Bingley, Paul; Walker, Ian
of spouses. A model of labour supply is estimated for married women allowing for endogenous unemployment durations of husbands and wives, using 43531 married couples drawn from UK Family Expenditure Surveys 1978-92. Evaluating the impact of the reform requires that we distinguish between transfer programme......A recent reform to the UK Unemployment Insurance (UI) system has reduced the duration of entitlement from 12 to 6 months. The UI and welfare systems interact in the UK in such a way that exhaustion of UI for married individuals has potentially large disincentive effects on the labour supply...... induced incentive effects and any correlation between labour supply and wages within couples; complementarily between the leisure times of spouses; and a discouraged worker effect. We find that shifting households with a medium duration unemploymed husband from UI onto Income Support, the main UK welfare...
Hargreaves, David H.
Examines education's role in helping people in England to use their increased leisure time more productively. High unemployment levels and technological changes have increased the need for education-for-leisure. Future oriented education must help people develop their social organization skills and their capacities to enjoy unsupervised learning.…
Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe
This paper develops a four-sector equilibrium search and matching model with informal sector employment opportunities and educational choice. We show that underground activities reduce educational attainments if informal employment opportunities mainly are available for low-educated workers. A more...... zealous enforcement policy will in this case improve educational incentives as it reduces the attractiveness of remaining a low-educated worker. However, unemployment also increases. Characterizing the optimal enforcement policies, we find that relatively more audits should be targeted towards the sector...... employing low-educated workers; elsewise, a too low stock of educated workers is materialized....
Kolm, Anne-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe
This paper develops a four sector equilibrium search and matching model with informal sector employment opportunities and educational choice. We show that underground activities reduce educational attainments if informal employment opportunities mainly are available to low educated workers. More ...
Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas
Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…
Full Text Available Objective: Examining the interrelationship between quality of life, hardiness, selfefficacy and self-esteem among working (professional and non-professional, and non-working married women has motivated the researcher to launch this study. Method: The samples in the present study consisted of 250 married employed women and 250 married unemployed women in the age range of 24-41 years old belonging to lower, middle, and upper socioeconomic status groups, with educational qualification of 10±2 and above and having at least one school child. Stratified convenience sampling technique was used for the selection of the sample. The World Health Organization -Quality of Life (WHO QOL – BREF, the Personal View Survey (PVS, the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE, The Coopersmith Self-Eesteem Inventory (CSEI and demographic questionnaire Sheet were chosen for collection of the data. Results: Obtained Pearson r values revealed significant positive interrelationship between quality of life, hardiness, self-efficacy, and self-esteem in the whole sample, within the subgroups of professional and non-professional employed and unemployed women. Obtained pearson r values revealed significant negative relationship between employment and the above variables in women. Conclusion: It indicates that women with higher quality of life score rank also higher on hardiness, self-efficacy, and self-esteem and vice versa.
Tranæs, Torben; Larsen, Anders Holm; Groes, Niels
We present a dynamic forecast model for the labour market: demand for labour by education and the distribution of labour by education among industries are determined endogenously with overall demand by industry given exogenously. The model is derived from a simple behavioural equation based on a ...... for educational groups, where the initial forecast year is a change point for unemployment....
Individuals acquire education for two broad fundamental reasons, as an investment and as consumption. The investment function of education has continued to create tension for job search leading to cases of unemployment. Entrepreneurship education and establishment of mega universities have being identified as ...
This paper analyses the link between educational attainment and unemployment risk in a French-German comparison, based on a discrete time competing risks hazard rate model applied to comparable microdata sets. The unemployment risk is broken down into the risk of entering unemployment and the risk, once unemployed, of not getting reemployed. The paper examines the impact of education on both risk components. France faces a higher unemployment rate than West-Germany, due to a higher risk of en...
Kristensen, Ole Steen
A longitudinal study of 1,256 participants in adult basic education in Denmark focused on psychological changes in adult education participants regarding reemployment. The unemployed were goal directed and became more so during the course. Participants' high social support diminished during the course as participants began to meet some societal…
Christine R. Schwartz
Full Text Available Intermarriage plays a key role in stratification systems. Spousal resemblance reinforces social boundaries within and across generations, and the rules of intermarriage govern the ways that social mobility may occur. We examine intermarriage across social origin and education boundaries in the United States using data from the 1968–2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our evidence points to a pattern of status exchange—that is, persons with high education from modest backgrounds tend to marry those with lower education from more privileged backgrounds. Our study contributes to an active methodological debate by pinpointing the conditions under which the results pivot from evidence against exchange to evidence for exchange and advances theory by showing that the rules of exchange are more consistent with the notion of diminishing marginal utility than the more general theory of compensating differentials.
Jan 18, 2011 ... The paper is an assessment of education, graduate unemployment and the .... areas. The reason is that in rural areas, people are usually self employed in ... are in a comatose state thereby aggravating the unemployment problem. Nigeria ranks very low in terms of energy supply and consumption globally.
Nwambam, Aja Sunday; Eze, Prisca Ijeoma
This paper reviewed the relationship between the type of education and school leavers' unemployment with the view to highlighting its implications for educational planning in Nigeria. The concept of education, reasons for steady increase in the number of unemployed school leavers and what to do in order to curb educated unemployment were…
The paper is an assessment of education, graduate unemployment and the dilemma of development in Nigeria. Formal education is universally acknowledged as a legitimized vehicle for self and societal advancement. The educational curricula, especially that of a university, imparts knowledge, relevant skills and ...
Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe
endogenously. Job opportunities in an informalsector are available only to workers who choose not to acquirehigher education. We find that increased punishment of informal activitiesincreases the number of educated workers and reduces the number of unemployed workers. Considering welfare, we show it isoptimal......While examining the macroeconomic effects of government taxand punishment policies, this paper develops a three-sector generalequilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wagebargaining. Workers are assumed to differ in ability, and the choiceof education is determined...... to choose punishment rates so to more than fully counteractthe distortion created by the government's inability to tax theinformal sector.JEL-codes: H26, I21, J64Keywords: Tax evasion, underground economy, education, matching,unemployment....
Erdem, Ekrem; Tugcu, Can Tansel
This article analyses the short and the long-term relations between higher education and unemployment in Turkey for the period 1960-2007. It chooses the recently developed ARDL cointegration and Granger causality of Dolado and Lutkepohl (1996) methods. While the proxy of unemployment is total unemployment rate, higher education graduates were…
Explanations for persistent youth unemployment (deficits in the unemployed, structural need for unemployment, location of decision-making power) lead to education of youth at risk as a solution, an old paradigm inadequate for the restructured labor market. New questions must be asked, such as separating income from waged labor and finding other…
Theodore Mitrakos; Panos Tsakloglou; Ioannis Cholezas
Unemployment rates for young individuals are particularly high in Greece and an important fraction of the young unemployed are tertiary education graduates. The results of this study imply that the problem is the transition from education to the labour market, irrespective of the individual’s age and educational qualifications. By and large, unemployment rates for tertiary education graduates tend to diminish a few years after graduation, while they fall slower and remain higher for persons w...
Full Text Available The present study tested how well Ajzen in Fishbein's (1980 Theory of reasoned action (TRA predicted educational intentions and aspiration of the unemployed, who were enrolled in governmental funded educational programs. Study also explores the role of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997 as the third independent determinant of intention within the theory of reasoned action and its impact on motivation for further education. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 326 unemployed persons, aged from 16 to 49 years. It turned out that the only significant predictor variable are subjective norms, which had explained 38 % of the variance in intentions (p < 0.001, whereas attitudes toward behavior and self-efficacy did not achieve significance. On the other hand self-efficacy strongly influences individual's educational aspirations and expectations. The results of the study support the hypotheses, that external variables have stronger impact on person's goals, which are under a strong social influence, then on personal beliefs about instrumentality of behavior and perceived competence.
Haifa Mefteh; Mabrouka Bouhajeb; Fakher Smaoui
This paper examines the relationship between economic growth, higher education, unemployment and poverty using properties of time series variables while applying the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method...
Full Text Available Background: In several European countries the excess mortality of nonmarried people relative to the married has increased. In this study we describe in detail the increasing mortality advantage of the married in Norway and investigate the extent to which changes in educational composition of marital-status groups can account for this increasing mortality gap. Methods: Using register data for the entire population of Norway, we estimated discrete-time hazard models for mortality at age 50-89 in years 1975-2008. We also estimated one-year death probabilities by age, period, marital status, education, and spouse's education. These were used to calculate period-specific age-standardized death probabilities for marital-status categories and hypothetical versions of these, assuming constant death probabilities in each educational group in each marital-status category or constant educational distributions. Hypothetical and observed versions were then compared. Results: The mortality of nonmarried people relative to married people increased sharply over the years 1975-2008. During the first part of this period, mortality was constant or even increasing among the never-married, who at the end of the period could be considered as lagging 30 years behind the married. Educational patterns have changed markedly, but this explains only up to 5Š of the increasing mortality disadvantage of the never-married. Educational changes have contributed more to the growing disadvantage of the widowed, while the picture is more mixed for the divorced. Conclusions: Contribution: We demonstrate that there has been a large widening in the marital-status differences in mortality in Norway since the 1970s and that little of this difference can be attributed to changes in educational distributions.
Full Text Available Unemployment in Poland s one of the main factors causing problems in the process of upbringing. It is also the main reason for constant growth of poverty and process of marginalization of many families in Polish society. Family is a basic and irreplaceable environment for a child. It is not child's choice what sort of family she/he was born into, however family situation and environment started to influence a child, from very beginning. Well functioning family, where the socialization and education process are running in a healthy way, creates positive environment for physical, psychological, social and moral development of a child and successfully influence the child's school career, lack of conflict with the law and finally – gaining professional autonomy. Unemployment is conducive to increasing dysfunction in the family. This problem makes lot of families inefficient, in many respects, educational environment unable to fulfill the most basic human needs. This condition is very unfavorable for children and leads to disturbances in the development of physical, mental, social and moral.
Munk, Martin D.; Park, Do-Yeun
This project focuses on the impact of Denmark’s Youth Unemployment Program(YUP) enacted in late 1990s on the rise in VET dropout rates. The Youth Unemployment Program targeted unemployed, low-educated youth to strengthen the employment possibilities and to motivate for them to undertake...... an education. If the Youth Unemployment Program incentivized less capable/ambitious students to enter vocational education, it would increase the dropout rates via selection. This project investigates whether the program had an effect on the population characteristics of incoming VET students and the resulting...
Undie, John Atewhoble; Okafor, Victor
In fundamental economics, individuals acquired education for two broad reasons, as an investment and as consumption. The investment function of education has continued to create tension for job search leading to cases of unemployment. Entrepreneurship education and establishment of mega universities have been identified as panaceas. This paper…
Has vocational education been responsible for the unemployed youth in our nation today? No, the vocational education community is not responsible for youth unemployment rates, the shifting labor market demands, the baby bulge, women in the labor force, the oil embargo, or the economic recession. Then what role does the vocational education…
Pogorzelska, Marzanna; Biniecki, Susan Yelich
This paper, based on a qualitative analysis of adult education literature, presents a comparison of approaches to unemployment-related problems in Poland and the US. Unemployment serves here as a lens through which attitudes towards various areas connected with adult education can be viewed. The conclusions drawn from the research can be both the…
Zendler, A.; Spannagel, C.; Klaudt, D.
Constructivist approaches to computer science education emphasize that as well as knowledge, thinking skills and processes are involved in active knowledge construction. K-12 computer science curricula must not be based on fashions and trends, but on contents and processes that are observable in various domains of computer science, that can be…
Ghimire, Dirgha J; Axinn, William G; Smith-Greenaway, Emily
This paper investigates the association between mass education and married women's experience with domestic violence in rural Nepal. Previous research on domestic violence in South Asian societies emphasizes patriarchal ideology and the widespread subordinate status of women within their communities and families. The recent spread of mass education is likely to shift these gendered dynamics, thereby lowering women's likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Using data from 1775 currently married women from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, we provide a thorough analysis of how the spread of mass education is associated with domestic violence among married women. The results show that women's childhood access to school, their parents' schooling, their own schooling, and their husbands' schooling are each associated with their lower likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Indeed, husbands' education has a particularly strong, inverse association with women's likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. These associations suggest that the proliferation of mass education will lead to a marked decline in women's experience with domestic violence in Nepal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.; Smith-Greenaway, Emily
This paper investigates the association between mass education and married women’s experience with domestic violence in rural Nepal. Previous research on domestic violence in South Asian societies emphasizes patriarchal ideology and the widespread subordinate status of women within their communities and families. The recent spread of mass education is likely to shift these gendered dynamics, thereby lowering women’s likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Using data from 1,775 currently married women from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, we provide a thorough analysis of how the spread of mass education is associated with domestic violence among married women. The results show that women’s childhood access to school, their parents’ schooling, their own schooling, and their husbands’ schooling are each associated with their lower likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Indeed, husbands’ education has a particularly strong, inverse association with women’s likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. These associations suggest that the proliferation of mass education will lead to a marked decline in women’s experience with domestic violence in Nepal. PMID:26463551
Full Text Available This study used panel data regression analysis to evaluate the long-term effects of several measures of U.S. education expenditure on unemployment rates in 50 states and Washington D.C. over 25 years. The data included state-level statistics for fiscal effort, graduation rates, education spending per pupil, gross state product per capita, welfare spending, health spending, political party affiliation, union versus nonunion states, and unemployment rates. Results find that the best way to effectively reduce unemployment is investment in improving the quality of human capital through funding education. Findings specifically conclude that over the long term, investment in human capital through education as defined by per-pupil spending and health services could play a significant role in reducing unemployment rates.
Brown, Dustin C; Hummer, Robert A; Hayward, Mark D
Education's benefits for individuals' health are well documented, but it is unclear whether health benefits also accrue from the education of others in important social relationships. We assess the extent to which individuals' own education combines with their spouse's education to influence self-rated health among married persons ages 25 and older in the United States (N = 337,846) with pooled data from the 1997-2010 National Health Interview Survey. Results from age and gender-specific models revealed that own education and spouse's education each share an inverse association with fair/poor self-rated health among married men and women. Controlling for spousal education substantially attenuated the association between individuals' own education and fair/poor self-rated health and the reduction in this association was greater for married women than married men. The results also suggest that husbands' education is more important for wives' self-rated health than vice versa. Spousal education particularly was important for married women ages 45-64. Overall, the results imply that individuals' own education and spousal education combine to influence self-rated health within marriage. The results highlight the importance of shared resources in marriage for producing health.
Jan 18, 2011 ... The problem of graduate unemployment is attributable to corruption in governance, population explosion, expansion of university enrolment and lack of .... to regulate the admission of students into universities in Nigeria. ... depends on various factors-namely; mobility of labour, the pace of change in.
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between economic growth, higher education, unemployment and poverty using properties of time series variables while applying the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS method. Our study thus contributes to the existing literature by giving the first integrated approach to examine the four way linkages in the Tunisian background over the period 1990-2013. This paper holds that higher education can impact unemployment and graduate unemployment causes poverty which would affect economic growth. Our empirical results show that there is bi-directional causal relationship between per capita gross domestic product (GDP and poverty rate (POV and also between Number of graduate students (GRA and School enrollment tertiary education (ENR besides unidirectional causal relationship which running from Number of graduate students to Unemployment with tertiary education (UNP, from Higher education expenditure (EXP to poverty rate and from Unemployment with tertiary education to poverty rate. Our empirical results also verified the existence of positive effect of ENR, GRA and POV on economic growth, while, UNP and EXP have negative determining influence on economic growth with only GRA statistically significant. These empirical insights are of particular interest for the policy makers as they help build sound economic policies to sustain economic development and improve the higher educational quality.
Akor, R. T.; Agashi, P. P.; Ekuje, F. T.; Akoh, J. A.; Ebenehi, E. S.
Unemployment is one of the most serious problems facing Nigeria like many other countries in the world. Nigeria is becoming a predominantly youth society with high rate of unemployment. The development of youth is critical to economic survival and vibrancy of any nation. In order for a country to achieve her development aspiration, the youths need to have access to education that will enable them to enhance their standard of living and gain competitive skills that will be in high demand in th...
