WorldWideScience

Sample records for education impact aid

  1. Impact Aid and the Education of Military Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buddin, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Military children living in the United States generally attend a local public school and have a portion of their education expenses paid by the federal government through the Department of Education's Impact Aid program...

  2. Perceived HIV/AIDS impact among higher education institutions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can be concluded that HIV/AIDS is having a serious impact on the fiscal situation of tertiary institutions in much the same ways as it does on other institutions. It is, therefore, imperative for higher education institutions to respond to HIV/AIDS for their own benefit and that of their broader stakeholders. Early action will reap ...

  3. Implementing HIV/AIDS education: impact of teachers' training on HIV/AIDS education in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Haribondhu; Oliveras, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS education is a common and well-proven intervention strategy for providing information on HIV/AIDS to young people. However, lack of skills among teachers for imparting sensitive information to students can lead to programme failure in terms of achieving goals. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers to identify the factors that support or hinder their role in HIV/AIDS education. A self-administered questionnaire was used for interviewing teachers from randomly-selected schools in two adjacent districts in Bangladesh. Based on exposure to teachers' training, the districts were divided into control and intervention areas and the teachers' ability, skill, and their participation in HIV/AIDS education were compared between the districts. Trained teachers in the intervention schools were more likely to participate, less likely to face difficulties, and more likely to use interactive teaching methods in HIV/ AIDS classes compared to the controls who did not receive any training. Inadequate allocation of time for conducting the HIV/AIDS class was found to be barriers to HIV/AIDS education that suggest the need to provide teachers with more support in terms of training and logistics.

  4. Educational aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkeit, S.

    1989-01-01

    Educational aids include printed matter, aural media, visual media, audiovisual media and objects. A distinction is made between learning aids, which include blackboards, overhead projectors, flipcharts, wallcharts and pinboards, and learning aids, which include textbooks, worksheets, documentation and experimental equipment. The various aids are described and their use explained. The aids available at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described

  5. EDITORIAL IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON EDUCATION IN THE SUB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. 609. EDITORIAL. IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON EDUCATION IN THE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. HIV /AIDS mark a severe development crisis in sub-Saharan Africa, which remains by far the worst affected region in the world. Approximately 3.5 million new infections occurred in 2001, ...

  6. The economic impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassly, Nicholas C; Desai, Kamal; Pegurri, Elisabetta; Sikazwe, Alfred; Malambo, Irene; Siamatowe, Clement; Bundy, Don

    2003-05-02

    To estimate and project the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on the supply of education in Zambia. An analysis of the financial implications of HIV/AIDS for the Ministry of Education (MoE) and donors funding education in Zambia. A mathematical model was used to project the number of primary school teachers and their HIV status under current plans for teacher training and recruitment. Cost data were compiled from the MoE, the Teacher Education Department, teacher training colleges and the donor consortium BESSIP (Basic Education Sub-Sector Investment Programme). Multivariate sensitivity analyses were performed. The impact of HIV/AIDS on the supply of primary education imply costs to the MoE and BESSIP estimated at US$1.3-3.1 million in 1999, and projected at $10.6-41.3 million over the period 1999-2010. These costs include salaries paid to teachers absent as a result of HIV-associated illness (71%), additional training of teachers to cope with AIDS-related attrition (22%) and funeral costs contractually met by the MoE (7%). They do not include the additional costs of an active care and prevention response by the MoE, or the burden of ensuring enrolment of AIDS orphans. The annual cost of HIV/AIDS is a relatively small fraction of the overall MoE budget (2.5% in 1999) but has substantial implications for resource allocation to some functions. Expenditure on teacher training will need to increase by 26% if Education for All targets are to be met in the face of AIDS. HIV/AIDS has significant implications for resource allocation in the education sector in Zambia.

  7. Community Participation in the Impact Aid Program. Special Impact Aid Provisions for Local Education Agencies That Claim Entitlements Based on the Number of Children Residing on Indian Lands, Public Law 81-874.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    Created in 1950, the Impact Aid program provides financial assistance to local education agencies (LEAs) in areas affected by federal activity. The program gives a direct general aid payment to LEAs that: (1) have lost local revenue as a result of land purchases by the federal government; (2) provide education to children who reside on federal…

  8. The impact of HIV/AIDS on children's educational outcome: a critical review of global literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Sherr, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    The number of children losing one or both parents to HIV/AIDS has continued to rise in the past decade, with most of them being school-aged children. This study reviews global literature on the effects of HIV/AIDS (e.g., parental HIV-related illness or death) on children's schooling. Systematic review procedures generated 23 studies for examination. Existing studies show educational disadvantages among children affected by AIDS in various educational outcomes, including school enrollment and attendance, school behavior and performance, school completion, and educational attainment. A number of individual and contextual factors potentially moderate or mediate the effect of HIV/AIDS on children's education. These factors include gender of child, pattern of parental loss (maternal vs. paternal vs. dual), living arrangement (relationship with caregivers, gender of the household head), and household poverty. Current literature indicates limitations in number and scope of existing studies and in educational outcome measurements. There is a lack of studies with longitudinal design and data collection from multiple sources (e.g., students, teachers, caregivers), and a lack of studies on the relationship between psychosocial well-being of children affected by AIDS and their educational outcomes. Future studies need to employ more rigorous methodology and incorporate both individual and contextual factors for children affected by AIDS in various regions. More efforts are needed to design and implement culturally appropriate and context-specific approaches to improve the educational outcomes of children affected by AIDS.

  9. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  10. Impact evaluation of HIV/AIDS education in rural Henan province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ben-Yan; Xiang, Yuan-Xi; Zhao, Rui; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Liang, Shu-Ying; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, there is a trend of HIV prevalence transmitting from high-risk group to average-risk group in China. Rural China is the weak link of HIV prevention, and rural areas of Henan province which is one of the most high-risk regions in China have more than 60% of the AIDS patients in the province. Thus, improving the HIV awareness and implementing health education become the top-priority of HIV/AIDS control and prevention. A multistage sampling was designed to draw 1129 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and 1168 non-PLWHAs in 4 prevalence counties of Henan province. A health promoting and social-psychological support model was constructed to improve the health knowledge of participants. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression were performed to determine the intervention effect and influencing factors. All groups had misunderstandings towards the basic medical knowledge and the AIDS transmission mode. Before the intervention, 59.3% of the HIV/AIDS patients and 74.6% of the healthy people had negative attitudes towards the disease. There was statistically significant difference in the improvement of knowledge, attitude and action with regards to HIV prevention before and after intervention (Peducation level (OR=1.910) were found to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge, whereas older PLWHAs (OR=0.961) were less likely to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge. However, the intervention effect was associated with the expertise of doctors and supervisors, the content and methods of education, and participants' education level. It was concluded that health education of HIV/AIDS which positively influences the awareness and attitude of HIV prevention is popular in rural areas, therefore, a systematic and long-term program of HIV control and prevention is urgently needed in rural areas.

  11. The potential impact of computer-aided assessment technology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential impact of computer-aided assessment technology in higher education. ... Further more 'Increased number of students in Higher Education and the ... benefits, limitations, impacts on student learning and strategies for developing ...

  12. Impact of network aided platforms as educational tools on academic performance and attitude of pharmacology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aftab Ahmed; Siddiqui, Adel Zia; Mohsin, Syed Fareed; Momani, Mohammed Mahmoud Al; Mirza, Eraj Humayun

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the impact of learning management system and WhatsApp application as educational tools on students' academic achievement and attitude. The sample population was the students of six medical colleges of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia attending Medical Pharmacology's semester course in Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) program from September 2016 to January 2017. An exploratory approach was adopted based on a comparison between students exposed to only in-class lectures (Group-N), in-class lectures together with WhatsApp platform to disseminate the lecture slides (Group-W) and students group with in-class lectures facility blended with Learning Management System (LMS) and WhatsApp platform (Group-WL). The students' grades were assessed using unified multiple choice questions at the end of the semester. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation (pWhatsApp messenger tool showed a significant positive correlation in improving students' grades. Additionally, use of WhatsApp enhances students' in-class attendance though statistically insignificant. The results are pivotal for a paradigm shift of in-class lectures and discussion to mobile learning (M-learning). M-learning through WhatsApp may be as an alternative, innovative, and collaborative tool in achieving the required goals in medical education.

  13. Optimal control of HIV/AIDS dynamic: Education and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2014-07-01

    A mathematical model which describes the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS is developed. The optimal control representing education and treatment for this model is explored. The existence of optimal Control is established analytically by the use of optimal control theory. Numerical simulations suggest that education and treatment for the infected has a positive impact on HIV/AIDS control.

  14. Psychological Impact of AIDS on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Myron L.

    There are at least three aspects to the psychological impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on children. First is the psychological response of the child with AIDS; second, the response of the child in a group at high risk for AIDS; and third, the psychological response of children in general to the perceived threat from AIDS.…

  15. Does foreign aid in education foster gender equality in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga, Eugenie W. H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of foreign aid on gender equality in education outcomes in developing countries. Heterogeneity effects by type of aid received and by type of recipients are investigated using system GMM methods. The results indicate that aggregate aid disbursements to the education sector negatively affect gender parity in enrolment at the secondary and tertiary education levels and have no impact on gender parity in primary education. No impact of subsector specific aid was fo...

  16. The social impact of AIDS in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonsen, Albert R; Stryker, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    ... on Monitoring the Social Impact of the AIDS Epidemic Committee on AIDS Research and the Behavioral, Social, and Statistical Sciences Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1993 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original author...

  17. Integrating HIV & AIDS education in pre-service mathematics education for social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda van Laren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, many South African education policy documents have mandated integration of HIV & AIDS education in learning areas/disciplines. Policy document research has shown that although South African politicians and managers have produced volumes of eloquent and compelling legislation regarding provision for HIV & AIDS education, little of this is translated into action. The impact of HIV & AIDS permeates the social, economic and political arenas in South Africa. Integration of HIV & AIDS education across disciplines can serve as a strategy to further the ideals of social justice. This paper focuses on how integration in the teaching and learning of Mathematics Education provides opportunities to take action for social justice. The inquiry explores the following question: How can the myth that there is 'nothing we can do' about HIV & AIDS, which is linked to social justice issues, be addressed through integration of HIV & AIDS education in Mathematics pre-service teacher education? Drawing on self-study, the work of a Mathematics teacher educator who worked with pre-service teachers to integrate HIV & AIDS education at a higher education institution is described. By considering integration of HIV & AIDS education in Mathematics Education and taking action it is possible to develop strategies which directly relate to social justice.

  18. CONTEXT AND CONTENT : THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL-LEAVING AND SCHOOL-BASED HEALTH-EDUCATION ON AIDS-RELEVANT COGNITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ABRAMS, D; SHEERAN, P; ABRAHAM, C; SPEARS, R

    1992-01-01

    A survey examined health beliefs and intentions among 690 16-18 year-olds in Dundee. Respondents in the younger cohort (n = 363) were classified according to their educational situation (at school vs left) and self-reports of having received AIDS/HIV-relevant health education. Both remaining in

  19. Evolving with modern technology: Impact of incorporating audiovisual aids in preanesthetic checkup clinics on patient education and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Haramritpal; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Amandeep; Sharda, Gagandeep; Aggarwal, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    Perioperative stress is an often ignored commonly occurring phenomenon. Little or no prior knowledge of anesthesia techniques can increase this significantly. Patients awaiting surgery may experience high level of anxiety. Preoperative visit is an ideal time to educate patients about anesthesia and address these fears. The present study evaluates two different approaches, i.e., standard interview versus informative audiovisual presentation with standard interview on information gain (IG) and its impact on patient anxiety during preoperative visit. This prospective, double-blind, randomized study was conducted in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in rural India over 2 months. This prospective, double-blind, randomized study was carried out among 200 American Society of Anesthesiologist Grade I and II patients in the age group 18-65 years scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were allocated to either one of the two equal-sized groups, Group A and Group B. Baseline anxiety and information desire component was assessed using Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale for both the groups. Group A patients received preanesthetic interview with the anesthesiologist and were reassessed. Group B patients were shown a short audiovisual presentation about operation theater and anesthesia procedure followed by preanesthetic interview and were also reassessed. In addition, patient satisfaction score (PSS) and IG was assessed at the end of preanesthetic visit using standard questionnaire. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. Nonparametric tests such as Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests, and Student's t -test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Patient's IG was significantly more in Group B (5.43 ± 0.55) as compared to Group A (4.41 ± 0.922) ( P < 0.001). There was significant reduction in total anxiety from the baseline values in both the groups. This reduction was

  20. Incorporating AIDS Education in Prison Adult Education Programs in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enuku, Usiwoma Evawoma; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho

    1999-01-01

    Indicates that there are no acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education programs in Nigerian prisons and that because of total confinement and the absence of conjugal visits, homosexuality may be common. Outlines the objectives of AIDS education in prisons and the benefits as the inmates return to their communities. (JOW)

  1. Impact of oral health education by audio aids, braille and tactile models on the oral health status of visually impaired children of Bhopal City

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali Gautam; Ajay Bhambal; Swapnil Moghe

    2018-01-01

    Context: Children with special needs face unique challenges in day-to-day practice. They are dependent on their close ones for everything. To improve oral hygiene in such visually impaired children, undue training and education are required. Braille is an important language for reading and writing for the visually impaired. It helps them understand and visualize the world via touch. Audio aids are being used to impart health education to the visually impaired. Tactile models help them perceiv...

  2. Impact of oral health education by audio aids, braille and tactile models on the oral health status of visually impaired children of Bhopal City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Anjali; Bhambal, Ajay; Moghe, Swapnil

    2018-01-01

    Children with special needs face unique challenges in day-to-day practice. They are dependent on their close ones for everything. To improve oral hygiene in such visually impaired children, undue training and education are required. Braille is an important language for reading and writing for the visually impaired. It helps them understand and visualize the world via touch. Audio aids are being used to impart health education to the visually impaired. Tactile models help them perceive things which they cannot visualize and hence are an important learning tool. This study aimed to assess the improvement in oral hygiene by audio aids and Braille and tactile models in visually impaired children aged 6-16 years of Bhopal city. This was a prospective study. Sixty visually impaired children aged 6-16 years were selected and randomly divided into three groups (20 children each). Group A: audio aids + Braille, Group B: audio aids + tactile models, and Group C: audio aids + Braille + tactile models. Instructions were given for maintaining good oral hygiene and brushing techniques were explained to all children. After 3 months' time, the oral hygiene status was recorded and compared using plaque and gingival index. ANNOVA test was used. The present study showed a decrease in the mean plaque and gingival scores at all time intervals in individual group as compared to that of the baseline that was statistically significant. The study depicts that the combination of audio aids, Braille and tactile models is an effective way to provide oral health education and improve oral health status of visually impaired children.

  3. Impact of oral health education by audio aids, braille and tactile models on the oral health status of visually impaired children of Bhopal City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Gautam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Children with special needs face unique challenges in day-to-day practice. They are dependent on their close ones for everything. To improve oral hygiene in such visually impaired children, undue training and education are required. Braille is an important language for reading and writing for the visually impaired. It helps them understand and visualize the world via touch. Audio aids are being used to impart health education to the visually impaired. Tactile models help them perceive things which they cannot visualize and hence are an important learning tool. Aim: This study aimed to assess the improvement in oral hygiene by audio aids and Braille and tactile models in visually impaired children aged 6–16 years of Bhopal city. Settings and Design: This was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: Sixty visually impaired children aged 6–16 years were selected and randomly divided into three groups (20 children each. Group A: audio aids + Braille, Group B: audio aids + tactile models, and Group C: audio aids + Braille + tactile models. Instructions were given for maintaining good oral hygiene and brushing techniques were explained to all children. After 3 months' time, the oral hygiene status was recorded and compared using plaque and gingival index. Statistical Analysis Used: ANNOVA test was used. Results: The present study showed a decrease in the mean plaque and gingival scores at all time intervals in individual group as compared to that of the baseline that was statistically significant. Conclusions: The study depicts that the combination of audio aids, Braille and tactile models is an effective way to provide oral health education and improve oral health status of visually impaired children.

  4. Danish aid to higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    This piece comments on the role of higher education and universities in achieving the goals of Agenda 2030. It also asks if global academic collaboration is a new form of colonization or if researchers from the North can assist in decolonising the academy....

  5. Making aid work for education in developing countries: an analysis of aid effectiveness for primary education coverage and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Birchler, Kassandra; Michaelowa, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of education aid on primary enrolment and education quality. Using the most recent data on aid disbursements and econometric specifications inspired by the general aid effectiveness literature, we find some evidence that donors' increase in funding has substantially contributed to the successful increase in enrolment over the last 15 years. The most robust effect is obtained by aid for education facilities and training. In addition, we find complementarities bet...

  6. State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creusere, Marlena; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey; Norman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    TG provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This issue of "State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas"…

  7. Effect of an AIDS education program for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an age-specific AIDS education program on HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and perceived severity of AIDS in older adults. The health belief model served as a framework. The age-specific AIDS education program was developed based on a knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors survey of 458 older adults at senior citizen centers. The program included case study presentations of actual older people with AIDS along with an emphasis on myths identified in the initial survey. There was a significant increase in total knowledge about AIDS (p < .001), perceived susceptibility (p < .01), and perceived severity (p < .001) after the educational program. Based on the results of this study, nurses are in an excellent position to provide primary and secondary AIDS prevention strategies for all age groups, including the older adult population.

  8. The Socioeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Outcomes in Uganda: School Enrolment and the Schooling Gap in 2002/2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasirye, Ibrahim; Hisali, Eria

    2010-01-01

    Due to high prime-age mortality--a result of the HIV/AIDS scourge, the number of orphans in Uganda continues to rise. Using the 2002/2003 Uganda National Household Survey, this paper investigates how HIV/AIDS orphan status affects schooling enrolment and grade progression. Our results show that HIV/AIDS orphans are not significantly less likely to…

  9. Aid effectiveness in the Education Sector: A Dynamic Panel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelowa, Katharina; Weber, Anke

    2007-01-01

    Applying the general question of aid effectiveness to the sector of education, this paper provides some evidence for a positive effect of development assistance on primary enrolment and completion. However, even the most optimistic estimates clearly show that at any realistic rate of growth, aid will never be able to move the world markedly closer towards the internationally agreed objective of “Education For All”. Universal primary education requires increased efficiency of educational spend...

  10. The Struggles of Financial Aid for Higher Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussuda, Cintia

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the higher education system in Brazil and one of the financial aid policies that the government has established. It seeks to find whether the Fundo de Financiamento ao Estudante do Ensino Superior (FIES), Financing of Higher Education Student, a financial aid program established by the Brazilian government in 1999, addresses…

  11. Computer-aided voice training in higher education: participants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The training of performance singing in a multi lingual, multi cultural educational context presents unique problems and requires inventive teaching strategies. Computer-aided training offers objective visual feedback of the voice production that can be implemented as a teaching aid in higher education. This article reports on ...

  12. Using HIV&AIDS statistics in pre-service Mathematics Education to integrate HIV&AIDS education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laren, Linda

    2012-12-01

    In South Africa, the HIV&AIDS education policy documents indicate opportunities for integration across disciplines/subjects. There are different interpretations of integration/inclusion and mainstreaming HIV&AIDS education, and numerous levels of integration. Integration ensures that learners experience the disciplines/subjects as being linked and related, and integration is required to support and expand the learners' opportunities to attain skills, acquire knowledge and develop attitudes and values across the curriculum. This study makes use of self-study methodology where I, a teacher educator, aim to improve my practice through including HIV&AIDS statistics in Mathematics Education. This article focuses on how I used HIV&AIDS statistics to facilitate pre-service teacher reflection and introduce them to integration of HIV&AIDS education across the curriculum. After pre-service teachers were provided with HIV statistics, they drew a pie chart which graphically illustrated the situation and reflected on issues relating to HIV&AIDS. Three themes emerged from the analysis of their reflections. The themes relate to the need for further HIV&AIDS education, the changing pastoral role of teachers and the changing context of teaching. This information indicates that the use of statistics is an appropriate means of initiating the integration of HIV&AIDS education into the academic curriculum.

  13. Macroeconomic Impact of HIV and AIDS on the Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe is one of the countries severely affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The high prevalence of the disease is not only a health problem but has become an economic problem, yet little effort had previously been directed at establishing the exact magnitude of HIV/AIDS' economic impact. Using a human capital ...

  14. What Older Adults Know about HIV/AIDS: Lessons from an HIV/AIDS Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, La Fleur F.

    2010-01-01

    Despite being one of the fastest growing segments of the HIV/AIDS caseload, persons age 50 and older have been largely neglected in terms of HIV/AIDS education. This study describes a project involving HIV-related health education for persons [greater than or equal] 50 in an urban area of Ohio. Data from 50 persons age [greater than or equal] 50…

  15. State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey

    2016-01-01

    Texas Guaranteed Student Loan Corporation (TG) provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This 2016 issue of "State…

  16. Language Planning, English Language Education and Development Aid in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erling, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    The increased status of English as the language of international communication and business has meant that development aid has increasingly been used to finance language planning initiatives aimed at improving and/or expanding English language education. The intended outcome of this aid is often to provide expanded economic returns and…

  17. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  18. Towards the Education Nation: Revisiting the Impact of Financial Aid, College Experience, and Institutional Context on Baccalaureate Degree Attainment Using a Propensity Score Matching, Multilevel Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Ray

    2012-01-01

    To compete in the global marketplace, the U.S. economy heavily relies on higher education institutions to educate the college graduates and knowledge workers needed to create the innovative products and services of tomorrow. And yet, where once America led the world in educational attainment, recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development indicates that the U.S. now ranks only 15th among major industrialized nations in college completion rates. As a result, increas...

  19. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Kubota, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Sakuma, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    The education and training system for Accident Management was developed by the Japanese BWR group and Hitachi Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the education and training system with computer simulations. Both systems are designed to be executed on personal computers. The outlines of the CAI education system and the education and training system with simulator are reported below. These systems provides plant operators and technical support center staff with the effective education and training for accident management. (author)

  20. The impact of cuts in legal aid funding on charities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Debra; Barr, Warren

    2013-03-01

    This article focusses on the specific impact of the cuts in legal aid funding on the charitable sector. The sector plays a significant role in advice giving. Some charities have the provision of legal advice as their sole purpose, whilst the work of other charities includes the giving of legal advice. Funding comes via a number of sources including legal aid, local authorities and charitable trusts. Whilst this volume highlights the legal aid reforms that will lead to significant cuts in funding, this article notes that charitable providers of legal advice have also suffered major cuts from their other traditional funding sources. Against this background, the article considers the serious and often unforeseen consequences for charities of the legal aid reforms, which go far beyond the impact on the high street law firm and access to justice for claimants.

  1. Law of health education on first aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pawłowski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Polish law requires all citizens to take action in order to assist in any case, where exist the danger of loss of life and serious bodily injury of victim, even if they can prove to be ineffective. Everyone can become a participant and / or witnessed of the events where human life is endangered. Therefore everyone should have the theoretical knowledge and practical skills in first aid, and know the consequences of inaction in the event of danger to life or health of another human being. The research presents an analysis of legal acts regulating the provision of first aid in Poland. An attempt was made to organize the interpretation presented ideas to the presented material was help and guidance for trainers in first aid. Particular emphasis is placed on the realization, that not helping the man appearing in the position of threatening an imminent danger of death or grievous bodily injury commits a crime by omission. However, first aid in their duties diligently, in accordance with the current guidelines will not conflict with the law.

  2. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  3. Integrating HIV & AIDS Education in Pre-Service Mathematics Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laren, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, many South African education policy documents have mandated integration of HIV & AIDS education in learning areas/disciplines. Policy document research has shown that although South African politicians and managers have produced volumes of eloquent and compelling legislation regarding provision for HIV & AIDS education, little…

  4. AIDS education for a low literate audience in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msimuko, A K

    1988-04-01

    A workshop funded by the USA Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) was an effort by Zambia toward prevention and control of AIDS. The lack of educational materials about AIDS for a low-literate audience was the major problem addressed by the workshop. Other problems include the lack of collaborative effort in the development of materials on AIDS, and the lack of skills needed in the development of such materials in Zambia. 1 of the objectives of the workshop was to launch the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia's (PPAZ) materials development project. The scope of this project includes the production of educational materials on AIDS for low-literate audiences and a counseling handbook for family planning workers. Print materials should be simply written, using words, idioms, and graphics that are familiar to the target audience. Other workshop objectives included the establishment of collaborative relationships between organizations involved in existing AIDS educational activities in Zambia, and the development of practical skills needed to produce print materials. Education was identified as the most important strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS, and PPAZ should be the executing agency of the print materials project. Audience research, using focus group techniques, focus group discussions, behavioral messages, and pretesting of messages, should be the most effective means of reaching targeted audiences. PPAZ is contracted by PATH to begin development of educational materials, and 2 committees have formed to implement the project and to establish interagency collaboration. Audience research was begun between January and March of 1988, focusing on people's beliefs, practices, and ideas about AIDS. The final phase of the project will be the printing, distribution, and use of the AIDS materials and the training of family planning field workers in the proper use of these materials.

  5. Audio-Visual Aids for Cooperative Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botham, C. N.

    Within the context of cooperative education, audiovisual aids may be used for spreading the idea of cooperatives and helping to consolidate study groups; for the continuous process of education, both formal and informal, within the cooperative movement; for constant follow up purposes; and for promoting loyalty to the movement. Detailed…

  6. Educators' roles in developing adolescent HIV/AIDS knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that the school should teach adolescents' about HIV/AIDS. ... learners. Educators were aware that this education did not always lead to positive ... at many South African schools justify the need for further scientific inquiry .... Africa the researcher was motivated to establish how school culture .... Perspectives on validation.

  7. Moving Towards Inclusive Education Policies and Practices? Basic Education for AIDS Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Sue; Kanyanta, Sylvester Bonaventure

    2007-01-01

    The global spread of HIV and AIDS has presented a major threat to development, affecting the health of the poor and many aspects of social and economic development. The greatest impact of the epidemic has been felt in sub-Saharan Africa, and Zambia ranks among the worst hit countries. The Free Basic Education Policy in Zambia upholds the right of…

  8. 75 FR 49432 - Impact Aid Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Government Writing'' require each agency to write regulations that are easy to understand. The Secretary... Education Act of 1965, as amended (ESEA). Through this program, the Department provides competitive grants... administration and distribution of funds under this program. The proposed regulations would apply to the grant...

  9. Chile: educational game, "Learning about AIDS: the Responsibility of All".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    For more than 10 years, People's Health Education (EPES) has developed educational materials which call upon target audiences to integrate their practical experiences into a collective learning process based upon games. The methodology and materials aim to meet the needs of the most underprivileged sections of the population. EPES produced "Learning about AIDS: the responsibility of all," a game which can be used as it is or adapted to meet the needs of differing groups. The objectives of the game are to provide basic information on AIDS; to facilitate the expression of ideas, beliefs, and myths about AIDS; to promote forums for discussion in order to exchange opinions and views on sexuality and AIDS; to create awareness on how AIDS affects the community; and to create awareness of the need to prevent the disease. Played in couples to strengthen the level of interpersonal communication on such issues, the game is played because AIDS is a fact of everyday life which is affecting the community, because learning about AIDS will help people to protect themselves and their communities from the disease and groundless associated fears, and because open discussion is needed to help prevent more people from becoming infected with HIV.

  10. Uganda group works to reduce AIDS' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbrier, P

    1996-10-01

    War and AIDS-related mortality in Uganda have created an estimated 1.2 million orphans in the country. Child welfare advocates and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have therefore been working together for the past 4 years under an umbrella organization to coordinate efforts for vulnerable children. The Uganda Community-Based Association for Child Welfare (UCOBAC), links people and organizations involved in child advocacy, facilitates relations between the government and NGOs, and helps to strengthen the capacity of NGOs to identify and implement projects. UCOBAC emphasizes community-based initiatives which allow children to remain in their own communities instead of being institutionalized. One example of such an approach is a vocational skills training program in Rakai district established to help young orphans trying to make it on their own. More than 300 youths had benefitted from the program as of December 1994 and plans are underway to expand the program to 10 more districts. UCOBAC is also training communities and NGOs to identify and implement viable projects, and helps child welfare organizations by serving as a network for sharing information. UCOBAC came into existence in October 1990 with 93 members, including 57 local NGOs, 17 international NGOs, and 19 individual members. The organization has since established local offices in 35 of Uganda's 39 districts. UNICEF has thus far provided about US$130,000 for UCOBAC activities and will continue to fund local NGO initiatives through UCOBAC. UCOBAC, however, is giving priority to becoming financially independent of UNICEF within a couple of years. Future projects include an inventory of NGO child welfare projects, a child welfare resource library, and networking workshops with NGOs and government policymakers.

  11. The need for first aid education for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Sharif, Nur Amirah; Che Hasan, Muhammad Kamil; Che Jamaludin, Farrah Ilyani; Zul Hasymi Firdaus, Mohd Khairul

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the need for basic first aid knowledge and skills among adolescents. A cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was conducted among 375 secondary school students in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. The survey was adapted from a Hong Kong Red Cross survey. A back to back translation of this instrument was carried out by two bilingual medical experts with Cronbach's alpha 0.8. The data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) in terms of descriptive analysis, and an independent t-test and chi-square test were carried out. There were 149 respondents from the lower form (grade level) and 226 respondents from the upper form. The majority of respondents (81.6%) were Malay. An independent t-test revealed a significant association between knowledge and attitude, as students who scored higher on first aid questions showed a more positive attitude towards first aid (1.475%). There were also significant associations between race and experience learning first aid. Adolescents receive minimal first aid education. Thus, there is an urgent need to educate adolescents more in first aid to promote a safer community and to prevent any further injuries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Pickering education centre aids nuclear acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Activities at the new education centre at Pickering are described. The opening of the Nuclear Communications Centre, in 1978, resulting from a search for an effective means of maintaining public acceptance of Ontario Hydro's extensive nuclear power programme. Activities include participation in the interactive computer games, guided tours of educational exhibits including a model of Pickering A generating station, and displays depicting the Candu fuel cycle, outdoor exhibits of renewable energy sources, and tours of the plant. Outside activities include lectures to schools and citizen, business, or professional groups. (U.K.)

  13. DECS tries out instructional materials on AIDS prevention education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A national try-out of the newly developed print and non-print instructional materials on AIDS Education is being conducted by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) this school year 1993-to 1994. To determine the effectiveness of these materials, various public and private schools in Region IV (Southern Tagalog), VII (Central Visayas) XI (Southern Mindanao) and National Capital Region (Metro, Manila) were chosen as try-out institutions. The AIDS education materials will be tried out in different subjects in some grade and year levels such as civics and culture (grade one); science and health (grades three and six); home economics and livelihood education (grade five); physical education, health and music (second year) and Pilipino Language (third year). The materials for the elementary level consist of posters, cut-out pictures, voice tapes, jingles, talking books and slides, while the secondary school level utilizes modules. For the tertiary level, a Resource Book on AIDS Prevention Education is used by the Teacher Training Institutions and the Non-Formal Education employs the Facilitator's Guide for Levels I-III. These materials will be tried out in both urban and rural schools, with control school and experimental school at each level. full text

  14. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2009-11-18

    In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national countries, international institutions and their partners. In our search strategy, we relied on secondary information, mainly through National Human Development Reports of some African countries and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank. We restricted ourselves to reports dealing explicitly with the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries. HIV/AIDS is affecting the global human development of African countries through its devastating impact on health and demographic indicators such as life expectancy at birth, healthcare assistance, age and sex distribution, economic indicators like income, work force, and economic growth, education and knowledge acquisition and other indicators like governance, gender inequality and human rights. On the basis of the national reports reviewed, it appears clearly that HIV/AIDS is no longer a crisis only for the healthcare sector, but presents a challenge to all sectors. Consequently, HIV/AIDS is a development question and should be viewed as such. The disease is impeding development by imposing a steady decline in the key indicators of human development and hence reversing the social and economic gains that African countries are striving to attain. Being at the same time a cause and consequence of poverty and underdevelopment, it constitutes a challenge to human security and human development by diminishing the chances of

  15. Computational modelling of the impact of AIDS on business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alan P

    2007-07-01

    An overview of computational modelling of the impact of AIDS on business in South Africa, with a detailed description of the AIDS Projection Model (APM) for companies, developed by the author, and suggestions for further work. Computational modelling of the impact of AIDS on business in South Africa requires modelling of the epidemic as a whole, and of its impact on a company. This paper gives an overview of epidemiological modelling, with an introduction to the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA) model, the most widely used such model for South Africa. The APM produces projections of HIV prevalence, new infections, and AIDS mortality on a company, based on the anonymous HIV testing of company employees, and projections from the ASSA model. A smoothed statistical model of the prevalence test data is computed, and then the ASSA model projection for each category of employees is adjusted so that it matches the measured prevalence in the year of testing. FURTHER WORK: Further techniques that could be developed are microsimulation (representing individuals in the computer), scenario planning for testing strategies, and models for the business environment, such as models of entire sectors, and mapping of HIV prevalence in time and space, based on workplace and community data.

  16. Smarter Spending: Reforming Federal Financial Aid for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In higher education, three generally recognized rationales for federal involvement in financial aid exist: (1) Promoting equality of opportunity: Those from poor households are less likely to attend college for a variety of reasons; (2) Credit market imperfections: Students may not have access to the credit needed to make profitable investments in…

  17. Aid Effectiveness, Transaction Costs and Conditionality in the Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Richard; Biswas, Shampa

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of transaction costs is a commonly mentioned yet rarely elaborated goal for aid effectiveness in educational development. The casual use of the concept of transaction costs conceals which costs may be reduced, which costs are required and, indeed, what transaction costs actually are. Examining issues related to harmonizing the…

  18. HIV/AIDS--An Issue in Nurse Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoffrey W.

    1995-01-01

    A survey found that many of British nurses (n=717) had inadequate knowledge and attitudes about people with AIDS. Educational programs should include the following content: attitudes/stereotypes, safer sex and infection control, confidentiality, epidemiology and statistics, and signs, symptoms, and progression of the syndrome. (SK)

  19. Computer Aided Education System SuperTest. Present and Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the testing and self-testing process for the Computer Aided Education System (CAES SuperTest, used at the Academy of Economic Studies of Chisinau, Moldova and recently implemented at the University of Bacau, Romania. We discuss here the future of this software, from the Information Society and Knowledge Society point of view.

  20. Parents' Perceptions of HIV and AIDS Education among their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to establish Zimbabwean parents' views on HIV and AIDS Education among their children attending secondary schools in Masvingo. A qualitative design was used. An open ended questionnaire was used to collect data from twenty conveniently selected parents with children attending secondary schools ...

  1. Constructing Identities through Literacy Events in HIV/AIDS Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the literacy events in HIV/AIDS education in Tanzania to investigate how they construct social identities for participants and to what extent they provide opportunities for critical health literacies. The projects took place as collaborative research partnerships with local Tanzanian NGOs in an effort to analyse and improve…

  2. Impact Of IEC Intervention On Knowledge Regarding AIDS Amongst Senior Secondary School Children Of East Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhasin S. K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What is the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst school children in East Delhi? 2. What is the impact of IEC intervention on the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS in these children? Objective: To find out the impact of IEC intervention on awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst senior secondary boys and girls in schools of East Delhi. Study design: Pre and post IEC interventional study. Settings: In four randomly selected senior secondary schools in East Delhi. Participants: 294 boys and 333 girls of class XI and XII in pre IEC group and 239 boys and 203 girls in post IEC group. Intervention: An IEC package of exhibition of posters, videotapes and intra group open discussion. Outcome variables: Proportion (prevalence of school children having correct knowledge of various aspects of HIV/AIDS after IEC intervention. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test. Results: IEC intervention significantly generated an enhancing effect on most aspects of their awareness towards HIV/AIDS among both boys and girls. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to impart health education for dispelling misconceptions regarding this disease.

  3. AIDS education from a front line worker's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waines, R

    1993-01-01

    The author is an AIDS educator working in Vancouver, Canada, who does not agree with current HIV prevention tactics which bombard audiences with information on HIV and its consequences and preventive approaches. It should be clear by now that inundating people with information while ignoring the emotions behind their choices does not work. Efforts must be made to close the gap between individual knowledge and action. The author has learned over his four-year tenure as youth educator that educational sessions should be small and interactive. The educator should stress that no question, topic, feeling, or prejudice is taboo and encourage open discussion of pertinent issues. No person should be allowed to dominate the discussion and only minimal time spent on topics such as whether mosquitoes can transmit HIV. The focus should be taken off of condoms, because people have heard enough already, and alternatives to unprotected anal, vaginal, and oral sex encouraged. Women should be encouraged to choose what kind of sex they want, participants should be encouraged to discuss and adhere to what they have learned after the session, and obstacles raise by conservative parents' groups must be fought. Further, the educator must prepare for the session and follow up on opinions afterwards. The author also critiques Catholic education as puritan and disrespectful of the rights of youth to information and free choice, and assails discrimination against people with AIDS and all people in general.

  4. Aiding violence or peace? The impact of foreign aid on the risk of civil conflict in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, de J.; Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of foreign aid flows on the risk of civil conflict. We improve on earlier studies on this topic by addressing the problem of the endogenous aid allocation using GDP levels of donor countries as instruments. A more structural addition to the literature is that we

  5. Aiding Violence or Peace? The Impact of Foreign Aid on the Risk of Civil Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ree, J.; Nillesen, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of foreign aid on the risk of civil conflict. Previous studies on this topic have not properly addressed the problem of endogeneity between aid and conflict as well as the distorting influences of country specific time invariant effects. We propose GDP levels of donor

  6. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  7. Hypnosis in Educational Programs: Its Implications As an Educational Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Joseph

    Although hypnosis has not been extensively used in education, a review of past research reveals five areas which might benefit from hypnotherapy: (1) motivation, (2) study habits, (3) concentration, (4) remedial reading, and (5) test anxiety. A questionnaire focusing on these areas was developed to determine the attitude of professional personnel…

  8. Robots: An Impact on Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesi, LaVon; Maness, Marion

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on robotics and robots, considering impact of robots on the workplace and concerns of the work force. Discusses incorporating robotics into the educational system at all levels, exploring industry-education partnerships to fund introduction of new technology into the curriculum. New funding sources and funding…

  9. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Masuda, Takahiro; Kubota, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Sakuma, Hitoshi

    2000-01-01

    Under severe accident conditions of a nuclear power plant, plant operators and technical support center (TSC) staffs will be under a amount of stress. Therefore, those individuals responsible for managing the plant should promote their understanding about the accident management and operations. Moreover, it is also important to train in ordinary times, so that they can carry out accident management operations effectively on severe accidents. Therefore, the education and training system which works on personal computers was developed by Japanese BWR group (Tokyo Electric Power Co.,Inc., Tohoku Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Chubu Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Hokuriku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Chugoku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Japan Atomic Power Co.,Inc.), and Hitachi, Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the other is education and training system with a computer simulation. Both systems are designed to execute on MS-Windows(R) platform of personal computers. These systems provide plant operators and technical support center staffs with an effective education and training tool for accident management. TEPCO used the simulation system for the emergency exercise assuming the occurrence of hypothetical severe accident, and have performed an effective exercise in March, 2000. (author)

  10. Persuasive communication about AIDS prevention: need for cognition determines the impact of message format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, A B

    1999-04-01

    Adolescents were classified as being high or low in need for cognition (NFC) (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) and expressed their knowledge about AIDS, attitudes toward condom use, and perceived supportive norms after being exposed to a cartoon or a written message about safe sex. Both messages have a positive impact on knowledge and attitudes. Theoretically interesting is the finding that the cartoon message is more effective in bringing about change in attitudes and subjective norms than the written message for low-NFC adolescents, and that the written message is more effective than the cartoon message for high-NFC adolescents. These results are consistent with the theory-based prediction that a persuasive communication will be most effective when the format of the message is tailored to people's information-processing proclivities. The practical implications of the findings for AIDS education are discussed.

