based on the quantity of undergraduate medical education taught by the department ($7.35 million), and 20% ($1.89 million) was allocated based on the quality of the education delivered. Quality determinations were made by the educational leadership based on student evaluations and departmental compliance with educational administrative requirements. Evolution of the model has included the development of a faculty oversight committee and the integration of peer evaluation in the determination of educational quality. Six departments had a documented increase in quality over time, and one department had a transient decrease in quality. The MBF model has been well accepted by chairs, educational leaders, and faculty and has been instrumental in enhancing the stature of education at our institution.

  19. Undergraduate Medical Education in Poland: Variations on the Soviet Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missett, James R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Poland has centralized academic and administrative control over the medical academies, combined the training of medical students with that of dental and pharmacy students, equalized admission ratios for men and women, and provided relatively generous stipends for its medical students. (Editor/PG)

  20. Envisioning a Future Governance and Funding System for Undergraduate and Graduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey P; Stimpson, Jim P; Caverzagie, Kelly J

    2015-09-01

    Funding for graduate medical education (GME) and undergraduate medical education (UME) in the United States is being debated and challenged at the national and state levels as policy makers and educators question whether the multibillion dollar investment in medical education is succeeding in meeting the nation's health care needs. To address these concerns, the authors propose a novel all-payer system for GME and UME funding that equitably distributes medical education costs among all stakeholders, including those who benefit most from medical education. Through a "Medical Education Workforce (MEW) trust fund," indirect and direct GME dollars would be replaced with a funds-flow mechanism using fees paid for services by all payers (Medicaid, Medicare, private insurers, others) while providing direct compensation to physicians and institutions that actively engage medical learners in providing clinical care. The accountability of those receiving MEW funds would be improved by linking their funding levels to their ability to meet predetermined institutional, program, faculty, and learner benchmarks. Additionally, the MEW fund would cover learners' UME tuition, potentially eliminating their UME debt, in return for their provision of health care services (after completing GME training) in an underserved area or specialty. This proposed model attempts to increase transparency and enhance accountability in medical education by linking funding to the development of a physician workforce that is able to excel in the evolving health delivery system. Achieving this vision requires physician educators, leaders of academic health centers, policy makers, insurers, and patients to muster the courage to embrace transformational change.

  1. Clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education using a student-centered approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on how to engage students in self-directed learning and in peer-learning activities to improve clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education. The first study examined the clinical skills teaching provided by student teachers compared to that provided by associate...... demonstrated remarkable advantages to peer-learning in skills-lab. Thus, peer-learning activities could be essential to providing high-quality medical training in the face of limited clinical teacher resources in future undergraduate medical education.......This thesis focuses on how to engage students in self-directed learning and in peer-learning activities to improve clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education. The first study examined the clinical skills teaching provided by student teachers compared to that provided by associate....... The Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator framework was used to reflect this change and construct validity was explored for RIME-based evaluations of single-patient encounters. In the third study the effects of training in pairs--also known as dyad practice--examined. This study showed that the students...

  2. May I see your ID, please? An explorative study of the professional identity of undergraduate medical education leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Kristina; Josephson, Anna; Reeves, Scott; Nordquist, Jonas

    2017-02-01

    The mission of undergraduate medical education leaders is to strive towards the enhancement of quality of medical education and health care. The aim of this qualitative study is, with the help of critical perspectives, to contribute to the research area of undergraduate medical education leaders and their identity formation; how can the identity of undergraduate medical education leaders be defined and further explored from a power perspective? In this explorative study, 14 educational leaders at a medical programme in Scandinavia were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. The data was analysed through Moustakas' structured, phenomenological analysis approach and then pattern matched with Gee's power-based identity model. Educational leaders identify themselves more as mediators than leaders and do not feel to any larger extent that their professional identity is authorised by the university. These factors potentially create difficulties when trying to communicate with medical teachers, often also with a weaker sense of professional identity, about medical education. The perceptions of the professional identity of undergraduate medical education leaders provide us with important notions on the complexities on executing their important mission to develop medical education: their perceptions of ambiguity towards the process of trying to lead teachers toward educational development and a perceived lack of authorisation of their work from the university level. These are important flaws to observe and correct when improving the context in which undergraduate medical education leaders are trying to develop and improve undergraduate medical programmes. A practical outcome of the results of this study is the facilitation of design of faculty development programmes for educational leaders in undergraduate medial education.

  3. Sexual Health in Undergraduate Medical Education: Existing and Future Needs and Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W; Baazeem, Abdulaziz; Eardley, Ian; Coleman, Eli

    2016-07-01

    This article explores the evolution and current delivery of undergraduate medical education in human sexuality. To make recommendations regarding future educational needs, principles of curricular development, and how the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) should address the need to enhance and promote human sexuality education around the world. The existing literature was reviewed for sexuality education, curriculum development, learning strategies, educational formats, evaluation of programs, evaluation of students, and faculty development. The prevailing theme of most publications in this vein is that sexuality education in undergraduate medical education is currently not adequate to prepare students for future practice. We identified components of the principles of attitudes, knowledge, and skills that should be contained in a comprehensive curriculum for undergraduate medical education in human sexuality. Management of sexual dysfunction; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health care; sexuality across genders and lifespan; understanding of non-normative sexual practices; sexually transmitted infections and HIV, contraception; abortion; sexual coercion and violence; and legal aspects were identified as topics meriting particular attention. Curricula should be integrated throughout medical school and based on principles of adult learning. Methods of teaching should be multimodal and evaluations of student performance are critical. To realize much of what needs to be done, faculty development is critical. Thus, the ISSM can play a key role in the provision and dissemination of learning opportunities and materials, it can promote educational programs around the world, and it can articulate a universal curriculum with modules that can be adopted. The ISSM can create chapters, review documents, slide decks, small group and roleplay topics, and video-recorded materials and make all this material easily available. An expert consensus conference

  4. Analysis of radiology education in undergraduate medical doctors training in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourdioukova, Elena V.; Valcke, Martin; Derese, Anselme; Verstraete, Koenraad L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the present study is to describe how undergraduate radiology teaching is organized in Europe and to identify important characteristics of undergraduate radiology curriculum. Methods: An electronic survey on undergraduate teaching was distributed by the European Society of Radiology (ESR) to 38 national delegates of the ESR Education Committee. Results: The 'classic type' of radiology teaching method is more frequent than the 'modular type'. In 38% of medical training centres the first experience with radiology is in pre-clinical years. The students enrolled in the fourth medical year experience the largest involvement in radiology education. The total number of teaching hours (mean 89 h, median 76 h) varies across the countries and differs depending on the radiological topic (mean across all topics 14.8 h, median 13). Written tests and oral exams were the most frequently used examination modes. Clerkships are reported as a key part of training. Conclusion: This first international comparative study of undergraduate radiological curriculum in Europe identifies a large number of differences in curriculum content and teaching methods throughout Europe. More research is needed to establish the radiological educational competences resulting from these differing curricula's to improve and to standardize the teaching according to (inter)national and institutional needs.

  5. Putting tobacco cessation and prevention into undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training medical students in tobacco prevention and cessation skills is critical to have competent physicians who are prepared to address the grave levels of morbidity and mortality associated with tobacco use. However, in India, enough attention has not been given to elicit the active participation of physicians in tobacco control. Keeping this in view, a program was undertaken to develop the skills and competence of medical students with the objective of improving medical student inquiry into smoking and the delivery of advice accordingly for patients in their clinical year′s routine consultations. Methods: The targeted learners were 149 1 st -year medical and dental students of SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa, India, who had appeared the second semester examination; 84 of the participants were male. Students were allowed to appear a test before the training session on knowledge of tobacco cessation and post test was done after 1.5 months of training. The knowledge score was evaluated to evaluate the learning outcome. Results: We observed that a curriculum on tobacco intervention could improve relevant knowledge, attitudes and self-confidence and be applied in students early clinical experiences. Conclusions: There is need of joint action by practicing clinicians, the medical faculty and the curriculum planners of the country to incorporate tobacco cessation into the curriculum.

  6. The efficacy and usefulness of problem based learning in undergraduate medical school education of radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Minako; Itazawa, Tomoko; Someya, Masanori; Nakamura, Satoaki

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese Association for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (JASTRO) holds a seminar for medical students every summer, which has developed into a joint program with a session addressing radiation treatment planning. To clarify this topic for medical students, we have incorporated Problem Based Learning skills into the session. Not only has the students' comprehension improved but the instructors have also found this teaching experience valuable and productive in advancing their own clinical skills. Our experience suggests that the application of this Problem Based Learning session for radiation treatment planning in undergraduate medical school education has proven to be effective. (author)

  7. Consensus statement on an updated core communication curriculum for UK undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Lorraine M; Scott-Smith, Wesley; O'Neill, Bernadette; Salisbury, Helen

    2018-04-22

    Clinical communication is a core component of undergraduate medical training. A consensus statement on the essential elements of the communication curriculum was co-produced in 2008 by the communication leads of UK medical schools. This paper discusses the relational, contextual and technological changes which have affected clinical communication since then and presents an updated curriculum for communication in undergraduate medicine. The consensus was developed through an iterative consultation process with the communication leads who represent their medical schools on the UK Council of Clinical Communication in Undergraduate Medical Education. The updated curriculum defines the underpinning values, core components and skills required within the context of contemporary medical care. It incorporates the evolving relational issues associated with the more prominent role of the patient in the consultation, reflected through legal precedent and changing societal expectations. The impact on clinical communication of the increased focus on patient safety, the professional duty of candour and digital medicine are discussed. Changes in the way medicine is practised should lead rapidly to adjustments to the content of curricula. The updated curriculum provides a model of best practice to help medical schools develop their teaching and argue for resources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Does current provision of undergraduate education prepare UK medical students in ENT? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary R; Bacila, Irina A; Swamy, Meenakshi

    2016-04-15

    To systematically identify and analyse all published literature relating to the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, as perceived by medical students and clinicians in the UK. Systematic literature review. 5 major databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Cochrane and Web of Science. The literature search was conducted from February to April 2015. Primary research or studies that report on the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ENT, from the perspective of medical students and clinicians in the UK. The timescale of searches was limited from 1999 onwards (ie, the past 15 years). The literature search was conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Search terms used involved the combination and variation of 5 key concepts, namely: medical student, clinician, ENT, undergraduate medical education and UK. A data extraction form was designed for and used in this study, based on guidelines provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Textual narrative synthesis was used for data analysis. A total of 7 studies were included in the final review. 4 main themes were identified: confidence in managing patients, teaching delivery, student assessment and duration of rotations. A consistent finding in this review was that the majority of final year medical students and junior doctors did not feel adequately prepared to practise ENT. Important factors influencing preparedness in ENT included the duration of clinical rotations, the opportunity for hands-on learning and formal assessment. The findings of this review suggest the need for further development of the ENT undergraduate curricula across the UK. However, there is insufficient evidence from which to draw strong conclusions; this in itself is beneficial as it highlights a gap in the existing literature and supports the need for primary research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  9. The impact of an accreditation system on the quality of undergraduate medical education in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alrebish, Saleh Ali

    2017-01-01

    The accreditation of undergraduate medical education is a universal undertaking. Despite the widespread adoption of accreditation processes and an increasing focus on accreditation as a mechanism to ensure minimum standards are met in various fields, there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of accreditation. The new accreditation body in Saudi Arabia, the National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment (NCAAA), is viewed anecdotally as a positive development; howeve...

  10. Leadership in Undergraduate Medical Education: Training Future Physician Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, Brian; Rapoza, Brenda; George, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To confront the challenges facing modern health care, experts and organizations are calling for an increase in physician leadership capabilities. In response to this need, physician leadership programs are proliferating, targeting all levels of experience at all levels of training. Many academic medical centers, major universities, and specialty societies now sponsor physician leadership training programs. To meet this need, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, as part of its Primary Care-Population Medicine (PC-PM) Program, designed a four-year integrated curriculum, Leadership in Health Care, to engage with leadership topics starting early in the preclinical stages of training. This paper describes the design and implementation of this leadership curriculum for PC-PM students.

  11. Undergraduate medical education in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a multi-countries study (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, H; Telmesani, A W; Al Wardy, N; Abdel-Khalek, N; Carruthers, G; Hassan, F; Kassab, S; Abu-Hijleh, M; Al-Roomi, K; O'malley, K; El Din Ahmed, M G; Raj, G A; Rao, G M; Sheikh, K

    2010-01-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have witnessed over the last 40 years a rapid and major social, cultural, and economic transformation. The development of medical education in the region is relatively new, dating from the late 1960s. An important goal among the medical colleges in the region is to graduate national physicians who can populate the healthcare service of each country. The aim of this study is to provide understanding of undergraduate medical education in each of the six GCC countries and the challenges that each face. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Fourteen senior medical faculty were requested to submit information about undergraduate medical education in their own countries, focusing on its historical background, student selection, curriculum, faculty, and challenges. The information provided was about 27 medical colleges: 16 from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), five from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), two from the Kingdom of Bahrain, two from Sultanate of Oman, one from Kuwait, and one from the State of Qatar. It was found that older colleges are reviewing their curriculum while new colleges are developing their programs following current trends in medical education, particularly problem-based learning and integrated curricula. The programs as described 'on paper' look good but what needs to be evaluated is the curriculum 'in action'. Faculty development in medical education is taking place in most of the region's medical colleges. The challenges reported were mainly related to shortages of faculty, availability of clinical training facilities and the need to more integration with the National Health Care services. Attention to quality, standards, and accreditation is considered essential by all colleges.

  12. Undergraduate medical education in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a multi-countries study (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, H; Telmesani, A W; Wardy, N Al; Abdel-Khalek, N; Carruthers, G; Hassan, F; Kassab, S; Abu-Hijleh, M; Al-Roomi, K; O'Malley, K; El Din Ahmed, M G; Raj, G A; Rao, G M; Sheikh, J

    2010-01-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have witnessed over the last 40 years a rapid and major social, cultural, and economic transformation. The development of medical education in the region is relatively new, dating from the late 1960s. An important goal among the medical colleges in the region is to graduate national physicians who can populate the healthcare service of each country. The aim of this study is to provide understanding of undergraduate medical education in each of the six GCC countries and the challenges that each face. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Fourteen senior medical faculty were requested to submit information about undergraduate medical education in their own countries, focusing on its historical background, student selection, curriculum, faculty, and challenges. The information provided was about 27 medical colleges: 16 from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), five from the United Arab Emirates, two from the Kingdom of Bahrain, two from Sultanate of Oman, one from Kuwait and one from the State of Qatar. It was found that older colleges are reviewing their curriculum while new colleges are developing their programs following current trends in medical education particularly problem-based learning and integrated curricula. The programs as described 'on paper' look good but what needs to be evaluated is the curriculum 'in action'. Faculty development in medical education is taking place in most of the region's medical colleges. The challenges reported were mainly related to shortages of faculty, availability of clinical training facilities, and the need to more integration with the National Health Care services. Attention to quality, standards, and accreditation is considered essential by all colleges.

  13. Advancements in Undergraduate Medical Education: Meeting the Challenges of an Evolving World of Education, Healthcare, and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, P G; Corral, Irma; Kyle, Brandon

    2017-06-01

    Restructuring of undergraduate medical education (UGME) has occurred from time to time over the past century. Many influences, including the persuasive report of Abraham Flexner in 1910, acted to reorganize medical education in the early twentieth century [1, 2]. In his report, Flexner called on American medical schools to enact higher graduation standards and to stringently adhere to the protocols of mainstream science in their teaching. Prior to this report, UGME had changed little over the previous century but over the last several decades, reform within medical education has become routine. This increasing rate of change has been challenging for those within the realm of undergraduate medical education and can be frustrating to those outside this sphere. Today, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) are typically the driving forces behind such changes, along with acceleration of advances in medical care and technology. The number of changes in the last decade is significant and warrants review by those interested or involved in education of medical students. This article aims to provide a summary of recent changes within UGME. Within the article, changes in both the pre-clerkship (1st and 2nd years) and clinical years (3rd and 4th) will be discussed. Finally, this review will attempt to clarify new terminology and concepts such as the recently released Core Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs). The goal of these UGME changes, as with Flexner's reform, is to ensure future physicians are better prepared for patient care.

  14. Sexual and gender minority identity disclosure during undergraduate medical education: "in the closet" in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansh, Matthew; White, William; Gee-Tong, Lea; Lunn, Mitchell R; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Stewart, Leslie; Goldsmith, Elizabeth; Brenman, Stephanie; Tran, Eric; Wells, Maggie; Fetterman, David; Garcia, Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    To assess identity disclosure among sexual and gender minority (SGM) students pursuing undergraduate medical training in the United States and Canada. From 2009 to 2010, a survey was made available to all medical students enrolled in the 176 MD- and DO-granting medical schools in the United States and Canada. Respondents were asked about their sexual and gender identity, whether they were "out" (i.e., had publicly disclosed their identity), and, if they were not, their reasons for concealing their identity. The authors used a mixed-methods approach and analyzed quantitative and qualitative survey data. Of 5,812 completed responses (of 101,473 eligible respondents; response rate 5.7%), 920 (15.8%) students from 152 (of 176; 86.4%) institutions identified as SGMs. Of the 912 sexual minorities, 269 (29.5%) concealed their sexual identity in medical school. Factors associated with sexual identity concealment included sexual minority identity other than lesbian or gay, male gender, East Asian race, and medical school enrollment in the South or Central regions of North America. The most common reasons for concealing one's sexual identity were "nobody's business" (165/269; 61.3%), fear of discrimination in medical school (117/269; 43.5%), and social or cultural norms (110/269; 40.9%). Of the 35 gender minorities, 21 (60.0%) concealed their gender identity, citing fear of discrimination in medical school (9/21; 42.9%) and lack of support (9/21; 42.9%). SGM students continue to conceal their identity during undergraduate medical training. Medical institutions should adopt targeted policies and programs to better support these individuals.

  15. A survey of palliative medicine education in Japan's undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoichi; Takamiya, Yusuke; Saito, Mari; Kuroko, Koichi; Shiratsuchi, Tatsuko; Oshima, Kenzaburo; Ito, Yuko; Miyake, Satoshi

    2017-06-07

    This study aimed to examine the status of undergraduate palliative care education among Japanese medical students using data from a survey conducted in 2015. A questionnaire was originally developed, and the survey forms were sent to universities. The study's objectives, methods, disclosure of results, and anonymity were explained to participating universities in writing. Responses returned by the universities were considered to indicate consent to participate. Descriptive statistical methodology was employed. The response rate was 82.5% (66 of 80 medical faculties and colleges). Palliative care lectures were implemented in 98.5% of the institutions. Regarding lecture titles, "palliative medicine," "palliative care," and "terminal care" accounted for 42.4, 30.3, and 9.1% of the lectures, respectively. Teachers from the Department of Anesthesia, Palliative Care, and Psychiatry administered 51.5, 47.0, and 28.8% of lectures, respectively. Subjects of lectures included general palliative care (81.8%), pain management (87.9%), and symptom management (63.6%). Clinical clerkship on palliative care was a compulsory and non-compulsory course in 43.9 and 25.8% of the schools, respectively; 30.3% had no clinical clerkship curriculum. Undergraduate palliative care education is implemented in many Japanese universities. Clinical clerkship combined with participation in actual medical practice should be further improved by establishing a medical education certification system in compliance with the international standards.

  16. Improving undergraduate medical education about pain assessment and management: A qualitative descriptive study of stakeholders’ perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Rodríguez, Charo; Ware, Mark A; Posel, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pain is one of the most common reasons for individuals to seek medical advice, yet it remains poorly managed. One of the main reasons that poor pain management persists is the lack of adequate knowledge and skills of practicing clinicians, which stems from a perceived lack of pain education during the training of undergraduate medical students. OBJECTIVE: To identify gaps in knowledge with respect to pain management as perceived by students, patients and educators. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Data were generated through six focus groups with second- and fourth-year medical students, four focus groups with patients and individual semistructured interviews with nine educators. All interviews were audiotaped and an inductive thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 70 individuals participated in the present study. Five main themes were identified: assessment of physical and psychosocial aspects of pain; clinical management of pain with pharmacology and alternative therapies; communication and the development of a good therapeutic relationship; ethical considerations surrounding pain; and institutional context of medical education about pain. CONCLUSION: Participating patients, students and pain experts recognized a need for additional medical education about pain assessment and management. Educational approaches need to teach students to gather appropriate information about pain, to acquire knowledge of a broad spectrum of therapeutic options, to develop a mutual, trusting relationship with patients and to become aware of their own biases and prejudice toward patients with pain. The results of the present study should be used to develop and enhance existing pain curricula content. PMID:23985579

  17. Qualitative study of the impact of an authentic electronic portfolio in undergraduate medical education.

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    Belcher, Rosie; Jones, Anna; Smith, Laura-Jane; Vincent, Tim; Naidu, Sindhu Bhaarrati; Montgomery, Julia; Haq, Inam; Gill, Deborah

    2014-12-17

    Portfolios are increasingly used in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. Four medical schools have collaborated with an established NHS electronic portfolio provider to develop and implement an authentic professional electronic portfolio for undergraduate students. We hypothesized that using an authentic portfolio would have significant advantages for students, particularly in familiarizing them with the tool many will continue to use for years after graduation. This paper describes the early evaluation of this undergraduate portfolio at two participating medical schools. To gather data, a questionnaire survey with extensive free text comments was used at School 1, and three focus groups were held at School 2. This paper reports thematic analysis of students' opinions expressed in the free text comments and focus groups. Five main themes, common across both schools were identified. These concerned the purpose, use and acceptability of the portfolio, advantages of and barriers to the use of the portfolio, and the impacts on both learning and professional identity. An authentic portfolio mitigated some of the negative aspects of using a portfolio, and had a positive effect on students' perception of themselves as becoming past of the profession. However, significant barriers to portfolio use remained, including a lack of understanding of the purpose of a portfolio and a perceived damaging effect on feedback.

  18. Integrating radiology vertically into an undergraduate medical education curriculum: a triphasic integration approach

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    Al Qahtani F

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fahd Al Qahtani,1 Adel Abdelaziz2,31Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Education Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia; 3Medical Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptAbstract: Fulfilling the goal of integrating radiology into undergraduate medical curricula is a real challenge due to the enduring faith assuming that traditional medical disciplines are worthy of consuming the available study time. In this manner, radiology is addressed occasionally and with relevance to these traditional disciplines. In Al-Baha University Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia, efforts have been made to integrate radiology vertically and in a structured manner into the undergraduate curriculum from the first year to the sixth year. For achieving convenient integration of radiology, a triphasic approach to integration is adopted. This approach consists of the integration of radiology foundations into the basic sciences phase, development of a distinct 4-week module in year 4, and finally, integration of clinical applications of radiology in the clinical phase modules. Feedback of students and inferences obtained through assessment and program evaluation are in favor of this approach to integration. Minor reform and some improvement related to time allocated and content balancing are still indicated.Keywords: radiology foundations, radiology module, students assessment

  19. The role of tablets in accessing information throughout undergraduate medical education in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Rachel E; Kebaetse, Masego B; Holmes, John H; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Ketshogileng, Dineo; Antwi, Cynthia; Kovarik, Carrie; Nkomazana, Oathokwa

    2016-04-01

    Mobile learning (mLearning) uses wireless networks and mobile devices to expand physician trainees' and healthcare providers' access to and exchange of medical information. Opportunities to increase implementation and expand use of mobile devices to support health care information access and delivery in Africa are vast, but the rapid growth of mLearning has caused project implementation to outpace objective measurement of impact. This study makes a contribution to the existing body of literature regarding mLearning implementation in Africa through its focus on the use of smart devices (tablets) in undergraduate medical education and medical students' perceptions of the effects on their learning environment. The population of this prospective mixed-methods study consisted of 82 undergraduate medical students (45 third year and 37 fourth year) at the University of Botswana Faculty of Medicine. They received tablets in the earliest phase of the mLearning project implementation (between November 2012 and January 2013), when they were in the third and fourth year of their medical training. Usage of the tablets was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively, through both application usage tracking and focus groups. Based on application usage data and coding and analysis of focus group discussions, undergraduate medical students indicated that tablets were useful in their medical education, allowing them continual access to information and opportunities for communication. Participants noted that the primary barrier to use of tablets was the lack of mobile cellular Internet beyond the Wi-Fi zones at the training sites. Moreover, participants offered suggestions for improvements to the implementation process. Even in resource-limited settings where Internet access can be unreliable and intermittent, the adoption of tablets can have benefits to medical education by providing consistent access to extensive and current medical information resources. This study highlights

  20. Undergraduate medical education programme renewal: a longitudinal context, input, process and product evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzazadeh, Azim; Gandomkar, Roghayeh; Hejri, Sara Mortaz; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Koochak, Hamid Emadi; Golestani, Abolfazl; Jafarian, Ali; Jalili, Mohammad; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Saleh, Narges; Shahi, Farhad; Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) evaluation model as a comprehensive framework to guide initiating, planning, implementing and evaluating a revised undergraduate medical education programme. The eight-year longitudinal evaluation study consisted of four phases compatible with the four components of the CIPP model. In the first phase, we explored the strengths and weaknesses of the traditional programme as well as contextual needs, assets, and resources. For the second phase, we proposed a model for the programme considering contextual features. During the process phase, we provided formative information for revisions and adjustments. Finally, in the fourth phase, we evaluated the outcomes of the new undergraduate medical education programme in the basic sciences phase. Information was collected from different sources such as medical students, faculty members, administrators, and graduates, using various qualitative and quantitative methods including focus groups, questionnaires, and performance measures. The CIPP model has the potential to guide policy makers to systematically collect evaluation data and to manage stakeholders' reactions at each stage of the reform in order to make informed decisions. However, the model may result in evaluation burden and fail to address some unplanned evaluation questions.

  1. The Implementation of Medical Informatics in the National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM).

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    Behrends, Marianne; Steffens, Sandra; Marschollek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) describes medical skills and attitudes without being ordered by subjects or organs. Thus, the NKLM enables systematic curriculum mapping and supports curricular transparency. In this paper we describe where learning objectives related to Medical Informatics (MI) in Hannover coincide with other subjects and where they are taught exclusively in MI. An instance of the web-based MERLIN-database was used for the mapping process. In total 52 learning objectives overlapping with 38 other subjects could be allocated to MI. No overlap exists for six learning objectives describing explicitly topics of information technology or data management for scientific research. Most of the overlap was found for learning objectives relating to documentation and aspects of data privacy. The identification of numerous shared learning objectives with other subjects does not mean that other subjects teach the same content as MI. Identifying common learning objectives rather opens up the possibility for teaching cooperations which could lead to an important exchange and hopefully an improvement in medical education. Mapping of a whole medical curriculum offers the opportunity to identify common ground between MI and other medical subjects. Furthermore, in regard to MI, the interaction with other medical subjects can strengthen its role in medical education.

  2. From PBL tutoring to PBL coaching in undergraduate medical education: an interpretative phenomenological analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Li, Huiping; Pang, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Coaching psychology is of increasing interest to medical educators for its potential benefits as a facilitative method in problem-based learning (PBL). However, the field lacks empirical studies that explore the lived experiences of students and tutors in the PBL coaching process. This study aimed to elicit knowledge regarding medical students' and tutors' experiences and perceptions of PBL coaching in the context of Chinese undergraduate medical education. The qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was employed. Participants comprised third year medical students (n=20) and PBL tutors (n=5) who have adopted a coaching approach in PBL for a semester. Semi-structured interviews were utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their experiences of PBL coaching. Data analysis followed an iterative four-stage scheme of Biggerstaff and Thompson. Six main themes emerged from diverse experiences and interpretations: 1) mindsets of coaching and learning, 2) the development of learning dispositions and capacities, 3) student group collaboration, 4) tutor-student relationships, 5) personal and professional development, and 6) challenges and difficulties in implementation. It could be concluded that PBL coaching is a dynamic, facilitative process that makes a particular contribution to the learning process from psychological, emotional, and social perspectives, whilst it demonstrates significant overlaps with PBL tutoring in terms of supporting students' cognitive activities in PBL. Further research is needed to identify the barriers and challenges for medical educators to implement coaching in the PBL process.

  3. From PBL tutoring to PBL coaching in undergraduate medical education: an interpretative phenomenological analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coaching psychology is of increasing interest to medical educators for its potential benefits as a facilitative method in problem-based learning (PBL. However, the field lacks empirical studies that explore the lived experiences of students and tutors in the PBL coaching process. This study aimed to elicit knowledge regarding medical students’ and tutors’ experiences and perceptions of PBL coaching in the context of Chinese undergraduate medical education. Methods: The qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA was employed. Participants comprised third year medical students (n=20 and PBL tutors (n=5 who have adopted a coaching approach in PBL for a semester. Semi-structured interviews were utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their experiences of PBL coaching. Data analysis followed an iterative four-stage scheme of Biggerstaff and Thompson. Results: Six main themes emerged from diverse experiences and interpretations: 1 mindsets of coaching and learning, 2 the development of learning dispositions and capacities, 3 student group collaboration, 4 tutor–student relationships, 5 personal and professional development, and 6 challenges and difficulties in implementation. Conclusions: It could be concluded that PBL coaching is a dynamic, facilitative process that makes a particular contribution to the learning process from psychological, emotional, and social perspectives, whilst it demonstrates significant overlaps with PBL tutoring in terms of supporting students’ cognitive activities in PBL. Further research is needed to identify the barriers and challenges for medical educators to implement coaching in the PBL process.

  4. Clinical audit in the final year of undergraduate medical education: towards better care of future generations.

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    Mak, Donna B; Miflin, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, in an environment undergoing rapidly changing requirements for health services, there is an urgent need for future practitioners to be knowledgeable, skilful and self-motivated in ensuring the quality and safety of their practice. Postgraduate medical education and vocational programs have responded by incorporating training in quality improvement into continuing professional development requirements, but undergraduate medical education has been slower to respond. This article describes the clinical audit programme undertaken by all students in the final year of the medical course at the University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Australia, and examines the educational worth of this approach. Data were obtained from curricular documents, including the clinical audit handbook, and from evaluation questionnaires administered to students and supervisors. The clinical audit programme is based on sound educational principles, including situated and participatory learning and reflective practice. It has demonstrated multi-dimensional benefits for students in terms of learning the complexities of conducting an effective audit in professional practice, and for health services in terms of facilitating quality improvement. Although this programme was developed in a medical course, the concept is readily transferable to a variety of other health professional curricula in which students undertake clinical placements.

  5. Evidence Based Medicine Teaching in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Literature Review

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    Misa Mi

    2012-09-01

    instruction, implementation of an EBM intervention, outcomes measured, and evaluation methods, all of which remain relevant issues for further research. It is important for medical educators and health sciences librarians to attend to these issues in designing and delivering a successful EBM intervention in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

  6. Dermatology Medical Education: A Multicenter Survey Study of the Undergraduate Perspective of the Dermatology Clinical Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Parastoo; Millsop, Jillian W; Johnson, Mary Ann N; Takahashi, Stefani R; Peng, David H; Badger, Joanna; Bahr, Brooks A; Shinkai, Kanade; Li, Chin-Shang; Fazel, Nasim

    2017-12-15

    Limited data are available regarding the undergraduate dermatology clinical clerkship curriculum in the United States. Our primaryaim is to assess medical students' perspectives of the dermatology clinical clerkship. A multicenter survey study was conducted, which included four California dermatology academic programs. A 17-item questionnaire was designed to investigate medical student perception with regard tothe overall educational value of the various teaching aspects of the dermatology clinical clerkship. A total of 152 medical student surveys were completed. Over half of the medical students felt proficient in diagnosing the most commondermatologic conditions. Eighty-seven percent of medical students were very satisfied with the dermatology clerkship. Ninety-one percent of students felt the length of the clerkship was appropriate. The vast majority of medical students reported a high level of proficiency in the treatment and diagnosis of common skin disorders. In contrast, our findings suggest that medical students may not begaining sufficient hands-on experience in conducting certain dermatologic procedures following the dermatology clerkship. Overall, medical studentperception of the dermatology clinical clerkship was mostly positive.

  7. Sonography and hypotension: a change to critical problem solving in undergraduate medical education

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    Amini R

    2016-01-01

    deep vein thrombus was 8/10, and cardiac ultrasound for contractility and overall function was 7/10. Student performance in the knowledge assessment portion of the questionnaire was an average of 74% (SD =11% at the end of workshop and 74% (SD =12% 3 months later (P=0.00.Conclusion: At our institution, we successfully integrated ultrasound and critical problem-solving instruction, as part of a 1-day workshop for undergraduate medical education.Keywords: point-of-care ultrasound, undergraduate medical education, protocol-driven education, problem-based learning

  8. Basic practical skills teaching and learning in undergraduate medical education - a review on methodological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Daniela; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Practical skills are an essential part of physicians' daily routine. Nevertheless, medical graduates' performance of basic skills is often below the expected level. This review aims to identify and summarize teaching approaches of basic practical skills in undergraduate medical education which provide evidence with respect to effective students' learning of these skills. Basic practical skills were defined as basic physical examination skills, routine skills which get better with practice, and skills which are also performed by nurses. We searched PubMed with different terms describing these basic practical skills. In total, 3467 identified publications were screened and 205 articles were eventually reviewed for eligibility. 43 studies that included at least one basic practical skill, a comparison of two groups of undergraduate medical students and effects on students' performance were analyzed. Seven basic practical skills and 15 different teaching methods could be identified. The most consistent results with respect to effective teaching and acquisition of basic practical skills were found for structured skills training, feedback, and self-directed learning. Simulation was effective with specific teaching methods and in several studies no differences in teaching effects were detected between expert or peer instructors. Multimedia instruction, when used in the right setting, also showed beneficial effects for basic practical skills learning. A combination of voluntary or obligatory self-study with multimedia applications like video clips in combination with a structured program including the possibility for individual exercise with personal feedback by peers or teachers might provide a good learning opportunity for basic practical skills.

  9. Students' perspectives of undergraduate research methods education at three public medical schools in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munabi, Ian Guyton; Buwembo, William; Joseph, Ruberwa; Peter, Kawungezi; Bajunirwe, Francis; Mwaka, Erisa Sabakaki

    2016-01-01

    In this study we used a model of adult learning to explore undergraduate students' views on how to improve the teaching of research methods and biostatistics. This was a secondary analysis of survey data of 600 undergraduate students from three medical schools in Uganda. The analysis looked at student's responses to an open ended section of a questionnaire on their views on undergraduate teaching of research methods and biostatistics. Qualitative phenomenological data analysis was done with a bias towards principles of adult learning. Students appreciated the importance of learning research methods and biostatistics as a way of understanding research problems; appropriately interpreting statistical concepts during their training and post-qualification practice; and translating the knowledge acquired. Stressful teaching environment and inadequate educational resource materials were identified as impediments to effective learning. Suggestions for improved learning included: early and continuous exposure to the course; more active and practical approach to teaching; and a need for mentorship. The current methods of teaching research methods and biostatistics leave most of the students in the dissonance phase of learning resulting in none or poor student engagement that results in a failure to comprehend and/or appreciate the principles governing the use of different research methods.

  10. A consortium approach to competency-based undergraduate medical education in Uganda: process, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguli, Sarah; Mubuuke, Roy; Baingana, Rhona; Kijjambu, Stephen; Maling, Samuel; Waako, Paul; Obua, Celestino; Ovuga, Emilio; Kaawa-Mafigiri, David; Nshaho, Jonathan; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Bollinger, Robert; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Uganda, like the rest of Africa, is faced with serious health challenges including human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), other infectious diseases and increasing non-communicable diseases, yet it has a significant shortage of health workers. Even the few health workers available may lack desired competencies required to address current and future health challenges. Reducing Uganda's disease burden and addressing health challenges requires Ugandan medical schools to produce health workers with the necessary competencies. This study describes the process which a consortium of Ugandan medical schools and the Medical Education Partnership for Equitable Services to all Ugandans (MESAU) undertook to define the required competencies of graduating doctors in Uganda and implement competency-based medical education (CBME). A retrospective qualitative study was conducted in which document analysis was used to collect data employing pre-defined checklists, in a desktop or secondary review of various documents. These included reports of MESAU meetings and workshops, reports from individual institutions as well as medical undergraduate curricula of the different institutions. Thematic analysis was used to extract patterns from the collected data. MESAU initiated the process of developing competencies for medical graduates in 2011 using a participatory approach of all stakeholders. The process involved consultative deliberations to identify priority health needs of Uganda and develop competencies to address these needs. Nine competence domain areas were collaboratively identified and agreed upon, and competencies developed in these domains. Key successes from the process include institutional collaboration, faculty development in CBME and initiating the implementation of CBME. The consortium approach strengthened institutional collaboration that led to the development of common competencies desired of all medical graduates to

  11. Qualitative synthesis and systematic review of otolaryngology in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Stacey L; Stewart, C Matthew; Senser, Ethan; Stewart, Rosalyn W; Stanley, James; Stierer, Kevin D; Benke, James R; Kern, David E

    2015-12-01

    Although 25% of primary care complaints are otolaryngology related, otolaryngology instruction is not required in most medical schools. Our aim was to systematically review existing literature on the inclusion of otolaryngology in undergraduate medical education. PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Education Resources Information Center. Our search encompassed all indexed years through December 29, 2014. Inclusion criteria were English language, original human data, and a focus on medical student education. Data regarding study design, teacher, educational topic, educational methods, and setting were extracted from each article. Two investigators independently reviewed all articles. Our initial search yielded 436 articles; 87 underwent full-text evaluation and 47 remained in the final review. The majority of studies were conducted in the United States (40%), United Kingdom (23%), and Canada (17%) and represented a single institutional experience. Studies were classified as needs assessments (36%), curriculum descriptions (15%), educational methods (36%), and skills assessments (32%); 81% were levels of evidence 3 or 4. Most reports indicated that otolaryngology rotations are not compulsory. Studies indicated the need for increased exposure to otolaryngology. Educational methods such as team-based learning, simulation, online learning, and clinical skills assessments may offer ways to increase exposure without overburdening clinical faculty and require further study. Data suggest that a universal otolaryngology medical student curriculum would be valuable and aid in resource sharing across institutions. We recommend that an assessment be performed to determine topics and skills that should comprise this curriculum. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. The future of practical skills in undergraduate medical education - an explorative Delphi-Study.

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    Dannenberg, Katja Anne; Stroben, Fabian; Schröder, Therese; Thomas, Anke; Hautz, Wolf E

    2016-01-01

    64% of young medical professionals in Germany do not feel adequately prepared for the practical requirements of the medical profession. The goal of "outcome-orientated training" is to structure medical curricula based on the skills needed when entering the workforce after completing undergraduate medical education, and thus to bridge the gap between the skills graduates have attained and those necessary for a career in the medical profession. Outcome frameworks (OFs) are used for this purpose. In preparation for developing the National Competence-Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Medicine (NKLM) - the German OF - the "Consensus Statement of Practical Skills in Undergraduate Medical Education" (which structures the teaching and acquisition of practical skills in Germany and which strongly influenced the "Clinical-Practical Skills" chapter of the NKLM) was published in 2011. It is not uncommon for at least a decade to elapse between the definition and implementation of an OF and the students' graduation, which can further increase the gap between necessary and acquired skills. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to posit theses for future development in healthcare and to apply these theses to a current OF. Partially structured interviews with experts were used to generate theses pertaining to general, future development in healthcare. These theses were assessed by physician experts based on the likelihood of implementation by the year 2025. The 288 learning goals of the consensus statement were assessed for their relevance for medical education in the interim. 11 theses were generated for the development of medicine, and these theses were assessed and discussed by 738 experts. These theses include the increase in diseases associated with old age, the increasing significance of interprofessional cooperation, and the growing prevalence of telemedicine applications. Of the 288 learning goals of the consensus statement, 231 of the goals were assessed as relevant

  13. National Clinical Skills Competition: an effective simulation-based method to improve undergraduate medical education in China

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    Guanchao Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Clinical Skills Competition has been held in China for 5 consecutive years since 2010 to promote undergraduate education reform and improve the teaching quality. The effects of the simulation-based competition will be analyzed in this study. Methods: Participation in the competitions and the compilation of the questions used in the competition finals are summarized, and the influence and guidance quality are further analyzed. Through the nationwide distribution of questionnaires in medical colleges, the effects of the simulation-based competition on promoting undergraduate medical education reform were evaluated. Results: The results show that approximately 450 students from more than 110 colleges (accounting for 81% of colleges providing undergraduate clinical medical education in China participated in the competition each year. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes were comprehensively evaluated by simulation-based assessment. Eight hundred and eighty copies of the questionnaires were distributed to 110 participating medical schools in 2015. In total, 752 valid responses were received across 95 schools. The majority of the interviewees agreed or strongly agreed that competition promoted the adoption of advanced educational principles (76.8%, updated the curriculum model and instructional methods (79.8%, strengthened faculty development (84.0%, improved educational resources (82.1%, and benefited all students (53.4%. Conclusions: The National Clinical Skills Competition is widely accepted in China. It has effectively promoted the reform and development of undergraduate medical education in China.

  14. National Clinical Skills Competition: an effective simulation-based method to improve undergraduate medical education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guanchao; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qiming; Chi, Baorong; He, Qingnan; Xiao, Haipeng; Zhou, Qinghuan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shan

    2016-01-01

    The National Clinical Skills Competition has been held in China for 5 consecutive years since 2010 to promote undergraduate education reform and improve the teaching quality. The effects of the simulation-based competition will be analyzed in this study. Participation in the competitions and the compilation of the questions used in the competition finals are summarized, and the influence and guidance quality are further analyzed. Through the nationwide distribution of questionnaires in medical colleges, the effects of the simulation-based competition on promoting undergraduate medical education reform were evaluated. The results show that approximately 450 students from more than 110 colleges (accounting for 81% of colleges providing undergraduate clinical medical education in China) participated in the competition each year. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes were comprehensively evaluated by simulation-based assessment. Eight hundred and eighty copies of the questionnaires were distributed to 110 participating medical schools in 2015. In total, 752 valid responses were received across 95 schools. The majority of the interviewees agreed or strongly agreed that competition promoted the adoption of advanced educational principles (76.8%), updated the curriculum model and instructional methods (79.8%), strengthened faculty development (84.0%), improved educational resources (82.1%), and benefited all students (53.4%). The National Clinical Skills Competition is widely accepted in China. It has effectively promoted the reform and development of undergraduate medical education in China.

  15. Must we remain blind to undergraduate medical ethics education in Africa? A cross-sectional study of Nigerian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Onochie; Nwachukwu, Daniel; Maduka-Okafor, Ferdinand C

    2017-12-08

    As the practice of medicine inevitably raises both ethical and legal issues, it had been recommended since 1999 that medical ethics and human rights be taught at every medical school. Most Nigerian medical schools still lack a formal undergraduate medical ethics curriculum. Medical education remains largely focused on traditional medical science components, leaving the medical students to develop medical ethical decision-making skills and moral attitudes passively within institutions noted for relatively strong paternalistic traditions. In conducting a needs assessment for developing a curriculum germane to the Nigerian society, and by extension most of Sub-Saharan Africa, this study determined the views of Nigerian medical students on medical ethics education, ethical issues related to the doctor-patient relationship and the ethical/professional dilemmas they are confronted with. Using self-administered 63-item structured questionnaires, a cross-sectional survey of the final year medical students of the University of Nigeria was conducted in July 2015.Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS Version 17), frequency counts and percentages were generated. The sample included 100 males (71.4%) and 40 females (28.6%), with the respective mean (SD) age being 24.6(5.61) and 21.8 (6.38) years. Only 35.7% were satisfied with their medical ethics knowledge, and 97.9% indicated that medical ethics should be taught formally. Only 8.6% had never witnessed a medical teacher act unethically. The dilemmas of poor communication between physicians and patients, and the provision of sub-standard care were reported highest for being encountered 'often'. A majority (60.7%) indicated that "a doctor should do his best always, irrespective of the patient's wishes". No significant difference in responses across gender was noted. There is a strong desire by the contemporary Nigerian medical student for medical ethics education. Their lack of exposure in medical

  16. Critical Thoughts About the Core Entrustable Professional Activities in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupat, Edward

    2018-03-01

    The Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency (Core EPAs) have taken a strong hold on undergraduate medical education (UME). This Perspective questions their value added and considers the utility of the Core EPAs along two separate dimensions: (1) the ways they change the content and focus of the goals of UME; and (2) the extent to which entrustable professional activity (EPA)-based assessment conforms to basic principles of measurement theory as practiced in the social sciences. Concerning content and focus, the author asks whether the 13 Core EPAs frame UME too narrowly, putting competencies into the background and overlooking certain aspirational, but important and measurable, objectives of UME. The author also discusses the unevenness of EPAs in terms of their breadth and their developmental status as core activities. Regarding measurement and assessment, the author raises concerns that the EPA metric introduces layers of inference that may cause distortions and hinder accuracy and rater agreement. In addition, the use of weak anchors and multidimensional scales is also of concern. The author concludes with a proposal for reframing the Core EPAs and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies into broadly defined sets of behaviors, referred to as "Tasks of Medicine," and calls for the development of a systematic and longitudinal research agenda. The author asserts that "slowing down when you should" applies to medical education as well as patient care, and calls for a reevaluation of the Core EPAs before further commitment to them.

  17. Integrating evidence based medicine into undergraduate medical education: combining online instruction with clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, Stephen C; Evans, Barry; Fleece, David; Lyons, Paul; Kaplan, Lawrence; Rojas, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    Incorporation of evidence based medicine into the undergraduate curriculum varies from school to school. The purpose of this study was to determine if an online course in evidence based medicine run concurrently with the clinical clerkships in the 3rd year of undergraduate medical education provided effective instruction in evidence based medicine (EBM). During the first 18 weeks of the 3rd year, students completed 6 online, didactic modules. Over the next 24 weeks, students developed questions independently from patients seen during clerkships and then retrieved and appraised relevant evidence. Online, faculty mentors reviewed student assignments submitted throughout the course to monitor progress. Mastery of the skills of EBM was assessed prior to and at the conclusion of the course using the Fresno test of competency. Paired data were available from 139 students. Postcourse test scores (M= 77.7; 95% CI = 59-96.4) were significantly higher than precourse scores (M= 66.6; 95% CI = 46.5-86.7), ponline, faculty mentored instruction. This method of instruction provided uniform instruction across geographic sites and medical specialties and permitted efficient use of faculty time.