Full Text Available Background & aim: One of the most important events in human life is marriage. Sexual satisfaction is one of the effective factors in a successful marriage. Accordingly, sexual health education is necessary. Sex education should be in line with the cultural, religious, and social infrastructures of the society. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of sex education with and without religious teachings on sexual performance of married women. Methods: This clinical trial with a pretest-posttest design was performed in four health centers that were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling, in 2013. A total of 64 women were chosen with regard to the inclusion criteria, such as formal marriage and first marriage, age of marriage ≥ 1, married life with husband, monogamous marriage, and participating in training sessions (sexual health education and sexual health based on religious teachings that were held for six weeks. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI and a demographic characteristics form were used to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient in SPSS, version 16. Results: In the intervention group, the mean score of Female Sexual Function Index was significantly different before and after the training program (P=0.03. The subgroups of sexual desire, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction in the intervention group and subgroups of arousal and sexual satisfaction in the control group were significantly different after the intervention (P
Juan A. CAÑADA VICINAY
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of education in labor inequality based on gender, age and marital status in Spain in the period 2005q1-2012q4 with individual data from the EPA. The axes of inquiry are twofold: 1st crosssectional approach to family bias expressed in the job profiles of cycle life, occupational segregation, concentration of employment in occupational groups and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses; and 2nd longitudinal treatment with sliding panel of family interference in the market status of married women by age and educational level. Cross-sectional analysis shows negative associations between marriage-education in both sexes and between education and participation in women by comparison with men, jointly with large gender segregation in married women suggests that they support a family specific bias which hinders its market presence. The individual perception of family interference confirms this fact as they are married women who suffer mainly from the problems of work-family conciliation, even younger than 44 years where they are more educated than their husbands and gender equality is a social value settled. The longitudinal analysis quantifies, with multinomial Logit estimates, the disadvantage of married women to participate into the market in terms of the entry barrier for inactive wives and the premature withdrawal for occupied ones due to problems of work-family reconciliation. In short, family responsibilities leave off the market to married women, regardless of age and education.
Xavier Cuadras Morató; Xavier Mateos Planas
A generalized rise in unemployment rates for both college and high-school graduates, a widening education wage premium, and a sharp increase in college education participation are characteristic features of the transformations observed in the U.S. labor market between 1970 and 1990. This paper investigates the interactions between these changes in the labor market and in educational attainment. First, it develops an equilibrium search and matching model of the labor market where education is ...
Ekuri, E. E.; Alade, F. O.; Sule, M.; Odigwe, F. N.
Drawing from the empirical research on unemployment among young graduates and the question of economic relevance of curricula of the tertiary education in Nigeria, this investigation was carried out to answer the following research question: Will unemployed graduates' perceptions of the importance of entrepreneurial education in poverty…
Full Text Available Today a degree is no longer a guarantee of employment. There is a gap between needs for personnel in the real sector and a surplus of professionals who cannot find a suitable or appropriate job in their field. The unemployment rate among young graduates has increased in recent years by 240Ü. There are few job openings for individuals in surplus professions, who, in addition, are facing a great deal of competition and, therefore, have difficulty finding employment. Rifkin presents a possible solution, making us rethink the nature of work. In order to improve the situation on the labour market and to enable the young to enter it, it is necessary to develop new forms of work, which would bring greater flexibility.
Full Text Available The present article’s goal is to reveal the Romanian universities malfunctions’ in recruiting and guiding the students towards specific higher education specializations. Incapable of becoming a social selector and thus a mechanism of social promotion, the university developed itself into a source of intellectual unemployment in an agrarian society. Thus, it is reasonable to create a causal link between intellectual unemployment and the ascent of the nationalistic political trends in the 1930s, as it was the legionary movement.
This study used a phenomenological approach to explore the lived experiences of three groups of stakeholders of the Botswana basic education program related to the employment and unemployment of graduates of basic education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 participants from three groups of stakeholders, graduates of basic…
Saleh, Wael F; Gamaleldin, Sameh F; Abdelmoty, Hatem I; Raslan, Ayman N; Fouda, Usama M; Mohesen, Mohamed N; Youssef, Mohamed A F M
To assess awareness of several reproductive health and HIV issues and to determine the sources of reproductive health knowledge. A cross-sectional survey of 150 randomly recruited, newly married couples without formal education attending gynecology or andrology outpatient clinics in Cairo, Egypt, was conducted from January 2012 to January 2013. Participants were interviewed separately and asked to respond to a semi-structured questionnaire on reproductive health and HIV awareness. Most participants had not received premarital counseling or undergone premarital testing. Awareness about HIV was relatively high: 117 (78.0%) women and 128 (85.3%) men had heard of HIV and had some awareness of the modes of HIV transmission. Only 24 (16.0%) women had ever used a condom compared with 36 (24.0%) men. Only two men out of the 150 couples questioned were aware of the free HIV hotline. Television and friends were the main sources of reproductive health knowledge. Routine premarital counseling and testing by reproductive health, gynecology, and andrology specialists need to be enforced. Mass media is an essential source of knowledge about HIV and reproductive health. Premarital, reproductive health, and HIV education programs need to be improved. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Kriegbaum, Margit
not change this association substantially. High use of avoidant coping was associated with low educational attainment among men, OR = 1.57 (0.98-2.51). For women, medium educational attainment was significantly associated with low use of avoidant coping, OR = 0.60 (0.42-0.85). This result was not affected...
This paper addresses trends in education-specific unemployment risks at labor market entry in West Germany from the mid-1970s to the present. In line with previous research it shows that vocationally qualified school-leavers have relatively lower unemployment risks than school-leavers with general education. Over time, the gap in unemployment risks between the low-educated and medium- and highly educated labor market entrants substantially widened for both sexes. The literature identifies two different mechanisms for this trend: structural or cyclical crowding out. While in the former scenario low-educated become increasingly unemployed due to an oversupply of tertiary graduates and displacement from above, in the latter their relative unemployment risk varies with the business cycle. The results provide evidence for cyclical rather than structural crowding-out in West Germany. Since macroeconomic conditions became generally worse over time, this strongly explains the widening unemployment gap between the low-educated and all other education groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the nexus between the existing university education system and graduate unemployment, and to explore the responses of successive governments to address this issue. It also examines the viability and potential of the knowledge hub as a solution to graduate unemployment. Towards this end, it argues that the solution to graduate employment lies in implementing structural changes that are concurrent to changes that are taking place at the international level in higher education. It illustrates, with the use of relevant sources, the pressing issue of graduate un- and underemployment, and identifies the mismatch between skills and requirements as a major factor contributing to intensify the crisis. It observes that strategies such as training unemployed graduates to enable them to acquire the competencies needed for the modern work place, developing systems to link them to the world of work, re-structuring the university system such that it is more concerned with quality and relevance rather than the width of knowledge imparted, and introducing job-oriented programmes could partially address this issue. It also identifies the proposal to establish a knowledge hub in Sri Lanka as constituting a long term and sustainable strategy not only to mitigate the effects of graduate un- and underemployment, but also to facilitate a lucrative source of revenue for the country.
Full Text Available The present study is considering a comparing analysis of the values of unemployment from the years 2002, 2011, respectively, from the Depression of Beiuș, the accent being placed on the structuring of the unemployed persons depending on the level of the graduated educational institution. The results registered following the comparing analysis of the data presents an accentuation of the values of unemployment on the graduates of the institutions of higher education, of high school, and in case of those that didn’t graduate any kind of education. These ascendant evolutions of the percentage of unemployed from the mentioned categories are accomplished against the others (graduates of postgraduate education and of overmen, vocational and technical school, gymnasium and primary school, which, thus, are reducing of the specific unemployment manpower.
Groß, Mona; Herr, Annika; Hower, Martin; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Mahlich, Jörg; Stoll, Matthias
The present study on people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) identifies socio-demographic and health-related factors corresponding with their labour market participation. The study sample bases on a German observational sub-study of 527 male PLWHA. The present analysis is restricted to male PLWHA in working age. By means of a multivariate regression, we identify factors that contribute to unemployment and job loss. The probability to be unemployed is significantly negatively correlated with age above 40 years and graduation from university and positively correlated with problems with daily activities (frailty) and disease severity (CDC stage C). The probability of employment loss during the 2-year observation period is significantly negatively correlated with the educational level, whereas frailty and hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection increase the odds of employment loss. As problems to manage daily activities and disease progression are associated with unemployment, an effective HIV treatment is an important cornerstone for employment. This is also true for the management of comorbidities, such as HCV co-infection, which also negatively affects employment status in our study.
Gulnara Rafaelevna Gabidullina
Full Text Available This article analyzes the problem of employment of young specialists - graduates of professional institutions. Youth employment is a national problem, because the youth is the country’s human potential. Youth employment is a pressing and long-term objective of national social and economic policy. One of the causes of youth unemployment is a discrepancy between the education markets to labor market needs. Solving problems of youth unemployment is only possible from the standpoint of an integrated, systematic approach.
Bae, Sang Hoon; Song, Ji Hoon
Using national jobless data and education statistics, this study examines the systemic association between Korea's youth unemployment trend and the workforce supply structure in which the youths' educational attainment patterns plays a key role. Focus is given to how type and length of education are correlated with employability. The findings of…
Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; San Sebastián, Miguel; Gustafsson, Per E
Despite an increasing number of studies on the factors mediating the impact of the economic recession on mental health, research beyond the individual employment status is scarce. Our objectives were to investigate in which ways the mental health of employed and unemployed populations is differently affected by the current economic recession along the educational scale and to examine whether financial strain and social support explain these effects of the crisis. A repeated cross-sectional study, using two waves of the Andalusian Health Survey in 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011-2012 (crisis). A population aged between 19 and 64 years was selected. The dependent variable was the Mental Component Summary of the SF-12 questionnaire. We performed Poisson regression models stratified by working status, with period, educational level, financial strain and social support as independent variables. We examined interactions between period and educational level. Age, sex, main earner, cohabitation and partner's working status were considered as covariates. The study included 3210 individuals (1185 women) in 2007 and 3633 individuals (1486 women) in 2011-2012. In working individuals the prevalence of poor mental health increased for secondary and complete primary studies groups during crisis compared to the pre-crisis period, while it decreased significantly in the university study group (PR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58-0.99). However, in unemployed individuals prevalence ratios for poor mental health increased significantly only in the secondary studies group (PR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.06-2.83). Financial strain and social support yielded consistent associations with mental health in all subgroups. Only financial strain could partly explain the crisis effect on mental health among the unemployed. Our study supports the finding that current economic recession is associated with poorer mental health differentially according to labour market status and educational level. Those with secondary
Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.
In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…
Between 2008 and 2009, Natasha Caruana went on 80 dates with married men. She usually managed to take one or two illicit photographs with a disposable camera. A far cry from any glamorous excitement an adulterous affair might entail, her snapshots show the remnants of a cafe meal, a soiled coffee cup, the lid of a takeaway food container.Caruana stumbled upon a website that connects people seeking extramarital affairs. Fascinated by the internet’s impact on modern relationships – offline as w...
Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...
Gould-Werth, Alix; Shaefer, H. Luke
Unemployment Insurance (UI) is the major social insurance program that protects against lost earnings resulting from involuntary unemployment. Existing literature finds that low-earning unemployed workers experience difficulty accessing UI benefits. The most prominent policy reform designed to increase rates of monetary eligibility, and thus UI…
Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.
share of immigrants without prior working experience decreased in the crisis year, also regardless of the duration of their unemployment. Both factors indicate more active search in the crisis period and suggest demand constraints on the labour market, which has affected both the domicile and immigrant population. In order to determine significant predictors of very long-term in comparison to short-term unemployment, the same empirical strategy has been applied. The analysis for the 2007 (pre-crisis year has identified the following significant predictors of long-term unemployment status for immigrants in Croatia, listed in the decreasing marginal effects order: positive predictors: lower secondary education (in comparison to upper-secondary education, persons older than 55 and persons in the 45‒54 age cohort (in comparison to the reference 35‒44 age cohort. The analysis for the 2012 (crisis year has identified the following significant predictors of long-term unemployment status for immigrants in Croatia, listed in the decreasing marginal effects order: positive predictors: persons without prior working experience and persons older than 55 (in comparison to the reference age cohort; negative predictors: age cohorts 15‒24 and 25‒34 (in comparison to the reference age cohort, being married or cohabitating, male persons. Comparing the results for 2007 and 2012 it seems obvious that the most important difference is related to first-time job seekers. The crisis has created a population without previous working experience that has become long-term unemployed. Since the long-term unemployed are, in general, considered by employers as persons with lower employability, this is a serious issue that deserves policy actions. When considering future policy actions related to immigration, results for the most recent year are more important. The analysis in the paper has shown that certain occupations (elementary occupations, services and sales workers, crafts and related
Intimate partner violence is a social and public health problem that is prevalent across the world. In many societies, power differentials in relationships, often supported by social norms that promote gender inequality, lead to incidents of intimate partner violence. Among other factors, both a woman's years of education and educational differences between a woman and her partner have been shown to have an effect on her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner abuse. Using the 2010 Malawian Demographic and Health Survey data to analyze intimate partner violence among 3,893 married Malawian women and their husbands, this article focuses on understanding the effect of educational differences between husband and wife on the likelihood of physical and emotional abuse within a marriage. The results from logistic regression models show that a woman's level of education is a significant predictor of her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence by her current husband, but that this effect is contingent on her husband's level of education. This study demonstrates the need to educate men alongside of women in Malawi to help decrease women's risk of physical and emotional intimate partner violence.
Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica
Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (pequality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV.
Murakami, Keiko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Hashimoto, Hideki
Associations between education and obesity have been consistently reported among women in developed countries, but few studies have considered the influence of marital status and husbands' education. This study aimed to examine differences in the association between education and overweight/obesity by marital status and to determine the contribution of husbands' education to overweight/obesity among community-dwelling Japanese women. A questionnaire survey was conducted from 2010 to 2011 among residents aged 25-50 years in Japanese metropolitan areas. Of 2145 women who agreed to participate and completed the survey, 582 were unmarried and 1563 were married. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 . Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine whether women's or their husbands' education was associated with overweight/obesity after adjusting for age, work status, and equivalent income. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 11.9% among unmarried women and 10.3% among married women. Women's own education was significantly associated with overweight/obesity among unmarried women but not among married women. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of high school education or lower compared with university education or higher was 3.21 (95% confidence interval: 1.59-6.51) among unmarried women. Among married women, husbands' education was significantly associated with overweight/obesity: women whose husbands' educational attainment was high school or lower had significantly higher odds of overweight/obesity than did those whose husbands had a university education or higher (1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-2.55). Among married women whose educational attainment was college or higher, women whose husbands' educational attainment was high school or lower had a significantly higher risk for overweight/obesity when compared with women whose husbands' educational attainment was college or higher. Associations between women's own
It's a pretty tough time to be a young European seeking to enter the labour market, but what exactly is the nature of the problem facing young people trying to find employment? It has long been recognized that unemployment is associated with a series of negative health consequences, both physical and psychological which tend to grow disproportionately with the duration of unemployment. Unemployment is also associated with unhappiness - both for those experiencing it as well as those who are e...
CHILMAN, CATHERINE S.; MEYER, DONALD L.
A COMPARISON WAS MADE OF THE ACHIEVEMENTS AND ASPIRATIONS OF UN DERGRADUATE MARRIED STUDENTS WITH THOSE OF UNDERGRADUATE UNMARRIED STUDENTS. THE STUDY OBJECTIVES WERE (1) TO DETERMINE TO WHAT EXTENT MARRIED MEN AND WOMEN UNDERGRADUATE COLLEGE STUDENTS DIFFER FROM UNMARRIED STUDENTS IN ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, STATED ATTITUDES TOWARD THEIR EDUCATION…
Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur; Rahman, Mohammad Lutfor
To quarantine the spreading possibility of HIV virus to general population boosting public awareness is must. But the proper awareness level is substantially low in Bangladesh. This paper aims to identify the factors associated with the awareness regarding HIV/AIDS through a bivariate and multivariate analysis using the data extracted from Bangladesh Demography and Health Survey (BDHS) 1999-2000. The findings of both techniques show that education, occupation, socioeconomic status, status of household food consumption, area of residence and media exposure have significant (p media, particularly TV, and education play the leading role regarding this issue while the others have an indirect relationship. The odds of awareness among higher educated women and men were 4.69 and 77.73 times of no educated women and men respectively. In addition, both women and men those who regularly watch TV were 8.6 times more likely to be aware about AIDS compared to those who never watch TV. This phenomenon holds true for both women and men. At this instant it is urgent to give emphasis on education, alleviation of poverty, ensuring electronic media exposure, head to head communication program, institutional based sex education and necessary information to learn about HIV/AIDS for the young, adult and adolescents all over the country.