  11. State Merit-Based Aid and Enrolling in Graduate Study: Evidence from the Kentucky Educational Excellence Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the effect of a state merit-based aid program for undergraduate students on subsequent enrollment in graduate school. It uses student unit record data to analyze the impact of the Kentucky Educational Excellence Scholarship (KEES). Price theory is used as a framework for understanding the incentives provided by KEES. Using a…

  12. "If you don't abstain, you will die of AIDS": AIDS education in Kenyan public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njue, Carolyne; Nzioka, Charles; Ahlberg, Beth-Maina; Pertet, Anne M; Voeten, Helene A C M

    2009-04-01

    We explored constraints of implementing AIDS education in public schools in Kenya. Sixty interviews with teachers and 60 focus group discussions with students were conducted in 21 primary and nine secondary schools. System/school-level constraints included lack of time in the curriculum, limited reach of secondary-school students (because AIDS education is embedded in biology, which is not compulsory), and disapproval of openness about sex and condoms by the Ministry of Education and parents. Alternative strategies to teach about AIDS had their own constraints. Teachers lacked training and support and felt uncomfortable with the topic. They were not used to interactive teaching methods and sometimes breached confidentiality. Teachers' negative attitudes constrained students from seeking information. Training interventions should be provided to teachers to increase their self-confidence, foster more positive attitudes, and stimulate interactive teaching methods. The Ministry of Education needs to have a clear policy toward the promotion of condoms.

  13. A Comparative Evaluation of Two Interventions for Educator Training in HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Olagoke; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two different methods to teach educators about HIV/AIDS. Sixty educators were selected from eight schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to undergo HIV/AIDS training using an interactive CD-ROM intervention. Another sixty educators from other schools were selected to undergo a two-day Life Skills…

  14. Poz-itively Transformational: Sex Workers and HIV/AIDS Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    HIV and AIDS are complex events that offer numerous opportunities for adult education. However, mainstream education on this issue has often not been relevant to a number of subpopulations, including sex workers. This chapter explores sources and content of HIV/AIDS education in the sex work industry (including art and the Internet) and suggests…

  15. The impact of official development aid on maternal and reproductive health outcomes: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Michelle Taylor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Progress toward meeting Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes, is behind schedule. This is despite ever increasing volumes of official development aid targeting the goal, calling into question the distribution and efficacy of aid. The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness represented a global commitment to reform aid practices in order to improve development outcomes, encouraging a shift toward collaborative aid arrangements which support the national plans of aid recipient countries (and discouraging unaligned donor projects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review to summarise the evidence of the impact on MDG 5 outcomes of official development aid delivered in line with Paris aid effectiveness principles and to compare this with the impact of aid in general on MDG 5 outcomes. Searches of electronic databases identified 30 studies reporting aid-funded interventions designed to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes. Aid interventions appear to be associated with small improvements in the MDG indicators, although it is not clear whether changes are happening because of the manner in which aid is delivered. The data do not allow for a meaningful comparison between Paris style and general aid. The review identified discernible gaps in the evidence base on aid interventions targeting MDG 5, notably on indicators MDG 5.4 (adolescent birth rate and 5.6 (unmet need for family planning. DISCUSSION: This review presents the first systematic review of the impact of official development aid delivered according to the Paris principles and aid delivered outside this framework on MDG 5 outcomes. Its findings point to major gaps in the evidence base and should be used to inform new approaches and methodologies aimed at measuring the impact of official development aid.

  16. Impact of food aid on smallholder agriculture development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food aid is a widely debated development topic and such debates have given rise to the existence of two schools of thought regarding its resultant effects. The general belief is that food aid has disincentive effects, whereas the counter belief is that food aid instead comes with contributional effects to agricultural ...

  17. Critics raise moral objections to Federal AIDS education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-28

    Lawmakers and a handful of government employees have objected to the Federal government's programs to educate its employees about AIDS. At the June 22, 1995 hearing of the civil service subcommittee of the House Government Reform and Oversight Committee, protests were raised on religious or moral grounds. Thomas Herron, a supervisory logistics manager at the Naval Air Technical Services Facility in Philadelphia found the training to be against the principles of his faith. Rep. Robert K. Dornan (R-Calif) said his office was flooded with calls and letters from employees who raised concern that the training is being used to advance a redefinition of the family and is a blatant pro-homosexual agenda. Robert L. Maginnis, policy analyst for the conservative Family Research Council, faulted the training, saying it does little to change behavior that puts people at risk for HIV infection. Clinton administration officials testified at the meeting that the program is necessary to ensure both the safety of the workforce and employees' freedom from discrimination and harassment. Individual departments and agencies are responsible for developing their own AIDS training programs. According to Alan Heuerman, associate director for human resource systems service with the Office of Personnel Management, relatively few objections have been raised about the training.

  18. Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS peer education programme in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To evaluate a South African workplace HIV I AIDS peer-education programme running since 1997. Methods. In 2001 a cross-sectional study was done of 900 retail-section employees in three geographical areas. The study measured HIV I AIDS knowledge, attitudes towards people living with HIV I AIDS, belief ...

  19. Volcanology Curricula Development Aided by Online Educational Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; van der Hoeven Kraft, Katrien J.; Teasdale, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    Using On-Line Volcano Monitoring Data in College and University Courses: The Volcano Exploration Project: Pu`u `Ō`ō (VEPP); Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii, 26-30 July 2010; Volcanic activity is an excellent hook for engaging college and university students in geoscience classes. An increasing number of Internet-accessible real-time and near-real time volcano monitoring data are now available and constitute an important resource for geoscience education; however, relatively few data sets are comprehensive, and many lack background information to aid in interpretation. In response to the need for organized, accessible, and well-documented volcano education resources, the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), in collaboration with NASA and the University of Hawai`i at Manoa, established the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu`u `Ō`ō (VEPP). The VEPP Web site (http://vepp.wr.usgs.gov) is an educational resource that provides access, in near real time, to geodetic, seismic, and geologic data from the active Pu`u `Ō`ō eruptive vent on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, along with background and context information. A strength of the VEPP site is the common theme of the Pu`u `Ō`ō eruption, which allows the site to be revisited multiple times to demonstrate different principles and integrate many aspects of volcanology.

  20. Volcanology curricula development aided by online educational resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; van der Hoeven Kraft, Katrien J.; Teasdale, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic activity is an excellent hook for engaging college and university students in geoscience classes. An increasing number of Internet-accessible real-time and near–real time volcano monitoring data are now available and constitute an important resource for geoscience education; however, relatively few data sets are comprehensive, and many lack background information to aid in interpretation. In response to the need for organized, accessible, and well-documented volcano education resources, the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), in collaboration with NASA and the University of Hawai`i at Manoa, established the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu`u `Ō`ō (VEPP). The VEPP Web site (http://vepp.wr.usgs.gov) is an educational resource that provides access, in near real time, to geodetic, seismic, and geologic data from the active Pu`u `Ō`ō eruptive vent on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, along with background and context information. A strength of the VEPP site is the common theme of the Pu`u `Ō`ō eruption, which allows the site to be revisited multiple times to demonstrate different principles and integrate many aspects of volcanology.

  1. Impact of housing on the survival of persons with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra K; Hsu, Ling C; Vittinghoff, Eric; Vu, Annie; Bamberger, Joshua D; Katz, Mitchell H

    2009-07-07

    Homeless persons with HIV/AIDS have greater morbidity and mortality, more hospitalizations, less use of antiretroviral therapy, and worse medication adherence than HIV-infected persons who are stably housed. We examined the effect of homelessness on the mortality of persons with AIDS and measured the effect of supportive housing on AIDS survival. The San Francisco AIDS registry was used to identify homeless and housed persons who were diagnosed with AIDS between 1996 and 2006. The registry was computer-matched with a housing database of homeless persons who received housing after their AIDS diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival between persons who were homeless at AIDS diagnosis and those who were housed. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the independent effects of homelessness and supportive housing on survival after AIDS diagnosis. Of the 6,558 AIDS cases, 9.8% were homeless at diagnosis. Sixty-seven percent of the persons who were homeless survived five years compared with 81% of those who were housed (p Homelessness increased the risk of death (adjusted relative hazard [RH] 1.20; 95% confidence limits [CL] 1.03, 1.41). Homeless persons with AIDS who obtained supportive housing had a lower risk of death than those who did not (adjusted RH 0.20; 95% CL 0.05, 0.81). Supportive housing ameliorates the negative effect of homelessness on survival with AIDS.

  2. Impact of housing on the survival of persons with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittinghoff Eric

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless persons with HIV/AIDS have greater morbidity and mortality, more hospitalizations, less use of antiretroviral therapy, and worse medication adherence than HIV-infected persons who are stably housed. We examined the effect of homelessness on the mortality of persons with AIDS and measured the effect of supportive housing on AIDS survival. Methods The San Francisco AIDS registry was used to identify homeless and housed persons who were diagnosed with AIDS between 1996 and 2006. The registry was computer-matched with a housing database of homeless persons who received housing after their AIDS diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival between persons who were homeless at AIDS diagnosis and those who were housed. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the independent effects of homelessness and supportive housing on survival after AIDS diagnosis. Results Of the 6,558 AIDS cases, 9.8% were homeless at diagnosis. Sixty-seven percent of the persons who were homeless survived five years compared with 81% of those who were housed (p Conclusion Supportive housing ameliorates the negative effect of homelessness on survival with AIDS.

  3. Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS peer education programme South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV I AIDS peer-education programme for its employees aimed at addressing the growing ..... m:JI education intervention in a mining community reports essentially no effect.17 ... yet to be determined. Such data are crucial for the development.

  4. HIV/AIDS peer education initiative for learners in Kuils River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which basic knowledge on the science of HIV/AIDS was retained after a peer educational initiative. A quantitative descriptive research design was employed. It was hypothesized that through the described HIV /AIDS peer education initiative, learners would assimilate ...

  5. Design and Development of 3D Printed Teaching Aids for Architecture Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Jeong; Ha, Euna; Goo, Sang-Kwon; Cho, JaeKyung

    2018-01-01

    This article describes how the implementation of 3D printing in classrooms has brought many opportunities to educators as it provides affordability and accessibility in creating and customizing teaching aids. The study reports on the process of fabricating teaching aids for architecture education using 3D printing technologies. The practice-based…

  6. Education about HIV/AIDS--Theoretical Underpinnings for a Practical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Esther A. J.; Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related education is seen by many as central to increasing young people's awareness of, as well as decreasing their vulnerability to, HIV. There is less agreement, however, on the central goals of HIV- and AIDS-related education and the form it might best take. This…

  7. Trainers Attitudes towards the Teaching of AIDS Education in a Kenyan Teachers' College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzau, K. A.; Ondimu, K. A.; Gikuhi, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the teaching of AIDS education. The study was mainly concerned with the implementation of the AIDS education curriculum. In particular the study sought to investigate the attitudes held by trainers and trainees towards the subject and make suggestions to improve its teaching. The study was conducted in a…

  8. The New Geopolitics of Educational Aid: From Cold Wars to Holy Wars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores shifts in the nature, volume, trajectory and content of aid to education in the wake of post-9/11 Western preoccupations with the rise of Islamic radicalism. The paper develops a framework for understanding the dynamics of how educational aid appears to be becoming increasingly politicized in strategic conflict and post-conflict…

  9. Need-Based Educational Aid Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-44)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Need-Based Educational Aid Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-44) was put in place to improve and reauthorize provisions relating to the application of the antitrust laws to the award of need-based educational aid. The contents for this Act is as follows: (1) Short Title; and (2) Extension Relating to the Application of the Antitrust Laws to the…

  10. Students Talk about Their HIV/AIDS Education Courses: A Case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambe, Mariam M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore how Ethiopian high school students experienced the HIV/AIDS education programs offered in their schools. The project also examined gender differences in the way HIV/AIDS education was perceived and the implications for the instructional design of the programs. A total of 15 high school students (eight…

  11. A fire station in your body: Metaphors in educational texts on HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on metaphors used in South African HIV/AIDS education to explain the struggle of the immune system when it becomes infected with HIV. Three versions of an educational text on HIV/AIDS were presented to a total of 543 learners from secondary schools in the Western Cape. Each learner was given ...

  12. Gendered differences in AIDS and AIDS-related cause of death among youth with secondary education in South Africa, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wet, Nicole

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is higher among females than males in Sub-Saharan Africa. Education is associated with better health outcomes. For this and other reasons, African countries have made a concerted effort to increase youth education rates. However, in South Africa males have lower secondary education rates than females, yet females have a higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS. This study examines if a gender disparity exists in AIDS mortality rates among youth with secondary education in South Africa. This study uses descriptive statistics and life table techniques. A sample of 4386 deaths of youth with secondary education is used. Of this total sample, 987 deaths were among males and 340 were among females with secondary education. This study shows that AIDS mortality is higher among females than males in South Africa. Males and females with secondary education have lower AIDS mortality than all males and females in the population, yet the rates are higher for females. Using cause-deleted life tables, the probability of youth dying from HIV/AIDS practically disappears for both males and females. Odds ratio calculations show that secondary education does not have a protective effect from AIDS mortality among male and female youth. Given the gendered difference in AIDS mortality among youth with secondary education, efforts to increase secondary education among males and further research into other factors exacerbating AIDS mortality among females with secondary education is needed in the country.

  13. Preventive HIV/AIDS education through physical education: reflections from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njelesani, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Governments, UN agencies and international and local NGOs have mounted a concerted effort to remobilise sport as a vehicle for broad, sustainable social development. This resonates with the call for sport to be a key component in national and international development objectives. Missing in these efforts is an explicit focus on physical education within state schools, which still enroll most children in the global South. This article focuses on research into one of the few instances where physical education within the national curriculum is being revitalised as part of the growing interest in leveraging the appeal of sport and play as means to address social development challenges such as HIV/AIDS. It examines the response to the Zambian government's 2006 Declaration of Mandatory Physical Education (with a preventive education focus on HIV/AIDS) by personnel charged with its implementation and illustrates weaknesses within the education sector. The use of policy instruments such as decrees/mandates helps ensure the mainstreaming of physical education in development. However, the urgency required to respond to new mandates, particularly those sanctioned by the highest levels of government, can result in critical pieces of the puzzle being ignored, thereby undermining the potential of physical education (and sport) within development.

  14. Parental AIDS Status and Death: Its Impact on Ghanaian Childrens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, 4 groups of children (AIDS orphans, orphans of other causes, children living with AIDS parents, and non-orphaned children) aged between 10 and 19 years were interviewed on their hyperactivity, emotional, conduct, and peer problems using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire.

  15. How Does Institutional Grant Aid Impact College Choice? Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    New evidence on how students' choice of postsecondary institution is sensitive to grant aid offers from the colleges and universities. Institutional aid sensitivity is largest for students from the least wealthy families but does not vary by race/ethnicity or measured academic ability. A technical appendix is included.

  16. CRITERIA OF LANGUAGE AND PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT SELECTION FOR USE IN THE CAPACITY OF EDUCATIONAL AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro H. Shevchuk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of educational aids is to a large degree treated to be determinative in provision with its efficiency. The languages and programming environments are stated in the article as those that belong to educational aids. The criteria and backgrounds of their selection for educational purpose at the lessons of programming at comprehensive school are treated in the article. The examples of principle characteristics comparison of Pascal and C# are also cited. The article points at the necessity of further analysis of programming languages sampling for use as educational aids in teaching programming.

  17. Intelligent computer aided training systems in the real world: Making the technology accessible to the educational mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent computer aided training systems hold great promise for the application of this technology to mainstream education and training. Yet, this technology, which holds such a vast potential impact for the future of education and training, has had little impact beyond the enclaves of government research labs. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of the technology to those individuals in whose hands it can have the greatest impact, teachers and educators. Simply throwing technology at an educator and expecting them to use it as an effective tool is not the answer. This paper provides a background into the use of technology as a training tool. MindLink, developed by HyperTech Systems, provides trainers with a powerful rule-based tool that can be integrated directly into a Windows application. By embedding expert systems technology it becomes more accessible and easier to master.

  18. The psychosocial impact of hearing aids in children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureishi, A; Garas, G; Mallick, A; Parker, D

    2014-11-01

    In children, otitis media with effusion is treated using grommets or hearing aids. Parents considering treatment options express concerns regarding the psychosocial impact of hearing aids in terms of self-esteem and bullying. This study assessed the psychosocial impact of hearing aid use. A cross-sectional study was undertaken comparing hearing aid users to non hearing aid users with regard to their attitudes towards hearing aids. All subjects, who had been diagnosed with otitis media with effusion, were aged less than 16 years, were without disability and attended mainstream schools. A questionnaire was designed and utilised. The study comprised 47 children with hearing aids and 50 with grommets. Significant between-group differences (p negative perceptions of non hearing aid users were not reported by hearing aid users. Children with hearing aids do not suffer from bullying or low self-esteem to the extent perceived by parents. This information is useful for informed decisions regarding treatment of otitis media with effusion.

  19. Impact of AIDS on premature mortality in Amsterdam, 1982-1992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindels, P. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Mulder-Folkerts, D. K.; Coutinho, R. A.; van den Hoek, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of AIDS on premature mortality in the city of Amsterdam (1982-1992). METHODS: We combined aggregated data from the Netherlands Central Bureau for Statistics with data from the municipal death and population registry and data from the Amsterdam AIDS surveillance system

  20. Impact of HIV and AIDS on household food and nutrition security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of HIV/AIDS on household food and nutrition security in Suba district was studied in a quasi longitudinal study. Households with People Living with HIV/AIDS (Index- 25%) and three surrounding households (control- 75%) were considered for the study. Data were collected on demographic characteristics of the ...

  1. The Impact of Dwindling Donor Funding on HIV and AIDS Projects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study seeks to investigate the impact of dwindling donor funding on HIV and AIDS projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study surveyed literature on the effects of diminishing donor funding on people living with HIV and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. Factors associated with reduced donor funding identified in this study ...

  2. Impact of HIV/AIDS on deaths certified at Mosvold Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age. • Sex. • Race. • Pregnant. • Smoker. • Underlying (or only given) diagnosis. • Diagnosis presumed to be HIV/AIDS. (if applicable). • Immediate diagnosis. • Other significant diagnosis .... Impact of HIV/AIDS on life expectancy, based on deaths certified at Mosvold Hospital, Ingwavuma, KwaZulu-Natal,. Jan-Aug 2003.

  3. The Impact of HIV/AIDS Regarding Informal Social Security: Issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the article is to examine the right to social assistance for households living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa. In particular, the article focuses on the impact of this pandemic on households' access to social assistance benefits in the wake of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which has wrought untold sorrow and suffering ...

  4. The Impact of HIV/AIDS and ARV Treatment on Worker Absenteeism: Implications for African Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habyarimana, James; Mbakile, Bekezela; Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    We characterize medium and long-run labor market impacts of HIV/AIDS and ARV treatment using unique panel data of worker absenteeism and information from an AIDS treatment program at a large mining firm in Botswana. We present robust evidence of an inverse-V shaped pattern in worker absenteeism around the time of ARV treatment inception.…

  5. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  6. First aid training in pre-registration nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phillippa

    This article aims to increase awareness of the lack of first aid skills among nurses and midwives. It is intended to appeal to and challenge students and registered practitioners to assess their first aid skills in practice and to seek the necessary training to improve and update their skills.

  7. Defying Definition: Rethinking Education Aid Relationships in Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The discourse of aid--its language, structures and practice--powerfully ascribes roles and attributes to those involved in aid relationships such as developed/developing, partner, recipient/donor etcetera. This discourse is driven by a complex system of diverse and often competing ideas, values, actors and relationships, within which individuals…

  8. Consumer e-health education in HIV/AIDS: a pilot study of a web-based video workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Grady Laura A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the HIV/AIDS community are known to use web-based tools to support learning about treatment issues. Initial research indicated components such as message forums or web-based documentation were effectively used by persons with HIV/AIDS. Video has also shown promise as a technology to aid consumer health education. However, no research has been published thus far investigating the impact of web-based environments combining these components in an educational workshop format. Methods In this qualitative study HIV/AIDS community members provided feedback on an integrated web-based consumer health education environment. Participants were recruited through organizations that serve the HIV/AIDS community located in Toronto, Canada. Demographics, data on Internet use, including messages exchanged in the study environment were collected. A group interview provided feedback on usability of the study environment, preferences for information formats, use of the message forum, and other sources for learning about treatment information. Results In this pilot study analysis of the posted messages did not demonstrate use for learning of the workshop content. Participants did not generally find the environment of value for learning about treatment information. However, participants did share how they were meeting these needs. It was indicated that a combination of resources are being used to find and discuss treatment information, including in-person sources. Conclusion More research on the ways in which treatment information needs are being met by HIV/AIDS community members and how technology fits in this process is necessary before investing large amounts of money into web-based interventions. Although this study had a limited number of participants, the findings were unexpected and, therefore, of interest to those who intend to implement online consumer health education initiatives or interventions.

  9. Impact of HIV/AIDS on Social Relationships in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yurong; Zhang, Xiulan; Hanko Aleong, Tamara; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2011-01-01

    Social support promotes greater medical compliance, better immune system functioning and slows the progress of HIV/AIDS. One in every 50 People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is Chinese, yet little is known about the impact of HIV/AIDS on social relationships in China. This study compares the characteristics of those who report that HIV/AIDS had a substantial impact versus a modest impact on their social relationships. We obtained data from a survey of 866 PLWHA in rural China, which was conducted in 2006-2007 in the three Chinese provinces with the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were performed. The analysis shows that PLWHA who had full-blown AIDS (OR= 1.53; 95% CI=1.09-2.13) and those who were poor (OR=2.19; 95% CI=1.52-3.16) reported greater impact on their social relationships. The results lay a solid foundation for designing effective policy initiatives and intervention programs aimed at alleviating the impact of HIV/AIDS on social relationships and improving the quality of life of PLWHA.

  10. The Impact of HIV/AIDS Epidemic on the Choice of Specialties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of HIV/AIDS Epidemic on the Choice of Specialties among Medical ... satisfaction and favourable work schedule respectively. ... We recommend improvements in the work environment and adherence to universal precautions to

  11. AIDS Awareness and Educating Adolescents about Contraception Techniques: A Sociological Study of Parents and Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanpreet Singh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on partially exploratory and partially descriptive research design to find out AIDS awareness and agreement of parents and teachers on educating adolescents about contraception techniques. For this study 60 parents and 60 teachers were interviewed from 10 different Govt. Senior Secondary schools in district Sangrur, Punjab, India. The random sampling technique was used. The knowledge of AIDS among parents was found partial. Mothers showed lesser knowledge of AIDS in comparison to fathers. Teachers showed comprehensive knowledge of AIDS. Majority of respondents disagree on educating adolescents about contraception techniques. But all responded reported to be in agreement to provide full knowledge about AIDS to adolescents. The education of contraception for adolescent found to be associated with the knowledge of prevention from unwanted pregnancy. Parents and teachers showed propensity to provide such education to adolescents which advocates sexual abstinence until marriage. The plausible reason to such perception could be that in most of Indian societies there is taboo on sex or sex related discussion. Keywords: Adolescents and AIDS; contraception knowledge to adolescents; teachers and AIDS; parents and AIDS DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4520 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.193-210

  12. Strand V: Education for Survival. First Aid and Survival Education. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 10-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 10-12. SUBJECT MATTER: First aid and survival education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six sections: transportation of the injured, automobile accidents, conditions resulting from nuclear explosion, chemical warfare, natural catastrophes, and psychological first aid. The publication format…

  13. HIV/AIDS Stigma Attitudes among Educators in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Goke; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background: One hundred and twenty educators from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent HIV/AIDS training. The educators were surveyed about their attitudes toward people with HIV. Methods: The educators completed self-administered survey questionnaires both before and after 2 interventions. Measures included demographic characteristics,…

  14. Multi-Stakeholder Aid to Education: Power in the Context of Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashy, Francine

    2018-01-01

    This study examines power asymmetries within the largest multi-stakeholder agency in the education sector: the Global Partnership for Education (GPE). Drawing from data collected through key informant interviews and document analyses, this research asks if the establishment of the GPE has altered power arrangements in educational aid. The study…

  15. Critical Pedagogy in HIV-AIDS Education for a Maya Immigrant Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorman, Dilys; Acosta, Maria Cristina; Sena, Rachel; Baxley, Traci

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how the perspectives of Paulo Freire were instructive in addressing the challenges of HIV-AIDS education in Guatemalan Maya immigrant communities with minimal formal education and literacy. The forging of a community-based, collaborative, educational program offers several implications for effective teaching and…

  16. Alternative Conceptions of the Federal Role in Education: Thinking Anew about What to Aid, and How.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A critique of federal education policy discusses questionable purposes, flaws in aid-dispensing mechanisms, and undue regulatory burdens and other constraints. The proper federal role in education is described, involving information dissemination, educational improvement through federal programs, compensation, and financial assistance. (CJ)

  17. Domestic burns prevention and first aid awareness in and around Jamshedpur, India: strategies and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A; Bharat, R

    2000-11-01

    This article highlights the strategy for awareness creation regarding burns prevention and first aid and its impact in and around the steel-producing city of Jamshedpur, India. This is a joint venture of the Burns Centre and the Medico Social Welfare Unit of the Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur in collaboration with the Social Service Division of Tata Steel and city schools. The first phase of 5 years has been devoted to general awareness building in the population through two main programmes, namely "Community Awareness Programmes" for the target group of ladies and teenage girls and "School Education Programmes" for the target group of school children of Standard 8 in the steel-producing city. These programmes include audio-visual presentations as well as face to face interactions regarding structure and arrangements in the kitchen, floor level cooking, clothing while cooking, careful use of electrical appliances, pressure stoves, etc. The discussions also include suicidal and homicidal burns prevention strategies. Various competitions for the target group provide feedback on programmes. The growing awareness about burns prevention among school children and community members, and steady increase in the number of patients who use water as first aid, speak about the success of the strategies.

  18. Macroeconomic Impact of HIV and AIDS on the Zimbabwean Economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-07

    Oct 7, 2008 ... and incapacitates the existing pool of skilled labour through death, absenteeism, increased ... multi-sectoral interactions and their adjustment process. The human .... complicated matrix for different progression rates is whereby probabilities of ..... Figure 2: distribution of output lost due to HIV/AIDS by Areas.

  19. Impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS. VOL. 3 NO. ... Erosive coping strategies that undermined the sustainability of livelihoods were used by more ..... related symptom in the present analysis. .... support networks for home-based care in Benue. .... elaborate and costly. ..... resulting from more effective prevention campaigns.

  20. Perceptions of secondary technical schools students in Assiut, upper Egypt, about AIDS: Effect of an educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohei El-Din A Selim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS is a great threat to the youth. The aim is to assess the knowledge of secondary technical schools students on AIDS, identify related misconceptions, and measure the effect of a short health education program on their level of knowledge. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was done on 575 secondary technical schools students in Assiut City, recruited through a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data. A health education program was implemented, and its effect assessed through pre-post testing. Results: The age range of the students was 16 to 20 years, with more girls (57.0%. Only 30.8% had satisfactory knowledge about AIDS in the pretest. Statistically significant improvements in knowledge were revealed after program implementation (P<0.001. Students who were Muslim, of urban residence, and had mobile phones had significantly higher scores (P=0.037, 0.004, 0.038 respectively. The most common misconceptions were the definition of AIDS according to transmission, and phobias related to transmission, which decreased after the intervention. Multivariate analysis showed that the statistically significant independent predictors of the change in knowledge score after the intervention were age, religion and the health education program. Conclusion: Secondary technical schools students in Assiut city have a major deficiency in knowledge and many misconceptions regarding AIDS. The educational intervention had a positive impact on their knowledge, but a less marked effect on misconceptions. Knowledge was affected by age and religious belief. It is recommended that more health educational efforts tailored to needs and with approaches suitable to community cultures and values be introduced.

  1. Perceptions of secondary technical schools students in Assiut, upper Egypt, about AIDS: Effect of an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Mohei El-Din A; El-Shereef, Etemad A A

    2010-01-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a great threat to the youth. The aim is to assess the knowledge of secondary technical schools students on AIDS, identify related misconceptions, and measure the effect of a short health education program on their level of knowledge. This quasi-experimental study was done on 575 secondary technical schools students in Assiut City, recruited through a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data. A health education program was implemented, and its effect assessed through pre-post testing. The age range of the students was 16 to 20 years, with more girls (57.0%). Only 30.8% had satisfactory knowledge about AIDS in the pretest. Statistically significant improvements in knowledge were revealed after program implementation (PStudents who were Muslim, of urban residence, and had mobile phones had significantly higher scores (P=0.037, 0.004, 0.038 respectively). The most common misconceptions were the definition of AIDS according to transmission, and phobias related to transmission, which decreased after the intervention. Multivariate analysis showed that the statistically significant independent predictors of the change in knowledge score after the intervention were age, religion and the health education program. Secondary technical schools students in Assiut city have a major deficiency in knowledge and many misconceptions regarding AIDS. The educational intervention had a positive impact on their knowledge, but a less marked effect on misconceptions. Knowledge was affected by age and religious belief. It is recommended that more health educational efforts tailored to needs and with approaches suitable to community cultures and values be introduced.

  2. Educators' roles in developing adolescent HIV/AIDS knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledge and attitudes of HIV/AIDS were influenced by family and school ... Accordingly, while a school culture is recognizable by its unique values, beliefs, climate, ethos ..... acquired prior to the qualitative research would in some way cloud ...

  3. A system for evaluating the use of media in CDC's National AIDS Information and Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, C T; Jason, J

    1991-01-01

    The National AIDS Information and Education Program (NAIEP) commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to design a prototypical system of research for use in the evaluation of the agency's media campaign. It consists of four types of evaluation: formative, efficacy, process, and outcome. These types of evaluations are used to answer such questions as the following: What message strategies will work best? Can a campaign under optimal conditions be expected to make a difference? What interventions are actually delivered during the campaign? Has the campaign actually had an impact? How NAIEP has used the system and adapted it during 1 year of research activities is outlined, and examples from a variety of other social marketing programs are described.

  4. Assertiveness and Attitudes of HIV/AIDS Orphaned Girls Towards Education in Kampala (Uganda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitara, David Lagoro; Amongin, Hellen Christine; Oonyu, Joseph C; Baguma, Peter K

    2013-08-09

    Whereas HIV/AIDS prevalence has been declining in Uganda from 30% to less than 10% in the last 2 decades, the number of HIV/AIDS orphaned girls in secondary schools is still high and girl children have tended to carry the heaviest burdens of family responsibilities thereby adversely affecting their assertiveness and attitudes towards education. Assertiveness is a critical life skill that enables a person to state an opinion, claim a right, or establish authority and it is important to improve attitude towards education. This study examined the relationship between assertiveness and attitude towards education of HIV/AIDS orphaned and non-orphaned adolescent school girls in Kampala. The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) Dominance (Do) Assertiveness Scale and the Attitude Scale were administered to 225 students consecutively selected from 6 secondary schools in Kampala. HIV/AIDS Orphaned girls had lower levels of assertiveness and most had a negative attitude towards education compared to non-orphaned girls. Girls orphaned to HIV/AIDS were less assertive compared to those orphaned by other causes. There was a positive relationship between assertiveness and attitude towards education among orphaned adolescent secondary school girls in Kampala. Girls orphaned to HIV/AIDS were less assertive compared to other school girls and have a poor attitude towards education.

  5. The role of communication inequality in mediating the impacts of socioecological and socioeconomic disparities on HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven

    2014-02-10

    Although the link between social factors and health-related outcomes has long been widely acknowledged, the mechanisms characterizing this link are relatively less known and remain a subject of continued investigation across disciplines. In this study, drawing on the structural influence model of health communication, the hypothesis that differences in concern about and information needs on HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS-related media use, and perceived salience of HIV/AIDS-related information, characterized as communication inequality, can at least partially mediate the impacts of socioecological (urban vs. rural) and socioeconomic (education) disparities on inequalities in HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception was tested. Data were collected from a random sample of 986 urban and rural respondents in northwest Ethiopia. Structural equation modeling, using the maximum likelihood method, was used to test the mediation models. The models showed an adequate fit of the data and hence supported the hypothesis that communication inequality can at least partially explain the causal mechanism linking socioeconomic and socioecological factors with HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception. Both urbanity versus rurality and education were found to have significant mediated effects on HIV/AIDS knowledge (urbanity vs. rurality: β = 0.28, p = .001; education: β = 0.08, p = .001) and HIV/AIDS risk perception (urbanity vs. rurality: β = 0.30, p = .001; education: β = 0.09, p = .001). It was concluded that communication inequality might form part of the socioecologically and socioeconomically embedded processes that affect HIV/AIDS-related outcomes. The findings suggest that the media and message effects that are related to HIV/AIDS behavior change communication can be viewed from a structural perspective that moves beyond the more reductionist behavioral approaches upon which most present-day HIV/AIDS communication campaigns seem to be based.

  6. Evidence-based educational pathway for the integration of first aid training in school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Buck, Emmy; Van Remoortel, Hans; Dieltjens, Tessa; Verstraeten, Hans; Clarysse, Matthieu; Moens, Olaf; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    "Calling for help, performing first aid and providing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)" is part of the educational goals in secondary schools in Belgium (Flanders). However, for teachers it is not always clear at what age children can be taught which aspects of first aid. In addition, it is not clear what constitutes "performing first aid" and we strongly advocate that the first aid curriculum is broader than CPR training alone. To develop an evidence-based educational pathway to enable the integration of first aid into the school curriculum by defining the goals to be achieved for knowledge, skills and attitudes, for different age groups. Studies were identified through electronic databases research (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase). We included studies on first aid education for children and adolescents up to 18 years old. A multidisciplinary expert panel formulated their practice experience and expert opinion and discussed the available evidence. We identified 5822 references and finally retained 30 studies (13 experimental and 17 observational studies), including studies concerning emergency call (7 studies), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (18 studies), AED (Automated External Defibrillator) use (6 studies), recovery position (5 studies), choking (2 studies), injuries (5 studies), and poisoning (2 studies). Recommendations (educational goals) were derived after carefully discussing the currently available evidence in the literature and balancing the skills and attitudes of children of different ages. An evidence-based educational pathway with educational goals concerning learning first aid for each age group was developed. This educational pathway can be used for the integration of first aid training in school curricula. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Biotechnology upon Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speedie, Marilyn K.

    1990-01-01

    Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…

  8. Impact of Advertising: Implications for Consumer Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Zena; And Others

    This report reviews and analyzes the effects advertising has on consumer choice, national values, and life styles. It is intended to aid consumer educators and others in related fields. The report's focus is on two central issues: consumer sovereignty and patterns of personal, industrial, and national resource allocation. The first of four…

  9. taxing or aiding private universities: educational administration view ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ekanem

    aiding private universities in Nigeria and its implications for policy modification. This survey ... individuals, firms and companies to finance ... But then, such decision is against .... income to avoid payment of tax to government while 59.09 per cent indicated that taxation may bring about ... DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.

  10. Commodification of Higher Education: Students, Study Loan Systems and State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The main argument presented in this paper is that the application of economic principles in the higher education sector, turning higher education institutes into undertakings operating on markets, leads to the application of rules on State aid. This has consequences for the financial support systems

  11. Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

  12. Opinion of the Ministry of Education on Vigorously Promoting Educational Aid Work by Normal University Students during Teaching Internships (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This is a policy that aims at improving teaching practices in rural schools in China. Normal university students are encouraged to participate in educational aid work in disadvantaged schools as a fulfillment of their teaching internship. The policy supports the policies of free compulsory education for rural school issued in the past. In…

  13. The Policy-Implementation-Results Linkage for Education Development and Aid Effectiveness in the "Education 2030" Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2018-01-01

    "Education 2030", the new global agenda for educational development, emphasises inclusion and learning outcomes. The top-down programme-based approach, a mainstay of international aid, has up to now failed in helping developing countries to meet these objectives because it tends to overlook where the link is broken between policy…

  14. Sociocultural Constraints: The Relation between Generations in the United States, Parental Education, Income, Hispanic Origin and the Financial Aid Packages of Hispanic Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Razo, Parvati Heliana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if the demographic variables of country of origin, generation in the United States (immigration status), income and parental education had an impact on the financial aid packages of Hispanic undergraduate students. This dissertation asked: What is the relation between generation in the United States,…

  15. Use of a simulation game for HIV/AIDS education with pre-service teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Nadine; de Beer, Josef; Dunbar-Krige, Helen

    2011-04-01

    The article describes the use of a simulation game in HIV/AIDS education with pre-service teachers in Johannesburg, South Africa. The use of a simulation game, as novel experiential pedagogy, was an attempt to raise awareness about HIV and AIDS and to demonstrate that anyone can be at risk of HIV infection. Using a generic qualitative research design, the data were collected over a three-year period by way of video recordings of the simulation game, recordings of large and small group discussions afterwards, and via questionnaires and written reflections by the education students four weeks afterwards. Content analysis and discourse analysis led to the construction of three main themes. First, we found that the novelty factor of the simulation game for raising HIV/AIDS awareness was confirmed both during the game itself and after a period of time had elapsed. Second, in light of many education students' naivety about the intersection of biological, socio-cultural and economic issues at play in the spread of HIV, the game prompted more reflexivity about the disease and helped to broaden the participants' discussions. Lastly, the data revealed the disjuncture between theory and practice in HIV/AIDS education. We propose that in raising awareness of HIV and AIDS, educators should move towards more engaging and challenging pedagogies that address the learning needs of the 'new' generation of university students.

  16. Integrating Financial Aid and Financial Policies: Case Studies from Five States. Changing Direction: Integrating Higher Education Financial Aid and Financing Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

    This report is a collection of five state case studies comprising a major component of the first phase of the project, "Changing Direction: Integrating Higher Education Financial Aid and Financing Policies." The project explored state-level strategies to better align financing and financial aid policies and support more informed decision…

  17. Evaluation of direct and indirect health education in students' knowlege and attitude about AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojaiyzadeh D

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This inverstigation is a quasi-experimental study comparing the effects of two methods of health education on student's knowledge and attitudes about AIDS. The target population consisted of 218 male undergraduates studying in Payame Noor University in Saghez, Iran. A random sample of 106 students was selected using sample random sampling method. The students were randomly divided into two experimental groups. One group was educated about AIDS using a direct method of health education and indirect method was used for the other group. Using pretest/posttest method of data collection, analysis of the data showed a significant difference between each group's knowledge and attitudes before and after the educational programs. Comparison of the two educational methods showed no significant difference on student's knowledge about AIDS. However, method one (using a direct method of health education was significantly more effective in changing student's attitudes towards AIDS than method 2 (using an indirect method of health education.

  18. The impact of social organizations on HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among migrants in Hefei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenting; Chen, Ren; Ma, Ying; Sun, Xuehui; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2018-04-25

    There is a growing recognition of the need to provide HIV/AIDS prevention and care to migrant workers. Social involvement, a type of social capital, is considered a 'critical enabler' of effective HIV/AIDS prevention. Designated participation in formal community groups by the government (e.g., political parties) and informal, voluntary local networks by NGOs (e.g., alumni association, cultural & sports club) play different roles in HIV prevention. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of different types of social organizations on HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among migrant workers. A cross-sectional study of 758 migrants was conducted in Hefei, Anhui Province, China. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between different social organizations and HIV/AIDS prevention. Migrants who participated in social organizations had a higher awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge than migrants who do not participate in social organizations. Higher levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge is associated with positive HIV/AIDS behaviors for people who attended political parties (odds ratio [OR] = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.22-9.99). This effect is not significant for alumni association. For both political parties and alumni association members (OR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.66, OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61, respectively), people who exhibited higher levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge had more negative attitudes than those with less knowledge. Social organizations play an important role in improving HIV/AIDS knowledge and behavior in migrants, providing a great opportunity for HIV/AIDS prevention.