  18. Medical Undergraduate Survey on Headache Education in Singapore: Knowledge, Perceptions, and Assessment of Unmet Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jonathan Jia Yuan; Chan, Yee Cheun

    2017-06-01

    There have been no prior studies assessing the status of undergraduate headache training and education in Singapore. Unmet needs of undergraduate medical students in terms of knowledge-practice gaps pertaining to diagnosis and management of headache disorders are unknown. The possible underemphasis of this aspect of the curriculum as compared to other chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus has also not been ascertained. The aim of this article is to assess the knowledge base and perceptions, thereby identifying the unmet needs of headache disorder education in undergraduate medical students. Students reported their perceived time that was devoted to the subject matter and this was recorded and reported. In order to provide a comparative indication on the level of prioritization, the total duration within the syllabus dedicated to headache education vs other chronic diseases (using diabetes mellitus as a surrogate) was sought. A comprehensive survey consisting of questions assessing the headache curriculum, knowledge, and perceptions was developed. The questionnaire was distributed to final year medical students attending a full-day Neurology review course in their last semester. Attendees were given the duration of the course to complete the questionnaire, and forms were collected at the end of the day. About 127 final year medical students completed our survey. More than half (55.1%) did not receive formal teaching on how to take a complete headache history. The majority (90.6%) have not attended a headache sub-specialty clinic. The mean total number of hours exposed to headache disorders was 5.69h (SD ± 5.19). The vast majority (96.1%) were unfamiliar with locally published clinical practice guidelines, and a significant proportion (74.0%) were unfamiliar with the third edition (beta) of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Nearly half (47.2%) were unfamiliar with 'medication overuse headache' as a disease entity. Only one (0

  19. The future of practical skills in undergraduate medical education – an explorative Delphi-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannenberg, Katja Anne

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: 64% of young medical professionals in Germany do not feel adequately prepared for the practical requirements of the medical profession. The goal of “outcome-orientated training” is to structure medical curricula based on the skills needed when entering the workforce after completing undergraduate medical education, and thus to bridge the gap between the skills graduates have attained and those necessary for a career in the medical profession. Outcome frameworks (OFs are used for this purpose. In preparation for developing the National Competence-Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Medicine (NKLM – the German OF – the “Consensus Statement of Practical Skills in Undergraduate Medical Education” (which structures the teaching and acquisition of practical skills in Germany and which strongly influenced the “Clinical-Practical Skills” chapter of the NKLM was published in 2011.It is not uncommon for at least a decade to elapse between the definition and implementation of an OF and the students’ graduation, which can further increase the gap between necessary and acquired skills. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to posit theses for future development in healthcare and to apply these theses to a current OF. Methodology: Partially structured interviews with experts were used to generate theses pertaining to general, future development in healthcare. These theses were assessed by physician experts based on the likelihood of implementation by the year 2025. The 288 learning goals of the consensus statement were assessed for their relevance for medical education in the interim. Results: 11 theses were generated for the development of medicine, and these theses were assessed and discussed by 738 experts. These theses include the increase in diseases associated with old age, the increasing significance of interprofessional cooperation, and the growing prevalence of telemedicine applications. Of the 288 learning goals of

  20. Perspective of Spanish medical students regarding undergraduate education in infectious diseases, bacterial resistance and antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fabra, David; Dyar, Oliver J; Del Pozo, José Luis; Amiguet, Juan Antonio; Colmenero, Juan de Dios; Fariñas, María Del Carmen; López-Medrano, Francisco; Portilla, Joaquín; Praena, Julia; Torre-Cisneros, Julián; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Pulcini, Céline; Paño-Pardo, José Ramón

    2018-02-08

    One of the main tools to optimize antibiotics use is education of prescribers. The aim of this article is to study undergraduate education in the field of infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic stewardship from the perspective of Spanish medical students. An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed among sixth grade students using different channels in Europe, within the ESGAP Student-Prepare survey. The questionnaire included 45 questions about knowledge, attitudes and perceptions about diagnosis, bacterial resistance, use of antibiotics and undergraduate training in infectious diseases. We present here the Spanish results. A total of 441 surveys were received from 21 medical schools. A total of 374 responses (84.8%) were obtained from the 8 most represented faculties, with a response rate of 28.9%. Most students felt adequately prepared to identify clinical signs of infection (418; 94.8%) and to accurately interpret laboratory tests (382; 86.6%). A total of 178 (40.4%) acknowledged being able to choose an antibiotic with confidence without consulting books or guidelines. Only 107 (24.3%) students considered that they had received sufficient training in judicious use of antibiotics. Regarding learning methods, the discussion of clinical cases, infectious diseases units rotatories and small group workshops were considered the most useful, being evaluated favorably in 76.9%, 76% and 68.8% of the cases. Medical students feel more confident in the diagnosis of infectious diseases than in antibiotic treatment. They also feel the need to receive more training in antibiotics and judicious antibiotic use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project: the Federal Government perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazell, Carol; Davis, Howard; Glass, Jerilyn; Rodak, John; Bastacky, Stanford M

    2004-01-01

    The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project was implemented by the Division of Medicine, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to encourage medical schools to collaborate with managed care organizations and others. The purpose of the collaboration was to ensure that medical students are prepared to provide quality patient care and manage that care in an integrated health care system in which the cost of care and use of empirically justified care are important elements. The UME-21 project represents a continuation of HRSA's interest in the managed care arena. The UME-21 project involved the collaboration of eight partner schools and 10 associate partner schools, together with 50 external partners, to develop innovative curricula that integrated UME-21 content from nine special areas as learning objectives. This project demonstrated that concerted efforts by the leadership in medical education can bring about innovative change in medical school curricula. It ís also demonstrated that faculty of the three primary care disciplines of family medicine, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics were able to cooperate to accomplish such change by working together to allocate clerkship time and content. An important lesson learned in this project was that significant innovations in medical school curricula could be accomplished with a broadbased commitment and involvement of both faculties across the three primary care disciplines and top administrative officials of the medical school. It is uncertain, however, if the innovations achieved will produce further changes or if those changes achieved can be sustained without continued funding.

  2. Physical examination in undergraduate medical education in the field of general practice - a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Graf, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie; Hertkorn, Rebekka

    2017-11-25

    Physical examination (PE) is an essential clinical skill and a central part of a physician's daily activity. Teaching of PE has been integrated into medical school by many clinical disciplines with respective specific examination procedures. For instance, PE teaching in general practice may include a full-body examination approach. Studies show that PE-skills of medical students often need enhancement. The aim of this article was to scope the literature regarding the teaching and research of PE within general practice during undergraduate medical education. We evaluated a wide breadth of literature relating to the content, study design, country of research institution and year of publication. Literature search in Medline along the PRISMA-P protocol was performed by search syntax ("physical examination" AND "medical education" AND "undergraduate" AND general practice) considering Medline MeSH (Medical Subject Heading)-Terms and Medline search term tree structure. Independent title, abstract and full-text screening with defined inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed. Full texts were analyzed by publication year, country of origin, study design and content (by categorizing articles along their main topic according to qualitative content analysis of Mayring). One-hundred seven articles were included. The annual number of publications ranged from 4 to 14 and had a slightly rising trend since 2000. Nearly half of the publications originated from the United States (n = 54), 33 from Canada and the United Kingdom. Overall, intervention studies represented the largest group (n = 60, including uncontrolled and controlled studies, randomized and non-randomized), followed by cross-sectional studies (n = 29). The 117 studies could be assigned to five categories "teaching methods (n = 53)", "teaching quality (n = 33)", "performance evaluation and examination formats (n=19)", "students' views (n = 8)" and "patients' and standardized patients' views

  3. Aspects of development of leader creative thinking of medical student at the undergraduate level of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydorchuk, Аniuta S; Moskaliuk, Vasyl D; Randiuk, Yuriy O; Sorokhan, Vasyl D; Golyar, Oksana I; Sydorchuk, Leonid І; Humenna, Anna V

    Current issue deals with analysis of possible ways to develop leadership in medical students. Taking into consideration the reforming in National Ukrainian educative system and contemporary tendencies of world integration, the development of skillful personality is the prioritize task. The aim of study is to emphasize on the best-used ways for a development of leader creative thinking at the first basic level of medical education. methodology used here is descriptive analytical investigation based upon the own experience have been since 2005-2015 with undergraduate foreign medical students who studied disciplines « Infectious diseases » and «Epidemiology of Infectious diseases»,«Tropical Medicine and Clinical Parasitology» at the Higher state educational establishment of Ukraine « Bukovinian State Medical University » (Chernivtsi, Ukraine). the authors state that creative thinking of a leader is necessary and important part of innovative pedagogy nowadays. From the positive side of it, formation of new generation of medical students learned by competence-based approach with readiness to carry out multitasks. Coupled with, « thinking out of the box » development in individual person helps to discover maximum features of personality. From the negative side of it, there are difficulties to keep activity within certain limits. Most pre-graduate medical students actively express their best creativity in extra-class time within university events like Round Tables dedicated to International days of hepatitis B&C, malaria, HIV etc. to share with others of prevention recommendations. There are many methods to develop creativity and flexibility of cognitive processes, such as brainstorming session, case study, micro-reality, SCAMPER and lateral thinking method etc. Thus, leadership skills and creative thinking both had targeted for excellent qualitative medical education.

  4. The educational environment of the undergraduate medical curriculum at Kuwait University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim J

    2015-04-01

    : Based on the learners’ perspectives, the educational environment of FOMKU, was suboptimal. Medical educators in Kuwait should improve this environment in order to advance the quality of the delivered curriculum. Keywords: medical education, undergraduate, medical students, environment, learning, teaching

  5. Evaluation of stereoscopic medical video content on an autostereoscopic display for undergraduate medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgner, Justus F. R.; Kawai, Takashi; Shibata, Takashi; Yamazoe, Takashi; Westhofen, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Introduction: An increasing number of surgical procedures are performed in a microsurgical and minimally-invasive fashion. However, the performance of surgery, its possibilities and limitations become difficult to teach. Stereoscopic video has evolved from a complex production process and expensive hardware towards rapid editing of video streams with standard and HDTV resolution which can be displayed on portable equipment. This study evaluates the usefulness of stereoscopic video in teaching undergraduate medical students. Material and methods: From an earlier study we chose two clips each of three different microsurgical operations (tympanoplasty type III of the ear, endonasal operation of the paranasal sinuses and laser chordectomy for carcinoma of the larynx). This material was added by 23 clips of a cochlear implantation, which was specifically edited for a portable computer with an autostereoscopic display (PC-RD1-3D, SHARP Corp., Japan). The recording and synchronization of left and right image was performed at the University Hospital Aachen. The footage was edited stereoscopically at the Waseda University by means of our original software for non-linear editing of stereoscopic 3-D movies. Then the material was converted into the streaming 3-D video format. The purpose of the conversion was to present the video clips by a file type that does not depend on a television signal such as PAL or NTSC. 25 4th year medical students who participated in the general ENT course at Aachen University Hospital were asked to estimate depth clues within the six video clips plus cochlear implantation clips. Another 25 4th year students who were shown the material monoscopically on a conventional laptop served as control. Results: All participants noted that the additional depth information helped with understanding the relation of anatomical structures, even though none had hands-on experience with Ear, Nose and Throat operations before or during the course. The monoscopic

  6. Readiness for Residency: A Survey to Evaluate Undergraduate Medical Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Linda N; Rusticus, Shayna A; Wilson, Derek A; Eva, Kevin W; Lovato, Chris Y

    2015-11-01

    Health professions programs continue to search for meaningful and efficient ways to evaluate the quality of education they provide and support ongoing program improvement. Despite flaws inherent in self-assessment, recent research suggests that aggregated self-assessments reliably rank aspects of competence attained during preclerkship MD training. Given the novelty of those observations, the purpose of this study was to test their generalizability by evaluating an MD program as a whole. The Readiness for Residency Survey (RfR) was developed and aligned with the published Readiness for Clerkship Survey (RfC), but focused on the competencies expected to be achieved at graduation. The RfC and RfR were administered electronically four months after the start of clerkship and six months after the start of residency, respectively. Generalizability and decision studies examined the extent to which specific competencies were achieved relative to one another. The reliability of scores assigned by a single resident was G = 0.32. However, a reliability of G = 0.80 could be obtained by averaging over as few as nine residents. Whereas highly rated competencies in the RfC resided within the CanMEDS domains of professional, communicator, and collaborator, five additional medical expert competencies emerged as strengths when the program was evaluated after completion by residents. Aggregated resident self-assessments obtained using the RfR reliably differentiate aspects of competence attained over four years of undergraduate training. The RfR and RfC together can be used as evaluation tools to identify areas of strength and weakness in an undergraduate medical education program.

  7. Basic practical skills teaching and learning in undergraduate medical education – a review on methodological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Daniela; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Practical skills are an essential part of physicians’ daily routine. Nevertheless, medical graduates’ performance of basic skills is often below the expected level. This review aims to identify and summarize teaching approaches of basic practical skills in undergraduate medical education which provide evidence with respect to effective students’ learning of these skills. Methods: Basic practical skills were defined as basic physical examination skills, routine skills which get better with practice, and skills which are also performed by nurses. We searched PubMed with different terms describing these basic practical skills. In total, 3467 identified publications were screened and 205 articles were eventually reviewed for eligibility. Results: 43 studies that included at least one basic practical skill, a comparison of two groups of undergraduate medical students and effects on students’ performance were analyzed. Seven basic practical skills and 15 different teaching methods could be identified. The most consistent results with respect to effective teaching and acquisition of basic practical skills were found for structured skills training, feedback, and self-directed learning. Simulation was effective with specific teaching methods and in several studies no differences in teaching effects were detected between expert or peer instructors. Multimedia instruction, when used in the right setting, also showed beneficial effects for basic practical skills learning. Conclusion: A combination of voluntary or obligatory self-study with multimedia applications like video clips in combination with a structured program including the possibility for individual exercise with personal feedback by peers or teachers might provide a good learning opportunity for basic practical skills. PMID:27579364

  8. Reducing the stigma of mental illness in undergraduate medical education: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The stigma of mental illness among medical students is a prevalent concern that has far reaching negative consequences. Attempts to combat this stigma through educational initiatives have had mixed results. This study examined the impact of a one-time contact-based educational intervention on the stigma of mental illness among medical students and compared this with a multimodal undergraduate psychiatry course at the University of Calgary, Canada that integrates contact-based educational strategies. Attitudes towards mental illness were compared with those towards type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Method A cluster-randomized trial design was used to evaluate the impact of contact-based educational interventions delivered at two points in time. The impact was assessed by collecting data at 4 time points using the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) to assess changes in stigma. Results Baseline surveys were completed by 62% (n=111) of students before the start of the course and post-intervention ratings were available from 90 of these. Stigma scores for both groups were significantly reduced upon course completion (p mental illness and interest in a psychiatric career was increased at the end of the course. Stigma towards mental illness remained greater than for T2DM at all time points. Conclusions Psychiatric education can decrease the stigma of mental illness and increase student confidence. However, one-time, contact-based educational interventions require further evaluation in this context. The key components are postulated to be contact, knowledge and attention to process, where attending to the student’s internal experience of working with people with mental illness is an integral factor in modulating perceptions of mental illness and a psychiatric career. PMID:24156397

  9. Reducing the stigma of mental illness in undergraduate medical education: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papish, Andriyka; Kassam, Aliya; Modgill, Geeta; Vaz, Gina; Zanussi, Lauren; Patten, Scott

    2013-10-24

    The stigma of mental illness among medical students is a prevalent concern that has far reaching negative consequences. Attempts to combat this stigma through educational initiatives have had mixed results. This study examined the impact of a one-time contact-based educational intervention on the stigma of mental illness among medical students and compared this with a multimodal undergraduate psychiatry course at the University of Calgary, Canada that integrates contact-based educational strategies. Attitudes towards mental illness were compared with those towards type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cluster-randomized trial design was used to evaluate the impact of contact-based educational interventions delivered at two points in time. The impact was assessed by collecting data at 4 time points using the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) to assess changes in stigma. Baseline surveys were completed by 62% (n=111) of students before the start of the course and post-intervention ratings were available from 90 of these. Stigma scores for both groups were significantly reduced upon course completion (p mental illness and interest in a psychiatric career was increased at the end of the course. Stigma towards mental illness remained greater than for T2DM at all time points. Psychiatric education can decrease the stigma of mental illness and increase student confidence. However, one-time, contact-based educational interventions require further evaluation in this context. The key components are postulated to be contact, knowledge and attention to process, where attending to the student's internal experience of working with people with mental illness is an integral factor in modulating perceptions of mental illness and a psychiatric career.

  10. Development of a nationwide consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan: a modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Tamba, Kaichiro; Takamiya, Yusuke; Morita, Tatsuya; Bito, Seiji; Otaki, Junji

    2012-07-01

    There is currently no consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan, although the Cancer Control Act proposed in 2007 covers the dissemination of palliative care. To develop a nationwide consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan using a modified Delphi method. We adopted the following three-step method: (1) a workshop to produce the draft syllabus; (2) a survey-based provisional syllabus; (3) Delphi rounds and a panel meeting (modified Delphi method) to produce the working syllabus. Educators in charge of palliative medicine from 63% of the medical schools in Japan collaborated to develop a survey-based provisional syllabus before the Delphi rounds. A panel of 32 people was then formed for the modified Delphi rounds comprising 28 educators and experts in palliative medicine, one cancer survivor, one bereaved family member, and two medical students. The final consensus syllabus consists of 115 learning objectives across seven sections as follows: basic principles; disease process and comprehensive assessment; symptom management; psychosocial care; cultural, religious, and spiritual issues; ethical issues; and legal frameworks. Learning objectives were categorized as essential or desirable (essential: 66; desirable: 49). A consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education was developed using a clear and innovative methodology. The final consensus syllabus will be made available for further dissemination of palliative care education throughout the country.

  11. How students experience and navigate transitions in undergraduate medical education: an application of Bourdieu's theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Dorene F; Richards, Boyd F; Varpio, Lara

    2015-10-01

    Using Bourdieu's theoretical model as a lens for analysis, we sought to understand how students experience the undergraduate medical education (UME) milieu, focusing on how they navigate transitions from the preclinical phase, to the major clinical year (MCY), and to the preparation for residency phase. Twenty-two medical students participated in this longitudinal case study. Students had similar preclinical and post-MCY experiences but different MCY experiences (rotational vs. longitudinal tracks). We interviewed students every 6 months in the preclinical phase, mid-way through MCY, and 7-8 months before graduation (101 total interviews). We inductively created codes, iteratively revised codes to best-fit the data, and thematically clustered codes into Bourdieu-informed categories: field (social structures), capital (resources) and habitus (dispositions). We found that students acclimated to shifts in the UME field as they moved through medical school: from medical school itself to the health system and back. To successfully navigate transitions, students learned to secure capital as medical knowledge and social connections in the preclinical and preparation for residency phases, and as reputable patient care and being noticed in the clinical phase. To obtain capital, and be well-positioned for the next phase of training, students consistently relied on dispositions of initiative and flexibility. In summary, students experience the complex context of medical school through a series of transitions. Efforts to improve UME would be well-served by greater awareness of the social structures (field) that students encounter, the resources to which they afford value (capital), and the dispositions which aid acquisition of these resources (habitus).

  12. A review of characteristics and outcomes of Australia's undergraduate medical education rural immersion programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Belinda G; McGrail, Matthew R; Russell, Deborah; Chambers, Helen; Major, Laura

    2018-01-31

    A key strategy for increasing the supply of rural doctors is rurally located medical education. In 2000, Australia introduced a national policy to increase rural immersion for undergraduate medical students. This study aims to describe the characteristics and outcomes of the rural immersion programs that were implemented in Australian medical schools. Information about 19 immersion programs was sourced in 2016 via the grey and published literature. A scoping review of the published peer-reviewed studies via Ovid MEDLINE and Informit (2000-2016) and direct journal searching included studies that focused on outcomes of undergraduate rural immersion in Australian medical schools from 2000 to 2016. Programs varied widely by selection criteria and program design, offering between 1- and 6-year immersion. Based on 26 studies from 10 medical schools, rural immersion was positively associated with rural practice in the first postgraduate year (internship) and early career (first 10 years post-qualifying). Having a rural background increased the effects of rural immersion. Evidence suggested that longer duration of immersion also increases the uptake of rural work, including by metropolitan-background students, though overall there was limited evidence about the influence of different program designs. Most evidence was based on relatively weak, predominantly cross-sectional research designs and single-institution studies. Many had flaws including small sample sizes, studying internship outcomes only, inadequately controlling for confounding variables, not using metropolitan-trained controls and providing limited justification as to the postgraduate stage at which rural practice outcomes were measured. Australia's immersion programs are moderately associated with an increased rural supply of early career doctors although metropolitan-trained students contribute equal numbers to overall rural workforce capacity. More research is needed about the influence of student interest

  13. Development and implementation of an herbal and natural product elective in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpa, Kelly

    2012-05-22

    Medical students have consistently expressed interest in learning about alternative healing modalities, especially herbal and natural products. To fill this void in medical education at our institution, a novel elective was developed and implemented for fourth year medical students. This herbal/natural product course uses guest lecturers, classroom presentations, and active learning mechanisms that include experiential rotations, case-based learning, and team-based learning to increase student knowledge of herbal/natural product safety and efficacy. Knowledge outcomes were evaluated via administration of a pre- and post-course test (paired student t-test). End-of-course evaluations (Likert-type questions and narrative responses) were used to assess student opinion of knowledge and skills imparted by the elective and overall course content (mean, standard deviation). Over three academic years, 23 students have enrolled in this elective. More than 60% of participants have been female and nearly half of the students (43%) have pursued residencies in primary care. Completion of the course significantly increased student knowledge of common herbal/natural product mechanisms, uses, adverse effects, and drug-interactions as determined by a pre- and post-course knowledge assessment (45%±10% versus 78%±6%; pvariety of activities to which they were exposed and the open classroom discussions that resulted. While students tended to view some alternative medical systems with skepticism, they still believed it was valuable to learn what these modalities encompass. Development and implementation of a herbal/natural product elective that engages undergraduate medical students through active learning mechanisms and critical analysis of the literature has proven effective in increasing knowledge outcomes and is deemed to be a valuable curricular addition by student participants. In the future, it will be of interest to explore mechanisms for expanding the course to reach a larger

  14. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery in undergraduate medical education: advances and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    Medical students graduate with the knowledge and skills to be undifferentiated general physicians. Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OtoHNS) is an essential component of primary healthcare, but is disproportionately under-represented in undergraduate medical education (UME). Advances and innovations in educational technology may represent an exciting and creative solution to this important problem. Failure to meet this educational need will result in substantial downstream effects in primary healthcare delivery. The objectives of this study were to 1) demonstrate current deficits in OtoHNS teaching at the UME level; 2) develop, validate, and critically appraise educational innovations that may enrich OtoHNS teaching in medical school curricula; and 3) propose a process for standardization of learning objectives for OtoHNS in UME as it relates to development and deployment of such educational tools. A white paper, prepared as a Triological Society thesis, which consolidates a prospective 10-year investigation of the problem of and potential solutions for under-representation of OtoHNS in UME. Cited datasets include multicenter surveys, cohort studies, and prospective, randomized controlled trials. A series of published and unpublished data were synthesized that addresses the following: 1) the current state of OtoHNS teaching at the UME level with respect to content, volume, structure, and methods; and 2) educational innovations including e-learning and simulation with emphasis on validity and learning effectiveness. Educational innovations specific to postgraduate (residency) training were excluded. Data support the observation that there is uniformly disproportionate under-representation of OtoHNS within UME curricula. Medical school graduates, especially those pursuing primary care specialties, report poor overall comfort levels in managing OtoHNS problems. A series of novel teaching methods were developed and validated using e-learning and simulation

  15. Undergraduate medical education for the 21st century: leadership and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Mark T; Pascoe, John M

    2004-01-01

    The health care delivery system is experiencing enormous flux. The knowledge and skills sets required of today's physicians include expertise in competency areas that have not been included in the traditional medical curricula. The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project was designed to develop innovative curricula that addressed the training necessary for medical students to gain skills required to provide high-quality, accessible, and affordable care in the modern health care environment. One of the nine UME-21 content areas, leadership and teamwork, has historically received relatively little attention in medical education. Each school participating in the UME-21 project submitted a final report that provided information for this descriptive summary of curricular innovations for teaching the concepts of leadership and teamwork to medical students. A classification lexicon for the curricular content and experiences in this content area was derived from these UME-21 project reports. Each school evaluated its curricular innovations independently using a variety of methods, largely descriptive and qualitative in nature. Eight UME-21 schools developed curricula addressing the content area of leadership and teamwork. The majority of these curricula used the clinical care teams in the clinical rotations to demonstrate the principles and importance of leadership and teamwork. Three of the schools implemented didactic sessions and workshops to explicitly address leadership and teamwork. One school used the gross anatomy dissection teams as the "laboratory" for demonstrating this content material. The evaluations of these curricular efforts showed them to be positively regarded by the medical students. Outcomes of measurable changes in competency in this area of expertise were not evaluated. There is little past experience in teaching leadership and teamwork in medical school. The UME-21 project supported the design and implementation of

  16. Live lecture versus video podcast in undergraduate medical education: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuta Junaid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information technology is finding an increasing role in the training of medical students. We compared information recall and student experience and preference after live lectures and video podcasts in undergraduate medical education. Methods We performed a crossover randomised controlled trial. 100 students were randomised to live lecture or video podcast for one clinical topic. Live lectures were given by the same instructor as the narrator of the video podcasts. The video podcasts comprised Powerpoint™ slides narrated using the same script as the lecture. They were then switched to the other group for a second clinical topic. Knowledge was assessed using multiple choice questions and qualitative information was collected using a questionnaire. Results No significant difference was found on multiple choice questioning immediately after the session. The subjects enjoyed the convenience of the video podcast and the ability to stop, review and repeat it, but found it less engaging as a teaching method. They expressed a clear preference for the live lecture format. Conclusions We suggest that video podcasts are not ready to replace traditional teaching methods, but may have an important role in reinforcing learning and aiding revision.

  17. Live lecture versus video podcast in undergraduate medical education: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Benjamin E; Fukuta, Junaid; Gordon, Fabiana

    2010-10-08

    Information technology is finding an increasing role in the training of medical students. We compared information recall and student experience and preference after live lectures and video podcasts in undergraduate medical education. We performed a crossover randomised controlled trial. 100 students were randomised to live lecture or video podcast for one clinical topic. Live lectures were given by the same instructor as the narrator of the video podcasts. The video podcasts comprised Powerpoint™ slides narrated using the same script as the lecture. They were then switched to the other group for a second clinical topic. Knowledge was assessed using multiple choice questions and qualitative information was collected using a questionnaire. No significant difference was found on multiple choice questioning immediately after the session. The subjects enjoyed the convenience of the video podcast and the ability to stop, review and repeat it, but found it less engaging as a teaching method. They expressed a clear preference for the live lecture format. We suggest that video podcasts are not ready to replace traditional teaching methods, but may have an important role in reinforcing learning and aiding revision.

  18. Sonography and hypotension: a change to critical problem solving in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Richard; Stolz, Lori A; Hernandez, Nicholas C; Gaskin, Kevin; Baker, Nicola; Sanders, Arthur Barry; Adhikari, Srikar

    2016-01-01

    successfully integrated ultrasound and critical problem-solving instruction, as part of a 1-day workshop for undergraduate medical education.

  19. Analysis of psychometric properties of the modified SETQ tool in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ansari, Ahmed; Strachan, Kathryn; Hashim, Sumaya; Otoom, Sameer

    2017-03-16

    Effective clinical teaching is crucially important for the future of patient care. Robust clinical training therefore is essential to produce physicians capable of delivering high quality health care. Tools used to evaluate medical faculty teaching qualities should be reliable and valid. This study investigates the psychometric properties of modification of the System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) instrument in the clinical years of undergraduate medical education. This cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in four teaching hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Two-hundred ninety-eight medical students were invited to evaluate 105 clinical teachers using the SETQ instrument between January 2015 and March 2015. Questionnaire feasibility was analyzed using average time required to complete the form and the number of raters required to produce reliable results. Instrument reliability (stability) was assessed by calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total scale and for each sub-scale (factor). To provide evidence of construct validity, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify which items on the survey belonged together, which were then grouped as factors. One-hundred twenty-five medical students completed 1161 evaluations of 105 clinical teachers. The response rates were 42% for student evaluations and 57% for clinical teacher self-evaluations. The factor analysis showed that the questionnaire was composed of six factors, explaining 76.7% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.94 or higher for the six factors in the student survey; for the clinical teacher survey, Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. In both instruments, the item-total correlation was above 0.40 for all items within their respective scales. Our modified SETQ questionnaire was found to be both reliable and valid, and was implemented successfully across various departments and specialties in different hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

  20. [The teaching of microbiology and parasitology in undergraduate medical education and its adaptation to the European Higher Education Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vicente Ausina; Otero, Beatriz Mirelis; Pastor, Guillem Prats

    2010-10-01

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area provides a series of opportunities for far-reaching reform of medical education and changes in the way both students and teachers work. The Bologna process must be implemented before 2010 in signatory countries, which include Spain, and must allow education and academic titles to be homologated. Medical degrees must consist of 360 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) credits, divided into six academic years (60 credits per academic year). The Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Barcelona has already put the finishing touches to a proposal for the distribution of subjects in the new curriculum. This proposal strengthens and reassesses the teaching of microbiology and parasitology compared with current curricula, giving these subjects appropriate weight in undergraduate medical education. The teaching of medical microbiology and parasitology is included as a core subject worth 8 ECTS in the third year and two free-choice modules of 2.5 and 3 ECTS to be taken in the first semesters of the fifth and sixth years as part of the minor in "Clinical and Experimental Laboratory"(30 ECTS). The teaching of microbiology will also play an important role in the Integrated Learning in Medicine (INTEL-M) course in the third, fourth and fifth years. INTEL-M is an innovation in the syllabus based on the joint planning, organization and evaluation of a series of subjects (24.5 ECTS) that are developed in small groups of students and in the form of problem-based learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Status of portfolios in undergraduate medical education in the LCME accredited US medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoff, Jason; Wright, Ashleigh; Novak, Maureen; Fantone, Joseph; Fleming, Amy; Ahmed, Toufeeq; Green, Marianne M; Kalet, Adina; Linsenmeyer, Machelle; Jacobs, Joshua; Dokter, Christina; Zaidi, Zareen

    2016-09-01

    We sought to investigate the number of US medical schools utilizing portfolios, the format of portfolios, information technology (IT) innovations, purpose of portfolios and their ability to engage faculty and students. A 21-question survey regarding portfolios was sent to the 141 LCME-accredited, US medical schools. The response rate was 50% (71/141); 47% of respondents (33/71) reported that their medical school used portfolios in some form. Of those, 7% reported the use of paper-based portfolios and 76% use electronic portfolios. Forty-five percent reported portfolio use for formative evaluation only; 48% for both formative and summative evaluation, and 3% for summative evaluation alone. Seventy-two percent developed a longitudinal, competency-based portfolio. The most common feature of portfolios was reflective writing (79%). Seventy-three percent allow access to the portfolio off-campus, 58% allow usage of tablets and mobile devices, and 9% involve social media within the portfolio. Eighty percent and 69% agreed that the portfolio engaged students and faculty, respectively. Ninety-seven percent reported that the portfolios used at their institution have room for improvement. While there is significant variation in the purpose and structure of portfolios in the medical schools surveyed, most schools using portfolios reported a high level of engagement with students and faculty.

  2. A behavioral science/behavioral medicine core curriculum proposal for Japanese undergraduate medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral science and behavioral medicine have not been systematically taught to Japanese undergraduate medical students. A working group under the auspices of Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine developed an outcome-oriented curriculum of behavioral science/behavioral medicine through three processes: identifying the curriculum contents, holding a joint symposium with related societies, and defining outcomes and proposing a learning module. The behavioral science/behavioral medicine cor...

  3. Mapping Antimicrobial Stewardship in Undergraduate Medical, Dental, Pharmacy, Nursing and Veterinary Education in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.

  4. The impact of specially designed digital games-based learning in undergraduate pathology and medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advances of computer technologies have created a new e-learner generation of "Homo-zappien" students that think and learn differently. Digital gaming is an effective, fun, active, and encouraging way of learning, providing immediate feedback and measurable process. Within the context of ongoing reforms in medical education, specially designed digital games, a form of active learning, are effective, complementary e-teaching/learning resources. To examine the effectiveness of the use of specially designed digital games for student satisfaction and for measurable academic improvement. One hundred fourteen students registered in first-year pathology Medicine 102 had 8 of 16 lecture sessions reviewed in specially designed content-relevant digital games. Performance scores to relevant content sessions were analyzed at midterm and final examinations. Seventy-one students who registered in second-year pathology Medicine 202 were exposed to the games only during the final examination, with the midterm examination serving as an internal matched-control group. Outcome measures included performance at midterm and final examinations. Paired 2-tailed t test statistics compared means. A satisfaction survey questionnaire of yes or no responses analyzed student engagement and their perceptions to digital game-based learning. Questions relevant to the game-play sessions had the highest success rate in both examinations among 114 first-year students. In the 71 second-year students, the examination scores at the end of the final examination were significantly higher than the scores on the midterm examination. Positive satisfaction survey noted increased student engagement, enhanced personal learning, and reduced student stress. Specially constructed digital games-based learning in undergraduate pathology courses showed improved academic performance as measured by examination test scores with increased student satisfaction and engagement.

  5. Exploring medical undergraduates' perceptions of the educational value of a novel ENT iBook: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Ali; Tomkinson, Alun

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate otolaryngology exposure is limited. It may be consolidated by the use of an iBook as a self-study tool. Following invitation to participate by email, five focus groups were formed, each consisting of six medical students (18 female, 12 male, median age 23 years). The focus group transcripts were imported to the qualitative data analysis software NVivo (QSR International, UK). The iBook was found to have a clear and consistent presentation, and a focused and user-friendly style, with reasonable interactivity and a good range of well-integrated media elements. It was, overall, perceived to be a valuable educational resource by the medical students.

  6. Successfully Sustaining Sex and Gender Issues in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Francisca; Fluit, Cornelia; Albers, Mieke; Laan, Roland; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Although several projects have addressed the importance of gender health issues in medical education, the sustainability of change efforts in medical education has rarely been addressed. Understanding the possible facilitators or barriers to sustainability may help to develop future interventions that are effective in maintaining gender health…

  7. [A Perspective on Innovation for Efficient Medical Practice in View of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education and Training in Laboratory Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Continuous advances in medical laboratory technology have driven major changes in the practice of laboratory medicine over the past two decades. The importance of the overall quality of a medical laboratory has been ever-increasing in order to improve and ensure the quality and safety of clinical practice by physicians in any type of medical facility. Laboratory physicians and professional staff should challenge themselves more than ever in various ways to cooperate and contribute with practicing physicians for the appropriate utilization of laboratory testing. This will certainly lead to a decrease in inappropriate or unnecessary laboratory testing, resulting in reducing medical costs. In addition, not only postgraduate, but also undergraduate medical education/training systems must be markedly innovated, considering recent rapid progress in electronic information and communication technologies.

  8. A BEME systematic review of UK undergraduate medical education in the general practice setting: BEME Guide No. 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sophie; Khan, Nada F; Hampshire, Mandy; Knox, Richard; Malpass, Alice; Thomas, James; Anagnostelis, Betsy; Newman, Mark; Bower, Peter; Rosenthal, Joe; Murray, Elizabeth; Iliffe, Steve; Heneghan, Carl; Band, Amanda; Georgieva, Zoya

    2015-05-06

    General practice is increasingly used as a learning environment in undergraduate medical education in the UK. The aim of this project was to identify, summarise and synthesise research about undergraduate medical education in general practice in the UK. We systematically identified studies of undergraduate medical education within a general practice setting in the UK from 1990 onwards. All papers were summarised in a descriptive report and categorised into two in-depth syntheses: a quantitative and a qualitative in-depth review. 169 papers were identified, representing research from 26 UK medical schools. The in-depth review of quantitative papers (n = 7) showed that medical students learned clinical skills as well or better in general practice settings. Students receive more teaching, and clerk and examine more patients in the general practice setting than in hospital. Patient satisfaction and enablement are similar whether a student is present or not in a consultation, however, patients experience lower relational empathy. Two main thematic groups emerged from the qualitative in-depth review (n = 10): the interpersonal interactions within the teaching consultation and the socio-cultural spaces of learning which shape these interactions. The GP has a role as a broker of the interactions between patients and students. General practice is a socio-cultural and developmental learning space for students, who need to negotiate the competing cultures between hospital and general practice. Lastly, patients are transient members of the learning community, and their role requires careful facilitation. General practice is as good, if not better, than hospital delivery of teaching of clinical skills. Our meta-ethnography has produced rich understandings of the complex relationships shaping possibilities for student and patient active participation in learning.

  9. Incorporation of web-based applications and online resources in undergraduate medical education in the Irish Republic. Can new changes be incorporated in the current medical curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatt, Karanvir Singh; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran

    2014-07-01

    Significant change has been happening in the introduction of technology in medical teaching all over the world. We aim to determine if the undergraduate medical students and teachers are open to incorporating changes in the current medical curriculum or if there is a need for the same in the Republic of Ireland. A cross-sectional study involving 202 participants of whom 152 were medical students and 50 medical professionals (teachers and hospital doctors) were carried out involving three different medical universities namely; University College Cork (UCC), University College Dublin (UCD), and National University of Ireland in Galway (NUIG). Participants were requested to answer a series of 15 questions designed incorporating various fields of technology necessary for the study. The data was collected and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software to determine statistical significance. The participants overall had a positive attitude toward the utility of modern technology and web-based applications in current medical curriculum. Ninety-one percent of the participants preferred the introduction of modern technology into medical education and 7% were against the idea and a further 2% of them remained undecided. There seems to be a "technology gap" in the current undergraduate medical curriculum in Ireland. A large-scale study involving more participants from all the medical schools in Ireland is recommended. We believe, changes can be brought into the current medical teaching and learning to make the process more fruitful and successful.

  10. Transformation and trends in preventive and social medicine education at the undergraduate level in a Brazilian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, A C; Passos, A D; Dal-Fabbro, A L; Laprega, M R

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we discuss some transformations in undergraduate training in Preventive and Social Medicine in the Department of Social Medicine of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo, from 1993 to 1999. Aspects of the relationship between medical training and the reorganization of local services of the Brazilian national health system, and between graduate teaching in Preventive and Social Medicine and medical education as a whole are discussed. The crisis in Preventive and Social Medicine and its influence of medical training are evaluated. Trends for the application of a body of knowledge of the specialty and for the relationship between the department and the medical school are discussed.

  11. SU-E-E-07: An Adaptable Approach for Education On Medical Physics at Undergraduate and Postgraduate Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller-Clemente, R; Mendez-Perez, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To contribute to the professional profile of future medical physicists, technologists and physicians, and implement an adaptable educational strategy at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Methods: The Medical Physics Block of Electives (MPBE) designed was adapted to the Program of B.S. in Physics. The conferences and practical activities were developed with participatory methods, with interdisciplinary collaboration from research institutions and hospitals engaged on projects of Research, Development and Innovation (RDI). The scientific education was implemented by means of critical analysis of scientific papers and seminars where students debated on solutions for real research problems faced by medical physicists. This approach included courses for graduates not associated to educational programs of Medical Physics (MP). Results: The implementation of the MPBE began in September 2014, with the electives of Radiation MP and Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The students of second year received an Introduction to MP. This initiative was validated by the departmental Methodological Workshop, which promoted the full implementation of the MPBE. Both postgraduated and undergraduate trainees participated in practices with our DICOM viewer system, a local prototype for photoplethysmography and a home-made interface for ROC analysis, built with MATLAB. All these tools were designed and constructed in previous RDI projects. The collaborative supervision of University’s researchers with clinical medical physicists will allow to overcome the limitations of residency in hospitals, to reduce the workload for clinical supervisors and develop appropriate educational activities. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of adaptable educational strategies, considering available resources. This provides an innovative way for prospective medical physicists, technologists and radiation oncologists. This strategy can be implemented in several regions

  12. SU-E-E-07: An Adaptable Approach for Education On Medical Physics at Undergraduate and Postgraduate Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller-Clemente, R [Centro de Biofisica Medica, Santiago De Cuba, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Universidad de Oriente, Santiago De Cuba, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Mendez-Perez, L [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago De Cuba, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the professional profile of future medical physicists, technologists and physicians, and implement an adaptable educational strategy at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Methods: The Medical Physics Block of Electives (MPBE) designed was adapted to the Program of B.S. in Physics. The conferences and practical activities were developed with participatory methods, with interdisciplinary collaboration from research institutions and hospitals engaged on projects of Research, Development and Innovation (RDI). The scientific education was implemented by means of critical analysis of scientific papers and seminars where students debated on solutions for real research problems faced by medical physicists. This approach included courses for graduates not associated to educational programs of Medical Physics (MP). Results: The implementation of the MPBE began in September 2014, with the electives of Radiation MP and Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The students of second year received an Introduction to MP. This initiative was validated by the departmental Methodological Workshop, which promoted the full implementation of the MPBE. Both postgraduated and undergraduate trainees participated in practices with our DICOM viewer system, a local prototype for photoplethysmography and a home-made interface for ROC analysis, built with MATLAB. All these tools were designed and constructed in previous RDI projects. The collaborative supervision of University’s researchers with clinical medical physicists will allow to overcome the limitations of residency in hospitals, to reduce the workload for clinical supervisors and develop appropriate educational activities. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of adaptable educational strategies, considering available resources. This provides an innovative way for prospective medical physicists, technologists and radiation oncologists. This strategy can be implemented in several regions

  13. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  14. Use of structured musculoskeletal examination routines in undergraduate medical education and postgraduate clinical practice - a UK survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kenneth F; Jandial, Sharmila; Thompson, Ben; Walker, David; Taylor, Ken; Foster, Helen E

    2016-10-21

    Structured examination routines have been developed as educational resources for musculoskeletal clinical skills teaching, including Gait-Arms-Legs-Spine (GALS), Regional Examination of the Musculoskeletal System (REMS) and paediatric GALS (pGALS). In this study, we aimed to assess the awareness and use of these examination routines in undergraduate medical teaching in UK medical schools and UK postgraduate clinical practice. Electronic questionnaires were distributed to adult and paediatric musculoskeletal teaching leads at UK medical schools and current UK doctors in training. Responses were received from 67 tutors representing teaching at 22/33 [67 %] of all UK medical schools, and 70 trainee doctors across a range of postgraduate training specialities. There was widespread adoption, at responding medical schools, of the adult examination routines within musculoskeletal teaching (GALS: 14/16 [88 %]; REMS: 12/16 [75 %]) and assessment (GALS: 13/16 [81 %]; REMS: 12/16 [75 %]). More trainees were aware of GALS (64/70 [91 %]) than REMS (14/67 [21 %]). Of the 39 trainees who used GALS in their clinical practice, 35/39 [90 %] reported that it had improved their confidence in musculoskeletal examination. Of the 17/22 responding medical schools that included paediatric musculoskeletal examination within their curricula, 15/17 [88 %] used the pGALS approach and this was included within student assessment at 4 medical schools. We demonstrate the widespread adoption of these examination routines in undergraduate education and significant uptake in postgraduate clinical practice. Further study is required to understand their impact upon clinical performance.

  15. Current pain education within undergraduate medical studies across Europe: Advancing the Provision of Pain Education and Learning (APPEAL) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Emma V; Battelli, Daniele; Gordon, David; Kopf, Andreas; Ribeiro, Sofia; Puig, Margarita M; Kress, Hans G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Unrelieved pain is a substantial public health concern necessitating improvements in medical education. The Advancing the Provision of Pain Education and Learning (APPEAL) study aimed to determine current levels and methods of undergraduate pain medicine education in Europe. Design and methods Using a cross-sectional design, publicly available curriculum information was sought from all medical schools in 15 representative European countries in 2012–2013. Descriptive analyses were performed on: the provision of pain teaching in dedicated pain modules, other modules or within the broader curriculum; whether pain teaching was compulsory or elective; the number of hours/credits spent teaching pain; pain topics; and teaching and assessment methods. Results Curriculum elements were publicly available from 242 of 249 identified schools (97%). In 55% (133/242) of schools, pain was taught only within compulsory non-pain-specific modules. The next most common approaches were for pain teaching to be provided wholly or in part via a dedicated pain module (74/242; 31%) or via a vertical or integrated approach to teaching through the broader curriculum, rather than within any specific module (17/242; 7%). The curricula of 17/242 schools (7%) showed no evidence of any pain teaching. Dedicated pain modules were most common in France (27/31 schools; 87%). Excluding France, only 22% (47/211 schools) provided a dedicated pain module and in only 9% (18/211) was this compulsory. Overall, the median number of hours spent teaching pain was 12.0 (range 4–56.0 h; IQR: 12.0) for compulsory dedicated pain modules and 9.0 (range 1.0–60.0 h; IQR: 10.5) for other compulsory (non-pain specific) modules. Pain medicine was principally taught in classrooms and assessed by conventional examinations. There was substantial international variation throughout. Conclusions Documented pain teaching in many European medical schools falls far short of what might be expected given the

  16. A behavioral science/behavioral medicine core curriculum proposal for Japanese undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral science and behavioral medicine have not been systematically taught to Japanese undergraduate medical students. A working group under the auspices of Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine developed an outcome-oriented curriculum of behavioral science/behavioral medicine through three processes: identifying the curriculum contents, holding a joint symposium with related societies, and defining outcomes and proposing a learning module. The behavioral science/behavioral medicine core curriculum consists of 11 units of lectures and four units of practical study. The working group plans to improve the current core curriculum by devising formative assessment methods so that students can learn and acquire attitude as well as the skills and knowledge necessary for student-centered clinical practice.

  17. Undergraduate medical students’ empathy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quince, Thelma; Thiemann, Pia; Benson, John; Hyde, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is important to patient care. It enhances patients’ satisfaction, comfort, self-efficacy, and trust which in turn may facilitate better diagnosis, shared decision making, and therapy adherence. Empathetic doctors experience greater job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Understanding the development of empathy of tomorrow’s health care professionals is important. However, clinical empathy is poorly defined and difficult to measure, while ways to enhance it remain unclear. This review examines empathy among undergraduate medical students, focusing upon three main questions: How is empathy measured? This section discusses the problems of assessing empathy and outlines the utility of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Student Version and Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Both have been used widely to assess medical students’ empathy. Does empathy change during undergraduate medical education? The trajectory of empathy during undergraduate medical education has been and continues to be debated. Potential reasons for contrasting results of studies are outlined. What factors may influence the development of empathy? Although the influence of sex is widely recognized, the impact of culture, psychological well-being, and aspects of undergraduate curricula are less well understood. This review identifies three interrelated issues for future research into undergraduate medical students’ empathy. First, the need for greater clarity of definition, recognizing that empathy is multidimensional. Second, the need to develop meaningful ways of measuring empathy which include its component dimensions and which are relevant to patients’ experiences. Medical education research has generally relied upon single, self-report instruments, which have utility across large populations but are limited. Finally, there is a need for greater methodological rigor in investigating the possible determinants of clinical empathy in medical education. Greater

  18. Ethics competences in the undergraduate medical education curriculum: the Spanish experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Padilla, Guillermo; Ferrández-Antón, Teresa; Lolas-Stepke, Fernando; Almeida-Cabrera, Rut; Brunet, Joan; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate if there are differences in medical ethics education between different schools of medicine in Spain, specifically between private and public schools and between recently founded schools and older ones. Method The curricula of medical degrees from all Spanish faculties were reviewed for the 2014/2015 academic year, identifying subjects concerning bioethics, deontology, and ethics. We identified the type of teaching, format and method of the course, the number of credits and hours, and the school year of each subject. An analysis with descriptive parameters and the Cohen’s coefficient (d) was performed. Results All medical schools in Spain (n = 44) were included. A mean of 3.64 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits was specifically devoted to ethical values teaching in Spain. Private medical schools offered more credits than public ones (6.51 ECTS vs 2.88 ECTS, relevant difference: d = 2.06>>0.8), and the 10 most recently founded medical schools offered more credits than the 10 oldest (5.86 ECTS vs 2.63 ECTS, relevant difference: d = 1.43 > 0.8). A mean of 36.75 hours was dedicated to ethics education. Conclusions Although ethics education is incorporated into the training of future Spanish physicians, there is still notable heterogeneity between different medical schools in the time devoted to this topic. PMID:27815940

  19. Ethics competences in the undergraduate medical education curriculum: the Spanish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Padilla, Guillermo; Ferrández-Antón, Teresa; Lolas-Stepke, Fernando; Almeida-Cabrera, Rut; Brunet, Joan; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim

    2016-10-31

    Aim .To investigate if there are differences in medical ethics education between different schools of medicine in Spain, specifically between private and public schools and between recently founded schools and older ones. The curricula of medical degrees from all Spanish faculties were reviewed for the 2014/2015 academic year, identifying subjects concerning bioethics, deontology, and ethics. We identified the type of teaching, format and method of the course, the number of credits and hours, and the school year of each subject. An analysis with descriptive parameters and the Cohen's coefficient (d) was performed. All medical schools in Spain (n=44) were included. A mean of 3.64 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits was specifically devoted to ethical values teaching in Spain. Private medical schools offered more credits than public ones (6.51 ECTS vs 2.88 ECTS, relevant difference: d=2.06>0.8), and the 10 most recently founded medical schools offered more credits than the 10 oldest (5.86 ECTS vs 2.63 ECTS, relevant difference: d=1.43>0.8). A mean of 36.75 hours was dedicated to ethics education. Although ethics education is incorporated into the training of future Spanish physicians, there is still notable heterogeneity between different medical schools in the time devoted to this topic.

  20. How to incorporate academic writing pedagogy in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, Viktoriia G; Solohor, Iryna M

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Medical researchers, who are non-native English speakers, are facing now the growing need to publish their research results in international journals switching to an English-only policy, to apply for grants and scholarship, but at the same time this puts many authors whose native language is not English at a disadvantage compared to their English-speaking counterparts. The aim: This paper aims at analysing the existing parameters of academic writing proficiency of medical undergraduate and postgraduate students; elucidating current approaches to develop academic writing competency and to promote academic multi-literacy of junior researchers, and outlining the general recommendations to improve the quality and sophistication of their writing by incorporating the principles and achievements of academic writing pedagogy into the system of medical training. Materials and methods: This study is an empirical applied research of a qualitative type mainly based on data elicited from informants (n=120) of the Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy aged from 20 - 35. Results and conclusions: All participants were able to identify personal problem areas, and virtually all they note dissatisfaction with the use of English in their scholarly writing. They stated the obvious difficulties in sentence patterns and keeping tone of scientific narrative format. Writing in genres other than original research articles seems to be quite demanding and is often associated with the lack of self-confidence and language anxiety. Attention to developing academic writing skills should focus on the basic elements of academic writing, characteristics of written genres across the disciplines, providing a framework in which expert and practical knowledge is internally organized.