Buchtová, Božena; Smajs, Josef; Kulhavý, Viktor; Okrajek, Petr; Kukla, Lubomír
Previous unemployment studies mostly dealt with unemployments economic causes and consequences. Hidden causes of male unemployment, independent from socio-economic circumstances of a society, could consist, besides others, in natural biological factors - family experience during childhood. Theoretical background of our study included the concept of psychical deprivation, the concept of human ontogenesis developmental stages of E. Erikson and knowledge of biodromal psychology. Using data from the European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood international project we compared groups of employed and unemployed men by means of a retrospective survey and we studied the following: 1. What differences there were in their childhood; 2. To what extent educational approaches transfer from parents to their children; 3. What influence has negative experience from childhood on the future assertion of men in the labour market. The survey set consisted of 3141 (88.7%) employed men and 399 (11.3%) unemployed men in 1991-1992. Basic research data were acquired by means of questionnaires. Relative risk was used to compare the groups of the employed and the unemployed. The employed men are more likely to be from complete families then the unemployed men. The unemployed men, in comparison to the employed men, 2.08 times more frequently spent their childhood in orphanages, children's villages or in foster families, 3.89 times more frequently attended special schools, 2.22 times more frequently lived away from home until the age of 18 and 2.51 times more frequently lived in detention centres or in diagnostic institutes until the age of 18 (p unemployed men were psychically and physically abused in their childhood. Consequences of negative experience from childhood decrease the chances of inclusion of young men into the labour market. Social roles of young men (future fathers) could be also distorted by such experience. Social integration and social success rate of the
Full Text Available The author introduces unemployment of youths in Slovenia and throws light on the reasons for this phenomenon. Later on she explains the importance of obtaining a profession and a job. She points out the psycho-social consequences of unemployment with young people and the characteristics of the target group of unemployed younger adults. She quotes the data concerning the young unemployed involved in criminal offences in 1997 and 1998 and tries to find the reasons why educating this target group is not only necessary but indispensable. There is a short presentation ofthe project »5000 Youths« in 1998 and participating of the unemployed in it. The author enumerates the schools which implemented the project and their experiences in educating adults. According to data, the majority of schools do have these experiences. Within the project there was also a modular program for education of teachers. The results of a questionnaire, represented in the article, show the meaning of such education for teachers and their experiences in working with the unemployed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To quarantine the spreading possibility of HIV virus to general population boosting public awareness is must. But the proper awareness level is substantially low in Bangladesh. This paper aims to identify the factors associated with the awareness regarding HIV/AIDS through a bivariate and multivariate analysis using the data extracted from Bangladesh Demography and Health Survey (BDHS 1999–2000. Results The findings of both techniques show that education, occupation, socioeconomic status, status of household food consumption, area of residence and media exposure have significant (p Conclusion At this instant it is urgent to give emphasis on education, alleviation of poverty, ensuring electronic media exposure, head to head communication program, institutional based sex education and necessary information to learn about HIV/AIDS for the young, adult and adolescents all over the country.
Adriana Veronica LITRA
Full Text Available The article aims to contribute to the clarifying of the differences and the complementarities between the two main official methods of measuring unemployment, which provide results regarding "harmonised unemployment" (issued by the Labour Force Survey – LFS, according to the International Labour Organization – ILO – definition, and figures regarding "registered unemployment" (provided by the Public Employment Services, according to different national definitions and regulations.
Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna
Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...
Reviews of the literature on the relationship between unemployment and psychological and physical health point clearly to the fact, that loss of employment has a negative influence on the state of health of the unemployed and increases the signs of pathology. The negative influence of unemployment on health is seen mainly among the long-term unemployed, for young people who cannot find a job after finishing their education and for their family members. The range and extent of the negative consequences are various. They depend on socio-demographic, personality, situation and time factors and on the existing social support systems. A number of theoretical concepts (eg. of stress, life events, inability to fulfil latent psychological functions, the role of social structures etc.) are used to explain the mechanisms of the negative psychophysiological changes, connected with unemployment. However, it is possible, that the main role is played by an interaction of various factors, which influence the development of social and health related pathology. This indicates the necessity of creating detailed and varied programmes for prophylactics and treatment, based on scientific research. This is particularly important in Poland. Here the percentage of unemployment is very high. Unfortunately neither the Community, nor the political and administrative organs (including the Health Service) are equipped to cope with this new problem. To this must be added the lack of sufficient research, and inadequate knowledge about how unemployment spreads and about its consequences.
Pavel Jedlièka; Jaroslav Kovárník
The paper deals with the specificities in the development of the unemployment of the schools graduates and the minors in the Czech Republic. Firstly, the authors analyze the size of this group of the unemployed and its share in the total unemployment. Through statistical data they demonstrate both the decrease in the total unemployment and the decrease in the unemployment of this chosen group. The data document a faster decrease in the unemployment of graduates in comparison with the decrease...
Full Text Available Background: Job stress is a major factor in the creation burn out, reduction patient satisfaction, leave the nursing profession. Nurses job stress can have a major effect on the quality of patient care. Objective: This study was performed with the aim of investigation the job stress and determining factors among nurses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted stratified random sampling method on 123 nurses. The instruments includes demographic information and nurse job stress questionnaire that had seven domains (patient's suffering and death, conflict with physicians, lack of adequate preparation, lack of supportive resources, conflicts with other nurses, working pressure and uncertainty of treatment. Analysis methods of descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson, t-test, chi-square, Tukey, Kruskal Wallis test, Anova, linear regression was performed. Findings: The majority had moderate stress 84 persons (68.3% and 26 persons (21.1% low stress, 13 persons (10.6% a lot of stress. Nurses with Bachelor and higher education (P=0.045, the employment contract (P=0.042 had higher levels of stress and who with at least one child had lower levels of stress that was statistically significant (P=0.02. Work pressure and conflict with physicians were the most and least important factors respectively. Conclusion: Workshop in the relation to the management and control of stress depending on the amount of stress, work pressure, can reduce job stress by the nurse's educational needs assessment.
Samuel, Putra A.; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Lestari, Dian
The objective of this study is modeling the Unemployment Rate (UR) in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, with rate of disease, infant mortality rate, educational level, population size, proportion of married people, and GDRP as the explanatory variables. Spatial factors are also considered in the modeling since the closer the distance, the higher the correlation. This study uses the secondary data from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). The data will be analyzed using Moran I test, to obtain the information about spatial dependence, and using Spatial Autoregressive modeling to obtain the information, which variables are significant affecting UR and how great the influence of the spatial factors. The result is, variables proportion of married people, rate of disease, and population size are related significantly to UR. In all three regions, the Hotspot of unemployed will also be detected districts/cities using Spatial Scan Statistics Method. The results are 22 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed (Most likely cluster) in the study area; 2 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in West Java; 1 district/city as a regional groups with the highest unemployed in Central Java; 15 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in East Java.
Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...
Hu, Anning; Qian, Zhenchao
The expansion of higher education witnessed in many societies influences the pattern of educational assortative mating. Structural transition theory predicts growing educational homogamy due to increasing preference for highly-educated partners who become more widely available. In contrast, social closure theory suggests depressed educational homogamy because the inflation of the education elite circle fosters the openness of marriage market, reducing the preference for a highly-educated mate and increasing the penetrability across social-status boundaries. Capitalizing the survey data that are representative of the post-80s one-child generation collected in Shanghai, China, we test the hypotheses derived from the two theories. Empirical results suggest that, with increasing availability of highly educated individuals, the extent of educational homogamy by birth cohort reveals a U-shaped pattern. This U-shaped pattern demonstrates increasing levels of educational homogamy and lends support to structural transition theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Goede, Martijn; Spruijt, Ed; Maas, Cora; Duindam, Vincent
Examines how family and personal characteristics relate to the employment situation of adolescents (N=995) in Denmark. Results show that parental divorce, parental unemployment (only for males), low parental affective involvement, and adolescent relationship problems were related to youth unemployment, but educational career and work commitment…
Shin, Seung Han; Lim, Hyung-tak; Park, Hyun-young; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Han-suk
This study aimed to investigate the associations of combined parental low educational level and combined parental unemployment on the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in Korea. Data on 427,857 singleton births were obtained from the National Birth Registration (NBR) database in 2003 and analyzed. Parental education and parental employment status were combined as exposure for analysis. Place of birth, sex, marital status, parental age and parity were included for analysis of unconditional multiple logistic regressions. PTB was defined as birth before a gestational age of 37 complete weeks. Group of the lowest educational level, below high school, had the highest odds of PTB in both father and mother in multivariable analysis [odds ratio (OR) 1.15 and 1.16, respectively]. After combining parental educational status for the multivariable analysis, the highest probability of PTB was in families where both parents had below college level education (OR 1.22). As for paternal employment, the multivariable analysis showed an increased rate of PTB occurred where the father was unemployed (OR 1.11). After combining the employment status of both parents, the multivariable analysis revealed that PTB was only significant in families where both parents were unemployed (OR 1.09). We found that combined parental low educational level and combined parental unemployment increased the likelihood of preterm birth.
Lötters, Freek; Carlier, Bouwine; Bakker, Bernhard; Borgers, Natacha; Schuring, Merel; Burdorf, Alex
Few studies have addressed the specific contribution of health in relation to socio-demographic and motivational aspects to re-entering paid employment. The purpose of this study among beneficiaries of unemployment benefits is to evaluate the detrimental effects of poor health and a lack of motivation on the likelihood of getting a job and to develop a decision support model that predicts remaining unemployment after 12 months. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among people on unemployment benefit (UB) or social insurance benefit (SIB). The time-window of the study was 18 months. Written questionnaires were filled out 3 months post-benefit assessment, 6, 12 and 18 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the barriers of re-entering paid employment. Subsequently, a predictive model was constructed to estimate the probability for every combination of determinants for a person to remain unemployed in the next 12 months. Older age (≥55 years), a poor perceived health, and a lack of willingness to accept a job were the most prominent predictive factors for remaining unemployed after 12 months in both UB and SIB groups. Lower education in the UB group and being married or living together and poor self-reliance in the SIB group were additional risk factors for long-term unemployment. Vocational rehabilitation of people on long-term social benefit should address perceived health, socio-demographic, and motivational aspects as key factors that determine prolonged unemployment. A predictive flow chart can be used to detect most vulnerable persons at risk for remaining long-term unemployment.
Full Text Available This article begins with the assessment regarding the relation between partial occupancy, education and the unemployed reorientation. The main section of the article analyzes from a statistical point of view the unemployed territorial reorientation concentrationing upon a county area according to data provided by AJOFM Argeş. There are emphasized here not only tendencies, structural dynamics but also processes of concentration and diversification upon age groups. A few final remarks are closing in an optimistic manner the analysis of the unemployed territorial reorientation in the specified territory.
Full Text Available The paper present the evolution of two characteristics, the unemployment rate and the medium level of education rate also in European Union (28 countries and particularly in Romania. The analyzed was made during six years, between 2008 and 2013. At the end of the paper it was applied a correlation coefficient in order to demonstrate if there is any link between the two characteristics. The results show that also in the European Union, as well as in Romania the evolution of the two characteristics has almost the same tendency during the entire period. Also the Pearson correlation coefficient shows that between the two indicators, the unemployment rate and the medium level of education rate there is a negative link but with a very small value which get us to the conclusion that the correlation is insignificant.
Borooah, Vani K.; Mangan, John
Students in many countries face increased costs of education in the form of direct payments and future tax liabilities and, as a consequence, their education decisions have taken on a greater financial dimension. This has refocused attention on obtaining meaningful estimates of the return to education. Routinely these returns are estimated as the…
Social Security Administration — The Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) provides State Unemployment Insurance agencies real-time online access to SSA data. This includes SSN verification and Title...
Analiza Strukture Nezaposlenosti Visokoobrazovanih Kadrova u Republici Srpskoj i Mjere za Njezino Smanjenje / Analysis Of the Unemployment Structure of Highly Educated Personnel in the Republic of Srpska and Measures for its Reduction
Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the structure of unemployed highly educated staff in the Republic of Srpska. As indicated, such structure shall enable analysis of unemployment of highly educated staff as well as of vacant jobs on the basis of gender and profession, thus demonstrating that more than 1/2 of the staff after graduation finds themselves at the Employment Agency. This survey shall provide data indicating the unemployment duration of highly educated staff, i.e. the time they spend waiting for their first job at the Employment Agency. Unemployment analysis throughout various regions of the Republic of Srpska shall be addressed in detail. Likewise, the relevant institutions of the Republic of Srpska, acting as proxies between highly educated people and the labour market, shall be integrated in the analysis. The paper shall be particularly focused on assessment of unemployment of highly educated people from the field of economy. The problem of unemployment in the Republic of Srpska has been particularly pronounced with the last few years (2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. It is constantly deepened due to the inadequate enrolment policy by the Ministry and the inability of the labour market to absorb the staff in the real and the public sector. The analysis is not based exclusively on the Republic of Srpska. The measures to reduce unemployment of highly educated people in the Republic of Srpska shall also be introduced. It is evident that today’s society faces massive unemployment, including the unemployment of highly educated people in the Republic of Srpska, which represents an enormous issue, and is after all, the focus of the paper itself.
Laura Južnik Rotar
The paper deals with the problem of youth unemployment and entrepreneurship as a way out of unemployment. The battle against youth unemployment is a top European priority, since the youth unemployment rate is more than twice as high as the adult one, because the chances for a young unemployed person of finding a job are low, because their jobs tend to be less stable, because there are significant skills mismatches on the labor market. Entrepreneurship is a powerful driver of economic growth a...
Kyyrä, Tomi; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Rosholm, Michael
We consider the consequences of working part-time on supplementary unemployment insurance beneits in the Danish labour market. Following the "timing-of-events" approach we estimate causal effects of subsidized part-time work on the hazard rate out of unemployment insurance beneit receipt. We fin...... evidence of a negative lock-in effect and a positive post-treatment effect, both of which vary across individuals. The resulting net effect on the expected unemployment duration is positive for some groups (e.g. married women) and negative for others (e.g. young workers). ...
2 (2016). 63. Usefulness of problem tree, objective tree and logical framework matrix to fix chal- lenges of unemployment and underemployment of higher education graduates in. Rwanda .... underemployment rate is based on the proportion of people disposed to work for more hours, available to do so and worked less than ...
Full Text Available Background: In many countries, including the UK, unemployment is associated with earlier entries into motherhood. However, the implications of male unemployment are not straightforward. Objective: The paper addresses this issue by investigating transition to first births in relation to unemployment experience as moderated by partnership status. It also examines the effects of both partners‟ employment statuses on transition into parenthood, focusing on the joint labour market status of cohabiting and married couples. Methods: The impact of unemployment experience on the timing of parenthood is predicted using discrete time event history analysis. Data from the British Household Panel Study provide complete family and work histories. Unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for. Results: Unemployment leads to earlier entries into parenthood for both men and women. However, its impact differs according to the relationship status in which it is experienced. Unemployed men who cohabit and unemployed women who are single have a higher probability of becoming parents. Among married individuals the timing of parenthood is determined largely by the labour market status of the female partner. Irrespective of the male‟s employment status, couples with employed female spouses have a substantially lower probability of becoming parents. Yet among women who are not in employment there is a delaying effect of unemployment compared to being economically inactive. Conclusions: Different mechanisms explain the relationship between unemployment and fertility timing for non-married and married individuals. Neoclassical family models seem to determine parenthood timing among married individuals, whereas early parenthood among non-married individuals can be explained by an uncertainty reduction strategy or discouragement from marriage.
Purpose and Originality: Goal of the study is analysis of the unemployment policy in Slovakia and policy measures to increase the employment rate. Research question: What was the development of unemployment in the period from 2006 to September 2016 and what measures were taken by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family to reduce the unemployment rate in Slovakia? Method: Comparison of the unemployment rate in period between 2006 to 2016. Information was gathered from online ...
Pozzebon, S; Mitchell, O S
The Longitudinal Retirement Survey, a panel study conducted by the US Social Security Administration in 1969-79 of married women who were private sector workers in 1969 and had employed husbands, allows for the empirical analysis of the economic and family determinants of women's retirement behavior. This study tested a life cycle model of women's retirement behavior. This study tested a life cycle model of women's retirement decisions. In the sample of 139 women who were followed for 10 years, the average age at retirement was 62 years (compared with 64 years for males). 67% of the respondents retired prior to or at the same time as their husbands. The model incorporated 3 types of explanatory factors: measures of income opportunities, measures of retirement or years away from the labor force, and family responsibility measures. Evidence from the regression model suggests that a working wife's retirement decision is most strongly influenced by the husband's income, his health status, and the difference in age between the spouses. The increase in the wife's discounted income stream if she defers retirement to age 65 years has a stronger substitution than income effect, but the coefficient is not significant. Logit models, which can explicitly incorporate income and leisure information relevant to each retirement date, further confirm the greater impact of family responsibilities that economic opportunities on married women's retirement decisions. Married women seem to value nonwork years highly, especially if their spouse is older than they, but will defer retirement if their husband is in poor health. On the other hand, women's retirement choices are not affected by whether the husband is retired or the presence of dependent children. These findings contrast sharply with research indicating that economic opportunities are the predominant determinants of men's retirement decisions.