  19. The Role of Social Entrepreneurship in HIV/AIDS Management across the Education Sector in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiro, Laban P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The overall purpose of this study is to identify key entrepreneurial variables in the realm of social entrepreneurship that may contribute to enhancing impact mitigation of HIV/AIDS. In addition, the study seeks to establish which of the correlations between the entrepreneurial variables and management of response of impact mitigation of…

  20. U.S. Aid Urged for Education's Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2008-01-01

    With the presidential candidates both underscoring their support for entrepreneurial initiatives in education, policy experts are advancing ideas for helping such efforts flourish. In their October 15 debate at Hofstra University, both Senators John McCain of Arizona and Barack Obama of Illinois used questions on education to talk about school…

  1. Smoke management photographic guide: a visual aid for communicating impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua C. Hyde; Jarod Blades; Troy Hall; Roger D. Ottmar; Alistair. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Communicating emissions impacts to the public can sometimes be difficult because quantitatively conveying smoke concentrations is complicated. Regulators and land managers often refer to particulate-matter concentrations in micrograms per cubic meter, but this may not be intuitive or meaningful to everyone. The primary purpose of this guide is to serve as a tool for...

  2. Edukacja zdrowotna w zakresie HIV/AIDS prowadzona przy pomocy portali społecznościowych = Health education on HIV/AIDS carried out using social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Roberta Korczyńska

    2016-02-01

                        The first recommendation about HIV/AIDS prevention was created by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 [1]. Up to now they provide the foundation of actions aimed at reducing the number of infected people, but during the last 30 years, forms and means which can be used to achieve this goal have changed. Prevention actions are effective when they are adapted to the recipient [2]. Young adults (in age between 20-39 years old constitute one of the most exposed group to new HIV infections [3], so in the era of rapidly development of new technologies, especially the large impact of the Internet and social networks on this age group,  the effectiveness and the efficiency of health education on HIV carried out using this mass media should be considered.

  3. Assessing the Impact of Testing Aids on Post-Secondary Student Performance: A Meta-Analytic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwin, Karen H.; Gorman, Jennifer; Larwin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Testing aids, including student-prepared testing aids (a.k.a., cheat sheets or crib notes) and open-textbook exams, are common practice in post-secondary assessment. There is a considerable amount of published research that discusses and investigates the impact of these testing aids. However, the findings of this research are contradictory and…

  4. COMPUTER-AIDED IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Marczak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Discussed elements of the computer databases used in “input-output” analysis method to identify enterprise impact on the environment. Presented “input-output” database parameters essential for a company performing road transport of finished products. Presented a method for determining parameters: energy consumption by means of road transport and the emissions amount with exhaust fumes from vehicles. Discussed parameters of the computer databases needed to calculate the amount of fees for use of the environment. These data and amount of fees for environment usage may be useful in assessing the scale of the impact on environment by businesses. Described a method for determining the fee for gases and dust emitted into the air from combustion of fuels in internal combustion engines.

  5. Impact of HIV/aids epidemic on human capital development in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauda, Rasaki Stephen

    2018-01-12

    West Africa occupies the third position with respect to the burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) globally, after Southern and East Africa. About 5 million adults and children are infected with the disease in the subregion, while HIV prevalence in the general population hovers around 2% and 5%. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on human capital development in 11 West African countries over the period 1990 to 2011. The study used a dynamic panel data modeling approach, using first difference, difference generalized methods of moment, and system generalized methods of moment estimating techniques. Four measures of HIV/AIDS and 2 human capital measures were used in the study. The findings revealed that HIV/AIDS pandemic had negative and significant impact on human capital in West Africa. However, the statistical significance was more pronounced on life expectancy (a measure of human capital), while the negative impact on school enrolment (another human capital measure) was not significant. It is therefore recommended that the spread of HIV/AIDS disease in West Africa should be effectively controlled, while the number of infected persons undergoing antiretroviral therapy in the subregion should be increased to a near 100% coverage. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Problematizing official narratives of HIV and AIDS education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... and developmental challenges, resulting in a high level of stigma and discrimination ... the public sphere but through schools, teacher education and in community settings. .... Profile of key informants. Code. Academic. ZW,1M.

  7. Analysis: AIDS and the private sector. Tolerance at work will soften epidemic's impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barese, P

    1995-06-01

    With a population of only 1.3 million, Botswana relies heavily upon imported skilled labor and management. Officially, all forms of discrimination based upon a citizen's HIV/AIDS status are illegal in Botswana. The government, however, screens all expatriates considered for contractual jobs with the state, and does not employ HIV-seropositive candidates. Recent government efforts to train local people to replace expatriates and diversify and expand the economy by supporting local business and encouraging foreign investment may, however, be seriously jeopardized by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The development and implementation of prevention and coping strategies, especially at the workplace, have been slow even though AIDS-in-the-Workplace program materials, including videos, posters, brochures, and condoms, are provided free of charge. The lack of a clear understanding by senior management of the legal and financial ramifications of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is one reason for the widespread nonuse by companies of the materials. AIDSCAP in Botswana recently reviewed the activities of four companies which had, however, developed model AIDS-in-the-Workplace programs. Three of the companies chose a peer education model, holding regular formal education sessions as well as informal small group sessions run by peer educators. The peer educators have as much time during their work day as they need to work upon HIV/AIDS activities. The other company has a health department which holds a formal prevention education session for all employees yearly, while clinics in the on-site employee housing complex provide continuous information on women's health, prenatal and infant care as it relates to HIV/AIDS, and negotiating safer sex. Management reports that employees seem to have responded well to the programs, but changing their attitudes toward infected colleagues is proving more difficult. The author notes that managers over time will also have to begin thinking about training

  8. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively analyse the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from the mid-1960s to 2007, using a well-specified cointegrated VAR model as statistical benchmark. Results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact...

  9. The Impact of Computerization on Archival Finding Aids: A RAMP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, Christopher

    This report is based on a questionnaire sent to 32 selected National Archives and on interviews with archivists from eight countries. Geared to the needs of developing countries, the report covers: (1) the impact of computerization on finding aids; (2) advantages and problems of computerization, including enhanced archival control, integration of…

  10. Growth, productivity, and scientific impact of sources of HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study uses an informetric approach to examine the growth, productivity and scientific impact of these sources, during the period 1980 to 2005, and especially to measure performance in the publication and dissemination of HIV/AIDS research about or from eastern or southern Africa. Data were collected from MEDLINE, ...

  11. Undergraduate mental health nursing education in Australia: More than Mental Health First Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge.

  12. BeHealthy Charities Aid Foundation Program, Russia: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhina, Marina; Novikova, Irina

    2014-09-01

    In 2007, the Charities Aid Foundation Branch in Russia, under the initiative of and with financial support from the Mondelēz International Foundation and Mondelēz International, launched the charitable BeHealthy Program. The program's main focus is the implementation of four interrelated activities: conducting lessons for schoolchildren on healthy nutrition, with an emphasis on breakfast; healthy cooking lessons with children; cultivating nutritional plants; and providing conditions to encourage children to engage in more physical activity. The program serves more than 13,000 children attending public schools in the Leningrad (Lomonosovskii District), Vladimir, and Novgorod regions. BeHealthy provides funding for schools and comprehensive educational materials to help schoolchildren develop habits of healthy nutrition and physical activity, as well as consulting and expert support for school staff and other key stakeholders. The program brings in experts on program implementation and training for teachers. Curriculum support also includes printed and Web-based healthy lifestyle educational materials on best practices and positive experience, as well as meetings and conferences with school representatives and local authorities. One of the biggest challenges for program managers is to fully understand the complexities of the program, and why and how it is expected to induce changes in healthy lifestyle behaviors of the schoolchildren. For more comprehensive understanding, we performed a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis to identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs) and a suite of core indicators of the program's impact on healthy lifestyles. The findings were presented at the Healthy Life-styles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. First, we developed an updated logic model based on how the program was executed. We then translated the logic model into a PIP

  13. EDITORIAL The health of our educators and HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    those working in rural schools had higher HIV prevalence than educators residing in urban areas and teaching in urban schools.1. The implication is that if nothing ... Due to their illnesses,. 66.6% of teachers took advantage of their sick leave.

  14. Studying "The Political" in International Aid to Education: Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Beniamin; Lindberg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The point of departure of this article is an apparent antinomy. On the one hand, there is the powerful argument in political theory on the emergence and consolidation of a post-political condition. On the other hand, research in international and comparative education demonstrates how conflicts and power asymmetries continue to characterize…

  15. Utilisation of ICTs as teaching aids in two higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern information and communication technologies (ICTs) are recognised as having enormous potential for improving quality in higher education delivery and, subsequently, contributing to production of graduates who are suited to the needs of the contemporary labour market. This recognition has formed the basis for ...

  16. Health Education about AIDS among Seropositive Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Paul D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and empirical work that resulted in the New York Blood Center health education and psychosocial support program for blood donors who are notified that they are HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibody positive. Also describes how the program is being implemented. (Author/CT)

  17. An Interactive Computer Aided Electrical Engineering Education Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavati, Cicero Romao

    This paper describes an educational package to help the learning process. A case study is presented of an energy distribution course in the Electrical Engineering Department at the Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES). The advantages of the developed package are shown by comparing it with the traditional academic book. This package presents…

  18. Literacy Teaching Aids from High/Scope Educational Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2005

    2005-01-01

    High/Scope's approach to education is a blend of Jean Piaget's constructivist theory of child development and the best of traditional teacher experience. The High/Scope approach is about helping students gain knowledge and skills in important content areas, such as language and literacy, initiative and social relations, movement, music, and…

  19. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces......Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... poverty through physical capital investment and improvements in health....

  20. Ten years of CLIVE (Computer-Aided Learning in Veterinary Education) in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Vicki H M; McConnell, Gill; Short, Andrew; Sullivan, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the work of the CLIVE (Computer-Aided Learning in Veterinary Education) project over a 10-year period, set against the backdrop of changes in education policy and learning technology developments. The consortium of six UK veterinary schools and 14 international Associate Member Schools has been very successful. Sustaining these partnerships requires that the project redefine itself and adapt to cater to the diverse learning needs of today's students and to changing professional and societal needs on an international scale.

  1. Conception of undergraduate nursing students on the practice of health education on first aid

    OpenAIRE

    Marília Rosa de Oliveira; Ana Rita Arrigo Leonel; Juliana Helena Montezeli; Andréia Bendine Gastaldi; Eleine Aparecida Penha Martins; Cristiano Caveião

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to present the conception of undergraduate nursing students participating in an integrated project on health education on first aid. Methods: qualitative research conducted at the Universidade Estadual de Londrina with five senior nursing students, participating in the project “Nursing in clinical and surgical urgent and emergency care.” We applied semi-structured interviews with content analysis. Results: the following categories emerged: Health education as a facilitator for acad...

  2. The views of the elderly on the impact that HIV and AIDS has on their lives in the Thulamela Municipality, Vhembe District, Limpopo province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhudivhusi J. Singo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV and AIDS have a devastating impact on the lives of elderly people, particularly so because they are often expected to take care of their terminally ill children and assume the responsibility of looking after children orphaned by AIDS - in most cases with very little resources. Objectives: The study sought to achieve to describe the views of elderly people regarding the impact of HIV and AIDS on their lives, to determine the challenges that elderly people living with HIV or AIDS (EPLWHA face in their daily lives, and to gain a sense of the coping strategies they use to overcome the obstacles they face in relation to HIV and AIDS. Ethical issues, such as permission to conduct the study, informed consent, confidentiality and anonymity, withdrawal of participation and measure to ensure trustworthiness, were ensured. Design: This was a qualitative, explorative, descriptive study. Participants were interviewedusing an interview guide. Information provided by the participants was captured on a taperecorder and analysed using open coding, and thereafter collated into themes, categories andsub-themes. Results: The study findings revealed that HIV and AIDS have serious negative impacts on the lives of elderly people, particularly those living in poverty. The following key areas in relationto EPLWHA were established: psychological or emotional health, as well as household and socio-economic burdens. Considering the role that elderly people play in the community in so far as HIV and AIDS are concerned, primary health promotion and social welfare programmes should be directed at educating all elderly people and their service providers on how to cope with the health and social problems related to HIV and AIDS.

  3. Use of a simulation game for HIV/AIDS education with pre-service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of a simulation game for HIV/AIDS education with pre-service teachers. ... the data were collected over a three-year period by way of video recordings of the simulation game, recordings of large and small ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Experiments Using Cell Phones in Physics Classroom Education: The Computer-Aided "g" Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen; Muller, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This paper continues the collection of experiments that describe the use of cell phones as experimental tools in physics classroom education. We describe a computer-aided determination of the free-fall acceleration "g" using the acoustical Doppler effect. The Doppler shift is a function of the speed of the source. Since a free-falling objects…

  5. Health Services: Clinical. Pharmacy Aide. Instructor's Manual. Competency-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Julie; And Others

    This instructor's manual consists of materials for use in presenting a course in the occupational area of pharmacy aide. Included in the first part of the guide are a program master sequence; a master listing of instructional materials, equipment, and supplies; an overview of the competency-based vocational education (CBVE) system; and guidelines…

  6. The ribbon microphone: A teaching aid for low frequency electromagnetic education

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Marius S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ribbon microphone lends itself as a good example to use for education of multi-physics computer modeling and simulation. The value of the ribbon microphone as teaching aid can be extended by adding a transformer and electronic amplifier...

  7. Using HIV&AIDS statistics in pre-service Mathematics Education to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linda van Laren

    2012-12-13

    Dec 13, 2012 ... In South Africa, the HIV&AIDS education policy documents indicate ... in disciplines call for the development of new approaches – and ... be initiated when working with pre-service teachers who are regis- ... as 'personal development and social development areas of Life ..... Australia and New Zealand. 500.

  8. Preventing HIV/AIDS through education: the role of primary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, opinion and practices of Nigerian primary and secondary school teachers on HIV/AIDS education. Method: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, training on HIV transmission ...

  9. Digital networks to aid research and education in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Around 120 participants were assembled over two days at CERN to discuss ways to bridge the digital divide with Africa. As part of efforts to implement the outcome of the first World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), held in Geneva in 2003, CERN held the international workshop on Research and Education Networks in Africa, from 25 to 27 September. Organized by the United Nations University (UNU) in collaboration with the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and CERN, this meeting was designed to promote scientific cooperation with and within Africa, through the development of networking infrastructure. Faster, reliable and more affordable Internet access is widely recognized as one of the key factors for enhancing research and education efforts in African academic and research institutions. For the first time, this workshop brought together representatives of all the key stakeholders: African academic and research institutions, international coordinators, funding agencies, grass-roots imple...

  10. Evaluation of the ZIG-ZAIDS game: an entertaining educational tool for HIV/Aids prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia T. Schall

    Full Text Available This article presents the evaluation process for the ZIG-ZAIDS game, investigating the material's applicability in formal and informal educational contexts, i.e., how the game has been used by health professionals, parents, and the target population (pre-adolescents, or children over 9 years old. The study involved evaluation questionnaires sent to a list of schools and institutions using the game, plus interviews and visits to places where the game was used as well as tested with groups of students. It also includes an analysis of evaluation previously sent by the authors to people who had requested the game. The results showed that the population's level of information is more relevant than age in relation to the game's impact. Another important aspect relates to ZIG-ZAIDS' applicability to different situations: training of health and teaching professionals; activities with street children; municipal institutions and events, schools, companies, communities, and health care centers. In summary, ZIG-ZAIDS was found to be an entertaining, creative, and innovative alternative for providing information on AIDS and sexuality.

  11. Evaluation of the ZIG-ZAIDS game: an entertaining educational tool for HIV/Aids prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schall Virgínia T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the evaluation process for the ZIG-ZAIDS game, investigating the material's applicability in formal and informal educational contexts, i.e., how the game has been used by health professionals, parents, and the target population (pre-adolescents, or children over 9 years old. The study involved evaluation questionnaires sent to a list of schools and institutions using the game, plus interviews and visits to places where the game was used as well as tested with groups of students. It also includes an analysis of evaluation previously sent by the authors to people who had requested the game. The results showed that the population's level of information is more relevant than age in relation to the game's impact. Another important aspect relates to ZIG-ZAIDS' applicability to different situations: training of health and teaching professionals; activities with street children; municipal institutions and events, schools, companies, communities, and health care centers. In summary, ZIG-ZAIDS was found to be an entertaining, creative, and innovative alternative for providing information on AIDS and sexuality.

  12. Attitudinal Changes Using Peer Education Training in the Prevention of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study of Youths in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaldeen Abu-Saeed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: HIV/AIDS is a major public health issue. Studies have shown that young people between the ages of 15 to 24 years accounts for more than 40% of new HIV infections. However, new infections could be prevented if the desired impact is made on young people through interventions such as effective peer education program to improve their knowledge, attitude and practice. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the impact of peer education vis-a-vis attitudinal changes and practices on issues relating to HIV/AIDS among youths in North central Nigeria. Methods: This classical experimental study was carried out in three stages, that is: pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention stages among students of Government High School, Ilorin between the ages of 15 and 24 years. The sample size was 80 students each for study and control groups. Proportional gender distribution was ensured in the selection and the sampling technique was multistage sampling technique. Data collection was through semi structured self administered pre and post evaluation questionnaire. Peer education training and forth night mentoring sessions was conducted for the study group. Impact of the intervention was assessed after eight weeks. Results: Analysis of the result shows that out of the sixteen questions asked on respondents‟ attitude, only four showed statistical significance between the study and control group before the intervention which shot up to eleven after intervention. Also, the frequency of those having bad practices regarding prevention of HIV/AIDS also reduced after intervention. This reduction was much more in many instances when compared to the control group. Conclusion: This study has revealed that peer education training among youth can go a long way in educating them on issues relating to HIV/AIDS prevention. It can also bring about attitudinal changes and better practices that may help in reducing incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS in our

  13. Macroeconomic and household-level impacts of HIV/AIDS in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, Keith; Kinghorn, Anthony; Siphambe, Happy; Thurlow, James

    2008-07-01

    To measure the impact of HIV/AIDS on economic growth and poverty in Botswana and estimate how providing treatment can mitigate its effects. Demographic and financial projections were combined with economic simulation models, including a macroeconomic growth model and a macro-microeconomic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model. HIV/AIDS significantly reduces economic growth and increases household poverty. The impact is now severe enough to be affecting the economy as a whole, and threatens to pull some of the uninfected population into poverty. Providing antiretroviral therapy can partly offset this negative effect. Treatment increases health's share of government expenditure only marginally, because it increases economic growth and because withholding treatment raises the cost of other health services. Botswana's treatment programme is appropriate from a macroeconomic perspective. Conducting macroeconomic impact assessments is important in countries where prevalence rates are particularly high.

  14. The Impact of Accounting Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Alan; Fogarty, Tim; Stoner, Greg; Marriott, Neil

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study into the nature and patterns of usage of accounting education research. The study adopts the most accessible metric, "Google Advanced Scholar" citations, to analyse the impact of research published in the six principal English-language accounting education journals. The analysis reveals a global…

  15. Implementing Distance Education: Issues Impacting Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Jolene; Rockwell, S. Kay; Fritz, Susan M.; Marx, Dave B.

    2005-01-01

    Through a modified Delphi study, an expert panel identified 62 concepts organized in eight issue categories that impact administrative decisions as higher education institutions commit to implementing distance education courses and programs. Using a mail survey, 62 department chairs in Colleges of Agriculture in Land-Grant Universities ranked the…

  16. Health educators in the workplace: helping companies respond to the AIDS crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, L J; Aberth, J

    1986-01-01

    As the number of cases of AIDS increases, more and more companies will have to decide how to handle employees with AIDS and those at high risk. AIDS creates medical, legal, and ethical issues in the workplace, all of which are emotional and complex; managers need expert assistance to guide their decision-making and policy development. This article identifies various dimensions of the AIDS-related issues emerging in corporations nationwide, including: confidentiality, the right of patients to work, benefits and insurance, HTLV-III screening, fears of contagion among workers, needs of companies to avoid financial and legal exposure, and effects on worker productivity. Health educators are in a unique position to contribute to the satisfactory resolution of AIDS-related problems in the workplace through their training and experience in education, policy development and the relevant legal and ethical issues in the health care field. However, they will have to initiate discussions with corporation executives themselves in order to reach this most important audience.

  17. The impact of conflict on HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward J; Singh, Sonal; Nelson, Brett D; Nachega, Jean B

    2006-11-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa disproportionately represents the largest incidence of both HIV/AIDS and internal conflicts. The impact of conflict on HIV incidence is largely unknown. Current epidemiological evidence paradoxically suggests that in most populations affected by conflict, HIV prevalence is lower than surrounding communities. However, in situations of conflict, the most vulnerable populations, such as women and children, are at increased risk for HIV through sexual violence, forced occupational exposure and an absence of access to health care or testing. Together, these dimensions of conflict create a complex and challenging situation for prevention of HIV/AIDS and delivery of care to conflict-affected populations. We examine the complexity of monitoring HIV/AIDS in conflict settings. We argue that increased efforts are needed to protect vulnerable populations and design health-delivery systems that are sustainable in settings of conflict.

  18. Assessing the impact of international conservation aid on deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare, Matthew; Kauffman, Craig; Miller, Daniel C.

    2015-12-01

    International conservation donors have spent at least 3.4 billion to protect biodiversity and stem tropical deforestation in Africa since the early 1990s. Despite more than two decades of experience, however, there is little research on the effect of this aid at a region-wide scale. Numerous case studies exist, but show mixed results. Existing research is usually based on community perception or focused on short-term donor objectives rather than specific conservation outcomes, like deforestation rates. Thus, the impact of billions of dollars of conservation aid on deforestation rates remains an open question. This article uses an original dataset to analyze the effect of international conservation aid on deforestation rates in 42 African countries between 2000 and 2013. We first describe patterns of conservation aid across the continent and then assess its impact (with one to five-year lags), controlling for other factors that may also affect deforestation, including rural population, protected areas (PAs), governance, and other economic and commodity production variables. We find that conservation aid is associated with higher rates of forest loss after one- or two-year lags. A similar result holds for PA extent, suggesting possible displacement of deforestation from PAs. However, governance quality in high forest cover countries moderates these effects such that deforestation rates are reduced. Rural population is the most consistent factor associated with forest loss, confirming previous studies of this driver. Our results suggest that in heavily forested countries, development projects designed to support conservation work initially in conditions of good governance, but that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate larger deforestation drivers.

  19. Media and education play a tremendous role in mounting AIDS awareness among married couples in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Mohammad

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To quarantine the spreading possibility of HIV virus to general population boosting public awareness is must. But the proper awareness level is substantially low in Bangladesh. This paper aims to identify the factors associated with the awareness regarding HIV/AIDS through a bivariate and multivariate analysis using the data extracted from Bangladesh Demography and Health Survey (BDHS 1999–2000. Results The findings of both techniques show that education, occupation, socioeconomic status, status of household food consumption, area of residence and media exposure have significant (p Conclusion At this instant it is urgent to give emphasis on education, alleviation of poverty, ensuring electronic media exposure, head to head communication program, institutional based sex education and necessary information to learn about HIV/AIDS for the young, adult and adolescents all over the country.

  20. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts.

  1. The Impact of Machine Translation and Computer-aided Translation on Translators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators, which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation (CAT) and machine translation (MT). Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation, it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators, which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation. The findings underline the advantages and disadvantages of MT and CAT tools, and the serviceability and future development of MT and CAT technologies. Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.

  2. Education for AIDS Prevention: Bibliography--Supplement No. 1=Education pour la prevention du SIDA: Bibliographie--Supplement No. 1=Educacion para la Prevencion del SIDA: Bibliografia--Suplemento No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Documentation and Information Service.

    This supplement to the Education for AIDS Prevention Bibliography provides a list of titles received by ASERC (AIDS School Education Resource Centre) from August 1991 to December 1992, consisting mainly of educational material for schools. It also includes documents of a more general nature on AIDS and AIDS prevention. ASERC is a documentation…

  3. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-Economic Development in Kenya's Cooperative Sector: An Empirical Analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyongesa, D.J.W.; M'mboyi, F.

    2002-01-01

    A lot of stigma is attached to HIV/AIDS pandemic in Kenya. Many organizations have tried and continue trying to educate the public on this scourge. However, none of these organizations has thought of the cooperative sector. This research is unique because it examines the Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-economic Development of Kenya's Cooperative sector. It is an empirical analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province with special reference to the Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOS). It was a joint research that examined HIV/AIDS from a multidisciplinary approach. The general objective was to identify and quantify the effects of HIV/AIDS on the performance of cooperative societies, particularly the impact of HIV/AIDS on savings, share capital, age groups and gender. Questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected sample of cooperative societies in the province. PCGIVE computer package was used to run regressions on simultaneous and recursive models. The findings clearly show that between 1991 and 2000 cooperatives in Nairobi province lost approximately USD 479 million due to HIV/AIDS pandemic. Besides, though savings, share capital and assets increased significantly, the scourge was negative the gains. Of the dead and the infected, females and ages between 18-48 were more affected by the epidemic. Policy specify recommendations vital for containment of HIV/AIDS in the cooperative sub sector of the Kenyan economy are made. These are with a view to classifying the appropriate roles of both public and private sectors in fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic within the cooperative sector. Last but not least further areas of research are suggested

  4. Key determinants of AIDS impact in Southern sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandera, Wayne Xavier

    2007-11-01

    To investigate why Southern sub-Saharan Africa is more severely impacted by HIV and AIDS than other parts of sub-Saharan Africa, I conducted a review of the literature that assessed viral, host and transmission (societal) factors. This narrative review evaluates: 1) viral factors, in particular the aggregation of subtype-C HIV infections in Southern sub-Saharan Africa; 2) host factors, including unique behaviour patterns, concomitant high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, circumcision patterns, average age at first marriage and immunogenetic determinants; and, 3) transmission and societal factors, including levels of poverty, degrees of literacy, migrations of people, extent of political corruption, and the usage of contaminated injecting needles in community settings. HIV prevalence data and published indices on wealth, fertility, and governmental corruption were correlated using statistical software. The high prevalence of HIV in Southern sub-Saharan Africa is not explained by the unusual prevalence of subtype-C HIV infection. Many host factors contribute to HIV prevalence, including frequency of genital ulcerating sexually transmitted infections, absence of circumcision (compiled odds ratios suggest a protective effect of between 40% and 60% from circumcision), and immunogenetic loci, but no factor alone explains the high prevalence of HIV in the region. Among transmission and societal factors, the wealthiest, most literate and most educated, but also the most income-disparate, nations of sub-Saharan Africa show the highest HIV prevalence. HIV prevalence is also highest within societies experiencing significant migration and conflict as well as in those with government systems experiencing a high degree of corruption. The interactions between poverty and HIV transmission are complex. Epidemiologic studies currently do not suggest a strong role for the community usage of contaminated injecting needles. Areas meriting additional study include clade type

  5. AIDS knowledge and sexual activity among Flemish secondary school students: a multilevel analysis of the effects of type of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Berten, Hans; Van Tuyckom, Charlotte

    2010-01-21

    The behavior of adolescents puts them at an increased risk for HIV and other STIs, and their knowledge about HIV/AIDS is often inadequate. An understanding of how AIDS knowledge and sexual activity co-vary among Flemish secondary school students and of how education type, specifically, affects these students is limited. This study addresses the question of whether the effects of education type on HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual activity are independent of the socio-demographic characteristics of the students. Data from the Flemish Educational Assessment survey, which collected data from a large representative sample of third- and fifth-grade high school students (N = 11,872), were used. Data were analyzed using multilevel logistic and Poisson regression techniques. There is an indication that type of education affects both an adolescent's sexual activity and his/her AIDS knowledge; these effects prove robust for differences in socio-economic backgrounds. Students in lower status education types are more likely to be sexually active and to have poorer AIDS knowledge. The relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual activity is, however, more complex. Although students in education types with poorer AIDS knowledge are more sexually active, within each of these groups the sexually active have better AIDS knowledge than the non-sexually active. There is also evidence of active information seeking by sexually active students, which leads to improved AIDS knowledge. These findings are consistent with the literature on the role of the educational system in the reproduction of social inequalities. Students from lower status education types are at increased sexual risk compared to those from higher status types. There is also evidence of active information seeking by sexually active students, which leads to improved AIDS knowledge.

  6. Education Scholarship and its Impact on Emergency Medicine Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbino, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) education is becoming increasingly challenging as a result of changes to North American medical education and the growing complexity of EM practice. Education scholarship (ES) provides a process to develop solutions to these challenges. ES includes both research and innovation. ES is informed by theory, principles and best practices, is peer reviewed, and is disseminated and archived for others to use. Digital technologies have improved the discovery of work that informs ES, broadened the scope and timing of peer review, and provided new platforms for the dissemination and archiving of innovations. This editorial reviews key steps in raising an education innovation to the level of scholarship. It also discusses important areas for EM education scholars to address, which include the following: the delivery of competency-based medical education programs, the impact of social media on learning, and the redesign of continuing professional development. PMID:26594270

  7. Education Scholarship and its Impact on Emergency Medicine Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbino, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) education is becoming increasingly challenging as a result of changes to North American medical education and the growing complexity of EM practice. Education scholarship (ES) provides a process to develop solutions to these challenges. ES includes both research and innovation. ES is informed by theory, principles and best practices, is peer reviewed, and is disseminated and archived for others to use. Digital technologies have improved the discovery of work that informs ES, broadened the scope and timing of peer review, and provided new platforms for the dissemination and archiving of innovations. This editorial reviews key steps in raising an education innovation to the level of scholarship. It also discusses important areas for EM education scholars to address, which include the following: the delivery of competency-based medical education programs, the impact of social media on learning, and the redesign of continuing professional development.

  8. Development of a multimedia educational programme for first-time hearing aid users: a participatory design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Melanie; Leighton, Paul; Brandreth, Marian; Wharrad, Heather

    2018-05-02

    To develop content for a series of interactive video tutorials (or reusable learning objects, RLOs) for first-time adult hearing aid users, to enhance knowledge of hearing aids and communication. RLO content was based on an electronically-delivered Delphi review, workshops, and iterative peer-review and feedback using a mixed-methods participatory approach. An expert panel of 33 hearing healthcare professionals, and workshops involving 32 hearing aid users and 11 audiologists. This ensured that social, emotional and practical experiences of the end-user alongside clinical validity were captured. Content for evidence-based, self-contained RLOs based on pedagogical principles was developed for delivery via DVD for television, PC or internet. Content was developed based on Delphi review statements about essential information that reached consensus (≥90%), visual representations of relevant concepts relating to hearing aids and communication, and iterative peer-review and feedback of content. This participatory approach recognises and involves key stakeholders in the design process to create content for a user-friendly multimedia educational intervention, to supplement the clinical management of first-time hearing aid users. We propose participatory methodologies are used in the development of content for e-learning interventions in hearing-related research and clinical practice.

  9. Community-based first aid: a program report on the intersection of community-based participatory research and first aid education in a remote Canadian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderBurgh, D; Jamieson, R; Beardy, J; Ritchie, S D; Orkin, A

    2014-01-01

    Community-based first aid training is the collaborative development of locally relevant emergency response training. The Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative was developed, delivered, and evaluated through two intensive 5-day first aid courses. Sachigo Lake First Nation is a remote Aboriginal community of 450 people in northern Ontario, Canada, with no local paramedical services. These courses were developed in collaboration with the community, with a goal of building community capacity to respond to medical emergencies. Most first aid training programs rely on standardized curriculum developed for urban and rural contexts with established emergency response systems. Delivering effective community-based first aid training in a remote Aboriginal community required specific adaptations to conventional first aid educational content and pedagogy. Three key lessons emerged during this program that used collaborative principles to adapt conventional first aid concepts and curriculum: (1) standardized approaches may not be relevant nor appropriate; (2) relationships between course participants and the people they help are relevant and important; (3) curriculum must be attentive to existing informal and formal emergency response systems. These lessons may be instructive for the development of other programs in similar settings.

  10. School-Based HIV/AIDS Education Is Associated with Reduced Risky Sexual Behaviors and Better Grades with Gender and Race/Ethnicity Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools…

  11. Foreign Aid to Nigeria and Domestic Obstacles: A Review of Anambra State Education Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E.O Chukwuemeka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of foreign aid on the development of different sectors of the Nigerian economy. Particular emphasis was laid on the educational sector of Anambra State. Survey research method was adopted. Data collected were analyzed using Chi-square parametric statistics. Many factors were found to militate against the effectiveness of foreign aid in achieving development. Among the factors were corruption, poor policies and institutional framework as well as poor utilization of development fund. Based on the findings, recommendations were made. These include the need for the establishment of a sound institutional framework and infrastructural facilities; also there is the need for a reform of the educational sector of Anambra state as well as all sectors of the Nigerian economy.

  12. Impact of treatment for depression on desire for hastened death in patients with advanced AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Gibson, Christopher; Kramer, Michael; Li, Yuelin; Tomarken, Alexis; Nelson, Christian; Pessin, Hayley; Esch, Julie; Galietta, Michele; Garcia, Nerina; Brechtl, John; Schuster, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Despite the development of multi-drug regimens for HIV, palliative care and quality-of-life issues in patients with advanced AIDS remain important areas of clinical investigation. Authors assessed the impact of treatment for depression on desire for hastened death in patients with advanced AIDS. Patients with advanced AIDS (N=372) were interviewed shortly after admission to a palliative-care facility, and were reinterviewed monthly for the next 2 months. Patients diagnosed with a major depressive syndrome were provided with antidepressant treatment and reinterviewed weekly. Desire for hastened death was assessed with two questionnaire measures. Desire for death was highly associated with depression, and it decreased dramatically in patients who responded to antidepressant treatment. Little change in desire for hastened death was observed in patients whose depression did not improve. Although improved depression was not significantly associated with the use of antidepressant medication, those individuals prescribed antidepressant medication showed the largest decreases in desire for hastened death. Successful treatment for depression appears to substantially decrease desire for hastened death in patients with advanced AIDS. The authors discuss implications of these findings for palliative-care treatment and the physician-assisted suicide debate.

  13. Etic and Emic Perspectives on HIV/AIDS Impacts on Rural Livelihoods and Agricultural Practice in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, A.; Price, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    Using an HIV/AIDS lens in looking at developments in rural livelihoods and agricultural practice reveals a diversity of critical impacts of the epidemic. Still, in most of the countries hardest-hit by HIV/ AIDS the agricultural sector lacks adequate policies and programmes to deal with the crisis.

  14. The proposal of permanent education in the formation of dentists in std/hiv/aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Nunes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to report the experience of the "Project for the formation of dentists as facilitators of Permanent Education in Health in the area of STD/HIV/AIDS" developed in partnerships with the National Program of STD/AIDS, the Technical Area of Oral Health of the Ministry of Health, Public Universities and Municipal and State Secretaries of Health. The objective of the program was to capacitate dentists of the public health system in Brazilian states and cities to provide integral and humanized attendance for people living with HIV/AIDS. The methodology of choice for the form of teams of facilitators was Permanent Education in Health through semi-presential courses focusing on the problematization of local and professional realities. Thus, seeking to construct a process of education to modify and reorient the hegemonic dental practice, strengthening the process of attendance and management and the partnerships, guaranteeing the sustainability of the actions in the states and cities.

  15. SOFTWARE TRAINING AIDS DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION IN PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION PRACTICE OF TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION TEACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy G. Gritchenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the theoretical and practical aspects of software training aids development and implementation in professional preparation practice of technological education teacher. The myriad opportunities of new information technologies are described; the characteristic features of modern software training tool (STT are revealed; the main algorithmic structure circuits of training programs construction (linear, cyclic, with hyperlinks, to the labels, which enable the development of STT variety and functionality are given; the methodology of STT creating is described based on the analysis of the technology teacher preparation in HEE content, MITE didactic functions and selection criteria of educational software for this area of specialist’s preparation.

  16. Advancing Social Work Education for Health Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Robert H.; Ruth, Betty J.; Cox, Harold; Maramaldi, Peter; Rishel, Carrie; Rountree, Michele; Zlotnik, Joan; Marshall, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Social work education plays a critical role in preparing social workers to lead efforts that improve health. Because of the dynamic health care landscape, schools of social work must educate students to facilitate health care system improvements, enhance population health, and reduce medical costs. We reviewed the existing contributions of social work education and provided recommendations for improving the education of social workers in 6 key areas: aging, behavioral health, community health, global health, health reform, and health policy. We argue for systemic improvement in the curriculum at every level of education, including substantive increases in content in health, health care, health care ethics, and evaluating practice outcomes in health settings. Schools of social work can further increase the impact of the profession by enhancing the curricular focus on broad content areas such as prevention, health equity, population and community health, and health advocacy. PMID:29236540

  17. The Provision of a Health Promoting Environment for HIV/AIDS Education: The Case of Namibian Senior Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bob; Lubben, Fred

    2003-01-01

    HIV/AIDS programmes in schools ultimately intend to decrease high risk sexual behaviour. One factor facilitating this outcome is a strong health promoting environment in the school. This paper reports a study surveying the health promoting environments supporting HIV/AIDS education in Namibian senior secondary schools. It develops a…

  18. Fact Sheet: LGBT Discrimination in Higher Education Financial Aid--Assistance Should Be Allocated on Need, Not Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Crosby

    2012-01-01

    Through the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA, the federal government provides more financial aid for higher education than any other institution. But because of discriminatory laws the FAFSA treats families headed by two mothers or two fathers differently than families headed by a mother and a father. This treatment distributes…

  19. Impacts of HIV/AIDS mortality on food security and natural resource utilisation in rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mambo, J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIDS mortality, its linkages as a determinant and consequence of food security and its impact on natural resource utilisation by mainly rural populations, has not been well researched, especially their effects on rural livelihoods. Determining...

  20. Teaching wilderness first aid in a remote First Nations community: the story of the Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Karen; Orkin, Aaron; VanderBurgh, David; Beardy, Jackson

    2012-01-01

    To understand how community members of a remote First Nations community respond to an emergency first aid education programme. A qualitative study involving focus groups and participant observation as part of a community-based participatory research project, which involved the development and implementation of a wilderness first aid course in collaboration with the community. Twenty community members participated in the course and agreed to be part of the research focus groups. Three community research partners validated and reviewed the data collected from this process. These data were coded and analysed using open coding. Community members responded to the course in ways related to their past experiences with injury and first aid, both as individuals and as members of the community. Feelings of confidence and self-efficacy related access to care and treatment of injury surfaced during the course. Findings also highlighted how the context of the remote First Nations community influenced the delivery and development of course materials. Developing and delivering a first aid course in a remote community requires sensitivity towards the response of participants to the course, as well as the context in which it is being delivered. Employing collaborative approaches to teaching first aid can aim to address these unique needs. Though delivery of a first response training programme in a small remote community will probably not impact the morbidity and mortality associated with injury, it has the potential to impact community self-efficacy and confidence when responding to an emergency situation.

  1. Mental health first aid guidelines: an evaluation of impact following download from the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Jorm, Anthony F; Paxton, Susan J; Cvetkovski, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Mental health first aid guidelines provide the public with consensus-based information about how to assist someone who is developing a mental illness or experiencing a mental health crisis. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the usefulness and impact of the guidelines on web users who download them. Web users who downloaded the documents were invited to respond to an initial demographic questionnaire, then a follow up about how the documents had been used, their perceived usefulness, whether first-aid situations had been encountered and if these were influenced by the documents. Over 9.8 months, 706 web users responded to the initial questionnaire and 154 responded to the second. A majority reported downloading the document because their job involved contact with people with mental illness. Sixty-three web users reported providing first aid, 44 of whom reported that the person they were assisting had sought professional care as a result of their suggestion. Twenty-three web users reported seeking care themselves. A majority of those who provided first aid reported feeling that they had been successful in helping the person, that they had been able to assist in a way that was more knowledgeable, skilful and supportive, and that the guidelines had contributed to these outcomes. Information made freely available on the Internet, about how to provide mental health first aid to someone who is developing a mental health problem or experiencing a mental health crisis, is associated with more positive, empathic and successful helping behaviours. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. The Economic Impact of Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Blenda J.