  1. A Comparison of Standard-Setting Procedures for an OSCE in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, David M.; Mann, Karen V.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2000-01-01

    Compared four standard-setting procedures for an objective structure clinical examination (OSCE) in medical education. Applied Angoff, borderline, relative, and holistic procedures to the data used to establish a cutoff score for a pass/fail decision. The Angoff and borderline procedures gave similar results; however, the relative and holistic…

  2. On-line integration of computer controlled diagnostic devices and medical information systems in undergraduate medical physics education for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Josef; Nosek, Tomas; Zahora, Jiri; Bezrouk, Ales; Masin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We designed and evaluated an innovative computer-aided-learning environment based on the on-line integration of computer controlled medical diagnostic devices and a medical information system for use in the preclinical medical physics education of medical students. Our learning system simulates the actual clinical environment in a hospital or primary care unit. It uses a commercial medical information system for on-line storage and processing of clinical type data acquired during physics laboratory classes. Every student adopts two roles, the role of 'patient' and the role of 'physician'. As a 'physician' the student operates the medical devices to clinically assess 'patient' colleagues and records all results in an electronic 'patient' record. We also introduced an innovative approach to the use of supportive education materials, based on the methods of adaptive e-learning. A survey of student feedback is included and statistically evaluated. The results from the student feedback confirm the positive response of the latter to this novel implementation of medical physics and informatics in preclinical education. This approach not only significantly improves learning of medical physics and informatics skills but has the added advantage that it facilitates students' transition from preclinical to clinical subjects. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A first step toward understanding best practices in leadership training in undergraduate medical education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Allison M B; Tsipis, Nicholas E; McClellan, Taylor R; McNeil, Michael J; Xu, MengMeng; Doty, Joseph P; Taylor, Dean C

    2014-11-01

    To characterize leadership curricula in undergraduate medical education as a first step toward understanding best practices in leadership education. The authors systematically searched the PubMed, Education Resources Information Center, Academic Search Complete, and Education Full Text databases for peer-reviewed English-language articles published 1980-2014 describing curricula with interventions to teach medical students leadership skills. They characterized educational settings, curricular format, and learner and instructor types. They assessed effectiveness and quality of evidence using five-point scales adapted from Kirkpatrick's four-level training evaluation model (scale: 0-4) and a Best Evidence Medical Education guide (scale: 1-5), respectively. They classified leadership skills taught into the five Medical Leadership Competency Framework (MLCF) domains. Twenty articles describing 24 curricula met inclusion criteria. The majority of curricula (17; 71%) were longitudinal, delivered over periods of one semester to four years. The most common setting was the classroom (12; 50%). Curricula were frequently provided to both preclinical and clinical students (11; 46%); many (9; 28%) employed clinical faculty as instructors. The majority (19; 79%) addressed at least three MLCF domains; most common were working with others (21; 88%) and managing services (18; 75%). The median effectiveness score was 1.5, and the median quality of evidence score was 2. Most studies did not demonstrate changes in student behavior or quantifiable results. Aligning leadership curricula with competency models, such as the MLCF, would create opportunities to standardize evaluation of outcomes, leading to better measurement of student competency and a better understanding of best practices.

  4. Is community-based electrocardiography education feasible in the early phase of an undergraduate medical curriculum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol O. Larson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accreditation authorities expect medical schools to increase their teaching standards and civic engagement, despite limited resources. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of community-based (CB electrocardiography (ECG instruction in semesters 4and/or 5 of the undergraduate MBChB programme at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa. A literature review and 34 structured interviews were employed, using a mixed-methods QUAN (þqual research design. Regarding the preclinical phase, 18 interviewees strongly supported community-based learning (CBL and 21strongly supported task-based (TB CBL. Responses were more conservative regarding the practicability of TB CBL. Twenty-two interviewees supported preclinical phase ECG-specific CBL. There was more support for implementing CB ECG in the clinical phase than in the preclinical phase. Challenges identified included finances, transport, personnel availability, clinic space, curriculum time constraints, student and driver absenteeism, and ethical aspects. Solutions for the preclinical phase included combining electrocardiography with other CBL tasks. Many interviewees supported preclinical phase TB CBL, although several factors determine its feasibility. Availability of human and other resources and curriculum time significantly impact CB ECG learning. Solutions necessitate additional location-specific research.

  5. Use of the film The Bridge to augment the suicide curriculum in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamero, Carolina; Walsh, Leorah; Otero-Perez, Guillermo

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use and reception of the movie The Bridge as complementary to the suicide curriculum of medical students. One hundred eighty second-year medical students watched The Bridge as a part of the neuroscience curriculum in understanding suicide. They completed a pre- and post-movie survey regarding the understanding of suicide risk, reasons for suicide, prevention of suicide, and impact of suicide on surviving families. The percentage of answers in categories agree, strongly agree, disagree, and strongly disagree were calculated. The significance of results was calculated using paired t tests. Students were also asked to comment on the movie. The comments were grouped according to themes, and the percentages of comments on each theme were calculated. Students consistently reported they found watching the movie The Bridge to be valuable. Students were very receptive to the idea of using a movie to augment instruction on suicide and agreed that it reinforced concepts used in lecture. They also believed that The Bridge should be shown to people in the medical field, and more than 80 % of students had detailed comments to make about one or more people in the story or about the story in general. The Bridge represents a useful method for instructing students and residents on suicide and has utility in medical education. It can and should be used alongside lectures for assisting in education about suicide.

  6. Introducing a Fresh Cadaver Model for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Training in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryan; Ho, Hang; Ng, Vivienne; Tran, Melissa; Rappaport, Douglas; Rappaport, William J A; Dandorf, Stewart J; Dunleavy, James; Viscusi, Rebecca; Amini, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA) is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To ameliorate this lack of technical proficiency, ultrasound simulation models have been introduced into undergraduate medical education to train venous access skills. Criticisms of simulation models are the innate lack of realistic tactile qualities, as well as the lack of anatomical variances when compared to living patients. The purpose of our investigation was to design and evaluate a life-like and reproducible training model for USG-CVA using a fresh cadaver. This was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. An 18-point procedural knowledge tool and an 18-point procedural skill evaluation tool were administered during a cadaver lab at the beginning and end of the surgical clerkship. During the fresh cadaver lab, procedure naïve third-year medical students were trained on how to perform ultrasound-guided central venous access of the femoral and internal jugular vessels. Preparation of the fresh cadaver model involved placement of a thin-walled latex tubing in the anatomic location of the femoral and internal jugular vein respectively. Fifty-six third-year medical students participated in this study during their surgical clerkship. The fresh cadaver model provided high quality and lifelike ultrasound images despite numerous cannulation attempts. Technical skill scores improved from an average score of 3 to 12 (pcadaver model prevented extravasation of fluid, maintained ultrasound-imaging quality, and proved to be an effective educational model allowing third-year medical

  7. Online video in clinical skills education of oral medication administration for undergraduate student nurses: a mixed methods, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Agi; Smith, Fiona; McCrossan, Gill; Adamson, Elizabeth; Watt, Susan; Penny, Kay

    2013-06-01

    Improvements in the safety of the prescribing, dispensing and administration of medicines are identified as a priority across international healthcare systems. It is therefore essential that higher education institutions play their part in helping to meet this patient safety objective. New developments in clinical skills education which are aligned to emerging educational theory are available, but evaluations and supportive evidence are limited. To evaluate the use of an online best practice exemplar as an adjunct to the clinical skills teaching of oral medication administration to undergraduate student nurses. Mixed-methods prospective cohort design. Two intakes of undergraduate nursing students (n=168, n=154) undertaking a first year clinical skills based module at a British university. The Control group received standard teaching using lectures and skills classes facilitated by experienced clinical skills lecturers. The Intervention group received the standard teaching and unlimited access to an online video clip of medication administration. Performance and satisfaction were measured using module assessment results and a satisfaction questionnaire. Qualitative data were gathered using focus groups (n=16, n=20). The Intervention group was significantly (p=0.021) more likely to pass the assessment and rate their satisfaction with the teaching significantly higher (pTeaching and Time and when Classroom Learning was positive, the Transfer to Practice of the clinical skill was enhanced. An online video of a best practice exemplar as an adjunct to taught clinical skills sessions improves student assessment results and satisfaction ratings. The video was also reported to positively influence all themes identified in Classroom Learning and was perceived to promote the Transfer to Practice of teaching input. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Training future physicians in the era of genomic medicine: trends in undergraduate medical genetics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett-Rondeau, Jevon; Hyland, Katherine; Dasgupta, Shoumita

    2015-11-01

    Advances in genomic technologies are transforming medical practice, necessitating the expertise of genomically-literate physicians. This study examined 2013-2014 trends in genetics curricula in US and Canadian medical schools to ascertain whether and how curricula are keeping pace with this rapid evolution. Medical genetics course directors received a 60-item electronic questionnaire covering curriculum design, assessment, remediation of failing grades, and inclusion of specific topics. The response rate was 74%. Most schools teach the majority of genetics during the first 2 years, with an increase in the number of integrated curricula. Only 26% reported formal genetics teaching during years 3 and 4, and most respondents felt the amount of time spent on genetics was insufficient preparation for clinical practice. Most participants are using the Association of Professors of Human and Medical Genetics Core Curriculum(1) as a guide. Topics recently added include personalized medicine (21%) and direct-to-consumer testing (18%), whereas eugenics (17%), linkage analysis (16%), and evolutionary genetics (15%) have been recently eliminated. Remediation strategies were heterogeneous across institutions. These findings provide an important update on how genetics and genomics is taught at US and Canadian medical schools. Continuous improvement of educational initiatives will aid in producing genomically-literate physicians.

  9. How Can Medical Students Add Value? Identifying Roles, Barriers, and Strategies to Advance the Value of Undergraduate Medical Education to Patient Care and the Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Jed D; Dekhtyar, Michael; Hawkins, Richard E; Wolpaw, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    As health systems evolve, the education community is seeking to reimagine student roles that combine learning with meaningful contributions to patient care. The authors sought to identify potential stakeholders regarding the value of student work, and roles and tasks students could perform to add value to the health system, including key barriers and associated strategies to promote value-added roles in undergraduate medical education. In 2016, 32 U.S. medical schools in the American Medical Association's (AMA's) Accelerating Change in Education Consortium met for a two-day national meeting to explore value-added medical education; 121 educators, systems leaders, clinical mentors, AMA staff leadership and advisory board members, and medical students were included. A thematic qualitative analysis of workshop discussions and written responses was performed, which extracted key themes. In current clinical roles, students can enhance value by performing detailed patient histories to identify social determinants of health and care barriers, providing evidence-based medicine contributions at the point-of-care, and undertaking health system research projects. Novel value-added roles include students serving as patient navigators/health coaches, care transition facilitators, population health managers, and quality improvement team extenders. Six priority areas for advancing value-added roles are student engagement, skills, and assessments; balance of service versus learning; resources, logistics, and supervision; productivity/billing pressures; current health systems design and culture; and faculty factors. These findings provide a starting point for collaborative work to positively impact clinical care and medical education through the enhanced integration of value-added medical student roles into care delivery systems.

  10. Undergraduate medical students' empathy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quince T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thelma Quince, Pia Thiemann, John Benson, Sarah Hyde Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Empathy is important to patient care. It enhances patients’ satisfaction, comfort, self-efficacy, and trust which in turn may facilitate better diagnosis, shared decision making, and therapy adherence. Empathetic doctors experience greater job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Understanding the development of empathy of tomorrow's health care professionals is important. However, clinical empathy is poorly defined and difficult to measure, while ways to enhance it remain unclear. This review examines empathy among undergraduate medical students, focusing upon three main questions: How is empathy measured? This section discusses the problems of assessing empathy and outlines the utility of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Student Version and Davis's Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Both have been used widely to assess medical students' empathy. Does empathy change during undergraduate medical education? The trajectory of empathy during undergraduate medical education has been and continues to be debated. Potential reasons for contrasting results of studies are outlined. What factors may influence the development of empathy? Although the influence of sex is widely recognized, the impact of culture, psychological well-being, and aspects of undergraduate curricula are less well understood. This review identifies three interrelated issues for future research into undergraduate medical students' empathy. First, the need for greater clarity of definition, recognizing that empathy is multidimensional. Second, the need to develop meaningful ways of measuring empathy which include its component dimensions and which are relevant to patients' experiences. Medical education research has generally relied upon single, self-report instruments, which have

  11. Homeopathy as elective in undergraduate medical education − an opportunity for teaching professional core skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Bianca; Krémer, Brigitte; Werwick, Katrin; Herrmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The evaluation of medical students' perceptions regarding an elective study course in Homeopathy in which small groups have participated annually for six years, at the Institute for General Practice and Family Medicine at the Otto Von Guericke University, Magdeburg. The course was assessed in terms of concept, delivery, and influence on students' professional development. Methodology: Since the autumn term of 2008/09, three group discussions have been conducted with thirty of the course participants (3 total electives). These discussions were semi-structured and guided by central topics; the analysis was qualitative and guided by content. Results: The overall concept and implementation of the course were very successful. The main learning themes, that is, an emphasis on a more holistic and individual view of patients and the importance of a cooperative partnership between doctor and patient, were positively rated, regardless of the students' attitudes towards homeopathy. Their assessment was based on their previous experience and a comparison with conventional medical education. Conclusion: Homeopathy as an elective subject is not only useful for acquiring specific knowledge in integrative medicine, but also important as a means of developing physicians' core skills that are often not well considered in conventional medical education. PMID:24575158

  12. Mini clinical evaluation exercise in undergraduate dermatovenereology education: an experience of University of Pamukkale, Medical Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeniz Ergin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Mini Clinical Evaluation Exercise (Mini-CEX is being widely used in medical education and is a reliable and valid method for the assessment of residents’ competency in medical interviewing, physical examination, humanistic qualities/professionalism, clinical judgment, counseling skills, organization, and efficiency. In order to enhance formative evaluation methods in our faculty, we planned to apply the method to students on dermatovenereology training. Materials and Methods: The Mini-CEX was performed by residents to 42 medical students. At first, 5 residents were evaluated by a faculty member with Mini-CEX and were informed about their application-oriented evaluator roles. The students were informed prior to conducting the assessment. Standard Mini-CEX form was used for the assessment. The participants were rated in 7 competencies and each was rated using a 9-point Likert scale. At the end of each encounter, students and evaluators rated their satisfaction with Mini-CEX using a 9-point Likert scale. Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Student feedback was evaluated with “grounded theory”. Results: A total of 50 assessments, 44 in outpatient and 6 in inpatient clinic, were performed. Satisfaction with the Mini-CEX was rated by the evaluators and the students as 7,16 and 7,98, respectively. There was no significant difference between the evaluators in terms of student satisfaction. Average time spent on observing the encounter and in giving feedback was 16.5 and 6.5 minutes, respectively. There was no significant difference between assessors in terms of time spent observing and giving feedback. Average scores of assessed clinical competencies were between 4,28 and 8,14. The highest scores were reported on humanistic qualities/ professionalism whereas the lowest were reported on clinical judgment skills. Discussion: According to our data, we believe that Mini-CEX may be used as an

  13. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-related content in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Goldsmith, Elizabeth S; Stewart, Leslie; White, William; Tran, Eric; Brenman, Stephanie; Wells, Maggie; Fetterman, David M; Garcia, Gabriel; Lunn, Mitchell R

    2011-09-07

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals experience health and health care disparities and have specific health care needs. Medical education organizations have called for LGBT-sensitive training, but how and to what extent schools educate students to deliver comprehensive LGBT patient care is unknown. To characterize LGBT-related medical curricula and associated curricular development practices and to determine deans' assessments of their institutions' LGBT-related curricular content. Deans of medical education (or equivalent) at 176 allopathic or osteopathic medical schools in Canada and the United States were surveyed to complete a 13-question, Web-based questionnaire between May 2009 and March 2010. Reported hours of LGBT-related curricular content. Of 176 schools, 150 (85.2%) responded, and 132 (75.0%) fully completed the questionnaire. The median reported time dedicated to teaching LGBT-related content in the entire curriculum was 5 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 3-8 hours). Of the 132 respondents, 9 (6.8%; 95% CI, 2.5%-11.1%) reported 0 hours taught during preclinical years and 44 (33.3%; 95% CI, 25.3%-41.4%) reported 0 hours during clinical years. Median US allopathic clinical hours were significantly different from US osteopathic clinical hours (2 hours [IQR, 0-4 hours] vs 0 hours [IQR, 0-2 hours]; P = .008). Although 128 of the schools (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.0%-99.9%) taught students to ask patients if they "have sex with men, women, or both" when obtaining a sexual history, the reported teaching frequency of 16 LGBT-specific topic areas in the required curriculum was lower: at least 8 topics at 83 schools (62.9%; 95% CI, 54.6%-71.1%) and all topics at 11 schools (8.3%; 95% CI, 3.6%-13.0%). The institutions' LGBT content was rated as "fair" at 58 schools (43.9%; 95% CI, 35.5%-52.4%). Suggested successful strategies to increase content included curricular material focusing on LGBT-related health and health disparities at 77 schools (58

  14. An electronic portfolio for quantitative assessment of surgical skills in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Serafín; Ostos, Elisa María Cabot; Solano, Juan Manuel Maza; Salado, Tomás Francisco Herrero

    2013-05-06

    We evaluated a newly designed electronic portfolio (e-Portfolio) that provided quantitative evaluation of surgical skills. Medical students at the University of Seville used the e-Portfolio on a voluntary basis for evaluation of their performance in undergraduate surgical subjects. Our new web-based e-Portfolio was designed to evaluate surgical practical knowledge and skills targets. Students recorded each activity on a form, attached evidence, and added their reflections. Students self-assessed their practical knowledge using qualitative criteria (yes/no), and graded their skills according to complexity (basic/advanced) and participation (observer/assistant/independent). A numerical value was assigned to each activity, and the values of all activities were summated to obtain the total score. The application automatically displayed quantitative feedback. We performed qualitative evaluation of the perceived usefulness of the e-Portfolio and quantitative evaluation of the targets achieved. Thirty-seven of 112 students (33%) used the e-Portfolio, of which 87% reported that they understood the methodology of the portfolio. All students reported an improved understanding of their learning objectives resulting from the numerical visualization of progress, all students reported that the quantitative feedback encouraged their learning, and 79% of students felt that their teachers were more available because they were using the e-Portfolio. Only 51.3% of students reported that the reflective aspects of learning were useful. Individual students achieved a maximum of 65% of the total targets and 87% of the skills targets. The mean total score was 345 ± 38 points. For basic skills, 92% of students achieved the maximum score for participation as an independent operator, and all achieved the maximum scores for participation as an observer and assistant. For complex skills, 62% of students achieved the maximum score for participation as an independent operator, and 98% achieved

  15. Medical educators' perspectives of teaching physical examinations using ultrasonography at the undergraduate level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonography is increasingly used for teaching physical examination in medical schools. This study seeks the opinions of educators as to which physical examinations would be most enhanced by the addition of ultrasonography. We also asked when ultrasound-aided physical examination teaching could have deleterious effects if used outside its intended scope. Methods: All of the educators from the University of Calgary Master Teacher Program were invited to complete a 22-item paper-based survey. Survey items were generated independently by two investigators, with input from an expert panel (N = 5. Results: Of the 36 educators, 27 (75% completed the survey. Examinations identified to be potentially most useful included: measuring the size of the abdominal aorta, identifying the presence/absence of ascites, identifying the presence/absence of pleural effusions, and measuring the size of the bladder. Examinations thought to be potentially most harmful included: identifying the presence/absence of intrauterine pregnancy, measuring the size of the abdominal aorta, and identifying the presence/absence of pericardial effusion. Conclusions: Examinations that are potentially the most useful may also be potentially the most harmful. When initiating an ultrasound curriculum for physical examinations, educators should weigh the risks and benefits of examinations chosen.

  16. Ethics education in undergraduate pre-health programs. The contribution of undergraduate colleges and universities to the ethical and moral development of future doctors in the medical and dental professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erratt, Tamie D

    2011-08-01

    There are many barriers to ethics education of students attending medical and dental schools. The question is asked, "Should more attention be given to addressing students' ethics education during their undergraduate years of preparation for professional healthcare programs?" This qualitative study utilizes digitally recorded personal interviews with two undergraduate pre-healthcare students, one medical student, one recently matriculated dental student, one undergraduate pre-healthcare faculty member, three dental school faculty members, and three medical school faculty members. Interview participants discuss areas of personal knowledge and experience concerning: the admissions process and screening of potential medical/dental students for ethical traits and behaviors, influences on student ethical development, undergraduate pre-healthcare ethics training, and preferred college major for pre-healthcare students. The study concludes that undergraduate pre-healthcare programs should take the initiative to be proactive and deliberate in strengthening the positive influences on students. Strategies include: 1) humanities curricula to broaden perspectives and increase non-prejudice; 2) mentoring and modeling by older students, faculty, and community and professional volunteers; 3) ethical case study discussions in class or extracurricular activities; and 4) volunteer/service learning activities. Additionally, curriculum learning is enhanced by the use of reflection and writing, discussions, and media.

  17. Importance and process of feedback in undergraduate medical education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaqwi, Ali I

    2012-09-01

    Feedback is an essential element in the process of students' learning and development. This study aimed to explore the views of medical students regarding the importance and process of feedback in their medical education. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in our college of medicine. The questionnaire included questions to assess the students' views about the importance and the need of feedback in the learning process and whether feed-back should follow certain or all forms of assessment. In addition, the questionnaire contained questions that aimed to explore students' views about the contents and process of feedback. One hundred and eighty-six male medical students participated in this study. While the majority of students (85%) indicated that feedback was important for their learning and expressed their need for regular feedback during their study, only about 20% of them indicated receiving regular feed-back. Senior students perceived that they received feedback less frequently than their junior colleagues' (P importance and should be considered for planning and implementing an effective feedback system.

  18. Barriers to effective feedback in undergraduate medical education: Case study from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrebish, Saleh Ali

    2018-01-01

    Students' feedback is an essential source of data for evaluation and improvement of the quality of education. Nonetheless, feedback may be routinely practised for accreditation purposes, and it is considered as a ritual employed by students, which makes its effectiveness questionable. The aim of this study is to explore and analyze the students' perceptions about the importance of feedback and the barriers for effective feedback and suggest proper ways to overcome these barriers. This cross-sectional, anonymous, questionnaire-based study was conducted in the College of Medicine, Qassim University. A total of 299 medical students, composed of 185 male and 114 female, from different levels during December 2015 participated. Mean value, standard deviation, and proportion were used to quantify the quantitative and categorical study and outcome variables. 47% of students responded to the questionnaire with more participation of juniors and females. Half of the students believed that feedback is not important and agreed for the presence of barriers for effective feedback. 5 th level students exhibited higher resistance for participation in feedback, and there was a significant difference between male and female students. Promisingly, most of the participant did not believe the presence cultural barrier for feedback. Saudi medical students are willing to involve in effective feedback. Some barriers that make feedback practised as tokenistic is present. They can be overcome through proper orientation and appropriate closing the loop with response to the feedback declared to students. Further investigation is needed to explore barriers to feedback in higher education settings and help designing an approach to enhance the effectiveness of feedback on a national level.

  19. The Value of Internet Tools in Undergraduate Surgical Education: Perspective of Medical Students in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenze, S O; Okafor, C I; Ekenze, O S; Nwosu, J N; Ezepue, U F

    2017-03-01

    Advances in information technology (IT) in the past decade present opportunities and challenges in undergraduate surgical education. There may be need to evaluate the knowledge base and the use of Internet tools among medical students in settings where traditional mode of education is preeminent. This may help to establish a conceptual framework for integrating e-learning into the traditional teaching to enhance learning experience. In this study, we evaluated the medical students' knowledge and use of Internet tools, and their opinion on the application of these tools in surgical education. We undertook a cross-sectional survey of 2013 and 2014 graduating medical class of College of Medicine University of Nigeria, Enugu using structured self-administered questionnaire. The survey assessed the knowledge, utility, and application of Internet tools in surgical education using 5-point Likert scale. Overall response rate was 78% (227/291) comprising 151 (66.5%) males and 76 (33.5%) females. The median age was 24 years (range 20-33 years). Although 106 (46.7%) had formal training on information technology, 223 (98.2%) can access Internet, and 162 (71.4%) use one or more of the Internet tools, 90.6% (96/106) of those trained on ICT use Internet for education/learning compared to 88.4% (107/121) of those without ICT training (p = 0.76). Google™ search tool had the highest rating in terms of familiarity and utility for education/learning (mean rating 4.3 on a scale of 5.0), while Skype™ had the least rating (mean 2.0). Overall, 89% of respondents (mean rating 4.5 on a scale of 5.0) indicated that Internet tools could be effectively applied in surgical education specifically in areas of lectures, assignments, real-time procedure demonstration, case discussion, and interaction with surgical experts. The key benefits are utility as a regular self-assessment tool (mean rating = 4.6) and offer of flexible learning schedule (mean rating = 4.0). Fifty-two percent (118

  20. Perception, awareness and practice of research-oriented medical education among undergraduate students of a medical college in Kolkata, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhankar; Adhikari, Anjan; Haldar, Dibakar; Biswas, Payel

    2016-01-01

    The addition of research-oriented medical education (ROME) to the existing curriculum could promote logical thinking, rapid literature search and a better understanding of research methodology. Creation of research temperament could lead to innovations in healthcare. We assessed the perception, awareness and practice of ROME among undergraduate students. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 234 students of R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata selected by the simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pre-designed, pre-tested, validated questionnaire by direct interviews. The mean (SD) perception score was 44.2 (5.03). Students from outside West Bengal (p=0.05), women (p=0.03) and students whose parents were doctors (p=0.01) had significantly higher scores. Students in the second and fourth semesters had a better perception than those in the sixth and eighth semesters. Awareness of research fellowships granted to undergraduate students such as the Indian Council of Medical Research-Short-term studentship (ICMR-STS) was low among the second semester students (13.9%), but more than half (59.3%) of the students in the eighth semester were aware (difference across semesters, pAwareness about journals, conferences and 'research bodies promoting student research' was low. Students in the senior semesters spent more time on research (6th semester 72.2% and 8th semester 88.9%) than those in the junior semesters (2nd: 66.7% and 4th: 77.8%; difference across semesters, p=0.03). About 3% of students participated in extracurricular research and/or had presented work at a conference. There is a good perception about the need for research but a lack of awareness of the why and how, as well as hardly any practice of ROME among medical students of this medical college.

  1. Can the Tools of Activity Theory Help Us in Advancing Understanding and Organisational Change in Undergraduate Medical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Anne-Marie; Ledger, Alison; Kilminster, Sue; Fuller, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Continued changes to healthcare delivery in the UK, and an increasing focus on patient safety and quality improvement, require a radical rethink on how we enable graduates to begin work in challenging, complex environments. Professional regulatory bodies now require undergraduate medical schools to implement an "assistantship" period in…

  2. Electronic health record training in undergraduate medical education: bridging theory to practice with curricula for empowering patient- and relationship-centered care in the computerized setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hedy S; George, Paul; Reis, Shmuel P; Taylor, Julie Scott

    2014-03-01

    While electronic health record (EHR) use is becoming state-of-the-art, deliberate teaching of health care information technology (HCIT) competencies is not keeping pace with burgeoning use. Medical students require training to become skilled users of HCIT, but formal pedagogy within undergraduate medical education (UME) is sparse. How can medical educators best meet the needs of learners while integrating EHRs into medical education and practice? How can they help learners preserve and foster effective communication skills within the computerized setting? In general, how can UME curricula be devised for skilled use of EHRs to enhance rather than hinder provision of effective, humanistic health care?Within this Perspective, the authors build on recent publications that "set the stage" for next steps: EHR curricula innovation and implementation as concrete embodiments of theoretical underpinnings. They elaborate on previous calls for maximizing benefits and minimizing risks of EHR use with sufficient focus on physician-patient communication skills and for developing core competencies within medical education. The authors describe bridging theory into practice with systematic longitudinal curriculum development for EHR training in UME at their institution, informed by Kern and colleagues' curriculum development framework, narrative medicine, and reflective practice. They consider this innovation within a broader perspective-the overarching goal of empowering undergraduate medical students' patient- and relationship-centered skills while effectively demonstrating HCIT-related skills.

  3. Undergraduate medical education in substance use in Ireland: a review of the literature and discussion paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, S

    2011-12-01

    Medical complications of substance use are a considerable cause of morbidity and the role of the physician in the care of such problems has consistently been demonstrated. Appropriate knowledge and skills are necessary to carry out this role.

  4. Using item response theory to explore the psychometric properties of extended matching questions examination in undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton Gemma

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As assessment has been shown to direct learning, it is critical that the examinations developed to test clinical competence in medical undergraduates are valid and reliable. The use of extended matching questions (EMQ has been advocated to overcome some of the criticisms of using multiple-choice questions to test factual and applied knowledge. Methods We analysed the results from the Extended Matching Questions Examination taken by 4th year undergraduate medical students in the academic year 2001 to 2002. Rasch analysis was used to examine whether the set of questions used in the examination mapped on to a unidimensional scale, the degree of difficulty of questions within and between the various medical and surgical specialties and the pattern of responses within individual questions to assess the impact of the distractor options. Results Analysis of a subset of items and of the full examination demonstrated internal construct validity and the absence of bias on the majority of questions. Three main patterns of response selection were identified. Conclusion Modern psychometric methods based upon the work of Rasch provide a useful approach to the calibration and analysis of EMQ undergraduate medical assessments. The approach allows for a formal test of the unidimensionality of the questions and thus the validity of the summed score. Given the metric calibration which follows fit to the model, it also allows for the establishment of items banks to facilitate continuity and equity in exam standards.

  5. Symposia in undergraduate medical education: tailoring training in competencies to students' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reefman, Karin; Daelmans, Hester E M; Klumpers, Ursula M H; Croiset, Gerda

    2017-12-01

    In mastering competencies, it is a challenge to create training sessions which acknowledge individual students' needs and are logistically feasible in the medical master's program. Symposia were implemented in the medical master's program to provide knowledge and training of skills in a number of topics, providing a positive contribution to students' competencies and personal development. Each symposium contained a morning and afternoon program, structured around medical and societal themes addressing various competencies and covering current national and international events. Alternating interactive teaching methods were used. Students were asked to rate each daypart program on a 5-point Likert scale in terms of both teaching methods and content, and to comment on the best aspects of the symposium as well as areas for improvement. Scores higher than 3.5 were interpreted as a predominantly favourable outcome. In 2016, 10 symposia were organized with an average of 108 attendees and a response rate of 63% (1,366 completed questionnaires). Mean overall scores on 'teaching methods' and 'usefulness for professional development' were 3.8 and 3.7, respectively. The overall results corresponded with a high level of student appreciation. Symposia offer a podium for training students in subject matter and competencies that is greatly appreciated. Using alternating interactive teaching methods, symposia are structured around medical and societal themes and adjusted to the latest developments and current events in healthcare. By allowing students to select the symposia they would like to participate in, a tailor-made medical master's program in competencies is created.

  6. Health promotion in medical education: lessons from a major undergraduate curriculum implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Ann; Leedham-Green, Kathleen

    2017-11-01

    Despite the economic, environmental and patient-related imperatives to prepare medical students to become health promoting doctors, health promotion remains relatively deprioritised in medical curricula. This paper uses an in-depth case study of a health promotion curriculum implementation at a large UK medical school to provide insights into the experiences of teachers and learners across a range of topics, pedagogies, and teaching & assessment modalities. Topics included smoking cessation, behavioural change approaches to obesity, exercise prescribing, social prescribing, maternal and child health, public and global health; with pedagogies ranging from e-learning to practice-based project work. Qualitative methods including focus groups, analysis of reflective learning submissions, and evaluation data are used to illuminate motivations, frustrations, practicalities, successes and limiting factors. Over this three year implementation, a range of challenges have been highlighted including: how adequately to prepare and support clinical teachers; the need to establish relevance and importance to strategic learners; the need for experiential learning in clinical environments to support classroom-based activities; and the need to rebalance competing aspects of the curriculum. Conclusions are drawn about heterogeneous deep learning over standardised surface learning, and the impacts, both positive and negative, of different assessment modalities on these types of learning.

  7. Teaching surgical exposures to undergraduate medical students: an integration concept for anatomical and surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Hepp, Pierre; Löffler, Sabine; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Steinke, Hanno; Klima, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Decreasing numbers of students are interested in starting a surgical career, posing substantial challenges to patient care in the next years. The anatomy course is one of the key subjects in medical training, especially in surgical disciplines. Innovative teaching concepts that integrate surgically relevant anatomy and manual dexterity might help boost student interest in surgery. A preclinical workshop entitled "Surgical exposures" was developed. A team of anatomists and surgeons introduced the surgical exposures, demonstrating the procedures on Thiel-fixed body donors. Following this introduction, students practiced the exposures in an operating room-like manner. A six-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the workshop and to compare it to the first-year dissection course. The overall evaluation result for the surgical exposures was excellent, proving to be a significantly better result when compared to the first-year dissection course. The students were more satisfied with the teaching time invested by the peers and regarded the workshop as clinically highly relevant. Furthermore, they felt that questions were addressed better and that the overall atmosphere was better than in the gross anatomy course. Subject to criticism was the course size and practicing time in both cases. The surgical exposures workshop provides preclinical students with clinically relevant anatomy and manual dexterity. It may positively influence the decision to follow a surgical career. This course, however, requires extensive teaching resources. The given concept may help implement practical medical skills in the preclinical curriculum, strengthening the professional identity of surgeons and anatomists.

  8. Defining Quality in Undergraduate Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. Bowers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research brief explores the literature addressing quality in undergraduate education to identify what previous research has said about quality and to offer future directions for research on quality in undergraduate education. Method: We conducted a scoping review to provide a broad overview of existing research. Using targeted search terms in academic databases, we identified and reviewed relevant academic literature to develop emergent themes and implications for future research. Results: The exploratory review of the literature revealed a range of thoughtful discussions and empirical studies attempting to define quality in undergraduate education. Many publications highlighted the importance of including different stakeholder perspectives and presented some of the varying perceptions of quality among different stakeholders. Conclusions: While a number of researchers have explored and written about how to define quality in undergraduate education, there is not a general consensus regarding a definition of quality in undergraduate education. Past research offers a range of insights, models, and data to inform future research. Implication for Theory and/or Practice: We provide four recommendations for future research to contribute to a high quality undergraduate educational experience. We suggest more comprehensive systematic reviews of the literature as a next step.

  9. A study on the usefulness of high fidelity patient simulation in undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikramjit Pal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Innovative simulation training solutions are now being used to train medical professionals in an attempt to reduce the number of safety concerns that have adverse effects on the patients. Objectives: (a To determine its usefulness as a teaching or learning tool for management of surgical emergencies, both in the short term and medium term by students’ perception. (b To plan future teaching methodology regarding hi-fidelity simulation based on the study outcomes and re-assessment of the current training modules. Methods: Quasi-experimental time series design with pretest-posttest interventional study. Quantitative data was analysed in terms of Mean, Standard Deviation and standard error of Mean. Statistical tests of significance like Repeated Measure of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were used for comparisons. P value < 0.001 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The students opined that the simulated sessions on high fidelity simulators had encouraged their active participation which was appropriate to their current level of learning. It helped them to think fast and the training sessions resembled a real life situation. The study showed that learning had progressively improved with each session of simulation with corresponding decrease in stress. Conclusion: Implementation of high fidelity simulation based learning in our Institute had been perceived favourably by a large number of students in enhancing their knowledge over time in management of trauma and surgical emergencies.

  10. General Practitioner Education Reform in China: Most Undergraduate Medical Students do not Choose General Practitioner as a Career Under the 5+3 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to train more high-level general practitioners (GPs to work in primary care institutions, China launched the 5+3 model in 2015 as a way to educate GPs nationwide. In this study, we investigated the awareness of the 5+3 model, career choices after graduation, and influences on GP career choice of undergraduate medical students from Zhengzhou University. Methods: The study population consisted of 288 undergraduate medical students from Zhengzhou University. We explored the students׳ awareness of the 5+3 model, career choices after graduation, influences on general practitioner career choice and mental status by using a self-report questionnaire and the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Results: We found 34.2% of students did not understand the new policy. Only 23.2% of students would choose to work as a GP after graduation, and those tended to be female, to have a monthly family income less than 4000 ¥, or to be from rural areas. Only 10% of undergraduate medical students expressed a preference to work at primary care institutions. The participants showed higher anxiety and stress scores than did a previously published group of Chinese college students, and those who chose to pursue higher education had more anxiety and stress than those who decided to become general practitioners. Discussion: More efforts should be made to popularize the 5+3 model and mental intervention among medical students. More efforts should be tried to increase the income/welfare benefits and strengthen the infrastructure of primary care institutions to attract more medical students. Keywords: 5+3 model, General practitioner, Health care reform, Hierarchical medical system

  11. Inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career

    OpenAIRE

    Apturkar, D. K.; Dandekar, Usha K.; Dandkar, Kundankumar Narayan; Jorwekar, Golul Jayant; Baviskar, Padmakar Kashinath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is acute shortage of teachers in medical field and very few new members are joining this noble profession. The shortage of medical teachers is resulting in decrease of teaching quality, decrease in number of medical seats and the country is losing its education standard worldwide.Aims: To find out the view and inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career.Objectives: It is an attempt to find possible reasons preventing or stimulating the undergra...

  12. Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin (NKLM für Deutschland: Zusammenarbeit der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung (GMA und des Medizinischen Fakultätentages (MFT [National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM in Germany: Cooperation of the Association for Medical Education (GMA and the Association of Medical Faculties in Germany (MFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn, Eckhart G.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] The Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area (FQ-EHEA; Bologna Process and the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF-LLL; Lisbon Process are competence-driven frameworks for vocational and higher education programmes in need for defined learning objectives. In the field of medical education, The Netherlands and Switzerland have developed national catalogues for undergraduate medical training, which are competence-based and compatible with a two-cycle curriculum comprised of a Bachelor in Medicine and a Master in Medicine. In Germany, virtually all medical organizations, last not least the Association of Medical Faculties (MFT, have voted against the application of the two-cycle (and the three-cycle curriculum to medical undergraduate education. A standstill of the European processes will not be accepted in the political arena, and a proposition was made by the Conference of German Ministers of Higher Education to develop a medical qualification framework for Germany, asking the Association for Medical Education (GMA and the MFT to join forces. This is not possible without consented national learning objectives derived from the professional context of physicians. The GMA has teamed up with the MFT to develop National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM in Germany (see Figure 1 to fulfill these needs.

  13. Undergraduate medical students' perspectives of skills, uses and preferences of information technology in medical education: A cross-sectional study in a Saudi Medical College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Nehal; Aljumaiah, Rawabi; Alhumaid, Alla; Alraheem, Hiba; Alkadi, Dalal; Koppel, Cristina; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad

    2018-05-07

    Information technology (IT) is widely used in medical education. However, there are not enough studies about IT uses and preferences among traditional and problem-based learning (PBL) medical students. To compare IT skills, uses and preferences for education between traditional and PBL medical students'. A cross-sectional study; a modified Educause Center for Analysis and Research online survey was sent to traditional curriculum 5th and PBL 4th year medical students of King Saud University. Most of the responding 176 students prefer mobile devices and moderate amount of IT in education. Fourth and fifth year students perceived high academic value of Google (94.2 vs. 86.7%, p = 0.34), YouTube (90.7 vs. 92.2%, p = 0.83) and PubMed (83.7 vs. 86.7%, p = 0.06). More 4th year than 5th year students rated themselves as skilled in learning management system (54.7 vs. 21.1%, p = 0.0001) and Smartboard use (40.7 vs. 23.3%, p = 0.04). Most students rated faculty IT skills as effective. Students agreed that technology helps working faster (95.5%) and make learning creative (85.9%). More integration of information literacy and IT training in medical curricula is needed to enhance better utilization of full features of IT resources available for learning and problem solving. National multi-institutional studies are recommended.

  14. Quiz gaming competitions for undergraduate medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quiz gaming competitions for undergraduate medical students: Questioning the MediQuiz. ... an audience Studies have shown that such quiz games promote active learning, and provide motivational impetus. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Learning styles of postgraduate and undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukr, Irfan; Zainab, Roop; Rana, Mowadat H

    2013-01-01

    To compare learning styles of undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. Observational, comparative study. Department of Medical Education, Army Medical College, NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, during February and March 2012. A total of 170 students were divided into two equal groups of undergraduate students of Army Medical College, and postgraduate students of Armed Forces Post Graduate Medical Institute, Rawalpindi. Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ) was used to assess and categorize the participants into Honey and Mumford classification of learning styles. The responses of each student ranging from 'very strong,' 'strong', 'moderate', and 'low' preference towards activist, theorist, reflector and pragmatist learning styles were compiled. The two groups were compared using SPSS version 17, using Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test. A p-value of $lt; 0.05 was considered significant. Preferences for all four learning styles were present in both groups. The results reveal an overall statistically significant difference in the 'very strong' preference in learning styles between the two study groups (p=0.002). Among the undergraduate students, 45% had a very strong preference for being an activist, whereas in postgraduate students, 38% had very strong preference for reflector, and 35% for theorist. This was statistically significant for activist, and reflector, and attained a p-value of learning style was pragmatist in both undergraduate and postgraduate students. Diversity of learning styles at undergraduate and postgraduate level of medical education calls for multiplicity of instructional and assessment modalities to match them. The learning styles amongst the undergraduate medical students are different from the postgraduates. The postgraduates commonly have the reflector learning style while the undergraduates are predominantly activists and theorists.

  16. National survey of international electives for global health in undergraduate medical education in Japan, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomio; Nishigori, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Interest in global health in medical education is increasing in Western countries, whereas data from non-Western countries is scarce. Here, we conducted a nationwide study of international clinical electives at Japanese medical schools from 2011 to 2013. We constructed a 28-item cross-sectional survey in Japanese to investigate the rate and characteristics of both Japanese students going abroad and international students coming on exchange to Japan. The surveys were sent to the administrative offices of all 80 Japanese medical schools in each of the three years, through the Japan Medical Education Foundation. All 80 medical schools responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 100%). An average of 70 of the 80 medical universities provided exchange programs across the three years to allow students to travel abroad as part of the school curriculum and obtain academic credit. The schools provided support in the form of in- and outside-class preparatory programs, tuition fee exemptions and housing. The most popular destinations for Japanese students going abroad were Europe and North America, which may reflect the desire of Japanese students to acquire medical knowledge or experience through exposure to the English language. In contrast, the most common countries of origin of international exchange students coming to Japan were Asian countries such as South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan, with pediatrics being the most popular elective. Foreign exchange programs are becoming increasingly incorporated into the Japanese medical education curriculum and can help to strengthen international partnerships and collaborations.

  17. National survey of international electives for global health in undergraduate medical education in Japan, 2011–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomio; Nishigori, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interest in global health in medical education is increasing in Western countries, whereas data from non-Western countries is scarce. Here, we conducted a nationwide study of international clinical electives at Japanese medical schools from 2011 to 2013. We constructed a 28-item cross-sectional survey in Japanese to investigate the rate and characteristics of both Japanese students going abroad and international students coming on exchange to Japan. The surveys were sent to the administrative offices of all 80 Japanese medical schools in each of the three years, through the Japan Medical Education Foundation. All 80 medical schools responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 100%). An average of 70 of the 80 medical universities provided exchange programs across the three years to allow students to travel abroad as part of the school curriculum and obtain academic credit. The schools provided support in the form of in- and outside-class preparatory programs, tuition fee exemptions and housing. The most popular destinations for Japanese students going abroad were Europe and North America, which may reflect the desire of Japanese students to acquire medical knowledge or experience through exposure to the English language. In contrast, the most common countries of origin of international exchange students coming to Japan were Asian countries such as South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan, with pediatrics being the most popular elective. Foreign exchange programs are becoming increasingly incorporated into the Japanese medical education curriculum and can help to strengthen international partnerships and collaborations. PMID:29581617

  18. Team-Based Learning Module for Undergraduate Medical Education: a Module Focused on the Human Papilloma Virus to Increase Willingness to Vaccinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Rachel; Shelal, Zeena; Bernard, Carolyn; Urbauer, Diana; Toy, Eugene; Ramondetta, Lois

    2017-12-26

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination rates lag behind other vaccines, primarily because of weak provider recommendations, and are associated with nearly 30,000 new cancer diagnoses a year. Educating medical students about HPV using active, team-centered learning may increase assimilation of information and may increase vaccination rates. A team-based learning (TBL) module focused on HPV for first-year medical students about HPV will better increase knowledge and likeliness to vaccinate than traditional education methods. Baseline HPV knowledge in medical students across Texas was assessed by surveying all 4-year undergraduate medical schools. Students at one medical school then participated in a week-long TBL focused on basic and clinical concepts relating to HPV, and then were re-surveyed upon completion of the course module. At baseline assessment, first-year student at the intervention site performed at the same level as first-year medical students across the state of Texas on knowledge and satisfaction with their HPV-related medical school education. After the TBL implementation, students performed significantly better than similar-year students and equal to graduating seniors, on knowledge of HPV- and HPV-related cancers, and report significantly higher satisfaction with education measures. Students at the intervention site were significantly more likely to recommend the HPV vaccination in future practice. Short-term knowledge and willingness to recommend vaccination are improved with a targeted HPV TBL early in medical education, which may provide a basis of knowledge that could translate into improved vaccination rates.

  19. Undergraduate Chemistry Education: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keegan; Alper, Joe

    2014-01-01

    "Undergraduate Chemistry Education" is the summary of a workshop convened in May 2013 by the Chemical Science Roundtable of the National Research Council to explore the current state of undergraduate chemistry education. Research and innovation in undergraduate chemistry education has been done for many years, and one goal of this…

  20. Attitude and confidence of undergraduate medical programme educators to practice and teach evidence-based healthcare: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Taryn; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Volmink, Jimmy; Clarke, Mike

    2016-06-01

    Medical student educators play critical roles in evidence-based healthcare (EBHC) teaching and learning and as role models practicing EBHC. This study assessed their confidence to practice and teach EBHC, their attitude to EBHC and barriers to practicing and teaching EBHC. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of educators of undergraduate medical students at a South African academic institution. STATA 12 was used for quantitative data analysis. Responses to open-ended questions were coded, and further interpretation done using thematic content analysis. Forty two (19%) educators from various departments responded to the invitation sent to everyone formally involved in teaching undergraduate medical students. They had high levels of knowledge and understanding of EBHC. Many had received training in teaching and learning approaches, although EBHC training received was mainly on enabling competencies. Limitations to practicing EBHC included lack of time, clinical workload, limited access to Internet and resources, knowledge and skills. One quarter of the respondents indicated that they teach EBHC. Perceived barriers to teaching EBHC reported related to students (e.g. lack of interest), context (e.g. access to databases) and educators (e.g. competing priorities). Respondents' suggestions for support included reliable Internet access, easy point-of-care access to databases and resources, increasing awareness of EBHC, building capacity to practice and facilitate learning of EBHC and a supportive community of practice. Educators play a critical role in facilitating EBHC learning not just in the classroom, but also in practice. Without adequate support, training and development, they are ill equipped to be the role models future healthcare professionals need.

  1. Assessment of a Group Activity Based Educational Method to Teach Research Methodology to Undergraduate Medical Students of a Rural Medical College in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Uday Shankar; Solanki, Rajanikant

    2015-07-01

    Early undergraduate exposure to research helps in producing physicians who are better equipped to meet their professional needs especially the analytical skills. To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of small group method in teaching research methodology. Sixth semester medical undergraduates (III MBBS-part1) of a self-financed rural medical college. The workshop was of two full days duration consisting of daily two sessions by faculty for 30 minutes, followed by group activity of about four hours and presentation by students at the end of the day. A simple 8 steps approach was used. These steps are Identify a Problem, Refine the Problem, Determine a Solution, Frame the Question, Develop a Protocol, Take Action, Write the Report and Share your Experience. A Pre-test and post-test assessment was carried out using a questionnaire followed by anonymous feedback at the end of the workshop. The responses were evaluated by blinded evaluator. There were 95 (94.8%) valid responses out of the 99 students, who attended the workshop. The mean Pre-test and post-test scores were 4.21 and 10.37 respectively and the differences were found to be significant using Wilcoxon Sign Rank test (presearch methodology workshop can play a significant role in teaching research to undergraduate students in an interesting manner. However, the long term effect of such workshops needs to be evaluated.