The study findings highlight the importance of improved reproductive health education, and access to reproductive health services for married couples. Furthermore, research is needed to better understand married male involvement and their support of family planning both within marriage and in non-marriage relationships.
Mahmodi, Yaghob; Valiee, Sina
Marital satisfaction is one of the key factors affecting women's holistic health. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sexual health education on the quality of life in married women. The present controlled clinical trial was conducted with a pretest-posttest design on a study population of 60 women (aged 20-45) admitted to select health centres affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Samples were selected through convenience sampling and randomly allocated to an intervention group (n=30) and a control group (n=30). The data collection tool was the WHOQOL completed by participants first in the pretest and then in the follow-up posttest (after 2 months). The intervention group received sexual health education, while no interventions were provided to the control group. Data were analysed in SPSS-16 using the paired t-test and the independent t-test. Participants were matched in the two groups in terms of demographic variables such as age, occupation, age at marriage, duration of marriage, residential status and income level. At the baseline, no significant differences were observed between the intervention group (77.35±9.36) and the control group (75.64±8.32) in terms of the quality of life score (P=0.26). After the intervention, the quality of life score was 94.3±6.54 in the intervention group and 74.2±7.33 in the control group, making for a significant difference (Pwomen improve their sexual health through promoting sexual and marital satisfaction and consequently improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yasmeen K Kazi, Anita G Shenoy, Gajanan Velhal, Sudam R Suryawanshi
Introduction: The issues faced by the youth (15 – 24 years) today like illiteracy, unemployment, high risky behavior can result in adverse economic, social and political consequences. Young women face additional problems, like malnutrition, anemia. They are forced into early marriage and child bearing. Hence, this study was carried out to study the Sexual & Reproductive Tract Infections among the Married Female Youth, in an Urban Slum of Mumbai. Methodology: Married Female Youth in the age gr...
Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: Goal of the study is analysis of the unemployment policy in Slovakia and policy measures to increase the employment rate. Research question: What was the development of unemployment in the period from 2006 to September 2016 and what measures were taken by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family to reduce the unemployment rate in Slovakia? Method: Comparison of the unemployment rate in period between 2006 to 2016. Information was gathered from online sources and publications. Using the collected data, the individual unemployment rates in all Slovak regions and districts will be compared. Results: During examined period between 2006 and 2016 the highest unemployment rate was 14.40% in 2010. The paper also mentions the economic crisis that struck Slovakia between 2008 and 2010. During this period, the unemployment in Slovakia increased by 4.8%. The primary objective of the government was to reduce the unemployment rate below 10%. This has been achieved in March 2016. The positive news is the tendency of constantly falling unemployment in our country. Society: Unemployment is one of the negative phenomena in society. Job loss or inability to find a job application one is deprived of the possibility to implement and enforce own life goals. Unemployed, unless one can find a job, can enter the phase of adaptation to the lifestyle of the unemployed, which is characterized by resignation, loss of hope, passivity. A person ceases to be active, considering that his work does not make sense. Job loss affects negatively self-peception, lower self-esteem and leads to feelings of inferiority. Limitations: The aim of the Slovak Republic was in 2016 to keep unemployment below 10% and then continue the trend of reducing unemployment by new laws, inviting new investors and put into practice various measures, such as various programs for the unemployed.
Full Text Available Human capital is one of the most important driving forces for economic competitiveness, development and growth. One half of a nation’s skills, knowledge, and productivity is represented by women. In the long run a country’s economic performance depends on how effectively and to what extent female talent is well utilized. Our survival analysis of gender disparities in duration of unemployed spells in Slovenia was based on a dataset with more than 450,000 unemployment spells for individuals between January 2004 and July 2008. The empirical analysis based on Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival function suggests that gender disparities in the duration of unemployment spells in Slovenia are significant. Our database shows that there are 107% more unemployment spells for women with tertiary education compared to men with the same level of education. This fact is indicating unexploited potential and underuse of female talents which, if accessed, could contribute to higher competitiveness and overall stronger economic growth of the country.
Branis, Martin; Linhartova, Martina
We analyzed differentials in exposure to SO(2), PM(10) and NO(2) among Czech urban populations categorized according to education level, unemployment rate, population size and average annual salary. Altogether 39 cities were included in the analysis. The principal component analysis revealed two factors explaining 72.8% of the data variability. The first factor explaining 44.7% of the data variability included SO(2), PM(10), low education level and high unemployment, documenting that inhabitants with unfavorable socioeconomic status mainly reside in smaller cities with higher concentration levels of combustion-related air pollutants. The second factor explaining 28.1% of the data variability included NO(2), high salary, high education level and large population, suggesting that large cities with residents with higher socioeconomic status are exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollution. We conclude that, after more than a decade of free-market economy, the Czech Republic, a former Soviet satellite with a centrally planned economy, displays signs of a certain kind of environmental inequality, since environmental hazards are unevenly distributed among the Czech urban populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Youth joblessness was one of the main triggers of Tunisia’s January Revolution. Unemployment rate in Tunisia has increased from 13 percent in 2010 to 18.3 percent in 2011 (NIS, 2011. Young people and women are more affected by this increase in unemployment .Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of various individual and job-related characteristics on the probabilities of unemployment of females and males aged 15–29 and to explore policy actions to create jobs in Tunisia. These issues are addressed using data from a 2010 survey of the National Institute of Statistics that provided information on the employment status of youth aged 15–29. The main estimated results show first that individual’s age, gender, marital status, level of education, sector of economic activity, type of employment and region of residence are significantly related to the unemployment. The results indicate that, for young workers, unemployment incidence increases with the level of education. Education has a greater impact on the unemployment of females than on that of males. Second, there is a negative and significant effect of the agricultural, educational and health sectors on the probability of transition into unemployment for women and men in which case the estimated impact is greater for men. Third, coastal area and public employment are associated with lower probability of transition into unemployment. Finally, Tunisian policymakers are aware of the fact that the elected National Constituent Assembly and the transitional government have a set of challenging tasks to accomplish in order to lower the rate of youth unemployment. For instance, generating funds for business development and infrastructure in non-coastal regions, and collaborating with the private sector to promote investment– whether foreign or domestic – and employment for educated young people.
Boydell, J; Bebbington, P; Bhavsar, V; Kravariti, E; van Os, J; Murray, R M; Dutta, R
This study describes the incidence of psychosis in unemployed people and determines whether unemployment has a greater impact on the development of psychosis amongst Black minority groups than White groups. Patients with a first diagnosis of Research Diagnostic Criteria psychosis, in a defined area of London from 1998 to 2004, were identified. Crude and standardised incidence rates of psychosis amongst unemployed people for each ethnic group were calculated. Poisson regression modelling tested for interactions between unemployment and ethnicity. Hundred cases occurred amongst employed people and 78 cases occurred amongst the unemployed people. When standardised to the employed White population of the area, White unemployed people had a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 11.7 (95% CI 6.4-19.7), Black Caribbean people had a SIR of 60.1(95% CI 39.3-88) and Black African people had a SIR of 40.7 (95% CI 25.8-61.1). There was no interaction however between ethnicity and unemployment (Likelihood ratio test P = 0.54). Rates of psychosis are high amongst unemployed people in south London and extremely high amongst Black Caribbean and Black African unemployed people. There was no evidence however that the minority groups were particularly sensitive to the stresses, limitations or meaning of unemployment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Infurna, Frank J; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G; Heckhausen, Jutta
Unemployment is a major challenge to individuals' development. An important personal resource to ameliorate the negative impact of unemployment may be perceived control, a general-purpose belief system. Little is known, however, about how perceived control itself changes with the experience of unemployment and what the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of such change in perceived control are in different ages. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (N = 413 who experienced unemployment and N = 413 case-matched controls; time period of data collection: 1994 - 1996) to examine whether perceived control changes with unemployment, explore the role of socio-demographic, psychosocial and health factors in moderating such change, and investigate whether levels of perceived control prior to unemployment and unemployment-related change in perceived control predict unemployment-related outcomes up to five years following. Results indicated that, on average, perceived control remained relatively stable with unemployment, and that younger and older workers did not differ in this regard. However, there were sizeable individual differences in change in perceived control, with women and those with fewer years of education experiencing greater unemployment-related declines in perceived control. Lower levels of perceived control prior to unemployment and steeper unemployment-related decrements in perceived control were each associated with a higher risk of remaining unemployed in the 12 months immediately following unemployment. Steeper unemployment-related declines in perceived control also predicted lower life satisfaction up to five years following. We discuss possible pathways by which perceived control may facilitate adjustment to unemployment, consider the role of perceived control for better understanding the dynamics of unemployment, and suggest routes for further more process-oriented inquiry.
Hansen, Magnus Paulsen
investigates the transformation towards the ‘active society’ through the spectre of unemployment and how it is governed. Two puzzles in the transformations have motivated the inquiry: firstly, the co-existence of a plurality of different, and often contradictory, conceptions of who the unemployed are and why...... they are unemployed; and secondly, the co-existence of wills to emancipate the unemployed alongside the justification of using coercive measures towards them. This thesis argues that if we want to understand the varieties within the transformations, the “what?” question, it is necessary to address the “how?”; i...
O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Eichorst, Werner; Gábos, András
Current levels of youth unemployment need to be understood in the context of increased labor market flexibility, an expansion of higher education, youth migration, and family legacies of long-term unemployment. Compared with previous recessions, European-wide policies and investments have...... significantly increased with attempts to support national policies. By mapping these developments and debates, we illustrate the different factors shaping the future of European labor markets. We argue that understanding youth unemployment requires a holistic approach that combines an analysis of changes...
Rosholm, Michael; Jensen, Peter S.; Nielsen, Michael Svarer
The youth unemployment rate in Denmark has recently been declining dramatically, which is unique among the OECD countries. In 1996, a radical labour market reform was implemented, the Youth Unemployment Programme (YUP), directed towards unemployed, low-educated youth. This paper analyses...... the effects of the implementation of the YUP. We investigate the effects on the duration of unemployment spells and on the transition rates from unemployment to schooling and employment. We find that the YUP has been successful through a combination of three effects: an announcement effect, a direct programme...
Hussain, M. Azhar; Bonke, Jens; Munk, Martin D.
This paper investigates how assortative mating impacts intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Using administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, i.e. dynasties, and to distinguish between sons and daughters...... strongly mediates the income transfer in the top of the income distribution, where a correlation of 0.763 is found between father and mother’s aggregated income and that of their son and daughter-in-law’s aggregated income.......This paper investigates how assortative mating impacts intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Using administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, i.e. dynasties, and to distinguish between sons and daughters...... and to observe their spouses’ incomes. We find that, in particular, intergenerational income mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income measure, with an astonishing elasticity of 0.879 when restricting to rich fathers and their married sons. We also find that the marriage match...
Jung Hyun Choi; Richard K. Green
This paper examines the magnitude of human capital spillovers on unemployment. Using bothindividual and metropolitan level data, we find that the adult population share of collegegraduates is negatively associated with the unemployment rate. More specifically, we find thatthose who reside in MSAs with higher shares of college graduates are more likely to beemployed, even after controlling for individual, MSA and state level factors including individualâ€™sown education level. The likelihood o...
Aleksa Gajšek Krajnc
Full Text Available The majority of the population stili believes that the knowledge once acquired is enough to survive now. Nowadays, a lot of people are unemployed. In order to stimulate them to realize that their problems can only be solved by lifelong learning, an educational programme: I Can Be Active if I Want to has been developed. Its objective is to induce the participants to directly face their unemployment and to start solving their problems.
The serious problem of youth employment is the discrepancy between volumes of preparation of experts to requirements of a labour market that creates preconditions of growth of unemployment among graduates of establishments of vocational training. It leads to that the most active and formed part of youth, ending educational institutions, is compelled to receive the status of the unemployed. Today among the unemployed registered in bodies of employment, every third - with the higher education.
Apr 14, 2015 ... Abstract. For a long time probably since late 1980s the youths of this nation have been on bondage as a result of unemployment caused by faulty institutional structures, illiteracy, corruption and poor management of resources. Though unemployment is a global phenomenon, the situation in Nigeria has ...
Since data at provincial level is not expected to provide meaningful variation in unemployment over time, this paper will use census data which is presented at municipal level and is collected less frequently. The census ..... Yellow and light green colours show unemployment values close to the mean while brown and dark.
Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M; Daly, Michael; Sedikides, Constantine
Unemployment has a strongly negative influence on well-being, but it is unclear whether it also alters basic personality traits. Whether personality changes arise through natural maturation processes or contextual/environmental factors is still a matter of debate. Unemployment, a relatively unexpected and commonly occurring life event, may shed light on the relevance of context for personality change. We examined, using a latent change model, the influence of unemployment on the five-factor model of personality in a sample of 6,769 German adults, who completed personality measures at 2 time points 4 years apart. All participants were employed at the first time point, and a subset became unemployed over the course of the study. By the second time point, participants had either remained in employment, been unemployed from 1 to 4 years, or had experienced some unemployment but become reemployed. Compared with those who had remained in employment, unemployed men and women experienced significant patterns of change in their mean levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, whereas reemployed individuals experienced limited change. The results indicate that unemployment has wider psychological implications than previously thought. In addition, the results are consistent with the view that personality changes as a function of contextual and environmental factors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Berg, van den G.J.; Gijsbert, A.; Lomwel, van C.; Ours, van Jan C.
Youth unemployment is an issue of primary concern in WesternEuropean countries. In this paper we analyze dynamics in unemployment foryouths, adults (prime-aged individuals), and elderly. We use quarterly Frenchunemployment data, stratified by gender, age group, and duration, over theperiod
Møller, Niels Framroze
What explains the persistence of unemployment? The literature on hysteresis, which is based on unit root testing in autoregressive models, consists of a vast number of univariate studies, i.e. that analyze unemployment series in isolation, but few multivariate analyses that focus on the sources...... of hysteresis. As a result, this question remains largely unanswered. This paper presents a multivariate econometric framework for analyzing hysteresis, which allows one to test different hypotheses about non-stationarity of unemployment against one another. For example, whether this is due to a persistently...... to UK quarterly data on prices, wages, output, unemployment and crude oil prices, suggests that, for the period 1988 up to the onset of the …financial crisis, the non-stationarity of UK unemployment cannot be explained as a result of slow adjustment, including sluggish wage formation as emphasized...
Hällsten, Martin; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens
Youth unemployment is a contemporary social problem in many societies. Youths often have limited access to information about jobs and limited social influence, yet little is known about the relationship between social capital and unemployment risk among youth. We study the effect of social capital on unemployment risk in a sample of 19 year olds of Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian origin living in Sweden (N = 1590). We distinguish between two dimensions of social capital: occupational contact networks and friendship networks. First, ego's unemployment is found to be strongly associated with friends' unemployment among individuals of Yugoslavian origins and individuals of Swedish origin, but not Iranian origin. Second, occupational contact networks reduce unemployment risks for all groups, but especially so for Iranians. The effect sizes of the two dimensions are similar and substantial: going from low to high values on these measures is associated with a difference of some 60-70 percent relative difference in unemployment risk. The findings are robust to a number of different model specifications, including a rich set of social origin controls, personality traits, educational performance, friends' characteristics, and friendship network characteristics, as well as controls for geographical employment patterns. A sensitivity simulation shows that homogeneity bias need to be very strong to explain away the effect. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
João Leão; Guida Nogueira
The youth unemployment rate in Europe increased to very high levels after the great recession of 2008, reaching 23% in European Union and 45% in southern European countries. We examine the causes of the high youth unemployment rate which is consistently bigger than the overall unemployment rate. The empirical evidence shows that the youth unemployment rate depends crucially of the level of the overall unemployment rate and on the variation of the unemployment rate.