    2005-01-01

    New England colleges and universities impact their local and regional economies in many ways. They are often major employers and purchasers. They construct new facilities, attract visitors, provide cultural and intellectual enrichment for the community and boost property values. The knowledge produced by New England's higher education institutions…

  3. Impact of gender on the risk of AIDS-defining illnesses and mortality in Danish HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gender differences in the risk of AIDS-defining illness (ADI) and mortality have been reported in the HIV-1-infected (HIV-positive) population, with conflicting findings. We aimed to assess the impact of gender on the risk of ADI and death in HIV-positive patients infected...... sexually. Methods: This was a population-based, nationwide cohort study of incident Danish HIV-positive individuals infected by sexual contact. Outcomes were progression to AIDS and death. We used Cox proportional hazards models and Poisson regression analyses to calculate the risk of progression to AIDS...... diagnosis MSM had a lower prevalence of AIDS compared to MSW. Women and MSW presented more often with tuberculosis and less often with AIDS-defining cancers compared to MSM. In the adjusted analyses we observed no differences in progression to AIDS. In the adjusted analyses of risk of death, there were...

  4. Planning and pre-testing: the key to effective AIDS education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostfield, M L; Romocki, L S

    1991-06-01

    The steps in designing and producing effective AIDS prevention educational materials are outlines, using as an example a brochure originated in St. Lucia for clients at STD clinics. The brochure was intended to be read by clients as they waited for their consultation, thus it was targeted to a specific audience delimited by age, sex, language, educational level, religion and associated medical or behavioral characteristics. When researching the audience, it is necessary to learn the medium they best respond to, what they know already, what is their present behavior, how they talk about AIDS, what terms they use, how they perceive the benefits of AIDS prevention behavior, what sources of information they trust. The minimum number of key messages should be selected. Next the most appropriate channel of communication is identified. Mass media are not always best for a target audience, "little media" such as flyers and give-always may be better. The draft is then pre-tested by focus groups and interviews, querying about the text separately, then images, color, format, style. Listen to the way the respondents talk about the draft. Modify the draft and pre-test again. Fine-tune implications of the message for realism in emotional responses, respect, self-esteem, admiration and trust. To achieve wide distribution it is a good idea to involve community leaders to production of the materials, so they will be more likely to take part in the distribution process.

  5. An Evaluation Framework for Sustaining the Impact of Educational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kazuaki; Pillay, Hitendra; Hudson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Notwithstanding significant efforts by international aid agencies, aid ineffectiveness became apparent in 1990s as the impact of continued development intervention did not endure the expected outcomes. Conventional monitoring and evaluation by those agencies is critiqued for focusing on measuring project outcomes and giving little attention to…

  6. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: implications for HIV education and AIDS risk education programs in the black community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S B; Quinn, S C

    1991-01-01

    The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in the Negro male is the longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history. The strategies used to recruit and retain participants were quite similar to those being advocated for HIV/AIDS prevention programs today. Almost 60 years after the study began, there remains a trail of distrust and suspicion that hampers HIV education efforts in Black communities. The AIDS epidemic has exposed the Tuskegee study as a historical marker for the legitimate discontent of Blacks with the public health system. The belief that AIDS is a form of genocide is rooted in a social context in which Black Americans, faced with persistent inequality, believe in conspiracy theories about Whites against Blacks. These theories range from the belief that the government promotes drug abuse in Black communities to the belief that HIV is a manmade weapon of racial warfare. An open and honest discussion of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study can facilitate the process of rebuilding trust between the Black community and public health authorities. This dialogue can contribute to the development of HIV education programs that are scientifically sound, culturally sensitive, and ethnically acceptable. Images p1500-a p1502-a p1503-a PMID:1951814

  7. HIV/AIDS prevention: knowledge, attitudes and education practices of secondary school health personnel in 14 cities of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Q; Dunne, M P; Zhao, D C

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the preparedness of school health personnel to develop and deliver HIV/AIDS prevention education programmes for young people in China. A survey of 653 personnel working in secondary schools in 14 cities was conducted. More than 90% had basic knowledge of ways in which HIV can be transmitted, but knowledge of ways in which the virus is not transmitted needs improvement. Substantial numbers of teachers were not sure whether there was an effective preventive vaccine (42%) or did not know whether AIDS was a curable illness or not (32%). The great majority approved of AIDS prevention programmes in universities (98%) and secondary schools (91%), although fewer (58%) agreed that the topic was appropriate for primary schools. Currently, most classroom activities focuses on teaching facts about HIV/AIDS transmission, while less than half are taught about HIV/AIDS related discrimination and life skills to reduce peer pressure. Personnel with some prior training on HIV/ AIDS education (53%) had better factual knowledge, more tolerant attitudes and more confidence in teaching about HIV/AIDS than those without training. The majority of teachers indicated a need for more resource books, audiovisual products, expert guidance, school principal support and dissemination of national AIDS prevention education guidelines to schools.

  8. HIV/AIDS Educators: The Challenges and Issues for Namibian Bachelor of Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Sara; Mundy, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The Life Skills course is offered to Namibian students in grades eight through twelve. It includes lessons on HIV/AIDS, imparting information and equipping them with the necessary psycho-social skills to assist in reducing the risk of becoming infected. Teachers are the impetus for the success of the course. As such, research was undertaken to…

  9. Disaster Mental Health and Community-Based Psychological First Aid: Concepts and Education/Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerard A; Gray, Brandon L; Erickson, Sara E; Gonzalez, Elvira D; Quevillon, Randal P

    2016-12-01

    Any community can experience a disaster, and many traumatic events occur without warning. Psychologists can be an important resource assisting in psychological support for individuals and communities, in preparation for and in response to traumatic events. Disaster mental health and the community-based model of psychological first aid are described. The National Preparedness and Response Science Board has recommended that all mental health professionals be trained in disaster mental health, and that first responders, civic officials, emergency managers, and the general public be trained in community-based psychological first aid. Education and training resources in these two fields are described to assist psychologists and others in preparing themselves to assist their communities in difficult times and to help their communities learn to support one another. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. HIV/AIDS practice patterns, knowledge, and educational needs among Hispanic clinicians in Texas, USA, and Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J L; Licea Serrato, J de D; Jimenez, R; Grimes, R M

    1998-07-01

    Hispanic clinicians in Texas, United States of America, and in the neighboring state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, were surveyed to determine their educational needs in the area of HIV/AIDS. Two-thirds of the 74 Texan and 22% of the 104 Mexican physicians queried had seen at least one HIV/AIDS patient in the previous year. The majority of the respondents were primary care physicians who: 1) were in private practice; 2) saw more than 1,000 patients per year; 3) had been out of training for more than 10 years; 4) provided some HIV prevention education to patients based on their perceived risk of infection; 5) rated their own knowledge of HIV/AIDS as average but rated their knowledge of treatments for the disease below average; 6) received most of their information about HIV/AIDS from journals rather than formal continuing education programs; 7) thought Hispanic patients had special needs with regard to HIV/AIDS care; and 8) were willing to attend education programs to improve their HIV/AIDS management skills. The greatest barriers to caring for HIV patients were lack of clinical knowledge and fear of infection. These results point to a need for a large-scale training program to improve the HIV/AIDS management skills of Hispanic clinicians in Texas and Nuevo Leon.

  11. HIV/AIDS practice patterns, knowledge, and educational needs among Hispanic clinicians in Texas, USA, and Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez J. Louis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Hispanic clinicians in Texas, United States of America, and in the neighboring state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, were surveyed to determine their educational needs in the area of HIV/AIDS. Two-thirds of the 74 Texan and 22% of the 104 Mexican physicians queried had seen at least one HIV/AIDS patient in the previous year. The majority of the respondents were primary care physicians who: 1 were in private practice; 2 saw more than 1 000 patients per year; 3 had been out of training for more than 10 years; 4 provided some HIV prevention education to patients based on their perceived risk of infection; 5 rated their own knowledge of HIV/AIDS as average but rated their knowledge of treatments for the disease below average; 6 received most of their information about HIV/AIDS from journals rather than formal continuing education programs; 7 thought Hispanic patients had special needs with regard to HIV/AIDS care; and 8 were willing to attend education programs to improve their HIV/AIDS management skills. The greatest barriers to caring for HIV patients were lack of clinical knowledge and fear of infection. These results point to a need for a large-scale training program to improve the HIV/AIDS management skills of Hispanic clinicians in Texas and Nuevo Leon.

  12. Conocimiento de Transmision de SIDA y Percepcion Hacia los Ninos con SIDA en el Salon de Clases de los Maestros de Educacion Especial (Knowledge of AIDS Transmission and Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Children with AIDS in the Classroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Williams, Milka

    This Spanish-language master's thesis presents a study which measured special education teachers' knowledge of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus transmission and their attitudes toward children with AIDS in schools. Attitudes were then related to social variables such as sex, teacher's age, and knowing someone with AIDS. A survey of…

  13. The Impact of Gamification - Recommending Education Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Erenli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many students play (computer games in their leisure time, thus acquiring skills which can easily be utilized when it comes to teaching more sophisticated knowledge. Nevertheless many educators today are wasting this opportunity. Some have evaluated gaming scenarios and methods for teaching students and have created the term “gamification”. This paper describes the history of this new term and explains the possible impact on teaching. It will take well-researched facts into consideration to discuss the potential of games. Moreover, scenarios will be illustrated and evaluated for educators to adopt and use on their own.

  14. Where is the greatest impact of uncontrolled HIV infection on AIDS and non-AIDS events in HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Laut, Kamilla; Reiss, Peter

    2018-01-01

    , viral load ≥10,000 copies/ml], low risk [CD4 ≥500/mm, viral load events. RESULTS: 16839...... differences in patient management as well as underlying socioeconomic circumstances. The difference between those at high, intermediate and low risk of non-AIDS ≥2013 likely reflects better quality of care....

  15. Effect of First Aid Education on First Aid Knowledge and Skills of Commercial Drivers in South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumide, Adesola O; Asuzu, Michael C; Kale, Oladele O

    2015-12-01

    Prompt prehospital care is essential for improving outcomes of road crash victims; however, this service is sub-optimal in developing countries because Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are not readily available. Training of lay responders in first aid has been suggested as a means of filling this gap in settings with inadequate EMS. This study was conducted to determine the effect of first aid training on the first aid knowledge and skills of commercial drivers. A before-and-after study was conducted among 128 commercial drivers (62 intervention and 66 controls) selected by multi-stage sampling. Drivers' first aid knowledge and skills were assessed at baseline, immediate, and three months post-intervention. The intervention involved a 2-day training session in first aid. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in respondents' pre- and post-intervention scores over the three assessment points. Mean first aid knowledge scores for intervention drivers were 48.9% (SD=12.0), 57.8% (SD=11.2), and 59.2% (SD=9.0) at baseline, immediate, and three months post-intervention. Corresponding scores for the controls were 48.3% (SD=12.8), 39.2% (SD=15.3), and 46.8% (SD=15.3). Mean first aid skill scores for intervention drivers were 17.5% (SD=3.8), 80.7% (SD=8.3), and 72.3% (SD=16.8). Scores for control drivers were 16.5% (SD=4.5), 16.3% (SD=4.7), and 20.4% (SD=9.1), respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences in first aid knowledge and skills scores over the three phases. Independent t-test revealed significant differences in scores between the intervention and control groups post-intervention. The training led to significant improvement in first aid knowledge and skills of intervention drivers. This confirms that lay responders can be trained in provision of first aid. The slight drop in skills scores, which occurred three months post-intervention, highlights the need for periodic refresher trainings to be conducted for the drivers in

  16. Association of physical inactivity with hypertension and low educational level in people living with HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Santos, Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho; Falco, Marianne de Oliveira; Cardoso, Rodrigo de Castro; Vitorino, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and whether it is associated with sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, and body composition variables in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study makes use of data from a cohort of 288 adults aged ≥19 years, conducted between October 2009 and July 2011. The variables studied were sex, age, education, income, skin color, tobacco use, alcohol intake, body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, length of HIV/AIDS diagnosis, use of antiretroviral therapy and length of its use, CD4, hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus. Physical inactivity was defined as a score below 600 metabolic equivalent minutes/week according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version. Poisson multiple regression was applied in the multivariate analysis with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 44.1%. Education of ≤4 years of study (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.71) and HT (PR: 1.49) were associated with physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent in PLWHA and associated with low educational level and HT. We highlight the simultaneous association between two cardiometabolic risk factors, HT and physical inactivity.

  17. Brazil launches anti-AIDS campaign for Indians. Education and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-09

    Anthropologists are educating Indian tribes regarding methods of preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), particularly acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in a new Brazilian campaign. Estimates of the number of Indians who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vary because records do not categorize by race. While the National Indian Foundation (Funai) believes 20 of 320,000 Indians are infected, the Catholic Church's Indigenous Missionary Council (CIMI) states that 11 Indians have died of AIDS since 1989, and that another 4 are HIV-positive. According to Pedro Chequer, campaign coordinator, the Indian population is at low risk, but highly vulnerable to the spread of HIV infection; each tribe has different sexual mores, which must be respected, and its own language, which requires educational materials in that language. Based on recent studies, 10-15% of Brazilian Indians are infected with some form of STD. Indians at high risk, those living near urban areas or having regular contact with mining and forestry workers, particularly the wildcat golddiggers known as "garimpeiros," are being targeted. The use of army personnel, who are often the only non-indigenous people in isolated areas of the Amazon, in the campaign is being considered. The Ministry of Heath is also promoting studies of Indian culture and an education campaign in 1310 schools, reaching 62,000 indigenous students and 2504 teachers.

  18. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  19. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomic risk factors in special education teachers and teacher's aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Wong, Man-Ting; Yu, Yu-Chung; Ju, Yan-Ying

    2016-02-10

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have become increasingly common among health-related professionals. Special education personnel who serve students with disabilities often experience physical strains; however, WMSDs have been overlooked in this population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the work-related ergonomics-associated factors in this population and to evaluate their correlation with the WMSDs prevalence. A questionnaire with three domains, namely demographics, prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and ergonomic factors, designed by our research team was delivered to educators who work in special education schools. Approximately 86 % of the 388 special education school teachers and teacher's aides in this study experienced musculoskeletal disorders. The lower back, shoulder, and wrist were the three most affected regions. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the participants' background factors, namely >5.5 years of experience (odds ratio [OR] = 4.090, 95 % CI: 1.350-12.390), students with multiple disorders (OR = 2.412, 95 % CI: 1.100-5.287), and other work-related ergonomic factors (assistance in diaper changing and others duties), were strongly associated with the prevalence of WMSD. Nap habit (OR = 0.442, 95 % CI: 0.230-0.851) and having teaching partners in the same class (OR = 0.486, 95 % CI: 0.250-0.945) resulted in low possibility of acquiring WMSDs. The use of supportive devices was associated with a low WMSD prevalence. The present study revealed an association between WMSDs and specific job features among teachers and teacher's aides in special education schools. Future efforts should emphasize examining safe student-handling ergonomics, formulating policies regarding student-teacher ratio, incorporating mandatory break times at the workplaces, and promoting personal health for preventing work-related injuries.

  20. Impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors among impoverished, at-risk couples: a multilevel latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Judith A; Nyamathi, Adeline; Ullman, Jodie B; Bentler, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Studies among normative samples generally demonstrate a positive impact of marriage on health behaviors and other related attitudes. In this study, we examine the impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and attitudes among impoverished, highly stressed, homeless couples, many with severe substance abuse problems. A multilevel analysis of 368 high-risk sexually intimate married and unmarried heterosexual couples assessed individual and couple-level effects on social support, substance use problems, HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived HIV/AIDS risk, needle-sharing, condom use, multiple sex partners, and HIV/AIDS testing. More variance was explained in the protective and risk variables by couple-level latent variable predictors than by individual latent variable predictors, although some gender effects were found (e.g., more alcohol problems among men). The couple-level variable of marriage predicted lower perceived risk, less deviant social support, and fewer sex partners but predicted more needle-sharing.

  1. [Educational and training issues in occupational first aid: the requisites for the teachers of the workers responsible for first aid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, A; Ciavarella, M; Trevisan, A; Monteforte, Gabriella; De Santis, A

    2005-01-01

    The inter-ministerial decree (D.I.) 388/03 (the Italian law on first aid in the workplace) attaches particular importance to the organization of first aid and to the content of the teaching and training of designated workers, specifying teaching objectives, programme and duration of courses. However it provides less details on the requirements and qualifications of the teachers and trainers. To discuss this topic in the light of the guidelines contained in the literature and the existing legislation. We used the specific references of literature and legislation concerning first aid training of designated workers. The objectives and the content of the training courses call for a high level of professional competence and approach. Therefore, training of designated workers should be planned and carried out in accordance with the training standards used for the teaching and training of the so-called "lay rescuers". The need to achieve high training standards for workers responsible for first aid at the workplace is to a large extent justified by the difficulty of the role of employees. This need follows the current tendency in regulations to guarantee adequate and up-dated training also for other agents operating within the system of workplace prevention. In this context the occupational physician plays a significant role in the training programmes for designated workers.

  2. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  3. Impact of individual-level social capital on quality of life among AIDS patients in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With growing recognition of the social determinants of health, social capital is an increasingly important construct in international health. However, the application of social capital discourse in response to HIV infection remains preliminary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social capital on quality of life (QoL among adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. METHODS: A convenient sample of 283 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART was investigated in Anhui province, China. QoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Survey (MOS-HIV questionnaire. Social capital was measured using a self-developed questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between social capital and QoL. RESULTS: The study sample had a mean physical health summary (PHS score of 50.13 ± 9.90 and a mean mental health summary (MHS score of 41.64 ± 11.68. Cronbach's α coefficients of the five multi-item scales of social capital ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. When other variables were controlled for, lower individual levels of reciprocity and trust were associated with a greater likelihood of having a poor PHS score (odds ratio [OR] =2.02 or PHS score (OR=6.90. Additionally, the factors of social support and social networks and ties were associated positively with MHS score (OR=2.30, OR=4.17, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration.

  4. The impact and cost of the HIV/AIDS investment framework for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, John; Rosen, Jim; Kasedde, Susan; Idele, Priscilla; McClure, Craig

    2014-07-01

    In 2005, the resources needed to support orphans and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa were estimated at US$ 1.1-4.1 billion. Approaches to support vulnerable children have changed considerably since then. This study updates previous estimates by including new types of support and information on support costs. We considered 16 types of support categorized as economic strengthening, education support, social care and community outreach, and program support. The estimates combine the number of children in need of each intervention with unit costs derived from the literature and coverage goals based on current coverage and feasible future improvements. The number of children affected by AIDS in low- and middle-income countries varies from 58 million to 315 million depending on the definition of need. The resources required to provide support to children living in poor households will grow from US$ 4.2 billion in 2012 to US$ 5-8 billion by 2020. Almost two-thirds of these resources will be needed for Sub-Saharan Africa. The largest needs are for cash transfers, community care workers, early childhood development, block grants for education, M&E monitoring and evaluation, and direct material support. The results show that we can significantly improve the coverage of services for vulnerable children with only modest increases in resources. This results from stable or declining numbers of orphans and children living with HIV plus economic growth that is moving more households out of poverty. The results also reflect an important shift toward providing support to strengthen families and communities that care for children rather than direct material support. More resources are required to support children affected by AIDS, but new approaches to provide that support will be cost effective and have broad social and economic benefits.

  5. Exploring Teacher Competences and Learner Participation in HIV / AIDS Education through the Application of the Investigations Visions Action and Change (IVAC) Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaki Nyami, Rachael

    Within the field of participatory health education, this study made use of the IVAC approach as an intervention in the teaching of HIV/AIDS education. It aimed at exploring teachers competences and learner participation in HIV/AIDS education in two schools i Mutomo District, Kenya....

  6. School-based HIV/AIDS education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviors and better grades with gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-04-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.

  7. Effect of health education on trainee teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and first aid management of epilepsy: An interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Christian N; Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C

    2015-12-01

    High rates of poor knowledge of, and negative attitudes towards people with epilepsy (PWE) are generally found among school teachers. Their first aid epilepsy management skills are poor. It remains unknown if this is different among trainee teachers and whether educational intervention might reduce these rates. We examined the effect of health education on the knowledge, attitudes, and first aid management of epilepsy on trainee teachers in Nigeria. Baseline data and socio-demographic determinants were collected from 226 randomly selected trainee teachers, at the Federal College of Education, Lagos, Nigeria, with self-administered questionnaires. They received a health intervention comprising an hour and half epilepsy lecture followed by a discussion. Baseline knowledge of, and attitudes towards PWE and their first aid epilepsy management skills were compared to post-interventional follow-up data collected twelve weeks later with similar questionnaires. At baseline the majority (61.9%) and largest proportion (44.2%) of respondents had negative attitudes and poor knowledge of epilepsy, respectively. The knowledge of, and attitudes towards epilepsy, and the first aid management skill increased in most respondents, post-intervention. The proportion of respondents with poor knowledge and negative attitudes dropped by 15.5% (pfirst aid management skills increased by 25.0% (pfirst aid management. This emphasizes the potential benefit of incorporating an epilepsy tailored intervention programme into teachers' training curricula. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring a Third Space for Sustainable Educational Development—HIV/AIDS Prevention, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Carm

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Zambia from 2002 to 2008, a country greatly affected by the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome epidemic. The global, national, as well as local discourses on spread and mitigation were clustered around scientific knowledge and the local context and cultural traditions. The education sector struggled with implementing the national HIV/AIDS education strategy but by a broader stakeholder involvement, and a close collaboration between the educational sector and tribal chiefs and their traditional internal structures, a localized approach emerged. The overall objective of the paper is to illustrate how a multi-voiced strategy can bring about sustainable change, illustrated by this study. The study used qualitative constructivist and grounded theoretical approaches, and applied the third generation of cultural and historical activity theory (CHAT as an analytical tool. Bernstein’s concept, symbolic control, contributes to a broader understanding of the underlying processes and outcomes of the study. The findings revealed that the strategically monitored multi-voiced participation of local stakeholders created a learning space where both scientific and indigenous knowledge were blended, and thereby creating solutions to preventive action meeting the local needs. The study exemplifies these processes by identifying contradictions between the various levels and activity systems involved, by listing some of their characteristics, manifestations and finally their negotiated solutions. These solutions, or the third space interventions, the outcome of the multi-voiced participation, is in the paper used to explore a theoretical framework for an ethical and decolonized development strategy; a precondition for sustained local development.

  9. The Impact of HIV/AIDS Regarding Informal Social Security: Issues and Perspectives from a South African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Tshoose

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to examine the right to social assistance for households living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa. In particular, the article focuses on the impact of this pandemic on households' access to social assistance benefits in the wake of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which has wrought untold sorrow and suffering to the overwhelming majority of households in South Africa. The article analyses the consequences of HIV/AIDS in relation to households' support systems, care and dependency burdens, and the extent to which the household members either acknowledge the illness (enabling them to better engage with treatment options or alternatively, deny its existence. The article commences by reviewing the literature concerning the effects and social impact of HIV/AIDS on the livelihoods of households and their families. The social reciprocity that underpins households' livelihoods is briefly recapitulated. The article concludes that, while recent policy developments are to be welcomed, the current South African legal system of social security does not provide adequate cover for both people living with HIV/AIDS and their families. More remains to be done in order to provide a more comprehensive social security system for the excluded and marginalised people who are living with HIV/AIDS and their families.

  10. Prevalence and impact of xerostomia on the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Ivana Maria Saes; Thomaz, Mariana; Toda, Alexandre Issamu; Alanis, Danilo Gustavo Pulita; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of xerostomia on the quality of life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) from Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed on 195 PLWHA. Xerostomia was detected by asking a question about the sensation of having "dry mouth," and Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP-14) was used to measure the impact of xerostomia on QOL. Time of diagnosis of HIV/AIDS was assessed. A total of 78 (40.0%) subjects presented with xerostomia. Xerostomia was associated with female gender, low amount of saliva perceived (p ≤ .01), difficulty in swallowing food (p ≤ .05), and showed to have a negative impact on QOL as measured by OHIP-14 (p ≤ .01). Xerostomia was frequent and showed to have a negative impact on the QOL of PLWHA. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Effects of Peer Education on The Behaviors Regarding HIV/AIDS Transmission Prevention Among Street Children in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Meilianingsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available All adolescents are vulnerable to HIV/AIDS, including street children. The behaviors of street children are much influenced by their peers. Peer education can enhance knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and skills and empower children to be responsible for protecting the health of themselves and their peers (Wahyuni, 2012. This study aims to determine the effects of peer health education on the HIV/AIDS Preventive Behaviors of Street Children in Bandung City in 2015. The research employed a quasi-experimental method with the pre-post-test control group design. The sample was 26 people for the treatment group and 26 people for the control group, respectively, taken with purposive sampling technique. Interventions began with peer educator training and then the peer educators provided health education on HIV/AIDS transmission prevention through small group discussions for 2 days. The data in this study were not normally distributed. The paired or dependent data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test, while the unpaired or independent data using Mann-Whitney test. The results of the research show that peer health education had effects on the knowledge and attitudes of the street children (p values 0.00 and 0.00, respectively; however, there was no effect of peer health education on the actions regarding HIV/AIDS transmission prevention among the street children (p value 0.09. Hence, it is advisable to conduct health promotion with peer health education method in an effort of increasing knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS transmission prevention among street children that is sustainable and integrated with the existing programs at puskesmas (Community Health Center.

  12. Rationale for an HIV / AIDS prevention and mitigation strategy for Africa: combatting the multisectoral impact of the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, W H

    1996-01-01

    Unlike most infectious diseases in Africa, HIV/AIDS affects the urban elite as well as the rural poor, and generally during their most economically productive years. An increase in deaths among young adults of the magnitude predicted is likely to have substantial adverse effects on economic, political, and military/security stability throughout Africa. AIDS is causing increased stress on fragile African economic infrastructures as labor productivity declines, particularly in agricultural, labor-dependent economies. AIDS is causing obstacles to trade, foreign investment and tourism. Health systems and social coping mechanisms already are overburdened. High rates of HIV infection among police and military personnel threaten internal security. Furthermore, the demobilization of military forces in Africa may exacerbate the epidemic when HIV-infected soldiers return home and spread the virus. This presentation will illustrate why African AIDS Programs must be expanded to mitigate the multisectoral impact of the epidemic while preserving its spread.

  13. The impact of humanitarian context conditions and individual characteristics on aid worker retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korff, Valeska P.; Balbo, Nicoletta; Mills, Melinda; Heyse, Liesbet; Wittek, Rafael

    High employee turnover rates constitute a major challenge to effective aid provision. This study examines how features of humanitarian work and aid workers' individual characteristics affect retention within one humanitarian organisation, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) Holland. The study extends

  14. Towards Building a Computer Aided Education System for Special Students Using Wearable Sensor Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Majid Mehmood

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human computer interaction is a growing field in terms of helping people in their daily life to improve their living. Especially, people with some disability may need an interface which is more appropriate and compatible with their needs. Our research is focused on similar kinds of problems, such as students with some mental disorder or mood disruption problems. To improve their learning process, an intelligent emotion recognition system is essential which has an ability to recognize the current emotional state of the brain. Nowadays, in special schools, instructors are commonly use some conventional methods for managing special students for educational purposes. In this paper, we proposed a novel computer aided method for instructors at special schools where they can teach special students with the support of our system using wearable technologies.

  15. Experiments Using Cell Phones in Physics Classroom Education: The Computer-Aided g Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen; Müller, Sebastian

    2011-09-01

    This paper continues the collection of experiments that describe the use of cell phones as experimental tools in physics classroom education.1-4 We describe a computer-aided determination of the free-fall acceleration g using the acoustical Doppler effect. The Doppler shift is a function of the speed of the source. Since a free-falling objects speed is changing linearly with time, the Doppler shift is also changing with time. It is possible to measure this shift using software that is both easy to use and readily available. Students will use the time-dependency of the Doppler shift to experimentally determine the acceleration due to gravity by using a cell phone as a freely falling object emitting a sound with constant frequency.

  16. Wilderness educators' evaluation of the Impact Monster Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Hendricks; Alan E. Watson

    1999-01-01

    Since its development by Jim Bradley in the late 1970s, the Impact Monster, a wilderness education skit designed to teach minimum impact techniques, has been used as a wilderness education tool by federal land management agencies. This paper reports on an evaluation of the perceived effectiveness of the Impact Monster program and its content. Results indicate that the...

  17. Bilingual Education Model in Prekmurje, and the Dictionary as a Teaching Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutka Rudaš

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of bilingual education is one of the two-way models of preserving two languages and cultures. This paper describes the successful implementation of a bilingual education process, with a short developmental span and an emphasis on the key deficiencies of the model. By getting to know two cultures and two social relationships and by understanding them, pupils develop a positive attitude to cultural diversity as well as intercultural relationships. Within the framework of school subjects, we teach professional terminology in both languages and thus educate speakers in a way that they experience linguistic and cultural diversity in the ethnically mixed area of Prekmurje. The model of the two-way preservation of the mother tongue makes sense only if the community and the society benefit from bilingualism, and if important and above-average intercultural and social competences that contribute to peaceful coexistence of different cultures are allowed access. Practice shows that so far these goals have not been fully implemented, that there is no ideal relationship between the languages of instruction and that the desired results are not implemented. We have found that there are two shortcomings in this respect: the incomplete didactic aspect and the inadequate competence of teachers in bilingual educational institutions owing to the lack of possibility of acquiring the appropriate competences, particularly in the Hungarian language. Among the most important means for the efficiency of the language structure acquisition and language use are bilingual textbooks and other teaching aids. Based on these findings, this paper presents cognitive and other skills that enable the integration of a bilingual dictionary into the teaching process. As this is a demanding and important skill, it is crucial that teachers and pupils are trained in this activity. The dictionary as a didactic tool is not merely a means of information but also a basis for the

  18. Health and economic impact of HIV/AIDS on South African households: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booysen Frederick LR

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South African households are severely affected by human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS but health and economic impacts have not been quantified in controlled cohort studies. Methods We compared households with an HIV-infected member, and unaffected neighbouring households, in one rural and one urban area in Free State province, South Africa. Interviews were conducted with one key informant in each household, at baseline and six months later. We studied 1913 members of 404 households, with 94% and 96% follow up, respectively. Household and individual level analyses were done. Results Members of affected households, compared to members of unaffected households, were independently more likely to be continuously ill (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4 at follow up, and to die (adjusted OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.0–11, mainly due to infectious diseases. Government clinics and hospitals were the main sources of health care. Affected households were poorer than unaffected households at baseline (relative income per person 0.61, 95% CI 0.49–0.76. Over six months expenditure and income decreased more rapidly in affected than in unaffected households (baseline-adjusted relative expenditure 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–0.99 and income 0.89, 95% CI 0.75–1.05. Baseline morbidity was independently associated with lower income and expenditure at baseline but not with changes over six months. Conclusions HIV/AIDS affects the health and wealth of households as well as infected individuals, aggravating pre-existing poverty.

  19. Contextualising the emergence and impacts of the AIDS epidemic on rural livelihoods and household food security in Masaka, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwine, Jackson

    2018-01-01

    This thesis aims to contribute to current debates on the impact of the AIDS epidemic on the livelihoods and food and nutrition security of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last 20 years, numerous studies have been conducted on this subject. Although these studies have generated a

  20. Where are we now? Where are we going? The demographic impact of HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, BG

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This article covers many aspects of the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in South Africa. They range from the development of vaccine to the behaviour of adolescents. But they also show that authors have failed so far to have a significant impact on the course...

  1. The AIDS epidemic in the city of Copenhagen, Denmark: potential years of life lost and impact on life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Smith, Else; Juel, Knud

    2005-01-01

    accounted for 8% of all PYLL in men and showed an increasing tendency from 1983 to 1991, when it became the leading cause of PYLL. AIDS had most impact in men in the age group 25-44 years and accounted for 29% of all PYLL in this group at the peak in 1993, decreasing significantly after the introduction...

  2. Impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors among impoverished, at-risk couples: A multilevel latent variable approach

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, JA; Nyamathi, A; Ullman, JB; Bentler, PM

    2007-01-01

    Studies among normative samples generally demonstrate a positive impact of marriage on health behaviors and other related attitudes. In this study, we examine the impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and attitudes among impoverished, highly stressed, homeless couples, many with severe substance abuse problems. A multilevel analysis of 368 high-risk sexually intimate married and unmarried heterosexual couples assessed individual and couple-level effects on social support, substance us...

  3. Utilization of social networks in education and their impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of social networks in education and their impact on knowledge acquisition ... Developed countries are known to be quick adopters of modern advanced ... in education changing traditional systems to more open and interactive ones.

  4. HIV/AIDS Adherence: Teaching about Treatment and Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jena Nicols

    2008-01-01

    Advances in HIV/AIDS treatment have dramatically changed the nature of HIV/AIDS education and prevention, creating new opportunities and challenges. This activity is designed to help participants reflect on the impact that HIV treatment can have on a person's life. It also enables trainers to engage participants in a dialogue about the impact of…

  5. A holistic person perspective in measuring entrepreneurship education impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Lynfort

    2014-01-01

    and impact of entrepreneurship education and social entrepreneurship education, a number of interrelated factors are identified that are important to address in assessment and measurement of impact. In addition to these factors, a supplementary dimension is suggested – the holistic person perspective...... of the article is that it can be fruitful to understand entrepreneurial activities in a dynamic and holistic manner with attention to extended time and space dimensions in order to fully capture assessment and impact of entrepreneurship education....

  6. The Blue Book. Accounting, Recordkeeping, and Reporting by Postsecondary Educational Institutions for Federally Funded Student Financial Aid Programs. [1999 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to provide guidance to college and university business office personnel who handle recordkeeping, accounting, and other fiscal reporting functions for federal Title IV financial aid programs, as authorized by the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended. This edition emphasizes the benefits and challenges of electronic…

  7. The Blue Book: Accounting, Recordkeeping, and Reporting by Postsecondary Educational Institutions for Federally Funded Student Financial Aid Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This book provides guidance to school business office personnel who handle fiscal recordkeeping, accounting, and reporting functions for federal Title IV student financial aid programs authorized by the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended. It provides a technical resource for Title IV management responsibilities that are shared among various…

  8. Effect of health education on trainee teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and first aid management of epilepsy : An interventional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eze, Christian N.; Ebuehi, Olufunke M.; Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M.; Igwe, Stanley C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: High rates of poor knowledge of, and negative attitudes towards people with epilepsy (PWE) are generally found among school teachers. Their first aid epilepsy management skills are poor. It remains unknown if this is different among trainee teachers and whether educational intervention

  9. Postgraduate Educational Research on Violence, Gender, and HIV/AIDS in and around Schools (1995-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletsane, R.; Madiya, N.

    2011-01-01

    Social issues such as HIV/AIDS, bullying, and violence have recently come to the fore in schooling and related research in South Africa. This article describes and critically analyses Masters and Ph.D. research done in education in the period 1995-2004, with particular reference to the voice given to social issues, namely: gender, violence, and…

  10. Drawing AIDS:Tanzanian Teachers Picture the Pandemic: Implications for Re-Curriculation of Teacher Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lesley; de Lange, Naydene; Mkumbo, Kitila

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explain how we engaged teachers in creating their own representations of HIV and AIDS in Tanzania as a starting point for re-curriculation of the undergraduate teacher education programme. We employed a qualitative design, using visual methodologies, to encourage 29 in-service teachers to draw their perceptions about HIV and…

  11. Should Aid Reward Performance? Evidence from a Field Experiment on Health and Education in Indonesia. NBER Working Paper No. 17892

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment in over 3,000 Indonesian villages designed to test the role of performance incentives in improving the efficacy of aid programs. Villages in a randomly-chosen one-third of subdistricts received a block grant to improve 12 maternal and child health and education indicators, with the size of the subsequent year's…

  12. Beyond Silence and Rumor: Storytelling as an Educational Tool to Reduce the Stigma around HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelen, Jacques; Wijbenga, Hieke; Vintges, Marga; de Jong, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the role of a small-scale project around storytelling as a form of informal education in five health clinics in rural areas of the Limpopo Province in South Africa. The aim of the project is to decrease the stigma around HIV/AIDS and to start an open dialogue in local communities about the disease.…

  13. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In…

  14. The Effectiveness of HIV/AIDS School-Based Sexual Health Education Programmes in Nigeria: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaugo, Lucky Gospel; Papadopoulos, Chris; Ochieng, Bertha M. N.; Ali, Nasreen

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is one of the most important public health challenges facing Nigeria today. Recent evidence has revealed that the adolescent population make up a large proportion of the 3.7% reported prevalence rate among Nigerians aged 15-49 years. School-based sexual health education has therefore become an important tool towards fighting this problem.…

  15. Relationship between Teachers' Motivation Teaching HIV/AIDS Education and Students' Knowledge and Attitude towards Sexual Behaviour in Secondary Schools in Coast Region, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuo, Daniel Njane; Nyaga, Veronica K.; Bururia, David N.; Barchok, Hilary K.

    2016-01-01

    Education plays an important role in curbing the spread of HIV and AIDS among the youth. However, there is little known how teachers' motivation in teaching HIV/AIDS education affects students' knowledge and attitudes towards sexual behaviour. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between teachers' level of motivation in…

  16. Assessing the impact of homelessness on HIV/AIDS transmission dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    C.P. Bhunu

    2015-01-01

    Care for the people living with HIV/AIDS is more than the provision of antiretroviral therapy. The effects of homelessness on HIV/AIDS transmission are captured through a mathematical model. The mathematical model is rigorously analyzed. The disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the reproduction number is less than unity. Results from the analysis of the reproduction number suggests that homelessness enhances both HIV transmission and progression to the AIDS stage. T...

  17. Student Aid Time-Bomb: The Coming Crisis in Canada's Financial Aid System. Canadian Educational Report Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junor, Sean; Usher, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a looming crisis in Canadian student financial assistance. It begins by summarizing the known evidence with respect to student financial assistance. It notes that many studies have emphasized the central importance of grants targeted to low-income students as a means to expand of access to post-secondary education, but that…

  18. Assessing the impact of homelessness on HIV/AIDS transmission dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Bhunu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Care for the people living with HIV/AIDS is more than the provision of antiretroviral therapy. The effects of homelessness on HIV/AIDS transmission are captured through a mathematical model. The mathematical model is rigorously analyzed. The disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the reproduction number is less than unity. Results from the analysis of the reproduction number suggests that homelessness enhances both HIV transmission and progression to the AIDS stage. This is further supported by numerical simulations which show that some elements of homelessness (lack of entertainment enhances HIV/AIDS transmission.

  19. The impact of a school food aid program on household food insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralias, Athanassios; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Riza, Elena; Karagas, Margaret R.; Zagouras, Alexia B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We had a unique opportunity to establish the extent of food insecurity and the potential impact of a large-scale school-based nutritional program, in low-socioeconomic status districts of Greece, during the current economic crisis. Methods: Around 162 schools with 25 349 students participated during the 2012–2013 school year. Each student received a daily healthy meal designed by nutrition specialists. Food insecurity levels, measured using the Food Security Survey Module were assessed at baseline and after a 1–8-month intervention period. Pre–post intervention responses were matched at an individual level. Results: Around 64.2% of children’s households experienced food insecurity at baseline. This percentage decreased to 59.1% post-intervention, P insecurity score diminished by 6.5%, P insecurity score increased by 6.3% (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.11). Those experiencing food insecurity with hunger at baseline were more likely to improve food insecurity score than those who did not (OR = 3.51, 95%CI: 2.92–4.21). Conclusion: Children and families residing in low socioeconomic areas of Greece, experience high levels of food insecurity. Our findings suggest that participation in a school-based food aid program may reduce food insecurity for children and their families in a developed country in times of economic hardship. PMID:26873860

  20. Impact of On-line Education on Higher Education System

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal

    2016-01-01

    Education is the most important thing for any country to develop and prosper. Education moulds the character and intelligence of individuals. It also provides the talent and motivation to every person. The conventional education system at higher education level is analogous to brick and mortar type business system, where a student gets a systematic education from college/University by personally attending required courses regularly (Full time/part Time). However, the conventional education sy...