  2. Innovating undergraduate pathology education through public engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundu Nagesh, Navin; Chiva Giurca, Bogdan; Lishman, Suzy

    2018-05-01

    The trends in modern undergraduate medical education focus on a patient-centred approach through problem-based learning over the traditional modular curriculum. Integrating pathology into this style of learning has resulted in the dilution of core scientific principles which may have contributed to reduced understanding and interest in the subject. We aim to innovate pathology education by utilising National Pathology Week which is organised by the Royal College of Pathologists to develop the public engagement model which empowers students to learn pathology by teaching the public. Through this model, we hope to generate a greater interest in pathology at both undergraduate and postgraduate stages of education. We obtained funding from the Royal College of Pathologists to organise National Pathology Week at Exeter Medical School and the Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital. We involved 125 undergraduate student volunteers from health-related courses. We designed a curriculum aiming to educate both students and public on current topics such as cancer screening programmes, antibiotic resistance, diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease and the role of pathologists. We hosted 15 pathologists, biomedical scientists and microbiologists to engage with students, share experiences and offer an insight into their careers. Through this project, we interacted with over 500 members of the public and 150 school students. The medical student volunteers developed a range of skills including competent use of microscopes to visualise pathology slides, effective communication with lay audiences to teach pathology and understanding of the clinical application of pathology. We believe the public engagement model of teaching undergraduate students has the potential to develop a greater interest in pathology whilst benefitting the wider community.

  3. Core Content for Undergraduate Medical Education in Spain: Recommendations of the Instructors' Group of the Spanish Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (AEDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, J M; Pujol, R M; Ferrándiz, C; Betlloch, I; Bosch, R J; Fernández, V; Martí, R M; Requena, L; Moreno, J C; Alegre, V; Vilata, J J; Vilar, N; Jaén, P; Bielsa, I; Querol, I; Azón, T; Borrego, L; Mascaró, J M; Alsina, M; Díaz, R M; Suarez, R; García-Bustinduy, M; García-Patos, V; Estrach, T

    2016-03-01

    Skin problems are among the most frequent reasons for seeking medical attention in primary care. In recent years, as a result of the process of adapting medical curricula to the requirements of the European Higher Education Area, the amount of time students spend learning the concepts of dermatology has been reduced in many universities. In order to reach a consensus on core content for undergraduate education in dermatology, we sent a survey to the 57 members of the instructors' group of the Spanish Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (AEDV), asking their opinions on what objectives should be set for a dermatology course in Spain. A total of 131 previously selected objectives were listed. We then applied the Delphi method to achieve consensus on which ones the respondents considered important or very important (score≥4 on a Likert scale). Nineteen responses (33%) were received. On the second round of the Delphi process, 68 objectives achieved average scores of at least 4. The respondents emphasized that graduates should understand the structure and functions of the skin and know about bacterial, viral, and fungal skin infections, the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and the 4 main inflammatory dermatoses. Students should also learn about common complaints, such as itching and bald patches; the management of dermatologic emergencies; purpura and erythema nodosum as signs of internal disease; and the prevention of STDs and skin cancer. During clinical clerkships students should acquire the communication skills they will need to interview patients, write up a patient's medical history, and refer the patient to a specialist. The AEDV's group of instructors have defined their recommendations on the core content that medical faculties should adopt for the undergraduate subject of dermatology in Spain. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. Medical humanities in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supe, Avinash

    2012-01-01

    The medical humanities have been introduced in medical curricula over the past 30 years in the western world. Having medical humanities in a medical school curriculum can nurture positive attitudes in the regular work of a clinician and contribute equally to personality development. Though substantial evidence in favour of a medical humanities curriculum may be lacking, the feedback is positive. It is recommended that medical humanities be introduced into the curriculum of every medical school with the purpose of improving the quality of healthcare, and the attitudes of medical graduates.

  5. Evaluation of geriatrics education at a Chinese University: a survey of attitudes and knowledge among undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sandra; Lio, Jonathan; Dong, Hongmei; Jiang, Ivy; Cooper, Brian; Sherer, Renslow

    2018-05-08

    Despite widespread reforms in medical education across China, nationally there has been no mandate or movement toward systemically incorporating geriatrics into curricula. To what degree medical students are trained and have exposure to geriatric topics remains unclear. We surveyed 190 medical students during their final year of medical school at a Chinese medical university, graduating from reformed and also traditional curricula. The survey was comprised of a subjective assessment of attitudes and reported knowledge, as well as an objective assessment of knowledge via a multiple choice test. Student attitudes were favorable toward geriatrics, with 91% supporting the addition of specialized clinical experiences to the curriculum. Students generally reported low exposure to geriatrics, with no statistically significant differences between reform and traditional curricula. There was a statistically significant difference in performance on the multiple choice test between curricula but at a degree unlikely to be practically significant. Students had very favorable attitudes toward geriatrics as a field and specialty; however scored poorly on competency exams, with the lowest performance around diagnosis and treatment of specific geriatric conditions. Our results suggest that there is a need and desire for increased geriatric-oriented learning at Chinese medical schools.

  6. Undergraduate medical research: the student perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burgoyne, Louise N

    2010-01-01

    Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a) gauge students\\' awareness of research activities, (b) compare students\\' perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c) determine students\\' motivation for research and (d) obtain students\\' personal views on doing research.

  7. Medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P

    1992-01-01

    In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people.

  8. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of integrating the World Health Organization patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan: a qualitative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Misbah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis of integrating the World Health Organization (WHO patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan. Methods A qualitative interpretive case study was conducted at Riphah International University, Islamabad, from October 2016 to June 2017. The study included 9 faculty members and 1 expert on patient safety. The interviews were audiotaped, and a thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed using NVivo software. Results Four themes were derived based on the need analysis model. The sub-themes derived from the collected data were arranged under the themes of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, in accordance with the principles of SWOT analysis. The strengths identified were the need for a formal patient safety curriculum and its early integration into the undergraduate program. The weaknesses were faculty awareness and participation in development programs. The opportunities were an ongoing effort to develop an appropriate curriculum, to improve the current culture of healthcare, and to use the WHO curricular resource guide. The threats were attitudes towards patient safety in Pakistani culture, resistance to implementation from different levels, and the role of regulatory authorities. Conclusion The theme of patient safety needs to be incorporated early into the formal medical education curriculum, with the main goals of striving to do no harm and seeing mistakes as opportunities to learn. Faculty development activities need to be organized, and faculty members should to be encouraged to participate in them. The lack of a patient safety culture was identified as the primary reason for resistance to this initiative at many levels. The WHO curriculum, amended according to local institutional culture, can be implemented appropriately with support from the corresponding regulatory bodies.

  9. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of integrating the World Health Organization patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misbah, Samreen; Mahboob, Usman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of integrating the World Health Organization (WHO) patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan. A qualitative interpretive case study was conducted at Riphah International University, Islamabad, from October 2016 to June 2017. The study included 9 faculty members and 1 expert on patient safety. The interviews were audiotaped, and a thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed using NVivo software. Four themes were derived based on the need analysis model. The sub-themes derived from the collected data were arranged under the themes of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, in accordance with the principles of SWOT analysis. The strengths identified were the need for a formal patient safety curriculum and its early integration into the undergraduate program. The weaknesses were faculty awareness and participation in development programs. The opportunities were an ongoing effort to develop an appropriate curriculum, to improve the current culture of healthcare, and to use the WHO curricular resource guide. The threats were attitudes towards patient safety in Pakistani culture, resistance to implementation from different levels, and the role of regulatory authorities. The theme of patient safety needs to be incorporated early into the formal medical education curriculum, with the main goals of striving to do no harm and seeing mistakes as opportunities to learn. Faculty development activities need to be organized, and faculty members should to be encouraged to participate in them. The lack of a patient safety culture was identified as the primary reason for resistance to this initiative at many levels. The WHO curriculum, amended according to local institutional culture, can be implemented appropriately with support from the corresponding regulatory bodies.

  10. Registrars teaching undergraduate medical students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    196 October 2016, Vol. 8, No. 2 AJHPE. Research. The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) is the overall ... benefits of teaching medical students are also seen in the knowledge acquired by ... Burch[11] emphasised the importance of assessment in the workplace, including .... stressed out (n=1). Benefits of ...

  11. Planning an objective and need based curriculum: the logistics with reference to the undergraduate medical education in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ramesh; Gopal, Niranjan; Srinivasan, A R; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2013-03-01

    The medical education is recently being transformed into several domains in order to adapt to the need and the value based academics which is required for the quality doctors who serve the community. Presently, the biochemistry curricula for the graduate students of medicine have been questioned by as many experts, because of their multiple lacunae. In this review, we would like to highlight the scenario which is related to the existing biochemistry curricula for graduate medical students, which have been followed in several medical schools and universities and we also hope to share our ideas for implementing objective and pragmatic curricula. Evidence based research, wherein the articles which are related to innovative teaching-learning tools are collected and the pros and cons which are related to the different methods analyzed in biochemistry point of view. Rapid changes in the content of the curriculum may not be required, but a gradual introduction of the novel approach and the methods of teaching biochemistry can be adopted into the curriculum.

  12. Madness and the movies: an undergraduate module for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Vivek

    2009-06-01

    Films featuring psychiatrists, psychiatry and the mentally ill abound, for better or for worse. The use of cinema in postgraduate psychiatry training has been gaining increasing acceptability, but its potential for use in undergraduate psychiatry has received little attention in the literature. This paper reports on the rationale behind, and medical students' responses to a special study module for third year medical students at King's College London, which utilized movies to highlight the significance of the social, cultural and historical context in shaping representations of mental illness, psychiatry, and psychiatrists. Medical students were very receptive to the use of film as an educational tool and able to understand both the benefits and limitations. They found the module enjoyable, and subjectively rated their knowledge of psychiatric topics and the history of psychiatry as significantly improved. The results presented are course feedback from medical students (n = 8) who completed the module. Although our findings provide provisional support for the use of film as an educational tool in undergraduate psychiatry, more systematic research is needed to delineate the potential role of cinema in undergraduate psychiatric education.

  13. Bedside Teaching in Undergraduate Medical Education: Issues, Strategies, and New Models for Better Preparation of New Generation Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdus Salam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBedside teaching is a vital component of medical education. It isapplicable to any situation where teaching is imparted in thepresence of patients. In teaching in the patients’ presence, learnershave the opportunities to use all of their senses and learn thehumanistic aspect of medicine such as role modeling, which isvital but difficult to communicate in words. Unfortunately, bedsideteaching has been on the decline. To investigate the reasonsfor the decline in bedside teaching, its importance and its revival,a review of literature was carried out using PubMed and otherdata bases. The review revealed that the major concerns of bedsideteaching were time constraint, false preceptors’ concernabout patients’ comfort, short stay of patients in hospitals, learnerdistraction by technology, lack of experience and unrealistic facultyexpectation. Whatsoever the reasons, bedside teaching cannotbe replaced with anything else. There are newer approachesof effective bedside teaching, and the core focus of all such approachesis educational process. A bedside teacher must learnhow to involve patients and learners in the educational processes.Moreover, bedside teaching is the process through which learnersacquire the skills of communication by asking patients’ permission,establishing ground rules, setting time limit, introducing theteam, diagnosing learner, diagnosing patient, conducting focusedteaching, using simple language, asking patient if there is anyquestion, closing with encouraging thanks, and giving feedbackprivately. It is most important to ensure a comfortable environmentfor all participants, the learner, the patient and the bedsideteacher. Ongoing faculty development programs on educationalprocesses and realistic faculty expectations may overcome theproblems.

  14. Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas en la formación médica Social Sciences and Humanities within undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Macías Llanes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El papel de las Humanidades Médicas en la formación del profesional de la salud ha sido entendido de diversas maneras. Se propone como objetivo ofrecer una valoración del significado de las Humanidades en los procesos formativos de la profesión médica. En primer lugar, se brindará una panorámica de este desarrollo y de sus diversas interpretaciones. En segundo lugar, se reflexionará sobre el encargo de las Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas en la producción de conocimientos en Salud; en el contexto socio-político, económico y cultural actual latinoamericano. Por último, se analizará la contribución de este campo en los procesos formativos a través de la actividad del Centro de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas en Salud a lo largo de una década.The Medical Humanities have been understood in different ways. This paper deals with their importance for undergraduate medical education. Firstly, it analyzes their development and various readings. Secondly, it reflects on the role of the Social Sciences and Humanities in the production of health knowledge, within the political socioeconomic cultural Latin-American context. Finally, it considers their contribution to the educational processes, by way of the Center for the Development of Social Sciences and Humanities.

  15. Mobile Technology in E-Learning for Undergraduate Medical Education on Emergent Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Disorders: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Ang; Wang, Shu-Ling; Chao, Yi-Ping; Tsai, Ming-Shao; Hsin, Li-Jen; Kang, Chung-Jan; Fu, Chia-Hsiang; Chao, Wei-Chieh; Huang, Chung-Guei; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Chuang, Cheng-Keng

    2018-03-08

    The use of mobile technology in e-learning (M-TEL) can add new levels of experience and significantly increase the attractiveness of e-learning in medical education. Whether an innovative interactive e-learning multimedia (IM) module or a conventional PowerPoint show (PPS) module using M-TEL to teach emergent otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) disorders is feasible and efficient in undergraduate medical students is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of a novel IM module with a conventional PPS module using M-TEL for emergent ORL-HNS disorders with regard to learning outcomes, satisfaction, and learning experience. This pilot study was conducted at an academic teaching hospital and included 24 undergraduate medical students who were novices in ORL-HNS. The cognitive style was determined using the Group Embedded Figures Test. The participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to one of the two groups matched by age, sex, and cognitive style: the IM group and the PPS group. During the 100-min learning period, the participants were unblinded to use the IM or PPS courseware on a 7-inch tablet. Pretests and posttests using multiple-choice questions to evaluate knowledge and multimedia situational tests to evaluate competence were administered. Participants evaluated their satisfaction and learning experience by the AttrakDiff2 questionnaire, and provided feedback about the modules. Overall, the participants had significant gains in knowledge (median of percentage change 71, 95% CI 1-100, Plearning. Although there was no significant difference in knowledge gain between the two groups (median of difference of percentage change 24, 95% CI -75 to 36; P=.55), competence gain was significantly lower in the IM group compared with the PPS group (median of difference of percentage change -41, 95% CI -67 to -20; P=.008). However, the IM group had significantly higher scores of satisfaction (difference 2, 95% CI 2-4; P=.01), pragmatic quality

  16. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, I; Bhadury, T

    2012-01-01

    Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05%) respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21%) followed by diarrhea (68 students) (25.47%), fever (42 students) (15.73%), headache (40 students) (14.98%) and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students) (8.61%). Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09%) followed by analgesics (23.21%), antipyretics (17.98%), antiulcer agents (8.99%), cough suppressant (7.87%), multivitamins (6.37%) and antihelminthics (4.49%). Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19%) felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46%) preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73%) cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62%) preferred because of urgency. Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  17. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05% respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21% followed by diarrhea (68 students (25.47%, fever (42 students (15.73%, headache (40 students (14.98% and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students (8.61%. Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09% followed by analgesics (23.21%, antipyretics (17.98%, antiulcer agents (8.99%, cough suppressant (7.87%, multivitamins (6.37% and antihelminthics (4.49%. Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19% felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46% preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73% cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62% preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  18. Mobile Technology in E-Learning for Undergraduate Medical Education on Emergent Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Disorders: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Ang; Wang, Shu-Ling; Chao, Yi-Ping; Tsai, Ming-Shao; Hsin, Li-Jen; Kang, Chung-Jan; Fu, Chia-Hsiang; Chao, Wei-Chieh; Huang, Chung-Guei; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Background The use of mobile technology in e-learning (M-TEL) can add new levels of experience and significantly increase the attractiveness of e-learning in medical education. Whether an innovative interactive e-learning multimedia (IM) module or a conventional PowerPoint show (PPS) module using M-TEL to teach emergent otorhinolaryngology–head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) disorders is feasible and efficient in undergraduate medical students is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the impact of a novel IM module with a conventional PPS module using M-TEL for emergent ORL-HNS disorders with regard to learning outcomes, satisfaction, and learning experience. Methods This pilot study was conducted at an academic teaching hospital and included 24 undergraduate medical students who were novices in ORL-HNS. The cognitive style was determined using the Group Embedded Figures Test. The participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to one of the two groups matched by age, sex, and cognitive style: the IM group and the PPS group. During the 100-min learning period, the participants were unblinded to use the IM or PPS courseware on a 7-inch tablet. Pretests and posttests using multiple-choice questions to evaluate knowledge and multimedia situational tests to evaluate competence were administered. Participants evaluated their satisfaction and learning experience by the AttrakDiff2 questionnaire, and provided feedback about the modules. Results Overall, the participants had significant gains in knowledge (median of percentage change 71, 95% CI 1-100, P<.001) and competence (median of percentage change 25, 95% CI 0-33, P=.007) after 100 min of learning. Although there was no significant difference in knowledge gain between the two groups (median of difference of percentage change 24, 95% CI −75 to 36; P=.55), competence gain was significantly lower in the IM group compared with the PPS group (median of difference of percentage change −41, 95% CI −67 to

  19. Acceptability, Feasibility and Feedback Analysis of Perception for Objective Structured Practical Examination As an Assessment Tool in Undergraduate in Competency Based Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha V. Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing tendency to use Objective Structured Practical examination (OSPE as an evaluation tool of practical performance in medical education. Aim and Objectives: The objective of the present study was to determine the acceptability and feasibility of OSPE as an assessment tool of formative examination by feedback analysis in the microbiology nd subject in 2 year MBBS undergraduate students and to discuss the pros and cons of OSPE method. Material and Methods: A well organized comprehensive ten OSPE stations were arranged to assess the practical nd skills of 2 year MBBS students in the department of microbiology. The practical performance skill of 50 second year undergraduate MBBS students were assessed by OSPE for microbiology subject by creating 10 structured stations of OSPE. The stations were written so as to cover major important practical nd microbiology topics of 2 year MBBS. The practical tasks chosen for the OSPE were mapped as per learning objectives of the course and the expected level of learning of the students. Results: A qualitative feedback from the examiners/ observers and the students was taken to assess acceptability feasibility of OSPE assessment. The examiners and the students were asked to rate OSPE by five point Likert scale Questionnaires. For the majority of students (92% and examiners/ observers (100% OSPE session was acceptable (p < 0.001. All examiners perceived OSPE method as feasible assessment tool (p < 0.001. Majority of the examiners and the students were in agreement or strongly in agreement in Likert scale rating for feedback analysis of OSPE session. There was no significant statistical difference among students and examiners/observers (Chi-squre:1.5184; DF:5; p= 0.8234. Conclusions: The OSPE is reliable and reproducible practical assessment tool and yields dependable information about the practical performance capabilities and competence of individual student and can be used as an

  20. Undergraduate medical academic performance is improved by scientific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming

    2017-09-01

    The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and molecular biology, cell biology, physiology, and even English. We classified scientific training into four levels. We found that literature reading could significantly improve students' test scores in general courses. Students who received scientific training carried out experiments more effectively and published articles performed better than their untrained counterparts in biochemistry and molecular biology examinations. The questionnaire survey demonstrated that the trained students were more confident of their course learning, and displayed more interest, motivation and capability in course learning. In summary, undergraduate academic performance is improved by scientific training. Our findings shed light on the novel strategies in the management of undergraduate education in the medical school. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):379-384, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Discovering Innovation at the Intersection of Undergraduate Medical Education, Human Factors, and Collaboration: The Development of a Nasogastric Tube Safety Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie; Bamford, Thomas; Haindl, Cornelia; Cracknell, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Significant deficiencies exist in the knowledge and skills of medical students and residents around health care quality and safety. The theory and practice of quality and safety should be embedded into undergraduate medical practice so that health care professionals are capable of developing interventions and innovations to effectively anticipate and mitigate errors. Since 2011, Leeds Medical School in the United Kingdom has used case study examples of nasogastric (NG) tube patient safety incidents within the undergraduate patient safety curriculum. In 2012, a medical undergraduate student approached a clinician with an innovative idea after undertaking an NG tubes root cause analysis case study. Simultaneously, a separate local project demonstrated low compliance (11.6%) with the United Kingdom's National Patient Safety Agency NG tubes guideline for use of the correct method to check tube position. These separate endeavors led to interdisciplinary collaboration between a medical student, health care professionals, researchers, and industry to develop the Initial Placement Nasogastric Tube Safety Pack. Human factors engineering was used to inform pack design to allow guideline recommendations to be accessible and easy to follow. A timeline of product development, mapped against key human factors and medical device design principles used throughout the process, is presented. The safety pack has since been launched in five UK National Health Service (NHS) hospitals, and the pack has been introduced into health care professional staff training for NG tubes. A mixed-methods evaluation is currently under way in five NHS organizations.

  2. Undergraduates Perspectives on Sex Education and Teenage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines undergraduates' perspective on sex education and teenage pregnancy in Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study population was 250 undergraduates of Covenant University. Frequency tables, linear regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data collected ...

  3. The role of translation in undergraduate medical English instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Micic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For most of its history of undergraduate medical English instruction at Belgrade University, translation was a major part of teaching and assessment. Educational reforms in the early 21st century resulted in a shift towards content-based instruction with the focus on reading comprehension and less translation. The paper analyses the new role of translation in the reformed Serbian curriculum. A brief history of Medical English instruction is outlined. The role of lexicon and the level of discourse within the teaching of English translation in the Serbian curriculum are explored. Some suggestions for the improvement of medical English translation in the Serbian curriculum are offered. It has been shown that translation is a valuable skill to be mastered. Translation exercises allow instructors to recognize language-related comprehension problems. Furthermore, teaching translation is important in that future medical professionals are able to recognize different medical genres and structural differences between English and Serbian.

  4. National Undergraduate Medical Core Curriculum in Turkey: Evaluation of Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl İrem Budakoğlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is very little information available on self-perceived competence levels of junior medical doctors with regard to definitions by the National Core Curriculum (NCC for Undergraduate Medical Education. Aims: This study aims to determine the perceived level of competence of residents during undergraduate medical education within the context of the NCC. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The survey was conducted between February 2010 and December 2011; the study population comprised 450 residents. Of this group, 318 (71% participated in the study. Self-assessment questionnaires on competencies were distributed and residents were asked to assess their own competence in different domains by scoring them on a scale of 1 to 10. Results: Nearly half of the residents reported insufficient experience of putting clinical skills into practice when they graduated. In the theoretical part of NCC, the lowest competency score was reported for health-care administration, while the determination of level of chlorine in water, delivering babies, and conducting forensic examinations had the lowest perceived levels of competency in the clinical skills domain. Conclusion: Residents reported low levels of perceived competency in skills they rarely performed outside the university hospital. They were much more confident in skills they performed during their medical education.

  5. Power and Resistance: Leading Change in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Kristina; Josephson, Anna; Reeves, Scott; Nordquist, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A key role for educational leaders within undergraduate medical education is to continually improve the quality of education; global quality health care is the goal. This paper reports the findings from a study employing a power model to highlight how educational leaders influence the development of undergraduate medical curricula and the…

  6. Evaluating effectiveness of small group information literacy instruction for Undergraduate Medical Education students using a pre- and post-survey study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClurg, Caitlin; Powelson, Susan; Lang, Eddy; Aghajafari, Fariba; Edworthy, Steven

    2015-06-01

    The Undergraduate Medical Education (UME) programme at the University of Calgary is a three-year programme with a strong emphasis on small group learning. The purpose of our study was to determine whether librarian led small group information literacy instruction, closely integrated with course content and faculty participation, but without a hands on component, was an effective means to convey EBM literacy skills. Five 15-minute EBM information literacy sessions were delivered by three librarians to 12 practicing physician led small groups of 15 students. Students were asked to complete an online survey before and after the sessions. Data analysis was performed through simple descriptive statistics. A total of 144 of 160 students responded to the pre-survey, and 112 students answered the post-survey. Instruction in a small group environment without a mandatory hands on component had a positive impact on student's evidence-based information literacy skills. Students were more likely to consult a librarian and had increased confidence in their abilities to search and find relevant information. Our study demonstrates that student engagement and faculty involvement are effective tools for delivering information literacy skills when working with students in a small group setting outside of a computer classroom. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  7. [Information technology in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramić, A

    1999-01-01

    The role of information technology in educational models of under-graduate and post-graduate medical education is growing in 1980's influenced by PC's break-in in medical practice and creating relevant data basis, and, particularly, in 1990's by integration of information technology on international level, development of international network, Internet, Telemedicin, etc. The development of new educational information technology is evident, proving that information in transfer of medical knowledge, medical informatics and communication systems represent the base of medical practice, medical education and research in medical sciences. In relation to the traditional approaches in concept, contents and techniques of medical education, new models of education in training of health professionals, using new information technology, offer a number of benefits, such as: decentralization and access to relevant data sources, collecting and updating of data, multidisciplinary approach in solving problems and effective decision-making, and affirmation of team work within medical and non-medical disciplines. Without regard to the dynamics of change and progressive reform orientation within health sector, the development of modern medical education is inevitable for all systems a in which information technology and available data basis, as a base of effective and scientifically based medical education of health care providers, give guarantees for efficient health care and improvement of health of population.

  8. Attitudes towards transferable skills in medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, S R; Eaton, D G

    2001-02-01

    Changes to the style of medical teaching will place a greater responsibility on individual medical students to manage their own learning, highlighting the need for students to develop good so-called 'transferable' skills at an early stage in their undergraduate career. To assess the attitudes of first year undergraduates towards transferable skills, and investigate the gender difference in these attitudes. To assess the contribution of their first year course to skills development. First year students, enrolled on a traditional-style course. A questionnaire asking the students to consider: (a) the importance of named transferable skills for medicine; (b) their own ability in these areas; and (c) the influence of their first year course. All students, irrespective of gender, regarded transferable skills as very important to medicine, rating organizational skills and self-learning skills as most important. Overall, students have a high level of confidence in their own skills. Male students rated their overall level of skills more highly than women. In particular they rated their information handling, managing self-learning and technical skills more highly. Students feel that their first year course has enhanced their skills in most areas. Our results suggest that students will feel equipped to succeed in a learning system which places the onus on them to take responsibility for their own learning. They clearly believe that they have the necessary skills for independent learning. The study highlights the need to enhance students' self-evaluation skills.

  9. Physical activity education in the undergraduate curricula of all UK medical schools: are tomorrow's doctors equipped to follow clinical guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; Chew, Stephen; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone of disease prevention and treatment. There is, however, a considerable disparity between public health policy, clinical guidelines and the delivery of physical activity promotion within the National Health Service in the UK. If this is to be addressed in the battle against non-communicable diseases, it is vital that tomorrow's doctors understand the basic science and health benefits of physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess the provision of physical activity teaching content in the curricula of all medical schools in the UK. Our results, with responses from all UK medical schools, uncovered some alarming findings, showing that there is widespread omission of basic teaching elements, such as the Chief Medical Officer recommendations and guidance on physical activity. There is an urgent need for physical activity teaching to have dedicated time at medical schools, to equip tomorrow's doctors with the basic knowledge, confidence and skills to promote physical activity and follow numerous clinical guidelines that support physical activity promotion.

  10. Incorporating transferable skills in an undergraduate medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In preparing for its most recent curriculum review, the University of the Free State (UFS) School of Medicine borrowed extensively from well-known international models of medical education. This move implied a shift from lecture-based education to more innovative teaching and learning strategies. In international terms, the ...

  11. An appraisal of students' awareness of "self-reflection" in a first-year pathology course of undergraduate medical/dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn B

    2011-09-23

    understanding were more evenly distributed across all 5 levels of reflection-awareness. Exposure to self-reflection assignments in the early years of undergraduate medical education increases student awareness and promotes the creation of personal meaning of one's reactions, values, and premises in the context of student learning environments. Early introduction with repetition to such cognitive processes as practice tools increases engagement in reflection that may facilitate proficiency in mastering this competency leading to the creation of future reflective health professionals.

  12. An appraisal of students' awareness of "self-reflection" in a first-year pathology course of undergraduate medical/dental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senger Jenna-Lynn B

    2011-09-01

    life experiences and to future events with understanding were more evenly distributed across all 5 levels of reflection-awareness. Conclusions Exposure to self-reflection assignments in the early years of undergraduate medical education increases student awareness and promotes the creation of personal meaning of one's reactions, values, and premises in the context of student learning environments. Early introduction with repetition to such cognitive processes as practice tools increases engagement in reflection that may facilitate proficiency in mastering this competency leading to the creation of future reflective health professionals.

  13. Effects of Mentoring Speed Dating as an Innovative Matching Tool in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guse, Jennifer; Schweigert, Eva; Kulms, Gerhild; Heinen, Ines; Martens, Claudia; Guse, Andreas H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Choosing the right mentor is crucial for effective mentorship. Yet, many medical students have difficulties finding a suitable mentor. Thus we developed mentoring speed dating (MSD) as a promising matching tool to connect students and faculty mentors successfully. The purpose of this study was to explore mentees’ and mentors’ experience with MSD and investigate the impact of MSD on the perceived mentorship quality and continuance of the mentoring relationship. Methods The authors completed a mixed methods study at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, between June 2011 and March 2014. They conducted four focus groups with mentees and mentors who participated in a mentoring speed dating event and analyzed transcripts using conventional content analysis with inductive categorizing. In addition, three mentoring cohorts (two matched via MSD, one matched via conventional online profiles) were surveyed on mentorship satisfaction and the 1-year continuance of their mentorship was monitored. Fifteen mentees and fifteen mentors participated in the focus groups. The authors identified several themes such as short and long term benefits of MSD and fulfillment of expectations. Benefits included finding out about the personal connection, matching expectations, providing an efficient overview of candidates. The survey was completed by 93 students (n = 29 without MSD; n = 64 with MSD). Independent t-tests and multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the impact of MSD on student’s mentorship satisfaction. Results There were significant differences in responses to the items “Commitment of mentor” (p = .019) and “Constructive feedback” (p = .038) among the students who attended MSD and the students without MSD. After one year far more mentoring relationships existed among those mentees who participated in MSD in comparison to the “no MSD group”. Conclusion MSD is a valuable matching tool with beneficial effects on the

  14. Quality assurance of medical education: a case study from Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirlo, Christian; Heusser, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In the light of ongoing changes and challenges in the European health systems which also have significant implications for undergraduate medical education, the present paper describes the accreditation of medical education programmes in Switzerland focussing on undergraduate medical education. A summary of the methodology used is provided and first experiences as well as future perspectives are discussed in the light of the aim to achieve continuous quality assurance and improvement in medical education. PMID:21818193

  15. Evaluation of the free, open source software WordPress as electronic portfolio system in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Javier; Sostmann, Kai; Breckwoldt, Jan; Peters, Harm

    2016-06-03

    Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) are used to document and support learning activities. E-portfolios with mobile capabilities allow even more flexibility. However, the development or acquisition of ePortfolio software is often costly, and at the same time, commercially available systems may not sufficiently fit the institution's needs. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate an ePortfolio system with mobile capabilities using a commercially free and open source software solution. We created an online ePortfolio environment using the blogging software WordPress based on reported capability features of such software by a qualitative weight and sum method. Technical implementation and usability were evaluated by 25 medical students during their clinical training by quantitative and qualitative means using online questionnaires and focus groups. The WordPress ePortfolio environment allowed students a broad spectrum of activities - often documented via mobile devices - like collection of multimedia evidences, posting reflections, messaging, web publishing, ePortfolio searches, collaborative learning, knowledge management in a content management system including a wiki and RSS feeds, and the use of aid tools for studying. The students' experience with WordPress revealed a few technical problems, and this report provides workarounds. The WordPress ePortfolio was rated positively by the students as a content management system (67 % of the students), for exchange with other students (74 %), as a note pad for reflections (53 %) and for its potential as an information source for assessment (48 %) and exchange with a mentor (68 %). On the negative side, 74 % of the students in this pilot study did not find it easy to get started with the system, and 63 % rated the ePortfolio as not being user-friendly. Qualitative analysis indicated a need for more introductory information and training. It is possible to build an advanced ePortfolio system with mobile

  16. [Medical technology and medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mallek, D; Biersack, H-J; Mull, R; Wilhelm, K; Heinz, B; Mellert, F

    2010-08-01

    The education of medical professionals is divided into medical studies, postgraduate training leading to the qualification as a specialist, and continuing professional development. During education, all scientific knowledge and practical skills are to be acquired, which enable the physician to practice responsibly in a specialized medical area. In the present article, relevant curricula are analyzed regarding the consideration of medical device-related topics, as the clinical application of medical technology has reached a central position in modern patient care. Due to the enormous scientific and technical progress, this area has become as important as pharmacotherapy. Our evaluation shows that medical device-related topics are currently underrepresented in the course of medical education and training and should be given greater consideration in all areas of medical education. Possible solutions are presented.

  17. Principles for Quality Undergraduate Education in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The principles for undergraduate education in psychology presented here are designed for creating a world-class educational system that provides students with the workplace skills needed in this information age; a solid academic background that prepares them for advanced study in a wide range of fields; and the knowledge, skills, and abilities…

  18. The Applicability of Undergraduate Education in Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen T.

    1982-01-01

    A study to determine the applicability of undergraduate education in jobs and to evaluate some of the benefits accruing to a college educated person in the labor force is discussed. The relationship between the usefulness of college training in jobs and levels of job satisfaction and income is examined. (Author/MLW)

  19. Defining an anaesthetic curriculum for medical undergraduates. A Delphi study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rohan, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Anaesthesia is commonly taught to medical students. The duration and content of such teaching varies however and no consensus exists as to what constitutes an optimal curriculum. Anaesthetists possess the necessary knowledge and skills and operate in clinical settings suitable to provide training for medical undergraduates, especially in areas where deficiencies have been identified. This Delphi study was directed towards developing a consensus on an optimal anaesthesia, intensive care and pain medicine curriculum for medical undergraduates.

  20. Undergraduate Medical Students Using Facebook as a Peer-Mentoring Platform: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, Severin; Nicolai, Leo; Gradel, Maximilian; Pander, Tanja; Fischer, Martin R; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-10-27

    Peer mentoring is a powerful pedagogical approach for supporting undergraduate medical students in their learning environment. However, it remains unclear what exactly peer mentoring is and whether and how undergraduate medical students use social media for peer-mentoring activities. We aimed at describing and exploring the Facebook use of undergraduate medical students during their first 2 years at a German medical school. The data should help medical educators to effectively integrate social media in formal mentoring programs for medical students. We developed a coding scheme for peer mentoring and conducted a mixed-methods study in order to explore Facebook groups of undergraduate medical students from a peer-mentoring perspective. All major peer-mentoring categories were identified in Facebook groups of medical students. The relevance of these Facebook groups was confirmed through triangulation with focus groups and descriptive statistics. Medical students made extensive use of Facebook and wrote a total of 11,853 posts and comments in the respective Facebook groups (n=2362 total group members). Posting peaks were identified at the beginning of semesters and before exam periods, reflecting the formal curriculum milestones. Peer mentoring is present in Facebook groups formed by undergraduate medical students who extensively use these groups to seek advice from peers on study-related issues and, in particular, exam preparation. These groups also seem to be effective in supporting responsive and large-scale peer-mentoring structures; formal mentoring programs might benefit from integrating social media into their activity portfolio.

  1. Undergraduate homeopathy education in Europe and the influence of accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viksveen, Petter; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2011-10-01

    The safety of patients consulting with practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) partially depends on practitioners' competence, and thus the standard of undergraduate education. Describe undergraduate homeopathy courses in Europe, student/graduate numbers and whether there were differences between recognised/accredited and non-recognised/non-accredited courses. Cross sectional survey of current homeopathy undergraduate education in Europe in 2008. Data from 145 (94.8%) out of 153 identified courses were collected. Eighty-five (55.6%) responded to a questionnaire survey. For others some data was extracted from their websites. Only data from the questionnaire survey is used for the main analysis. The average course in the questionnaire survey had 47 enrolled students and 142 graduates, and lasted 3.6 years part-time. An estimated 6500 students were enrolled and 21,000 had graduated from 153 identified European undergraduate homeopathy courses. Out of 85 courses most had entry requirements and provided medical education (N = 48) or required students to obtain this competence elsewhere (N = 33). The average number of teaching hours were 992 (95% confidence interval (CI) 814, 1170) overall, with 555 h (95%CI 496, 615) for homeopathy. Four out of five courses were recognised/accredited. Recognised/accredited part-time courses lasted significantly longer than non-recognised/non-accredited courses (difference 0.6 years, 95%CI 0.0-1.2, P = 0.040), and offered significantly larger numbers of teaching hours in homeopathy (difference 167 h, 95%CI 7-327, P = 0.041). About 6500 currently enrolled students are doing undergraduate homeopathy education in Europe and 21,000 have graduated from such courses over a period of about 30 years. Undergraduate homeopathy education in Europe is heterogeneous. Recognised/accredited courses are more extensive with more teaching hours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Undergraduate Medical Academic Performance is Improved by Scientific Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming

    2017-01-01

    The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and…

  3. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at .... Walsh K. Online educational tools to improve the.

  4. Navigating Disruptive Innovation in Undergraduate Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Ravi S.; Davis, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    The undergraduate business education landscape is dramatically changing and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Many of the changes are being driven by increasing costs, advances in technology, rapid globalization, and an increasingly diverse workforce and customer base, and are occurring simultaneously in both the business world…

  5. Exploring Signature Pedagogies in Undergraduate Leadership Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the instructional strategies most frequently used by leadership educators who teach academic credit-bearing undergraduate leadership studies courses through a national survey and identifies signature pedagogies within the leadership discipline. Findings from this study suggest that class discussion--whether in the form of…

  6. Life Science Professional Societies Expand Undergraduate Education Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, Marsha Lakes; Ruedi, Elizabeth A.; Engen, Katie; Chang, Amy L.

    2017-01-01

    The "Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education" reports cite the critical role of professional societies in undergraduate life science education and, since 2008, have called for the increased involvement of professional societies in support of undergraduate education. Our study explored the level of support being provided by…

  7. Is The Healing Force Of Music Far Away From The Undergraduate Music Education Students?

    OpenAIRE

    Erol Demirbatir; Nuran Bayram; Nazan Bilgel

    2012-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress are common among undergraduate students and a world-wide phenomenon. In this study we wanted to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels as well as burnout and vigor among undergraduate music education students in one Turkish university and compare the results with the results of medical students from the same institution. We collected data from 160 music education and 928 medical students by self reporting using DASS-42 (Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale-42),...

  8. Measuring the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Aguilar, Maria Esther; Martinez-Gonzalez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Rodolfo

    2012-03-01

    Information overload and recent curricular changes are viewed as important contributory factors to insufficient pharmacological education of medical students. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in our medical school. The study subjects were 455 second-year medical students, class of 2010, and 26 pharmacology teachers at the National University of Mexico Medical School. To assess pharmacological knowledge, students were required to take 3 multiple-choice exams (70 questions each) as part of their evaluation in the pharmacology course. A 30-item questionnaire was used to explore the students' opinion on teaching. Pharmacology professors evaluated themselves using a similar questionnaire. Students and teachers rated each statement on a 5-point Likert scale. The groups' exam scores ranged from 54.5% to 90.0% of correct responses, with a mean score of 77.3%. Only 73 (16%) of 455 students obtained an exam score of 90% and higher. Students' evaluations of faculty and professor self-ratings were very high (90% and 96.2%, of the maximal response, respectively). Student and professor ratings were not correlated with exam scores (r = 0.291). Our study shows that knowledge on pharmacology is incomplete in a large proportion of second-year medical students and indicates that there is an urgent need to review undergraduate training in pharmacology. The lack of relationship between the subjective ratings of teacher effectiveness and objective exam scores suggests the use of more demanding measures to assess the effectiveness of teaching.

  9. System design projects for undergraduate design education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batill, S. M.; Pinkelman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Design education has received considerable in the recent past. This paper is intended to address one aspect of undergraduate design education and that is the selection and development of the design project for a capstone design course. Specific goals for a capstone design course are presented and their influence on the project selection are discussed. The evolution of a series of projects based upon the design of remotely piloted aircraft is presented along with students' perspective on the capstone experience.

  10. The scholar role in the National Competence Based Catalogues of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) compared to other international frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautz, Stefanie C; Hautz, Wolf E; Keller, Niklas; Feufel, Markus A; Spies, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, a national competence based catalogue of learning objectives in medicine (NKLM) was developed by the Society for Medical Education and the Council of Medical Faculties. As many of its international counterparts the NKLM describes the qualifications of medical school graduates. The definition of such outcome frameworks indents to make medical education transparent to students, teachers and society. The NKLM aims to amend existing lists of medical topics for assessment with learnable competencies. All outcome frameworks are structured into chapters, domains or physician roles. The definition of the scholar-role poses a number of questions such as: What distinguishes necessary qualifications of a scientifically qualified physician from those of a medical scientist? 13 outcome frameworks were identified through a systematic three-step literature review and their content compared to the scholar role in the NKLM by means of a qualitative text analysis. The three steps consist of (1) search for outcome frameworks, (2) in- and exclusion, and (3) data extraction, categorization, and validation. The results were afterwards matched with the scholar role of the NKLM. Extracted contents of all frameworks may be summarized into the components Common Basics, Clinical Application, Research, Teaching and Education, and Lifelong Learning. Compared to the included frameworks the NKLM emphasises competencies necessary for research and teaching while clinical application is less prominently mentioned. The scholar role of the NKLM differs from other international outcome frameworks. Discussing these results shall increase propagation and understanding of the NKLM and thus contribute to the qualification of future medical graduates in Germany.

  11. Medical education: the case for investment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparative spends are simply not available. The average spend on undergraduate education per graduate doctor is $122 000. Yet the spend per graduate doctor in China, India, and Africa is considerably less than this average. So one caveat to the answer that we spend less than we should on medical education is that it.

  12. Cyberinfrastructure for Undergraduate STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaid, Samar

    2013-01-01

    Cyberinfrastructure (CI) is a term that usually appears in scientific research, but rarely to be noticed as a scientific education tool. In this paper, I describe a transformative Cyberinfrastructure-based strategy to improve Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education at one of the historically black colleges. This strategy…

  13. Mobile Medical Education (MoMEd - how mobile information resources contribute to learning for undergraduate clinical students - a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Bethany S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile technology is increasingly being used by clinicians to access up-to-date information for patient care. These offer learning opportunities in the clinical setting for medical students but the underlying pedagogic theories are not clear. A conceptual framework is needed to understand these further. Our initial questions were how the medical students used the technology, how it enabled them to learn and what theoretical underpinning supported the learning. Methods 387 medical students were provided with a personal digital assistant (PDA loaded with medical resources for the duration of their clinical studies. Outcomes were assessed by a mixed-methods triangulation approach using qualitative and quantitative analysis of surveys, focus groups and usage tracking data. Results Learning occurred in context with timely access to key facts and through consolidation of knowledge via repetition. The PDA was an important addition to the learning ecology rather than a replacement. Contextual factors impacted on use both positively and negatively. Barriers included concerns of interrupting the clinical interaction and of negative responses from teachers and patients. Students preferred a future involving smartphone platforms. Conclusions This is the first study to describe the learning ecology and pedagogic basis behind the use of mobile learning technologies in a large cohort of undergraduate medical students in the clinical environment. We have developed a model for mobile learning in the clinical setting that shows how different theories contribute to its use taking into account positive and negative contextual factors. The lessons from this study are transferable internationally, to other health care professions and to the development of similar initiatives with newer technology such as smartphones or tablet computers.

  14. Mobile Medical Education (MoMEd) - how mobile information resources contribute to learning for undergraduate clinical students - a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bethany S; Rafique, Jethin; Vincent, Tim R; Fairclough, Jil; Packer, Mark H; Vincent, Richard; Haq, Inam

    2012-01-12

    Mobile technology is increasingly being used by clinicians to access up-to-date information for patient care. These offer learning opportunities in the clinical setting for medical students but the underlying pedagogic theories are not clear. A conceptual framework is needed to understand these further. Our initial questions were how the medical students used the technology, how it enabled them to learn and what theoretical underpinning supported the learning. 387 medical students were provided with a personal digital assistant (PDA) loaded with medical resources for the duration of their clinical studies. Outcomes were assessed by a mixed-methods triangulation approach using qualitative and quantitative analysis of surveys, focus groups and usage tracking data. Learning occurred in context with timely access to key facts and through consolidation of knowledge via repetition. The PDA was an important addition to the learning ecology rather than a replacement. Contextual factors impacted on use both positively and negatively. Barriers included concerns of interrupting the clinical interaction and of negative responses from teachers and patients. Students preferred a future involving smartphone platforms. This is the first study to describe the learning ecology and pedagogic basis behind the use of mobile learning technologies in a large cohort of undergraduate medical students in the clinical environment. We have developed a model for mobile learning in the clinical setting that shows how different theories contribute to its use taking into account positive and negative contextual factors.The lessons from this study are transferable internationally, to other health care professions and to the development of similar initiatives with newer technology such as smartphones or tablet computers.

  15. The scholar role in the National Competence Based Catalogues of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM compared to other international frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautz, Stefanie C.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Germany, a national competence based catalogue of learning objectives in medicine (NKLM was developed by the Society for Medical Education and the Council of Medical Faculties. As many of its international counterparts the NKLM describes the qualifications of medical school graduates. The definition of such outcome frameworks indents to make medical education transparent to students, teachers and society. The NKLM aims to amend existing lists of medical topics for assessment with learnable competencies. All outcome frameworks are structured into chapters, domains or physician roles. The definition of the scholar-role poses a number of questions such as: What distinguishes necessary qualifications of a scientifically qualified physician from those of a medical scientist? Methods: 13 outcome frameworks were identified through a systematic three-step literature review and their content compared to the scholar role in the NKLM by means of a qualitative text analysis. The three steps consist of (1 search for outcome frameworks, (2 in- and exclusion, and (3 data extraction, categorization, and validation. The results were afterwards matched with the scholar role of the NKLM.Results: Extracted contents of all frameworks may be summarized into the components , and . Compared to the included frameworks the NKLM emphasises competencies necessary for research and teaching while clinical application is less prominently mentioned. Conclusion: The scholar role of the NKLM differs from other international outcome frameworks. Discussing these results shall increase propagation and understanding of the NKLM and thus contribute to the qualification of future medical graduates in Germany.

  16. Nutrition guidelines for undergraduate medical curricula: a six-country comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowley J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Crowley,1 Lauren Ball,2 Celia Laur,3 Clare Wall,1 Bruce Arroll,4 Phillippa Poole,5 Sumantra Ray3 1Discipline of Nutrition, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, 5Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Aim: To assess nutrition curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medical education in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand to highlight potential opportunities for shared learning on the advancement of nutrition in medical education. Methods: A comprehensive list of professional bodies, councils, organizations, and other groups relevant to education or nutrition was compiled for each country after a review of relevant white and gray literature. All documents that were published from 2000 onwards, and that provided guidance on nutrition education within undergraduate medical education for one of the identified countries were included in the review. Each curriculum guideline was evaluated for 1 the organization's or group's role in undergraduate medical education; 2 the extent of nutrition-related recommendations; and 3 mandatory implementation. Results: In the countries reviewed, a total of six nutrition-related curriculum guidelines were identified. All countries, aside from the Republic of Ireland, currently have externally visible curriculum guidelines to inform medical schools in undergraduate nutrition education, yet there is little evidence of mandatory enforcement. Curriculum guidelines predominantly focus on basic nutrition principles, nutrition assessment, the role

  17. Perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students predicts academic performance: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Wagner, Josefin; Brüheim, Linda; Voltmer, Edgar

    2017-12-16

    Medical students are exposed to high amounts of stress. Stress and poor academic performance can become part of a vicious circle. In order to counteract this circularity, it seems important to better understand the relationship between stress and performance during medical education. The most widespread stress questionnaire designed for use in Medical School is the "Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument" (PMSS). It addresses a wide range of stressors, including workload, competition, social isolation and financial worries. Our aim was to examine the relation between the perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students and academic performance. We measured Medical School stress using the PMSS at two different time points (at the end of freshman year and at the end of sophomore year) and matched stress scores together with age and gender to the first medical examination (M1) grade of the students (n = 456). PMSS scores from 2 and 14 months before M1 proved to be significant predictors for medical students' M1 grade. Age and gender also predict academic performance, making older female students with high stress scores a potential risk group for entering the vicious circle of stress and poor academic performance. PMSS sum scores 2 and 14 months before the M1 exam seem to have an independent predictive validity for medical students' M1 grade. More research is needed to identify potential confounders.