Full Text Available The paper presents results of research aimed at the examination of connections between selected personality characteristics and the duration of unemployment in examined people. Our assumption that the duration of unemployment decreases with better education was confirmed. On the other hand, it is also age that plays an important part in finding a new job. The more advanced the age the longer the duration of unemployment. Groups of older individuals were more frequently unemployed for long time. The value of the personality characteristic – perseverance in the Sense of coherence concept prominently decreases with the prolonged unemployment. A conspicuous decrease in the Sense of coherence value – dimension of manageability occurs after one year of unemployment. This prominent decrease is caused namely by results recorded in the group of females. The number of people composing the social support decreases with the duration of unemployment and with the increasing age, in males particularly. The negative impact of social support on the reintroduction of unemployed people into labour process is mitigated by possible distinctive and firm action orientation and Sense of coherence (namely the dimension of manageability.
Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Iwata, Masahiko; Cable, Noriko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro
Background Analysis of the effects of social gradients on women’s health requires a suitable means of assessing social standing. Methods We compared social gradients in stroke risk among 9317 married Japanese women from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study over a 16-year period. Social gradient was estimated by 3 methods of indicating social position: education level derived by using the individual approach (woman’s own educational level), the conventional approach (using her partner’s educational level), and the combined approach (combining the woman’s and her partner’s educational levels). Results As compared with the lowest educational group, stroke risk was similar among women in the highest educational group using the individual approach and lower, but not significantly so, with the conventional approach. With the combined approach, however, the age- and area-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was significantly lower among the highest education group as compared with the lowest group (HR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.76), and the relative index of inequality was significant (RII = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.72). Using the combined approach, the results were similar irrespective of employment status. In the combined highest educational group, stroke risk among unemployed women was significantly reduced by 54%, while stroke risk for employed women was significantly reduced by 46%, as compared with the lowest educational group, with RIIs of 0.42 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.85) and 0.49 (0.30, 0.80), respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that a combined approach better reflects social standing among married women in Japan. PMID:22522151
Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Iwata, Masahiko; Cable, Noriko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro
Analysis of the effects of social gradients on women's health requires a suitable means of assessing social standing. We compared social gradients in stroke risk among 9317 married Japanese women from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study over a 16-year period. Social gradient was estimated by 3 methods of indicating social position: education level derived by using the individual approach (woman's own educational level), the conventional approach (using her partner's educational level), and the combined approach (combining the woman's and her partner's educational levels). As compared with the lowest educational group, stroke risk was similar among women in the highest educational group using the individual approach and lower, but not significantly so, with the conventional approach. With the combined approach, however, the age- and area-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was significantly lower among the highest education group as compared with the lowest group (HR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.76), and the relative index of inequality was significant (RII = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.72). Using the combined approach, the results were similar irrespective of employment status. In the combined highest educational group, stroke risk among unemployed women was significantly reduced by 54%, while stroke risk for employed women was significantly reduced by 46%, as compared with the lowest educational group, with RIIs of 0.42 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.85) and 0.49 (0.30, 0.80), respectively. The results suggest that a combined approach better reflects social standing among married women in Japan.
Røed, Knut; Skogstrøm, Jens Fredrik
Based on administrative registers from Norway, we examine how unemployment insurance (UI) and active labor market programs (ALMP) affect the transition rates from unemployment to regular employment and entrepreneurship. We find that the entrepreneurship hazard is highly responsive with respect to UI incentives, and that the probability of starting up a new business increases sharply around the time of UI exhaustion. We also find that while participation in ALMP has a positive impact on the em...
Moderated Mediation Effect of Self-esteem on the Relationship Between Parenting Stress and Depression According to Employment Status in Married Women: A Longitudinal Study Utilizing Data from Panel Study on Korean Children.
Han, Jeong-Won; Kim, Ju Hee
This study was to examined the moderated mediation effect of self-esteem on the relationship between parenting stress and depression among married women with children using longitudinal data from the 3rd to 6th Panel Studies on Korean. The data from the Panel Study of Korean Children (Korea Institute of Child Care and Education) was collected as part of a longitudinal inquiry of babies born in 2008, their parents and their community environments. Only the data collected from the married women over the age of 20 who participated in the maternal survey was used for this study. The initial level of married women's parenting stress affects the initial level and the rate of change in self-esteem; the initial level of self-esteem, the initial level and rate of change in depression; and the initial level of parenting stress, the initial level of depression. However, the impact of the rate of change in parenting stress on that of self-esteem was significant only in employed women while the impact of the rate of change in self-esteem on that of depression was significant only in unemployed women. It is necessary to manage parenting stress among married women through various programs and education that increase self-esteem in order to reduce their level of depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kogay, V; Itua, I
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of modern contraceptive use (MCU), and to identify socio-economic factors that are associated with MCU among married men in Kyrgyzstan. A cross-sectional study based on the 2012 Kyrgyzstan Demographic and Health Survey data. This study used data from 460 married men aged 20-49 years. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's Chi-squared test and logistic regression were used to estimate the prevalence of MCU, and to define factors that influence MCU among married men in Kyrgyzstan. The prevalence of MCU among married men aged 20-49 years was 22.2%. Men in the richer quintile were less likely to use modern contraceptives than men in the poorest quintile (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.267, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.100-0.715). Men with three living children had higher odds of MCU than men with no children or one child (aOR 3.534, 95% CI 1.221-10.229). Men who were unemployed were more likely to use modern contraceptives than men who were employed as manual labourers (aOR 4.511, 95% CI 1.104-18.442). Top priority should be given to strengthening family planning communication programmes among married men and male education. There is a need to pay attention to the socio-economic determinants of MCU among men in the development of family planning programmes. Emphasis should be placed on increasing MCU among men with high socio-economic status. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.
Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…
Roberts, Thomas W.; Price, Sharon J.
Interviewed 16 couples involved in marriages between never-married men and divorced women with at least one preadolescent child. Findings showed adjustment to remarriage involved the issue of dependence, independence, and interdependence. Findings are presented in 15 propositions which can be utilized as basic hypotheses for future research on…
Ek, Susanne; Holmlund, Bertil
A significant fraction of the labor force consists of employed workers who are part-time unemployed (underemployed) in the sense that they are unable to work as much as they prefer. This paper develops a search and matching model to study the design of optimal unemployment insurance in an economy with unemployment as well as part-time unemployment. Part-time unemployment provides income insurance and serves as a stepping stone to full-time jobs. Unemployment benefits for part-timers increase ...
This paper examines the implications of that workers may not be ableto estimate their true costs of acquiring skills. Consequently, too fewworkers may acquire skills. This allows for the possibility that subsidizingeducation is welfare improving. Furthermore, if the presence of skill......-biasedtechnological shocks increase unemployment, this may explain why themarket it-self cannot respond to this by making it sufficiently attractiveto acquire skills. Consequently, the trade-off in-between subsidizing educationand thereby reducing unemployment and optimizing welfare maybe eliminated. We analyse this issue...... in a simple educational model andnext in a search equilibrium model including a skill choice decision.Keywords: Education, subsidies, efficiency, unemployment.JEL codes: I20, J64....
Full Text Available Unemployment highlights a state of imbalance on the labour market which is characterized by a surplus of workforce in relation to job vacancies. This imbalance has been more apparent in Hunedoara County than in other counties, due to the fact that there are 3 mono-industrial areas that have been restructured over the past two decades. The effects are presented in this paper in the form of a complex statistical analysis. Thus, based on the evolution of the number of unemployed individuals in 1995, one can observe the periods of significant adverse effects upon the degree of employment. Moreover, one can make correlations with periods of international financial crisis and with the number of employees in the County in order to determine significant variables of the unemployment phenomenon. The content of this paper is significant and represents the analysis of the number of unemployed in the Jiu Valley, scattered across towns. As a form of financial protection, the unemployment benefit represents a financial instrument in the cases determined by this negative phenomenon, which is why in conclusion we make a comparison of the ways this aid is granted throughout several years and in various forms.
The study investigated sources of marital stress experienced by married people as perceived by lecturers of College of Education. Respondents were stratified into different strata of gender, age group, educational qualification and number of children, after which simple random sampling technique was used for selecting 20 ...
In this study, I examine the influence of demographic and educational characteristics of South African graduates on their employment/unemployment status. A sample of 1175 respondents who graduated between 2006 and 2012 completed an online survey. Using binary logistic regression, the strongest determinants of unemployment were the graduates' race,…
Lastra-del-Prado, R; Rodríguez-García, Juan; Muñoz Cifuentes, P; Gimeno Feliú, L A
The lack of work is a increasingly dramatic situation in the times we are living. Daily experience of clinicians provides us with important clues that remind us of the existence of a direct relationship between prolonged unemployment and predisposition to serious health problems, in particular to suffering certain types of cancer. This paper aims to review the major epidemiological studies that have dealt the relationship between cancer and unemployment. Several hypotheses may be formulated with the results of this review arising from the possible etiological relationship between unemployment and development (or poor prognosis) of neoplastic processes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Snower, Dennis J.
This paper explores the interrelation between the degree of unemployment persistence and the unemployment-productivity trade-off. The analysis suggests that the more effective are structural labour market policies (designed to change labour market institutions and laws, such as job security legislation) in making wages and prices more responsive to current unemployment and making unemployment less persistent, the less effective will be the growth-promoting supply-side policies (such as traini...
Based on their socioeconomic characteristics, Mexican immigrant men should have very high un-employment. More than half do not have a high school diploma. One in four works in construction; at the height of the recent recession, 20% of construction workers were unemployed. Yet their unemployment rates are similar to those of native-born white men. After controlling for education and occupation, Mexican immigrant men have lower probabilities of unemployment than native-born white men – both before and during the recent recession. I consider explanations based on eligibility for unemployment benefits, out-migrant selection for unemployment, and employer preferences for Mexican immigrant labor. PMID:25432614
Based on their socioeconomic characteristics, Mexican immigrant men should have very high unemployment. More than half do not have a high school diploma. One in four works in construction; at the height of the recent recession, 20% of construction workers were unemployed. Yet their unemployment rates are similar to those of native-born white men. After controlling for education and occupation, Mexican immigrant men have lower probabilities of unemployment than native-born white men - both before and during the recent recession. I consider explanations based on eligibility for unemployment benefits, out-migrant selection for unemployment, and employer preferences for Mexican immigrant labor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.
This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of benefit sanctions, i.e. temporary reductions in unemployment benefits as punishment for noncompliance with eligibility requirements. In addition to the effects on unemployment durations, we evaluate the effects on post-unemployment employment
This article examines masculinity in an area suffering from sustained high unemployment and unremitting hardship during the 1930s: the South Wales coalfield had some of the highest rates of male unemployment and the lowest participation rates of married women in paid employment in Britain. Particular attention is drawn to power relations between husband and wife by looking at the domestic division of labour and whether male unemployment affected the split in domestic responsibilities. Personal testimonies are used to assess how men filled their time whilst unemployed and the meanings they attached to their activities and relationships. It will be shown that some unemployed men engaged more in the home and that many men were able to maintain existing power relations with their wives by finding or creating alternative manual work and maintaining an elastic relationship with the home by continuing to spend the majority of their time in the company of other men.
25% among the economically active population, and where .... unemployment, growing up with one parent, educational deprivation, and ... transmission thereof. Based on a study in the developing countries of Namibia,. Mozambique and Zambia, Devereux. (2002: 672) concluded that social security nets can impact ...
This analysis of education policy constitutes an attempt to outline the problem of youth unemployment. Building on a recognition that structural change in the "society of labourers" has also affected the social entity "young people", it shows the problems inherent in our concept of linear transitions to working life and the…
Unemployment has social costs such as psychological harm, social exclusion, family breakdown, and loss of political voice. It can exacerbate inequality and technological conservatism. Reducing unemployment would contribute to solving many of Europe's social ills. (SK)
Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall
The purpose in this article is to evaluate the consistency between two measures of unemployment in a cross-country context. We use the European Community Household Panel to identify unemployment at an individual level based as well on the ILO criteria for being classified as unemployed...... as on the individual respondent reporting to be unemployed. This opens a unique opportunity to compare unemployment measured in two different ways based on a cross European Union panel study covering the years 1994 to 2001. The two main questions addressed in this article are to which extent the two unemployment...... measures differ and whether transition rates out of unemployment depend on which concept we use. Both questions are answered in the affirmative. The overall conclusion is that it is important, especially in some of the EU countries, to include both measures of unemployment as guidelines and indicators...
Rapid technological change is widely regarded as a primary cause of unemployment, especially in depressions. This article summarizes the diverse interpretations given to the notion of technological unemployment, critically examining the assumptions underlying those views. (Author/SSH)
This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between the un...
This article studies the impact of raiding opportunities in a labor market in which worker abilities differ. Recruiting firms can either raid an elsewhere-employed worker of known ability by bidding up his wage or go through costly search to find a good worker among the unemployed. In equilibrium...
van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.
In this paper we develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market, based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by intentional R&D performed in the high-tech and high-wage sector. It is examined how a change in rivalry among firms affects simultaneously growth and unemployment.
Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M
Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big Five personality traits at age 16-17 predict unemployment over age 16-42. Our hypothesis that higher conscientiousness in adolescence would predict lower unemployment was supported. In analyses controlling for intelligence, gender, and parental socioeconomic status, the less conscientious (-1 SD) had a predicted probability of unemployment twice as high (3.4% vs. 1.7%) as the highly conscientious (+1 SD), an effect size comparable to intelligence. Mediation analysis revealed that academic motivation and educational attainment explained only 8.9% of this association. Fostering conscientiousness in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment throughout adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Z. F. Ibragimova
Full Text Available Research aim. The article analyzes the state of unemployment in theRussian Federation. Modern macroeconomic conditions and the state of the labor market necessitate identifying population groups, constituting unemployment risks. Both representatives of different schools of economic thought and modern Russian scholars devoted their work to studying unemployment problems and the need for government regulation of employment and unemployment. However, a more accurate characteristic of the level and state of unemployment requires a more thorough analysis.Materials and methods. In order to present the general picture of unemployment in theRussian Federation, structural analysis of the phenomenon is used with the help of corresponding indexes, which, in our opinion, make it possible to evaluate the level and state of unemployment in detail. Indexes of absolute structure changes, degree of absolute shift intensity were used for analysis, the level of concentration was determined etc.Results. The calculations revealed the most vulnerable groups in the structure of the unemployed, showing the necessity of searching for and applying new forms and tools of government policy for reducing the level of unemployment. According to the official statistics, the level of unemployment inRussia was 5.6 % in 2015. The labor market in theRussian Federation is characterized by a gender gap – unemployed men outnumber unemployed women by 7.8%. Besides, there is a consistent trend of increase in the number of university-educated unemployed people. According to the calculations, the percentage of women with higher and secondary education is higher than the share of men. The difference in the structure of the unemployed among women and men in regards to education is in average about 14% of the maximum possible. Quite a high level of youth unemployment (approximately 25% describes the unstable position of the given group in the labor market.Calculations of Grofman, Kazinets
Nadelson, C C; Notman, M T
The authors discuss the reasons for decisions to remain single or to marry, particularly for women today. They consider aspects of the life experience of single women and provide a developmental context for women's choices. The authors discuss the impact of marriage on women's lives and point out that marriage increases stress for women. The changing role of women in society and increased reproductive control have given women greater choice about the direction of their lives, including more freedom to make deliberate decisions about marriage.
Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete
Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.
Reissner, V; Scherbaum, N; Wiltfang, J; Kis, B; Meiler, B; Lieb, B; Mikoteit, T; Ehren, G; Hebebrand, J
Unemployment is related to a higher risk for psychological distress and mental disorders, which cause individual suffering and socioeconomic costs for society in general. This selective review surveys the relationship between unemployment and psychological well-being and mental disorders. The most important programs for the improvement of the mental health of the unemployed are summarized: 1. Interventions for the unemployed with the aim of improving coping strategies reduce the risk of developing depressive symptoms. 2. The SUPPORT liaison outpatient unit collaborates closely with the unemployment agency and offers a low-threshold screening for mental disorders for unemployed subjects as well as counseling for those in need of treatment. 3. A group training based on cognitive behavioral therapy improves the psychological well-being of unemployed participants. 4. Supported employment is an effective means of placing severely mentally ill patients in a work-place accompanied by an extensive professional support.
Aguilera, Andrés; Ramos Barrera, María Gabriela
...: domestic spending in science and technology, GDP per capita, nominal minimum wage, domestic spending in education and their impact on unemployment rate in seven Latin American countries from 1996 to 2011...
Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due
This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...... studies for final analysis and interpretation. Twelve studies could be included in the data synthesis. Results: We found clear evidence that the prospect of exhaustion of benefits results in a significantly increased incentive for finding work. Discussion: The theoretical suggestion that the prospect...... of exhaustion of benefits results in an increased incentive for finding work has been confirmed empirically by measures from seven different European countries, the United States, and Canada. The results are robust in the sense that sensitivity analyses evidenced no appreciable changes in the results. We found...