  1. Impact of On-line Education on Higher Education System

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal

    2016-01-01

    Education is the most important thing for any country to develop and prosper. Education moulds the character and intelligence of individuals. It also provides the talent and motivation to every person. The conventional education system at higher education level is analogous to brick and mortar type business system, where a student gets systematic education from college/University by personally attending required courses regularly (Full time/part Time). However, the conventional education syst...

  2. Individualized computer-aided education in mammography based on user modeling: concept and preliminary experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A; Baker, Jay A; Barnhart, Huiman X; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2010-03-01

    The authors propose the framework for an individualized adaptive computer-aided educational system in mammography that is based on user modeling. The underlying hypothesis is that user models can be developed to capture the individual error making patterns of radiologists-in-training. In this pilot study, the authors test the above hypothesis for the task of breast cancer diagnosis in mammograms. The concept of a user model was formalized as the function that relates image features to the likelihood/extent of the diagnostic error made by a radiologist-in-training and therefore to the level of difficulty that a case will pose to the radiologist-in-training (or "user"). Then, machine learning algorithms were implemented to build such user models. Specifically, the authors explored k-nearest neighbor, artificial neural networks, and multiple regression for the task of building the model using observer data collected from ten Radiology residents at Duke University Medical Center for the problem of breast mass diagnosis in mammograms. For each resident, a user-specific model was constructed that predicts the user's expected level of difficulty for each presented case based on two BI-RADS image features. In the experiments, leave-one-out data handling scheme was applied to assign each case to a low-predicted-difficulty or a high-predicted-difficulty group for each resident based on each of the three user models. To evaluate whether the user model is useful in predicting difficulty, the authors performed statistical tests using the generalized estimating equations approach to determine whether the mean actual error is the same or not between the low-predicted-difficulty group and the high-predicted-difficulty group. When the results for all observers were pulled together, the actual errors made by residents were statistically significantly higher for cases in the high-predicted-difficulty group than for cases in the low-predicted-difficulty group for all modeling

  3. The mental health impact of AIDS-related mortality in South Africa: a national study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, L; Seedat, S; Stein, D J; Moomal, H; Williams, D R

    2011-01-01

    Background Few data exist on how the HIV/AIDS epidemic may influence population mental health. The associations were examined between knowing someone who died of HIV/AIDS and common mental disorders among South African adults. Methods Between 2002 and 2004, a nationally representative sample of 4351 adults were interviewed about personally knowing someone who died of HIV/AIDS, and the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to generate psychiatric diagnoses for depression, anxiety and substance abuse disorders during the preceding 12 months based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV). Results Overall, 42.2% of the sample knew someone who died of HIV/AIDS, and 16.5% met the criteria for at least one DSM-IV diagnosis. Individuals who knew someone who died of HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to have any DSM-IV defined disorder, including any depressive, anxiety or substance-related disorder (pdrug dependence or abuse. Based on these results, it is estimated that up to 15% of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the South African adult population may be related to knowing someone who died of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion These novel data suggest that AIDS-related mortality may contribute substantially to the burden of mental disorders in settings of high HIV prevalence. While this finding requires further investigation, these data suggest the need to strengthen mental health services in communities where HIV/AIDS is prevalent. PMID:19074926

  4. Impact of HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to raise awareness and expand knowledge about the deleterious effect of HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy, a country with a relatively high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (19. percent). Using the multiple and associated single decrement life table techniques, the study estimates the total ...

  5. Growth, productivity, and scientific impact of sources of HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As channels of communicating HIV/AIDS research information, serial publications and particularly journals are increasingly used in response to the pandemic. The last few decades have witnessed a proliferation of sources of HIV/AIDS-related information, bringing many challenges to collection-development librarians as ...

  6. Investigating the Impact of Financial Aid on Student Dropout Risks: Racial and Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the differences in college student dropout behavior among racial/ethnic groups. We employ event history methods and data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students (BPS) and National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) surveys to investigate how financial aid may differentially influence dropout risks among these student…

  7. The impact of socio-economic status on incidence of AIDS cases in Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Godoy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have devoted attention to the issue of the importance of social indicators in disease reduction. The objective of this paper is to analyze the statistical association between the reported AIDS cases and some socioeconomic variables. We analyzed a sample of 1,994 Brazilian municipalities with AIDS cases reported in 1991 and 2000. The variables analyzed are: AIDS incidence rate per capita, illiteracy rate, Gini Index, per capita income, access to electricity and television, life expectancy at birth. The approach used in this study was econometric panel data model. The results of this analysis show that socioeconomic variables are important for understanding the incidence of AIDS cases in Brazil, and are important for the design of public policies to combat the increasing incidence of HIV / AIDS, also show a distinct pattern to found in the literature for African countries.

  8. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  9. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Melanie; Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    -time hearing aid users across a range of quantitative and qualitative measures. This study provides evidence to suggest that the RLOs may provide valuable learning and educational support for first-time hearing aid users and could be used to supplement clinical rehabilitation practice.

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    were shown to be beneficial to first-time hearing aid users across a range of quantitative and qualitative measures. This study provides evidence to suggest that the RLOs may provide valuable learning and educational support for first-time hearing aid users and could be used to supplement clinical rehabilitation practice. PMID:26565785

  12. Impact of HIV/AIDS to the tourism sector human resources: Case of selected hotels in Harare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengeni, D.M.F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the impacts of HIV/AIDS on human resources in the tourism sector in Zimbabwe’s capital city, Harare. Harare Hotels were used as a case study establishing how HIV/AIDS affects the workforce in the tourism sector and the consequent effects on service delivery. Visitors’ inflows into Zimbabwe have declined since the year 2000. To understand the reasons and related aspects, data was collected by way of questionnaires which were administered to 9 human resources managers and 9 marketing managers from hotels in Harare during the period of 2008 and 2009. These questionnaires were individually distributed and collected which resulted in 100% return rate. Human resources managers were used because they are involved directly with the social welfare of employees and marketing managers were used because they work in customer care and analyse service delivery. The findings of the study were that HIV/AIDS impact negatively to the hotel sector through deaths of skilled members. This was said to consequently leading to the reduction in service delivery and inconsistence in service delivery. Besides losing skilled members through death it was also discovered that the hotels were now moving HIV/AIDS effected victims to the back of the house to minimise their contact with guests. It was also discovered that hotels were using lot of funds to implement mitigation measures.

  13. Exploring Ivorian Perspectives on the Effectiveness of the Current Ivorian Science Curriculum in Addressing Issues Related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    2014-01-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the…

  14. Impacts of Personal Experience: Informing Water Conservation Extension Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2017-01-01

    Extension educators have diligently educated the general public about water conservation. Incorporating audiences' personal experience into educational programming is recommended as an approach to effectively enhance audiences' adoption of water conservation practices. To ensure the impact on the audiences and environment, understanding the…

  15. Universal Basic Education Policy: Impact on Enrolment and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddrisu, Issah

    2016-01-01

    The universal basic education policy enshrined in the constitution of Ghana is aimed at making education accessible and affordable for all Ghanaian citizens. This paper sought to assess whether the universal basic education policy really have an impact on access at the basic level. The study was carried out on the premise that the universal basic…

  16. The Impact of Globalization on Teacher Education: The Philippine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; dela Rosa, Praxedes S. M.; Arcangel, Clotilde N.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study is an attempt to describe how administrators, teachers and researchers in a select group of teacher education institutions (TEIs) in the capital of the Philippines collectively view globalization. Specifically, concepts of a globalized teacher education, impact of globalization in teacher education, and problems of teacher…

  17. Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education | Deepika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper “Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education” reviews a diverse literature on gender and higher education. Gender inequality is more pronounced in some aspects of the educational systems than in others. Explanations of gender inequality in higher education should distinguish between these different ...

  18. A reflective learning report about the implementation and impacts of Psychological First Aid (PFA) in Gaza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Alison; Snider, Leslie; Sammour, Rania

    2016-01-01

    Psychological First Aid (PFA) is the recommended immediate psychosocial response during crises. As PFA is now widely implemented in crises worldwide, there are increasing calls to evaluate its effectiveness. World Vision used PFA as a fundamental component of their emergency response following the 2014 conflict in Gaza. Anecdotal reports from Gaza suggest a range of benefits for those who received PFA. Though not intending to undertake rigorous research, World Vision explored learnings about PFA in Gaza through Focus Group Discussions with PFA providers, Gazan women, men and children and a Key Informant Interview with a PFA trainer. The qualitative analyses aimed to determine if PFA helped individuals to feel safe, calm, connected to social supports, hopeful and efficacious - factors suggested by the disaster literature to promote coping and recovery (Hobfoll et al., 2007). Results show positive psychosocial benefits for children, women and men receiving PFA, confirming that PFA contributed to: safety, reduced distress, ability to engage in calming practices and to support each other, and a greater sense of control and hopefulness irrespective of their adverse circumstances. The data shows that PFA formed an important part of a continuum of care to meet psychosocial needs in Gaza and served as a gateway for addressing additional psychosocial support needs. A "whole-of-family" approach to PFA showed particularly strong impacts and strengthened relationships. Of note, the findings from World Vision's implementation of PFA in Gaza suggests that future PFA research go beyond a narrow focus on clinical outcomes, to a wider examination of psychosocial, familial and community-based outcomes.

  19. Need assessment for HIV/AIDS Education: The level of knowledge about transmission in some risk groups in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcebe, H.

    2002-01-01

    Every year, the number of HIV/AIDS cases increases twice as much as the year before in Turkey. The authors anticipate that the actual numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in Turkey are higher than the number of cases diagnosed and reported. This review summarizes the results of some previous studies that were conducted among various risk groups, such as high school and university students, barbers, hair dressers, nurses, pharmacists and doctors, men and women engaged in sex trade and security workers in different regions of country. The responses of participants to similar questions of studies on the transmission of HIV/AIDS were evaluated in this review. The studies that have been conducted among different risk groups in different regions have shown that in spite of low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Turkey, many risk groups still do not have adequate or correct information on the prevalence and transmission of disease. Effective and extensive health education on HIV/AIDS and the practice of healthy lifestyle would change the epidemiology of the disease in Turkey. (author)

  20. impact of hiv/aids on mortality among the inpatients at motebang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-02

    Aug 2, 2004 ... the past year. HIV/AIDS is spreading ... Results. The mortality rate and number of deaths increased over the 15-year period. ..... (Paper presented to WHO/UNAIDS reference group on HIV estimates, modelling and projections).

  1. Impact of HIV and AIDS on the eldery: A case study of Chiladzulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a particularly big challenge in a country like ... while 69% sustained themselves through piece work, small business ... older women – are a key resource for combating AIDS and .... Challenges faced during illness and death of a family.

  2. The impact of HIV/AIDS on doctors - a report on 2 years experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minutes for the Patient – Interactions in General Practice ... interaction, thus helping the presenting doctor to relate ..... tic. This was further compounded by the close link between HIV-AIDS and ... challenge to the political, social, educa- tional ...

  3. The Impact of Global Institutions on National Health HIV/AIDS Policy Making in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanat Mokushev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship of global institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, World Bank, and individual developing countries in social health policy making in terms of HIV and AIDS. We examine the role of IGOs and NGOs in regarding to HIV/AIDS issues then analyse the TRIPs agreement as a tool for developing countries to negotiate with International organisations in global health policy decisions.

  4. The impact of subspecialization on postgraduate medical education in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Brian D

    2005-11-01

    Medical subspecialization is a response to rapidly expanding technology and knowledge. Although beneficial to patient care, it poses a challenge to the current infrastructure of resident education. This article analyzes the advent of subspecialization, the current template of postgraduate neurosurgical education, the impact of subspecialization on postgraduate neurosurgical education, and, finally, suggests strategies to optimize professional education in the face of an increasingly subspecialized field.

  5. Development of a computer-aided clinical patient education system to provide appropriate individual nursing care for psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chiu, Hung-Wen

    2012-06-01

    A lot of researches have proven that health education can help patients to maintain and improve their health. And it also shortens the time staying in hospital to save medication resource. Because the patients are willing to get healthcare knowledge to enhance the ability of self-care, they pay more attention to the health education. In Taiwan, the clinical nurses play an important role in patient education, and the health education take most time in their daily work. Such work includes the collection, production and delivery of education materials. To generate the correct and customized health education material is the key of success of patient education. In this study, we established a computer-aided health education contents generating system for psychiatric patients by integrating the databases for disease, medicine and nursing knowledge to assist nurse generating the customized health education document suitable for different patients. This system was evaluated by clinical nurses in usability and feasibility. This system is helpful for nurse to carry out the clinical health education to patients and further to encourage patient to pay attention to self-health.

  6. NAVIGATION AIDS AS TOOLS TO SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCES IN THE CONDITIONS OF REALIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL EDUCATIONAL TRAJECTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Zeer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Continuing education or «education through all life» is required of the person by modern realities of the information, quickly changing society; thus, continuing education is carried out on a development trajectory, individual for each person. Maintenance of such educational process needs effective tools. The relevance of its development caused the research presented in the publication.The aim is to show the possibilities of navigation aids during realization of individual routes of the training conforming to federal state educational standards and considering the purposes and interests of each separately taken personality.Methodology and research methods. The leading methodological basis is personality-oriented approach in the implementation of individual educational trajectory. Logical-pedagogical analysis of students’ individual educational trajectory progress is used.Results and scientific novelty. The interrelation of the concepts «individual educational trajectory» and «individual educational route» is revealed. The conceptual model of maintenance of an individual educational trajectory as a set of reference points of mastering of competences necessary for the expert is offered. Navigators of educational process and cases of individual educational achievements assessment act as didactic means in model. It is shown whence application of components of models allows to: organize the professional orientation actions more effectively; exercise entrance control of knowledge prior to training; control actions during vocational training; correlate an individual trajectory of training to the standard; have a guide when studying disciplines of various cycles, when passing educational and production training, protection of final qualification work; finally, it is possible for a pupil to carry out self-estimation of the acquired competences.Practical significance. The materials of the present publication will be useful to

  7. The Ignorant Donor: A Radical Reimagination of International Aid, Development, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, William C.; Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    The logic behind international aid to development has typically centered on economics. Notwithstanding the variation in focus--from macroeconomic monetary and trade policies, to economic wealth programs aimed at creating jobs, to supply- and demand-side reforms--the central discourse on international aid has been dominated by a political…

  8. Standard First Aid Training Course. Naval Education and Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Washington, DC.

    This first aid manual is designed to serve as basic first aid instructional materials for all nonmedical naval personnel. Chapters are included on the following topics: basic life support, hemorrhage, shock, wounds, injuries, drug abuse, poisoning, common medical emergencies, NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agent casualties, and rescue and…

  9. Las ayudas educativas en la educacion primaria (Teaching Aids in Elementary Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Pedagogica.

    The Colombian Institute of Pedagogy (ICOLPE) has undertaken a study of the availability and use of teaching aids and instructional materials in that country on the primary level. This report contains the results of that study. The document provides a listing of companies producing teaching aids. Questionnaires (included) were sent to educational…

  10. Female Secondary School Adolescents' Sexual Behavior and School Based HIV/AIDS Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mfrekemfon P.

    2013-01-01

    Most adolescents engage in indiscriminate sexual experimentations. This practice exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS) are among the deadly diseases that exist globally. Twice as many girls, compared to boys…

  11. Making the connections: AIDS and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Anna-Marie

    2006-01-01

    Acknowledging AIDS as a crosscutting development issue, a Zambian rural water supply project that provides safe accessible water to rural communities embarked on a new initiative to mainstream AIDS into the water sector. The work of providing safe water takes the predominantly male workforce away from their spouses and families, into the rural villages of Zambia's Eastern Province, for long periods of time. With an HIV prevalence rate of 16.1%, the risk of HIV exposure exists for both employees and rural villagers. AIDS mainstreaming activities were designed to target both groups. An AIDS mainstreaming strategy was developed by identifying components that could be influenced in the external domain (the organization's usual work) and the internal domain (the workplace). Basic questions were addressed such as: how does AIDS affect the organization, how might the usual work aggravate susceptibility to HIV infection, and where is the comparative advantage? A workplace program including peer education, employee health education (including condoms) and a workplace policy was established for employees. For the target population, a series of five messages connecting safe water and AIDS was developed and disseminated through educational drama, community meetings and trainings, and integrated into the regular water, sanitation and hygiene activities. As an efficient utilization of resources that makes a broad impact, AIDS mainstreaming does not change the sector's mandate but takes advantage of the extensive geographic coverage and natural distribution system of water projects to disseminate AIDS information and make linkages with AIDS partners.

  12. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: Implications for HIV Education and AIDS Risk Education Programs in the Black Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen B.; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    1991-01-01

    The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in black males caused distrust by blacks of the public health system that has implications for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) studies. AIDS prevention among blacks may require openness about the Tuskegee study to allay fears of repetition. (SLD)

  13. The impact of AIDS on an urban population of high-risk female minority adolescents: implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, K J; Kegeles, S M

    1994-05-01

    This study's purpose was to describe acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related concerns, risk behaviors, and psychosocial/situational determinants of condom use among an urban minority population of sexually active, adolescent girls. In addition we sought to define the accuracy of personal AIDS risk-assessment, the relative importance of AIDS in relation to other concerns, and the broader context of sexual experience and attitudes in this population. A cross-sectional interview study was conducted involving sexually active female adolescents attending a pediatric clinic in an inner-city university-affiliated community hospital. Sixty-nine subjects (ages 13-19 yr, 90% African-American) were enrolled. While the goals of this study were primarily descriptive, subject characteristics felt to impact on condom use were identified prior to data collection and were examined against several measures of usage including: use at the time of last sexual intercourse, overall frequency of condom use, and reported behavior change to include initiation of or increased condom usage. Forty-one percent of participants reported knowing someone with AIDS. Global concern regarding this disease was high, although worry about poverty-related issues was often greater. Despite concern and high measures of AIDS risk (median number of sex partners, 3; past sexually transmitted disease, 55%; past pregnancy 77%), most participants perceived themselves to be at low personal risk owing to current monogamy, lack of intravenous drug use, and implicit trust in their partner's safety. Discussion with their partner about actual risk and awareness of the importance of past behaviors was generally lacking. Although 98% were aware that condoms may prevent AIDS, 64% used condoms half of the time or less when they had sex and use appeared to be primarily for contraception. Several intrinsic cognitive/psychological and extrinsic social/situational factors were found to correlate with measures of

  14. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top ... do in an emergency, how to stock a first-aid kit, where to call for help, and more. ...

  15. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  16. Characteristics of school facilities and their impact on educational process and students' work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Ivana P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research suggests that educational process, learning and students' performance depend on a number of factors such as personal and professional characteristics of teachers, curricula, and the quality of teaching and extra-curricular activities. In addition, the quality of educational process is closely connected to material-technical conditions of the school and the quality of teaching equipment. This mostly concerns school facilities (school buildings, classrooms, cabinets, library, other facilities, courtyard and gymnasium, equipment, furniture and teaching aids. However, quality learning and work also require favourable physical, physiological, social and psychological conditions for study. This is the reason why this paper investigates students' opinions concerning the influence of certain characteristics of school facilities (wall colours, visual aids hanging on walls, teaching aids, furniture, and other physical aspects, including the size of student's groups on the quality of study and learning, as well as whether these opinions vary according to sex, age and year of study. The data was collected by a questionnaire comprising 25 items especially designed for the needs of this investigation. There were 116 respondents, students of the Preschool Teacher Training College in Kruševac. The findings show that certain features of the space and certain physical characteristics do have impact on students' work and performance, and therefore on the quality of teaching. They also demonstrate that students' estimates and opinions vary according to age and year of study.

  17. The effectiveness of the government's HIV/AIDS programme and condom use among educators / Mahadi Audrey Mansfield

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, Mahadi Audrey

    2010-01-01

    As South Africa is one of the countries with the highest HIV/Aids prevalence in the world, many South Africans are affected by the pandemic. The education system is one of the structures that cannot escape the effects of the pandemic. Educators are especially affected by the pandemic due to the fact that they not only have to cope with the infected colleagues who are often absent, but are also burdened with numerous orphans and vulnerable children at their schools because of the pandemic. Som...

  18. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimba, Roderick F; Likando, Gilbert N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18-35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed.

  19. Impact of public health strategies on reducing AIDS mortality in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboni, Sonia M; Ribeiro, Clea E; Almeida, Sergio M; Telles, João Paulo M; Azevedo, Marcos; Schaitza, Gustavo A

    2017-01-01

    In Brazil, all patients who fulfill the criteria for AIDS have had free access to antiretroviral therapy since 1996. We performed this cross-sectional study to evaluate the causes of death among 643 HIV-infected patients over three non-consecutive years (2000, 2006, and 2010), using their epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data. The causes of death were classified as AIDS-defining or non-AIDS-defining conditions. We observed a progressive increase in the prevalence of HIV infection over the study period, although there was also a decrease in the mortality rate for various groups, and especially among pediatric patients. An AIDS-defining condition was recorded as the cause of death for approximately 30% of the patients. There was also a high frequency (>70%) of infectious and parasitic diseases, including opportunistic infections, and the most common diagnoses were septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and pneumocystosis. Acute respiratory failure was the underlying cause of death in 30% of these cases. Despite advances in HIV therapy, the mortality rate remains high in Brazil. As few Brazilian studies have investigated HIV/AIDS-related mortality, it is important to evaluate and improve the mortality notification databases, in order to provide information regarding the effects of HIV and to guide the implementation of appropriate healthcare measures.

  20. HIV/AIDS in the visual arts: applying discipline-based art education (DBAE) to medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapajos, Ricardo

    2003-06-01

    Health professions educators have been systematically attempting to insert the humanities into health professions curricula for over 4 decades, with various degrees of success. Among the several medical humanities, the visual arts seem particularly adequate for the teaching/learning of crucial aspects of medicine. Educational efforts in the arts require, however, a sound pedagogical philosophy of art education. Health professions educators need therefore to be aware of educational frameworks in the arts. Discipline-based art education (DBAE) is a recognised contemporary educational framework for the teaching/learning of the arts, which may be adapted to medical humanities. It is the ultimate objective of this essay to share the experience of applying this educational framework to a course in a medical curriculum. The author describes a course on the representations of HIV/AIDS in the visual arts, with explicit reference to its objectives, content, instructional features and student assessment in the light of DBAE, whose principles and characteristics are described in detail. Discipline-based art education may be applied to medical humanities courses in a medical curriculum. This essay throws light on how this structure may be particularly useful for designing other pedagogically sound art courses in health professions curricula.

  1. AIDS--Tribal Nations Face the Newest Communicable Disease: An Aberdeen Area Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claymore, Betty J.; Taylor, Marian A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the past impact of smallpox, cholera, and tuberculosis on American Indians. Outlines AIDS/HIV cause, symptoms, and transmission. Discusses AIDS incidence and risk factors among Native Americans, providing details from North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa. Points out the urgent need for AIDS education. Contains 25 references.…

  2. The application of Intervention Mapping in developing and implementing school-based sexuality and HIV/AIDS education in a developing country context: the case of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkumbo, K.; Schaalma, H.P.; Kaaya, S.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Mbwambo, J.; Kilonzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Effective sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programmes are needed to protect young people against HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy in Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Using a theory- and evidence-based approach and adapting the programmes to local contexts, increases the

  3. System of urgent psychological aid to subjects of educational settings in the USA (review of the studies for the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova T. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the strategies of urgent psychological aid in the USA in a chronological order: preparation for critical situations in educational settlements (school crisis plans, immediate reaction to a crisis (the first psychological aid, work with psychological trauma.

  4. Quality Education and the Marketplace: An Exploration of Neoliberalism and its Impact on Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Mandy Frake

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an in attempt to open discussion about the impact of globalization and theories of neoliberalism on higher education. More specifically, viewing higher education institutions as a market place, where the more a product costs, the greater supply and quality of the product should be received; the quality of education received by university students should also reflect this. Considering the conflict between teaching and research in higher education, quality of education beco...

  5. Impacts of neglected tropical disease on incidence and progression of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria: scientific links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Simon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are the most common infections of humans in Sub-Saharan Africa. Virtually all of the population living below the World Bank poverty figure is affected by one or more NTDs. New evidence indicates a high degree of geographic overlap between the highest-prevalence NTDs (soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and trachoma and malaria and HIV, exhibiting a high degree of co-infection. Recent research suggests that NTDs can affect HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis (TB, and malaria disease progression. A combination of immunological, epidemiological, and clinical factors can contribute to these interactions and add to a worsening prognosis for people affected by HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria. Together these results point to the impacts of the highest-prevalence NTDs on the health outcomes of malaria, HIV/AIDS, and TB and present new opportunities to design innovative public health interventions and strategies for these ‘big three’ diseases. This analysis describes the current findings of research and what research is still needed to strengthen the knowledge base of the impacts NTDs have on the big three.

  6. The Economic Impact of Education. Facts for Education Advocates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Investing in a good education for all of America's students benefits both individuals and the nation as a whole. Some advantages are immediate; others pay off over the longer term. The benefits range from personal wealth to lower health care costs to increased tax revenue. The "Facts for Education Advocates" feature in this edition discusses some…

  7. The Impact of "ED" on Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.

    1980-01-01

    The purposes, structure, and component parts of the newly formed Department of Education (ED) organizations from which educational research programs will be administered are discussed. As the climate surrounding ED changes, opportunities to take advantage of the elevated status of research will be presented. (Author/RL)

  8. Lessons for Japanese foreign aid from research on aid’s impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    Japan has an impressive history when it comes to aid, industrial policy, and infrastructure development, both as a country that saw meteoric development of its own, and as a country that has been one of the world’s largest donors for decades. Looking towards an uncertain future in which infrastru......Japan has an impressive history when it comes to aid, industrial policy, and infrastructure development, both as a country that saw meteoric development of its own, and as a country that has been one of the world’s largest donors for decades. Looking towards an uncertain future in which...

  9. Original Research Does an educational workshop have an impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of multimedia (including videos and the Internet)18 may also ... therefore to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on caregivers' knowledge about cerebral palsy. ..... promiscuity, and bad omens, among others.13,26,27 In this.

  10. Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education | Deepika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education. ... AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be ...

  11. Depressive symptoms among older caregivers raising children impacted by HIV/AIDS in the Omusati Region of Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalomo, Eveline; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Besthorn, Fred

    2017-12-01

    The study of depressive symptoms among caregivers raising HIV/AIDS-orphans is emerging as an important area of research. However, it has not been explored at length in generational and cultural contexts. In this study, the authors explore the role of financial strain, raising a HIV-infected and/or impacted child, and caregiver knowledge on the depressive symptoms of 89-older caregivers raising HIV/AIDS-orphans in Namibia, Africa. In this study, we found elevated levels of depressive symptoms among this population. Using hierarchical regression, a significant positive association between financial strain and depressive symptoms was found. A significant negative association between caring for an HIV-infected orphan and depression was shown. Our work suggests the need for economic assistance programs and psychosocial interventions for older caregivers.

  12. Computer-Aided Engineering Education at the K.U. Leuven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeys, R.; Gobin, R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes some recent initiatives and developments in the computer-aided design program in the engineering faculty of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). Provides a survey of the engineering curriculum, the computer facilities, and the main software packages available. (TW)

  13. Initiation of new category of grant-in-aid for energy research by the Ministry of Education, science and culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkado, Takashi

    1980-01-01

    Starting from fiscal 1980, among the grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Education, the one for energy researches was instituted with yearly budget of yen 1,400 million, intended for nuclear fusion research and other energy researches. In the guidance for the grants-in-aid in fiscal 1980, the formula of application was stated. The number of applicants was unexpectedly small, however. For the purpose of information, the following matters are described: the background for the initiation, significance and purpose of the grant-in-aid, the screening examination and its results, etc. The gist of instituting the grant-in-aid for energy researches is as follows. First, as for nuclear fusion research, assuming the advances in the next ten years, efforts are to be made in such delayed studies as those on reactor material and tritium technology. As for other energy researches, other features than the research and development having been carried out so far are to be pursued. (J.P.N.)

  14. Impact of Visual Aids in Enhancing the Learning Process Case Research: District Dera Ghazi Khan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabiralyani, Ghulam; Hasan, Khuram Shahzad; Hamad, Naqvi; Iqbal, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    This research explores teachers' opinions on the use of visual aids (e.g., pictures, animation videos, projectors and films) as a motivational tool in enhancing students' attention in reading literary texts. To accomplish the aim of the research, a closed ended questionnaire was used to collect the required data. The targeted population for this…

  15. Impact of HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    from HIV/AIDS by the time they reach age 75 from a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 live births, assuming ... This condition is likely to impoverish the elderly population. Everything ..... abstaining from sex, are a person's best choice and the only ...

  16. The impact of the International Monetary Fund's macroeconomic policies on the AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brook K

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of funding for HIV/AIDS, especially treatment, is under attack over concerns about cost effectiveness and financial constraints. The International Monetary Fund is deeply implicated in the history of the AIDS pandemic, the underlying weakness of health systems, and the ideology of constrained resources that underlies most attacks on AIDS funding. The IMF imposed structural violence on developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s through neoliberal and macroeconomic reforms that intensified individual and communal vulnerability to infection and dismantled already weak health systems. This same macroeconomic fundamentalism has recently been repackaged and renamed. IMF fundamentalist policies continue to prioritize low inflation, constricted government spending, robust foreign currency reserves, and prompt repayment of debt at the expense of investments in health and more expansionary, pro-growth and job-creation policies. Several recent surveys have concluded that the IMF reluctantly relaxed overly restrictive policy prescriptions in response to the global economic crisis, but this relaxation was temporary at best and only extended to countries previously acceding to IMF orthodoxy. AIDS activists are campaigning for billions of dollars to fulfill the promise of universal access. If IMF pressures persist, developing countries will continue to undermine the additionality of donor health financing by substituting donor for domestic financing, refusing to invest in recurrent costs for medicines and health workers, and neglecting needed investments in health infrastructure and health system strengthening.

  17. Impact of first aid training in management of snake bite victims in Madi valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, D P; Thapa, C L; Hamal, P K

    2010-04-01

    Tropical lowland on Nepal is at full of risk to snake bite. The snake bite mortality is due to lack of awareness about proper management of victims. The study aims to assess the change in the pattern of management of snake bite victims after first aid training. A retrospective study was done from October 2007 to October 2008 among 43 snake bite victims in rural Madi valley comprising of 4 village development committees where first aid training was conducted one year before. Only 26% of the snake bite victims approached traditional healer before arriving at the heath facility. The case fatality rate dropped to 22% after venomous snake bite. Pressure Immobilization bandaging and local compression pad immobilization technique was used by 56% who went to the health facility. Mean duration for reaching health facility was 61.51±33.55 minutes. Common places of bite were field 16 (37.2%), Indoor 6 (14%), while sleeping 6 (14%), and yard 6 (14%). Lower extremity bites were 32 (74.4%), upper extremity 8 (18.6%) and head 3 (7%). Bicycle was the commonest mode of transport 22 (51%) followed by ambulance 9(27.9%) and Motorcycle 6 (11%). First aid training changes the attitude of the people in management of snake bite victims and is one of the effective ways in decreasing mortality. Nationwide campaigning should be done especially at snake bite prone area about the proper first aid technique to improve the awareness level of the general population.

  18. Variable impact on mortality of AIDS-defining events diagnosed during combination antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Egger, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extent to which mortality differs following individual acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining events (ADEs) has not been assessed among patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: We analyzed data from 31,620 patients with no prior ADEs who started...... studies, and patient management....

  19. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    to a natural economic null hypothesis. Our study identifies three reasons for econometrically unsatisfactory results in the literature: failure to adequately account for unit roots and breaks; imposing seemingly innocuous but invalid data transformations; and imposing aid endogeneity/exogeneity without testing....

  20. Analysis of Cost Impact of HIV/AIDS on Health Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: HIV/AIDS, poverty, burden-of-disease, cost-analysis, Tanzania. Background ..... However, several statements were quoted verbatim as they were given by the ... of proper financial recording system at most of the. HFs made it ...

  1. Coping or Struggling? A journey into the impact of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugalema, G.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the effects of AIDS-induced morbidity and mortality on rural livelihoods, particularly in east and southern Africa, has gathered pace in the last two decades. An understanding of the interaction between ill health and rural livelihoods is essential both at policy and theoretical levels.

  2. The impact of the global economic crisis on HIV and AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation sought to ascertain the extent to which the global economic crisis of 2008–2009 affected the delivery of HIV/AIDS-related services directed at pregnant and lactating mothers, children living with HIV and children orphaned through HIV in Zambia. Using a combined macroeconomic analysis and a multiple ...

  3. Nudging Students beyond the FAFSA: The Impact of University Outreach on Financial Aid Behaviors and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Meyer, Katharine E.; Sullivan, Zachary; Hartog, William D.; Miller, Scott

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that proactive outreach from high schools and college access organizations about college preparation tasks, and specifically focusing on completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), results in increased college enrollment. Comparatively less attention has been paid to the role of colleges…

  4. HIV/AIDS Cancer and Impact on Surgical Practice: Implication for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although HIV prevalence appears to be stable, much remains uncertain about the direction of the epidemic. In the developed countries, the increased cancer risk among immunocompromised persons with HIV/AIDS (PHA) is well observed. Now a person diagnosed with HIV as a young adult in a resourcerich country

  5. The socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS on infected individuals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings revealed that there are different sources of income of HIV-positive people, living conditions of HIV-positive people which are not acceptable, consequences related to HIV and AIDS disease progression, the support and care to HIV-positive people and disclosure versus non-disclosure of HIV-positive status.

  6. Impact of Computer-Aided Warfarin Dosing in a Saudi Arabian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of computer-aided dosing using Coagclinic (a web-based software) with physician dosing in patients receiving warfarin for various cardiac indications. Methods: In order to calculate the effectiveness of physician managed anticoagulation dosing, we calculated the “percentage of time ...

  7. Impact of social support on cognitive symptom burden in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Jana H; Rubenstein, Sarah L; Sota, Teresa L; Rueda, Sergio; Fenta, Haile; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B

    2010-07-01

    As many as 50% of people living with HIV/AIDS report cognitive difficulties, which can be associated with objective neuropsychological impairments and depression. A number of studies have demonstrated an association between higher social support and lower rates of depression. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the role social support may play in attenuating the effects of both neuropsychological status and depression on cognitive difficulties. A total of 357 participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, questionnaires about cognitive difficulties and depression, and an interview that included an assessment of perceived level of social support. A multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that higher levels of cognitive symptom burden were significantly associated with depression (Psocial support (Pinteraction between neuropsychological status and depression (Pinteraction between social support and depression (Psocial support was also associated with a lower cognitive symptom burden for non-depressed individuals living with HIV/AIDS. These findings have important clinical implications for promoting psychological well-being in persons living with HIV/AIDS. To improve quality of life, it is important to screen for and identify individuals with HIV/AIDS who may be depressed and to intervene appropriately. Further research should examine the potential role of social support interventions in modifying the effects of both depression and neuropsychological status on cognitive symptom burden.

  8. Impact of Teacher's Income on Student's Educational Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaš, Mirko; Samardžic, Darko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an objective overview of the impact of teacher salaries on the educational achievements of students. It is often debated about teacher salaries and improvement or jeopardizing their standard, but educational consequences that may ensue as a result of these intentions are rarely addressed. Teacher's role in…

  9. The Impact of a Casino on Education and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Milo

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the Las Vegas-style casino opened by the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska on crime and education. Since the opening of the casino in 1992, the Tribe significantly reduced unemployment, upgraded and modernized its entire education system, and reduced crime by 67% in one year. Contains 11 references. (VWC)

  10. Identifying and responding to barriers impacting women educators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on these reflections, this article explores the notion of academic citizenship as it relates to the status and practice of these five educators who teach at various institutions of higher education in Southern Africa. The article is divided into two parts. a) Part 1 identifies the barriers impacting the participants. It draws on ...

  11. Effect of educational intervention on knowledge, perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors. PMID:27462632

  12. The impact of ICT on education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Aviram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflections on "non-dialogue" between three different paradigms of the relations between information and communication technologies and education: the technocratic paradigm, the paradigm reformist and the holistic paradigm.

  13. IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ON HIGHER EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana Singh; Dr. Alka Awasthi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how Foreign Direct investment (FDI) can be leveraged to enhance its impact on Higher Education. This paper attempts to discuss the possibilities of bringing quality, excellence and more opportunities in “Higher education” through the FDI route. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: Education sector is growing day by day and gaining lots of importance in the world and India as well. Education Industry is likely to grow by the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) by 2020. Fo...

  14. Gender Inequality in Education: Impact on Income, Growth and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Moheyuddin, Ghulam

    2005-01-01

    This Paper explains the causes of the Gender Inequality of education and analyze how the gender inequality in education impacts the economic growth & development, investment and population growth etc. The paper finds that the gender inequality in education is as an endogenous variable and show that it can be explained to a considerable extent by religious preference, regional factors, and civil freedom. For some of these variables, the direction of the effect depends on the particular measure...

  15. Globalisation and Its Educational Discontents: Neoliberalisation and Its Impacts on Education Workers' Rights, Pay and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Dave

    2005-01-01

    This article examines some impacts of neoliberal education policies during the current period of the intensification of neoliberal capital. Section 1 examines the relationship between education and capital, identifying three plans capital has in relation to education. It sets out some of the major aspects of neoliberal policy developments in…

  16. 'I believe that the staff have reduced their closeness to patients': an exploratory study on the impact of HIV/AIDS on staff in four rural hospitals in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Bwete, Vincent; Maniple, Everd; Bakker, Mirjam; Namaganda, Grace; Odaga, John; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2007-12-18

    Staff shortages could harm the provision and quality of health care in Uganda, so staff retention and motivation are crucial. Understanding the impact of HIV/AIDS on staff contributes to designing appropriate retention and motivation strategies. This research aimed 'to identify the influence of HIV/AIDS on staff working in general hospitals at district level in rural areas and to explore support required and offered to deal with HIV/AIDS in the workplace'. Its results were to inform strategies to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on hospital staff. A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative components was implemented during two weeks in September 2005. Data were collected in two government and two faith-based private not-for-profit hospitals purposively selected in rural districts in Uganda's Central Region. Researchers interviewed 237 people using a structured questionnaire and held four focus group discussions and 44 in-depth interviews. HIV/AIDS places both physical and, to some extent, emotional demands on health workers. Eighty-six per cent of respondents reported an increased workload, with 48 per cent regularly working overtime, while 83 per cent feared infection at work, and 36 per cent reported suffering an injury in the previous year. HIV-positive staff remained in hiding, and most staff did not want to get tested as they feared stigmatization. Organizational responses were implemented haphazardly and were limited to providing protective materials and the HIV/AIDS-related services offered to patients. Although most staff felt motivated to work, not being motivated was associated with a lack of daily supervision, a lack of awareness on the availability of HIV/AIDS counselling, using antiretrovirals and working overtime. The specific hospital context influenced staff perceptions and experiences. HIV/AIDS is a crucially important contextual factor, impacting on working conditions in various ways. Therefore, organizational responses should be

  17. 'I believe that the staff have reduced their closeness to patients': an exploratory study on the impact of HIV/AIDS on staff in four rural hospitals in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namaganda Grace

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staff shortages could harm the provision and quality of health care in Uganda, so staff retention and motivation are crucial. Understanding the impact of HIV/AIDS on staff contributes to designing appropriate retention and motivation strategies. This research aimed 'to identify the influence of HIV/AIDS on staff working in general hospitals at district level in rural areas and to explore support required and offered to deal with HIV/AIDS in the workplace'. Its results were to inform strategies to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on hospital staff. Methods A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative components was implemented during two weeks in September 2005. Data were collected in two government and two faith-based private not-for-profit hospitals purposively selected in rural districts in Uganda's Central Region. Researchers interviewed 237 people using a structured questionnaire and held four focus group discussions and 44 in-depth interviews. Results HIV/AIDS places both physical and, to some extent, emotional demands on health workers. Eighty-six per cent of respondents reported an increased workload, with 48 per cent regularly working overtime, while 83 per cent feared infection at work, and 36 per cent reported suffering an injury in the previous year. HIV-positive staff remained in hiding, and most staff did not want to get tested as they feared stigmatization. Organizational responses were implemented haphazardly and were limited to providing protective materials and the HIV/AIDS-related services offered to patients. Although most staff felt motivated to work, not being motivated was associated with a lack of daily supervision, a lack of awareness on the availability of HIV/AIDS counselling, using antiretrovirals and working overtime. The specific hospital context influenced staff perceptions and experiences. Conclusion HIV/AIDS is a crucially important contextual factor, impacting on working conditions

  18. Going Social: The Impact of Social Networking in Promoting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neelesh Kumar; Verma, Ashish; Verma, Rama Shankar; Tiwari, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    The growth and the popularity of the Social networks has a high impact on the development of the students in the field of Personality, Attitudes, Knowledge and on its whole academic performance in classroom and society. This paper envisage on the impact of Social Network on Education and Training of the students.