  18. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...... of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework...

  19. Judicious Use of Simulation Technology in Continuing Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Michael T.; DiazGranados, Deborah; Feldman, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Use of simulation-based training is fast becoming a vital source of experiential learning in medical education. Although simulation is a common tool for undergraduate and graduate medical education curricula, the utilization of simulation in continuing medical education (CME) is still an area of growth. As more CME programs turn to simulation to…

  20. The introduction of medical humanities in the undergraduate curriculum of Greek medical schools: challenge and necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistatou, A; Doulis, E A; Tiniakos, D; Anogiannaki, A; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-10-01

    Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary field, consisting of humanities (theory of literature and arts, philosophy, ethics, history and theology), social sciences (anthropology, psychology and sociology) and arts (literature, theater, cinema, music and visual arts), integrated in the undergraduate curriculum of Medical schools. The aim of the present study is to discuss medical humanities and support the necessity of introduction of a medical humanities course in the curriculum of Greek medical schools. Through the relevant Pub-Med search as well as taking into account various curricula of medical schools, it is evident that medical education today is characterized by acquisition of knowledge and skills and development of medical values and attitudes. Clinical observation with the recognition of key data and patterns in the collected information, is crucial in the final medical decision, i.e. in the complex process, through which doctors accumulate data, reach conclusions and decide on therapy. All sciences included in medical humanities are important for the high quality education of future doctors. The practice of Medicine is in large an image-related science. The history of anatomy and art are closely related, already from the Renaissance time. Studies have shown that attendance of courses on art critics improves the observational skills of medical students. Literature is the source of information about the nature and source of human emotions and behavior and of narratives of illness, and increases imagination. Philosophy aids in the development of analytical and synthetical thinking. Teaching of history of medicine develops humility and aids in avoiding the repetition of mistakes of the past, and quite often raises research and therapeutic skepticism. The comprehension of medical ethics and professional deontology guides the patient-doctor relationship, as well as the relations between physicians and their colleagues. The Medical Humanities course, which is

  1. Interdisciplinarity and Undergraduate Psychology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-Smith, Ian; Pearson, Elissa; Ranzijn, Rob; Campbell, Alan; Lushington, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    This work identifies the human service sector as an important and growing destination for psychology graduates. It further identifies a number of key themes which flow from that observation and which are important to configuring psychology education in a way which takes account of emerging trends. The major theme identified in the research is the…

  2. Teaching medical ethics to undergraduate students in post-apartheid South Africa, 2003 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Keymanthri

    2007-11-01

    The apartheid ideology in South Africa had a pervasive influence on all levels of education including medical undergraduate training. The role of the health sector in human rights abuses during the apartheid era was highlighted in 1997 during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings. The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) subsequently realised the importance of medical ethics education and encouraged the introduction of such teaching in all medical schools in the country. Curricular reform at the University of Stellenbosch in 1999 presented an unparalleled opportunity to formally introduce ethics teaching to undergraduate students. This paper outlines the introduction of a medical ethics programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences from 2003 to 2006, with special emphasis on the challenges encountered. It remains one of the most comprehensive undergraduate medical ethics programmes in South Africa. However, there is scope for expanding the curricular time allocated to medical ethics. Integrating the curriculum both horizontally and vertically is imperative. Implementing a core curriculum for all medical schools in South Africa would significantly enhance the goals of medical education in the country.

  3. Teaching medical ethics to undergraduate students in post‐apartheid South Africa, 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Keymanthri

    2007-01-01

    The apartheid ideology in South Africa had a pervasive influence on all levels of education including medical undergraduate training. The role of the health sector in human rights abuses during the apartheid era was highlighted in 1997 during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings. The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) subsequently realised the importance of medical ethics education and encouraged the introduction of such teaching in all medical schools in the country. Curricular reform at the University of Stellenbosch in 1999 presented an unparalleled opportunity to formally introduce ethics teaching to undergraduate students. This paper outlines the introduction of a medical ethics programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences from 2003 to 2006, with special emphasis on the challenges encountered. It remains one of the most comprehensive undergraduate medical ethics programmes in South Africa. However, there is scope for expanding the curricular time allocated to medical ethics. Integrating the curriculum both horizontally and vertically is imperative. Implementing a core curriculum for all medical schools in South Africa would significantly enhance the goals of medical education in the country. PMID:17971474

  4. Should a clinical rotation in hematology be mandatory for undergraduate medical students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandan J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jay Mandan,1 Harmeet Singh Sidhu,1 Adil Mahmood2 1Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, London, UK Abstract: Clinical rotations form the foundation of medical education. Medical students in the UK are offered conventional rotations such as cardiology, surgery, and psychiatry as part of their undergraduate curriculum, but a rotation in hematology is not currently mandatory. This paper explores the benefits of a compulsory hematology rotation, and suggests recommendations for its implementation in UK medical school curricula. Keywords: medical education, clinical rotations, hematology

  5. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Al-Hilali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%. Of these, 278 (69.3% were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively. Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007. Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%, lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%, lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4% and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%. Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study.

  6. Clinical practice and self-awareness as determinants of empathy in undergraduate education: A qualitative short survey at three medical schools in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrweiler, Florian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Study aim: Physician empathy constitutes an outcome-relevant aim of medical education. Yet, the factors promoting and inhibiting physician empathy have not yet been extensively researched, especially in Germany. In this study, we explored German medical students’ views of the factors promoting and inhibiting their empathy and how their experiences were related to their curricula. Methods: A qualitative short survey was conducted at three medical schools: Bochum University, the University of Cologne and Witten/Herdecke University. Students were invited to complete an anonymous written questionnaire comprised of open-ended questions inquiring about the educational content of and situations during their medical education that positively or negatively impacted their empathy. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis according to the methods of Green and Thorogood. Results: A total of 115 students participated in the survey. Respondents reported that practice-based education involving patient contact and teaching with reference to clinical practice and the patient’s perspective improved their empathy, while a lack of these inhibited it. Students’ internal reactions to patients, such as liking or disliking a patient, prejudice and other attitudes, were also considered to influence their empathy. Although each of the three schools takes a different approach to teaching interpersonal skills, no relevant differences were found in their students’ responses concerning the possible determinants of empathy. Conclusion: Providing more training in practice and more contact with patients may be effective ways of promoting student empathy. Students need support in establishing therapeutic relationships with patients and in dealing with their own feelings and attitudes. Such support could be provided in the form of reflective practice training in order to promote self-awareness. More research is needed to evaluate these

  7. Clinical practice and self-awareness as determinants of empathy in undergraduate education: a qualitative short survey at three medical schools in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrweiler, Florian; Scheffer, Christian; Roling, Gudrun; Goldblatt, Hadass; Hahn, Eckhart G; Neumann, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Physician empathy constitutes an outcome-relevant aim of medical education. Yet, the factors promoting and inhibiting physician empathy have not yet been extensively researched, especially in Germany. In this study, we explored German medical students' views of the factors promoting and inhibiting their empathy and how their experiences were related to their curricula. A qualitative short survey was conducted at three medical schools: Bochum University, the University of Cologne and Witten/Herdecke University. Students were invited to complete an anonymous written questionnaire comprised of open-ended questions inquiring about the educational content of and situations during their medical education that positively or negatively impacted their empathy. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis according to the methods of Green and Thorogood. A total of 115 students participated in the survey. Respondents reported that practice-based education involving patient contact and teaching with reference to clinical practice and the patient's perspective improved their empathy, while a lack of these inhibited it. Students' internal reactions to patients, such as liking or disliking a patient, prejudice and other attitudes, were also considered to influence their empathy. Although each of the three schools takes a different approach to teaching interpersonal skills, no relevant differences were found in their students' responses concerning the possible determinants of empathy. Providing more training in practice and more contact with patients may be effective ways of promoting student empathy. Students need support in establishing therapeutic relationships with patients and in dealing with their own feelings and attitudes. Such support could be provided in the form of reflective practice training in order to promote self-awareness. More research is needed to evaluate these hypothetical conclusions.

  8. Clinical practice and self-awareness as determinants of empathy in undergraduate education: A qualitative short survey at three medical schools in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrweiler, Florian; Scheffer, Christian; Roling, Gudrun; Goldblatt, Hadass; Hahn, Eckhart G.; Neumann, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Study aim: Physician empathy constitutes an outcome-relevant aim of medical education. Yet, the factors promoting and inhibiting physician empathy have not yet been extensively researched, especially in Germany. In this study, we explored German medical students’ views of the factors promoting and inhibiting their empathy and how their experiences were related to their curricula. Methods: A qualitative short survey was conducted at three medical schools: Bochum University, the University of Cologne and Witten/Herdecke University. Students were invited to complete an anonymous written questionnaire comprised of open-ended questions inquiring about the educational content of and situations during their medical education that positively or negatively impacted their empathy. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis according to the methods of Green and Thorogood. Results: A total of 115 students participated in the survey. Respondents reported that practice-based education involving patient contact and teaching with reference to clinical practice and the patient’s perspective improved their empathy, while a lack of these inhibited it. Students’ internal reactions to patients, such as liking or disliking a patient, prejudice and other attitudes, were also considered to influence their empathy. Although each of the three schools takes a different approach to teaching interpersonal skills, no relevant differences were found in their students’ responses concerning the possible determinants of empathy. Conclusion: Providing more training in practice and more contact with patients may be effective ways of promoting student empathy. Students need support in establishing therapeutic relationships with patients and in dealing with their own feelings and attitudes. Such support could be provided in the form of reflective practice training in order to promote self-awareness. More research is needed to evaluate these hypothetical conclusions. PMID:25489346

  9. Teaching communication skills and medical ethics to undergraduate medical student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SADIA AHSIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to improve communication skills and knowledge of bioethics of last year medical students doing clerkship and to evaluate the effectiveness of using workshops for this purpose from students’ point of view, in order to continue such programs in future. Methods: After Ethical approval for the study a two-day workshop on teaching effective communication skills and principles of medical ethics was planned and conducted by the department of Medical Education through multidisciplinary faculty of Foundation University Medical College, Pakistan. A total of 102 last year medical students participated in this workshop. The students were divided into 8 groups each containing 12 students. A team of pre trained facilitators for each group conducted the group activities. Teaching strategies including interactive discussions on basic principles of doctor-patient relationship, power point presentations, day to day case scenarios, video clips and presentations involving students in role plays were used. Pre and post workshop self evaluation proformas about knowledge and skills of communication and medical ethics were rated (0=none, 1=below average, 2=average, 3=above average, 4=very good, 5=excellent by the students. Results: 89 out of 102 participants returned the proformas. A significant percentage of students (%82 showed improvement in their knowledge and skills of appreciating bioethical issues like valid informed consent, patient confidentiality, end of life issues and breaking bad news by rating as “very good” after participation in the workshop. More than %70 students recommended this activity for other students. Conclusion: Teaching through interactive workshops was found to be an effective method as reflected by students’ feedback. Therefore, the program will be continued in future.

  10. Dental Anxiety among Medical and Paramedical Undergraduate Students of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjal, Shilpa; Pateel, Deepak Gowda Sadashivappa; Parkar, Sujal

    2017-01-01

    Aim . To assess the dental anxiety level among dental, medical, and pharmacy students of MAHSA University, Malaysia. Materials and Methods . A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 1500 undergraduate students of MAHSA University. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) was used to measure dental anxiety among the study population. The responses were assessed by 5-point likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. The level of anxiety was categorized into lowly anxious (5-11), moderately anxious (12-18), and severely anxious ≥19. Out of 1500 students enrolled, 1024 students (342 males and 682 females) completed and returned the questionnaire having response rate of 68.26%. Results . There was a statistically significant difference ( P students had lowest mean score (11.95 ± 4.21). The fifth year (senior) dental students scored significantly ( P = 0.02) lower mean anxiety score as compared to the first dental students (junior). The students were anxious mostly about tooth drilling and local anesthetic injection. Conclusions . Dental students have a significantly low level of dental anxiety as compared with medical and pharmacy students. Incorporation of dental health education in preuniversity and other nondental university curriculums may reduce dental anxiety among the students.

  11. [Health education from the perspective of nursing undergraduate students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomé, Juliana Silveira; de Oliveira, Dora Lucia Leidens Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    In the field of health practices, there are different models of health education. The objective of this article was to identify undergraduates' concepts of health education. This descriptive exploratory study used a qualitative approach. It was developed in the Undergraduate Nursing Courses of the Federal University of Santa Maria and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Subjects were undergraduate students of the last semester before graduation. Data were collected using a semistructured interview, and submitted to thematic content analysis. The results suggest that the undergraduate nursing students' training as health educators is permeated by concepts that are a mixture of traditional and modern assumptions on health education.

  12. Biomedical engineering undergraduate education in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allende, R; Morales, D; Avendano, G; Chabert, S

    2007-01-01

    As in other parts of the World, in recent times there has been an increasing interest on Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Latin America (LA). This interest grows from the need for a larger number of such specialists, originated in a spreading use of health technologies. Indeed, at many universities, biomedical engineering departments have been created, which also brought along discussions on strategies to achieve the best education possible for both undergraduate and graduate programs. In these settings, different positions were taken as regards which subject to emphasize. In such a context, this work aimed to make a survey on the 'state-of-the-art' of undergraduate BME education in LA, and to analyze the observed differences. Broadly speaking, similar education profiles are perceived in the entire continent, with main emphasis on electronics and bioinstrumentation, biology and informatics respectively. Much less relevance is given to biomechanics and biomaterials. This tendency is similar in Departments with many decades of experience or in newly opened ones

  13. Thermal hydraulics in undergraduate nuclear engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theofanous, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    The intense safety-related research efforts of the seventies in reactor thermal hydraulics have brought about the recognition of the subject as one of the cornerstones of nuclear engineering. Many nuclear engineering departments responded by building up research programs in this area, and mostly as a consequence, educational programs, too. Whether thermal hydraulics has fully permeated the conscience of nuclear engineering, however, remains yet to be seen. The lean years that lie immediately ahead will provide the test. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the author's own educational activity in undergraduate nuclear engineering education over the past 10 yr or so. All this activity took place at Purdue's School of Nuclear Engineering. He was well satisfied with the results and expects to implement something similar at the University of California in Santa Barbara in the near future

  14. Publishing activities improves undergraduate biology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle K

    2018-06-01

    To improve undergraduate biology education, there is an urgent need for biology instructors to publish their innovative active-learning instructional materials in peer-reviewed journals. To do this, instructors can measure student knowledge about a variety of biology concepts, iteratively design activities, explore student learning outcomes and publish the results. Creating a set of well-vetted activities, searchable through a journal interface, saves other instructors time and encourages the use of active-learning instructional practices. For authors, these publications offer new opportunities to collaborate and can provide evidence of a commitment to using active-learning instructional techniques in the classroom.

  15. Perspective: Medical education in medical ethics and humanities as the foundation for developing medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine.

  16. Provision of undergraduate otorhinolaryngology teaching within General Medical Council approved UK medical schools: what is current practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M; Saeed, S R

    2012-04-01

    Despite longstanding concern, provision of undergraduate ENT teaching has not improved in response to the aims of the UK General Medical Council's initiative Tomorrow's Doctors. Previous studies have demonstrated poor representation of ENT within the undergraduate curriculum. We aimed to identify current practice in order to establish undergraduate ENT experience across UK medical schools, a timely endeavour in light of the General Medical Council's new 2011-2013 education strategy. Questionnaires were sent to ENT consultants, medical school deans and students. All schools with a clinical curriculum were anonymously represented. Our outcome measures were the provision of mandatory or optional ENT placements, and their duration and content. A compulsory ENT placement was available to over half (53 per cent) of the students. Ten of the 26 participating schools did not offer an ENT attachment. The mean mandatory placement was 8 days. Overall, 38 per cent of students reported a satisfactory compulsory ENT placement. Most ENT consultants questioned considered that newly qualified doctors were not proficient in managing common ENT problems that did not require specialist referral. Little improvement in the provision of undergraduate ENT teaching was demonstrated. An increase in the proportion of students undertaking ENT training is necessary. Time and curriculum constraints on medical schools mean that optimisation of available resources is required.

  17. [Intensive care medicine on medical undergraduation: student's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Alessandro de Moura; Albuquerque, Ligia Carvalho; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Rolim, Carlos Eduardo Cerqueira; Godinho, Tiana Mascarenhas; Liberato, Maurício Valverde; Oliveira Filho, Fernando Cezar Cabral; Azevedo, Ana Bárbara Galvão de; Neves, Ana Paula Soares da Silva; Martins, Marcelo de Jesus; Silva, João Paulo Maciel; Jesuíno, Paulo André; Souza Filho, Sydney Agareno de

    2007-12-01

    There are deficiencies on Intensive Medicine (IM) teaching in most of medical undergraduate schools. Those deficiencies may imply damages on their clinical competence. The objective of this study was to analyze current status of IM teaching and the medical undergraduate student interest in this speciality. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2005. We applied a self-reported questionnaire to enrolled students between the sixth and the last semesters of two medical schools from Salvador-Bahia. The questionnaire contained questions about students' interest and knowledge on IM, and opinion on IM teaching in their schools. We studied 570 students. Most of them (57.5%) had never realized a clerkship in intensive care unit (ICU) despite classifying its usefulness as high (mean of 4.14 ± 1.05, in a scale from 1 to 5). IM interest was high or very high in 53.7% of sample. Almost all students (97%) thought that IM topics should be more explored at their curriculum. Only 42.1% reported to be able to assess a critical care patient and this assurance was higher among students with previous clerkship in ICU (p < 0.001). Shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and sepsis were the most interesting topics in ICU for students' opinion. This study revealed a high interest in IM among medical undergraduate students. However, most had never practice a clerkship in ICU, demonstrating to be an important factor on undergraduate student performance faced to a critical care patient.

  18. Education in Medical Biochemistry in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkic-Sing, Nada

    2010-06-01

    Medical biochemistry is the usual name for clinical biochemistry or clinical chemistry in Serbia. Medical biochemistry laboratories and medical biochemists as a profession are part of Health Care System and are regulated through: the Health Care Law and rules issued by the Chamber of Medical Biochemists of Serbia. The first continuous and organized education for Medical Biochemists in Serbia dates from 1945, when Department of Medical Biochemistry was established at Pharmaceutical Faculty in Belgrade. In 1987 at the same Faculty a five years undergraduate branch was established, educating Medical Biochemists under a special program. Since 2006 the new five year undergraduate (according to Bologna Declaration) and postgraduate program of four-year specialization according to EC4 European Syllabus for Post-Graduate Training in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine has been established. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health accredits the programs. There are four requirements for practicing medical biochemistry in the Health Care System: University Diploma of the Faculty of Pharmacy (Medical Biochemistry), successful completion of the profession exam at the Ministry of Health after completion of one additional year of obligatory practical training in medical laboratories, membership in the Serbian Chamber of Medical Biochemists and licence for skilled work issued by Serbian Chamber of Medical Biochemists.

  19. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. ... state-of-the-art resources, technology and tutors con-.

  20. Just fun or a prejudice? - physician stereotypes in common jokes and their attribution to medical specialties by undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harendza, Sigrid; Pyra, Martin

    2017-07-26

    Many jokes exist about stereotypical attributes of physicians in various specialties, which could lead to prejudices against physicians from a specific specialty. It is unknown whether and when medical students are aware of stereotypes about different specialties. The goal of this study was to analyze the degree of stereotypes that exist about medical specialties amongst undergraduate medical students at different stages of their education. One hundred fifty-two jokes with different content about attributes of physicians from different specialties were found by an internet search. In total, 36 characteristics of the five specialties of anesthesia, general surgery, internal medicine, orthopedics, and psychiatry were extracted from the jokes and they constituted the basis for the development of an online questionnaire. The questionnaire allowed each characteristic to be assigned to one of the five specialties and was sent to 999 undergraduate medical students from semester 1, 7, and 12 at the Medical Faculty of Hamburg University. Three hundred eight (30.8%) of the invited students completed the survey. The characteristics of general surgeons and psychiatrists were assigned congruently most frequently (>50%). For internists and orthopedics, there was a significantly more congruent assignment of the characteristics by final year students versus students in their first semester. Male students assigned the characteristics of anesthetists and internists significantly more congruently than female students. The three characteristics "…are a bit slow on the uptake", "…consider income to be relatively unimportant", and "...apologize a lot" were not assigned to any of the five specialties by more than 50% of the students. While stereotypes about physicians from certain specialties seem to exist commonly, medical educators need to be aware that stereotypes about specialties might develop during undergraduate medical training. In order to support students in their

  1. Furthering Medical Education in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Surendra K; Jennings, John

    2016-02-01

    Medical education in Texas is moving in the right direction. The Texas Medical Association has been a major partner in advancing medical education initiatives. This special symposium issue on medical education examines residency training costs, the Next Accreditation System, graduate medical education in rural Texas, Texas' physician workforce needs, the current state of education reform, and efforts to retain medical graduates in Texas.

  2. [Rehabilitation in undergraduate education and advanced professional training of the participating professional groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Wilfried; Bengel, Jürgen; Pfeifer, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    In the German health care system, multiprofessional and coordinated rehabilitation care provides support for successful disease management. Against a background of the conditions and strong dynamics of the provision, this article gives an overview of some of the pertinent developments in rehabilitation-related undergraduate education and advanced professional training of physicians, psychologists, and exercise therapy professions in Germany. Frequently, there are few provisions and great variation between different locations. New conditions, such as the National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education, the National Guidelines for Graduate Medical Education, and the ongoing reform of the psychotherapists' law emphasizing training in psychotherapy at university, allow the expectation of a positive effect on the competence of rehabilitation professionals. Education in physiotherapy is developing according to international standards aimed at improved evidence-based care. For the widely evidence-based undergraduate education and advanced professional training in sports and exercise therapy better profiling and professionalization should be sought.

  3. Information literacy skills of undergraduate medical radiation students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Madeleine C. [Medical Radiations, School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia)]. E-mail: mshanahan@rmit.edu.au

    2007-08-15

    Undergraduate education is undergoing a shift away from the traditional transmission of a fixed body of knowledge to a learning approach where the emphasis is on supporting learners to learn. Central to this change is recognition that undergraduate education programmes should aim to develop independent learners who become effective lifelong learning practitioners. Successful independent learning as an undergraduate student or as a lifelong learner requires the learner to have well developed information literacy skills. An Online Electronic Information Skills (OEIS) intervention was designed to develop the information literacy skills in a cohort of second year undergraduate radiography students. An evaluation focused on learning outcomes was used to provide evidence of development of information literacy within the undergraduate course. The evaluation clearly demonstrated substantial skill development in students' ability to access scholarly information in their discipline area. The reported continued use of database searching by this cohort of students seven months after the OEIS intervention provides evidence that they are continuing to access and use scholarly information, information literacy skills necessary for their future work context.

  4. Information literacy skills of undergraduate medical radiation students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, Madeleine C.

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate education is undergoing a shift away from the traditional transmission of a fixed body of knowledge to a learning approach where the emphasis is on supporting learners to learn. Central to this change is recognition that undergraduate education programmes should aim to develop independent learners who become effective lifelong learning practitioners. Successful independent learning as an undergraduate student or as a lifelong learner requires the learner to have well developed information literacy skills. An Online Electronic Information Skills (OEIS) intervention was designed to develop the information literacy skills in a cohort of second year undergraduate radiography students. An evaluation focused on learning outcomes was used to provide evidence of development of information literacy within the undergraduate course. The evaluation clearly demonstrated substantial skill development in students' ability to access scholarly information in their discipline area. The reported continued use of database searching by this cohort of students seven months after the OEIS intervention provides evidence that they are continuing to access and use scholarly information, information literacy skills necessary for their future work context

  5. Innovations in Undergraduate Chemical Biology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Aaron R; Gatazka, Daniel H; Hanania, Mariah M

    2018-01-19

    Chemical biology derives intellectual vitality from its scientific interface: applying chemical strategies and perspectives to biological questions. There is a growing need for chemical biologists to synergistically integrate their research programs with their educational activities to become holistic teacher-scholars. This review examines how course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are an innovative method to achieve this integration. Because CUREs are course-based, the review first offers strategies for creating a student-centered learning environment, which can improve students' outcomes. Exemplars of CUREs in chemical biology are then presented and organized to illustrate the five defining characteristics of CUREs: significance, scientific practices, discovery, collaboration, and iteration. Finally, strategies to overcome common barriers in CUREs are considered as well as future innovations in chemical biology education.

  6. International infectious diseases teaching to undergraduate medical students: A successful European collaborative experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Caroline; Johannessen, Ingólfur; Mackintosh, Claire L; Wilks, David; Cauda, Roberto; Wolf, Federica I; Le Jeunne, Claire

    2017-09-01

    The emerging global-health paradigm requires medical teaching to be continuously redefined and updated; to this end, transnational approaches should be encouraged and medical training harmonized. Infectious diseases (ID) teaching in the current context of emerging infections, fast-increasing bacterial resistance and large-scale human migration, was chosen to develop a common international course. We report the successful implementation of a joint European undergraduate course aiming to (i) develop a common ID core curriculum among European medical schools; (ii) promote mobility among teachers and students (iii) promote international cooperation among European teachers. The course was built around teachers' mobility. It was delivered in English by a team of European medical educators from Paris Descartes University, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome and the University of Edinburgh to groups of 25-30 undergraduate medical students at each university. Partner Institutions officially recognized the course as substitutive of or additive to the regular curriculum. The course has been running for 3 years and received excellent satisfaction scores by students and staff as regards to scientific content, pedagogy and international exchanges. This cooperative approach demonstrates the feasibility of a harmonized European undergraduate medical education, having ID as a test experiment for future developments.

  7. Managed medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafferty, F W

    1999-09-01

    The forces of rationality and commodification, hallmarks of the managed care revolution, may soon breach the walls of organized medical education. Whispers are beginning to circulate that the cost of educating future physicians is too high. Simultaneously, managed care companies are accusing medical education of turning out trainees unprepared to practice in a managed care environment. Changes evident in other occupational and service delivery sectors of U.S. society as diverse as pre-college education and prisons provide telling insights into what may be in store for medical educators. Returning to academic medicine, the author reflects that because corporate managed care is already established in teaching hospitals, and because managed research (e.g., corporate-sponsored and -run drug trials, for-profit drug-study centers, and contract research organizations) is increasing, managed medical education could become a reality as well. Medical education has made itself vulnerable to the intrusion of corporate rationalizers because it has failed to professionalism at core of its curricula-something only it is able to do--and instead has focused unduly on the transmission of esoteric knowledge and core clinical skills, a process that can be carried out more efficiently, more effectively, and less expensively by other players in the medical education marketplace such as Kaplan, Compass, or the Princeton Review. The author explains why reorganizing medical education around professional values is crucial, why the AAMC's Medical School Objectives Project offers guidance in this area, why making this change will be difficult, and why medical education must lead in establishing how to document the presence and absence of such qualities as altruism and dutifulness and the ways that appropriate medical education can foster these and similar core competencies. "Anything less and organized medicine will acknowledged... that it has abandoned its social contract and entered the

  8. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 88 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 51 - 88 of 88 ...

  9. Quiz gaming competitions for undergraduate medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... balance of education and entertainment that quizmasters should aim for. .... a game; popular themes, music and audience ... demographic data, an opinion segment for ticking, and ..... provided that the answers linked back.

  10. Environmental Engineering Talent Demand and Undergraduate Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan-zhen; Li, Jian-bo; Luo, Xiang-nan; Zhao, Bin-yan; Luo, Ren-ming; Wang, Qiao-ling

    2004-01-01

    In Chinese higher environmental education, undergraduate education of environmental engineering starts earliest and develops fastest. The undergraduate has been playing an important role in controlling pollution for more than twenty years. The setting and distribution of the environmental engineering major was analyzed, the conditions of the…

  11. Undergraduate medical students' perceptions and intentions regarding patient safety during clinical clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2018-04-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate medical students' perceptions and intentions regarding patient safety during clinical clerkships. Cross-sectional study administered in face-to-face interviews using modified the Medical Student Safety Attitudes and Professionalism Survey (MSSAPS) from three colleges of medicine in Korea. We assessed medical students' perceptions of the cultures ('safety', 'teamwork', and 'error disclosure'), 'behavioural intentions' concerning patient safety issues and 'overall patient safety'. Confirmatory factor analysis and Spearman's correlation analyses was performed. In total, 194(91.9%) of the 211 third-year undergraduate students participated. 78% of medical students reported that the quality of care received by patients was impacted by teamwork during clinical rotations. Regarding error disclosure, positive scores ranged from 10% to 74%. Except for one question asking whether the disclosure of medical errors was an important component of patient safety (74%), the percentages of positive scores for all the other questions were below 20%. 41.2% of medical students have intention to disclose it when they saw a medical error committed by another team member. Many students had difficulty speaking up about medical errors. Error disclosure guidelines and educational efforts aimed at developing sophisticated communication skills are needed. This study may serve as a reference for other institutions planning patient safety education in their curricula. Assessing student perceptions of safety culture can provide clerkship directors and clinical service chiefs with information that enhances the educational environment and promotes patient safety.

  12. Medical education teaching resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Michael D; Seyfried, Lisa S; Gay, Tamara L

    2014-02-01

    Numerous monographs on psychiatry education have appeared without a review specifically intended to assist psychiatry faculty and trainees in the selection of appropriate volumes for study and reference. The authors prepared this annotated bibliography to fill that gap. The authors identified titles from web-based searches of the topics "academic psychiatry," "psychiatry education," and "medical education," followed by additional searches of the same topics on the websites of major publishers. Forty-nine titles referring to psychiatry education specifically and medical education generally were identified. The authors selected works that were published within the last 10 years and remain in print and that met at least one of the following criteria: (1) written specifically about psychiatry or for psychiatric educators; (2) of especially high quality in scholarship, writing, topic selection and coverage, and pertinence to academic psychiatry; (3) covering a learning modality deemed by the authors to be of particular interest for psychiatry education. The authors reviewed 19 books pertinent to the processes of medical student and residency education, faculty career development, and education administration. These included 11 books on medical education in general, 4 books that focus more narrowly on the field of psychiatry, and 4 books addressing specific learning modalities of potential utility in the mental health professions. Most of the selected works proved to be outstanding contributions to the medical education literature.

  13. How we established a new undergraduate firm on a Medical Admissions Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Tahir; Wallis, Simon; Higham, Jackie; Newton, Kate; Pugh, Mark; Woywodt, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Medical Admission Units (MAUs) were introduced in the UK in the 1980s primarily driven by a governance and service improvement agenda. In the UK this has led to the development of Acute Medicine as a specialty in its own right, together with a strong role of this specialty in postgraduate teaching. In contrast, the role of MAUs, if any, in undergraduate medical education is currently unclear. Prompted by an expansion of our undergraduate student numbers, our aim was to establish a Year 3 undergraduate firm on a 33-bedded MAU in a large academic teaching hospital in the National Health Service (NHS). Despite initial scepticism from clinicians, managers, and educators, the new firm placement on MAU became an instant success and continues to attract excellent feedback from our Year 3 undergraduate students. Students enjoy the bedside teaching with a high percentage of consultant-delivered teaching and also liked the involvement of Foundation Doctors. Here, we report our experience on how to make such a firm work, based on student feedback and the tutors' experience. We provide an overview and a step-by-step guide of how to construct a successful new undergraduate firm on a busy MAU. We also discuss opportunities and challenges and discuss the relevant literature. We conclude that undergraduate teaching is feasible and rewarding in an extremely busy MAU setting. We note that identifying enthusiastic educators within the MAU team, utilisation of peripheral learning opportunities, structured timetables and induction, and a robust framework for quality assurance are all crucial to success.

  14. Integrating the teaching role into one’s identity : A qualitative study of beginning undergraduate medical teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, T.; Schoonenboom, J.; Kusurkar, R.A.; Volman, M.; Beishuizen, J.; Croiset, G.

    Beginning medical teachers often see themselves as doctors or researchers rather than as teachers. Using both figured worlds theory and dialogical self theory, this study explores how beginning teachers in the field of undergraduate medical education integrate the teacher role into their identity. A

  15. Enhancing Undergraduate Education with NASA Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James G.; Meinke, Bonnie; Schultz, Gregory; Smith, Denise Anne; Lawton, Brandon L.; Gurton, Suzanne; Astrophysics Community, NASA

    2015-08-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF) coordinates the work of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO projects and their teams to bring cutting-edge discoveries of NASA missions to the introductory astronomy college classroom. Uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogical expertise, the Forum has coordinated the development of several resources that provide new opportunities for college and university instructors to bring the latest NASA discoveries in astrophysics into their classrooms.To address the needs of the higher education community, the Astrophysics Forum collaborated with the astrophysics E/PO community, researchers, and introductory astronomy instructors to place individual science discoveries and learning resources into context for higher education audiences. The resulting products include two “Resource Guides” on cosmology and exoplanets, each including a variety of accessible resources. The Astrophysics Forum also coordinates the development of the “Astro 101” slide set series. The sets are five- to seven-slide presentations on new discoveries from NASA astrophysics missions relevant to topics in introductory astronomy courses. These sets enable Astronomy 101 instructors to include new discoveries not yet in their textbooks in their courses, and may be found at: https://www.astrosociety.org/education/resources-for-the-higher-education-audience/.The Astrophysics Forum also coordinated the development of 12 monthly “Universe Discovery Guides,” each featuring a theme and a representative object well-placed for viewing, with an accompanying interpretive story, strategies for conveying the topics, and supporting NASA-approved education activities and background information from a spectrum of NASA missions and programs. These resources are adaptable for use by instructors and may be found at: http

  16. Desire and reality – teaching and assessing communicative competencies in undergraduate medical education in German-speaking Europe – a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Härtl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Increasingly, communicative competencies are becoming a permanent feature of training and assessment in German-speaking medical schools (n=43; Germany, Austria, Switzerland – ”D-A-CH”. In support of further curricular development of communicative competencies, the survey by the “Communicative and Social Competencies” (KusK committee of the German Society for Medical Education (GMA systematically appraises the scope of and form in which teaching and assessment take place. Methods: The iterative online questionnaire, developed in cooperation with KusK, comprises 70 questions regarding instruction (n=14, assessment (n=48, local conditions (n=5, with three fields for further remarks. Per location, two to three individuals who were familiar with the respective institute’s curriculum were invited to take part in the survey. Results: Thirty-nine medical schools (40 degree programmes took part in the survey. Communicative competencies are taught in all of the programmes. Ten degree programmes have a longitudinal curriculum for communicative competencies; 25 programmes offer this in part. Sixteen of the 40 programmes use the Basler Consensus Statement for orientation. In over 80% of the degree programmes, communicative competencies are taught in the second and third year of studies. Almost all of the programmes work with simulated patients (n=38 and feedback (n=37. Exams are exclusively summative (n=11, exclusively formative (n=3, or both summative and formative (n=16 and usually take place in the fifth or sixth year of studies (n=22 and n=20. Apart from written examinations (n=15 and presentations (n=9, practical examinations are primarily administered (OSCE, n=31; WPA (n=8, usually with self-developed scales (OSCE, n=19. With regards to the examiners’ training and the manner of results-reporting to the students, there is a high variance. Conclusions: Instruction in communicative competencies has been implemented at all 39 of

  17. Desire and reality--teaching and assessing communicative competencies in undergraduate medical education in German-speaking Europe--a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Anja; Bachmann, Cadja; Blum, Katharina; Höfer, Stefan; Peters, Tim; Preusche, Ingrid; Raski, Bianca; Rüttermann, Stefan; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela; Wünsch, Alexander; Kiessling, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, communicative competencies are becoming a permanent feature of training and assessment in German-speaking medical schools (n=43; Germany, Austria, Switzerland - "D-A-CH"). In support of further curricular development of communicative competencies, the survey by the "Communicative and Social Competencies" (KusK) committee of the German Society for Medical Education (GMA) systematically appraises the scope of and form in which teaching and assessment take place. The iterative online questionnaire, developed in cooperation with KusK, comprises 70 questions regarding instruction (n=14), assessment (n=48), local conditions (n=5), with three fields for further remarks. Per location, two to three individuals who were familiar with the respective institute's curriculum were invited to take part in the survey. Thirty-nine medical schools (40 degree programmes) took part in the survey. Communicative competencies are taught in all of the programmes. Ten degree programmes have a longitudinal curriculum for communicative competencies; 25 programmes offer this in part. Sixteen of the 40 programmes use the Basler Consensus Statement for orientation. In over 80% of the degree programmes, communicative competencies are taught in the second and third year of studies. Almost all of the programmes work with simulated patients (n=38) and feedback (n=37). Exams are exclusively summative (n=11), exclusively formative (n=3), or both summative and formative (n=16) and usually take place in the fifth or sixth year of studies (n=22 and n=20). Apart from written examinations (n=15) and presentations (n=9), practical examinations are primarily administered (OSCE, n=31); WPA (n=8), usually with self-developed scales (OSCE, n=19). With regards to the examiners' training and the manner of results-reporting to the students, there is a high variance. Instruction in communicative competencies has been implemented at all 39 of the participating medical schools. For the most part

  18. Desire and reality – teaching and assessing communicative competencies in undergraduate medical education in German-speaking Europe – a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Anja; Bachmann, Cadja; Blum, Katharina; Höfer, Stefan; Peters, Tim; Preusche, Ingrid; Raski, Bianca; Rüttermann, Stefan; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela; Wünsch, Alexander; Kiessling, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Increasingly, communicative competencies are becoming a permanent feature of training and assessment in German-speaking medical schools (n=43; Germany, Austria, Switzerland – ”D-A-CH”). In support of further curricular development of communicative competencies, the survey by the “Communicative and Social Competencies” (KusK) committee of the German Society for Medical Education (GMA) systematically appraises the scope of and form in which teaching and assessment take place. Methods: The iterative online questionnaire, developed in cooperation with KusK, comprises 70 questions regarding instruction (n=14), assessment (n=48), local conditions (n=5), with three fields for further remarks. Per location, two to three individuals who were familiar with the respective institute’s curriculum were invited to take part in the survey. Results: Thirty-nine medical schools (40 degree programmes) took part in the survey. Communicative competencies are taught in all of the programmes. Ten degree programmes have a longitudinal curriculum for communicative competencies; 25 programmes offer this in part. Sixteen of the 40 programmes use the Basler Consensus Statement for orientation. In over 80% of the degree programmes, communicative competencies are taught in the second and third year of studies. Almost all of the programmes work with simulated patients (n=38) and feedback (n=37). Exams are exclusively summative (n=11), exclusively formative (n=3), or both summative and formative (n=16) and usually take place in the fifth or sixth year of studies (n=22 and n=20). Apart from written examinations (n=15) and presentations (n=9), practical examinations are primarily administered (OSCE, n=31); WPA (n=8), usually with self-developed scales (OSCE, n=19). With regards to the examiners’ training and the manner of results-reporting to the students, there is a high variance. Conclusions: Instruction in communicative competencies has been implemented at all 39 of the

  19. Educational technology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Resch, David S; Kovach, Regina A

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to review the past practices of educational technology and envision future directions for medical education. The discussion starts with a historical review of definitions and perspectives of educational technology, in which the authors propose that educators adopt a broader process-oriented understanding of educational technology. Future directions of e-learning, simulation, and health information technology are discussed based on a systems view of the technological process. As new technologies continue to arise, this process-oriented understanding and outcome-based expectations of educational technology should be embraced. With this view, educational technology should be valued in terms of how well the technological process informs and facilitates learning, and the acquisition and maintenance of clinical expertise.

  20. Bedside ultrasound education in Canadian medical schools: A national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Steinmetz

    2016-04-01

    Results:  Approximately half of the 13 responding medical schools had integrated bedside ultrasound teaching into their undergraduate curriculum. The most common trends in undergraduate ultrasound teaching related to duration (1-5 hours/year in 50% of schools, format (practical and theoretical in 67% of schools, and logistics (1:4 instructor to student ratio in 67% of schools. The majority of responding vice-deans indicated that bedside ultrasound education should be integrated into the medical school curriculum (77%, and cited a lack of ultrasound machines and infrastructure as barriers to integration. Conclusions: This study documents the current characteristics of undergraduate ultrasound education in Canada.

  1. Performance of a core of transversal skills: self-perceptions of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2016-01-15

    There is an increasingly growing trend towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. Communication, research and organisational/learning skills are core competences acquired by scientific research activity. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived performance of a core of transversal skills, related with scientific research, by Portuguese medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 611 Portuguese students attending the first, fourth and sixth years of the medical course, during the same academic year. A validated questionnaire was applied for this purpose. Medical students felt confident regarding the majority of the analyzed transversal skills, particularly regarding team work capacity (72.7% perceived their own capacity as good). On the other hand, the perceived ability to manage information technology, time and to search literature was classified only as sufficient by many of them. The progression over the medical course and participation in research activities were associated with an increasing odds of a good perceived performance of skills such as writing skills (research activity: OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.34-2.97) and English proficiency (research activity: OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.06-2.38/final year medical students: OR = 3.63; 95% CI: 2.42-5.45). In this line, the early exposure to research activities along undergraduate medical education is an added value for students and the implementation of an integrated research program on medical curriculum should be considered.

  2. Implementierung und Erprobung eines Lernziel-basierten Evaluationssystems im Studium der Humanmedizin [Piloting an outcome-based programme evaluation tool in undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raupach, Tobias

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Different approaches to performance-oriented allocation of resources according to teaching quality are currently being discussed within German medical schools. The implementation of these programmes is impeded by a lack of valid criteria to measure teaching quality. An assessment of teaching quality should include structural and procedural aspects but focus on learning outcome itself. The aim of this study was to implement a novel, outcome-based evaluation tool within the clinical phase of a medical curriculum and address differences between the novel tool and traditional evaluation methods. Methods: Student self-assessments before and after completion of a teaching module were used to compute performance gains for specific learning objectives. Mean performance gains in each module were compared to student expectations before the module and data derived from a traditional evaluation tool using overall course ratings at the end of the module.Results: A ranking of the 21 modules according to computed performance gains yielded entirely different results than module rankings based on overall course ratings. There was no significant correlation between performance gain and overall ratings. However, the latter were significantly correlated to student expectations before entering the module as well as structural and procedural parameters (Pearson’s r 0.7-0.9.Conclusion: Performance gain computed from comparative self-assessments adds an important new dimension to course evaluation in medical education. In contrast to overall course ratings, the novel tool is less heavily confounded by construct-irrelevant factors. Thus, it appears to be more appropriate than overall course ratings in determining teaching quality and developing algorithms to guide performance-oriented resource allocation in medical education. [german] Zielsetzung: Aktuell werden an den deutschen medizinischen Fakultäten unterschiedliche Konzepte zur

  3. Academic Guidance for Undergraduate Students in a South African Medical School: Can we guide them all?

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    Mpho P Jama

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions, including medical schools, still grapple with the challenge of poor academic performance of students. Some studies report the positive results of providing academic guidance for common challenges such as poor and/or ineffective time management, study methods, test- and exam-taking techniques and management, and the high academic workload of undergraduate medical students. However, limited detailed insights and understanding of medical students who experience more complex challenges are available.  This study was conducted at a medical school in South Africa to determine undergraduate medical students’ perceptions of factors affecting their academic performance. A total of 89 semi-structured interviews were held with undergraduate medical students who were identified as having academic problems between 2012 and 2015. According to the results, more blacks, males and first- and second year students experienced poor academic performance. Prominent findings included the harsh realities and implications of lack of accommodation for black students; how poor academic performance can lead to an array of other social and psychological problems, such as withdrawal of bursaries and negative achievement emotions that some students experience. Compared to the usual objective measures of individual ability, the rich qualitative data of cases presented in this study reveal critical, real insights and understanding of students’ challenges from their own perspective.

  4. Awareness of Undergraduate Dental and Medical Students Towards Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ashish; Marla, Vinay; Shrestha, Sushmita; Agrawal, Diksha

    2017-12-01

    Oral cancer is a common malignancy in Nepal and many other South East Asian countries, which is predisposed by a variety of potentially malignant oral diseases. Considering the importance of knowledge of health professionals and their role in early diagnosis and reduction of cancer statistics, this study aims to evaluate the awareness of undergraduate dental and medical students towards oral cancer. The study involved undergraduate dental and medical students of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal. A self-administered questionnaire adapted from Carter to Ogden was distributed. One hundred forty-three dental and 311 medical students responded to the questionnaire. Significantly more dental (80.4 %) than medical students (36.0 %) were found to routinely examine the oral mucosa. Tobacco smoking and chewing were the most commonly recognized risk factors by both medical and dental students. Most of the students found ulcer as the common change associated with oral cancer. Only 30 out of the total students felt very well informed about oral cancer. This study has demonstrated a lack of awareness in some aspects of oral cancer among medical and dental students which highlights the need to frame new teaching methodologies. Similar studies from other health institutions would provide an insight regarding the same and could be a base for formulating a uniform curriculum in the implementation of knowledge regarding oral cancer.

  5. Uso de simuladores en ginecología y obstetricia: Experiencia en la enseñanza de pregrado Use of medical simulators in obstetrics and gynaecology: Experience in undergraduate education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazzia Rey

    2006-12-01

    simulators. Their learning was followed up using a checklist for pelvic examination. Results: The results show that the students that did their training with simulators had more opportunities to perform the manoeuvres, especially those involving greater difficulty like vaginal examination and "speculum" introduction. Conclusions: The use of medical simulators constitutes a good tool for the acquisition of skills in the obgyn area. Simulators provide a useful alternative in undergraduate education.

  6. Radiotherapy Learning in Medical Undergraduate Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, L; Garcia-Linares, A

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 60 % of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a component of their treatment. Radiation Oncology concepts, specifically, are not formally introduced to students in most traditional school curricula until their clinical rotations or may only be included as an optional elective during the core clinical clerkships. The aim of this study is to determine whether the teaching of Radiation Oncology by radiation oncologists, in the third year, in block diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, is helpful for student training and changes their attitude towards the specialty. We administered a pre-test and post-test examination of the concepts in general radiation oncology, radiation physics, radiobiology, breast cancer and their opinion to the third year medical students. The 10-question, multiple choice tests were administered before starting the lessons and when they finished the course. Of the 130 third year students, 95 (73.07 %) participated in the pre-test and post-test analysis. For the entire cohort, improvement was seen in all questions except one regarding physics. A statistically significant improvement (p < 0.005) was seen in the question regarding the aspects of general radiotherapy, radiobiology, acute and after-effects of radiation and the management of early-stage breast cancer. With an adequate methodology, third year students can learn aspects of Radiation Oncology.

  7. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25, No 9 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Widening Participation in Medical Education: Challenging Elitism and Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursicot, Kathy; Roberts, Trudie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine issues relating to the enduring nature of elitism and exclusion in medical education by exploring the changes in social and policy influences on the admission and inclusion of women and disabled people to undergraduate medical courses and the medical profession. The widening participation imperative in the United Kingdom…

  9. Psychological Comparisons of Undergraduate and Graduate College of Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illovsky, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of 57 graduate students and 229 undergraduate students in classes preparing them to be teachers. The survey extended over a period of five years, involving 14 classes in a college of education. Using the Personality Research Form scales to compare the psychological aspects of undergraduate and graduate college of education…

  10. Health Sciences undergraduate education at UCT: a story of transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Nadia; Kathard, Harsha; Perez, Gonda; Reid, Steve; Irlam, James; Gunston, Geney; Janse van Rensburg, Vicki; Burch, Vanessa; Duncan, Madeleine; Hellenberg, Derek; Van Rooyen, Ian; Smouse, Mantoa; Sikakane, Cynthia; Badenhorst, Elmi; Ige, Busayo

    2012-03-02

    Undergraduate education and training in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Cape Town has become socially responsive. A story of transformation that is consonant with wider societal developments since the 1994 democratic elections, outlining the changes in undergraduate curricula across the faculty, is presented.