Chen, Li; Li, Wenhu; He, Jincai; Wu, Lanhua; Yan, Zheng; Tang, Wenjie
20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. The data were collected through interview-based survey with a sample of 210 unemployed migrant workers in Zhejiang Province of China from 2008 to 2009. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and seven short demographic questions were used. The majority of the unemployed migrant workers were found to be young male manufacturing industry workers with short-term unemployment and a relatively low education level. Nearly 50% of unemployed migrant workers were classified as mentally unhealthy and the most frequently reported symptom was depression. Compared with the adult norm of 1986, 2003, and 2007 in China, unemployed migrants had more mental problems. Long-term unemployed migrant workers had more psychiatric symptoms than the short-term unemployed workers and employed migrant workers. Unemployed migrant workers with immature coping strategies expressed significantly more psychiatric symptoms than those with mixed and mature coping strategies. Duration of unemployment and two coping strategies, problem-solving and self-blaming, predicted the mental problems of unemployed migrant workers. The results indicated that mental health status of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China was poorer than the national adult norm. More psychiatric symptoms are evidenced among unemployed migrant workers who lost their jobs for a long term and who had immature coping strategies. These findings can be used for prevention and intervention of mental illness among unemployed migrant workers.
Rosenbaum, Janet E.; Weathersbee, Byron
This study measures premarital sex prevalence, sources of sex education, and support for secular sex education among 151 newly married young adults surveyed at 9 Texas Southern Baptist churches. More than 70% of respondents reported having had premarital vaginal or oral sex, but more than 80% regretted premarital sex. The proportion of premarital sex exceeded 80% in 6 of 9 churches, among men and women married after age 25 and women married before age 21. School sex education was the only sou...
anxiety, represented by different movements, for rights and freedoms. Often these otherwise ... and while it is responsible for the care and education of dependent children, marriage must be entered into with free ... Thus, unrestrained freedom in the exercise of rights and in this case the right to marry would degenerate into ...
Bekkers, René; Aken, Marcel A.G. van; Denissen, Jaap
We study the influence of social structure on assortative mating for personality in a large national sample (n=3616) of married and cohabitating couples in the Netherlands. We find that couples with higher levels of education and from dissimilar religious origins are more similar with regard to
The study however, revealed no significant difference in the patterns of aphrodisiac herbs usage as expressed by married adults in Kwara State based on gender and educational attainment. It was thus recommended that due attention be paid to the patterns of aphrodisiac herb usage by the members of the society.
Dönmez, Sevgül; Kısa, Sezer
This study examined the opinions of married couples concerning induced abortion in a sample of 674 married couples obtaining services at a large obstetrical/gynecological outpatient service. Although approximately half of the sample were not using birth control, a similar percentage felt that curettage (selective abortion) should never be performed. A larger percentage felt that selective abortion is a sin and should be banned. Sex differences in attitudes were minimal. Couples may benefit from a birth control education program in a hospital that is designed to cover abortion in order to provide accurate information in a more professional environment.
Verbakel, C.M.C.; Kalmijn, M.
The authors compared male and female same-sex and different-sex couples in the Netherlands with respect to age and educational homogamy. Because many same-sex couples in the Netherlands are married, differences between married and cohabiting couples were analyzed for all 3 groups. Analyses of data
Newell, Andrew; Pastore, Francesco
This paper studies regional unemployment inequality in Poland. We find that higher unemployment regions are those experiencing greater change in industrial structure. We also find high unemployment regions are those with higher inflow rates to unemployment rather than longer spells of unemployment. These findings suggest that regional unemployment varies importantly with job destruction in Poland. Econometric analysis of the determinants of employment to unemployment flows reinforces this imp...
Homeless and Unemployed Veterans. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Training and Employment of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs.
This congressional report contains the testimony that was presented at a hearing to examine the needs of homeless and unemployed veterans. Testimony was provided by representatives of the following agencies and organizations: the Vietnam Veterans Ensemble; the National Coalition for the Homeless; the various Veterans' Administration (VA)…
O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene
Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system....... The voluntary system emerged as one of many European “Ghent systems,” essentially government subsidized trade union plans, but has since lost many key features of such plans. We assess system performance using a 10% sample of the Danish population drawn from administrative data. Coverage rates for the voluntary...
Sanford, M N; Mullen, P E
The impact of unemployment on the physical and mental health of adolescents is one of the critical medical and social issues of our age. This paper reviews recent studies examining the link between youth unemployment and physical and mental ill-health. The evidence suggests that youth unemployment is associated with an increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder. It is more firmly established that unemployment influences the course and prognosis of those with preexisting psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorder itself can also lead to reduced employability, particularly during periods of economic adversity. Fruitful areas of further study are identified.
Hughes, Amanda; Kumari, Meena
Elevated morbidity and mortality among jobseekers may be partly explained by adiposity, but previous studies of unemployment and body mass index (BMI), which have usually modelled associations as linear, have produced inconsistent results. However, both underweight and obesity are associated with mortality, and both weight loss and weight gain associated with a stressful environment. If unemployment is associated with both underweight and obesity for different subgroups, these associations may previously have masked each other, whilst affecting health through divergent pathways. We investigated whether there is a previously overlooked U-shaped association of unemployment and BMI, which could help explain jobseekers' elevated morbidity and mortality, and identify groups vulnerable to underweight and obesity during unemployment. We used multinomial models to simultaneously investigate associations of unemployment with BMI-defined underweight, overweight, and obesity in 10,737 working-age UK adults from Understanding Society (UKHLS) in 2010-12. Moderating impacts of unemployment duration, demographic factors and smoking were explored. Current jobseekers were more likely to be underweight (Odds ratio (OR): 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-7.73) and less likely to be overweight (OR: 0.71, CI: 0.55, 0.92) adjusted for gender, age, education, health, smoking and physical activity, while unemployed non-smokers had increased odds of obesity (OR: 1.52, CI: 1.06-2.18). Underweight and overweight associations were more apparent for longer-term jobseekers, men, and jobseekers from lower-income households. We conclude that unemployment is associated with underweight and, in nonsmokers, obesity. Results show the unemployment-adiposity relationship cannot be properly studied assuming unidirectionality of effects, and suggest unemployment may affect health of different groups via divergent adiposity-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc
Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.
This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of benefit sanctions on post-unemployment outcomes such as post-unemployment employment stability and earnings. We use rich register data which allow us to distinguish between a warning that a benefit reduction may take place in the near
Wiemers, Emily E.
“Doubling up” (sharing living arrangements) with family and friends is one way in which individuals and families can cope with job loss, but relatively little research has examined the extent to which people use coresidence to weather a spell of unemployment. This project uses data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to provide evidence on the relationship between household composition and unemployment across working ages, focusing on differences in behavior by educational attainment. Using the SIPP panels, I find that individuals who become unemployed are three times more likely to move in with other people. Moving into shared living arrangements in response to unemployment is not evenly spread across the distribution of educational attainment: it is most prevalent among individuals with the less than a high school diploma and those with at least some college. PMID:25421522
Zagożdżon, P; Parszuto, J; Wrotkowska, M; Dydjow-Bendek, D
Following the economic changes in Poland, increasing health discrepancies were observed during a period of 20 years, which may be partly attributable to the consequences of unemployment. To assess the association between unemployment, major cardiovascular risk factors and mental health. A cross-sectional study in which data were collected between 2009 and 2010 during preventive health examinations by an occupational medicine service in Gdansk, Poland. Data on blood pressure, resting heart rate, information about smoking habits, body mass index and history of use of mental health services were collected during these assessments. Multiple logistic regression was used during data analysis to adjust for age, gender, education and length of employment. Study participants comprised 3052 unemployed and 2059 employed individuals. After adjustment for age, gender, education and number of previous employments, the odds ratio (OR) for hypertension in relation to unemployment was 1.02 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.84-1.23]. There was a statistically significant negative association between being overweight and unemployment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66-0.99). Smoking was positively associated with unemployment after adjustment for age and sex (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.25-1.67). There was a positive relationship between mental ill-health and unemployment among study participants (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 0.91-4.65), but this was not statistically significant. The patterns of major cardiovascular risk factors differed between unemployed and employed individuals in Poland. Our observations suggest employment status is a predictor of specific disease risk profiles; consequently, specific preventive measures are needed in unemployed individuals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Bradford, Angela B; Drean, Lauren; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Ketring, Scott A; Smith, Thomas A
Although Couple and Relationship Education (CRE) programs were intended to be preventive in nature, an emerging reality is that relationally distressed couples are attending programs. This has raised questions about both its general usefulness and what is known regarding predictors of change in CRE for distressed couples particularly. Previous work has identified dosage and duration as important moderators of changes, and there are myriad program contexts offered, highlighting the need to examine these among distressed couples. This study utilized a sample of community CRE participants and examined received dosage and program duration as predictors of change. Comparing results for distressed and non-distressed participants, we found several group differences. Findings suggest that it is important to consider distress level and time spent in programs when placing participants. In addition, research should continue to examine these groups separately (or comparatively) to find out what works for whom. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas
and higher active labour market policy (ALMP) spending achieve more sustainable reintegration of previously unemployed workers. These results point to a policy trade-off between the well-confirmed disincentive and locking-in effect of unemployment benefits and ALMP programmes on the one hand...
van Stel, A.; Thurik, R.; Verheul, I.; Baljeu, L.
We examine the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, the effects of
Thomas, Franklin A.
This 1983 speech by the president of the Ford Foundation addresses the problem of youth unemployment and examines the case for adoption of a system of "National Service." The widening effects of structural unemployment are cited; and economic, demographic, and technological reasons for this phenomenon are outlined. National Service is…
Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap
The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…
Shon, Young Min; Joung, Woo Joung
The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the illness experience of married Korean women with epilepsy. Data were collected during 2015~2016 through individual in-depth interviews with 12 married women with epilepsy. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological analysis to uncover the meaning of the illness experience of the participants. The study results showed that the illness experience of married Korean women with epilepsy was clustered into a specific description of situated structure and a general description of situated structure. Six themes from 20 meaning units were identified: 1) Undermined self-esteem with stigma of being epileptic; 2) Limited social interaction; 3) Suffering sorrow as a 'disqualified being'; 4) Shuttling back and forth across the boundary between healthy and epileptic; 5) Desperate struggle to meet the expectation of given role; 6) Self-empowering through self-restriction and realization. The findings from this study show that both the enacted and felt stigma of epilepsy impact on the life of married Korean women with epilepsy. Although the participants face social and interpersonal restriction and prejudices, they try their best to fulfill their role rather than to be cared for as patients. As the stigma and hardships of the participants are related to lack of knowledge, health professionals should focus not just on clinical intervention but also on providing targeted educational programs and counseling for these women to dispel the stigma of the disease and to increase their quality of life.
Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Marques, Adilson; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel
To examine the associations between economic and noneconomic factors and psychological distress in a group of 748 unemployed adults during economic recession. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to test the associations between distress and the deprivation of income and latent benefits of employment (time structure, activity, status, collective purpose and social contact). The participants' mean of distress was higher than the national population mean, and 46.5% of the participants scored above that. All economic and noneconomic factors emerged as strong predictors of distress; particularly financial deprivation (OR 1.06; CI 95 % 1.04-1.09) and lack of structured time (OR 1.07; CI 95 % 1.05-1.09). Women (OR 1.40; CI 95 % 1.04-1.86) and people with lower education levels (OR 0.45; CI 95 % 0.34-0.61) were more affected. The unemployed individuals score high on distress, especially those facing financial strain and lack of structured time, and women and individuals with lower education in particular. Given the recessionary context and high unemployment rates, these insights raise awareness for policies and actions targeting the needs of unemployed people.
Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is experiencing growth in its graduate labour force, but graduateunemployment is rising with the overall unemployment rate. Graduate unemployment isproblematic, because it wastes scarce human capital, which is detrimental to the economy inthe long run.Research purpose: This study explores the perceived causes of graduate unemployment fromthe perspective of the South African banking sector.Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted various studies on graduateunemployment in South Africa and across the globe, but few studies have beenconducted on the causes of graduate unemployment. There appear to be some gaps in theliterature; therefore, other problems and solutions to graduate unemployment have to beexploredResearch approach, design and method: The researchers followed a survey design. Questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were used as research instruments to identify theperceived causes of graduate unemployment in the banking sector of South Africa. Researchparticipants were unemployed graduates, recently employed graduates and graduaterecruitment managers in the banking sector.Main findings: The study shows that several factors are perceived to be the causes of graduateunemployment in the South African banking sector. These include: skills, institution attendedby graduate and differences in expectations from employers and graduates.Practical/managerial application: The findings have implications for educational institutionsand companies that are encouraged to consider possible solutions to resolving the causes ofgraduate unemployment.Contribution/value-add: This study is one of the first papers to investigate the causes ofgraduate unemployment in the South African banking sector. It provides a rich platform forfurther studies and replication in other sectors, especially within the African context.
Full Text Available The article summarizes foreign and native tendencies in modern adult education. Their impact on the renovation of training the unemployed in Ukraine has been analyzed. It has been established that the system of adult training must meet the socio-economic, political and cultural changes in Ukraine. It has been indicated that defined tendencies should be considered when developing a strategy to modernize our system of training the unemployed. It has been pointed out that the organization and improvement of training the unemployed are caused by the interaction of three blocks: governance, social protection against unemployment, education market. Organized professional training in the employment sphere provides for developed infrastructure, which covers a range of organizations and agencies providing educational services and close cooperation of training with directions of socio-economic and educational policy. The role of the State Employment Service of Ukraine in professional training for the unemployed has been defined. Activities of specialists in professional training for adults is built according to the short-term and long-term forecasting and analytical-predictive control based on the world’s economic, cultural and educational tendencies.
Hans de Witte
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the affective experiences, attitudes to work, and job application behaviour of unemployed people. A survey design was used and samples (N = 381 were drawn from unemployed people in the North West Province. The Experiences of Unemployment Questionnaire was administered. Regarding affective experiences, being unemployed was described as very unpleasant and it was associated with boredom, loneliness, uncertainty about the future, concerns about financial matters, emptiness and conflict. When it came to the participants’ attitudes to work, the results showed that almost 96 per cent of them regarded work as important, particularly because it provides meaning. Regarding job application behaviour, the results showed that most of the participants would like to find a job within the month, and they expected to do so. Almost 78 per cent of the participants were asking people for a job at least once a week or more often. Most of them asked friends and acquaintances for employment information, but unemployed people also reported that they looked out for advertisements. People with poor education had the most negative experiences of unemployment and saw work as more important than did those with better education.
Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael
The consequences of business cycle contingencies in unemployment insurance systems are considered in a search-matching model allowing for shifts between "good" and "bad" states of nature. We show that not only is there an insurance argument for such contingencies, but there may also be an incentive...... argument. Since benefits may be less distortionary in a recession than a boom, it follows that counter-cyclical benefits reduce average distortions compared to state independent benefits. We show that optimal (utilitarian) benefits are counter-cyclical and may reduce the structural (average) unemployment...... rate, although the variability of unemployment may increase....
Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg
AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to the...
Cheong, Kee-Cheok; Hill, Christopher; Fernandez-Chung, Rozilini; Leong, Yin-Ching
Malaysia has made significant progress in advancing access to education over the last two decades, having achieved the education goals of the UN's Millennium Development Goals. Unfortunately, this has not been accompanied by quality improvement, with reports of "unemployable" graduates a frequent refrain. This paper reports on a study of…
Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married Women in ... and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. ... planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on ...
Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Tranæs, Torben
individuals can claim unemployment insurance (UI) benefits intended for unemployed workers. As a consequence, pecuniary benefit schemes underinsure workers against unemployment. We show that requiring unproductive activities (workfare) in exchange for UI benefits may generate a Pareto improvement......This paper addresses the welfare implications of introducing workfare into unemployment benefit policy. We consider a population composed of employed and unemployed workers and of individuals who do not seek employment. Job search behavior is unobservable, which means that voluntarily unemployed...... by facilitating better unemployment insurance for workers, and we characterize the situations where this is the case....
Antillón, Marina; Lauderdale, Diane S; Mullahy, John
Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24h time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 min of sleep (punemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as "sleeplessness" (marginal effect=0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Louis S. Nkwatoh
Unemployment and job creation are central to the development agenda in Nigeria especially with the rising rate of youth unemployment resonating within the Country. Strategies and measures have been put in place to curb these appalling rates via a professionalized system of education that will equip individuals with skills and enable them to start up petty enterprises. However, unemployment in Nigeria is appallingly high despite these efforts. This study therefore investigated the nexus betwee...