  19. The Fiscal Impact of the Kentucky Education Tax Credit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the fiscal impact of a proposal to create a personal tax credit for educational expenses and a tax-credit scholarship program in Kentucky. It finds that the actual fiscal impact of the program would be much less than its nominal dollar size, due to the reduced public school costs resulting from migration of students from public…

  20. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  1. The Impact of Quality Assurance Initiatives and Workplace Policies and Procedures on HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Experienced by Patients and Nurses in Regions with High Prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewko, Sarah J; Cummings, Greta G; Pietrosanu, Matthew; Edwards, Nancy

    2018-02-23

    Stigma is commonly experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS and by those providing care to HIV/AIDS patients. Few intervention studies have explored the impact of workplace policies and/or quality improvement on stigma. We examine the contribution of health care workplace policies, procedures and quality assurance initiatives, and self- and peer-assessed individual nurse practices, to nurse-reported HIV/AIDS-stigma practices toward patients living with HIV/AIDS and nurses in health care settings. Our sample of survey respondents (n = 1157) included managers (n = 392) and registered/enrolled nurses (n = 765) from 29 facilities in 4 countries (South Africa, Uganda, Jamaica, Kenya). This is one of the first studies in LMIC countries to use hierarchical linear modeling to examine the contributions of organizational and individual factors to HIV/AIDS stigma. Based on our results, we argue that organizational interventions explicitly targeting HIV/AIDS stigma are required to reduce the incidence, prevalence and morbidity of HIV/AIDS.

  2. AIDS guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R

    1986-04-30

    The Sun article, "Employers finding that AIDS in the workplace is a managerial nightmare" (April 3), did not accurately portray the status of AIDS in the workplace. The AIDS virus, HTLV III, is transmitted by body fluids, primarily semen and blood, and there is no known risk of transmitting the virus by casual contact in the workplace. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released guidelines for child care workers last August. Guidelines on preventing transmission of AIDS in the workplace were issued by CDC in November 1985. These guidelines specifically discussed health care, personal service, and food service workers. The recommendations were against routine screening. Furthermore, employment should not be restricted on the basis of a positive HTLV III antibody test. A person with HTLV III infection should be exempt from the workplace only if there are circumstances interfering with job performance. In Maryland, the Governor's Task Force on AIDS has gone on record as endorsing CDC guidelines related to employment. Furthermore, the task force condemns discrimination based on the disease AIDS, AIDS Related Complex (ARC), or HTLV III infection. Increasingly AIDS patients are being considered legally disabled and therefore are protected by federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of a handicap. Marylanders who are subjected to mandatory HTLV III screening in the workplace, or if discriminated against on the basis of HTLV III inefction, should contact the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, or the Health Education Resource Organization (HERO). All 3 of these resources guarantee confidentiality. It is only by employees reporting incidents that a nightmare in the workplace can be avoided in Maryland. full text

  3. Restructuring education and its impact on medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos, L F

    1990-04-01

    The United States has an education deficit that in the long term may be more harmful to the country than the serious budget and trade deficits. U.S. students are far less prepared in mathematics, chemistry, and physics than are their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan. The dropout rate among high school students, and the high and increasing rate of functional illiteracy, blight lives and represent an enormous economic loss to the nation. American education must be restructured at all levels so that local and federal funds can be used flexibly to pursue revised educational goals. Students and their families should be allowed to choose their elementary and secondary schools, and school management should be decentralized and more rooted in the community. The medical profession must become involved in elementary and secondary education, and medical faculty must be involved in their communities. Further, medical faculty must encourage minority students at all educational levels, must recruit minority medical students, and must increase the number of minority faculty members.

  4. Sputnik's Impact on Science Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrow, Charles H.

    2007-04-01

    The launch of Sputnik, the world's first artificial Earth orbiting satellite, by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957 was a triggering event. Before Sputnik pressure had been rising to mobilize America's intellectual resources to be more effective and useful in dealing with the Cold War. Sputnik released that pressure by stirring up a mixture of American hysteria, wounded self-esteem, fears of missile attacks, and deep questioning of the intellectual capabilities of popular democratic society and its educational system. After Sputnik the federal government took several remarkable actions: President Eisenhower established the position of Presidential Science Advisor; the House and the Senate reorganized their committee structures to focus on science policy; Congress created NASA -- the National Aeronautics and Space Agency -- and charged it to create a civilian space program; they tripled funding for the National Science Foundation to support basic research but also to improve science education and draw more young Americans into science and engineering; and they passed the National Defense Education Act which involved the federal government to an unprecedented extent with all levels of American education. I will describe some pre-Sputnik pressures to change American education, review some important effects of the subsequent changes, and talk about one major failure of change fostered by the national government.

  5. Characterization of the teaching aids in the teaching-learning process in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Perazas Zamora

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aids and resources of teaching are an important didactic component inside of the teaching learning process, they are the material support of the teaching aids, its adequate use warrant the quality of the process. With the accelerated development of the science, technique and technologies the audiovisual aids has passed to form part of the teaching learning process humanizing the teacher’s work and favouring the transmission of knowledge with a truly scientific approach. The objective of this article is standing out the main concepts, definitions and advantages of the teaching aids more used nowadays, its importance as didactic component and its adequate use in the teaching learning process linked with the objective, method and content, ensuring the lasting learning that contributes to raise the integral general culture of the students. Besides it deals with the topic of audiovisual aids as one of the components of the teaching learning process, it is offered concepts and definitions from different authors and emphasized the advantages, use and importance of its systematic and planned use.

  6. Improving First Aid Management of Epilepsy by Trainee Teachers of the Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka - Lagos, South West Nigeria--Can Health Education have an Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Christian N; Ebuehi, Olufunke M

    2013-01-01

    lt is estimated that epilepsy affects approximately 50 million people worldwide and about 40 million of them live in developing countries. Studies have indicated high rates of poor knowledge, negative attitude and poor first aid management skills of students with epilepsy among practicing teachers. However, there is paucity of such studies on trainee teachers to ascertain any similarities or differences (if any) and the effect of educational interventions. To determine the effect of a health education intervention on trainee teachers' knowledge, attitude and first aid management of epilepsy. The effect of a health education intervention in first aid management of epilepsy was assessed among 226 trainee teachers, attending the Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka. This was done using a quasi-experimental study design. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 15. The respondents had a median age of 22 years with a range of 18 to 56 years. The majority of them were females (68.6%), single (79.2%), Christians (81.9%), Yoruba (70.4%) and in first year (100 level) of their study (69.9%). The highest proportion was from the Accounting department (46.0%). A consistent increase in responses to items on knowledge, attitude and first aid management of epileptic seizure items from baseline to post-intervention was observed. For instance, the proportion of responses that epileptic seizures originate from the brain significantly (p = 0.025) increased from 62.5% at baseline to 74.1% after intervention. Generally, slightly more than two-fifths (44.2%) and about two thirds (61.9%) of the respondents were observed to have poor knowledge and negative attitude to epilepsy respectively at baseline. Overall, giving health education on epilepsy led to a reduction in the proportion of respondents with poor knowledge by 15.5% (increase of good knowledge by 29.6%), decrease of negative attitude by 16.4% and increase of good first aid management skill by 25.0%. The knowledge

  7. Using Assessments of Dental Students' Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy to Aid Practice Management Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Anthony G; Cain, Kevin; Callan, Richard S

    2017-06-01

    In the past, the typical practice management curriculum in U.S. dental schools was found to place a heavy emphasis on customer service, whereas areas typically stressed in business entrepreneurship and management courses (e.g., long-range planning, competing strategies, and supplier relationship) received less attention. However, future dentists will likely have many points in their careers at which they must decide whether to begin a new business or to associate with a practice, and entrepreneurial and management training can help them make and implement those decisions. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the impact of one dental school's practice management education on students' entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE), a construct examined for the first time in dental education. ESE is an individual's belief that he or she is personally capable of planning for, operating, and managing a successful business. In December 2014, all students in all four classes were asked to complete a survey measuring their ESE. The response rates for each class were D1 94%, D2 91%, D3 87%, and D4 79%. The results showed that the mean scores of the fourth-year class were higher on all five examined dimensions than those of the other three classes. The same was true for the mean for each class with the exception of the competency regarding an individual's perception of his or her abilities to deploy and manage human resources, in which the first-year class had a higher score than the fourth-year class (149.07>146.06). The fourth-year class had statistically significant higher scores than the third-year class, consistent with the implementation of practice management courses in the curriculum.

  8. Impact of Globalization on Higher Education: An Empirical Study of Education Policy & Planning of Design Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Yan

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of globalization in the domain of higher education, particularly, design education. It reviews how globalization may affect educational policy and planning in Hong Kong by drawing on an empirical study involving senior management, a course leader and a design trainer/facilitator. This paper not only illustrates the…

  9. Medical students' perceptions about the added educational value of student-run HIV/AIDS educational campaigns in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Bottentuit-Rocha, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This purpose of this report was to examine the perceptions of medical students about the strengths, limitations, and recommendations for improvement of the first known student-run HIV/AIDS educational campaigns in the Dominican Republic (DR), as they relate to the added value applied to their educational training. A retrospective review was conducted on evaluation reports completed by five medical students who coordinated the implementation of three annual HIV/AIDS educational campaigns in five DR communities, between 2012 and 2014. Thematic analysis was used to identify emerging themes related to perceived strengths, limitations, and recommendations for improvement and develop an acronym related to program strengths as value added to medical education. Students highlighted that program strengths were the use of social media technology to facilitate communication and culture-based creativity to capture the attention of target audiences; and limitations were inadequate financial support and HIV-related cultural stigma, due to lack of disease knowledge and awareness or perceived contrasts between the federal system and faith-based community. Recommendations for program improvement, such as comprehensive event preparation and knowing the target audience, were described as key to maximizing the delivery of health messages. Our results highlighted that medical students gained expertise in the effective use of social media technology, culture-based creativity, and team synergy to disseminate HIV/AIDS health information across five DR communities. Students participated in these extracurricular community health campaigns, strengthening skills in communication, health advocacy, and leadership for their medical training. They served as human resources for health and can pave the way as future clinicians and indispensable health educators in local and national health collaborations.

  10. The Impact of the Implementation of Technology Education on In-Service Teacher Education in South Africa (Impact of Technology Education in the RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Calvyn

    2004-01-01

    In this article the impact of technology education, as a new learning area (subject) in the curriculum, on in-service teacher education in South Africa is described in order to ascertain the extent of the impact. The research on which this article is based draws on a variety of experiences and observations in the field at grassroots level (in…

  11. The Impact of Mentor Education: Does Mentor Education Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvik, Marit; Sunde, Eva

    2013-01-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of mentor preparation, which is still an underdeveloped area, the current paper focuses on a formal mentor education programme offered to teachers in secondary school at a university in Norway. The research questions in this qualitative study examine why teachers participate in the programme, how they perceive the…

  12. Evaluation of the U.S. Army’s Aids Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-25

    partner,Iwould ] ] E E] discuss AIDS protection with them. 7. Other "safer sex* practices (such asEllEll masturbating each other, phone sex, fantasy) are...patner, I would El 0 E discuss AIDS protection with them. 7. Other "safer sex" practices (such as 0El El El masturbating each other, phone sex, fantasy...protection with them. 7. Other *safer sex" practices (such as El E lE masturbating each other, phone sex, fantasy) are not as enjoyable as having sex. 8

  13. The Impact of Education on Income Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, Jan

    The author's previously developed theory on income distribution, in which two of the explanatory variables are the average level and the distribution of education, is refined and tested on data selected and processed by the author and data from three studies by Americans. The material consists of data on subdivisions of three countries, the United…

  14. Increasing Impact of Technology in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah System of Higher Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    For Fall 2016, of the 175,509 students enrolled in the Utah System of Higher Education at third week, 69,535 (39.6 %) are participating in some form of technology delivered instruction. Of that total, 54,269 (30.9%) enrolled in at least one online class. Despite availability of online courses and degrees, students prefer using online courses to…

  15. Break the silence: HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and educational needs among Arab university students in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gańczak, Maria; Barss, Peter; Alfaresi, Fatima; Almazrouei, Shamma; Muraddad, Amal; Al-Maskari, Fatma

    2007-06-01

    In light of increasing spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the Middle East, we assessed knowledge, attitudes, and educational needs of young people in United Arab Emirates (UAE), a modern and moderately conservative Islamic country. A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected first-year, gender-segregated Arab students at the national university in Al Ain in 2005 was conducted using an adaptation of an anonymous self-administered World Health Organization questionnaire. Knowledge and attitudes were scored. Response was 89%; 119 males and 148 females. Knowledge scores about HIV/AIDS were low for 75%, moderate for 24%, high for school. Ninety-six percent stated that young people should be taught how to protect themselves and 57% that teaching at school was insufficient. Main information sources were books/media; preferred sources were media, schools, and health professionals. Males scored higher on knowledge and were more susceptible to fear of STDs, society, and family; females showed greater compassion and interest in premarital testing and education to protect themselves. Alarming gaps in knowledge about transmission and curability put young Arabs at risk of contracting HIV. Fear and intolerant attitudes toward PLH were prevalent. HIV/AIDS education designed to raise knowledge and change attitudes, and respectful of community values, is urgently needed from media, schools, and health professionals.

  16. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomic risk factors in special education teachers and teacher’s aides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs have become increasingly common among health-related professionals. Special education personnel who serve students with disabilities often experience physical strains; however, WMSDs have been overlooked in this population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the work-related ergonomics-associated factors in this population and to evaluate their correlation with the WMSDs prevalence. Methods A questionnaire with three domains, namely demographics, prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and ergonomic factors, designed by our research team was delivered to educators who work in special education schools. Results Approximately 86 % of the 388 special education school teachers and teacher’s aides in this study experienced musculoskeletal disorders. The lower back, shoulder, and wrist were the three most affected regions. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the participants’ background factors, namely >5.5 years of experience (odds ratio [OR] = 4.090, 95 % CI: 1.350-12.390, students with multiple disorders (OR = 2.412, 95 % CI: 1.100-5.287, and other work-related ergonomic factors (assistance in diaper changing and others duties, were strongly associated with the prevalence of WMSD. Nap habit (OR = 0.442, 95 % CI: 0.230-0.851 and having teaching partners in the same class (OR = 0.486, 95 % CI: 0.250-0.945 resulted in low possibility of acquiring WMSDs. The use of supportive devices was associated with a low WMSD prevalence. Conclusions The present study revealed an association between WMSDs and specific job features among teachers and teacher’s aides in special education schools. Future efforts should emphasize examining safe student-handling ergonomics, formulating policies regarding student-teacher ratio, incorporating mandatory break times at the workplaces, and promoting personal health for preventing work

  17. Health Educators in the Workplace: Helping Companies Respond to the AIDS Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Laurie J.; Aberth, John

    1986-01-01

    This article identifies various dimensions of the AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)-related issues emerging in corporations nationwide, including confidentiality, the right of patients to work, benefits and insurance, HTLV-III (Human T-Lymphotropic Type III) screening, fears of contagion among workers, needs of companies to avoid…

  18. The Effects of Financial Aid Policies on Student Persistence in Taiwanese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of financial aid policies on student persistence between the first and second year at a private four-year postsecondary institution in Taiwan. A two-phase sequential research design was employed with priority was given to the quantitative data--structural equation modeling (SEM). While the…

  19. Examining the Effects of Financial Aid on Student Persistence in Taiwanese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of financial aid policies on student persistence between the first and second year at a private four-year postsecondary institution in Taiwan. A two-phase sequential research design was employed with priority was given to the quantitative data-structural equation modeling (SEM). While the…

  20. Appreciative inquiry into lifeskills-based HIV/AIDS education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a steady rise in the prevalence of HIV and AIDS throughout the world it has become vital for programme implementers at all levels to ensure that all HIV intervention programmes are effectively put into practice. The present research used qualitative and quantitative data to evaluate the lifeskills-based HIV/AIDS ...

  1. Addressing HIV/AIDS Education: A Look at Teacher Preparedness in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Jim Martin; Martin-Weiler, Cassandra J.

    2012-01-01

    Our research shows that social science university trained Ghanaian student/teachers do have the knowledge, confidence, and willingness to address HIV/AIDS issues in their teaching, yet they do not. The reason, we argue, is that teachers have little incentive to address contentious issues in the classroom. Questionnaires were administered to 382…

  2. AIDS: An ICT Model for Integrating Teaching, Learning and Research in Technical University Education in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asabere, Nana; Togo, Gilbert; Acakpovi, Amevi; Torby, Wisdom; Ampadu, Kwame

    2017-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has changed the way we communicate and carry out certain daily activities. Globally, ICT has become an essential means for disseminating information. Using Accra Technical University in Ghana as a case study, this paper proposes an ICT model called Awareness Incentives Demand and Support (AIDS). Our…

  3. The Organizational Impact of Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclater, Niall

    The open educational resource (OER) movement has been growing rapidly since 2001, stimulated by funding from benefactors such as the Hewlett Foundation and UNESCO, and providing educational content freely to institutions and learners across the world. Individuals and organizations are motivated by a variety of drivers to produce OERs, both altruistic and self-interested. There are parallels with the open source movement, where authors and others combine their efforts to provide a product which they and others can use freely and adapt to their own purposes. There are many different ways in which OER initiatives are organized and an infinite range of possibilities for how the OERs themselves are constituted. If institutions are to develop sustainable OER initiatives, they need to build successful change management initiatives, developing models for the production and quality assurance of OERs, licensing them through appropriate mechanisms such as the Creative Commons, and considering how the resources will be discovered and used by learners.

  4. Different Impact Channels of Education on Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Zuluaga Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes both the monetary and non-monetary effects of the education level of the head of the household on poverty. We propose that schooling returns should not be thought as a single number - usually the schooling coefficient in an income equation - but as a set of elements whose length depends on the number of identified poverty dimensions. The monetary analysis employs the Quantile Regression technique, very helpful especially when one is interested in extremes of the income distribution function. Our results show differences across quantiles of the returns. We also found interesting dissimilarities by gender and urban-rural location. Exploring the non-pecuniary returns, we found that the education of the head positively influences family health and housing conditions.

  5. Quality Education and the Marketplace: An Exploration of Neoliberalism and its Impact on Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Frake

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an in attempt to open discussion about the impact of globalization and theories of neoliberalism on higher education. More specifically, viewing higher education institutions as a market place, where the more a product costs, the greater supply and quality of the product should be received; the quality of education received by university students should also reflect this. Considering the conflict between teaching and research in higher education, quality of education becomes questionable. This paper explores issues of neoliberalism resulting in a greater demand for the completion of research in higher education institutions. Furthermore, the imperialism of higher education leading towards the demand for more research, the teaching versus research nexus within universities, and discussion of how these theories impact international students will be examined throughout this paper

  6. Philanthropy and Education: Strategies for Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Anheier, Helmut K.; Thumler, Ekkehard; Bögelein, Nicole; Beller , Annelie

    2014-01-01

    The reform of public schools is high on the public agenda in Europe as well as North America. Philanthropic foundations play an increasingly important role in attempts to enhance the performance of the system. However, the degree to which their ambitious aspirations are actually realized is often very low. This book addresses the question of how philanthropic actors can make a more effective, beneficial and responsible contribution to the field of public education. It develops an innovative m...

  7. Education and hypertension: impact on global cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Scaglione, Alessandra; Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Rosario

    2017-10-01

    Improving cardiovascular risk prediction continues to be a major challenge and effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, several studies have recently reported on the role of cardiovascular risk education. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of education on global cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. The study population consisted of 223 consecutive hypertensive outpatients. Their educational status was categorized according to the number of years of formal education as follows: (1) low education (less than 10 years) and (2) medium-high education (10-15 years). In both groups, cardiometabolic comorbidities, global cardiovascular risk and echocardiographic measurements were analysed. Less educated hypertensive subjects were characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (p educated hypertensive subjects. In the same subjects, a significant increase in microalbuminuria (MA) (p education (r = -0.45; p Education was independently (p education may be considered the best predictor of global cardiovascular risk in hypertensives and thus has to be evaluated in the strategies of hypertension and cardiovascular risk management.

  8. The Impact of the Federal Budget Deficit on Student Aid Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, Carol; Harrison, Jim

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter discusses factors that shape federal education funding policies. It examines the size of the federal deficit and its progress, as well as the factors affecting the resources available for education. The 1993 interest on the federal debt is projected to be $314 billion and payments such as these have held down funding for student…

  9. Readability of HIV/AIDS educational materials: the role of the medium of communication, target audience, and producer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J A

    1994-12-01

    The reading difficulty of many HIV/AIDS brochures and pamphlets limits their effectiveness. This analysis addresses correlates of readability in 136 HIV/AIDS educational items. Readability is measured using the SMOG Index. The medium of communication is significantly related to readability: comic books and brochures are, on average, more readable than books and pamphlets (10.9 versus 11.9). The target audience also differentiates readability. Materials for HIV antibody test seekers, the general community, and sexually active adults have a more difficult reading grade, averaging 12.1, whereas materials for ethnic minorities average a more readable 9.2. The producer organization's type and location are unrelated to readability, but an AIDS-specific organizational focus correlates with better readability (grade 10.8 vs. 11.8). These findings remain significant in multivariate analysis. The results indicate that brochures and comics are more likely to be comprehended by low-literacy populations, that an understanding of the literacy of target audiences is needed to produce materials with appropriate reading levels, and that policies to influence producer organizations may result in the creation of more readable materials.

  10. Education and Outreach for Breast Imaging and Breast Cancer Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farria, Dione

    2003-01-01

    .... This project evaluated the impact of visual educational aids during biopsy consent on patient understanding of the biopsy procedure, patient satisfaction with the biopsy experience, and patient anxiety...

  11. 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12). Price Estimates for Attending Postsecondary Education Institutions. First Look. NCES 2014-166

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Sean; Radwin, David; Wine, Jennifer; Siegel, Peter; Bryan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This First Look publication provides price estimates for attending postsecondary education institutions using data from the 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12), the most comprehensive, nationally representative survey of student financing of postsecondary education in the United States. The survey includes about 95,000…

  12. Risk Factor or Social Vaccine? The Historical Progression of the Role of Education in HIV and AIDS Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David P.; Collins, John M.; Leon, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies from the early years of the tragic HIV and AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa identified formal education as a risk factor increasing the chance of infection. Instead of playing its usual role as a preventative factor, as has been noted in many other public health cases, until the mid-1990s educated African men…

  13. Evaluation of Sports Trainers Perceptions on Computer Aided Education Related to the Attitudes toward Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murathan, Talha; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Technologic developments have--the same as they have done it in every sector--influenced the education system. These influences have forced to use the computer in the education-training applications within the education system. The aim of this research is to determine, compare, and examine the influences on the conduct for learning of sport…

  14. Buffering Negative Impacts of Divorce on Children: Evaluating Impact of Divorce Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer K.; Riffe, Jane; Trevisan, Dominic A.; Adesope, Olusola O.

    2014-01-01

    Following the call for more stringent evaluation methodology and recently documented national Extension presence in the field of divorce education for parents and children, the study reported here describes a local multi-level evaluation to capture program impact of a stakeholder-accepted divorce education program. Using a post-then-pre…

  15. Accuracy and impact of spatial aids based upon satellite enumeration to improve indoor residual spraying spatial coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Daniel J; Pollard, Derek; Winters, Anna M; Winters, Benjamin; Sikaala, Chadwick; Renn, Silvia; Larsen, David A

    2018-02-23

    the use of spatial aids based upon satellite enumeration. These spatial aids can guide costly IRS planning and implementation leading to attainment of higher spatial coverage, and likely improve disease impact.

  16. Impact of educational intervention on knowledge of mothers regarding home management of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangala, S; Gopinath, D; Narasimhamurthy, N S; Shivaram, C

    2001-05-01

    A pre and post comparison study was carried out in the field practice area of M.S. Ramaiah Medical College Bangalore, Karnataka to assess the impact of educational intervention on the knowledge of mothers of under five children on home management of diarrhoeal diseases. Sample of 225 mothers were included in the study. The study was conducted in 3 stages. Stage I--initial knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers was assessed. Stage II--one to one educational intervention was conducted and supported by audiovisual aids and live demonstration. Stage III--included post intervention knowledge, attitude and practice after 2 months and 2 years. After the educational intervention, there was significant improvement on knowledge of mothers regarding definition of diarrhoea (P rational drug therapy during diarrhoea (P change in knowledge before and after the educational intervention. The overall knowledge scores improved significantly after 2 months (P < 0.001) as well as 2 years (P < 0.001) of the educational intervention. Though the proportion of mothers retaining the knowledge at the end of 2 years dropped, yet there was significant improvement (P < 0.001) when compared to the baseline study.

  17. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  18. Impact of global medicine on urologic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Aseem R

    2011-04-01

    Collaborative and academic partnerships between institutions in North America and those in resource-limited nations are a burgeoning trend. Leveraging the academic quality and outcomes-based infrastructure of university medical centers to increase surgical capacity in regions where urologic disease burden is immense offers potentially bilateral opportunities. Host institutions benefit from exposure to contemporary surgical approaches, while the surgical volume enables larger-scale collaborative outcome studies and exposure of residents-in-training to rare pathophysiology. This article surveys this growing trend in globalizing health care specific to urology, and the development of a program focused on urologic education at a tertiary referral center in India.

  19. Impact of National HIV and AIDS Communication Campaigns in South Africa to Reduce HIV Risk Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa social and behavioural communication interventions are a critical component of HIV/AIDS prevention, and numerous communication campaigns have been implemented intensively across the country through government initiatives and nongovernmental organisations over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to assess the reach of HIV and AIDS communication campaigns in conjunction with contributions to knowledge, attitudes, and HIV risk behaviours in the general population in South Africa. The sample included in this nationally representative cross-sectional survey was 13234 people aged 15–55 years. Overall, the study found that there was high exposure to 18 different HIV communication programmes (median 6 programmes and 14 programmes more than 30% across different age groups. Most programmes were more often seen or heard by young people aged between 15 and 24 years. In multivariate analysis, greater exposure to HIV mass communication programmes was associated with greater HIV knowledge, condom use at last sex, having tested for HIV in the past 12 months, and less stigmatizing attitude toward PLWHA.

  20. Does education buffer the impact of disability on psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandemakers, Jornt J; Monden, Christiaan W S

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates whether education buffers the impact of physical disability on psychological distress. It further investigates what makes education helpful, by examining whether cognitive ability and occupational class can explain the buffering effect of education. Two waves of the 1958 British National Child Development Study are used to test the hypothesis that the onset of a physical disability in early adulthood (age 23 to 33) has a smaller effect on psychological distress among higher educated people. In total 423 respondents (4.6%) experienced the onset of a physical disability between the ages of 23 and 33. We find that a higher educational level cushions the psychology impact of disability. Cognitive ability and occupational class protect against the effect of a disability too. The education buffer arises in part because individuals with a higher level of education have more cognitive abilities, but the better social position of those with higher levels of education appears to be of greater importance. Implications of these findings for the social gradient in health are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of First Aid on Treatment Outcomes for Non-Fatal Injuries in Rural Bangladesh: Findings from an Injury and Demographic Census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Islam, Md Irteja; Sharmin Salam, Shumona; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-Ur; Agrawal, Priyanka; Rahman, Aminur; Rahman, Fazlur; El-Arifeen, Shams; Hyder, Adnan A; Alonge, Olakunle

    2017-07-12

    Non-fatal injuries have a significant impact on disability, productivity, and economic cost, and first-aid can play an important role in improving non-fatal injury outcomes. Data collected from a census conducted as part of a drowning prevention project in Bangladesh was used to quantify the impact of first-aid provided by trained and untrained providers on non-fatal injuries. The census covered approximately 1.2 million people from 7 sub-districts of Bangladesh. Around 10% individuals reported an injury event in the six-month recall period. The most common injuries were falls (39%) and cuts injuries (23.4%). Overall, 81.7% of those with non-fatal injuries received first aid from a provider of whom 79.9% were non-medically trained. Individuals who received first-aid from a medically trained provider had more severe injuries and were 1.28 times more likely to show improvement or recover compared to those who received first-aid from an untrained provider. In Bangladesh, first-aid for non-fatal injuries are primarily provided by untrained providers. Given the large number of untrained providers and the known benefits of first aid to overcome morbidities associated with non-fatal injuries, public health interventions should be designed and implemented to train and improve skills of untrained providers.

  2. The socioeconomic impact of international aid: a qualitative study of healthcare recovery in post-earthquake Haiti and implications for future disaster relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligerman, Maxwell; Walmer, David; Bereknyei Merrell, Sylvia

    2017-05-01

    We assessed healthcare provider perspectives of international aid four years after the Haiti Earthquake to better understand the impact of aid on the Haitian healthcare system and learn best practices for recovery in future disaster contexts. We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with the directors of local, collaborative, and aid-funded healthcare facilities in Leogane, Haiti. We coded and analysed the interviews using an iterative method based on a grounded theory approach of data analysis. Healthcare providers identified positive aspects of aid, including acute emergency relief, long-term improved healthcare access, and increased ease of referrals for low-income patients. However, they also identified negative impacts of international aid, including episodes of poor quality care, internal brain drain, competition across facilities, decrease in patient flow to local facilities, and emigration of Haitian doctors to abroad. As Haiti continues to recover, it is imperative for aid institutions and local healthcare facilities to develop a more collaborative relationship to transition acute relief to sustainable capacity building. In future disaster contexts, aid institutions should specifically utilise quality of care metrics, NGO Codes of Conduct, Master Health Facility Lists, and sliding scale payment systems to improve disaster response.

  3. Return on the Federal Investment in Student Financial Aid: An Assessment for the High School Class of 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.; Masten, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that public investment in student financial aid should be evaluated based on tax revenue returns resulting from the expenditure. A model for estimating tax revenue returns from gains in educational attainment attributable to student aid is developed, and impact of aid on access and persistence is examined. (Author/MSE)

  4. [Social actors in HIV/AIDS prevention: opposition and interests in educational policy in Mexico, 1994-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Cosme, José Arturo; Nasaiya, Kittipong; Brambila, Alberto Torres

    2007-03-01

    Studies and recommendations by health agencies have emphasized the importance of education in HIV-AIDS prevention. Mexico has included topics on sexuality and HIV-AIDS in school programs, triggering resistance by some social actors. The current study seeks to clarify the various positions and interests and their influence on the textbook content. A literature search was conducted on the period during which the last educational reform was implemented in Mexico. The discourse analysis focused on the ethnography of communication, which identified: the various actors' positions, arguments, actions, economic and political power, and relations to others. The results show that those who oppose the inclusion of these themes in the school curriculum base their position on tradition, contrary to modernization and secularization of social life, and that their positions range from refusal to raising conditions. Networks have been formed that provide such groups with significant economic and political power. Government has given in to some demands by partially modifying the textbook contents. The current analysis proposes to reflect on the potential repercussions of such actions on the control of the epidemic.

  5. Student pharmacists' use and perceived impact of educational technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Scott K; Richard, Craig; Rahman, Ateequr; Kidd, Robert S

    2011-06-10

    To assess the frequency of use by and perceived impact of various educational technologies on student pharmacists. Data were obtained using a validated, Web-based survey instrument designed to evaluate the frequency of use and impact on learning of various technologies used in educating first-, second-, and third-year student pharmacists. Basic demographic data also were collected and analyzed. The majority (89.4%) of the 179 respondents were comfortable with the technology used in the academic program. The most frequently used technologies for educational purposes were in class electronic presentations, course materials posted on the school Web site, and e-mail. The technologies cited as having the most beneficial impact on learning were course materials posted on the Web site and in-class electronic presentations, and those cited as most detrimental were video-teleconferencing and online testing. Compared to the course textbook, students reported more frequent use of technologies such as electronic course materials, presentations, digital lecture recordings, e-mail, and hand-held devices. Because students' opinions of educational technologies varied, colleges and schools should incorporate educational technologies that students frequently use and that positively impact learning.

  6. The impact of science shops on university research and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hende, Merete; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This report discusses the impact from university-based science shops on curricula and research. Experience from science shops show that besides assisting citizen groups, science shops can also contribute to the development of university curricula and research. This impact has been investigated...... through the SCIPAS questionnaire sent out to science shops and through follow-up interviews with employees from nine different university-based science shops and one university researcher. Not all the cases call themselves science shops, but in the report the term 'science shop' will be used most...... way or the other has had impact on university curricula and/or research. The analysis and the case studies have theoretically been based on literature on universities and education and research as institutions and a few articles about the impact of science shops on education and research. The analysis...

  7. The "first digit law" - A hypothesis on its possible impact on medicine and development aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollach, Gregor; Brunkhorst, Frank; Mipando, Mwapatsa; Namboya, Felix; Mndolo, Samson; Luiz, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The "first digit law" or "Benford's law" is a mathematical distribution discovered by Simon Newcomb and Frank Benford. It states, that the probability of the leading number d (d∈{1,…,9}) in many natural datasets follows: P (d)=log 10 (d+1)-log 10 (d)=log 10 (1+1/d). It was successfully used through tax authorities and "forensic accounting" in order to detect fraud and other irregularities. Benfords law was almost neglected for its use outside financial accounting. The planning for health care systems in developing countries is extremely dependant on good, valid data. Whether you plan the catchment area for the future district hospitals, the number of health posts, the staff establishment for the central hospital or the drug budget in the Ministry. The "first digit law" can be used in medicine, public health, physiology and development aid to unmask questionable data, to discover unexpected challenges, difficulties in the data collection process, loss through corruption and criminal fraud. Our hypothesis suggests, that the "first digit law" is a cost effective tool, which is easy to use for most people in the medical profession, which does not really needs complicated statistical software and can be used on the spot, even in the resource restricted conditions of developing countries. Several preconditions (like the size of the data set and its reach over more than two dimensions) have to be fulfilled, but then Benfords law can be used by any clinician, physiologist, public health specialist or aid consultant without difficulties and without deeper statistical knowledge in the four steps, we suggest in this article. The consequences will be different depending on the level (local regional, national, continental, international) on which you will use the law. All levels will be enabled to get insight into the validity of the data-challenges for the other levels without the help of trained statisticians or accountants. We believe that the "first digit law" is a

  8. Evaluating research and impact: a bibliometric analysis of research by the NIH/NIAID HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Rosas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative bibliometrics uses advanced techniques to assess the impact of scholarly work in the context of other scientific work and usually compares the relative scientific contributions of research groups or institutions. Using publications from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID HIV/AIDS extramural clinical trials networks, we assessed the presence, performance, and impact of papers published in 2006-2008. Through this approach, we sought to expand traditional bibliometric analyses beyond citation counts to include normative comparisons across journals and fields, visualization of co-authorship across the networks, and assess the inclusion of publications in reviews and syntheses. Specifically, we examined the research output of the networks in terms of the a presence of papers in the scientific journal hierarchy ranked on the basis of journal influence measures, b performance of publications on traditional bibliometric measures, and c impact of publications in comparisons with similar publications worldwide, adjusted for journals and fields. We also examined collaboration and interdisciplinarity across the initiative, through network analysis and modeling of co-authorship patterns. Finally, we explored the uptake of network produced publications in research reviews and syntheses. Overall, the results suggest the networks are producing highly recognized work, engaging in extensive interdisciplinary collaborations, and having an impact across several areas of HIV-related science. The strengths and limitations of the approach for evaluation and monitoring research initiatives are discussed.

  9. Impacts of Educational Tourism on the Residents of Famagusta

    OpenAIRE

    Mohul, Elif

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to explore the social, cultural, economical and environmental impacts of educational tourism on the host population of Gazimağusa (Famagusta) in North Cyprus. The most attention is paid to the perceptions of the residents in assessing the nature of impacts on host population. The quantitative research method was used in order to obtain the necessary information. The quantitative survey, which was prepared in detail and fastidiously; provided important and unique data ...

  10. Everyday Arts for Special Education Impact Evaluation. District 75, New York City Department of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Everyday Arts for Special Education (EASE) program on elementary special education students' academic achievement (reading and math) and social-emotional learning. EASE was a 5-year program providing professional development and instruction in the arts in 10 New York City special education…

  11. Impact of European Media Education Strategies on Russian Media Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaleva, Galina V.

    2015-01-01

    The article attempts to examine the impact of European media education theories and approaches on Russian media education evolution basing on a comparative analysis of Russian and European media literacy promotion strategies in the historical context. This influence resulted in the appearance and development of socio-cultural models of media…

  12. The development of antiretroviral therapy and its impact on the HIV-1/AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the last 25 years, HIV-1, the retrovirus responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), has gone from being an "inherently untreatable" infectious agent to one eminently susceptible to a range of approved therapies. During a five-year period, starting in the mid-1980s, my group at the National Cancer Institute played a role in the discovery and development of the first generation of antiretroviral agents, starting in 1985 with Retrovir (zidovudine, AZT) in a collaboration with scientists at the Burroughs-Wellcome Company (now GlaxoSmithKline). We focused on AZT and related congeners in the dideoxynucleoside family of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), taking them from the laboratory to the clinic in response to the pandemic of AIDS, then a terrifying and lethal disease. These drugs proved, above all else, that HIV-1 infection is treatable, and such proof provided momentum for new therapies from many sources, directed at a range of viral targets, at a pace that has rarely if ever been matched in modern drug development. Antiretroviral therapy has brought about a substantial decrease in the death rate due to HIV-1 infection, changing it from a rapidly lethal disease into a chronic manageable condition, compatible with very long survival. This has special implications within the classic boundaries of public health around the world, but at the same time in certain regions may also affect a cycle of economic and civil instability in which HIV-1/AIDS is both cause and consequence. Many challenges remain, including (1) the life-long duration of therapy; (2) the ultimate role of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); (3) the cardiometabolic side-effects or other toxicities of long-term therapy; (4) the emergence of drug-resistance and viral genetic diversity (non-B subtypes); (5) the specter of new cross-species transmissions from established retroviral reservoirs in apes and Old World monkeys; and (6) the continued pace of new HIV-1

  13. CASAD -- Computer-Aided Sonography of Abdominal Diseases - the concept of joint technique impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Deserno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound image is the primary (input information for every ultrasonic examination. Since being used in ultrasound images analysis the both knowledge-base decision support and content-based image retrieval techniques have their own restrictions, the combination of these techniques looks promissory for covering the restrictions of one by advances of another. In this work we have focused on implementation of the proposed combination in the frame of CASAD (Computer-Aided Sonography of Abdominal Diseases system for supplying the ultrasound examiner with a diagnostic-assistant tool based on a data warehouse of standard referenced images. This warehouse serves: to manifest the diagnosis when the ecographist specifies the pathology and then looks through corresponding images to verify his opinion; to suggest a second opinion by automatic analysis of the annotation of relevant images that were assessed from the repository using content-based image retrieval.

  14. The impact of HIV on children's education in eastern Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pufall, E.L.; Nyamukapa, C.; Eaton, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how HIV impacts directly and indirectly on receiving, or particularly succeeding in, education in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this gap, we used multivariable logistic regression to determine the correlation between education outcomes in youth (aged 15-24) (being...... school completion, "O" level passes, or being in the correct grade-for-age in adolescents aged 16-17 years. Additionally, HIV status had no significant association with any education outcomes in children aged 6-17 surveyed in 2009-2011. In 2009-2011, being a young carer was associated with lower...