  11. Integrating postgraduate and undergraduate general practice education: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, Andrew; Culhane, Aidan; Dunne, Colum; Griffin, Michael; McGrath, Deirdre; Meagher, David; O'Dwyer, Pat; Cullen, Walter

    2013-05-01

    Educational activity in general practice has increased considerably in the past 20 years. Vertical integration, whereby practices support students and trainees at different stages, may enhance general practices' capacity to fulfil this role. To explore the potential for vertical integration in undergraduate and postgraduate education in general practice, by describing the experience of (and attitudes towards) 'vertical integration in general practice education' among key stakeholder groups. Qualitative study of GPs, practice staff, GPs-in-training and medical students involving focus groups which were thematically analysed. We identified four overarching themes: (1) Important practical features of vertical integration are interaction between learners at different stages, active involvement in clinical teams and interagency collaboration; (2) Vertical integration may benefit GPs/practices, students and patients through improved practice systems, exposure to team-working and multi-morbidity and opportunistic health promotion, respectively; (3) Capacity issues may challenge its implementation; (4) Strategies such as recognising and addressing diverse learner needs and inter-agency collaboration can promote vertical integration. Vertical integration, whereby practices support students and trainees at different stages, may enhance general practices' teaching capacity. Recognising the diverse educational needs of learners at different stages and collaboration between agencies responsible for the planning and delivery of specialist training and medical degree programmes would appear to be important.

  12. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom ... Results: Self-medication practice was highly prevalent among the medical students, with 87 % ... as part of self-care to improve the health care ..... No conflict of interest associated with this work.

  13. Internationalizing undergraduate psychology education: Trends, techniques, and technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold; Gielen, Uwe P; Plous, Scott; Rich, Grant J; Velayo, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    How can we best internationalize undergraduate psychology education in the United States and elsewhere? This question is more timely than ever, for at least 2 reasons: Within the United States, educators and students seek greater contact with psychology programs abroad, and outside the United States, psychology is growing apace, with educators and students in other nations often looking to U.S. curricula and practices as models. In this article, we outline international developments in undergraduate psychology education both in the United States and abroad, and analyze the dramatic rise of online courses and Internet-based technologies from an instructional and international point of view. Building on the recommendations of the 2005 APA Working Group on Internationalizing the Undergraduate Psychology Curriculum, we then advance 14 recommendations on internationalizing undergraduate psychology education--for students, faculty, and institutions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Medical Research Volunteer Program (MRVP): innovative program promoting undergraduate research in the medical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Michael M; Atieh, Jessica A; Soubra, Marwa K; Khoury, Samia J; Tamim, Hani; Kaafarani, Bilal R

    2016-06-06

    Most educational institutions lack a structured system that provides undergraduate students with research exposure in the medical field. The objective of this paper is to describe the structure of the Medical Research Volunteer Program (MRVP) which was established at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, as well as to assess the success of the program. The MRVP is a program that targets undergraduate students interested in becoming involved in the medical research field early on in their academic career. It provides students with an active experience and the opportunity to learn from and support physicians, clinical researchers, basic science researchers and other health professionals. Through this program, students are assigned to researchers and become part of a research team where they observe and aid on a volunteer basis. This paper presents the MRVP's four major pillars: the students, the faculty members, the MRVP committee, and the online portal. Moreover, details of the MRVP process are provided. The success of the program was assessed by carrying out analyses using information gathered from the MRVP participants (both students and faculty). Satisfaction with the program was assessed using a set of questions rated on a Likert scale, ranging from 1 (lowest satisfaction) to 5 (highest satisfaction). A total of 211 students applied to the program with a total of 164 matches being completed. Since the beginning of the program, three students have each co-authored a publication in peer-reviewed journals with their respective faculty members. The majority of the students rated the program positively. Of the total number of students who completed the program period, 35.1 % rated the effectiveness of the program with a 5, 54.8 % rated 4, and 8.6 % rated 3. A small number of students gave lower ratings of 2 and 1 (1.1 % and 0.4 %, respectively). The MRVP is a program that provides undergraduate students with the opportunity to learn about research firsthand

  15. Five suggestions for future medical education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B; Meng, Kwang Ho

    2014-09-01

    This study is to investigate the historical characteristics of medical education and healthcare environment in Korea and to suggest the desirable direction for future medical education. We draw a consensus through the literature analysis and several debates from the eight experts of medical education. There are several historical characteristics of medical education: medical education as vocational education and training, as a higher education, rapid growth of new medical schools, change to the medical education system, curriculum development, reinforcement of medical humanities, improvement of teaching and evaluation methods, validation of the national health personnel licensing examination, accreditation system for quality assurance, and establishment of specialized medical education division. The changes of health care environment in medical education are development of medical technologies, changes in the structures of the population and diseases, growth of information and communication technology, consumer-centered society, and increased intervention by the third party stakeholder. We propose five suggestions to be made to improve future medical education. They are plan for outcome and competency-based medical education, connection between the undergraduate and graduate medical education, reinforcement of continuous quality improvement of medical education, reorganization of the medical education system and construction of leadership of "academic medicine."

  16. Medical education in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffre, Carrillo P; Delgado, Belgica; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Ecuador, the smallest of the Andean countries, is located in the northwest portion of South America. The nation's 14.5 million people have a tremendous need for high quality primary care. To describe the profound advances as well as the persistent needs in medical education in Ecuador that have occurred with globalization and with the modernization of the country. Through an extensive search of the literature; medical school data; reports from the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Education; and information from the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Innovation (SENESCYT), the medical education system in Ecuador has been thoroughly examined. The National System of Higher Education in Ecuador has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years. As of 2009 the system boasts 19 medical schools, all of which offer the required education needed to obtain the title of Physician, but only 12 of which offer postgraduate clinical training. Of these 19 universities, nine are public, five are private and self-financed, and five are private and co-financed. Post-graduate options for medical students include: (1) Clinical specialization, (2) Higher diploma, (3) Course specialization, (4) Master's degree, and (5) PhD degree. The rapid growth of Ecuador's system of medical education has led to inevitable gaps that threaten its ability to sustain itself. Chief among these is the lack of well-trained faculty to supply its medical schools. To ensure an adequate supply of faculty exists, the creation of sufficient postgraduate, sub-specialization, and PhD training positions must be created and maintained.

  17. Self-medication with antibiotics among undergraduate nursing students of a government medical college in Eastern India

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    suvadip biswas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics serve very useful therapeutic purpose in eradicating pathogens. Unfortunately excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics results in antibiotic resistance. The consequences of inappropriate self-medication with antibiotics among healthcare professionals have severe implications which might be legal issues, ethical issues, negative impacts on patient and poor quality of health care delivery. The present study was conducted on self-medication by undergraduate nursing students in a government medical college of West Bengal, India. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information pertaining to the study variables. Among the participants 54.2% had self-medicated in the last six months. The antibiotics most commonly used being metronidazole (67.4%, azithromycin (32.6% and norfloxacin (16.8%. Regarding the source of the antibiotics used for self-medication 41.6% participants went for leftover medicines at home, 34.8% participants obtained the drug from community pharmacies or drug stores. Hospital pharmacies and medicine samples were the source of the drugs for 19.2% and 4.4% participants respectively for this purpose. This study has shown that self-medication with antibiotics is common among undergraduate nursing students. There is a need for a rigorous mass enlightenment campaign to educate the population, including the health care professional about the disadvantages and possible complications of antibiotic self-medication

  18. Undergraduate otolaryngology education at the University of Toronto: a review using a curriculum mapping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Modupe; Isaac, Kathryn; Schreiber, Martin; Campisi, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of Canadian medical school curricula is to provide educational experiences that satisfy the specific objectives set out by the Medical Council of Canada. However, for specialties such as otolaryngology, there is considerable variability in student exposure to didactic and clinical teaching across Canadian medical schools, making it unclear whether students receive sufficient teaching of core otolaryngology content and clinical skills. The goal of this review was to assess the exposure to otolaryngology instruction in the undergraduate medical curriculum at the University of Toronto. Otolaryngology objectives were derived from objectives created by the Medical Council of Canada and the University of Toronto. The University of Toronto's recently developed Curriculum Mapping System (CMap) was used to perform a keyword search of otolaryngology objectives to establish when and to what extent essential topics were being taught. All (10 of 10) major topics and skills identified were covered in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Although no major gaps were identified, an uneven distribution of teaching time exists. The majority (> 90%) of otolaryngology education occurs during year 1 of clerkship. The amount of preclerkship education was extremely limited. Essential otolaryngology topics and skills are taught within the University of Toronto curriculum. The CMap was an effective tool to assess the otolaryngology curriculum and was able to identify gaps in otolaryngology education during the preclerkship years of medical school. As a result, modifications to the undergraduate curriculum have been implemented to provide additional teaching during the preclerkship years.

  19. Undergraduate Training in Human Sexuality—Evaluation of the Impact on Medical Doctors' Practice Ten Years After Graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Clegg, MSc, COSRT Accredited UKCP Registered

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The results show a link between the undergraduate teaching of sexual medicine and education and a subsequent proactive approach to sexuality issues; unfortunately, the study does not provide any information about the level of skills or ability in this field of medicine. We have confirmed that the Sheffield model might be suitable for teaching sexual medicine issues in the United Kingdom but cannot confirm that the current format is suitable for international undergraduate audiences. Future study could include other medical schools and a comparison of sexual medicine practice among physicians who received undergraduate medical education and overall numbers could be increased to compare current practice with the number of hours of sexual medicine education as a key parameter.

  20. MEDICAL ETHICS EDUCATION IN TURKEY; STATE OF PLAY AND CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif

    Medical ethics can be traced back to Hippocratic Oath in antiquity. Last decade witnessed improvements in science and technology which attracted attention to the ethical impacts of the innovations in medicine. The need to combine medical innovations with a preservation of human values and to cultivate ethical competencies required by professionalism conceived medical ethics education in various levels in medical schools. Despite the diversities regarding teaching hours, methodology and content of the courses, medical ethics became a fundamental part of medical education around the world. In Turkey medical ethics education is given both in undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The high increase in the number of medical schools and shortfall of instructors who have medical ethics as their primary academic focus creates a big challenge in medical ethics education in both levels. Currently there are 89 medical schools in Turkey and only six medical schools are giving postgraduate medical ethics education. In 2010 only 33 of all medical schools could establish a separate department dedicated to medical ethics. There are no medical ethics courses embedded in residency programs. The quality and standardization of undergraduate medical ethics education has started but there are no initiatives to do so in postgraduate level.

  1. A global view of undergraduate education in pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jenny; Härmark, Linda; van Puijenbroek, Eugène

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight in current pharmacovigilance educational activities and to gather information on which topics should be included in the undergraduate pharmacovigilance core curriculum. A web-based questionnaire was carried out containing 45 questions divided over four sections between 28 October 2014 and 31 January 2015. Potential participants working in pharmacovigilance and/or providing training in this field were invited via email and a widespread web link and snowball sampling was used to recruit additional participants. The questionnaire was filled out by 307 respondents from 88 different countries with a response rate of 29.3% for the email invitation and an unknown rate for the web link. Respondents were mainly pharmacists and physicians. Currently, lectures are the largest proportion of educational activities and all healthcare profession curricula have a mode of 2 h as number of contact hours per course. Respondents rated clinical aspects as the most important subdomain to be included in the core curriculum with prevention of adverse drug reactions as the most important subtopic. This was followed by communication aspects between parties, with communication between regulatory authorities and healthcare professionals, methodological aspects with causality assessment, and regulatory aspects with benefit-risk assessment. This is similar to subjects addressed in current educational activities with little difference between medical and pharmacy curricula. This study gave a good general impression in current educational activities and the respondents' needs and wishes for future activities worldwide, which both will be used for the development of the undergraduate pharmacovigilance core curriculum.

  2. Same admissions tools, different outcomes: a critical perspective on predictive validity in three undergraduate medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel; Friedman, Tim; Pearce, Jacob

    2013-12-27

    Admission to medical school is one of the most highly competitive entry points in higher education. Considerable investment is made by universities to develop selection processes that aim to identify the most appropriate candidates for their medical programs. This paper explores data from three undergraduate medical schools to offer a critical perspective of predictive validity in medical admissions. This study examined 650 undergraduate medical students from three Australian universities as they progressed through the initial years of medical school (accounting for approximately 25 per cent of all commencing undergraduate medical students in Australia in 2006 and 2007). Admissions criteria (aptitude test score based on UMAT, school result and interview score) were correlated with GPA over four years of study. Standard regression of each of the three admissions variables on GPA, for each institution at each year level was also conducted. Overall, the data found positive correlations between performance in medical school, school achievement and UMAT, but not interview. However, there were substantial differences between schools, across year levels, and within sections of UMAT exposed. Despite this, each admission variable was shown to add towards explaining course performance, net of other variables. The findings suggest the strength of multiple admissions tools in predicting outcomes of medical students. However, they also highlight the large differences in outcomes achieved by different schools, thus emphasising the pitfalls of generalising results from predictive validity studies without recognising the diverse ways in which they are designed and the variation in the institutional contexts in which they are administered. The assumption that high-positive correlations are desirable (or even expected) in these studies is also problematised.

  3. Integrating genomics into undergraduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Dieter, Carla; Quinn Griffin, Mary T

    2011-09-01

    To prepare the next generation of nurses, faculty are now faced with the challenge of incorporating genomics into curricula. Here we discuss how to meet this challenge. Steps to initiate curricular changes to include genomics are presented along with a discussion on creating a genomic curriculum thread versus a standalone course. Ideas for use of print material and technology on genomic topics are also presented. Information is based on review of the literature and curriculum change efforts by the authors. In recognition of advances in genomics, the nursing profession is increasing an emphasis on the integration of genomics into professional practice and educational standards. Incorporating genomics into nurses' practices begins with changes in our undergraduate curricula. Information given in didactic courses should be reinforced in clinical practica, and Internet-based tools such as WebQuest, Second Life, and wikis offer attractive, up-to-date platforms to deliver this now crucial content. To provide information that may assist faculty to prepare the next generation of nurses to practice using genomics. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Teleconferencing in medical education: a useful tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Education and healthcare are basic needs for human development. Technological innovation has broadened the access to higher quality healthcare and education without regard to time, distance or geopolitical boundaries. Distance learning has gained popularity as a means of learning in recent years due to widely distributed learners, busy schedules and rising travel costs. Teleconferencing is also a very useful tool as a distance learning method.Teleconferencing is a real-time and live interactive programme in which one set of participants are at one or more locations and the other set of participants are at another. The teleconference allows for interaction, including audio and/or video, and possibly other modalities, between at least two sites. Various methods are available for setting up a teleconferencing unit. A detailed review of the trend in the use of teleconferencing in medical education was conducted using Medline and a literature search.Teleconferencing was found to be a very useful tool in continuing medical education (CME), postgraduate medical education, undergraduate medical education, telementoring and many other situations. The use of teleconferencing in medical education has many advantages including savings in terms of travel costs and time. It gives access to the best educational resources and experience without any limitations of boundaries of distance and time. It encourages two-way interactions and facilitates learning in adults. Despite having some pitfalls in its implementation it is now being seen as an important tool in facilitating learning in medicine and many medical schools and institutions are adapting this novel tool.

  5. Psychoactive Substance Use among Medical/Health Faculty Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Whitehorne-Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study sought to explore the drug use practices of undergraduate students within the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Method: This study was a multicentre study carried out in Jamaica and six Latin American countries. The study utilized a cross-sectional design using a survey method of data collection. A list of compulsory classes for first- and second-year undergraduate students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences was retrieved by researchers and then cluster sampling was used to choose lectures to carry out data collection. The instrument utilized for the study was a self-report questionnaire which consisted of 58 questions which enquired about sociodemographic information, psychoactive substance use and associated consequences. Results: A total of 380 students (78 males, 302 females participated in the study; 115 (30.3% reported a past year prevalence of psychoactive substance use. Roughly half (50.8% reported that they first used substances when they were 15−19 years old. Students also reported a past month prevalence of alcohol use (16.6%, prescription drugs without a prescription (4.5%, tobacco (2.4% and cannabis (2.1% use. Conclusion: These preliminary results on substance use patterns among students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences indicate urgent need for further research among this population. Such research should be used to inform prevention and treatment programmes that will directly target this student population.

  6. Characteristics of undergraduate medical thesis of a Peruvian public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Castro Maldonado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The undergraduate thesis rather than a requirement to graduate, are a way of doing research. Previous studies show a thesis published between 2.7% to 17.6% in indexed journals. Objective: Describe the characteristics of the undergraduate thesis of the Faculty of a medical school. Bibliometric study. 221 theses were reviewed, collecting: Year, number of authors, advisers, and references, study population, and national priorities for health research. A search was performed on Google Scholar to assess publication. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: Being lower production in the years 2008-2010 was observed. 91.6% had one advisor, 76% descriptive, 82.8% in hospital population, and 62.4% of adults. Theses displayed between 2010-2014 72.9% did not correspond to any national health research priority. Only 6.8% was based on literature of the last five years. Only 9 (4.1% were published in a scientific journal indexed. Conclusions: The undergraduate thesis were characterized as descriptive, hospital, adults, literature based on outdated and not in line with the national priorities for health research. The publication is low.

  7. A survey on internet usage and online learning behaviour among medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Soma; Chandrasekaran, Venkatesh; Dhandapany, Gunasekaran; Palanisamy, Soundararajan; Sadagopan, Srinivasan

    2017-05-01

    To determine the magnitude and pattern of internet usage by undergraduate medical students to retrieve medical information. A pretested questionnaire-based survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students who were willing to participate. The institute ethics committee approved the study. The responses of students to the questionnaire were analysed using VassarStats online statistical programme. Categorical variables were expressed as proportions. To determine the significance of the difference between proportions, the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test was used. Log-linear analysis was performed for significance of association among interacting variables. A p value online continuing medical education programmes. On log-linear analysis, a linear relationship was found for medical time and social time. An encouraging trend is seen in the use of the internet by medical students to access medical information, but this has not translated into improved online learning behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Peer-assisted learning--beyond teaching: How can medical students contribute to the undergraduate curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmedge, Daniel S; Iwata, Kazuya; Gill, Deborah

    2014-09-01

    Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become increasingly popular over recent years with many medical schools now formally incorporating peer-teaching programs into the curriculum. PAL has a sound evidence base with benefit to both peer-teacher and peer-learner. Aside from in teaching delivery, empowering students to develop education in its broadest sense has been much less extensively documented. Five case studies with supportive evaluation evidence illustrate the success of a broad range of peer-led projects in the undergraduate medical curriculum, particularly where these have been embedded into formal teaching practices. These case studies identify five domains of teaching and support of learning where PAL works well: teaching and learning, resource development, peer-assessment, education research and evaluation and mentoring and support. Each case offers ways of engaging students in each domain. Medical students can contribute significantly to the design and delivery of the undergraduate medical program above and beyond the simple delivery of peer-assisted "teaching". In particular, they are in a prime position to develop resources and conduct research and evaluation within the program. Their participation in all stages enables them to feel involved in course development and education of their peers and ultimately leads to an increase in student satisfaction.

  9. Use Of Psychoactive Drugs Among Medical Undergraduates In Abbottabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Khan, Aftab Alam; Bukhari, Saima

    2017-01-01

    Psychoactive substance abuse is prevalent among medical undergraduates of Pakistan, India & Western countries which can adversely affect the physical & psychological grooming of a medical undergraduate thus threatening to compromise their role as future physicians & health-care providers in the society. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance/drug consumption among undergraduate students of a public sector medical college in Abbottabad. Seven hundred and eighty participants after informed consent were requested to fill a questionnaire seeking information about their demographics, patterns & behaviours regarding ten common psychoactive substances of abuse including (Cigarettes, Benzodiazepines, naswar, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamine, opium, cocaine, heroin & organic solvents). Overall students who responded were 698 (89.48%). One hundred and fifty (21.49%) admitted to the use of a psychoactive substance in past or at present. Majority users (71.33%) were males. Overall (81.33%) users were living in hostel or a rented apartment. Substance abuse was more prevalent among senior students, i.e., 30.06% & 24.24% in 4th year & final year MBBS respectively. Majority of the consumers, i.e., 93 (62%) were falling in an age group between 15-20 years. Main reasons behind substance abuse were: psychological stress (49.33%) and pleasure seeking (42.67%). Substances/drugs used by students in order of preference were Cigarettes 115 (76.67%), Benzodiazepines 48 (32%), naswar 42 (28%), Cannabis 41 (27.33%), Alcohol 24 (16%), Amphetamine 22 (14.67%), Opium 15 (10%), Cocaine 14 (9.33%), Heroin 11 (7.33%) & Organic solvents 05 (3.33%). Use of more than one substance was observed in 70 (46.67%) students. It is concluded that prevalence of cigarette smoking, naswar, benzodiazepines, cannabis & alcohol is high among medical undergraduates in Abbottabad which is a matter of concern. Efforts are needed to create

  10. [Interprofessional multistation practical training in the auditorium : Implementation of the national competence-based catalog of learning objectives for undergraduate medical education in the cross-sectorial area medicine of aging and the aged at the TU Dresden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Maik; Görnig, Matthias; Voigt, Karen; Schübel, Jeaninne; Bergmann, Antje

    2017-12-05

    The German national competence-based catalogue of learning objectives for undergraduate medical education (NKLM) newly introduced in 2015, provides a variety of learning objectives, competences, as well as practical skills for the cross-sectorial area 7 "Medication of Aging and the Aged" (QB7). Against this background an interdisciplinary teaching concept to mediate all required teaching contents should be developed. Can an interdisciplinary multistation practical course in the auditorium, in which different tasks and skills are trained at each station meet the requirements of the NKLM? Evaluation by questionnaire and rating of answers on a 6-stage Likert scale. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative evaluation results of 235 participating students and 13 lecturers in 2016. The interdisciplinary multistation practical course in the auditorium is fully compliant with the NKLM. All theoretical and practical contents and competences could be depicted. The subjective learning effect was assessed by students as good (mean = 2.66; SD = 0.94; N = 230). The available teaching time was rated as being too short in qualitative statements. The lecturers attested a high degree of interest by the students (mean = 2.15; SD = 0.86; N = 13), but criticized that the noise level was too loud. Compact, hands-on and interdisciplinary teaching concepts in the QB7 help to make the best use of human and spatial resources and convey all theoretical and practical teaching contents and competences from the NKLM; however, the planning, organization and implementation are very time-consuming.

  11. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    when the consumerist and individualist perspective is affecting all walks of life including medical education, voices such as these may become louder.10,11. There is also the more fundamental question – whose needs should be catered for? Is it the needs of individ- ual learners or the needs of patients and populations.

  12. Anchoring interprofessional education in undergraduate curricula: The Heidelberg story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah; Goetz, Katja; Leowardi-Bauer, Christina; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Mahler, Cornelia

    2017-03-01

    The ability of health professionals to collaborate effectively has significant potential impact on patient safety and quality-care outcomes, especially given the increasingly complex and dynamic clinical practice environments of today. Educators of the health professions are faced with an immediate challenge to adapt curricula and traditional teaching methods to ensure graduates are equipped with the necessary interprofessional competencies and (inter)professional values for their future practice. The World Health Organization's "Framework for action in interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative practice" promotes IPE as a key strategy to enhance patient outcomes by preparing a "collaborative practice-ready health workforce." Logistical and attitudinal barriers can hinder integration of IPE into curricula. Lessons learned through the implementation of a planned change to establish four interprofessional seminars (team communication, medical error communication, healthcare English, and small business management) at Heidelberg University Medical Faculty, Germany, are described. A key factor in successfully anchoring IPE seminars in the undergraduate curricula was the structured approach drawing on change management concepts.

  13. The evolution of global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowson Mike

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the early 1990s there has been a burgeoning interest in global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. In this article we trace the evolution of this teaching and present recommendations for how the discipline might develop in future years. Discussion Undergraduate global health teaching has seen a marked growth over the past ten years, partly as a response to student demand and partly due to increasing globalization, cross-border movement of pathogens and international migration of health care workers. This teaching has many different strands and types in terms of topic focus, disciplinary background, the point in medical studies in which it is taught and whether it is compulsory or optional. We carried out a survey of medical schools across the world in an effort to analyse their teaching of global health. Results indicate that this teaching is rising in prominence, particularly through global health elective/exchange programmes and increasing teaching of subjects such as globalization and health and international comparison of health systems. Our findings indicate that global health teaching is moving away from its previous focus on tropical medicine towards issues of more global relevance. We suggest that there are three types of doctor who may wish to work in global health – the ‘globalised doctor’, ‘humanitarian doctor’ and ‘policy doctor’ – and that each of these three types will require different teaching in order to meet the required competencies. This teaching needs to be inserted into medical curricula in different ways, notably into core curricula, a special overseas doctor track, optional student selected components, elective programmes, optional intercalated degrees and postgraduate study. Summary We argue that teaching of global health in undergraduate medical curricula must respond to changing understandings of the term global health. In particular it must be taught from the

  14. The evolution of global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Mike; Smith, Abi; Hughes, Rob; Johnson, Oliver; Maini, Arti; Martin, Sophie; Martineau, Fred; Miranda, J Jaime; Pollit, Vicki; Wake, Rae; Willott, Chris; Yudkin, John S

    2012-11-13

    Since the early 1990s there has been a burgeoning interest in global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. In this article we trace the evolution of this teaching and present recommendations for how the discipline might develop in future years. Undergraduate global health teaching has seen a marked growth over the past ten years, partly as a response to student demand and partly due to increasing globalization, cross-border movement of pathogens and international migration of health care workers. This teaching has many different strands and types in terms of topic focus, disciplinary background, the point in medical studies in which it is taught and whether it is compulsory or optional. We carried out a survey of medical schools across the world in an effort to analyse their teaching of global health. Results indicate that this teaching is rising in prominence, particularly through global health elective/exchange programmes and increasing teaching of subjects such as globalization and health and international comparison of health systems. Our findings indicate that global health teaching is moving away from its previous focus on tropical medicine towards issues of more global relevance. We suggest that there are three types of doctor who may wish to work in global health - the 'globalised doctor', 'humanitarian doctor' and 'policy doctor' - and that each of these three types will require different teaching in order to meet the required competencies. This teaching needs to be inserted into medical curricula in different ways, notably into core curricula, a special overseas doctor track, optional student selected components, elective programmes, optional intercalated degrees and postgraduate study. We argue that teaching of global health in undergraduate medical curricula must respond to changing understandings of the term global health. In particular it must be taught from the perspective of more disciplines than just biomedicine, in order to reflect

  15. Competencies for first year residents - physicians' views from medical schools with different undergraduate curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Sophie; Schick, Kristina; Deppermann, Jana; Prediger, Sarah; Berberat, Pascal O; Kadmon, Martina; Harendza, Sigrid

    2017-09-07

    Frameworks like the CanMEDS model depicting professional roles and specific professional activities provide guidelines for postgraduate education. When medical graduates start their residency, they should possess certain competencies related to communication, management and professionalism while other competencies will be refined during postgraduate training. Our study aimed to evaluate the relevance of different competencies for a first year resident required for entrustment decision from the perspective of physicians from medical faculties with different undergraduate medical curricula. Nine hundred fifty-two surgeons and internists from three medical schools with different undergraduate medical curricula were invited to rank 25 competencies according to their relevance for first year residents. The rankings were compared between universities, specialties, physicians' positions, and gender. Two hundred two physicians participated, 76 from Hamburg University, 44 from Oldenburg University, and 82 from Technical University Munich. No significant differences were found regarding the top 10 competencies relevant for first year residents between the universities. 'Responsibility' was the competency with the highest rank overall. Internists ranked 'Structure, work planning and priorities' higher while surgeons ranked 'Verbal communication with colleagues and supervisors' higher. Consultants evaluated 'Active listening to patients' more important than department directors and residents. Female physicians ranked 'Verbal communication with colleagues and supervisors' and 'Structure, work planning and priorities' significantly higher while male physicians ranked 'Scientifically and empirically grounded method of working' significantly higher. Physicians from universities with different undergraduate curricula principally agreed on the competencies relevant for first year residents. Some differences between physicians from different positions, specialties, and gender were

  16. Body-art practices among undergraduate medical university students in dar es salaam, Tanzania, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacha, Chacha Emmanuel; Kazaura, Method R

    2015-01-01

    Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include "a mark of beauty," 24%, "just wanted one," 18% and "a mark of femininity or masculinity," 17%. The majority (98%) of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52%) reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks.

  17. Body-art practices among undergraduate medical university students in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacha Emmanuel Chacha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. Results: While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include "a mark of beauty," 24%, "just wanted one," 18% and "a mark of femininity or masculinity," 17%. The majority (98% of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52% reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks.

  18. Medical education: Changes and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Lee, Liming; Gruppen, Larry D.; Ba, Denian

    2013-01-01

    As medical education undergoes significant internationalization, it is important for the medical education community to understand how different countries structure and provide medical education. This article highlights the current landscape of medical education in China, particularly the changes that have taken place in recent years. It also examines policies and offers suggestions about future strategies for medical education in China. Although many of these changes reflect international trends, Chinese medical education has seen unique transformations that reflect its particular culture and history. PMID:23631405

  19. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  20. Teaching corner: an undergraduate medical education program comprehensively integrating global health and global health ethics as core curricula : student experiences of the medical school for international health in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichholtz, Sara; Kreniske, Jonah Susser; Morrison, Zachary; Shack, Avraham R; Dwolatzky, Tzvi

    2015-03-01

    The Medical School for International Health (MSIH) was created in 1996 by the Faculty of Health Sciences at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in affiliation with Columbia University's Health Sciences division. It is accredited by the New York State Board of Education. Students complete the first three years of the program on the Ben-Gurion University campus in Be'er-Sheva, Israel, while fourth-year electives are completed mainly in the United States (at Columbia University Medical Center and affiliates as well as other institutions) along with a two-month global health elective at one of numerous sites located around the world (including Canada, Ethiopia, India, Israel, Kenya, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, the United States, and Vietnam). The unique four-year, American-style curriculum is designed not only to prepare physicians who will be able to work at both an individual and community level but also at both of these levels anywhere in the world. In this way, it combines elements of medical and public health curricula not limited to an American perspective.

  1. An Audit of the Effectiveness of Large Group Neurology Tutorials for Irish Undergraduate Medical Students

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, H

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this audit was to determine the effectiveness of large group tutorials for teaching neurology to medical students. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire rating their confidence on a ten point Likert scale in a number of domains in the undergraduate education guidelines from the Association of British Neurologists (ABN). We then arranged a series of interactive large group tutorials for the class and repeated the questionnaire one month after teaching. In the three core domains of neurological: history taking, examination and differential diagnosis, none of the students rated their confidence as nine or ten out of ten prior to teaching. This increased to 6% for history taking, 12 % in examination and 25% for differential diagnosis after eight weeks of tutorials. This audit demonstrates that in our centre, large group tutorials were an effective means of teaching, as measured by the ABN guidelines in undergraduate neurology.

  2. Medical education and social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Ahsan; Qayum, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Farooq, Umer; Shah, Awais Ali; Waqas, Muhammad; Rasool, Maleeha; Hameed, Sania; Kanwal, Rana; Azmat, Muneeba; Marwat, Saleem; Afridit, Faheem

    2014-01-01

    A positive learning environment and quality of course content have an imperative role in academic achievement of students. This study aims to assess students' point of view about the quality of education and social environment of a public sector medical college in Pakistan. Relative scarcity of data from students' perspective merited this study. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, Pakistan, including 300 medical students from all five years of the MBBS course. Systematic random sampling was used with a kth interval of 4 for each class. Self-administered questionnaire was used and contained items related to academics, learning environment, learning resources, teaching methodologies and student-friendly activities. The data were analysed using SPSS-16. There were 265 respondents (88.3%) to the questionnaire with males accounting for 58.9% (n=156). In general students showed satisfaction with quality of content being taught; however there was discontent towards various academic and non- academic facilities provided to the students. Only 44.10% and 31.50% students reported provision of academic related facilities and interactive sessions as up to mark respectively; 83% students reported that undergraduate medical research was in need of improvement; 55.5% and 60.2% reported that facilities in hostel and recreational facilities needed improvement respectively; and 52.8% students stated presence of a healthy, student friendly, encouraging environment was not up to mark. Although course content and teaching methodologies are generally satisfactory, a healthy, student friendly, encouraging environment is vet to be created to help students foster their abilities completely.

  3. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Undergraduate Clinical Education Environment Measure (UCEEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Pia; Sjöborg, Karolina; Stalmeijer, Renée; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Jakobsson, Ulf; Edgren, Gudrun

    2013-12-01

    There is a paucity of instruments designed to evaluate the multiple dimensions of the workplace as an educational environment for undergraduate medical students. The aim was to develop and psychometrically evaluate an instrument to measure how undergraduate medical students perceive the clinical workplace environment, based on workplace learning theories and empirical findings. Development of the instrument relied on established standards including theoretical and empirical grounding, systematic item development and expert review at various stages to ensure content validity. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed using a series of steps from conceptualization through psychometric analysis of scores in a Swedish medical student population. The final result was a 25-item instrument with two overarching dimensions, experiential learning and social participation, and four subscales that coincided well with theory and empirical findings: Opportunities to learn in and through work & quality of supervision; Preparedness for student entry; Workplace interaction patterns & student inclusion; and Equal treatment. Evidence from various sources supported content validity, construct validity and reliability of the instrument. The Undergraduate Clinical Education Environment Measure represents a valid, reliable and feasible multidimensional instrument for evaluation of the clinical workplace as a learning environment for undergraduate medical students. Further validation in different populations using various psychometric methods is needed.

  4. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  5. Research on the Undergraduate Financial Engineering Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haiyong; Zhang, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development of modern economy has put forward higher requirements for financial engineering education. This paper analyzes the status and problems in undergraduate financial engineering education in china, such as indistinct training objective, rigid curriculum structure, and superficial teaching methods, etc. and puts forward…

  6. Study on Enterprise Education System for Undergraduates in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the higher school undergraduate entrepreneurship education system. Its architecture mainly includes five aspects of content: improve the students' entrepreneurial cognitive ability, adjust the teacher's education idea, carry out various kinds of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial training, carry out flexible forms of team…

  7. Greek Undergraduate Physical Education Students' Basic Computer Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamakis, Manolis; Zounhia, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine how undergraduate physical education (PE) students feel about their level of competence concerning basic computer skills and to examine possible differences between groups (gender, specialization, high school graduation type, and high school direction). Although many students and educators believe…

  8. Educational technology infrastructure and services in North American medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Carol; Souza, Kevin H; Heestand, Diane; Moses, Anna; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2006-07-01

    To describe the current educational technology infrastructure and services provided by North American allopathic medical schools that are members of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), to present information needed for institutional benchmarking. A Web-based survey instrument was developed and administered in the fall of 2004 by the authors, sent to representatives of 137 medical schools and completed by representatives of 88, a response rate of 64%. Schools were given scores for infrastructure and services provided. Data were analyzed with one-way analyses of variance, chi-square, and correlation coefficients. There was no difference in the number of infrastructure features or services offered based on region of the country, public versus private schools, or size of graduating class. Schools implemented 3.0 (SD = 1.5) of 6 infrastructure items and offered 11.6 (SD = 4.1) of 22 services. Over 90% of schools had wireless access (97%), used online course materials for undergraduate medical education (97%), course management system for graduate medical education (95%) and online teaching evaluations (90%). Use of services differed across the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education continuum. Outside of e-portfolios for undergraduates, the least-offered services were for services to graduate and continuing medical education. The results of this survey provide a benchmark for the level of services and infrastructure currently supporting educational technology by AAMC-member allopathic medical schools.

  9. Facebook and the professional behaviours of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Jayne; O'Sullivan, Helen

    2010-06-01

    The rapid growth and accessibility of social networking websites has fundamentally changed the way people manage information about their personal and professional lives. In particular, it has been suggested that interaction in virtual communities erodes elements of responsibility, accountability and social trust that build traditionally meaningful communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate how undergraduate medical students use the social network website Facebook, and to identify any unprofessional behaviour displayed online. A voluntary anonymous online survey was devised by the University of Liverpool, and emailed to students. Question topics included the use of Facebook, privacy settings, groups relating to the course and professional behaviours. Results were input to spss for analysis. The response rate was 31 per cent (n = 56). The majority of respondents did have a Facebook account and admitted there were photos they found embarrassing on the site. Over half of the respondents reported they had seen unprofessional behaviour by their colleagues on Facebook. Although students say that they are aware of the UK's General Medical Council (GMC) guidance, unprofessional behaviour is still demonstrated on the site. This research highlights the issue of social networking websites and professionalism amongst medical students. Further guidance from the GMC and medical schools should remind students that images and information placed on social networking sites is in the public domain, and could impact upon their professional reputation and identity. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  10. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish undergraduate medical degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Barrio-Fernández, José Luis; Porta, Miquel; Benavides, Fernando G; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2016-01-01

    To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into undergraduate medical degrees. The 2nd Forum of University Teachers was held at the Rey Juan Carlos University (Madrid, 11-12 December 2014). Twenty-four university professors and lecturers from 19 Spanish universities imparting medical degrees participated in the forum. They were distributed in three working groups during three working sessions. In the first session, they were asked to identify and classify core public health competencies for medical degrees. In the second, they were asked to propose public health contents for the identified competencies. In the third session, the participants organized these contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in distinct plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the public health functions «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organised into five units: Concept of health, public health and its determinants; Epidemiology and health research; Determinants and health problems; Strategies, interventions and policies; and health systems, clinical and healthcare management. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to improve and update public health training programmes for future medical professionals. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Concepts of spirituality prevailing among undergraduate medical students in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spirituality is considered one of the determinants of health. Various studies have documented its role in the management of psychological illnesses such as schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders. Doctors often lack skills to do spiritual assessment of the patients. Aim: The current study was conducted among the 1st year undergraduate medical students to find out their ideas and thoughts about spirituality using self-administered questionnaire. Methodology: This was a college based cross sectional study wherein 168 students were interviewed using semistructured, self administered questionnaire. Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional ethical committee.Results: Most of the students (93.5% believed in spirituality, but only about half (49% of them had complete knowledge about it. Only psychological disorders and chronic diseases were labeled by students who need spirituality as a modality of treatment. Girls linked spirituality with God more than boys. A formal training in spirituality is not essential according to 43% of the subjects. Conclusion: The undergraduates need to understand the importance of this dimension of health. A mere gain in knowledge about spiritual strength available in some of the textbooks would not be able to orient doctors sufficiently to apply it in their practice. Future Direction: Skill building and practicing the culture of spiritual counseling among health workers is the need of hour.

  12. Motivation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland

    2017-02-01

    Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.

  13. Undergraduate Education: Seeking the Golden Mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Myles

    1992-01-01

    It is not research and undergraduate teaching that are in conflict, but how we perceive and value those activities and organize our institutions to reflect those attitudes. Remedies include renewing faculty and graduate student commitment to home campuses, appropriate evaluation and rewards for excellence in teaching, and institutional…

  14. Bioinformatics in Undergraduate Education: Practical Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Bioinformatics has emerged as an important research tool in recent years. The ability to mine large databases for relevant information has become increasingly central to many different aspects of biochemistry and molecular biology. It is important that undergraduates be introduced to the available information and methodologies. We present a…

  15. Students' Understanding of Theory in Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liff, Roy; Rovio-Johansson, Airi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates undergraduate students' application of theory in their analysis of problems presented in authentic leadership cases. Taking a phenomenographic research approach, the paper identifies two levels at which students understand "theory": Level 1-Theory as knowledge acquired from books; Level 2-Theory as support for…

  16. Education Improves Plagiarism Detection by Biology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Regrettably, the sciences are not untouched by the plagiarism affliction that threatens the integrity of budding professionals in classrooms around the world. My research, however, suggests that plagiarism training can improve students' recognition of plagiarism. I found that 148 undergraduate ecology students successfully identified plagiarized…

  17. Clinical medical sciences for undergraduate dental students in the United Kingdom and Ireland - a curriculum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mighell, A J

    2011-08-01

    The technical aspects of dentistry need to be practised with insight into the spectrum of human diseases and illnesses and how these impact upon individuals and society. Application of this insight is critical to decision-making related to the planning and delivery of safe and appropriate patient-centred healthcare tailored to the needs of the individual. Provision for the necessary training is included in undergraduate programmes, but in the United Kingdom and Ireland there is considerable variation between centres without common outcomes. In 2009 representatives from 17 undergraduate dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland agreed to move towards a common, shared approach to meet their own immediate needs and that might also be of value to others in keeping with the Bologna Process. To provide a clear identity the term \\'Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry\\' was agreed in preference to other names such as \\'Human Disease\\' or \\'Medicine and Surgery\\'. The group was challenged to define consensus outcomes. Contemporary dental education documents informed, but did not drive the process. The consensus curriculum for undergraduate Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry teaching agreed by the participating centres is reported. Many of the issues are generic and it includes elements that are likely to be applicable to others. This document will act as a focus for a more unified approach to the outcomes required by graduates of the participating centres and act as a catalyst for future developments that ultimately aim to enhance the quality of patient care.

  18. Relationships between attitudes toward sexuality, sexual behaviors, and contraceptive practices among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yingchun; Luo, Taizhen; Zhou, Ying

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated attitudes toward sexuality, the prevalence of sexual behaviors and contraceptive use among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates, and relationships between attitudes toward sexuality and sexual and contraceptive practices among these participants. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out by using a Personal Attitude toward Sexuality Scale and Sexual and Contraceptive Questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the researcher's lectures. A total of 158 participants joined this study. Overall, Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates in this study held relatively conservative attitudes toward sexuality. The prevalence of sexually-active students was relatively low, and the percentage of contraceptive use among those sexually-active students was also low. Participants' attitudes toward sexuality had statistically-significant effects on their sexual and contraceptive practices. Nearly half of the sexually-active participants reported never using any contraceptive method during sexual intercourse. This finding has important public health implications, as young people represent the group with the largest rate of new infections of HIV/AIDS in China. A more comprehensive sexual education program that extends to college undergraduates and promotes the social acceptability of using contraception, specifically condoms, is needed. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Head and Neck Anatomy: Effect of Focussed Near-Peer Teaching on Anatomical Confidence in Undergraduate Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Simon; Osborne, Max Sallis; Bowyer, Duncan

    2018-05-11

    To assess the effect of near-peer head and neck anatomy teaching on undergraduates and to quantify the benefit from a focussed teaching course. Near-peer teaching involves colleagues within close seniority and age proximity teaching one another on a specified topic. Small group teaching sessions were delivered to medical students on 3 key areas of ENT anatomy. Participants were given a precourse and postcourse questionnaire to determine the benefit attained from the course. An undergraduate anatomy course taking place at the University of Birmingham Medical School. A total of 30 medical students: 15 preclinical (years 1-2) and 15 clinical (years 3-5) medical students participated from a single institution. A total of 71% of students expressed inadequate teaching of head and neck anatomy in undergraduate curriculum. All students (n = 30) expressed benefit from the course, however the patterns of learning differed: preclinical students showed a significant improvement in both their ability to name anatomical structures and their application (p peer learning provides benefit to all medical undergraduates in the context of teaching anatomy which may make it a valuable teaching tool for the future of medical education. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Resilience evolution of medical students during the undergraduate period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Method: This is a descriptive study to identify the degree of resilience in medical students at Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, compare the resilience of different years of undergraduation and relate and compare the degree of resilience to demographic and socioeconomic status. Results: The study population has an average age of 21.68, single 270 (98.18%, caucasians 240 (87.27%, household income of more than 20 minimum wages (34.54%. In resilience general index it was obtained an average of 114 (SD=14.05. There was no significant difference between the scores obtained on the scale during graduation years. It was observed a predominance of moderate resilience in all years of the course and in the total sample. Resilience in medical students, it is shown as an individual characteristic and does not keep relations with gender, age, sexual orientation, race or housing conditions in the various years of the course. Conclusion: It was concluded that there is a predominance of moderate resilience among the medical students. There was no correlation between resilience and familiar income

  1. Are medical educators following General Medical Council guidelines on obesity education: if not why not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the United Kingdom’s (UK’s) General Medical Council (GMC) recommends that graduating medical students are competent to discuss obesity and behaviour change with patients, it is difficult to integrate this education into existing curricula, and clinicians report being unprepared to support patients needing obesity management in practice. We therefore aimed to identify factors influencing the integration of obesity management education within medical schools. Methods Twenty-seven UK and Irish medical school educators participated in semi-structured interviews. Grounded theory principles informed data collection and analysis. Themes emerging directly from the dataset illustrated key challenges for educators and informed several suggested solutions. Results Factors influencing obesity management education included: 1) Diverse and opportunistic learning and teaching, 2) Variable support for including obesity education within undergraduate medical programmes, and 3) Student engagement in obesity management education. Findings suggest several practical solutions to identified challenges including clarifying recommended educational agendas; improving access to content-specific guidelines; and implementing student engagement strategies. Conclusions Students’ educational experiences differ due to diverse interpretations of GMC guidelines, educators’ perceptions of available support for, and student interest in obesity management education. Findings inform the development of potential solutions to these challenges which may be tested further empirically. PMID:23578257

  2. Das Longitudinale Curriculum "Soziale und kommunikative Komptenzen" im Bologna-reformierten Medizinstudium in Basel [The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langewitz, Wolf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of “social and communicative competencies” (SOKO was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland. Project description: The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE. Conclusion: In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students’ cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment.[german] Hintergrund: Mit der Umstellung auf die Bachelor-/Masterstruktur wurde in Basel (Schweiz ein longitudinales Curriculum „soziale und Kommunikative Kompetenzen“ (SOKO in das Medizinstudium implementiert. Projektbeschreibung: Ziel ist es, den Studierenden grundlegende Techniken einer patientenzentrierten Kommunikation in dem Sinne zu vermitteln, dass die Studierenden in der Lage sind, Informationen zu erheben und Informationen an Patientinnen und Patienten weiterzugeben, um sie als gut informierte Partner am Entscheidungsprozess zu beteiligen. Das

  3. Stress and Stressors among Medical Undergraduate Students: A Cross-sectional Study in a Private Medical College in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, R; Dutta, Ruma; Raja, J Dinesh; Sivaprakasam, P; Patil, Aruna B

    2017-01-01

    Medical education is perceived as being stressful, and a high level of stress may have a negative effect on cognitive functioning and learning of students in a medical school. To (a) assess the perceived stress among medical undergraduate students, (b) identify the sources of stress, and (c) find an association of perceived stress with sociodemographic characteristics and various stressors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical undergraduate students in a private medical college in Tamil Nadu. A total of 750 medical students from 1 st year to final year were invited to participate in the study. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data regarding sociodemographic profile, perceived stress using perceived stress scale-14 and academic, psychosocial and environmental stressors. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the sociodemographic characteristics, sources of stress and perceived stress. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to assess determinants of stress. The overall response rate was 93.33% (700 out of 750 students). The mean perceived stress score was 25.64 ± 5.44. Higher age-group, year of studying bachelor of medicine and bachelor of surgery, vastness of academic curriculum, fear of poor performance in examination, lack of recreation, loneliness, family problem, and accommodation away from home were important determinants of perceived stress. The perceived stress was higher among higher age group and final year medical students. Academic, psychosocial, and environmental stressors are associated with perceived stress. Reframing the academic curriculum and examination patterns, incorporating recreational and sports activities, and establishment of counseling cells in the institution is needed.

  4. Learning strategies, study habits and social networking activity of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerdike, Andrea; O'Deasmhunaigh, Conall; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm

    2016-07-17

    To determine learning strategies, study habits, and online social networking use of undergraduates at an Irish medical school, and their relationship with academic performance. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Year 2 and final year undergraduate-entry and graduate-entry students at an Irish medical school. Data about participants' demographics and educational background, study habits (including time management), and use of online media was collected using a self-report questionnaire. Participants' learning strategies were measured using the 18-item Approaches to Learning and Studying Inventory (ALSI). Year score percentage was the measure of academic achievement. The association between demographic/educational factors, learning strategies, study habits, and academic achievement was statistically analysed using regression analysis. Forty-two percent of students were included in this analysis (n=376). A last-minute "cramming" time management study strategy was associated with increased use of online social networks. Learning strategies differed between undergraduate- and graduate-entrants, with the latter less likely to adopt a 'surface approach' and more likely adopt a 'study monitoring' approach. Year score percentage was positively correlated with the 'effort management/organised studying' learning style. Poorer academic performance was associated with a poor time management approach to studying ("cramming") and increased use of the 'surface learning' strategy. Our study demonstrates that effort management and organised studying should be promoted, and surface learning discouraged, as part of any effort to optimise academic performance in medical school. Excessive use of social networking contributes to poor study habits, which are associated with reduced academic achievement.