In this paper I study the way in which individual unemployment durations vary over the business cycle, as measured by the aggregate unemployment rate. I decompose the cyclical variations in observed unemployment durations into a composition al and a general part. The compositional part consists o...... unemployment rate) rathan than by changes in the composition of those becoming unemployed.......In this paper I study the way in which individual unemployment durations vary over the business cycle, as measured by the aggregate unemployment rate. I decompose the cyclical variations in observed unemployment durations into a composition al and a general part. The compositional part consists...... of variations in observed as well as unobserved average individual-specific heterogeneity amongst those flowing into unemployment. The main finding is that the major part (but not all) of the variations in unemployment durations is caused by variations in macroeconomic conditions (i.e. in the aggregate...
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the respective groups. Methods The sample consisted of 264 young unemployed individuals and 528 working or studying individuals as a reference group. They all received a questionnaire about civil status, educational level, immigration, employment status, self-reported health, self-esteem, social support, social network, spare time, dwelling, economy and personal characteristics. The response rate was 72%. The significance of differences between proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test or by χ2 test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model. Results Our results balance the predominant picture of youth unemployment as a principally negative experience. Although the unemployed reported lower levels of QOL than the reference group, a majority of unemployed young adults reported good QOL, and 24% even experienced higher QOL after being unemployed. Positive QOL related not only to good health, but also to high self-esteem, satisfaction with spare time and broad latitude for decision-making. Conclusion Even if QOL is good among a majority of unemployed young adults, inequalities in QOL were demonstrated. To create more equity in health, individuals who report reduced subjective health, especially anxiety need extra attention and support. Efforts should aim at empowering unemployed young adults by identifying their concerns and resources, and by creating individual programmes in relation not only to education and work, but also
more jobless individuals in the labor force, thereby pushing up the unemployment rate by roughly one-quarter of one percentage point, CBO estimates...for students and youths . Other Policies to Reduce Unemployment Other types of policies could aim to reduce unemploy- ment by addressing factors other...in the next two years. Programs Focused on Youth . Special policies may be needed to deal with unemployment and long-term unemployment among young
Rosenbaum, Janet E; Weathersbee, Byron
This study measures premarital sex prevalence, sources of sex education, and support for secular sex education among 151 newly married young adults surveyed at 9 Texas Southern Baptist churches. More than 70% of respondents reported having had premarital vaginal or oral sex, but more than 80% regretted premarital sex. The proportion of premarital sex exceeded 80% in 6 of 9 churches, among men and women married after age 25 and women married before age 21. School sex education was the only source of information about sexually transmitted infections for 57% of respondents, and 65% supported secular sex education despite church opposition.
Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad ali; Karimiankakolaki, Zohreh; Bokaie, Mahshid; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Gerayllo, Sakineh
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), which includes physical, psychological and emotional symptoms that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, has a negative impact on the quality of the relationship among married couples. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of educating married men by two methods, pamphlet and short…
Brydsten, Anna; Hammarström, Anne; Strandh, Mattias; Johansson, Klara
Little is known about the possible long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. Research indicates that unemployment may lead to socioeconomic downward mobility and mental health problems, but we still lack knowledge of the long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. This article examines the potential long-term association between youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood. The 'Northern Swedish cohort' was used with data from five data collections, from 1981 (age 16) until 2007 (age 42). Youth unemployment was measured as months in unemployment between age 16 and 21, and health outcome as functional somatic symptoms (an index of 10 items of self-reported symptoms). Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between months in youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms at age 21 and age 42, stratified for women and men and adjusted for potential confounders, such as time spent in education at age 21 and later unemployment between age 21 and 42. Youth unemployment was significantly related to functional somatic symptoms at age 21 for men after controlling for confounders, but not for women. Among men, the association remained for functional somatic symptoms at age 42, after controlling for confounders. Adolescence seems to be a sensitive period during which unemployment could have remaining health effects in adulthood, at least for men, though assumptions of causality are tentative and more research is needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
O. O. Didukh
The effect on the structure of youth unemployment factors such as age groups and distribution activities. Found that the most vulnerable to unemployment is the age group 15-24 years. Much attention is given to matching the level of education of young people and requirements of employers to their employees. Revealed that the necessary correction of the entire education system. Thus, the main conclusion is significant opportunity to improve the efficiency of the State Employment Center as one of the basic tools of the modern state youth policy. Proposed as an important step to regulate the problem of youth unemployment improvement of the State Employment Service, which should appeal to the international experience and to reform the mechanism of state support for entrepreneurship by providing incentives, subsidies or state aid to business expansion and others. That young people are the most responsive to the psychological perception of new technologies entrepreneurship.
Lalive, Rafael; van Ours, Jan C.; Zweimüller, Josef
This paper uses microdata to evaluate the impact on the steady-state unemployment rate of an increase in maximum benefit duration. We evaluate a policy change in Austria that extended maximum benefit duration and use this policy change to estimate the causal impact of benefit duration on labor market flows. We find that the policy change leads to a significant increase in the steady-state unemployment rate and, surprisingly, most of this increase is due to an increase in the inflow into rathe...
Kirchhoff, Anne C; Leisenring, Wendy; Krull, Kevin R; Ness, Kirsten K; Friedman, Debra L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Stovall, Marilyn; Park, Elyse R; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Wickizer, Thomas
Adult childhood cancer survivors report high levels of unemployment, although it is unknown whether this is because of health or employability limitations. We examined 2 employment outcomes from 2003 in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS): (1) health-related unemployment and (2) unemployed but seeking work. We compared survivors with a nearest-age CCSS sibling cohort and examined demographic and treatment-related risk groups for each outcome. We studied 6339 survivors and 1967 siblings ≥25 years of age excluding those unemployed by choice. Multivariable generalized linear models evaluated whether survivors were more likely to be unemployed than siblings and whether certain survivors were at a higher risk for unemployment. Survivors (10.4%) reported health-related unemployment more often than siblings (1.8%; Relative Risk [RR], 6.07; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 4.32-8.53). Survivors (5.7%) were more likely to report being unemployed but seeking work than siblings (2.7%; RR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.43-2.54). Health-related unemployment was more common in female survivors than males (Odds Ratio [OR], 1.73; 95% CI, 1.43-2.08). Cranial radiotherapy doses ≥25 Gy were associated with higher odds of unemployment (health-related: OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.54-4.74; seeking work: OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.15-2.71). Unemployed survivors reported higher levels of poor physical functioning than employed survivors, and had lower education and income and were more likely to be publicly insured than unemployed siblings. Childhood cancer survivors have higher levels of unemployment because of health or being between jobs. High-risk survivors may need vocational assistance.
Katsinas, Stephen G.; D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.
Unemployment rates continued to fall slowly as the economy gains strength following the longest recession in over half a century. This report addressed the challenges of the community colleges attempting to reach the unemployed and underemployed. Responses from a survey conducted by the Education Policy Center at the University of Alabama, were…
Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the most serious problems of the contemporary world, fact which is expressed not only by all European statistics, statistics showing a growing number of unemployed, despite the consistent concern of the governments of all developed countries. Worse is that the unemployment is the highest among young people up to 25 years, many of them being university graduates. This way the trend of young people to stop attending studies appeared ... seeing as useless their efforts to invest in their future through university studies, the chances of finding a job are minimal despite their diplomas. Hence the name of "the lost generation" - the way that young people are called nowadays. The market economy, based mainly on private property is not considering social issues, it pursues just one goal: profit, more exactly the profit maximization.
The youth population bulge is often mentioned in discussions of youth unemployment and unrest in developing countries, most recently in explaining the “Arab Spring.” But the youth share of the population has fallen rapidly in recent decades in most countries, and is projected to continue to fall. Evidence on the link between youth population bulges and youth unemployment is mixed. It should not be assumed that declines in the relative size of the youth population will translate into falling y...
Scanlan, Justin Newton; Bundy, Anita C
To compare the health of young unemployed Australians during a period of low unemployment (April 2007: rate 4.4%) against published Australian norms for 18-24 year olds and unemployed people during a time of higher unemployment (February 1995 to January 1996: rate 8.1% to 8.9%). Two hundred and fifty-one unemployed 18-25 year olds residing in New South Wales completed the SF36 Health Survey version 2 (SF36v2) during a time of low unemployment. SF36v2 subscale and component summary scores were compared with published norms for 18-24 year olds and for unemployed persons during a time of higher unemployment. Young unemployed people during a period of low unemployment reported poorer health in all areas when compared with age-matched norms and poorer psychological health when compared with the published norms for unemployed people from a time when unemployment rates were higher. The health of young unemployed individuals during a time of low unemployment was poor when compared to both the general population and to unemployed people during a time of higher unemployment. Public health interventions must focus on improving the health of young unemployed people to support their engagement with and contribution to Australian society.
Thiede, Brian C.; Monnat, Shannon M.
Background The Great Recession of 2007–2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. Contribution To present new estimates of the recession’s impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession
Causes of the present global problem of youth unemployment are examined, along with some governmental and nongovernmental programs and services to help the situation, such as changes in education practices and training policies and in job creation projects. Roles of youth and of volunteer organizations arealso presented. (MF)
Jul 7, 2016 ... Abdul Malik, leader of the Aga Khan Rural Support Program in Pakistan, speaking at a panel on youth unemployment at the University of Ottawa, Oct 23, ... they often face the very same barriers as their counterparts here in Canada, most notably a skills mismatch between education and the private sector,” ...
The article summarizes foreign and native tendencies in modern adult education. Their impact on the renovation of training the unemployed in Ukraine has been analyzed. It has been established that the system of adult training must meet the socio-economic, political and cultural changes in Ukraine. It has been indicated that defined tendencies…
Lange, Thomas; Maguire, Keith
Although unemployment is a serious problem in Europe, deregulating labor markets is not the solution. Deregulation could lead to decline in quality and competitiveness. The example of Japan shows the interaction of education, training, human resource management, and quality control. (SK)
Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Andersson, Gunnar
Studies that have investigated the role of unemployment in childbearing decisions have often shown no or only barely significant results. We argue that many of these "non-findings" may be attributed to a neglect of group-specific differences in behavior. In this study, we examine how the association of unemployment and fertility varies by socio-demographic subgroups using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) and from Danish population registers. We find that male unemployment is related to a postponement of first and second childbearing in both countries. The role of female unemployment is less clear at these two parities. Both male and female unemployment is positively correlated with third birth risks. More importantly, our results show that there are strong educational gradients in the unemployment and fertility nexus, and that the relationship between unemployment and fertility varies by socioeconomic group. Fertility tends to be lower during periods of unemployment among highly educated women and men, but not among their less educated counterparts. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Lentz, Rasmus; Tranæs, Torben
This note presents evidence of the following gender asymmetry: the job-finding effort of married men and women is affected by the income of their spouses in opposite directions. For women, spouse income influences job finding negatively, just as own wealth does: the more the man earns and the wea...
Munch, Jacob R.; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael
In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...
G. Noordzij (Gera)
textabstractDuring a ‘learning goal orientation’ training course for unemployed people, one of the participants, a woman in her forties, had a lot of resistance to participate in the course. I persuaded her to stay and assured her that all she had to do was sit down and watch. She persevered in her
Holzman, Michael S.
This document consists of summaries of five separate forums relating to youth employment problems and local development. Each forum consisted of presentations by three individuals from varied backgrounds. Forum participants examined the following trends associated with the youth unemployment problem: (1) the technological structure of business and…
Przybylski, Grzegorz; Dabrowska, Anita; Pilaczyńska-Cemel, Marta; Krawiecka, Dorota
Tuberculosis (TB) affects the poorest of the poor and is an example of a disease that can contribute to the "disease-poverty trap". The variable epidemiological situation is associated with social risk factors, such as unemployment, which may favor the occurrence of this disease. The aim of this study was to analyze unemployment as a factor that can influence the incidence and course of the disease. We analyzed TB patients with confirmed status of employment or unemployment admitted to the Regional Center of Pulmonology in Bydgoszcz in during the years 2001 to 2010. Out of 1130 patients, 604 were unemployed and the other confirmed their employment. The unemployed patients were mostly single men over age 40, with a low level of education, and living in a city. We observed that the proportions of smokers and alcohol abusers were significantly higher among the unemployed patients. The advanced radiological lesions, smear-positive pulmonary TB, and extra-pulmonary sites were diagnosed significantly more often in this group. The rate of death in the course of hospitalization was significantly higher in the group of unemployed patients. Unemployment among TB patients is a serious problem. We found that more advanced radiological lesions were associated with more frequent treatment interruptions and a higher rate of death in the course of hospitalization. Increased efforts are needed to reduce and eliminate the problem of unemployment among patients with TB. This may, indirectly, contribute to a decrease in notifications of TB cases and improve treatment outcomes.
McGee, Robin E; Thompson, Nancy J
The high rate of unemployment among emerging adults (aged 18 to 25 years) is a public health concern. The risk of depression is higher among the unemployed than among the employed, but little is known about the relationship between unemployment and mental health among emerging adults. This secondary data analysis assessed the relationship between unemployment and depression among emerging adults. Data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. Responses to the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 provided data about the prevalence of depression. Bivariate relationships were assessed using χ(2) tests, and multivariable adjusted odds ratios were calculated with logistic regressions. Sociodemographic variables were sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and education. In addition, logistic regression models adjusted for health insurance status, disability, smoking, and body mass index. The analyses were completed using SAS 9.3 survey procedures to account for the complex sampling design. Almost 12% of emerging adults were depressed (PHQ-8 ≥10) and about 23% were unemployed. Significantly more unemployed than employed emerging adults were classified with depression. In the final model, the odds of depression were about 3 times higher for unemployed than employed emerging adults. The relationship between unemployment and depression is significant among emerging adults. With high rates of unemployment for this age group, this population may benefit from employment- and mental-health-focused interventions.
Andersen, Torben M
High unemployment and its social and economic consequences have lent urgency to the question of how to improve unemployment insurance in bad times without jeopardizing incentives to work or public finances in the medium term. A possible solution is a rule-based system that improves the generosity of unemployment insurance (replacement rate, benefit duration, eligibility conditions) when unemployment is high and reduces the generosity when it is low.
This paper examines how a change in layoff order can affect the decomposition and the size of unemployment in an equilibrium model where workers make optimal occupational reallocation decisions. In a calibrated model, a policy that concentrates involuntary unemployment incidences to inexperienced workers decreases workersâ€™ incentives to reallocate, compared to an equilibrium where everyone faces an identical unemployment risk, leading also to a decrease in aggregate unemployment. Moreover, ...
Population Survey (CPS), the difference between veteran and non-veteran youth unemployment increased substantially between 2008 and 2011, but then...the veteran youth unemployment rate averaged 10.7 percent compared to 8.0 percent among non-veteran youth . But the unemployment rates of older...Labor NLSY97 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth PaYS U.S. Army Partnership for Youth Success TAP Transition Assistance Program UCX Unemployment
Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág
The present article focuses on unemployment as a stressor and a crisis situation as well. Both the definition and theories about this phenomenon are analyzed. The author tries to explore unemployment like a stressor and a special crisis situation afterwards illustrating it by several Hungarian results of the unemployment research. The author tries to emphasize coping methods of personality. Last but not least unemployment is presented like a special problem that could be solved by some practical aspects recommended for the professionals.
Hamilton, Alison B; Williams, Lindsay; Washington, Donna L
The unemployment rate is currently higher among women Veterans than among male Veterans and civilian women. Employment is a key social determinant of health, with unemployment being strongly associated with adverse health. To identify military-related and health-related characteristics associated with unemployment in women Veterans. Secondary analysis of workforce participants (n=1605) in the National Survey of Women Veterans telephone survey. Demographics, mental health conditions, health care utilization, and military experiences and effects. Unemployment was defined as being in the labor force but unemployed and looking for work. The χ analyses to identify characteristics of unemployed women Veterans; logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with unemployment. Ten percent of women Veterans were unemployed. Independent correlates of unemployment were screening positive for depression [odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-12.4], military service during wartime (OR=2.9; 95%, CI 1.1-7.3), and service in the regular military (vs. in the National Guards/Reserves only) (OR=6.8; 95% CI, 2.2-20.5). Two postactive duty perceptions related to not being respected and understood as a Veteran were each independently associated with unemployment. Whether depression underlies unemployment, is exacerbated by unemployment, or both, it is critical to identify and treat depression among women Veterans, and also to investigate women Veterans' experiences and identities in civilian life. Community-based employers may need education regarding women Veterans' unique histories and strengths. Women who served in the regular military and during wartime may benefit from job assistance before and after they leave the military. Gender-specific adaptation of employment services may be warranted.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...