  15. Impact of a visual aid on discordance between physicians and family members about prognosis of critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burelli, Gabrielle; Berthelier, Chloé; Vanacker, Hélène; Descaillot, Léonard; Philippon-Jouve, Bénédicte; Fabre, Xavier; Kaaki, Mahmoud; Chakarian, Jean-Charles; Domine, Alexandre; Beuret, Pascal

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a visual aid on the discordance about prognosis between physicians and family members. The study was performed in a general intensive care department with two 6-bed units. In the unit A, family members could consult a visual aid depicting day by day the evolution of global, hemodynamic, respiratory, renal and neurological conditions of the patient on a 10-point scale. In the unit B, they only received oral medical information. On day 7 of the ICU stay, the physician and family members estimated the prognosis of the patient among four proposals (life threatened; steady state but may worsen; steady state, should heal; will heal). Then we compared the rate of discordance about prognosis between physicians and family members in the two units. Seventy-nine consecutive patients admitted in the intensive care department and still present at day 7, their family members and physicians, were enrolled. Patients in the two units were comparable in age, sex ratio, reason for admission, SAPS II at admission and SOFA score at day 7. In the unit A, physician-family members discordance about prognosis occurred for 12 out of 39 patients (31%) vs. 22 out of 40 patients (55%) in the unit B (P=0.04). In our study, adding a visual aid depicting the evolution of the condition of critically ill patients day by day to classic oral information allowed the family to have an estimate of the prognosis less discordant with the estimate of the physician. Copyright © 2018 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Teaching wilderness first aid in a remote First Nations community: the story of the Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Born; Aaron Orkin; David VanderBurgh; Jackson Beardy

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To understand how community members of a remote First Nations community respond to an emergency first aid education programme. Study design. A qualitative study involving focus groups and participant observation as part of a communitybased participatory research project, which involved the development and implementation of a wilderness first aid course in collaboration with the community. Methods. Twenty community members participated in the course and agreed to be part of the rese...

  17. Detection of Earth impact craters aided by the detailed global gravitational model EGM2008

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kostelecký, J.; Novák, P.; Wagner, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2010), s. 71-97 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project No.98056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : global gravitational model * gravity anomaly * impact craters on the Earth Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.452, year: 2010

  18. Environmental impact assessment of a turboprop engine with the aid of exergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atılgan, Ramazan; Turan, Önder; Altuntaş, Önder; Aydın, Hakan; Synylo, Kateryna

    2013-01-01

    To develop approaches that effectively reduce engine environmental effect of aircrafts, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms that have enabled improvements in thermodynamic efficiency of aircraft engines. In the present work, a turboprop engine used in regional aircrafts that produces 1948 shp and 640 N.m torque is examined using exergo-environmental method. The results show compressor, combustion chamber, gas generator turbine, power turbine and exhaust nozzle create 9%, 69%, 13%, 7%, 2% of total environmental impact of the engine, respectively. According to rates, the compressor and gas turbine can be considered first to improve in case of component related environmental impact. Furthermore, total component related environmental impact for the turboprop engine is found to be 2.26 mPts/s for the constructional phase and 2.34 mPts/s for the operation/maintenance phases. Accordingly, it is suggested that, in order to estimate environmental impact metric of aircrafts, the exergo-environmental analysis can be employed for aircraft propulsion systems. - Highlights: • Evaluating the exergo-environmental aspects of the turboprop engine. • According to exergo-environmental results, the biggest candidate for improving is the combustion chamber. • Specific environmental impact dominates at engine exhaust outlet of the turboprop engine. • Greatest total component related environmental impact is found at the gas generator turbine of the turboprop engine

  19. Globalization and Its Impact on Education with Specific Reference to Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloi, K. C.; Gravett, S. J.; Petersen, N. F.

    2009-01-01

    As globalization of the world economy continues unabated, a parallel growth of globalization of knowledge is also taking place. This latter trend is little affected by the boundaries between developed and less developed countries and is having a particular impact on trends in education. This article looks at the impact of globalization within the…

  20. An evaluation of the potential impacts of the 'gas aid'; Uma avaliacao dos impactos potenciais do 'auxilio gas'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biazotto, Ana Lidia; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

    2004-07-01

    In May of 2001, the prices to the final consumer of GLP were set free in the whole country; this procedure had the intention, to continue process of deregulation in the fuel sector, in accord with the Oil Law. The release of the prices of sale and shipping subsidies elimination, along with the elimination of the crossed subsidy, required the adoption of a 'gas aid' social program, aimed to guarantee the low profit families necessities attendance that would pay the additional fuel costs. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the gas aid program as its covering level and the economic and distributive efficiency. The study encloses the metropolitans regions investigated in the IBGE Family Budget Research of 1996. With base in the previously identification of the potential beneficiary of the program, and with them consumption profile, it was possible to evaluate the potential impact of the withdrawal of the subsidy in the hypothesis of the family be or not beneficiary of the program. Assuming that the targeting is perfect, it is compared the transference politics to the low profit families in relation to the previous politics of subsidize crossed. (author)

  1. Intersectionality and HIV/AIDS. Towards Understanding the Persistence of Educational Gender Inequality in Rural Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakuru, D.M.; Burg, van der Margreet

    2008-01-01

    Gender inequalities have persisted in Uganda¿s primary education regardless of specific interventions put in place to eliminate them. These include the implementation of Universal Primary Education in 1997. Research was carried out to understand the reasons for the persistence of these inequalities.

  2. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  3. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  4. Impact of Education on Social Mobility among Residents in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    issue - the impact of education on social mobility in the Nigerian society, with particular emphasis on residents in Ilorin, Kwara State. It found that on the average, an ... determining a person's position in the class system. It is in this respect that.

  5. The impact of a nutrition education programme on feeding practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the impact of nutrition education on feeding practices of caregivers with children aged 3 to 5 years at baseline and post intervention. Methodology: A pre-test–post-test control group design was chosen using eight villages (four villages in the experimental group (E) and four villages in the control ...

  6. Increasing Impact of Economic Conditions upon Higher Education Enrollments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, James J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    To assess the impact of economic conditions on enrollment in higher education, researchers used time series analysis on national data for 1966-78 and on 1972-78 data from all eight regions of the country and the University of Arizona. The findings indicate enrollment has gone up during economic downturns. (Author/RW)

  7. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  8. Impact of vocational and entrepreneurship education on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the findings of a study that delved into the impact of vocational and entrepreneurship education (VEE) on the economic growth of Ogun State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated the extent to which VEE can enhance the economic growth of the state and the factors inhibiting its development.

  9. The Impact of Funding Policies on Higher Education in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Huisman, Jeroen; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the changes in the higher education funding policies and resource allocation models of the Jamaican government in the period 1962-2003. Throughout these four decades, four different systems were in force. This paper focuses particularly on the arguments for the funding policies and models and the impact of the models on the…

  10. The Impact of a Simulation Game on Operations Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasin, Federico; Giroux, Helene

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a new simulation game and analyzes its impact on operations management education. The proposed simulation was empirically tested by comparing the number of mistakes during the first and second halves of the game. Data were gathered from 100 teams of four or five undergraduate students in business administration, taking their…

  11. The Impact of IMC on Advertising and Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, W. Glenn; Pasadeos, Yorgo

    1998-01-01

    Surveys advertising and public relations faculty members with regard to IMC (Integrated Marketing Communications) and its impact on current curricula. Finds (1) areas of discontent with current course curricula; (2) evidence of "separate agendas" between advertising and public relations educators on this issue; and (3) evidence of a generation gap…

  12. The Heterogeneous Impacts of Business Cycles on Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffy-Ramirez, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fluctuations in the unemployment rate before high school graduation on educational attainment measured 30 years later. I find evidence that important heterogeneity is masked by estimating average effects across the ability distribution. Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this analysis…

  13. Impacts of Flipped Classroom in High School Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ling

    2016-01-01

    As advanced technology increasingly infiltrated into classroom, the flipped classroom has come to light in secondary educational settings. The flipped classroom is a new instructional approach that intends to flip the traditional teacher-centered classroom into student centered. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of the…

  14. The Sibling Size Impact on the Educational Achievement in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adli, Rhonya; Louichi, Ahmed; Tamouh, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of sibling size on children's education. The theoretical framework shows an opposite relationship between the number of children within family and their school performance. Empirical works diverge between those corroborating this theory and those leading to ambiguous results such a positive correlation or the absence of any…

  15. Impact of diabetes continuing education on health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a continuing education (CE) program on the attitudes of health care professionals (HCPs) towards diabetes care in Yemen. Methods: A pre- and post-intervention study was carried out in Mukalla City, Hadramout, Yemen and was offered to all physicians, pharmacists, and nurses ...

  16. An Impact Evaluation of Nomadic Education Programme in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the extent of the realization of the objectives of nomadic education programme in the northeast sub-region of Nigeria. The study showed that the programme performed satisfactorily and the impact on the nomads is significant. There are however some major problems militating against effective ...

  17. Impact of structured education on glucose control and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the impact of structured education on glucose control and hypoglycaemia in the management of Type-2 diabetes. Methods: A systematic review was done using Medline via Ovid and EMBASE databases of published English literature between 1980 and 2014. Included studies were randomized control ...

  18. Student Attitudes towards Enterprise Education in Poland: A Positive Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Jones, Amanda; Packham, Gary; Miller, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to appraise the delivery of an enterprise education course to a cohort of Polish students evaluating its impact in encouraging entrepreneurial activity. The Polish economy continues its expansion with adoption of free market economies post communism. To encourage this growth, entrepreneurial activity must be encouraged…

  19. The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbeek, H.; van Praag, M.; IJsselstein, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of a leading entrepreneurship education program on college students’ entrepreneurship skills and motivation using an instrumental variables approach in a difference-in-differences framework. We exploit that the program was offered to students at one location of a

  20. Impact of an educational intervention on smoking counseling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-08

    Aug 8, 2014 ... a group of Nigerian dental students and dentists to smoking cessation counseling in the dental clinic. Methods: A ... E-mail: omolaraza@yahoo.com ... Impact of an educational intervention on smoking counseling practice among Nigerian dentists and dental students. Omolara Uti, Oyinkansola Sofola.

  1. The Impact of Water Shortages on Educational Delivery in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of the study was to investigate the impact of water shortages on educational delivery in selected schools in Harare East District. The population included school heads, teachers and pupils all drawn from selected schools of Harare East District. The sample consisted of five school heads, fifty teachers and one ...

  2. Impact of Business Education in Enhancing Sales Volumes of Retail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of business education in enhancing sales volume of retail business in Ohaozara local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Ninety (90) respondents formed the population of study. The instrument of data collection was a well structured and pretested questionnaire. Two research questions ...

  3. The changing impact of the AIDS epidemic on older-age parents in the era of ART: evidence from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, John

    2012-03-01

    Previous research makes clear that before antiretroviral therapy (ART), when HIV led to disabling illness and certain death, many older persons as parents of infected adults experienced adverse emotional, material and social consequences. The present study examines how widespread access to ART is transforming the situation in Thailand. Interviews with parents of adult ART recipients reveal that major improvements in the health of their adult children under treatment is associated with major reductions in parental caregiving and expenses associated with their HIV-infected child although parents continue to provide psychological support. Parents own worry about their child's health also declines. Most adult children on ART are able to continue or resume economic activity and many contribute to support of the parental household. ART appears to reduce negative community reaction. Nevertheless, given uncertainty surrounding how long ART can protect against fatal illnesses, whether the adverse impacts of the AIDS epidemic on parents are being eliminated or only postponed remains an open question.

  4. An impact evaluation of the safe motherhood promotion project in Bangladesh: evidence from Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Yukie; Islam, Mohammad Tajul

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports the findings from a quasi-experimental impact evaluation of the Safe Motherhood Promotion Project (SMPP) conducted in the Narsingdi district of Bangladesh. SMPP is a Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation project aimed at developing local capacities to tackle maternal and newborn health problems in rural areas. We assessed whether the project interventions, in particular, community-based activities under the Model Union approach, had a favorable impact on women's access to and knowledge of maternal health care during pregnancy and childbirth. The project comprises a package of interlinked interventions to facilitate safe motherhood practices at primary and secondary care levels. The primary-level activities focused on community mobilization through participatory approaches. The secondary-level activities aimed at strengthening organizational and personnel capacities for delivering emergency obstetric care (EmOC) at district and sub-district level hospitals. The project impact was estimated by difference-in-differences logistic regressions using two rounds of cross-sectional household survey data. The results showed that the project successfully increased the utilization of antenatal visits and postpartum EmOC services and also enhanced women's knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy and delivery. The project also reduced income inequalities in access to antenatal care. In contrast, we found no significant increase in the use of skilled birth attendants (SBA) in the project site. Nonetheless, community mobilization activities and the government's voucher scheme played a complementary role in promoting the use of SBA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Computer-generated video fly-through: an aid to visual impact assessment for windfarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.; Leeming, T.; Hall, S.

    1998-01-01

    Computer generated video fly-through provides a new method of assessing the visual impact of wind farms. With a PC, software and digital terrain model of the wind farm it is possible to produce videos ranging from wireframe to realistically shaded models. Using computer generated video fly-through visually sensitive corridors can be explored fully, wind turbine rotors can be seen in motion, critical viewpoints can be identified for photomontages and the context of the wind farm appreciated better. This paper describes the techniques of computer generated video fly through and examines its various applications in visual impact assessment of wind farms. (Author)

  6. Impact of computer-aided design and drafting on operator perceptions and performance intentions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandeville, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the introduction of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) technology is to improve engineering quantity and quality outcomes. What is not so obvious is that the manner in which the operator views the CADD job may affect these outcomes. The study found that: (1) the subjects hold job characteristic beliefs about their jobs that are similar to those held by individuals in related professional and technical positions in other organizations; (2) subjects in routine jobs who had little experience with CADD believe that the characteristics of the job with CADD will be less desirable than there present job utilizing manual drafting; however, experienced users believe that there is little difference; (3) the subjects performing technologically routine jobs indicate that quantity and quality of their jobs decreases with CADD, while holders of technologically nonroutine jobs indicate the opposite; (4) significant but weak relationships existed between job characteristic beliefs, attitudes, and job intentions; however, the model relationships and strengths varied when subgroups were analyzed; and (5) the correlation of social referent group beliefs with subject beliefs are significant but weak.

  7. Difference in First Aid Activity During Mass Casualty Training Based on Having Taken an Educational Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Omori, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Takeuchi, Ikuto; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Sato, Jun; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Osaka, Hiromichi

    2017-11-20

    The Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine developed a mass casualty life support (MCLS) course to improve cooperation among medical practitioners during a disaster, which is essential for reducing the rates of preventable disaster death. We investigated whether there was difference in first aid activity among members of the ambulance service during mass casualty training based on having taken the MCLS course. Mass casualty training was held at the fire department of Numazu City. Twenty-one ambulance service parties participated in this training. They first evaluated the mass casualty situation, performed the appropriate services at the scene during the initial period, and then provided START triage for mock wounded patients. Throughout the training, 5 examiners evaluated their performance. Regarding the difference in first aid activity based on MCLS course attendance among the ambulance service members, the cooperative management (scored on a scale of 1 to 5) among the members who had taken the MCLS course was significantly better than that among those who had not taken the course (median [interquartile range]: 5 [0.5] vs. 4 [1.75], P<0.05). Attending an MCLS course may help to improve outcomes in the face of an actual mass casualty incident. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 4).

  8. Predictive factors of user acceptance on the primary educational mathematics aids product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, I.; Margunani; Dwijanto

    2018-03-01

    Mathematics learning in primary schools requires instructional media. According to Piaget's theory, students are still in the concrete operational stage. For this reason, the development of the primary level mathematics aids is needed to support the development of successful mathematics learning. The stages of this research are the stages of commercialization with preparatory, marketing, and measurement analysis procedures. Promotion as part of marketing is done by doing a demonstration to the teacher. Measurements were performed to explore the predictive factors of user feasibility in adopting the product. Measurements were conducted using the concept of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Measurement variables include external variables, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude, intention to use, and actual use. The result of this research shows that the contribution of predictive factors of mathematics teachers on the teaching aids product as follows: the external variable and perceived ease of use at 74%, perceived usefulness at 72%, intention to use (behavioral) at 58%, attitude at 52%, and the consequence factor (actual use) at 42%.

  9. Educational psychology in medical learning: a randomised controlled trial of two aide memoires for the recall of causes of electromechanical dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, E; Voisey, S; Hughes, S; Higgins, B; McQuillan, P J

    2004-07-01

    Although mnemonics are commonly used in medical education there are few data on their effectiveness. A RCT was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a new aide memoire, "EMD-aide", would be superior to the conventional "4Hs+4Ts" mnemonic in facilitating recall of causes of electromechanical dissociation (EMD) among house officers. "EMD-aide", organises causes of EMD by frequency of occurrence and ease of reversibility: four groups organised by shape, colour, position, numbering, clockwise sequence, and use of arrows. Eight hospitals were randomised in a controlled trial and 149 house officers were then recruited by telephone. Baseline ability to recall causes of EMD was recorded at one minute and overall. House officers were then sent a copy of either "4Hs+4Ts" or "EMD-aide" according to randomisation group. Recall ability was retested at one month. 68 of 80 and 51 of 69 house officers completed the study in the "4Hs+4Ts" and "EMD-aide" groups respectively (NS) with similar baseline recall. After intervention median number of recalled causes was greater in the "EMD-aide" group, eight compared with seven at one minute (p = 0.034) and eight compared with seven overall, p = 0.067. Recall of all eight causes was more common in "EMD-aide" group, 54% compared with 35%, p = 0.054, and these house officers spent longer examining their aide memoire, pEducational psychology of medical learning and the use of aide memoires in general are worthy of further study.

  10. The impact of caring for persons living with HIV and AIDS on the mental health of nurses in the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Davhana-Maselesele

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the impact of caring for AIDS sufferers on the mental health of nurses. This assessment was measured against the level of burnout, stress and depression among 174 nurses caring for people living with HIV and AIDS in Limpopo Province, South Africa. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire incorporated the AIDS Impact Scale (AIS, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the participants’ demographic and professional profiles. Participants were conveniently selected from five selected hospitals in Limpopo Province. The study participants’ valuation using the AIS showed that nurses tended to develop strong bonds and relationships with the patients; felt frustrated by their inability to help the terminally ill AIDS sufferers and were subsequently affected by the death of their patients. Personal accomplishments of the nurses remained high and the levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization levels were low. The BDI showed that over 3 out of 4 nurses were experiencing between mild mood disturbance and extreme depression. Higher average scores were noted for items of the depression scale like sadness, dissatisfaction, fatigue and low level of energy. The findings highlight the need to develop psychological support programmes for nurses caring for AIDS patients and promote the provision of social incentives and recognition of the role of nurses in AIDS care.

  11. Home-based care for parents with AIDS: impact on children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The children's psychological functioning and performance on cognitive tasks were examined, using the Impact of Event Scale — Revised, the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS), the Stress Symptoms Checklist, the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), the British Ability Scales and Daniel and Diack's Graded ...

  12. Impact Of Nutrition Education On Urral School Children Of Burdwan, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas A.B

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A nutrition education programme was conducted for 324 children of two (boys and girls Secondary schools in a village of Burdwan district. Lesson plans and evaluation parameters were formulated based on pre- determined learning objectives. The main methods of training were lectures and discussions using simple and relevant aids. Impact of training was evaluated by pre- training and post- training assessments of knowledge, attitude and dietary practice of students. Results revealed that poor pre- training mean score of knowledge was increased significantly following training but declined thereafter, although final mean score was significantly higher than basal knowledge status. Mean score of attitude also increased significantly but did not decline. Inconsistency of results regarding change in dietary practices observed was recognized as a short coming of isolated training of children only, because dietary habit of a community depends on various factors.

  13. The Impact of a Pedagogy of Teacher Education Seminar on Educator and Future Teacher Educator Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Brandon M.; Burns, Elizabeth; Frierman, Christina; Hawthorne, Katrice; Innes, Alisa; Parrott, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Educators require support as they move from classroom to higher education settings. This collaborative self-study provides insight into one such support space, a doctoral seminar titled Pedagogy of Teacher Education, and how our identities as educators and future teacher educators developed through participation in the course. Several important…

  14. The Impacts of Bologna Process on European Higher Education Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer ÇELİK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of Bologna Process on European higher education systems. It focuses on the influences of the main components of Bologna Process (i.e., implementing two-cycle system, increasing the student and academic staffs' mobility, European Credit Transfer System, quality assurance and qualification framework on the transformation of higher education systems. Although Bologna Process is perceived as a move to increase the quality of higher education system in Turkey, there are very serious criticisms from academics, students, and businessmen to the Bologna Process in various European countries. This study claims that the Process did not achieve its goals, more importantly the main instruments of the Process (qualifications, quality assurance agency etc. brought about hyper-bureaucratization, hierarchization and standardization of European higher education systems.

  15. Minimising visitor impacts to protected areas: The efficacy of low impact education programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, J.L.; Reid, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Protected area managers, tourism providers, and other organisations commonly employ education programmes to address visitation-related impairment of natural and cultural resources, social conditions, and neighbouring communities. These programmes have different names (Leave No Trace, Codes of Conduct, Environmental Guidelines for Tourists) but share common objectives: to sustain opportunities for high quality visitor experiences while avoiding or minimising associated negative impacts to protected area resources, visitor experiences, and park neighbours. Theoretical and empirical research studies in the United States are reviewed to evaluate the efficacy of educational efforts that seek to encourage adoption of low impact behaviours. Findings reveal that most of the visitor education efforts evaluated did effectively alter visitor knowledge, behaviour and/or resource and social conditions in the intended direction. These findings, including discussions of message content, delivery, audience characteristics and theoretical grounding, provide insights for improving the efficacy of future educational efforts.

  16. Qualitative evaluation of a colorectal cancer education CD-ROM for Community Health Aides/practitioners in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Dignan, Mark; Lanier, Anne; Kuhnley, Regina

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important contributor to the cancer burden among Alaska Native people. CRC is the leading incident cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality among Alaska Native people. Completing recommended CRC screening procedures has the potential to reduce both CRC incidence and mortality. "Taking Action Colorectal Health," a multidimensional audiovisual, interactive CD-ROM, incorporates adult education learning principles to provide Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners with timely, medically accurate, and culturally relevant CRC place-based education. Providing this resource on CD-ROM empowers learning within communities and places where people live or choose to learn. The dynamic process of developing, implementing, and evaluating this CRC CD-ROM was informed by a sociocultural approach to share health messages. Within this approach, cultural values, beliefs, and behaviors are affirmed as a place of wisdom and resilience and built upon to provide context and meaning for health messaging. Alaska Native values that honor family, relationships, the land, storytelling, and humor were included in CD-ROM content. Between January and May 2012, 20 interviews were conducted with individuals who had used the CD-ROM. Four categorical themes emerged from analysis of interview transcripts: likeability, utilization, helpfulness, and behavior change. As a result of self-paced learning through stories, movies, and interactive games, respondents reported healthy behavior changes they were making for themselves, with their families and in their patient care practices. This CD-ROM is a culturally based practical course that increased knowledge and activities around colorectal cancer screening by Community Health Aides/Practitioners in Alaska.

  17. [Interactive augmented reality systems : Aid for personalized patient education and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, F

    2018-04-01

    During patient education, information exchange plays a critical role both for patient compliance during medical or rehabilitative treatment and for obtaining an informed consent for an operative procedure. In this article the augmented reality system "Magic Mirror" as an additive tool during patient education, rehabilitation as well as anatomical education is highlighted. The Magic Mirror system allows the user of the system to inspect both a detailed model of the 3‑dimensional anatomy of the human body and volumetric slice images in a virtual mirror environment. First preliminary results from the areas of rehabilitation and learning anatomy indicate the broad potential of the Magic Mirror. Similarly, the system also provides interesting advantages for patient education situations in comparison to traditional methods of information exchange. Novel technologies, such as augmented reality are a door opener for many innovations in medicine. In the future, patient-specific systems, such as the Magic Mirror will be used increasingly more in areas such as patient education and rehabilitation. In order to maximize the benefits of such systems, further evaluation studies are necessary to find out about the best use cases and to start an iterative optimization process of these systems.

  18. Impact of Hearing Aid Technology on Outcomes in Daily Life II: Speech Understanding and Listening Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jani A; Xu, Jingjing; Cox, Robyn M

    2016-01-01

    Modern hearing aid (HA) devices include a collection of acoustic signal-processing features designed to improve listening outcomes in a variety of daily auditory environments. Manufacturers market these features at successive levels of technological sophistication. The features included in costlier premium hearing devices are designed to result in further improvements to daily listening outcomes compared with the features included in basic hearing devices. However, independent research has not substantiated such improvements. This research was designed to explore differences in speech-understanding and listening-effort outcomes for older adults using premium-feature and basic-feature HAs in their daily lives. For this participant-blinded, repeated, crossover trial 45 older adults (mean age 70.3 years) with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss wore each of four pairs of bilaterally fitted HAs for 1 month. HAs were premium- and basic-feature devices from two major brands. After each 1-month trial, participants' speech-understanding and listening-effort outcomes were evaluated in the laboratory and in daily life. Three types of speech-understanding and listening-effort data were collected: measures of laboratory performance, responses to standardized self-report questionnaires, and participant diary entries about daily communication. The only statistically significant superiority for the premium-feature HAs occurred for listening effort in the loud laboratory condition and was demonstrated for only one of the tested brands. The predominant complaint of older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment is difficulty understanding speech in various settings. The combined results of all the outcome measures used in this research suggest that, when fitted using scientifically based practices, both premium- and basic-feature HAs are capable of providing considerable, but essentially equivalent, improvements to speech understanding and listening effort in daily

  19. Social impact of HIV/AIDS on clients attending a teaching hospital in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ofonime E

    2012-01-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (PLWHA) face numerous social challenges. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of self-disclosure of status by PLWHA, to describe the level and patterns of stigma and discrimination, if any, experienced by the PLWHA and to assess the effect of sero-positivity on the attitude of friends, family members, health workers, colleagues and community. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among PLWHA attending the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Southern Nigeria. Information was obtained using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire, which was analysed using the Epi 6 software. A total of 331 respondents were interviewed. A majority, 256 (77.3%), of the respondents were within the age range of 25-44 years. A total of 121 (36.6%) PLWHA were single and 151 (46.6%) were married, while the rest were widowed, divorced or separated. A majority, 129 (85.4%), of the married respondents disclosed their status to their spouses and 65 (50.4%) were supportive. Apart from spouses, disclosure to mothers (39.9%) was highest. Most clients (57.7%) did not disclose their status to people outside their immediate families for fear of stigmatization. Up to 111 (80.4%) of the respondents working for others did not disclose their status to their employers. Among those whose status was known, discrimination was reported to be highest among friends (23.2%) and at the workplace (20.2%). Attitudes such as hostility (14.5%), withdrawal (11.7%) and neglect (6.8%) were reported from the private hospitals. Apart from disclosure to spouses, the level of disclosure to others was very low. Those whose status was known mainly received acceptance from their families but faced discriminatory attitudes such as hostility, neglect and withdrawal from friends, colleagues and hospital workers. There is a need for more enlightenment campaigns on HIV/AIDS by

  20. Investing for Impact: The Global Fund Approach to Measurement of AIDS Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Suman; Zorzi, Nathalie

    2017-07-01

    The Global Fund raises and invests nearly US$4 billion a year to support programs run in more than 140 countries. The Global Fund strategy 2012-2016 is focused on "Investing for Impact". In order to accomplish this, timely and accurate data are needed to inform strategies and prioritize activities to achieve greater coverage with quality services. Monitoring and evaluation is intrinsic to the Global Fund's system of performance-based funding. The Global Fund invests in strengthening measurement and reporting of results at all stages of the grant cycle. The Global Fund approach to measurement is based on three key principles-(1) simplified reporting: the Global Fund has updated its measurement guidance to focus on impact, coverage and quality with the use of a harmonized set of indicators. (2) Supporting data systems-based on a common framework developed and supported by partners, it promotes investment in five common data systems: routine reporting including HMIS; Surveys-population based and risk group surveys; Analysis, reviews and transparency; Administrative and financial data sources; and, Vital registration systems. (3) Strengthen data use: the Global Fund funding encourages use of data at all levels-national, subnational and site level. Countries do not automatically prioritize M&E but when guidance, tools and investments are available, there is high level utilization of M&E systems in program design, planning, implementation, and results reporting. An in-depth analysis of the available data helps the Global Fund and countries to direct investments towards interventions where impact could be achieved and focus on target population groups and geographic areas that are most affected.

  1. Impact of the operation of non-displaced feedwater heaters on the performance of Solar Aided Power Generation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Jiyun; Hu, Eric; Nathan, Graham J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of non-displaced feedwater heater on plant’s performance has been evaluated. • Two operation strategies for non-displaced feedwater heater has been proposed. • Constant temperature strategy is generally better. • Constant mass flow rate strategy is suit for rich solar thermal input. - Abstract: Solar Aided Power Generation is a technology in which low grade solar thermal energy is used to displace the high grade heat of the extraction steam in a regenerative Rankine cycle power plant for feedwater preheating purpose. The displaced extraction steam can then expand further in the steam turbine to generate power. In such a power plant, using the (concentrated) solar thermal energy to displace the extraction steam to high pressure/temperature feedwater heaters (i.e. displaced feedwater heaters) is the most popular arrangement. Namely the extraction steam to low pressure/temperature feedwater heaters (i.e. non-displaced feedwater heaters) is not displaced by the solar thermal energy. In a Solar Aided Power Generation plants, when solar radiation/input changes, the extraction steam to the displaced feedwater heaters requires to be adjusted according to the solar radiation. However, for the extraction steams to the non-displaced feedwater heaters, it can be either adjusted accordingly following so-called constant temperature strategy or unadjusted i.e. following so-called constant mass flow rate strategy, when solar radiation/input changes. The previous studies overlooked the operation of non-displaced feedwater heaters, which has also impact on the whole plant’s performance. This paper aims to understand/reveal the impact of the two different operation strategies for non-displaced feedwater heaters on the plant’s performance. In this paper, a 300 MW Rankine cycle power plant, in which the extraction steam to high pressure/temperature feedwater heaters is displaced by the solar thermal energy, is used as study case for this purpose. It

  2. Virtual reality aided visualization of fluid flow simulations with application in medical education and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Tijana; Mandic, Vesna; Filipovic, Nenad

    2013-12-01

    Medical education, training and preoperative diagnostics can be drastically improved with advanced technologies, such as virtual reality. The method proposed in this paper enables medical doctors and students to visualize and manipulate three-dimensional models created from CT or MRI scans, and also to analyze the results of fluid flow simulations. Simulation of fluid flow using the finite element method is performed, in order to compute the shear stress on the artery walls. The simulation of motion through the artery is also enabled. The virtual reality system proposed here could shorten the length of training programs and make the education process more effective. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effects of two educational method of lecturing and role playing on knowledge and performance of high school students in first aid at emergency scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Vasili, Arezu; Zare, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two educational methods on students' knowledge and performance regarding first aid at emergency scenes. In this semi-experimental study, the sample was selected randomly among male and female public high school students of Isfahan. Each group included 60 students. At first the knowledge and performance of students in first aid at emergency scene was assessed using a researcher-made questionnaire. Then necessary education was provided to the students within 10 sessions of two hours by lecturing and role playing. The students' knowledge and performance was as-sessed again and the results were compared. It was no significant relationship between the frequency distribution of students' age, major and knowledge and performance before the educational course in the two groups. The score of knowledge in performing CPR, using proper way to bandage, immobilizing the injured area, and proper ways of carrying injured person after the education was significantly increased in both groups. Moreover, the performance in proper way to bandage, immobilizing injured area and proper ways of carrying injured person after educational course was significantly higher in playing role group compared to lecturing group after education. Iran is a developing country with a young generation and it is a country with high risk of natural disasters; so, providing necessary education with more effective methods can be effective in reducing mortality and morbidity due to lack of first aid care in crucial moments. Training with playing role is suggested for this purpose.

  4. The Use of Avatar Counseling for HIV/AIDS Health Education: The Examination of Self-Identity in Avatar Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canidate, Shantrel; Hart, Mark

    2017-12-01

    The number of adults using the Internet to obtain health information is on the rise. An estimated 66% of the adults reportedly use the Internet to obtain health information related to a specific disease (ie, human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, HIV/AIDS). Previous research has demonstrated that health information seekers use the Internet to seek answers to stigma-laden questions from health avatars. The objective of this study was to identify patterns in the choice of avatar among health information seekers (patients or public health workers) using the Internet to obtain HIV/AIDS information and to describe the demographic characteristics (age, gender, and ethnicity) of health information seekers to determine whether they preferred an avatar that was similar to their own gender and ethnicity. The Rural South Public Health Training Center (RSPHTC) partnered with the New York State Department of Health to create the HIV/AIDS Avatar project. The avatar project was created to serve as an educational resource for public health workers by providing relevant and accurate information about HIV/AIDS. First, the user was instructed to choose one of the 8 avatars that voiced responses to 100 common questions and answers about HIV/AIDS. Next, the website gave users the option to complete a brief 3-question demographic survey. Finally, the demographic characteristics of each user were compared with the chosen avatar to determine whether they preferred an avatar that was similar to their own gender and ethnicity. The avatar project website was loaded with 800 videos that included the answers to the top 100 questions about HIV/AIDS voiced by 8 avatars. A total of 1119 Web-based health information seekers completed the demographic survey upon accessing the website. Of these, 55.14% (617/1119) users were female. A total of 49.96% (559/1119) users were aged between 30 and 49 years. The ethnicity of the user and the avatar was found to have the

  5. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  6. 75 FR 26944 - Federal Student Aid; Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership, Special Leveraging...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ..., SLEAP, or GAP programs for Award Year 2010-2011, a State must meet the applicable deadline date... Education. ACTION: Notice of the deadline dates for receipt of State applications for Award Year 2010-2011 funds. SUMMARY: This notice provides the deadline dates for receipt of State applications for Award Year...

  7. Implementation of Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This study utilized data from Focus Group Discussions and In-depth Interviews ... of Information, Education and Communication materials and inadequate personnel .... profoundly multicultural society like Nigeria with .... represent the social and cultural realities of the ...... As a corollary, the quest for good performance in.

  8. The Importance and Use of Targeted Content Knowledge with Scaffolding Aid in Educational Simulation Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing; Kinzer, Charles; Hung, Kuo-Hsun; Chen, Cheng-Ling Alice; Hsu, I-Ying

    2013-01-01

    While most current educational simulation games provide learners with gameplay experience to motivate learning, there is often a lack of focus on ensuring that the desired content knowledge is actually learned. Students may focus on completing game activities without learning the targeted content knowledge, thus negating the desired learning…

  9. Impact of an Asha Intervention on Depressive Symptoms among Rural Women Living with AIDS in India: Comparison of the Asha-Life and Usual Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Meyer, Visha; Ganguly, Kalyan K.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ramakrishnan, Padma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized pilot study is to conduct an intervention with 68 rural women living with AIDS to compare the effectiveness of two different programs on depressive symptoms. The trial was designed to assess the impact of the Asha-Life intervention engaging with an HIV-trained village woman, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activist),…

  10. HIV/AIDS and human development in sub-Saharan Africa : impact mitigation through agricultural interventions : an overview and annotated bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    This last part of the AWLAE series on HIV/AIDS and agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa focuses on the epidemic as a challenge to human development in general and rural development in particular. In the face of the impact of the epidemic as described in parts one and two of the series, the agricultural

  11. Food habits and nutrition education--computer aided analysis of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, A; Liddell, J A; Lockie, G M

    1987-04-01

    Nutrition education messages should take into account the food habits of those who are to be educated. These can be revealed by computer analysis of weighed intake data, which has been collected for calculation of nutrient intakes. Seventy-six students and staff at Robert Gordon's Institute of Technology weighed their food for 1 week and the records were used to determine the frequency of consumption of foods and portion sizes, as well as nutrient intakes. There were only very minor relationships between the number of different foods chosen and nutritional variables. Nutrition students had successfully changed the frequency of consumption of certain foods relative to others and as a result consumed diets containing a lower proportion of energy from fat. Messages to non-nutrition students might profitably incorporate those beneficial changes that nutrition students had easily accomplished. This study revealed that certain (otherwise common and nutritionally unsound) food choices were not a major part of the subjects' habits, and could be given low priority in educational messages. It was suggested that foods exhibiting high variability of portion weight might be under greater individual control and hence more amenable to change. A study of the distribution of portion weights reveals information about number of slices, biscuits, etc, taken in each portion. This varied for different kinds of biscuit. It was concluded that messages should target specific foods rather than stress variation in the diet. It is suggested that educators should consider whether messages would be more effective in terms of frequency of consumption or size of portion for particular groups. The meal distribution pattern also shows which foods are most commonly consumed at home or in the canteen, hence whether education might be best directed to the individual or the caterer, respectively.

  12. Impact and productivity of Latin American publications about mathematics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Maria Torres-Alfonso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available More than a century room recently they have been carrying out, frequently annual Educational Mathematics Latin American Meetings (RELME and the works presented in the event, after a revision for even of experts, the ALME is published (Latin American Mathematics Education Act. We present a qualitative analysis of the impact of publications recorded in ALME in the period between 2000 and 2009. They use scientific production indicators, indicators of impact or influence: who provided the scientific community use made of these results based on the count of citations received by papers published in ALME in the publication itself, supplemented by an analysis of citations according to Google Scholar and collaboration indicators that showed the type of existing collaboration in the scientific community.

  13. CIDA funds AIDS counselling and care centre in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, S T

    1993-12-01

    In its fight against the spread of AIDS, which is inextricably linked to the issues of international development, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has focused support on strengthening existing health care systems, helping vulnerable groups gain control over their lives and health, promoting AIDS prevention measures, and building links to other related health services. Funding includes 1) a grant to Hope House in Zambia (counseling and support for persons with AIDS); 2) a contribution to the Canadian Public Health Association's $11 million Southern Africa AIDS Training Programme (helps regional organizations working in AIDS prevention and support through education, training, hospital outreach, peer education for vulnerable groups, assistance to women's shelters, and networking); 3) support for Laval University's Laval Centre for International Cooperation in Health and Development (runs a $22 million program in French-speaking West Africa that operates in over 10 countries and focuses on epidemiological surveillance, information, education, and communication, control of sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and management of national AIDS programs); 4) support for the University of Manitoba's $3 million program with the University of Nairobi to slow the spread of HIV (strengthens local health care capabilities for STD/HIV diagnosis, treatment, and counseling, with special emphasis on training and education); 5) support in the past for a study of proposed AIDS legislation and its potential impact on the human rights of PLWHIV/AIDS in Thailand; 6) a contribution to help equip the office of the National Movement for Street Children, Rio de Janeiro (focuses on preventing the spread of AIDS among child prostitutes); and 7) long-term financial support to the Interagency Coalition on AIDS and Development, a coalition of Canadian development nongovernmental organizations responding to AIDS in developing countries. An address to obtain a pamphlet giving

  14. Quantifying the impact on navigation performance in visually impaired: Auditory information loss versus information gain enabled through electronic travel aids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kreilinger

    Full Text Available This study's purpose was to analyze and quantify the impact of auditory information loss versus information gain provided by electronic travel aids (ETAs on navigation performance in people with low vision. Navigation performance of ten subjects (age: 54.9±11.2 years with visual acuities >1.0 LogMAR was assessed via the Graz Mobility Test (GMT. Subjects passed through a maze in three different modalities: 'Normal' with visual and auditory information available, 'Auditory Information Loss' with artificially reduced hearing (leaving only visual information, and 'ETA' with a vibrating ETA based on ultrasonic waves, thereby facilitating visual, auditory, and tactile information. Main performance measures comprised passage time and number of contacts. Additionally, head tracking was used to relate head movements to motion direction. When comparing 'Auditory Information Loss' to 'Normal', subjects needed significantly more time (p<0.001, made more contacts (p<0.001, had higher relative viewing angles (p = 0.002, and a higher percentage of orientation losses (p = 0.011. The only significant difference when comparing 'ETA' to 'Normal' was a reduced number of contacts (p<0.001. Our study provides objective, quantifiable measures of the impact of reduced hearing on the navigation performance in low vision subjects. Significant effects of 'Auditory Information Loss' were found for all measures; for example, passage time increased by 17.4%. These findings show that low vision subjects rely on auditory information for navigation. In contrast, the impact of the ETA was not significant but further analysis of head movements revealed two different coping strategies: half of the subjects used the ETA to increase speed, whereas the other half aimed at avoiding contacts.