  5. The "Profiles" document: a modern revision of the objectives of undergraduate medical studies in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Jucker-Kupper, Patrick; The Profiles Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The Joint Commission of the Swiss Medical Schools (SMIFK/CIMS) decided in 2000 to establish a Swiss Catalogue of Learning Objectives (SCLO) for undergraduate medical training, which was adapted from a similar Dutch blueprint. A second version of the SCLO was developed and launched in 2008. The catalogue is a prerequisite for the accreditation of the curricula of the six Swiss medical faculties and defines the contents of the Federal Licensing Examination (FLE). Given the evolution of the field of medicine and of medical education, the SMIFK/CIMS has decided to embark on a total revision of the SCLO. This article presents the proposed structure and content of Profiles, a new document which, in the future, will direct the format of undergraduate studies and of the FLE. Profiles stands for the Principal Relevant Objectives for Integrative Learning and Education in Switzerland. It is currently being developed by a group of experts from the six Swiss faculties as well as representatives of other institutions involved in these developments. The foundations of Profiles are grounded in the evolution of medical practice and of public health and are based on up-to-date teaching concepts, such as EPAs (entrustable professional activities). An introduction will cover the concepts and a tutorial will be displayed. Three main chapters will provide a description of the seven 2015 CanMEDS roles, a list of core EPAs and a series of ≈250 situations embracing the most frequent and current conditions affecting health. As Profiles is still a work in progress, it is hoped that this paper will attract the interest of all individuals involved in the training of medical students.

  6. Status of medical mycology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, William J; Mitchell, Thomas G; Schell, Wiley A; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Coico, Richard F; Walsh, Thomas J; Perfect, John R

    2003-12-01

    The number of immunocompromised patients and subsequent invasive fungal infections continues to rise. However, the education of future medical mycologists to engage this growing problem is diminishing. While there are an increasing number of publications and grants awarded in mycology, the time and detail devoted to teaching medical mycology in United States medical schools are inadequate. Here we review the history in medical mycology education and the current educational opportunities. To accurately gauge contemporary teaching we also conducted a prospective survey of microbiology and immunology departmental chairpersons in United States medical schools to determine the amount and content of contemporary education in medical mycology.

  7. Teleconferencing in Medical Education: A Useful Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba Pankaj

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Education and healthcare are basic needs for humandevelopment. Technological innovation has broadened theaccess to higher quality healthcare and education withoutregard to time, distance or geopolitical boundaries. Distancelearning has gained popularity as a means of learning inrecent years due to widely distributed learners, busyschedules and rising travel costs. Teleconferencing is also avery useful tool as a distance learning method.Teleconferencing is a real-time and live interactiveprogramme in which one set of participants are at one ormore locations and the other set of participants are atanother. The teleconference allows for interaction,including audio and/or video, and possibly other modalities,between at least two sites. Various methods are availablefor setting up a teleconferencing unit. A detailed review ofthe trend in the use of teleconferencing in medicaleducation was conducted using Medline and a literaturesearch.Teleconferencing was found to be a very useful tool incontinuing medical education (CME, postgraduate medicaleducation, undergraduate medical education,telementoring and many other situations. The use ofteleconferencing in medical education has many advantagesincluding savings in terms of travel costs and time. It givesaccess to the best educational resources and experiencewithout any limitations of boundaries of distance and time.It encourages two-way interactions and facilitates learningin adults. Despite having some pitfalls in its implementationit is now being seen as an important tool in facilitatinglearning in medicine and many medical schools andinstitutions are adapting this novel tool.

  8. Evaluation of use of e-Learning in undergraduate radiology education: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Saad; Safdar, Saima; Zafar, Aasma N

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to investigate the evaluative outcomes present in the literature according to Kirkpatrick's learning model and to examine the nature and characteristics of the e-Learning interventions in radiology education at undergraduate level. Four databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Eric) are searched for publications related to the application of e-Learning in undergraduate radiology education. The search strategy is a combination of e-Learning and Mesh and non Mesh radiology and undergraduate related terms. These search strategies are established in relation to experts of respective domains. The full text of thirty pertinent articles is reviewed. Author's country and study location data is extracted to identify the most active regions and year's are extracted to know the existing trend. Data regarding radiology subfields and undergraduate year of radiology education is extracted along with e-Learning technologies to identify the most prevalent or suitable technologies or tools with respect to radiology contents. Kirkpatricks learning evaluation model is used to categorize the evaluative outcomes reported in the identified studies. The results of this analysis reveal emergence of highly interactive games, audience response systems and designing of wide range of customized tools according to learner needs assessment in radiology education at undergraduate level. All these initiatives are leading toward highly interactive self directed learning environments to support the idea of life-long independent learners. Moreover, majority of the studies in literature regarding e-Learning in radiology at undergraduate level are based on participant satisfaction followed by participant results or outcomes either before or after an intervention or both. There was no research particularly demonstrating performance change in clinical practice or patient outcome as they may be difficult to measure in medical education. Thus clinical competences and performances are

  9. Integrating Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Content Into Undergraduate Medical School Curricula: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Gina M; Chakraborti, Chayan; Panunti, Brandy A

    2012-01-01

    The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is a diverse, underserved, and often stigmatized group that faces many barriers to accessing quality healthcare. Not only are few practicing physicians knowledgeable about and sensitive to the needs of LGBT patients, but medical school curricula include limited LGBT-related content. Our goals were to use LGBT-related educational sessions to gauge undergraduate medical students' interest and their perceptions of relevance and to eventually incorporate this topic into the curriculum. We provided 4 educational sessions to preclinical medical students at the Tulane University School of Medicine: 3 optional, 1-hour didactic sessions and 1 standardized patient encounter. Following sessions 1-3, students completed electronic feedback forms; we then analyzed their responses thematically. THE THEMATIC ANALYSIS OF STUDENT RESPONSES IDENTIFIED KEY THEMES: a current lack of exposure to LGBT content, agreement that LGBT material is applicable to students' work as future physicians, and the relevance of including such information in the medical school curriculum. The study validated the underlying assumption that LGBT educational sessions are meaningful to and valued by medical students.

  10. Exploring perceptions of the educational environment among undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Per J; Lindquist, Ingrid; Sundberg, Tobias; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Laksov, Klara B

    2014-07-19

    The aim of this study was to explore areas of strength and weakness in the educational environment as perceived by undergraduate physiotherapy students and to investigate these areas in relation to the respondents' demographic characteristics. This study utilized a cross-sectional study design and employed the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure, a 50-item, self-administered inventory relating to a variety of topics directly pertinent to educational environments. Convenience sampling was used, and the scores were compared across demographic variables. All undergraduate physiotherapy students in their first five terms of the programme in a major Swedish university were invited to participate in the study. A total of 222 students (80%) completed the inventory. With an overall score of 150/200 (75%), the students rated the educational environment in this institution as "more positive than negative". Two items consistently received deprived scores - authoritarian teachers and teaching with an overemphasis on factual learning. Students in term 4 differed significantly from others, and students with earlier university education experience perceived the atmosphere more negatively than their counterparts. There were no significant differences with regards to other demographic variables. This study provides valuable insight into how undergraduate physiotherapy students perceive their educational environment. In general, students perceived that their educational programme fostered a sound educational environment. However, some areas require remedial measures in order to enhance the educational experience.

  11. Teaching teamwork in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Susan; Magrane, Diane; Friedman, Erica

    2009-08-01

    Teamwork has become a major focus in healthcare. In part, this is the result of the Institute of Medicine report entitled To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which details the high rate of preventable medical errors, many of which are the result of dysfunctional or nonexistent teamwork. It has been proposed that a healthcare system that supports effective teamwork can improve the quality of patient care and reduce workload issues that cause burnout among healthcare professionals. Few clear guidelines exist to help guide the implementation of all these recommendations in healthcare settings. In general, training programs designed to improve team skills are a new concept for medicine, particularly for physicians who are trained largely to be self-sufficient and individually responsible for their actions. Outside of healthcare, research has shown that teams working together in high-risk and high-intensity work environments make fewer mistakes than individuals. This evidence originates from commercial aviation, the military, firefighting, and rapid-response police activities. Commercial aviation, an industry in which mistakes can result in unacceptable loss, has been at the forefront of risk reduction through teamwork training. The importance of teamwork has been recognized by some in the healthcare industry who have begun to develop their own specialty-driven programs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current literature on teaching about teamwork in undergraduate medical education. We describe the science of teams, analyze the work in team training that has been done in other fields, and assess what work has been done in other fields about the importance of team training (ie, aviation, nonmedical education, and business). Additionally, it is vital to assess what work has already been done in medicine to advance the skills required for effective teamwork. Much of this work has been done in fields in which medical professionals deal with crisis

  12. Learning styles and approaches to learning among medical undergraduates and postgraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, Lasitha; Fernando, Tharanga; Rodrigo, Chaturaka

    2013-03-25

    The challenge of imparting a large amount of knowledge within a limited time period in a way it is retained, remembered and effectively interpreted by a student is considerable. This has resulted in crucial changes in the field of medical education, with a shift from didactic teacher centered and subject based teaching to the use of interactive, problem based, student centered learning. This study tested the hypothesis that learning styles (visual, auditory, read/write and kinesthetic) and approaches to learning (deep, strategic and superficial) differ among first and final year undergraduate medical students, and postgraduates medical trainees. We used self administered VARK and ASSIST questionnaires to assess the differences in learning styles and approaches to learning among medical undergraduates of the University of Colombo and postgraduate trainees of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, Colombo. A total of 147 participated: 73 (49.7%) first year students, 40 (27.2%) final year students and 34(23.1%) postgraduate students. The majority (69.9%) of first year students had multimodal learning styles. Among final year students, the majority (67.5%) had multimodal learning styles, and among postgraduates, the majority were unimodal (52.9%) learners.Among all three groups, the predominant approach to learning was strategic. Postgraduates had significant higher mean scores for deep and strategic approaches than first years or final years (p learning approaches suggest a positive shift towards deep and strategic learning in postgraduate students. However a similar difference was not observed in undergraduate students from first year to final year, suggesting that their curriculum may not have influenced learning methodology over a five year period.

  13. A critical review of the core medical training curriculum in the UK: A medical education perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Gkotsi, Despoina; Panteliou, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    This paper represents a systematic evaluation of the Core Medical Training Curriculum in the UK. The authors critically review the curriculum from a medical education perspective based mainly on the medical education literature as well as their personal experience of this curriculum. They conclude in practical recommendations and suggestions which, if adopted, could improve the design and implementation of this postgraduate curriculum. The systematic evaluation approach described in this paper is transferable to the evaluation of other undergraduate or postgraduate curricula, and could be a helpful guide for medical teachers involved in the delivery and evaluation of any medical curriculum.

  14. Radiology curriculum for undergraduate medical studies—A consensus survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsadraee, S.; Mankad, K.; McCoubrie, P.; Roberts, T.; Kessel, D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To establish an expert consensus of what, when, and how the teaching of radiology should be incorporated into the core undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods and materials: This Delphi survey consisted of four iterative rounds, with feedback given at the start of each successive round in the form of the results of the previous round. The participants consisted of both radiologists and non-radiologists with significant interest and involvement in radiology and undergraduate/Foundation training. The study addressed the questions of how, where, when, and by whom radiology should be taught. Results: The number of responses in rounds 1–4 was 20, 23, 41, and 25 (25, 22, 31, and 61% response rate, respectively). There was good consensus amongst the responders on the following: radiology teaching must be delivered in conjunction with anatomy and clinical case-based teaching, if possible in the department of radiology on picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstations, and the teaching should be delivered by a competent and credentialled individual. Case-based assessment was the most agreed method of assessment. The majority of the responders concurred that the curriculum should include general indications for commonly requested radiological investigations, consent and safety issues around radiological tests, and their basic interpretation. Conclusion: The consensus points reached by the present study not only serve as directive principles for developing a more comprehensive radiology curriculum, but also places emphasis on a broader range of knowledge required to promote the best use of a department of radiology by junior doctors in an attempt to improve patient experiences and care.

  15. [Educating Speech Graduates and Undergraduates for Careers Other Than Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert N., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The theme of this issue of "The ACA Bulletin" is the education of speech undergraduates and graduates for careers other than teaching. Included in this issue are such articles as "Employment of Speach Communication Graduates: A Rewiew of Problems and Prospects" by Robert Hall; "Employer Images of Speech Communication Majors: A Question of…

  16. Changing academic culture to improve undergraduate STEM education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchman, Erica L

    2014-12-01

    Improving undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education requires faculty with the skills, resources, and time to create active learning environments that foster student engagement. Current faculty hiring, promotion, and tenure practices at many universities do not measure, reward, nor encourage faculty pursuit of these skills. A cultural change is needed to foster improvement. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. High Graduate Unemployment Rate and Taiwanese Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chun

    2011-01-01

    An expansion in higher education in combination with the recent global economic recession has resulted in a high college graduate unemployment rate in Taiwan. This study investigates how the high unemployment rate and financial constraints caused by economic cutbacks have shaped undergraduates' class choices, job needs, and future income…

  18. Auditing the ICT Experiences of Teacher Education Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Glenice; Proctor, Romina M. J.; Finger, Glenn; Lang, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The importance of teacher education graduates having appropriate information and communication technology (ICT) for learning competencies and experiences is well documented. However, without well developed processes for auditing the ICT experiences of undergraduates it should not be assumed that teachers will enter their profession with the…

  19. Facilitating the Progression of Modern Apprentices into Undergraduate Business Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Simon

    1999-01-01

    A case study of a program to give apprentices access to undergraduate business education at a British university in cooperation with a local chamber of commerce identified these success factors: recognition that modern apprentices are unlike traditional college students and focus on technology, outcome-based learning, personal development, and…

  20. Use of Learning Media by Undergraduate Medical Students in Pharmacology: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Joanna; Kühbeck, Felizian; Berberat, Pascal O.; Fischer, Martin R.; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of the internet and computer-based technologies has an increasing impact on higher education and the way students access information for learning. Moreover, there is a paucity of information about the quantitative and qualitative use of learning media by the current student generation. In this study we systematically analyzed the use of digital and non-digital learning resources by undergraduate medical students. Daily online surveys and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a cohort of 338 third year medical students enrolled in a general pharmacology course. Our data demonstrate a predominant use of digital over non-digital learning resources (69 ± 7% vs. 31 ± 7%; p students. Most used media for learning were lecture slides (26.8 ± 3.0%), apps (22.0 ± 3.7%) and personal notes (15.5 ± 2.7%), followed by textbooks (> 300 pages) (10.6 ± 3.3%), internet search (7.9 ± 1.6%) and e-learning cases (7.6 ± 3.0%). When comparing learning media use of teaching vs. pre-exam self-study periods, textbooks were used significantly less during self-study (-55%; p learning cases (+176%; p learning resources by undergraduate medical students, in particular mobile applications. PMID:25849565

  1. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Pim A. de Ruijter; Heleen A. Biersteker; Jan Biert; Harry van Goor; Edward C. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students.Methods: One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349) medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From thes...

  2. The Contributions of the WIYN Observatory to Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric; Consortium, WIYN

    2014-01-01

    Over its nearly 20 year history the WIYN Observatory has provided crucial data for numerous undergraduate research projects at the partner institutions (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, and Yale University) plus others who access the telescope via national time from NOAO. WIYN and its instruments have served both undergraduates who are local to each institution, as well as those who have a temporary tenure as Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) students. The topics of this work range widely, and only a few examples are listed here. Numerous studies of stars have been undertaken by undergraduates, from rotation velocities of pre-main sequence stars (Rhode et al.) to dynamical heating mechanisms in open clusters (Friel et al.). Extragalactic investigations range from a study of cold ISM in galaxies near the centers of rich clusters (Gallagher & Hooper, et al.) to the stellar populations of post-starburst galaxies hosting low-level AGN (Wolf & Hooper, et al.). Students have made wide use of WIYN's long established suite of facility instruments, which currently includes the Hydra multi-object fiber spectrograph, the SparsePak integral field unit fiber spectrograph, and the WHIRC near-infrared imager. A current undergraduate is a key player in final laboratory testing of two new integral field units that will come to WIYN soon. Finally, the new large format imager pODI currently is in science operation, soon to be followed by an upgrade to nearly four times the current imaging area, a powerful tool that will join the others in contributing to undergraduate research and education. This presentation is a continuation of the overview of WIYN contributions to education that began with a discussion of graduate education at the Indianapolis AAS (Hooper, AAS Meeting #222, #214.23).

  3. Promoting Undergraduate Surgical Education: Current Evidence and Students' Views on ESMSC International Wet Lab Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Michail; Papalois, Apostolos; Theodoraki, Korina; Dimitropoulos, Ioannis; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Georgopoulou, Efstratia-Maria; Staikoglou, Nikolaos; Paparoidamis, Georgios; Pantelidis, Panteleimon; Tsagkaraki, Ismini; Karamaroudis, Stefanos; Potoupnis, Michael E; Tsiridis, Eleftherios; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Papagrigoriadis, Savvas; Papalois, Vassilios; Zografos, Georgios; Triantafyllou, Aggeliki; Tsoulfas, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Undergraduate Surgical Education is becoming an essential element in the training of the future generation of safe and efficient surgeons. Essential Skills in the Management of Surgical Cases (ESMSC), is an international, joint applied surgical science and simulation-based learning wet lab course. We performed a review of the existing literature on the topic of undergraduate surgical education. Following that, we analyzed the feedback questionnaire received 480 from 2 recent series of ESMSC courses (May 2015, n = 49 and November 2015, n = 40), in order to evaluate European Union students' (UK, Germany, Greece) views on the ESMSC course, as well as on the undergraduate surgical education. Results Using a 10 point graded scale, the overall ESMSC concept was positively evaluated, with a mean score of 9.41 ± 0.72 (range: 8-10) and 8.94 ± 1.1 (range: 7-10). The majority of delegates from both series [9.86 ± 0.43 (range: 8-10) and 9.58 ± 0.91 (range: 6-10), respectively] believed that ESMSC should be incorporated in the undergraduate surgical curriculum. Comparison of responses from the UK to the Greek Medical Student, as well as the findings from the third and fourth year versus the fifth and sixth year Medical Students, revealed no statistically significant differences pertaining to any of the questions (p > 0.05). Current evidence in the literature supports the enhancement of surgical education through the systematic use of various modalities that provide Simulation-Based Training (SBT) hands-on experience, starting from the early undergraduate level. The findings of the present study are in agreement with these previous reports.

  4. Improving STEM Undergraduate Education with Efficient Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    The project investigates the potential of Learning Design for efficiently improving STEM undergraduate education with technology. In order to investigate this potential, the project consists of two main studies at Aarhus University: a study of the perspectives of the main stakeholders on Learning...... Design uptake. The project concludes that it is possible to improve STEM undergraduate education with Learning Design for technology-enhanced learning efficiently and that Efficient Learning Design provides a useful concept for qualifying educational decisions....... provided by technology-enhanced learning based on Learning Design, and in particular students’ learning was of a high common interest. However, only the educators were directly interested in Learning Design and its support for design, reuse in their practice and to inform pedagogy. A holistic concept...

  5. Die „Klasse Allgemeinmedizin“ als Wahlpflichtfach im vorklinischen Studienabschnitt: Didaktischer Aufbau, Lehrziele und Umsetzung [The „General Practice Class“ – an eligible compulsory course in undergraduate medical education: Didactical structure, teaching targets and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langosch, Claudia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Undergraduate medical education in the field of general practice currently faces two considerable challenges: enhancing the attractiveness of general practice for all students and contributing to the necessary future rural physician workforce in primary care. Thus, we introduce a curriculum-based concept called the “General Practice Class” ( as an elective compulsory course to be taken during preclinical study. The aim of this concept is to strengthen the program focus on primary care in rural areas for interested students at an early stage.Since October 2011, the “General Practice Class” in Halle-Wittenberg offers learning experiences in regard to GP professional culture and a practice-oriented learning environment for 10% (n=20 of the freshman students. Each participating student is assigned to an individual GP mentor, who acts as a “professional example” and accompanies the student during the entire course of study. The concept of the “General Practice Class” is considered to be an innovative project due to the close connection between practical experience, problem-oriented skills training, early patient contact, and the accompanying face-to-face mentorship, starting from the beginning of preclinical study.[german] Die universitäre Lehre im Fach Allgemeinmedizin steht vor zwei großen Herausforderungen: die Attraktivität des Faches für alle Studierenden zu erhöhen und den Nachwuchs für eine flächendeckende, wohnortnahe hausärztliche Versorgung in ländlichen Räumen zu gewinnen. Mit dem Curriculum der „Klasse Allgemeinmedizin“ als Wahlpflichtfach nach ÄAppO für den vorklinischen Studienabschnitt stellen wir ein Konzept zur Stärkung von an Primärversorgung orientierten medizinischen Ausbildungsinhalten für eine interessierte Zielgruppe vor.Die „Klasse Allgemeinmedizin“ bietet seit Oktober 2011 für 10% (n=20 der Erstsemester in Halle-Wittenberg einen Erfahrungsraum, um in eine haus

  6. Educational Data Mining Acceptance among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wook, Muslihah; Yusof, Zawiyah M.; Nazri, Mohd Zakree Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The acceptance of Educational Data Mining (EDM) technology is on the rise due to, its ability to extract new knowledge from large amounts of students' data. This knowledge is important for educational stakeholders, such as policy makers, educators, and students themselves to enhance efficiency and achievements. However, previous studies on EDM…

  7. Undergraduate Research in Physics as an Educational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Toufic M.; Garg, Shila

    2001-03-01

    The National Science Foundation's 1996 report "Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology" urged that in order to improve SME&T education, decisive action must be taken so that "all students have access to excellent undergraduate education in science .... and all students learn these subjects by direct experience with the methods and processes of inquiry." Research-related educational activities that integrate education and research have been shown to be valuable in improving the quality of education and enhancing the number of majors in physics departments. Student researchers develop a motivation to continue in science and engineering through an appreciation of how science is done and the excitement of doing frontier research. We will address some of the challenges of integrating research into the physics undergraduate curriculum effectively. The departmental and institutional policies and infrastructure required to help prepare students for this endeavor will be discussed as well as sources of support and the establishment of appropriate evaluation procedures.

  8. Components of Culture in Health for Medical Students' Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervalon, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    Describes key themes and components of culture in health care for incorporation into undergraduate medical education. These include teaching the rationale for learning about culture in health care; "culture basics"; data on and concepts of health status; tools and skills for productive cross-cultural clinical encounters; characteristics and…

  9. Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Blueprints for the 21(st) Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertelak, Eric P; Ramirez, Julio J

    2008-01-01

    Paralleling the explosive growth of neuroscientific knowledge over the last two decades, numerous institutions from liberal arts colleges to research universities have either implemented or begun exploring the possibility of implementing undergraduate programs in neuroscience. In 1995, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) partnered with Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) to offer a workshop exploring how undergraduate neuroscience education should proceed. Four blueprints were created to provide direction to the burgeoning interest in developing programs in undergraduate neuroscience education: 1) Neuroscience nested in psychology; 2) Neuroscience nested in biology; 3) Neuroscience as a minor; and 4) Neuroscience as a major. In 2005, FUN again partnered with PKAL to revisit the blueprints in order to align the blueprints with modern pedagogical philosophy and technology. The original four blueprints were modified and updated. One particularly exciting outgrowth of the 2005 workshop was the introduction of a fifth curricular blueprint that strongly emphasizes the integration of the humanities and social sciences into neuroscience: Neuroscience Studies. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience, an education in neuroscience will prepare the next generation of students to think critically, synthetically, and creatively as they confront the problems facing humanity in the 21(st) century.

  10. Medical education... meet Michel Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Brian D; Martimianakis, Maria A; McNaughton, Nancy; Whitehead, Cynthia

    2014-06-01

    There have been repeated calls for the greater use of conceptual frameworks and of theory in medical education. Although it is familiar to few medical educators, Michel Foucault's work is a helpful theoretical and methodological source. This article explores what it means to use a 'Foucauldian approach', presents a sample of Foucault's historical-genealogical studies that are relevant to medical education, and introduces the work of four researchers currently undertaking Foucauldian-inspired medical education research. Although they are not without controversy, Foucauldian approaches are employed by an increasing number of scholars and are helpful in shedding light on what it is possible to think, say and be in medical education. Our hope in sharing this Foucauldian work and perspective is that we might stimulate a dialogue that is forward-looking and optimistic about the possibilities for change in medical education. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2015-08-13

    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  12. Issues in the Learning Context of Undergraduate Physiotherapy Programme at a Premier Medical School in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C Ezeala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Students’ perceptions of their learning environments influence their approaches to learning and the learning outcomes, and reflect a programme’s effectiveness. In Africa, literature on the learning environments of medical and health sciences education is scanty, and the issues impinging on effective education are not well documented. The objective of this study was to determine learners’ perceptions of the issues in the learning environment of undergraduate physiotherapy education at the University of Zambia.Methods: Undergraduate physiotherapy students in years 2 to 5 were stratified according to level of study and randomly sampled. They were provided written information about the study, and consenting students were allowed to complete the DREEM questionnaire unassisted. Completed questionnaires were rated using a recommended guideline and their responses analysed quantitatively. Global, subscale, and item mean scores were calculated, and Cronbach’s alpha was determined as a measure of data reliability and internal consistency. The study was approved by ethics committees of two universities.Results: Ninety-three students participated in the study. The response rate was 88.4 %. All classes rated the learning environment as ‘more positive than negative,’ with a mean global score of 123.2/200 (61.6 %. Scores within subscales (55.7–70.4 % were comparable across the classes. Nine items scored below 2.0/4.0 indicating dissatisfaction. These included inadequate social support, teacher authoritarianism, and factual overload. Cronbach’s alpha for global scores was 0.896, and between 0.616 and 0.820 for subscale scores.Conclusion: Though total DREEM scores showed overall positive perception of the learning environment by the students, item analysis showed students’ dissatisfaction with several aspects. This analysis of undergraduate students’ perceptions of the Physiotherapy learning environment provided insight into the

  13. Teaching and Assessing Communication Skills in Medical Undergraduate Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Jyoti Nath; Anshu, -; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder

    2016-06-08

    Good communication skills are essential for an optimal doctor-patient relationship, and also contribute to improved health outcomes. Although the need for training in communication skills is stated as a requirement in the 1997 Graduate Medical Education Regulations of the Medical Council of India, formal training in these skills has been fragmentary and non-uniform in most Indian curricula. The Vision 2015 document of the Medical Council of India reaffirms the need to include training in communication skills in the MBBS curriculum. Training in communication skills needs approaches which are different from that of teaching other clinical subjects. It is also a challenge to ensure that students not only imbibe the nuances of communication and interpersonal skills, but adhere to them throughout their careers. This article addresses the possible ways of standardizing teaching and assessment of communication skills and integrating them into the existing curriculum.

  14. Cancer awareness changes after an educational intervention among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Lih-Lian

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess undergraduate awareness of cancer risk factors, prevention strategies, and warning signs and to evaluate whether an educational intervention increases cancer awareness. This study adopts a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Of the 386 students who completed the pretest, only 35-39 % identified low fruit and vegetable intake, being overweight, and physical inactivity as cancer risk factors, and cancer warning signs. After the educational intervention, the analysis of variance of changes from baseline (the pretest score) for all four experimental groups were all significantly higher than those of the two control groups (p ≤.001), except for the change of the retention test score from the pretest score for experimental group 3. This study highlights the need to improve undergraduates' cancer awareness and the effectiveness of educational intervention.

  15. Educational Aspects of Undergraduate Research on Smartphone Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gibson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones have become commonplace in today's society. There seems to be a mobile application for every conceivable use, expect one. Smartphones have been conspicuously absent in higher education. This research examines the use of mobile applications (apps in the higher education setting. In addition, it evaluates the potential for including smartphone application development in undergraduate computer science curriculum. This paper will present a variety of smartphone apps that were developed by undergraduate researchers for use for use by students and faculty in a university environment, and apps developed to enhance the educational experience in the classroom. We also study the efficacy of the inclusion of smartphone app development in the computer science curriculum and modes for its inclusion.

  16. Undergraduate Training in Human Sexuality-Evaluation of the Impact on Medical Doctors' Practice Ten Years After Graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Mary; Pye, Joanne; Wylie, Kevan R

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that an indicator of a doctor's ability to assess patients' sexual function relates to the level of earlier training. The amount and quality of training the doctor receives at the undergraduate level and beyond could contribute to the doctor's confidence and competence. To evaluate whether doctors found that the teaching in human sexuality received at medical school was sufficient for their future practice and whether their chosen medical specialty and exposure to issues related to sexual health affected this opinion. One hundred seventy doctors maintaining contact with the University of Sheffield Medical School Alumni Office after qualifying in 2004 were sent self-completion postal questionnaires. Space was allocated for supplementary comments to their answers. Self-completion postal questionnaire. Although the response rate was low, there appeared to be an impact of the teaching of human sexuality on the clinical practice of doctors. More than two-thirds of respondents rated the teaching as useful and more than 70% felt more confident in diagnosing and managing male and female sexual issues. The results show a link between the undergraduate teaching of sexual medicine and education and a subsequent proactive approach to sexuality issues; unfortunately, the study does not provide any information about the level of skills or ability in this field of medicine. We have confirmed that the Sheffield model might be suitable for teaching sexual medicine issues in the United Kingdom but cannot confirm that the current format is suitable for international undergraduate audiences. Future study could include other medical schools and a comparison of sexual medicine practice among physicians who received undergraduate medical education and overall numbers could be increased to compare current practice with the number of hours of sexual medicine education as a key parameter. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Undergraduate module on nutrition education and communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On average, respondents answered 96% of the questions in the questionnaire. Information was obtained on areas such as students' social/cultural interests; food and nutrition experience and expertise; food and eating habits; ideas of nutrition education and training in nutrition education; and study preferences. In addition ...

  18. Competence, competency-based education, and undergraduate dental education: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenjitwongsa, S; Oliver, R G; Bullock, A D

    2018-02-01

    The aim of undergraduate dental education is to provide competent dentists to serve societal needs and improve population oral healthcare. Competency-based education has influenced the development of dental education for decades but this term is problematic. This article explores components of competency-based undergraduate health professional education in order to help the dental profession have a better understanding of the context and purposes of undergraduate dental education. This is a discussion paper based on a wide reading of the literature on the education of health professionals with a specific focus on competency-based undergraduate education. Competence comprises an integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes indicating a capability to perform professional tasks safely and ethically. The process of becoming a competent practitioner is complex. Four characteristics of competency-based education are: curriculum components and content shaped by societal needs; focused on student-centred learning; learning achievement; and limited attention to time-based training and numerical targets. Alongside a competency-based approach, undergraduate dental education can be influenced by institutional features and external factors but these receive little consideration in the literature. Understanding competence, competency-based education, and institutional and external factors will help to improve educational quality, define roles and professional development for the dental educator, and inform further research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A Viewpoint on Medical Education in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Khazaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique characteristics of medical universities compared to other higher education centers in Iran is existence of medical education development centers. These centers have made an attempt to enhance the quality of medical education by regular and constant activity in various domains of educational planning and policymaking, and empowerment of the faculty members, students and personnel. Numerous studies published in Persian and English journals are one of the achievements of these centers. Also, several Persian and English scientific journals are being published by these centers among which the role of the few English languages journals of these centers is remarkably significant. Since these journals attract more audience, especially from abroad, it is necessary to pay special heed to the quality of their published articles. Avoiding the publication of such articles as “analysis of awareness and attitude” and turning to innovative intervention studies in medical education (1 have been highlighted by the authorities of medical education. During the past 30 years, the planners and medical sciences teachers have made to keep up with global developments in medicine. However, medical education in Iran has encountered numerous challenges, some of which have been referred to in the literature such as incompatibility of education with the real needs of the society, necessity of revising the syllabi and scientific resources, and weakness of clinical education (2, 3. One of the challenges highlighted in the recent years is the decreasing trend in medical students’ motivation and their academic failure. Various studies have investigated the factors affecting the students’ academic failure (4, 5, but few studies have analyzed the practical and scientific solutions to decrease and prevent it. Accepting undergraduate students in Iranian universities is state-based and the fact that universities have no role in the selection and acceptance

  20. Mobile phone usage pattern among undergraduate medical students at a Medical College of Kolkata, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Paul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Mobile phone usage has reached all ages across all segments of society, and its radiofrequency waves are an increasing concern among the general population. To find out the pattern of mobile phone usage among undergraduate medical students and their perceived symptoms and awareness about negative health effects due to their exposure to the radiofrequency waves. Methods: A descriptive type of epidemiological study was conducted among 295 undergraduate medical students in the Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, in August 2012 after obtaining Institutional Ethical Clearance. Data were collected by a pre-designed and pre-tested, semi structured questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS software, version 19.0. Results: Among the 1st semester students, browsing of the internet became the predominant activity; while listening to music and radio was the preferred activity among the 3rd, 5th and 7th semester students. In lecture class, 1st semester students (62.5% switch off; 40.6% of 5th semester students receive and 63.63% of 7th semester students keep the phone in silence mode. Duration of mobile phone usage was maximum among students who perceived headache as a side effect of usage. About 62.3% study subjects cited accidents as a harmful effect, followed by lack of concentration. Conclusions: Regulatory bodies should lay down specific regulations and guidelines regarding mobile phone usage in class as well as during patient care. Further research is needed to comment on long term health outcome keeping in view its usage and popularity among younger people. Keywords: Mobile phone use, medical students, hazard awareness 

  1. Plastic Surgery Inclusion in the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum: Perception, Challenges, and Career Choice—A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. Design and Setting. A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom, McGill University (Canada, and a control group (non-medical staff. The questions were about plastic surgery: (1 source of information and basic understanding; (2 undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3 factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group. The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ2 and level of significance p≤0.05. Results. Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n=171/332, 52% (McGill n=72/132, 54%. Birmingham students (14% considered the word “plastic” synonymous with “cosmetic” more than McGill students (4%, p<0.025. Teaching was the main source of knowledge for McGill students (39%, p<0.001 while Birmingham students and control group chose the media (70%, p<0.001. McGill students (67% more than Birmingham (49%, p<0.010 considered curriculum inclusion. The preferred learning method was lectures for McGill students (61%, p<0.01 but an optional module for Birmingham (61%. A similar proportion (18% from both student groups considered a career in plastic surgery. Conclusions. Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in

  2. Multimedia Thermofluid Dynamics, an Undergraduate Education Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, G. S.; Dreibelbis, L. J.; Miller, J. D.; Smith, B. P.

    2002-11-01

    New multimedia materials are being developed for undergraduate instruction in thermofluid dynamics (e.g. convective heat transfer, thermodynamics, and gas dynamics), with strong emphasis on experimental and optical flow visualization. Since textbooks often show only simple line diagrams, our emphasis is on real flow images as in Van Dyke's classic "Album of Fluid Motion." Here, however, digital video clips illustrate the pertinent phenomena in motion, with voice-over explanations and occasional musical accompaniment. Beyond that, no attempt is made to duplicate traditional textbook material, but rather to provide a visual "window" into the laboratory experience. The results will be produced and distributed in DVD form for instructors and students as a visual supplement to the standard textbooks on these topics. The suitability of such materials for national dissemination has already been demonstrated. This approach is believed to be especially important for small and minority universities that sometimes lack laboratory facilities. Several examples will be shown, including transitional flow, hydraulic jumps, nucleate boiling, convective heat transfer, and supersonic flow. (Supported by NSF DUE Grant.)

  3. The privatization of medical education in Brazil: trends and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Mário C; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2015-12-17

    Like other countries, Brazil is struggling with issues related to public policies designed to influence the distribution, establishment, supply and education of doctors. While the number of undergraduate medical schools and places available on medical schools has risen, the increase in the number of doctors in Brazil in recent decades has not benefitted the population homogeneously. The government has expanded the medical schools at the country's federal universities, while providing incentives for the creation of new undergraduate courses at private establishments. This article examines the trends and challenges of the privatization of medical education in Brazil. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study based on secondary data from official government databases on medical schools and courses and institutions offering such courses in Brazil. It takes into account the year when the medical schools received authorization to initiatte the activities, where they are situated, whether they are run by a public or private entity, how many places they offer, how many students they have enrolled, and their performance according to Ministry of Education evaluations. Brazil had 241 medical schools in 2014, offering a total of 20,340 places. The private higher education institutions are responsible for most of the enrolment of medical students nationally (54 %), especially in the southeast. However, enrolment in public institutions predominate more in the capitals than in other cities. Overal, the public medical schools performed better than the private schools in the last two National Exam of Students' (ENADE). The privatization of the teaching of medicine at undergraduate level in Brazil represents a great challenge: how to expand the number of places while assuring quality and democratic access to this form of education. Upon seeking to understand the configuration and trends in medical education in Brazil, it is hoped that this analysis may contribute to a broader

  4. Linking Undergraduate Geoscience and Education Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. W.; McManus, D. A.

    2001-05-01

    In many colleges and universities students who have declared a major in one of the geosciences are often ineligible to take the education courses necessary for state certification. In order to enroll in education courses to meet the state's Department of Education course requirements for a teaching credential, these students must drop their geoscience major and declare an education major. Students in education programs in these universities may be limited in the science classes they take as part of their degree requirements. These students face the same problem as students who have declared a science major in that course work is not open to them. As a result, universities too often produce science majors with a weak pedagogy background or education majors with a weak Earth and space sciences background. The American Geophysical Union (AGU) formed a collaboration of four universities with strong, yet separate science and education departments, to provide the venue for a one week NSF sponsored retreat to allow the communication necessary for solutions to these problems to be worked out by faculty members. Each university was represented by a geoscience department faculty member, an education department faculty member, and a K-12 master teacher selected by the two faculty members. This retreat was followed by a second retreat that focused on community colleges in the Southwest United States. Change is never easy and Linkages has shown that success for a project of this nature requires the dedication of not only the faculty involved in the project, but colleagues in their respective schools as well as the administration when departmental cultural obstacles must be overcome. This paper will discuss some of the preliminary work accomplished by the schools involved in the project.

  5. Innovations in Undergraduate Science Education: Going Viral

    OpenAIRE

    Hatfull, Graham F.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophage discovery and genomics provides a powerful and effective platform for integrating missions in research and education. Implementation of the Science Education Alliance Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science (SEA-PHAGES) program facilitates a broad impact by including a diverse array of schools, faculty, and students. The program generates new insights into the diversity and evolution of the bacteriophage population and presents a model for introducing first-yea...

  6. Medical humanities in healthcare education in Italy: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fieschi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE. The introduction of medical humanities (MH in undergraduate medical education in Italy has been an issue of debate since the 90's and few years later it was extended to other healthcare degrees. The aims of this Italian literature review, after considering the international scene, are: to evaluate the extent to which the interest in this subject has gradually developed throughout the country; which professional groups have contributed to the debate; to identify which theoretical constructs led to the introduction of MH in undergraduate medical education; to identify whether a clear and shared definition of MH exists in Italian literature; to verify what kinds of MH experiences have been accomplished in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, including electronic databases, bibliographies, manual sorting of articles in paper format, congress proceedings. RESULTS. The analysis of the chosen articles underlines that, however limited, Italian literature does not present a very different picture from the international scene. It emerges that teaching MH is believed to be an important feature in undergraduate education of healthcare professionals who intend to propose a bio-psychological-social approach to care, in spite of the difficulty to measure its short and long term effectiveness. The lack of a multidisciplinary, multi-professional approach is also evident. CONCLUSION. Further research aiming to implement the quantity and quality of MH studies in the curricula of undergraduate healthcare education is desirable.

  7. Mobile technologies in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ken; Ellaway, Rachel H; Topps, David; Archibald, Douglas; Hogue, Rebecca J

    2016-06-01

    Mobile technologies (including handheld and wearable devices) have the potential to enhance learning activities from basic medical undergraduate education through residency and beyond. In order to use these technologies successfully, medical educators need to be aware of the underpinning socio-theoretical concepts that influence their usage, the pre-clinical and clinical educational environment in which the educational activities occur, and the practical possibilities and limitations of their usage. This Guide builds upon the previous AMEE Guide to e-Learning in medical education by providing medical teachers with conceptual frameworks and practical examples of using mobile technologies in medical education. The goal is to help medical teachers to use these concepts and technologies at all levels of medical education to improve the education of medical and healthcare personnel, and ultimately contribute to improved patient healthcare. This Guide begins by reviewing some of the technological changes that have occurred in recent years, and then examines the theoretical basis (both social and educational) for understanding mobile technology usage. From there, the Guide progresses through a hierarchy of institutional, teacher and learner needs, identifying issues, problems and solutions for the effective use of mobile technology in medical education. This Guide ends with a brief look to the future.

  8. Medical education in paradise: another facet of Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Joshua L; Kasuya, Richard; Sakai, Damon; Haning, William; Izutsu, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    Hawaii is synonymous with paradise in the minds of many. Few know that it is also an environment where high quality medical education is thriving. This paper outlines medical education initiatives beginning with native Hawaiian healers of centuries ago, and continuing to present-day efforts to support top-notch multicultural United States medical education across the continuum of training. The undergraduate medical education program has as its core community-based problem-based learning. The community basis of training is continued in graduate medical education, with resident doctors in the various programs rotating through different clinical experiences at various hospitals and clinics. Continuing medical education is provided by nationally accredited entities, within the local context. Educational outreach activities extend into primary and secondary schools, homeless shelters, neighbouring islands, and to countries throughout the Pacific. Challenges facing the medical education community in Hawaii are similar to those faced elsewhere and include incorporating more technology to improve efficiency, strengthening the vertical integration of the training continuum, better meeting the needs of the state, and paying for it all. Readers are invited to join in addressing these challenges to further the realisation of medical education in paradise as a paradise of medical education.

  9. Undergraduate Plastic Surgery Education: Problems, Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based on principles rather than limited procedures, with surgical interventions ranging from complex microsurgery-based reconstructions to aesthetic procedures. However, medical students' perceptions of the field of plastic surgery are limited and underestimate the versatility of services offered by plastic surgeons.[1,2] In ...

  10. Impact of a Social Media Group Page on Undergraduate Medical Physiology Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoori, Tania Ahmed; Mahboob, Usman; Strivens, Janet; Willis, Ian

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the impact of associating classroom learning of medical physiology with a Facebook group page in an all-women medical college of a conservative small city in Pakistan. Qualitative interpretivist study using semi-structured interviews. Women Medical College Abbottabad, Pakistan, from March to December 2014. Aclosed Facebook study group was established at a local medical college in Pakistan. It was used to upload learning resources and initiate discussions, coordinated with classroom lectures of physiology. Thirteen semistructured interviews were conducted with volunteer students according to a standard protocol. Five major themes were identified. Facebook group is something new and exciting; it motivated self-study, research, collaborative learning and improved class attendance. Convenience of easily accessible resources allowed the students to concentrate on the lecture rather than note taking. It was easier to communicate with the instructor through Facebook than face to face. Lurkers were also learning. High achievers who had adapted to the current didactic system of teaching were less receptive of the collaborative learning and favored teaching geared towards exam preparation. Using social media for e-learning in undergraduate medical education can enhance the student learning experience, especially in resource-limited regions where Information and communication technology is not an integrated part of the teaching process.

  11. Forty years of medical education through the eyes of Medical Teacher: From chrysalis to butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Ronald M; Lilley, Pat; McLaughlin, Jake

    2018-04-01

    To mark the 40th Anniversary of Medical Teacher, issues this year will document changes in medical education that have taken place over the past 40 years in undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education with regard to curriculum themes and approaches, teaching and learning methods, assessment techniques and management issues. Trends such as adaptive learning will be highlighted and one issue will look at the medical school of the future. An analysis of papers published in the journal has identified four general trends in medical education - increased collaboration, greater international interest, student engagement with the education process and a move to a more evidence-informed approach to medical education. These changes over the years have been dramatic.

  12. “Exporting” medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A commentary on four reports of the pre-conference on medical education in low and middle income countries and efforts by mainly North American physicians to provide assistance held November, 2015. The authors address issues of participatory learning and developing critical thinking; mutual learning and leadership; and professionalism and ethics in medical education.

  13. Undergraduate Education with the WIYN 0.9-m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Several models have been explored at Indiana University Bloomington for undergraduate student engagement in astronomy using the WIYN 0.9-m telescope at Kitt Peak. These models include individual student research projects using the telescope, student observations as part of an observational techniques course for majors, and enrichment activities for non-science majors in general education courses. Where possible, we arrange for students to travel to the telescope. More often, we are able to use simple online tools such as Skype and VNC viewers to give students an authentic observing experience. Experiences with the telescope motivate students to learn basic content in astronomy, including the celestial sphere, the electromagnetic spectrum, telescopes and detectors, the variety of astronomical objects, date reduction processes, image analysis, and color image creation and appreciation. The WIYN 0.9-m telescope is an essential tool for our program at all levels of undergraduate education

  14. Attitudes towards psychiatry of undergraduate medical students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of mental health services to all citizens of Nigeria by the year 2000 and ... and clinic consultations. Undergraduate students' attitudes towards psychiatry potentially ..... peculiar or neurotic behaviours. 9 (36.0%). 16 (64.0%).

  15. Social accountability of medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    accountability of medical education must be included in all accreditation processes at all levels. The global standards programme by World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) provides tools for national or regional accreditation but also guidance for reforms and quality improvement. The standards are used......Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems...... both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation is a process by which a statutory body evaluates and recognises an educational institution and/or its...

  16. Clinical reasoning in undergraduate nursing education: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes,Sáskia Sampaio Cipriano de; Corrêa,Consuelo Garcia; Silva,Rita de Cássia Gengo e; Cruz,Diná de Almeida Monteiro Lopes da

    2015-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE This study aimed at analyzing the current state of knowledge on clinical reasoning in undergraduate nursing education. METHODS A systematic scoping review through a search strategy applied to the MEDLINE database, and an analysis of the material recovered by extracting data done by two independent reviewers. The extracted data were analyzed and synthesized in a narrative manner. RESULTS From the 1380 citations retrieved in the search, 23 were kept for review and their co...

  17. Do Empathy, Perspective-Taking, Sense of Power and Personality Differ across Undergraduate Education and Are They Inter-Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toto, Regina L.; Man, Lillian; Blatt, Benjamin; Simmens, Samuel J.; Greenberg, Larrie

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is desirable in all health care professionals in their interactions with patients and each other. Empathy in its cognitive (perspective-taking) and affective forms has been well-studied in the literature and in fact, is shown in most studies to decline during undergraduate and graduate medical education. Empathy has also been shown to be…

  18. Crossing Boundaries in Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderklein, Dirk; Munakata, Mika; McManus, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to make mathematics relevant to biology students, the authors developed two modules that sought to integrate mathematics and ecology instruction to differing degrees. The modules were developed by a team of biology and mathematics educators and were implemented in an ecology course using three different instructional methods for three…

  19. Educating and Training Undergraduate Applied Statisticians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Clovis A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A course on Applied Statistics, offered since 1978 at the Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil, is designed to educate statisticians at the bachelor's level for jobs in government statistical offices, industry, and business. (Author/LMO)

  20. An assessment of the feasibility and effectiveness of an e-learning module in delivering a curriculum in radiation protection to undergraduate medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, Sum

    2012-03-01

    Integrating radiation protection (RP) education in the undergraduate medical curriculum is gaining importance and is mandatory in certain jurisdictions. An e-learning module for RP was developed at the authors\\' medical school and was integrated into year 4 of the 5-year undergraduate medical program. The aim of this study was to investigate its impact on RP knowledge, student preferences for various teaching methods, self-assessment of RP knowledge, and perceptions of career prospects in radiology. Likert-type 5-point scale evaluations and general comments about the RP module and various methods of teaching were also obtained.

  1. Evaluation of use of e-Learning in undergraduate radiology education: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Saad, E-mail: saad.zafar@riphah.edu.pk [Riphah International University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Safdar, Saima, E-mail: saima.safdar@riphah.edu.pk [Riphah International University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zafar, Aasma N., E-mail: aasmarad@gmail.com [Radiology Department, Senior Registrar Shifa College of Medicine and Assistant Consultant Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-12-15

    customized tools according to learner needs assessment in radiology education at undergraduate level. All these initiatives are leading toward highly interactive self directed learning environments to support the idea of life-long independent learners. Moreover, majority of the studies in literature regarding e-Learning in radiology at undergraduate level are based on participant satisfaction followed by participant results or outcomes either before or after an intervention or both. There was no research particularly demonstrating performance change in clinical practice or patient outcome as they may be difficult to measure in medical education. Thus clinical competences and performances are highly affected by pretentious learning environments.