  15. Impact evaluation in multicultural educational projects : case: ADAPTYKES project

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Miika

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the common evaluation concepts of the European Union’s funded projects. Such concepts inter alia are effectiveness, impacts and sustainability. The aim was to study how these are realized in multicultural educational case–project in a context, where the project is funded by the European Commission’s Leonardo DaVinci Programme. Thesis introduces two evaluation approaches, which are Logical Framework Approach and Realistic evaluation model. The fi...

  16. The impacts of individualization on equity educational policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Francia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article has as its aim to illustrate and discuss the impacts of individualization strategies on equity educational policies through the analysis of individualized teaching strategies applied within the framework of educational priority policies in Sweden. The methodology used in our research work includes: (a the study of research literature about the individualization of teaching implemented in the Swedish comprehensive compulsory school; and (b the study of research literature about educational priority policies aimed at children from socially and ethnically segregated areas. Comparative research of educational policies considers the individualization of teaching carried out in the Swedish comprehensive compulsory school as a relevant explanation for the successful application of equitable educational policies in that country. However, research studies published during the 2000s in Sweden show a more complex perspective regarding the effects of individualized teaching strategies. This contribution reviews European comparative research studies on individualization strategies followed in the context of equity policies. It raises questions about the lack of analyses referring to the impacts of individualization on schools located in socially and ethnically segregated areas. It argues that this ideology tends to reduce the issue of school failure to ethnic segregation and individualized teacher support. This article claims that Individualization strategies based on differentiated curricula for students run the risk of increasing the discrimination of students for reasons of language or ethnic background. Even though the present study focuses on the Swedish experience, it can lead to a better understanding of the impacts caused by individualization strategies on equity in other European countries.

  17. An Analysis of Training Effects on School Personnel's Knowledge, Attitudes, Comfort, and Confidence Levels toward Educating Students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschlander, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the training effects on school personnel's knowledge, attitudes, comfort, and confidence levels toward educating students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania. The following four research questions were explored: (a) What is the knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and comfort levels of school personnel regarding…

  18. The Impact of ART on the Economic Outcomes of People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannungi, Annet; Wagner, Glenn; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Background. Clinical benefits of ART are well documented, but less is known about its effects on economic outcomes such as work status and income in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. Data were examined from 482 adult clients entering HIV care (257 starting ART; 225 not yet eligible for ART) in Kampala, Uganda. Self-reported data on work status and income were assessed at baseline, months 6 and 12. Multivariate analysis examined the effects of ART over time, controlling for change in physical health functioning and baseline covariates. Results. Fewer ART patients worked at baseline compared to non-ART patients (25.5% versus 34.2%); 48.8% of those not working at baseline were now working at month 6, and 50% at month 12, with similar improvement in both the ART and non-ART groups. However, multivariate analysis revealed that the ART group experienced greater improvement over time. Average weekly income did not differ between the groups at baseline nor change significantly over time, among those who were working; being male gender and having any secondary education were predictive of higher income. Conclusions. ART was associated with greater improvement in work status, even after controlling for change in physical health functioning, suggesting other factors associated with ART may influence work.

  19. The Impacts of Internationalization and Globalization on Educational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Heriansyah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the impacts of internationalization and globalization on educational context. It is undeniable that the presence and existence of globalization have brought and given a great deal of influences within various fields including on education sector. Of course, it will be a problematic if a school or a higher education institution does not comprehensively notice and precisely pay attention towards each effect and development from internationalization and globalization that obviously appear. Hence, it is needed an international curriculum design that has the meticulous content and process as well as assessment. Moreover, the curriculum also has to take account a variety of aspects and components from distinctive perspectives within its plan, array, and implementation in the field in order to meet the demands of global marketplace and be able to answer each of challenges and changes that arise.

  20. The potential impact of microgravity science and technology on education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of educational support materials by NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division is discussed in the light of two programs. Descriptions of the inception and application possibilities are given for the Microgravity-Science Teacher's Guide and the program of Undergraduate Research Opportunities in Microgravity Science and Technology. The guide is intended to introduce students to the principles and research efforts related to microgravity, and the undergraduate program is intended to reinforce interest in the space program. The use of computers and electronic communications is shown to be an important catalyst for the educational efforts. It is suggested that student and teacher access to these programs be enhanced so that they can have a broader impact on the educational development of space-related knowledge.

  1. Game-Aided Education for Transportation Engineering: Design, Development, and Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qichao

    2017-01-01

    Transportation engineering is a wide area that covers different topics including traffic planning, highway design, pavement design, traffic safety, and traffic control. Certain concepts in those topics are challenging and are hard to understand based on textbooks and lectures. In this work, we developed five web games targeting the five topics in transportation engineering education to improve students’ understanding of those hard concepts. The games are hosted in a website server. Students c...

  2. Environmental school aids to the energetic education; La escuela ambiental contribuye a la educacion energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, B. A. C.; Coto, C. J. M.

    2004-07-01

    Elementary school is a propitious space to contribute to knowledge and adoption of habits related to the use of environmentally friendly energies. This article refers to a methodological strategy used in education for renewable energies, specifically solar energy, within the framework of the environmental school. Its objective is to share a successful strategy to diffuse the thermal applications of solar energy for home and school. (Author)

  3. Impact of agribusiness labour on the child education in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwang N Gildas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess the involvement of child labour in agribusinesses as well as the schooling pattern of children involved in these agribusinesses in Cameroon. For this study, some descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were computed using SPSS.20 and stata 13 software packages. The population of this study was made up of 51,190 individuals of both sexes that were concerned by the third Cameroon National Household Survey. The sample drawn from this population was constituted of individuals of age 5-17 years old, making a total of 17,550 children. The main results of this study revealed that agribusiness child labour was present everywhere in Cameroon and by both boys and girls. Children of all ages of the sample were concerned by the phenomenon and their level of education was essentially the primary. The impact of agribusiness child labour on education was positive because it helped the working and schooling children to provide means to finance their education and other needs. On the other hand, it has a negative impact on education because some children went for these jobs and finally stayed there and did not return back to school.

  4. An educational intervention impact on the quality of nursing records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linch, Graciele Fernanda da Costa; Lima, Ana Amélia Antunes; Souza, Emiliane Nogueira de; Nauderer, Tais Maria; Paz, Adriana Aparecida; da Costa, Cíntia

    2017-10-30

    to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on the quality of nursing records. quasi-experimental study with before-and-after design conducted in a hospital. All the nurses in the cardiac intensive care unit of the hospital received the intervention, which consisted of weekly meetings during five months. To collect data, the instrument Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes was applied to the patients' charts in two moments: baseline and after intervention. the educational intervention had an impact on the quality of the records, since most of the items presented a significant increase in their mean values after the intervention, despite the low values in the two moments. the educational intervention proved to be effective at improving the quality of nursing records and a lack of quality was identified in the evaluated records, revealed by the low mean values and by the weakness of some questions presented in the items, which did not present a significant increase. Therefore, educational actions focused on real clinical cases may have positive implications for nursing practice.

  5. Preferences Related to the Use of Mobile Apps as Dental Patient Educational Aids: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Courtney E; McQuistan, Michelle R; McKernan, Susan C; Askelson, Natoshia M

    2018-04-01

    Numerous patient education apps have been developed to explain dental treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess perceptions and preferences regarding the use of apps in dental settings. Four patient education apps describing fixed partial dentures were demonstrated to participants (N = 25). Questions about each app were asked using a semi-structured interview format to assess participants' opinions about each app's content, images, features, and use. Sessions were analyzed via note-based methods for thematic coding. Participants believed that apps should be used in conjunction with a dentist's explanation about a procedure. They desired an app that could be tailored for scope of content. Participants favored esthetic images of teeth that did not show structural anatomy, such as tooth roots, and preferred interactive features. Patient education apps may be a valuable tool to enhance patient-provider communication in dental settings. Participants exhibited varying preferences for different features among the apps and expressed the desire for an app that could be personalized to each patient. Additional research is needed to assess whether the use of apps improves oral health literacy and informed consent among patients. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Impact of Puberty Health Education on Anxiety of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Mokari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents, as a large group in the world, face many physical changes and psychological evolutions in their puberty period. If enough attention is not paid to such changes, negative effects on their health and knowledge may be induced. Thus, it is very important to hold health education approperiate for their needs using new educational methods and confident sources. The main goal of this study is to explore the impact of puberty health education on the anxiety of girls. Itis a quasi-experimental study using clustered sampling which was done on 159 girls from two high schools in Tehran divided into two experimental (N=86 and control (N=73 groups. Then,using a systematic educational plan revised by the researcher and expert panel from Department of Midwifery, all the students and their parents in the experimental group were instructed. Data were gathered by demographic questionnaire and Spielberger Scale. Questionnaires were completed by students in three phases including before, after, and three months after the end of the educational program. Data analysis was performed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi square, and multivariate tests. Mean anxiety scores in the experimental and control groups were 90.45 and 85.36 before the education, 78.79 and 85.49 at the end of the education, and 78.46 as well as 87.33 3 months later, respectively.Anxiety scores were statistically different post-intervention (p<0.001 and three months later(p<0.001. Puberty health education programs could reduce anxiety in female adolescents.

  7. IMPACT OF ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION FUNDING POLICY ON UNIVERSITY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETAN Georgiana Camelia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of higher education funding policy and university operating efficiency are hot points on the actual public agenda worldwide as the pressures exercised upon the public resources increased, especially in the aftermath of the last economic crisis. Concerned with the improvement of the funding mechanism through which government allocates the public funds in order to meet the national core objectives within the area of higher education, the policy makers adjusted the funding policy by diversifying the criteria used in distributing the funds to public universities. Thus, the aim of this research is to underline both the impact and the consequences the public funding patterns of higher education have on the relative efficiency of public funded higher education institutions, across time. Moreover, the research conducted aims to determine whether the changes occurred within the Romanian public funding methodology of higher education institutions improved the relative efficiency scores of public funded universities, before and after the economic crisis of 2008. Thus, on one hand we have underlined the changes brought to the Romanian public funding mechanism of higher education during the years of 2007, 2009 and 2010 compared to the year of 2006, using the content analysis, and on the other hand we assessed and compared the relative efficiency scores of each selected public funded university using a multiple input - multiple output linear programming model, by employing the Data Envelopment Analysis technique. The findings of the research undertaken emphasized that a more performance oriented funding mechanism improves the efficiency scores of public universities. The results of the research undertaken could be used either by the policy makers within the area of higher education or by the administrative management of public universities in order to correlate the funding with the results obtained and/or the objectives assumed by both the

  8. Impact of use of alcohol and illicit drugs by AIDS patients on adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Celia; Dourado, Maria De Lourdes; Santos, Marcio P; Brites, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Use of alcohol and illicit drugs is a common finding among HIV-infected individuals, but there are many open questions about its impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy and virological outcomes. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of the use of alcohol and illicit drugs on the adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among patients starting ART in Salvador, Brazil. We followed up 144 AIDS patients initiating ART for a 6-month period. At baseline, they were interviewed about demographics, behavior, and use of illicit drugs and alcohol. All of them had HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load and CD4(+)/CD8(+) cells count measured before starting therapy. After 60 days of treatment they were asked to answer a new questionnaire on adherence to ART. All patients were monitored during the following months, and new CD4(+) cell count/HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load determinations were performed after 6 months of therapy. Optimal adherence to therapy was defined by self-reported questionnaire, by 95% use of prescribed drug doses, and by using plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load as a biological marker. A total of 61 (42.4%) patients reported alcohol use, 7 (4.9%) used illicit drugs, and 17 (11.8%) used both alcohol and illicit drugs. Being in a steady relationship was protective to nonadherence (95% CI: 0.18-0.84). Missing more than two medical visits was also associated with a 68% higher likelihood of nonadherence (95% CI: 0.10-1.02). After logistic regression we detected a higher risk of nonadherence for patients declaring use of alcohol plus illicit drugs (odds ratio=6.0; 95% CI: 1.78-20.28) or high-intensity use of alcohol (odds ratio=3.29; 95% CI: 1.83-5.92). AIDS patients using alcohol and/or illicit drugs are socially vulnerable, and need specific and flexible programs, combining mental health care, harm reduction strategies, and assisted drug therapy to maximize the chances of successful use of ART.

  9. Understanding socio-economic impacts of geohazards aided by cyber-enabled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.

    2008-12-01

    Due to an increase in the volume of geohazards worldwide, not only are impoverished regions in less developed countries such as Haiti, vulnerable to risk but also low income regions in industrialized countries, e.g. USA, as well. This has been exemplified once again by Hurricanes Gustav, Hanna and Ike and the impact on the Caribbean countries during the summer of 2008. To date, extensive research has been conducted to improve the monitoring of human-nature coupled systems. However, there is little emphasis on improving and developing methodologies to a) interpret multi-dimensional and complex data and b) validate prediction and modeling results. This presentation tries to motivate more research initiatives to address the aforementioned issues, bringing together two academic disciplines, earth and social sciences, to research the relationship between natural and socio-economic processes. Results are presented where cyber-enabled methods based on artificial intelligence are applied to different geohazards and regions in the world. They include 1) modeling of public health risks associated with volcanic gas hazards, 2) prediction and validation of potential areas of mining-triggered earthquakes, and 3) modeling of socio-economic risks associated with tropical storms in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

  10. The role of decision-making ability in HIV/AIDS: impact on prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulehan, Kelly; Byrd, Desiree; Arentoft, Alyssa; Monzones, Jennifer; Fuentes, Armando; Fraser, Felicia; Rosario, Ana; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory (ProM), a form of episodic memory related to execution of future intentions, is important for everyday functioning. Among persons living with HIV (PLWH), executive dysfunction is implicated in ProM impairments. However, specific subcomponents of executive functioning involved in ProM deficits remain poorly understood. Unlike more "traditional" neurocognitive (NC) measures of executive functioning associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (i.e., conceptual reasoning, abstraction), those associated with medial orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal (mOF/vmP) cortex (i.e., decision making, inhibitory control, goal-oriented behavior) have yet to be examined in ProM. This study characterized ProM ability in a sample of 89 HIV-seropositive adults and examined the unique role of decision-making ability in ProM. Participants completed a standard NC battery, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; a decision-making measure), and the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST; a ProM measure). Correlational analyses revealed that both traditional executive functioning measures and the IGT were associated with ProM. Regression analyses revealed that the IGT significantly predicted ProM, even after accounting for NC measures. Among all NC measures, only executive functioning significantly contributed to ProM. Further examination of mOF/vmP-sensitive executive dysfunction within this population is needed as PLWH may require more tailored treatment recommendations due to specific decision-making difficulties that can impact medication management.

  11. Computer-aided event tree analysis by the impact vector method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.E.P.

    1984-01-01

    In the development of the Probabilistic Risk Analysis of Angra I, the ' large event tree/small fault tree' approach was adopted for the analysis of the plant behavior in an emergency situation. In this work, the event tree methodology is presented along with the adaptations which had to be made in order to attain a correct description of the safety system performances according to the selected analysis method. The problems appearing in the application of the methodology and their respective solutions are presented and discussed, with special emphasis to the impact vector technique. A description of the ETAP code ('Event Tree Analysis Program') developed for constructing and quantifying event trees is also given in this work. A preliminary version of the small-break LOCA analysis for Angra 1 is presented as an example of application of the methodology and of the code. It is shown that the use of the ETAP code sigmnificantly contributes to decreasing the time spent in event tree analyses, making it viable the practical application of the analysis approach referred above. (author) [pt

  12. HIV/AIDS, Globalizacao e Seguranca Ontológica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    HIV/AIDS, Entertainment-Education, Communication for Development, Migration, Ontological Security......HIV/AIDS, Entertainment-Education, Communication for Development, Migration, Ontological Security...

  13. 76 FR 19757 - The Federal Student Aid Programs Under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... institutional verification program, which ultimately makes the financial aid process easier for students, while... institutions to develop and implement their own comprehensive systems to verify student financial aid... institutions have addressed not only the accuracy of student aid awards and payments, but also the management...

  14. Evaluation of the British Columbia AIDS Information Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D C; Bell, M A; Gilchrist, L D

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated implementation of the British Columbia AIDS Information Line during its initial 15 weeks of operation. Data collected during daily operation of the line included call frequency, caller characteristics, response patterns, caller concerns and community referrals. Information on activities and resources required to implement the AIDS Line was also assembled. The study concluded that the advertising campaign sponsored by the provincial government and other AIDS-related media events had a strong impact on the frequency of calls made to the AIDS Line. However, the effect of both advertising and media events was of relatively short duration, suggesting that utilization of an AIDS information line is dependent on continuing promotional activities. The evaluation results demonstrate the importance of continuous collection of data online utilization, to track public awareness of and response to AIDS-related issues, and to facilitate planning of public education.

  15. A Review of the Impact of ICT in Rural Education in Nigeria | David ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experts in education suggest that networks and digital communication technologies will cause an even more dramatic prototype for E-learning, since learning over the Internet is neither time bound nor place bound. This paper reviews some of these techniques that could aid rural education. AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. IMPACT OF COMPUTER BASED ONLINE ENTREPRENEURSHIP DISTANCE EDUCATION IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan SHREE RAM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The success of Indian enterprises and professionals in the computer and information technology (CIT domain during the twenty year has been spectacular. Entrepreneurs, bureaucrats and technocrats are now advancing views about how India can ride CIT bandwagon and leapfrog into a knowledge-based economy in the area of entrepreneurship distance education on-line. Isolated instances of remotely located villagers sending and receiving email messages, effective application of mobile communications and surfing the Internet are being promoted as examples of how the nation can achieve this transformation, while vanquishing socio-economic challenges such as illiteracy, high growth of population, poverty, and the digital divide along the way. Likewise, even while a small fraction of the urban population in India has access to computers and the Internet, e-governance is being projected as the way of the future. There is no dearth of fascinating stories about CIT enabled changes, yet there is little discussion about whether such changes are effective and sustainable in the absence of the basic infrastructure that is accessible to the citizens of more advanced economies. When used appropriately, different CITs are said to help expand access to entrepreneurship distance education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise technical and managerial educational quality by, among others, helping make teaching and learning into an engaging, active process connected to real life. This research paper investigates on the impact of computer based online entrepreneurship distance education in India.

  17. Multi-Stakeholder Decision Aid for Improved Prioritization of the Public Health Impact of Climate Sensitive Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Valerie; Michel, Pascal; Gosselin, Pierre; Samoura, Karim; Ravel, André; Campagna, Céline; Cissé, Hassane Djibrilla; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-12

    The effects of climate change on infectious diseases are an important global health concern and necessitate decisions for allocation of resources. Economic tools have been used previously; however, how prioritization results might differ when done using broader considerations identified by local stakeholders has yet to be assessed. A multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach was used to assess multi-stakeholder expressed concerns around disease prioritization via focus groups held in Quebec and Burkina Faso. Stakeholders weighted criteria and comparisons were made across study sites. A pilot disease prioritization was done to examine effects on disease rankings. A majority of identified criteria were common to both sites. The effect of context specific criteria and weights resulted in similar yet distinct prioritizations of diseases. The presence of consistent criteria between sites suggests that common concerns exist for prioritization; however, context-specific adjustments reveal much regarding resource availability, capacity and concerns that should be considered as this impacts disease ranking. Participatory decision aid approaches facilitate rich knowledge exchange and problem structuring. Furthermore, given multiple actors in low- and middle-income countries settings, multi-actor collaborations across non-governmental organizations, local government and community are important. Formal mechanisms such as MCDA provide means to foster consensus, shared awareness and collaboration.

  18. [Impact of nurse, nurses' aid staffing and turnover rate on inpatient health outcomes in long term care hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunmi; Lee, Ji Yun; Kang, Hyuncheol

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to explore the impact of registered nurse/nurses' aid (RN/NA) staffing and turnover rate on inpatient health outcomes in long term care hospitals. A secondary analysis was done of national data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Services including evaluation of long term care hospitals in October-December 2010 and hospital general characteristics in July-September 2010. Final analysis of data from 610 hospitals included RN/NA staffing, turnover rate of nursing staff and 5 patient health outcome indicators. Finding showed that, when variables of organization and community level were controlled, patients per RN was a significant indicator of decline in ADL for patients with dementia, and new pressure ulcer development in the high risk group and worsening of pressure ulcers. Patients per NA was a significant indicator for new pressure ulcer development in the low risk group. Turnover rate was not significant for any variable. To maintain and improve patient health outcomes of ADL and pressure ulcers, policies should be developed to increase the staffing level of RN. Studies are also needed to examine causal relation of NA staffing level, RN staffing level and patient health outcomes with consideration of the details of nursing practice.

  19. Multi-Stakeholder Decision Aid for Improved Prioritization of the Public Health Impact of Climate Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Hongoh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on infectious diseases are an important global health concern and necessitate decisions for allocation of resources. Economic tools have been used previously; however, how prioritization results might differ when done using broader considerations identified by local stakeholders has yet to be assessed. A multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA approach was used to assess multi-stakeholder expressed concerns around disease prioritization via focus groups held in Quebec and Burkina Faso. Stakeholders weighted criteria and comparisons were made across study sites. A pilot disease prioritization was done to examine effects on disease rankings. A majority of identified criteria were common to both sites. The effect of context specific criteria and weights resulted in similar yet distinct prioritizations of diseases. The presence of consistent criteria between sites suggests that common concerns exist for prioritization; however, context-specific adjustments reveal much regarding resource availability, capacity and concerns that should be considered as this impacts disease ranking. Participatory decision aid approaches facilitate rich knowledge exchange and problem structuring. Furthermore, given multiple actors in low- and middle-income countries settings, multi-actor collaborations across non-governmental organizations, local government and community are important. Formal mechanisms such as MCDA provide means to foster consensus, shared awareness and collaboration.

  20. Impact of mental health first aid training on pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behaviour: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Claire L; Bell, J Simon; Kelly, Patrick J; Chen, Timothy F

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of delivering Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for pharmacy students on their mental health literacy and stigma towards mental illness. A non-randomized controlled design was used, with all third year pharmacy students at the University of Sydney (n = 272) in 2009 invited to participate in one of two MHFA training courses, each of 12 hours duration. Of these, 174 students applied for MHFA training, of whom 60 were randomly selected and offered MHFA training. Outcome measures that were completed by all participants in the MHFA and non-MHFA groups before and after the MHFA training included an evaluation of mental health literacy, the 7-item social distance scale, and 16 items related to self-reported behaviour. The survey instrument was completed by 258 participants at baseline (59 MHFA and 199 non-MHFA) and 223 participants at follow up (53 MHFA and 170 non-MHFA). The MHFA training improved the participants' ability to correctly identify a mental illness (p = 0.004). There was a significant mean decrease in total social distance of 2.18 (SD 3.35) p training. This study demonstrated that MHFA training can reduce pharmacy students' mental health stigma, improve recognition of mental disorders and improve confidence in providing services to consumers with a mental illness in the pharmacy setting.

  1. War on Film: Military History Education. Video tapes, Motion Pictures, and Related Audiovisual Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    results in a film of such impact and realism that it has been kept off television. D-2. War Without Winners II. (Color/TVT/29 min./1982) Brought to...pageantry of this film and the remarkable discipline of its participants is revealed, as vividly as in any cinematic record in existence, the skill of the...Olympia. (B&W/TVT/203 niin./1938) Olympia is one of the famous films of all time-Germany’s cinematic pageant of the 1936 Berlin Olympics. Controversial

  2. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mohammed Bashir

    2002-07-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  3. The AIDS epidemic and economic input impact factors in Chongqing, China, from 2006 to 2012: a spatial-temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqi; Xiao, Qin; Zhou, Liang; Ma, Dihui; Liu, Ling; Lu, Rongrong; Yi, Dali; Yi, Dong

    2015-03-27

    To analyse the spatial-temporal clustering of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Chongqing and to explore its association with the economic indices of AIDS prevention and treatment. Data on the HIV/AIDS epidemic and economic indices of AIDS prevention and treatment were obtained from the annual reports of the Chongqing Municipal Center for Disease Control for 2006-2012. Spatial clustering analysis, temporal-spatial clustering analysis, and spatial regression were used to conduct statistical analysis. The annual average new HIV infection rate, incidence rate for new AIDS cases, and rate of people living with HIV in Chongqing were 5.97, 2.42 and 28.12 per 100,000, respectively, for 2006-2012. The HIV/AIDS epidemic showed a non-random spatial distribution (Moran's I≥0.310; p<0.05). The epidemic hotspots were distributed in the 15 mid-western counties. The most likely clusters were primarily located in the central region and southwest of Chongqing and occurred in 2010-2012. The regression coefficients of the total amount of special funds allocated to AIDS and to the public awareness unit for the numbers of new HIV cases, new AIDS cases, and people living with HIV were 0.775, 0.976 and 0.816, and -0.188, -0.259 and -0.215 (p<0.002), respectively. The Chongqing HIV/AIDS epidemic showed temporal-spatial clustering and was mainly clustered in the mid-western and south-western counties, showing an upward trend over time. The amount of special funds dedicated to AIDS and to the public awareness unit showed positive and negative relationships with HIV/AIDS spatial clustering, respectively. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  5. Trends in aeropropulsion research and their impact on engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Reichert, Bruce A.; Glassman, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation is concerned with the trends in aeropropulsion both in the U.S. and abroad and the impact of these trends on the educational process in our universities. In this paper, we shall outline the new directions for research which may be of interest to educators in the aeropropulsion field. Awareness of new emphases, such as emission reductions, noise control, maneuverability, speed, etc., will have a great impact on engineering educators responsible for restructuring courses in propulsion. The information presented herein will also provide some background material for possible consideration in the future development of propulsion courses. In describing aeropropulsion, we are concerned primarily with air-breathing propulsion; however many observations apply equally as well to rocket engine systems. Aeropropulsion research needs are primarily motivated by technologies required for advanced vehicle systems and frequently driven by external requirements such as economic competitiveness, environmental concern and national security. In this presentation, vehicle based research is first described, followed by a discussion of discipline and multidiscipline research necessary to implement the vehicle-focused programs. The importance of collaboration in research and the training of future researchers concludes this presentation.

  6. Health Care and the Social Construction of AIDS: Impact of Disease Definitions on Psychosocial Adaptation and Economic Circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Stephen; Jackson, Marguerite

    As with other illnesses, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a socially constructed phenomenon, not simply a biological entity. Biologically, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection causes immunosuppression, which in turn causes a spectrum of disease states. The official definition of AIDS by the Centers for Disease Control requires…

  7. Continuing Education Workshops in Bioinformatics Positively Impact Research and Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazas, Michelle D; Ouellette, B F Francis

    2016-06-01

    Bioinformatics.ca has been hosting continuing education programs in introductory and advanced bioinformatics topics in Canada since 1999 and has trained more than 2,000 participants to date. These workshops have been adapted over the years to keep pace with advances in both science and technology as well as the changing landscape in available learning modalities and the bioinformatics training needs of our audience. Post-workshop surveys have been a mandatory component of each workshop and are used to ensure appropriate adjustments are made to workshops to maximize learning. However, neither bioinformatics.ca nor others offering similar training programs have explored the long-term impact of bioinformatics continuing education training. Bioinformatics.ca recently initiated a look back on the impact its workshops have had on the career trajectories, research outcomes, publications, and collaborations of its participants. Using an anonymous online survey, bioinformatics.ca analyzed responses from those surveyed and discovered its workshops have had a positive impact on collaborations, research, publications, and career progression.

  8. Functional resistance activities to impact frailty: A protocol for a randomized controlled trial involving home care aide and frail older adult dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret K. Danilovich, PT, DPT, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of older adults use in-home Medicaid Waiver Home and Community Based services (HCBS to facilitate aging-in-place. A primary service of this program is Home Care Aide assistance with activities of daily living and homemaker needs. Despite the known benefits of exercise, exercise programs are currently not offered to clients in the Medicaid Waiver system. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe a six-month Home Care Aide-led resistance exercise intervention protocol for frail older adults receiving Medicaid waiver services. Methods/design: A randomized controlled trial will be used. We will enroll 126 Home Care Aide-client dyads for a 6-month exercise intervention. The intervention will consist of training phases to promote muscle strength, power, and endurance. We will use an intention to treat principle using mixed effects models for the quantitative outcomes. To analyze qualitative outcomes, we will use conventional content analysis to examine themes from participant program evaluations. Discussion: As greater numbers of adults age in place with frailty and employ Home Care Aides to help manage functional limitations, interventions embedded within usual care services play a critical role in bringing exercise into the home setting. The research described in this protocol will provide important knowledge about the impact of a Home Care Aide-led exercise intervention in reducing frailty in older adults. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02942992; Keywords: Frailty, Dyad, Formal caregivers, Resistance exercise

  9. Business leaders form alliance to fight AIDS. Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-11

    It is estimated that 33% of deaths among the working population in Thailand by the year 2000 will result from AIDS. AIDS mortality will bring decreased productivity, increased healthcare costs, a decline in tourism, reduced labor exports, and labor shortages. The AIDS epidemic in the country therefore has a direct impact upon companies' productivity and resulting profitability. Acknowledging this reality and the need for action, the Managing Director of Northwest Airlines for Thailand, Indochina, and West Asia, James P. Reinnoldt, and the General Manager of Bangkok's Regent Hotel, Bill Black, started the nonprofit Thailand Business Coalition on AIDS (TBCA) to combat AIDS. The TBCA will provide leadership, coordination, education, and resources to help companies and the business sector get a positive response to the AIDS dilemma. The organization was established to lead through and beyond the AIDS epidemic in the interest of business by promoting coherent HIV/AIDS policies and workplace education with help from nongovernmental organizations. The TBCA will be supported by membership dues, private contributions, and grants. Member companies will receive a manual and a quarterly newsletter and be allowed to join a training course on managing AIDS in the workplace. The organization's target of enlisting 250 member companies within the next 12 months means that help will be rendered in the training of 50,000 Thai workers.

  10. AIDS and its effects on the advancement of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document gives an overview of the worldwide spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the means of its prevention, and its effects on women who are not infected. It also explains how the AIDS virus is not spread, and why it is important not to be afraid of those infected with the AIDS virus. It stresses the need for information at a time when a vaccine or cure are not yet available, and education is the only means of prevention. The global mobilization being conducted to fight the AIDS crisis is discussed. Different ways in which women are at risk to infection by the HIV virus are reviewed, especially the subordination of women. This denies them the same education, legal rights, training, health, and independent incomes, all of which reduces their chance for access to information about AIDS. It considers risk of being infected by a partner, from a blood transfusion, increased susceptibility in someone who already has a sexually transmitted disease, increased susceptibility in a woman who has been circumcised, risk of infection from rape, and how women are coerced into prostitution, putting them at risk for AIDS. It also covers HIV infection and contraception, the danger to professional health-care workers, transmission of HIV infection from mother-to-infant, and discrimination that is AIDS-related. Women who are not infected are impacted by AIDS because they suffer stress as caretakers. The document also discusses the social and economic consequences of AIDS.

  11. Maryland residents' attitudes toward AIDS and the use of dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L A; Grace, E G; Ward, M A

    1992-01-01

    This project was conducted to examine the impact of Maryland residents' attitudes about AIDS on dental services utilization. A telephone survey of 1,477 households was conducted (response rate 68.9%). Less than 7 percent of the respondents volunteered a concern about contracting AIDS in the dental office. When asked directly, approximately 35 percent stated they would change dentists if their dentist were treating AIDS patients. Respondents who were most aware of the wide-spread treatment of AIDS patients by dentists were more likely to believe their dentist was treating AIDS patients. Also, they were less likely to report that they would leave the practice of dentists with AIDS or those who treated AIDS patients. It is critical for the public to be educated properly about the continued safety of the dental office and to receive accurate information about AIDS.

  12. Impact of Armed Conflicts on Education and Educational Agents: A Multivocal Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Cervantes-Duarte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the short and long-term pernicious impact of armed conflicts on education and educational agents (students, teachers and students’ parents, using a multivocal review by means of the integration and qualitative analysis of 60 research reports (voices found in two databases: Web of Science and PROQUEST in the period between 1995 –date of the first founding paper- until 2014. Through the analysis of source data (voices and taking the “multivocal review” as a method, the voices have been combined in nine categories, namely: a Refusal and impediments to a return to education; b Educational infrastructure damaged or destroyed; c Cuts in or withdrawal of spending on education; d Loss of the educational and protective functions of the family; e Loss of the academic community; f Non-qualified teaching staff; g Drastic loss of skills; h Abandoning school (population movements, destruction of networks and social environment; i Behavioural problems: traumas, pedagogical roles and self-victimization. These categories have highlighted the serious consequences arising from conflicts, infringing as they do the most basic human rights and in particular the right to a sound education during childhood.

  13. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Jimmy Adedokun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to aid selectivity practice.

  14. Impact of entrepreneurial education on consumer loyalty in tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Pero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Each educational activity in tourism is a vital tool of development. In most industries during the late 20th and early 21st century, the growing intensity of competition and dynamic development, has led to changes in the objectives of doing business, and this is especially true for the tourism industry. In the past, the focus was on attracting new customers, while marketing strategies now focus on retaining existing customers and winning their loyalty. The main reason for this new approach is the awareness of the economic impact of tourism customer loyalty. Travel and tourism companies with a higher share of consumer loyalty benefit from the growing rate of repurchase, increased tolerance to higher prices, positive advertisements on the basis of recommendations from satisfied tourist consumers and less tendency to switch to competitors. In order to achieve customer loyalty and all the benefits that implies, tourism companies must be aware of the factors that determine loyalty. Therefore, the subject of this paper analyzes the factors that influence consumer loyalty to tourism, in order to come to the knowledge of the type, intensity and mode of influence of individual factors on long-term customer loyalty. The quality of the training and education of entrepreneurship procure sub­sequent impact on customer loyalty. The paper points out the importance of entrepreneurship education in the European Union with a focus on the quality of educational programs. In turn, the number and quality of the coverage factor of success in a wholesome entrepreneurial economy is expanded, especially in the tourism industry as its most dynamic part.

  15. Is the Water Sector Lagging behind Education and Health on Aid Effectiveness? Lessons from Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Welle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study in three countries (Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Uganda assessed progress against the Paris Principles for Aid Effectiveness (AE in three sectors – water, health and education – to test the assumption that the water sector is lagging behind. The findings show that it is too simplistic to say that the water sector is lagging, although this may well be the case in some countries. The study found that wider governance issues are more important for AE than having in place sector-specific mechanics such as Sector-Wide Approaches alone. National political leadership and governance are central drivers of sector AE, while national financial and procurement systems and the behaviour of actors who have not signed up to the Paris Principles – at both national and global levels – have implications for progress that cut across sectors. Sectors and sub-sectors do nonetheless have distinct features that must be considered in attempting to improve sector-level AE. In light of these findings, using political economy approaches to better understand and address governance and strengthening sector-level monitoring is recommended as part of efforts to improve AE and development results in the water sector.

  16. The role of international organizations in aid: A case study of a teacher education programme in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banya, Kingsley

    1988-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the Sierra Leone government realized that the educational system was not meeting the developmental needs of the country. In an attempt to reverse the increasing trend of migration to urban areas, to improve rural productivity and the quality of rural life, and to counteract other deleterious effects of this system, in 1974 the government collaborated with Unesco, UNDP and the African Development Bank in launching the Bunumbu project to train primary school teachers for rural areas. This linked a training college with 20 pilot schools and the local community. This paper critically examines the role played by each of the international organizations in executing the project. It gives examples of resources wasted in supplying inappropriate equipment and expensive building materials, and argues strongly for more consideration of local conditions, and for the involvement of local training agencies and local labour, in any similar future plans. The paper concludes with a discussion of who really benefits from international aid and resolves that both recipients and donors should abandon grandiose schemes.

  17. Development of Procedures for Assessing the Impact of Vocational Education Research and Development on Vocational Education (Project IMPACT). Volume 8--A Field Study of Predicting Impact of Research and Development Projects in Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhorta, Man Mohanlal

    As part of Project IMPACT's effort to identify and develop procedures for complying with the impact requirements of Public Law 94-482, a field study was conducted to identify and validate variables and their order of importance in predicting and evaluating impact of research and development (R&D) projects in vocational and technical education.…

  18. The impact of intramural grants on educators' careers and on medical education innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Shelley R; Chang, Anna; Loeser, Helen; Cooke, Molly; Wang, Jason; Teherani, Arianne

    2015-06-01

    The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Haile T. Debas Academy of Medical Educators Innovations Funding program awards competitive grants to create novel curricula and faculty development programs, compare pedagogical approaches, and design learner assessment methods. The authors examined the principal investigators' (PIs') perceptions of the impact of these intramural grants on their careers and on medical education innovation. At 12 months (project completion) and 24 months (follow-up), PIs submit a progress report describing the impact of their grant on their careers, work with collaborators, subsequent funding, project dissemination, and the UCSF curriculum. The authors analyzed these reports using qualitative thematic analysis and achieved consensus in coding and interpretation through discussion. From 2001 to 2012, the program funded 77 PIs to lead 103 projects, awarding over $2.2 million. The authors analyzed reports from 88 grants (85.4%) awarded to 68 PIs (88.3%). PIs noted that the funding led to accelerated promotion, expanded networking opportunities, enhanced knowledge and skills, more scholarly publications and presentations, extramural funding, and local and national recognition. They also reported that the funding improved their status in their departments, enhanced their careers as medical educators, laid the foundation for subsequent projects, and engaged an array of stakeholders, including trainees and junior faculty. These modest intramural education grants not only created innovative, enduring programs but also promoted educators' professional identity formation, fostered collaborations, supported junior faculty in finding their desired career paths, provided advancement opportunities, and raised the local and national profiles of recipients.

  19. A study of the impact of technology in early education

    OpenAIRE

    Wajszczyk, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the current state of the use of Information and communication technology (ICT) and its impact on pupils in their early stages of education. The aim is to find out how, when and in what context ICT is used in the work with students. The overall objective is to study teachers views on ICT and their opinion on how ICT does affects pupils - positively or negatively. The results of this study are based on both a literature review and a qualitative study. The...

  20. Pharmacy technician self-efficacies: Insight to aid future education, staff development, and workforce planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P; Hoh, Ryan; Holmes, Erin R; Gill, Amanpreet; Zamora, Lemuel

    2017-07-15

    The roles of pharmacy technicians are increasingly prominent given pharmacy's transition to patient-centered activities and evolving scopes of practice in many U.S. states and throughout the world. The aims of this study were to assess U.S. pharmacy technicians' self-efficacies for and attitudes toward performing current and emerging roles in hospital and in community pharmacy and to identify factors related to pharmacy technician self-efficacies in these roles. A total of 5000 pharmacy technicians from 8 U.S. states were sent an electronic survey eliciting data on current involvement, self-efficacies, and attitudes for practicing in an expansive list of practice activities. The 8 states from which the sample was drawn were selected from a stratified randomized procedure using U.S. Census Bureau geographically defined regions. Pre-notification and response reminders were employed. Data were analyzed descriptively and with univariate, inferential tests, as appropriate, to determine associations with commitment, practice environment, experience level, and other variables. Of the 612 participants who responded, 494 were currently working as a technician and not enrolled in a PharmD program of study. Participants reported various activities in which they were highly engaged. Overall, attitudes toward performing most of the activities and self-efficacies were quite favorable, even for those activities in which technicians were currently less involved. There were some notable differences between technicians practicing in community versus hospital settings. Years of experience, profession commitment, and advanced employee ranking were associated with higher levels of self-efficacy, overall. This initial examination of pharmacy technician self-efficacies identified areas that along with other factors could help employers with further expanding technician practice activities and vocational institutions with considerations for education and development of these key members