  2. Evaluation of use of e-Learning in undergraduate radiology education: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, Saad; Safdar, Saima; Zafar, Aasma N.

    2014-01-01

    customized tools according to learner needs assessment in radiology education at undergraduate level. All these initiatives are leading toward highly interactive self directed learning environments to support the idea of life-long independent learners. Moreover, majority of the studies in literature regarding e-Learning in radiology at undergraduate level are based on participant satisfaction followed by participant results or outcomes either before or after an intervention or both. There was no research particularly demonstrating performance change in clinical practice or patient outcome as they may be difficult to measure in medical education. Thus clinical competences and performances are highly affected by pretentious learning environments

  3. Sleep medicine education and knowledge among undergraduate dental students in Middle East universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Wael; AlRozzi, Balsam; Kawas, Sausan Al

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the undergraduate dental education in sleep medicine in Middle East universities as well as the students' knowledge in this field. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out during the period from September 2013 to April 2014.Two different questionnaires were used. A self-administered questionnaire and a cover letter were emailed and distributed to 51 randomly selected Middle East dental schools to gather information about their undergraduate sleep medicine education offered in the academic year 2012-2013.The second questionnaire was distributed to the fifth-year dental students in the 2nd Sharjah International Dental Student Conference in April 2014, to assess their knowledge on sleep medicine. A survey to assess knowledge of sleep medicine in medical education (Modified ASKME Survey) was used. Thirty-nine out of 51 (76%) responded to the first questionnaire. Out of the responding schools, only nine schools (23%) reported the inclusion of sleep medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. The total average hours dedicated to teaching sleep medicine in the responding dental schools was 1.2 hours. In the second questionnaire, 29.2% of the respondents were in the high score group, whereas 70.8% scored low in knowledge of sleep-related breathing disorders. Dental students in Middle East universities receive a weak level of sleep medicine education resulting in poor knowledge in this field.

  4. Medical Education in Japan and Introduction of Medical Education at Tokyo Women’s Medical University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumiko Okubo

    2014-01-01

    Medical education in Japan changed rapidly in the last decade of the 20th century with the introduction of new education methods and implementation of the core curriculum and common achievement testing such as CBT and OSCE.Recently, there have been other movements in medical education in Japan that have introduced 'outcome(competency) based education(OBE)' and created a system for accreditation of medical education programs. This report provides an overview of current medical education in Japan. Moreover, it introduces medical education at Tokyo Women’s Medical University.

  5. Undergraduate physiotherapy students’ knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus: Implications for education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Steyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes  mellitus  is  a  growing  public  health  concern  and its prevalence is  escalating  exponentially,  with  a  high  frequency  of morbidity, premature mortality, disability and loss of productivity.  Since health education has  become  an  important  part  of  medical  care physiotherapy  students  are potentially  well  suited  to  assist  with  the combat  of  this  disease.    The  study aimed  to  determine  the  knowledge of  diabetes  mellitus  and  its  risk  factors  of undergraduate physiotherapy students  in  the  Western  Cape.  The  study  incorporated  a  quantitative, cross-sectional design.  Three hundred and thirty eight (338 students completed the structured, self-administered questionnaire consisting of three sections, namely  socio-demographic information, diabetes mellitus risk factors and the validated 24-item diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (dKQ-24. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed  and the alpha level was set at p < 0.05.  overall, 60.7% of the study sample had adequate knowledge of diabetes mellitus (≥ 75% correct answers, while 32.5% and 6.8% had marginal (≥60 ≤ 74% correct answers and inadequate knowledge (<59% correct answers respectively. Seven of the nine diabetes mellitus risk factors could readily be identified by 89.7% of the participants.  Smoking (64.8% and high blood pressure (69.0% were not readily identified as common diabetes mellitus risk factors. Significant associations with diabetes risk factors were found for gender and year of study. The study has reinforced the need for continuous education of physiotherapy students regarding diabetes mellitus and its risk factors, as inadequate knowledge of diabetes mellitus could influence the effectiveness of patient education and therefore have dangerous consequences for the patient diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.

  6. Perceived Stress, Sources and Severity of Stress among medical undergraduates in a Pakistani Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Samina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to March 2009. Perceived stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale. A 33-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Results The overall response rate was 80.5% (161 out of 200 students. The overall mean perceived stress was 30.84 (SD = 7.01 and was significantly higher among female students. By logistic regression analysis, stressed cases were associated with occurrence of psychosocial (OR 5.01, 95% CI 2.44-10.29 and academic related stressors (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.52-6.68. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. 'High parental expectations', 'frequency of examinations', 'vastness of academic curriculum', 'sleeping difficulties', 'worrying about the future', 'loneliness', 'becoming a doctor', 'performance in periodic examinations' were the most frequently and severely occurring sources of stress. There was a negative but insignificant correlation between perceived stress and academic performance (r = -0.099, p > 0.05. Conclusion A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The main stressors were related to academic and psychosocial domains. Further studies are required to test the association between stressed cases and gender, academic stressors and psychosocial stressors.

  7. Complementary and alternative medicine in the undergraduate medical curriculum: a survey of Korean medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yeun; Park, Wan Beom; Kang, Hee Cheol; Kim, Mi Jung; Park, Kyu-Hyun; Min, Byung-Il; Suh, Duk-Joon; Lee, Hye Won; Jung, Seung Pil; Chun, Mison; Lee, Soon Nam

    2012-09-01

    The current status of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) education in Korean medical schools is still largely unknown, despite a growing need for a CAM component in medical education. The prevalence, scope, and diversity of CAM courses in Korean medical school education were evaluated. Participants included academic or curriculum deans and faculty at each of the 41 Korean medical schools. A mail survey was conducted from 2007 to 2010. Replies were received from all 41 schools. CAM was officially taught at 35 schools (85.4%), and 32 schools (91.4%) provided academic credit for CAM courses. The most common courses were introduction to CAM or integrative medicine (88.6%), traditional Korean medicine (57.1%), homeopathy and naturopathy (31.4%), and acupuncture (28.6%). Educational formats included lectures by professors and lectures and/or demonstrations by practitioners. The value order of core competencies was attitude (40/41), knowledge (32/41), and skill (6/41). Reasons for not initiating a CAM curriculum were a non-evidence-based approach in assessing the efficacy of CAM, insufficiently reliable reference resources, and insufficient time to educate students in CAM. This survey reveals heterogeneity in the content, format, and requirements among CAM courses at Korean medical schools. Korean medical school students should be instructed in CAM with a more consistent educational approach to help patients who participate in or demand CAM.

  8. To the point: medical education, technology, and the millennial learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura; Hampton, Brittany S; Abbott, Jodi F; Buery-Joyner, Samantha D; Craig, LaTasha B; Dalrymple, John L; Forstein, David A; Graziano, Scott C; McKenzie, Margaret L; Pradham, Archana; Wolf, Abigail; Page-Ramsey, Sarah M

    2018-02-01

    This article, from the "To The Point" series that was prepared by the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics Undergraduate Medical Education Committee, provides an overview of the characteristics of millennials and describes how medical educators can customize and reframe their curricula and teaching methods to maximize millennial learning. A literature search was performed to identify articles on generational learning. We summarize the importance of understanding the attitudes, ideas, and priorities of millennials to tailor educational methods to stimulate and enhance learning. Where relevant, a special focus on the obstetrics and gynecology curriculum is highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Standardizing assessment practices of undergraduate medical competencies across medical schools: challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from a consortium of medical schools in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubuuke, Aloysius Gonzaga; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Maling, Samuel; Rukundo, Godfrey; Kagawa, Mike; Kitara, David Lagoro; Kiguli, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health professions education is gradually moving away from the more traditional approaches to new innovative ways of training aimed at producing professionals with the necessary competencies to address the community health needs. In response to these emerging trends, Medical Education for Equitable Services to All Ugandans (MESAU), a consortium of Ugandan medical schools developed key competencies desirable of graduates and successfully implemented Competency Based Education (CBE) for undergraduate medical students. Objectives To examine the current situation and establish whether assessment methods of the competencies are standardized across MESAU schools as well as establish the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from the MESAU consortium. Methods It was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving faculty of the medical schools in Uganda. Data was collected using focus group discussions and document reviews. Findings were presented in form of themes. Results Although the MESAU schools have implemented the developed competencies within their curricular, the assessment methods are still not standardized with each institution having its own assessment procedures. Lack of knowledge and skills regarding assessment of the competencies was evident amongst the faculty. The fear for change amongst lecturers was also noted as a major challenge. However, the institutional collaboration created while developing competencies was identified as key strength. Conclusion Findings demonstrated that despite having common competencies, there is no standardized assessment blue print applicable to all MESAU schools. Continued collaboration and faculty development in assessment is strongly recommended. PMID:25995778

  10. Standardizing assessment practices of undergraduate medical competencies across medical schools: challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from a consortium of medical schools in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubuuke, Aloysius Gonzaga; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Maling, Samuel; Rukundo, Godfrey; Kagawa, Mike; Kitara, David Lagoro; Kiguli, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Health professions education is gradually moving away from the more traditional approaches to new innovative ways of training aimed at producing professionals with the necessary competencies to address the community health needs. In response to these emerging trends, Medical Education for Equitable Services to All Ugandans (MESAU), a consortium of Ugandan medical schools developed key competencies desirable of graduates and successfully implemented Competency Based Education (CBE) for undergraduate medical students. To examine the current situation and establish whether assessment methods of the competencies are standardized across MESAU schools as well as establish the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from the MESAU consortium. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving faculty of the medical schools in Uganda. Data was collected using focus group discussions and document reviews. Findings were presented in form of themes. Although the MESAU schools have implemented the developed competencies within their curricular, the assessment methods are still not standardized with each institution having its own assessment procedures. Lack of knowledge and skills regarding assessment of the competencies was evident amongst the faculty. The fear for change amongst lecturers was also noted as a major challenge. However, the institutional collaboration created while developing competencies was identified as key strength. Findings demonstrated that despite having common competencies, there is no standardized assessment blue print applicable to all MESAU schools. Continued collaboration and faculty development in assessment is strongly recommended.

  11. Flipped Learning With Simulation in Undergraduate Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeaRan; Jang, YounKyoung

    2017-06-01

    Flipped learning has proliferated in various educational environments. This study aimed to verify the effects of flipped learning on the academic achievement, teamwork skills, and satisfaction levels of undergraduate nursing students. For the flipped learning group, simulation-based education via the flipped learning method was provided, whereas traditional, simulation-based education was provided for the control group. After completion of the program, academic achievement, teamwork skills, and satisfaction levels were assessed and analyzed. The flipped learning group received higher scores on academic achievement, teamwork skills, and satisfaction levels than the control group, including the areas of content knowledge and clinical nursing practice competency. In addition, this difference gradually increased between the two groups throughout the trial. The results of this study demonstrated the positive, statistically significant effects of the flipped learning method on simulation-based nursing education. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(6):329-336.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. [Virtual reality in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, O; Steensrud, T

    1998-02-28

    Virtual reality technology has found new applications in industry over the last few years. Medical literature has for several years predicted a break-through in this technology for medical education. Although there is a great potential for this technology in medical education, there seems to be a wide gap between expectations and actual possibilities at present. State of the technology was explored by participation at the conference "Medicine meets virtual reality V" (San Diego Jan. 22-25 1997) and a visit to one of the leading laboratories on virtual reality in medical education. In this paper we introduce some of the basic terminology and technology, review some of the topics covered by the conference, and describe projects running in one of the leading laboratories on virtual reality technology for medical education. With this information in mind, we discuss potential applications of the current technology in medical education. Current virtual reality systems are judged to be too costly and their usefulness in education too limited for routine use in medical education.

  13. [The globalization of medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Fred C J

    2013-01-01

    With reference to a recently published research article on the applicability and effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in non-Western medical schools, this commentary explores the assumption that a set of shared values is the common denominator of the globalisation of medical education. The use and effectiveness of PBL are not isolated from the cultural and social structural context in which it is applied; critical differences in values and in views on education underlie what educators and students perceive to be effective locally. The globalisation of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs, and includes Western models of social organisation that require deep reflection and adaptation for success; hence, instead of spreading models for medical education across the globe, more effort should be put into the support of 'home-grown' equivalents and alternatives.

  14. [Level of teaching competence at the Undergraduate Medical Internship of UNAM's Faculty of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Adrián; Lifshitz-Guinzberg, Alberto; González-Quintanilla, Eduardo; Monterrosas-Rojas, Ana María; Flores-Hernández, Fernando; Gatica-Lara, Florina; Martínez-Franco, Adrián Israel; Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor

    2017-01-01

    There is no systematic evaluation of teaching performance in the clinical area at UNAM Faculty of Medicine. The study purpose is to assess the teaching competence level in the Undergraduate Medical Internship (UMI). The paper describes the process of psychometric validity for the instrument designed to evaluate teaching competence in the UMI. This instrument was constructed from two previously developed instruments. The final version with 54 items in a Likert scale was studied with exploratory factorial analysis. Four dimensions were obtained: Solution of clinical problems, Psychopedagogy, Mentoring, and Evaluation. The instrument had a reliability of 0.994, with an explained variance of 77.75%. To evaluate the teaching competence level, we administered 844 questionnaires to a sample of students with a response rate of 89%. We obtained an overall global score of 89.4 ± 9.6 (mean ± SD). The dimension Solution of clinical problems was the one with a greater value, in contrast with the dimension of Evaluation, which had a lower score. The teachers of the UMI are considered educators with high level of teaching competence, according to the perceptions of the undergraduate internal doctors. The evaluation of teaching competence level is very important for institutions that look for the continuous professional development of its faculty.

  15. Musculoskeletal pareidolia in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foye, Patrick; Abdelshahed, Dena; Patel, Shounuck

    2014-07-01

    Medical educators use a variety of strategies to help medical students and resident doctors understand and remember complex topics. One teaching tool is matching up radiographic appearances with unrelated, common, non-medical images, in order to help students easily recognise clinical patterns. However, even among medical educators who use this approach, many are not aware of the neuropsychiatric phenomenon they are using, known as pareidolia. We will describe pareidolia (a form of patternicity) and give two examples of its use in the clinical teaching of musculoskeletal imaging abnormalities: the winking owl and the Scottie dog. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sexuality education in Brazilian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Andrea Cronemberger; Madeiro, Alberto; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello

    2014-05-01

    Sexuality education has been valued since the 1960s in medical schools worldwide. Although recent studies reaffirm the importance of incorporating sexuality into medical education, there are data gaps concerning how this happens in Brazil. To understand how Brazilian medical school professors teach sexuality in undergraduate courses. An exploratory, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. A total of 207 professors from 110 Brazilian medical schools responded to an online semistructured questionnaire about the characteristics of the sexuality-related topics offered. The main variables assessed were contact hours devoted to sexuality, disciplines in which sexuality topics were taught, sexuality-related course titles, and sexuality-related topics addressed. Questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics for frequency distribution. The response rate to the questionnaire was 77.2%. Almost all professors (96.3%) addressed sexuality-related topics mainly in the third and fourth years as clinical disciplines, with a 6-hour load per discipline. Gynecology was the discipline in which sexuality-related topics were most often taught (51.5%), followed by urology (18%) and psychiatry (15%). Sexuality-related topics were addressed mainly in classes on sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS (62.4%) and on the anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system (55.4%). About 25% of the professors reported teaching courses with a sexuality-related title. There was emphasis on the impact of diseases and sexual habits (87.9%) and sexual dysfunction (75.9%). Less than 50% of professors addressed nonnormative sexuality or social aspects of sexuality. The teaching of sexuality in Brazilian medical schools occurred in a nonstandardized and fragmented fashion across several disciplines. The topic was incorporated with an organic and pathological bias, with a weak emphasis on the social aspects of sexuality and the variety of human sexual behaviors. The

  17. Changing Medical School IT to Support Medical Education Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickard, Anderson; Ahmed, Toufeeq; Lomis, Kimberly; Johnson, Kevin; Miller, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Many medical schools are modifying curricula to reflect the rapidly evolving health care environment, but schools struggle to provide the educational informatics technology (IT) support to make the necessary changes. Often a medical school's IT support for the education mission derives from isolated work units employing separate technologies that are not interoperable. We launched a redesigned, tightly integrated, and novel IT infrastructure to support a completely revamped curriculum at the Vanderbilt School of Medicine. This system uses coordinated and interoperable technologies to support new instructional methods, capture students' effort, and manage feedback, allowing the monitoring of students' progress toward specific competency goals across settings and programs. The new undergraduate medical education program at Vanderbilt, entitled Curriculum 2.0, is a competency-based curriculum in which the ultimate goal is medical student advancement based on performance outcomes and personal goals rather than a time-based sequence of courses. IT support was essential in the creation of Curriculum 2.0. In addition to typical learning and curriculum management functions, IT was needed to capture data in the learning workflow for analysis, as well as for informing individual and programmatic success. We aligned people, processes, and technology to provide the IT infrastructure for the organizational transformation. Educational IT personnel were successfully realigned to create the new IT system. The IT infrastructure enabled monitoring of student performance within each competency domain across settings and time via personal student electronic portfolios. Students use aggregated performance data, derived in real time from the portfolio, for mentor-guided performance assessment, and for creation of individual learning goals and plans. Poorly performing students were identified earlier through online communication systems that alert the appropriate instructor or coach of

  18. Ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Barragan, Elena; Mennin, Stewart

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian national curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medicine courses inspired and influenced the groundwork for knowledge acquisition, skills development and the perception of ethical values in the context of professional conduct. The evaluation of ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil, both in courses with active learning processes and in those with traditional lecture learning methodologies. Curricula and teaching projects of 175 Brazilian medical schools were analyzed using a retrospective historical and descriptive exploratory cohort study. Thirty one medical schools were excluded from the study because of incomplete information or a refusal to participate. Active research for information from institutional sites and documents was guided by terms based on 69 DeCS/MeSH descriptors. Curriculum information was correlated with educational models of learning such as active learning methodologies, tutorial discussions with integrated curriculum into core modules, and traditional lecture learning methodologies for large classes organized by disciplines and reviewed by occurrence frequency of ethical themes and average hourly load per semester. Ninety-five medical schools used traditional learning methodologies. The ten most frequent ethical themes were: 1--ethics in research (26); 2--ethical procedures and advanced technology (46); 3--ethic-professional conduct (413). Over 80% of schools using active learning methodologies had between 50 and 100 hours of scheduled curriculum time devoted to ethical themes whereas more than 60% of traditional learning methodology schools devoted less than 50 hours in curriculum time to ethical themes. The data indicates that medical schools that employ more active learning methodologies provide more attention and time to ethical themes than schools with traditional discipline-based methodologies. Given the importance of ethical issues in contemporary medical

  19. Teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students - A survey in German-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Reiner; Frank, Florian

    2010-07-24

    To conduct a survey about teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students in German-speaking countries. A questionnaire was sent to the 33 academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. All departments responded. For teaching knowledge, the methods most commonly reported were lectures and case presentations. The most important skills to be taught were thought to be how to assess psychopathology in children and how to assess families. For elective courses, the departments reported using a wide range of teaching methods, many with active involvement of the students. An average of 34 hours per semester is currently allocated by the departments for teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to medical students. Required courses are often taught in cooperation with adult psychiatry and pediatrics. Achievement of educational objectives is usually assessed with written exams or multiple-choice tests. Only a minority of the departments test the achievement of skills. Two ways of improving education in child and adolescent psychiatry are the introduction of elective courses for students interested in the field and participation of child and adolescent psychiatrists in required courses and in longitudinal courses so as to reach all students. Cooperation within and across medical schools can enable departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, despite limited resources, to become more visible and this specialty to become more attractive to medical students. Compared to the findings in earlier surveys, this survey indicates a trend towards increased involvement of academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in training medical students.

  20. Coordinating the undergraduate medical (MBBS basic sciences programme in a Nepalese medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar PR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available KIST Medical College follows the curriculum of the Institute ofMedicine, Tribhuvan University. The programme aims toproduce socially responsible and competent physicians whoare willing and able to meet the existing and emergingchallenges of the national and international healthcaresystem. The first cohort of undergraduate medical students(MBBS students was admitted in November 2008 and threecohorts including the one admitted in 2008 have beenadmitted at the time of writing. The basic science subjects aretaught in an integrated, organ-system-based manner withcommunity medicine during the first two years. I wasappointed as the MBBS Phase I programme coordinator inSeptember 2008 and in this article I share my experiences ofrunning the basic sciences programme and also offersuggestions for running an efficient academic programme. Themanuscript will be of special interest to readers runningundergraduate medical programmes. The reader canunderstand our experiences in running the programme inadverse circumstances, learning to achieve greater integrationamong basic science, community medicine and clinicaldepartments, obtain information about a communitydiagnosis programme and know about running specialmodules on the medical humanities and pharmaceuticalpromotion.

  1. Ways to Improve Undergraduate Education Sought by New Alliance of State Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Scott

    1987-01-01

    Representatives from 12 state universities have formed the Alliance for Undergraduate Education to prove that attention is being paid to undergraduates on their campuses. Participants expect to discuss how to avoid the depersonalization of large campuses and packed undergraduate classrooms. (MLW)

  2. The Effectiveness of the Community Medicine Undergraduate Program in Medical Schools on Enabling Medical Graduates to Work in the Health Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jabbari Bayrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main mission of medical schools is to train competent medical trainees for providing primary health care services, management of health care team and improving the health status of the population. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the undergraduate program of community medicine department among the graduates as general (family physicians in health system of East Azerbaijan, North-West of` Iran. Methods: In this cross- sectional study all family physicians of East Azerbaijan province were included. A questionnaire on the views of graduates about the effectiveness of community medicine undergraduate program was used for gathering data. Data were analyzed by T-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation. Results: Performance of community medicine department in creating competency for providing effective health services among physicians was 2.13 and management competency was 1.96 out of 4. To teach the necessary skills to meet the professional needs in Primary Health Care (PHC, Tabriz Community Medicine Department was better compared to Azad and other medical schools (p<0.001. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that the community medicine program in undergraduate medical education was effective for future career of physicians in the health system. There is a need to revise the health management courses in community medicine program.

  3. Psychomotor skills for the undergraduate medical curriculum in a developing country--Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rashida; Naqvi, Zoon; Wolfhagen, Ineke

    2005-03-01

    To identify essential psychomotor skills for all the medical graduates of an undergraduate programme in Pakistan. Twenty-five physicians practising in a tertiary care centre and ninety primary care physicians used a Likert's scale, ranging from "very essential" to"not required at all", to mark 99 psychomotor skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Pakistan. Overall the opinions of both the groups about the essential skills matched except for a few areas. This study provides baseline data about psychomotor skills that a medical graduate in developing countries should be able to perform. Further studies will be undertaken by involving other stakeholders to identify and incorporate these skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum, thereby enabling graduates to practice in all the settings in Pakistan.

  4. Medical teachers' perception towards simulation-based medical education: A multicenter study in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabnam; Al-Mously, Najwa; Al-Senani, Fahmi; Zafar, Muhammad; Ahmed, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the perception of medical teachers toward the integration of simulation-based medical education (SBME) in undergraduate curriculum and also identify contextual barriers faced by medical teachers. This cross-sectional observational study included medical teachers from three universities. A questionnaire was used to report teachers' perception. SBME was perceived by medical teachers (basic sciences/clinical, respectively) as enjoyable (71.1%/75.4%), effective assessment tool to evaluate students' learning (60%/73.9%) and can improve learning outcome (88.8%/79.7%). Similarly, (91.1%/71%) of teachers think that simulation should be part of the curriculum and not stand alone one time activity. Teachers' training for SBME has created a significant difference in perception (p medical curriculum are major perceived barriers for effective SBME. Results highlight the positive perception and attitude of medical teachers toward the integration of SBME in undergraduate curriculum. Prior formal training of teachers created a different perception. Top perceived barriers for effective SBME include teachers' formal training supported with time and resources and the early integration into the curriculum. These critical challenges need to be addressed by medical schools in order to enhance the integration SBME in undergraduate curricula.

  5. Practical trials in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    participants across several settings and (iii) multiple outcome measures with long-term follow-up to evaluate both benefits and risks. Questions posed by practical trials may be proactive in applying theory in the development of educational innovations or reactive to educational reforms and innovations. Non......CONTEXT: Concerns have been raised over the gap between education theory and practice and how research can contribute to inform decision makers on their choices and priorities. Little is known about how educational theories and research outcomes produced under optimal conditions in highly...... controlled settings generalise to the real-life education context. One way of bridging this gap is applying the concept of practical trials in medical education. In this paper we elaborate on characteristics of practical trials and based on examples from medical education we discuss the challenges...

  6. Gender matters in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Women are in the majority in terms of entry to medical schools worldwide and will soon represent the majority of working doctors. This has been termed the 'feminising' of medicine. In medical education, such gender issues tend to be restricted to discussions of demographic changes and structural inequalities based on a biological reading of gender. However, in contemporary social sciences, gender theory has moved beyond both biology and demography to include cultural issues of gendered ways of thinking. Can contemporary feminist thought drawn from the social sciences help medical educators to widen their appreciation and understanding of the feminising of medicine? Post-structuralist feminist critique, drawn from the social sciences, focuses on cultural practices, such as language use, that support a dominant patriarchy. Such a critique is not exclusive to women, but may be described as supporting a tender-minded approach to practice that is shared by both women and men. The demographic feminising of medicine may have limited effect in terms of changing both medical culture and medical education practices without causing radical change to entrenched cultural habits that are best described as patriarchal. Medical education currently suffers from male biases, such as those imposed by 'andragogy', or adult learning theory, and these can be positively challenged through post-structuralist feminist critique. Women doctors entering the medical workforce can resist and reformulate the current dominant patriarchy rather than reproducing it, supported by male feminists. Such a feminising of medicine can extend to medical education, but will require an appropriate theoretical framework to make sense of the new territory. The feminising of medical education informed by post-structuralist frameworks may provide a platform for the democratisation of medical culture and practices, further informing authentic patient-centred practices of care. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  7. Vertical integration of medical education: Riverland experience, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D R; Worley, P S; Mugford, B; Stagg, P

    2004-01-01

    Vertical integration of medical education is currently a prominent international topic, resulting from recent strategic initiatives to improve medical education and service delivery in areas of poorly met medical need. In this article, vertical integration of medical education is defined as 'a grouping of curricular content and delivery mechanisms, traversing the traditional boundaries of undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education, with the intent of enhancing the transfer of knowledge and skills between those involved in the learning-teaching process'. Educators closely involved with vertically integrated teaching in the Riverland of South Australia present an analytical description of the educational dynamics of this system. From this analysis, five elements are identified which underpin the process of successful vertical integration: (1) raised educational stakes; (2) local ownership; (3) broad university role; (4) longer attachments; and (5) shared workforce vision. Given the benefits to the Riverland medical education programs described in this paper, it is not surprising that vertical integration of medical education is a popular goal in many rural regions throughout the world. Although different contexts will result in different functional arrangements, it could be argued that the five principles outlined in this article can be applied in any region.

  8. Monitoring and analysis of the change process in curriculum mapping compared to the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM at four medical faculties. Part I: Conducive resources and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: After passing of the National Competency-based Learning Objectives Catalogue in Medicine (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin, [, retrieved on 22.03.2016], the German medical faculties must take inventory and develop their curricula. NKLM contents are expected to be present, but not linked well or sensibly enough in locally grown curricula. Learning and examination formats must be reviewed for appropriateness and coverage of the competences. The necessary curricular transparency is best achieved by systematic curriculum mapping, combined with effective change management. Mapping a complex existing curriculum and convincing a faculty that this will have benefits is not easy. Headed by Tübingen, the faculties of Freiburg, Heidelberg, Mannheim and Tübingen take inventory by mapping their curricula in comparison to the NKLM, using the dedicated web-based MER-database. This two-part article analyses and summarises how NKLM curriculum mapping could be successful in spite of resistance at the faculties. The target is conveying the widest possible overview of beneficial framework conditions, strategies and results. Part I of the article shows the beneficial resources and structures required for implementation of curriculum mapping at the faculties. Part II describes key factors relevant for motivating faculties and teachers during the mapping process.Method: The network project was systematically planned in advance according to steps of project and change management, regularly reflected on and adjusted together in workshops and semi-annual project meetings. From the beginning of the project, a grounded-theory approach was used to systematically collect detailed information on structures, measures and developments at the faculties using various sources and methods, to continually analyse them and to draw a final conclusion (sources: surveys among the project participants with questionnaires, semi-structured group interviews

  9. Monitoring and analysis of the change process in curriculum mapping compared to the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) at four medical faculties. Part I: Conducive resources and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria; Giesler, Marianne; Gornostayeva, Maryna; Narciss, Elisabeth; Wosnik, Annette; Zipfel, Stephan; Griewatz, Jan; Fritze, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Objective: After passing of the National Competency-based Learning Objectives Catalogue in Medicine (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin, [NKLM, retrieved on 22.03.2016]), the German medical faculties must take inventory and develop their curricula. NKLM contents are expected to be present, but not linked well or sensibly enough in locally grown curricula. Learning and examination formats must be reviewed for appropriateness and coverage of the competences. The necessary curricular transparency is best achieved by systematic curriculum mapping, combined with effective change management. Mapping a complex existing curriculum and convincing a faculty that this will have benefits is not easy. Headed by Tübingen, the faculties of Freiburg, Heidelberg, Mannheim and Tübingen take inventory by mapping their curricula in comparison to the NKLM, using the dedicated web-based MER LIN -database. This two-part article analyses and summarises how NKLM curriculum mapping could be successful in spite of resistance at the faculties. The target is conveying the widest possible overview of beneficial framework conditions, strategies and results. Part I of the article shows the beneficial resources and structures required for implementation of curriculum mapping at the faculties. Part II describes key factors relevant for motivating faculties and teachers during the mapping process. Method: The network project was systematically planned in advance according to steps of project and change management, regularly reflected on and adjusted together in workshops and semi-annual project meetings. From the beginning of the project, a grounded-theory approach was used to systematically collect detailed information on structures, measures and developments at the faculties using various sources and methods, to continually analyse them and to draw a final conclusion (sources: surveys among the project participants with questionnaires, semi-structured group interviews and

  10. The 'medical humanities' in health sciences education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S

    2014-02-01

    A new masters-level course, 'Medicine and the Arts" will be offered in 2014 at the University of Cape Town, setting a precedent for interdisciplinary education in the field of medical humanities in South Africa. The humanities and social sciences have always been an implicit part of undergraduate and postgraduate education in the health sciences, but increasingly they are becoming an explicit and essential component of the curriculum, as the importance of graduate attributes and outcomes in the workplace is acknowledged. Traditionally, the medical humanities have included medical ethics, history, literature and anthropology. Less prominent in the literature has been the engagement with medicine of the disciplines of sociology, politics, philosophy, linguistics, education, and law, as well as the creative and expressive arts. The development of the medical humanities in education and research in South Africa is set to expand over the next few years, and it looks as if it will be an exciting inter-disciplinary journey.

  11. Why do doctors emigrate from Sri Lanka? A survey of medical undergraduates and new graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Nipun Lakshitha; Samarasekara, Keshinie; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Samarakoon, Lasitha; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-12-16

    Migration of medical professionals is a long recognized problem in Sri Lanka, but it has not been studied in depth. Undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Sri Lanka is state sponsored, and loss of trained personnel is a loss of investment. This study assessed the intention to migrate among medical students and newly passed out graduates from the largest medical school in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo in September 2013 with the participation of first and fourth year medical students and pre-intern medical graduates. Data was collected using a self administered, pre-tested questionnaire that collected data on socio-demographic details, intention to migrate and factors influencing a decision for or against migration. There were 374 respondents, 162 from first year (females; 104, 64.2%), 159 from fourth year (females; 85, 53.5%) and 53 pre interns (females; 22, 41.5%). Of the entire sample, 89 (23.8%) had already decided to migrate while another 121 (32.3%) were not sure of their decision. The most cited reasons for migration were a perceived better quality of life, better earnings and more training opportunities in the host country. There were no socio-demographic characteristics that had a significant association with the intention to migrate, indicating that it is a highly individualized decision. The rate of intention to migrate in this sample is low when compared to international studies from Africa and South Asia, but is still significant. The core reasons which prompt doctors to migrate should be addressed by a multipronged approach to prevent brain drain.

  12. Visual analytics in medical education: impacting analytical reasoning and decision making for quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitsis, Christos; Nilsson, Gunnar; Zary, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The medical curriculum is the main tool representing the entire undergraduate medical education. Due to its complexity and multilayered structure it is of limited use to teachers in medical education for quality improvement purposes. In this study we evaluated three visualizations of curriculum data from a pilot course, using teachers from an undergraduate medical program and applying visual analytics methods. We found that visual analytics can be used to positively impacting analytical reasoning and decision making in medical education through the realization of variables capable to enhance human perception and cognition on complex curriculum data. The positive results derived from our evaluation of a medical curriculum and in a small scale, signify the need to expand this method to an entire medical curriculum. As our approach sustains low levels of complexity it opens a new promising direction in medical education informatics research.

  13. Teaching of ophthalmology in undergraduate curricula: a survey of Australasian and Asian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jennifer C; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J

    2007-01-01

    Despite established international guidelines on preferred teaching components for ophthalmology in undergraduate curricula, with increasingly less specialty-based undergraduate teaching within curricula, teaching of core ophthalmology knowledge and skills may become marginalized. This survey aims to evaluate the current state of undergraduate ophthalmology teaching in Australasia and proximate Asian medical schools. A questionnaire was developed to determine the content and extent of ophthalmology teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum. The questionnaire was sent to 25 medical schools throughout Australasia and Asia. Nineteen of the 25 questionnaires were returned (76% response rate). Ophthalmology teaching programmes ranged from 2 to 20 days: five (26%) medical schools having one ophthalmology attachment; six schools (32%) two attachments; and the remainder three or more. Only seven of the schools taught all 13 ophthalmology topics recommended in current curriculum guidelines. Ocular examination (100%), lens and cataract (95%) and ocular manifestations of systemic disease (95%) were the most commonly taught topics, with intraocular tumours only covered by 10 schools (53%). Students in 14 schools (74%) attended ophthalmology operating theatre, but only two schools (11%) offered attendance at optometry clinics. Ten schools (53%) required a pass in ophthalmology to complete the academic year. Ophthalmology may increasingly be a small, or even absent, component of undergraduate medical curricula. Despite established international ophthalmology curriculum guidelines, this survey highlights significant lack of uniformity in their implementation.

  14. An overview of medical informatics education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehua; Sun, Zhenling; Li, Houqing

    2013-05-01

    To outline the history of medical informatics education in the People's Republic of China, systematically analyze the current status of medical informatics education at different academic levels (bachelor's, master's, and doctoral), and suggest reasonable strategies for the further development of the field in China. The development of medical informatics education was divided into three stages, defined by changes in the specialty's name. Systematic searches of websites for material related to the specialty of medical informatics were then conducted. For undergraduate education, the websites surveyed included the website of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China (MOE) and those of universities or colleges identified using the baidu.com search engine. For postgraduate education, the websites included China's Graduate Admissions Information Network (CGAIN) and the websites of the universities or their schools or faculties. Specialties were selected on the basis of three criteria: (1) for undergraduate education, the name of specialty or program was medical informatics or medical information or information management and information system; for postgraduate education, medical informatics or medical information; (2) the specialty was approved and listed by the MOE; (3) the specialty was set up by a medical college or medical university, or a school of medicine of a comprehensive university. The information abstracted from the websites included the year of program approval and listing, the university/college, discipline catalog, discipline, specialty, specialty code, objectives, and main courses. A total of 55 program offerings for undergraduate education, 27 for master's-level education, and 5 for PhD-level education in medical informatics were identified and assessed in China. The results indicate that medical informatics education, a specialty rooted in medical library and information science education in China, has grown significantly in that

  15. Understanding Poverty: Teaching Social Justice in Undergraduate Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Ann N; Cass, Cary; Cathey, Heather; Smith, Sarah L; Hurley, Shelia

    This article presents results of an exploratory qualitative study examining gains in empathy and social justice beliefs among undergraduate nursing students. As undergraduate nursing education provides the foundation for future forensic nurses, developing successful methods to increase beliefs and behaviors of social empathy and social justice among nursing students will have a beneficial effect on the specialty of forensic nursing. As such, a team of nursing researchers explored the effects of a poverty simulation on the social empathy and social justice beliefs held by undergraduate students. The research team conducted an exploratory qualitative study of student reflective journals. Using an inductive interpretive process, the researchers performed a content analysis of student responses. The researchers identified three constitutive patterns and eight supporting themes as reflected in the students' reflective journals after participation in poverty simulation sessions. This research study found that, when nursing students participate in poverty simulation experiences, they gain an increased understanding of the vulnerability and complexities of living in poverty and are motivated to both advocate for patients and become change agents. Such increases in social empathy and promotion of social justice will inevitably positively affect their future practice and inform their development as forensic nurses.

  16. Absenteeism among medical and health science undergraduate students at Hawassa University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalegn, Anteneh Assefa; Berhan, Asres; Berhan, Yifru

    2014-04-14

    Student absenteeism is a major concern for university education worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and causes of absenteeism among undergraduate medical and health sciences students at Hawassa University. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a pretested self-administered structured questionnaire from May-June 2013. The primary outcome indicator was self-reported absenteeism from lectures in the semester preceding the study period. The study included all regular undergraduate students who were enrolled in the University for at least one semester. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The association between class absenteeism and socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of absenteeism was determined by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results were reported as crude odds ratios (COR), adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). 1200 students consented and filled the questionnaire. Of these students, 43.7% had missed three or more lectures and 14.1% (95% CI = 12.2-16.2) missed more than 8 lectures in the preceding semester. There was a significant association between missing more than 8 lectures and age of students, chosen discipline (medicine), and social drug use. The main reasons reported for missing lectures were preparing for another examination, lack of interest, lecturer's teaching style, and availability of lecture material. At Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Science student habits and teacher performance play a role in absenteeism from lectures. A university culture that promotes discipline and integrity especially among medical and older students discourages social drug use will likely improve motivation and attendance. Training in teaching methodologies to improve the quality and delivery of lectures should also help increase attendance.

  17. Cultural competence in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2017-01-01

    the survey, and 199 responded. The response rate is 14%. Data were analysed through descriptive calculations, and answers to open-ended questions were coded using content analysis. Results: Results showed that 82.4% of the informants agreed or strongly agreed that the medical education programme should...... in receiving training on cultural competence. Conclusions: Generally, there is interest in and acknowledgement of the importance of cultural competence in Danish medical education among teachers at the University of Copenhagen. This creates an opportunity to implement cultural competence in the medical...

  18. Role Playing Game (RPG on nursing undergraduate course: educational potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Nathale Soares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of a Role Playing Game as an educational strategy in Undergraduate Nursing course, emphasizing its subjective implications in understanding aspects of the profession. This is a qualitative study, conducted through an evaluative research, of deployment analysis type. Nursing students of the 3rd period participated. The instrument to collection was Memories of Game, reports prepared by students after game sessions. The game is a non-traditional educational strategy that enabled approach to students through professional practice, active participation, self-reflection and reflection on professional practice. This strategy favored individualization processes, allowing students to experience situations similar to the nursing practice and exercise skills such as teamwork and creativity. The expansion of studies that address the subjective processes in higher education, through simulation games, can contribute to better design of health development processes.

  19. Project Kaleidoscope: Advancing What Works in Undergraduate STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, S.

    2011-12-01

    In 1989, Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) published its first report, What Works: Building Natural Science Communities, on reforming undergraduate STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) education. Since then, PKAL has grown into a national organization comprised of a diverse group of over 6500 STEM educators who are committed to advancing "what works." The PKAL mission is to be a national leader in catalyzing the efforts of people, institutions, organizations and networks to move from analysis to action in significantly improving undergraduate student learning and achievement in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics). Specifically, PKAL's strategic goals are to: 1) Promote the development and wider use of evidence-based teaching, learning and assessment approaches, 2) Build individual and organizational capacity to lead change in STEM education, and 3) Engage the broader community of external stakeholders - professional and disciplinary societies, business and industry groups, accreditation organizations, educational associations, governmental agencies, philanthropic organizations - in achieving our mission. PKAL achieves these goals by serving as the nexus of an interconnected and multidisciplinary web of people, ideas, strategies, evidence and resources focused on systemic change in undergraduate STEM education. PKAL also provides resources on critical issues, such as teaching using pedagogies of engagement, and engages interested faculty, campuses and professional societies in national projects and programs focused on cutting edge issues in STEM education. One of these projects - Mobilizing Disciplinary Societies for a Sustainable Future - is engaging eleven disciplinary societies, including the National Association of Geoscience Teachers, in defining specific resources, faculty development programs and goals focused on promoting undergraduate STEM courses that: 1) provide more knowledge about real-world issues; 2) connect these real

  20. New Developments in Undergraduate Education in Public Health: Implications for Health Education and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michael D.; Wykoff, Randy; King, Laura Rasar; Petersen, Donna J.

    2012-01-01

    The article provides an overview of efforts to improve public health and health education training and on the potential use of Critical Component Elements (CCEs) for undergraduate health education programs toward more consistent quality assurance across programs. Considered in the context of the Galway Consensus Conference, the authors discuss the…

  1. The effect of repeated testing vs repeated practice on skills learning in undergraduate dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn-Kirchner, S; Goerlich, Y; Kirchner, B; Notbohm, M; Schiekirka, S; Simmenroth, A; Raupach, T

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies in undergraduate medical education have demonstrated the advantage of repeated testing over repeated practice with regard to knowledge and skills retention. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this "testing effect" also applies to skills retention in undergraduate dental education. In this prospective, randomised controlled trial, fourth-year dental students at Göttingen University Medical Centre participated in a training session on surgical suturing in winter term 2014/2015. Following this, they were either assigned to two sessions of additional skills training (group A) or two sessions of skills assessment with feedback (group B). These sessions were spaced over a period of 4 weeks. Skills retention was assessed in a summative objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) at the end of term, that is 6 months after the initial teaching session. A total of 32 students completed the study. With regard to suturing, OSCE performance was significantly better in group B than group A (81.9±13.1% vs 63.0±15.4%; P=0.001; Cohen's d=1.33). There was no significant OSCE performance difference in the two groups with regard to other learning objectives that were addressed in the end-of-term examination. Thus, the group difference was specific to suturing skills. This is the first study to demonstrate that in dental education, repeated testing produces more favourable skills retention than repeated practice. Test-enhanced learning might be a viable concept for skills retention in undergraduate dentistry education. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of a web-based ECG-interpretation programme for undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Bolinder, Gunilla; Held, Claes; Johansson, Bo-Lennart; Fors, Uno; Ostergren, Jan

    2008-04-23

    Most clinicians and teachers agree that knowledge about ECG is of importance in the medical curriculum. Students at Karolinska Institute have asked for more training in ECG-interpretation during their undergraduate studies. Clinical tutors, however, have difficulties in meeting these demands due to shortage of time. Thus, alternative ways to learn and practice ECG-interpretation are needed. Education offered via the Internet is readily available, geographically independent and flexible. Furthermore, the quality of education may increase and become more effective through a superior educational approach, improved visualization and interactivity. A Web-based comprehensive ECG-interpretation programme has been evaluated. Medical students from the sixth semester were given an optional opportunity to access the programme from the start of their course. Usage logs and an initial evaluation survey were obtained from each student. A diagnostic test was performed in order to assess the effect on skills in ECG interpretation. Students from the corresponding course, at another teaching hospital and without access to the ECG-programme but with conventional teaching of ECG served as a control group. 20 of the 32 students in the intervention group had tested the programme after 2 months. On a five-graded scale (1- bad to 5 - very good) they ranked the utility of a web-based programme for this purpose as 4.1 and the quality of the programme software as 3.9. At the diagnostic test (maximal points 16) by the end of the 5-month course at the 6th semester the mean result for the students in the intervention group was 9.7 compared with 8.1 for the control group (p = 0.03). Students ranked the Web-based ECG-interpretation programme as a useful instrument to learn ECG. Furthermore, Internet-delivered education may be more effective than traditional teaching methods due to greater immediacy, improved visualisation and interactivity.

  3. Evaluation of a web-based ECG-interpretation programme for undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Bo-Lennart

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinicians and teachers agree that knowledge about ECG is of importance in the medical curriculum. Students at Karolinska Institutet have asked for more training in ECG-interpretation during their undergraduate studies. Clinical tutors, however, have difficulties in meeting these demands due to shortage of time. Thus, alternative ways to learn and practice ECG-interpretation are needed. Education offered via the Internet is readily available, geographically independent and flexible. Furthermore, the quality of education may increase and become more effective through a superior educational approach, improved visualization and interactivity. Methods A Web-based comprehensive ECG-interpretation programme has been evaluated. Medical students from the sixth semester were given an optional opportunity to access the programme from the start of their course. Usage logs and an initial evaluation survey were obtained from each student. A diagnostic test was performed in order to assess the effect on skills in ECG interpretation. Students from the corresponding course, at another teaching hospital and without access to the ECG-programme but with conventional teaching of ECG served as a control group. Results 20 of the 32 students in the intervention group had tested the programme after 2 months. On a five-graded scale (1- bad to 5 – very good they ranked the utility of a web-based programme for this purpose as 4.1 and the quality of the programme software as 3.9. At the diagnostic test (maximal points 16 by the end of the 5-month course at the 6th semester the mean result for the students in the intervention group was 9.7 compared with 8.1 for the control group (p = 0.03. Conclusion Students ranked the Web-based ECG-interpretation programme as a useful instrument to learn ECG. Furthermore, Internet-delivered education may be more effective than traditional teaching methods due to greater immediacy, improved visualisation and

  4. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review article willintroduce readers to the educational subject matter, along with one-page summarises (in print) of additional articles that may be accessed in full online. We will continue to offer topical and up-to-date CME material. Readers are encouraged to register with samj.org.za to receive future notifications of new ...

  5. Training undergraduate medical students in 'soft skills' – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    of the curriculum reform at University of Pretoria (UP) goes back to the late ... medical school immediately after finishing their secondary school .... hidden curriculum. Acad Med ... Medical students on the value of role models for developing 'soft ...

  6. Medical students' use of Facebook for educational purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anam

    2016-06-01

    Medical students use Facebook to interact with one another both socially and educationally. This study investigates how medical students in a UK medical school use Facebook to support their learning. In particular, it identifies the nature of their educational activities, and details their experiences of using an educational Facebook group. Twenty-four medical students who self-identified as being Facebook users were invited to focus groups to attain a general overview of Facebook use within an educational context. A textual analysis was then conducted on a small group of intercalating medical students who used a self-created Facebook group to supplement their learning. Five of these students participated in semi-structured interviews. Six common themes were generated. These included 'collaborative learning', 'strategic uses for the preparation for assessment', 'sharing experiences and providing support', 'creating and maintaining connections', 'personal planning and practical organization' and 'sharing and evaluating educational resources'. Evidence from this study shows that medical students are using Facebook informally to enhance their learning and undergraduate lives. Facebook has enabled students to create a supportive learning community amongst their peers. Medical educators wishing to capitalize on Facebook, as a platform for formal educational initiatives, should remain cautious of intruding on this peer online learning community.

  7. Astrobiology undergraduate education: students' knowledge and perceptions of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jamie S; Drew, Jennifer C

    2009-04-01

    With the field of astrobiology continually evolving, it has become increasingly important to develop and maintain an educational infrastructure for the next generation of astrobiologists. In addition to developing more courses and programs for students, it is essential to monitor the learning experiences and progress of students taking these astrobiology courses. At the University of Florida, a new pilot course in astrobiology was developed that targeted undergraduate students with a wide range of scientific backgrounds. Pre- and post-course surveys along with knowledge assessments were used to evaluate the students' perceived and actual learning experiences. The class incorporated a hybrid teaching platform that included traditional in-person and distance learning technologies. Results indicate that undergraduate students have little prior knowledge of key astrobiology concepts; however, post-course testing demonstrated significant improvements in the students' comprehension of astrobiology. Improvements were not limited to astrobiology knowledge. Assessments revealed that students developed confidence in science writing as well as reading and understanding astrobiology primary literature. Overall, student knowledge of and attitudes toward astrobiological research dramatically increased during this course, which demonstrates the ongoing need for additional astrobiology education programs as well as periodic evaluations of those programs currently underway. Together, these approaches serve to improve the overall learning experiences and perceptions of future astrobiology researchers.

  8. Current trends in medical ethics education in Japanese medical schools.