Full Text Available The issue of the unemployment concerning the population aged between 15-24 years has represented an important subject of research, due to the multiple implications that such a problem propagates on both social and economic sphere. Through this paper we wanted to achieve an updated synthesis of the results of the studies undertaken at an international level treating the unemployment problem among the young population. For combating efficiently this imbalance it is necessary to know its determinative factors. The studies undertaken along years identified determinative factors of different nature and, also, with a diffrent gravity of influence on the modification of the unemployment rate. Among the most important determinative factors the speciality litterature mentions: the demographic tendencies, the economic environment, the regulations concerning the work market and the educational system.
The impact of contraception on the population growth rate of Nigeria has been described as “little”, thereby prompting several questions on what the problems might be. This study therefore, reassesses the level of awareness of contraceptive methods amongst married male population of Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria.
Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.
We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied or...
Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe
This paper examines the impact of unemployment, unemployment distribution, wages and welfare of Youth Unemployment Programmes (YUPs). This paper analyse what happens when the number of skilled workers increases relatively to the number of unskilled workers. The results depend on the productivity...
Barr, Abigail; Miller, Luis; Ubeda, Paloma
We test the conjecture that becoming unemployed erodes the extent to which a person acknowledges earned entitlement. We use behavioral experiments to generate incentive-compatible measures of individuals' tendencies to acknowledge earned entitlement and incorporate these experiments in a two-stage study. In the first stage, participants' acknowledgment of earned entitlement was measured by engaging them in the behavioral experiments, and their individual employment status and other relevant socioeconomic characteristics were recorded. In the second stage, a year later, the process was repeated using the same instruments. The combination of the experimentally generated data and the longitudinal design allows us to investigate our conjecture using a difference-in-difference approach, while ruling out the pure self-interest confound. We report evidence consistent with a large, negative effect of becoming unemployed on the acknowledgment of earned entitlement.
Llorente, Alejandro; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban
Recent wide-spread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and inter-personal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 145 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. ...
Usui, Y; Miura, H
The aim of this study was to define the profile of unemployed dental hygienists who could be enticed to re-enter the workforce and the factors that could facilitate their re-entry into the dental field in Japan. The questionnaire was mailed with a postage-paid return envelope to a sample of 3095 licensed dental hygienists. A 50.4% response rate (S = 1477) was observed. The rate of working dental hygienists was 60.3% (n = 891), and of unemployed dental hygienists was 39.7% (n = 586). Of the latter, 31.9% (n = 187) stated intentions of returning to the workplace. The unemployed dental hygienists seeking employment were more often married and had more children, compared with working dental hygienists currently. This group also had significantly fewer total service years. Moreover, only 11.96% of them belonged to the Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, and 41.3% of those attended training workshops. According to their response, they perceived their top three major barriers to re-entry as 'lack sufficient dental hygiene skill', 'child rearing' and 'poor working atmosphere'. 'Flexibility in the work schedule' and 'location' were the most important factors for re-entry from their perspective. There were not many dental hygienists hoping to return to the dental field. The findings suggested that strategies to encourage non-practicing dental hygienists to re-entry should be emphasized in the areas of a flexible working atmosphere, easy access to information on how to return to practice and guidance on how to maintain professionalism during inactivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Daniel L. Chen; Sethi, Jasmin
Sexual harassment is perceived to be a major impediment to female labor force participation. We use the random assignment of U.S. federal judges setting geographically-local precedent, and the fact that judges’ biographies predict decisions in sexual harassment cases, to document the causal impact of forbidding sexual harassment. Consistent with an insider-outsider theory of involuntary unemployment, but in contrast to a mandated benefits theory of employment protections, pro-plaintiff sexual...
Bernstein, Aaron M
.... A same-sex spouse residing in a state that does not recognize same-sex marriage is required to file federal taxes as married under federal law but is prohibited from filing as married in-state...
Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban
Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.
Full Text Available Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.
Few reproductive health programs are targeted to married adolescent girls. This study measures changes associated with a program for married adolescent girls and a parallel husbands' program, in rural Ethiopia. The married girls' program provided information on communication, self-esteem, reproductive health and ...
Herbig, Britta; Dragano, Nico; Angerer, Peter
Although the unemployment rate in Germany is currently low, more than a million persons in the country have been out of work for more than a year. In this review article, we address these persons' state of health, the effect of unemployment on health, and the influence of macroeconomic factors and social policy. This article is based on a selective review of pertinent literature in the PubMed database. Large-scale meta-analyses and systematic reviews have shown that the long-term unemployed have an at least twofold risk of mental illness, particularly depression and anxiety disorders, compared to employed persons. Their mortality is 1.6-fold higher. Unemployment seems to be not only an effect of illness, but also a cause of it (i.e., there is evidence for both selection and causality). Learned helplessness is an important psychological explanatory model. Limited evidence indicates that the long-term unemployed have a moderately elevated prevalence of alcoholism; unemployment can be both an effect and a cause of alcoholism. Unemployment also seems to be associated with higher risks of heart attack and stroke. Cancer can lead to loss of employment. The link between unemployment and poorer health is strengthened by macroeconomic crises and weakened by governmental social interventions. The long-term unemployed carry a markedly higher burden of disease, particularly mental illness, than employed persons and those who are unemployed only for a short time. The burden of disease increases with the duration of unemployment. The vicious circle of unemployment and disease can be broken only by the combined effects of generally available health care, special health-promoting measures among the unemployed, and social interventions.
Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans
How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
This paper examines three outcomes characterizing different aspects of post 9/11 veterans' economic reintegration to civilian life: unemployment, earnings and college enrollment, using Current Population Survey data from 2005 to 2011. Analyses include interactions of veteran status with sex, race/ethnicity and educational attainment to evaluate whether diverse veterans experience diverse consequences of service. In brief, I find that the basic unemployment differences between veterans and non-veterans often reported in the media understate the effect of military service on unemployment for men, since veterans have other characteristics that are associated with higher employment rates. Female veterans appear to suffer a steeper employment penalty than male veterans, but black veterans appear to suffer less of a penalty than white veterans. But on two other measures, earnings and college enrollment, veterans appear to be doing better than their civilian peers. Veterans with a high school education or less outearn their civilian peers, but veterans with at least some college education appear to lose some or all of the veteran earnings advantage compared to veterans with a high school degree, suggesting the greatest wage returns to military service accrue among the least educated. Veterans with at least a high school education are more likely to be enrolled in college than their civilian peers. Treating veterans as a monolithic block obscures differences in the consequences of military service across diverse groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the persistence of regional unemployment and to explore the sources of this persistence. Evidence from China suggests three empirical findings. First, provincial relative unemployment is more persistent than aggregate unemployment. Second, youth unemployment is less persistent than total unemployment. Third, although the western region has the highest provincial unemployment rate, it has the lowest persistence of regional unemployment. To explore the so...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 10% of the population of Turkey lives in the Southeast Anatolian Project (SEAP region. The population growth rate and the rate of unintended pregnancies are high and family planning services are insufficient in this region. Lifetime induced abortion rate is also high in this region. Public health problems of the SEAP region were investigated in the "SEAP Public Health Project" in 2001 and 2002. As it is one of the most important health problems of the women living in this region; induced abortion was also investigated in this project. Methods An optimumsample size representing the rural and urban area of the region (n = 1150 was chosen by the State Institute of Statistics by a sampling method proportional to size. 1126 of the area's 1150 houses have been visited and data about induced abortions have been obtained by applying a questionnaire to 1491 ever married women who live in the region. Results It has been found that 9.0% of these women who had at least one pregnancy in their life had at least one induced abortion. The lifetime induced abortion per 100 pregnancies was found to be 2.45. The primary reason given for induced abortions was "wanting no more children" (64.6%. Lifetime induced abortions were 5.3 times greater with women using a family planning method than women not using family planning methods. Lifetime induced abortions were 4.1 times greater with unemployed women than working women. Most of the women have used private doctors in order to have an induced abortion. Although 32.29% have not yet begun to use a contraceptive method after their last induced abortion, 43.75% of the women have since started to use an effective contraceptive method. 23.96% of them have begun to use an ineffective contraceptive method. Conclusions Induced abortion is still an important problem at the SEAP region. The results of the study remind us that unemployed women and women who have more than four children is our target
Bozkurt, Ali Ihsan; Ozcirpici, Birgul; Ozgur, Servet; Sahinoz, Saime; Sahinoz, Turgut; Saka, Gunay; Ceylan, Ali; Ilcin, Ersen; Acemoglu, Hamit; Palanci, Yilmaz; Akkafa, Feridun; Ak, Mucide
Nearly 10% of the population of Turkey lives in the Southeast Anatolian Project (SEAP) region. The population growth rate and the rate of unintended pregnancies are high and family planning services are insufficient in this region. Lifetime induced abortion rate is also high in this region. Public health problems of the SEAP region were investigated in the "SEAP Public Health Project" in 2001 and 2002. As it is one of the most important health problems of the women living in this region; induced abortion was also investigated in this project. An optimumsample size representing the rural and urban area of the region (n = 1150) was chosen by the State Institute of Statistics by a sampling method proportional to size. 1126 of the area's 1150 houses have been visited and data about induced abortions have been obtained by applying a questionnaire to 1491 ever married women who live in the region. It has been found that 9.0% of these women who had at least one pregnancy in their life had at least one induced abortion. The lifetime induced abortion per 100 pregnancies was found to be 2.45. The primary reason given for induced abortions was "wanting no more children" (64.6%). Lifetime induced abortions were 5.3 times greater with women using a family planning method than women not using family planning methods. Lifetime induced abortions were 4.1 times greater with unemployed women than working women. Most of the women have used private doctors in order to have an induced abortion. Although 32.29% have not yet begun to use a contraceptive method after their last induced abortion, 43.75% of the women have since started to use an effective contraceptive method. 23.96% of them have begun to use an ineffective contraceptive method. Induced abortion is still an important problem at the SEAP region. The results of the study remind us that unemployed women and women who have more than four children is our target group in the campaign against induced abortions. Most of the women
Strandh, Mattias; Novo, Mehmed; Hammarström, Anne
Previous research has shown that unemployment experiences increase the risk of poor mental health and that this effect differs depending on individual characteristics. Relatively little is known, however, about how the unemployment rate and labour market conditions impact the relationship. This study investigates how municipal unemployment rates and vacancy rates affect mental health in a nationally representative longitudinal survey of initially unemployed Swedish respondents. The study uses a nationally representative longitudinal survey of currently and recently unemployed people in Sweden, in which respondents were re-interviewed one year after the initial interview. Mental health was measured using the GHQ-12. The present article uses multilevel models (hierarchical linear models) to combine municipal-level information on unemployment levels and vacancy rates with individual-level control variables. Higher municipal vacancy rates improved mental health among the unemployed. However, no coherent effect of municipal unemployment rate on the relationship between unemployment and mental health was found. The effect of municipal vacancy rates can be understood in terms of the impact of perceived opportunity on the sense of life-course predictability. That there was no effect of municipal unemployment rate indicates that high local unemployment levels do not reduce the sense of shame and perceived stigma among the unemployed. Taken together, our findings would seem to present a rather bleak picture of the current dramatic labour market situation. The unemployed will be negatively affected by the extremely low demand for labour, while they will not be able to take comfort from their growing numbers.
Turk, Rukiye; Celik, Sevilay Senol; Çetin, Merve; Soydan, Gamze
The aim of this study was to determine the experiences and views of married women about the topic of domestic violence. This research was planned as a mixed methods study with an in-depth interview and descriptive approach. The study was conducted between November 2011 and December 2012 with 24 married women living in Ankara, Turkey. Two main data-collection tools were used in the study: the "Personal Information Form" and the "In-depth Interview Questionnaire." Data of this study were evaluated by content analysis. A majority of the participants (83.3%) stated that they had been exposed to domestic violence that had been committed primarily by their husbands. The actual reasons for the violence were reported to be such factors as "financial problems and lack of education and love and respect between the couples." It was determined that as the victims became more desperate, they turned to reading of the Koran, prayer, and smoking. Domestic violence adversely affects the physical and mental health of individuals, families, and the entire community. Therefore, it will take a community effort to address the causes of domestic violence and to create viable solutions that will improve the health of everyone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Jung A Kim, PhD
Conclusions: Both health status and health behaviors had significant impacts on depression, suggesting that development of nursing interventions and educational programs should be targeted towards improving maternal health, healthy lifestyle, and subjective health perception to promote married female immigrants' psychological well-being.
Full Text Available With the economic crisis of recent years there is a wider discussion on issues of employment and unemployment in Greece. Development, attracting new investments, creating new jobs, unemployment rates, brain drain are some of the issues that interests the political, economic and social carriers of the country. This paper presents data on employment and unemployment in Greece for the last decade. Under this framework, data are presented and the relevant findings are discussed.
GENDA Yuji; Kondo, Ayako
Understanding the nature of structural unemployment is a very important issue in employment policy. While many discussions on this important topic have taken place, there is still no clear definition of what, exactly, it is, and no accurate measurement methods have been introduced. This paper surveys what structural unemployment is, reviews some theoretical interpretations and existing methods of measuring structural unemployment, and explores new approaches in an attempt to grasp the nature ...
Fabre, Alice; Pallage, Stéphane; Zimmermann, Christian
In this paper we compare the welfare effects of unemployment insurance (UI) with an universal basic income (UBI) system in an economy with idiosyncratic shocks to employment. Both policies provide a safety net in the face of idiosyncratic shocks. While the unemployment insurance program should do a better job at protecting the unemployed, it suffers from moral hazard and substantial monitoring costs, which may threaten its usefulness. The universal basic income, which is simpler to manage and...
Alejandro Díaz Bautista
During the 1990's, Mexico successfully implemented a program of economic reforms and free trade aimed at a complete restructuring of its economy. Surprisingly, the reform process seems to have had little impact on unemployment. An analysis of trends indicates that, even in the worst years of economic crisis, average unemployment rates in Mexico did not exceed 7.4% (reached in the third quarter of 1995). Tijuana's unemployment rate averaged 0.725% in 2001, when the economy was experiencing the...
Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Caswell, Dorte; Marston, Greg
The paper explores recent developments in Australian and Danish unemployment policies with a special focus on the technologies used to classify and categorize unemployed people on government benefits. Using governmentality as our theoretical framework, we consider the implications of reducing...... complex social problems to statistical scores and differentiated categories – forms of knowledge that diminish the capacity to think about unemployment as a collective problem requiring collective solutions. What we argue is that classification systems, which are part and parcel of welfare state...
URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/documents-de-travail/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2011.49R - ISSN : 1955-611X - Version révisée : Novembre 2013; In this study we use the German Socio-Economic Panel to evaluate the impact of leisure sport participation on the unemployment duration. The empirical literature on sport participation has focused on labour market outcomes and job quality while the impact of this activity on j...
"What are the macroeconomic consequences of an increase in labour supply? In the short run, unemployment occurs, due to both lack of aggregate demand and capital shortage. Demand-side policy and money wage restraint prove to be ineffective in this situation, owing to capital shortage. On the other hand, a reduction in working hours without wage compensation as well as a policy mix of both demand-side policy and investment policy turn out to be effective. The reduction in working hours lowers individual income and raises individual leisure, as compared to the policy mix." (SUMMARY IN GER) excerpt
Holtyn, August F; DeFulio, Anthony; Silverman, Kenneth
The strong association between unemployment and drug addiction suggests that employment interventions are an important and needed focus of drug-addiction treatment. The increasing necessity of possessing basic academic skills to function in the workplace may require that some individuals receive educational training along with vocational training. This study investigated the academic skills of drug-addicted and chronically-unemployed adults (N = 559) who were enrolled in one of six studies conducted at the Center for Learning and Health in Baltimore, MD. Upon study enrollment, academic skills in math, spelling, and reading were examined using the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3 or WRAT-4) and educational history was examined using the Addiction Severity Index-Lite. Although participants completed an average of 11 years of education, actual academic skill level was at or below the seventh grade level for 81% of participants in math, 61% in spelling, and 43% in reading, and most participants were classified as Low Average or below based on age group norms. Despite the fact that participants in this analysis were studied across several years and were from diverse populations, rates of high school completion and academic skill levels were remarkably similar. Programs designed to improve the long-term employment status of drug-addicted individuals may benefit from the inclusion of basic adult education; future research on the topic is needed. Although establishing basic skills does not directly address chronic unemployment, it may help individuals obtain the jobs they desire and function effectively in those jobs.
Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio
We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.
Mathers, C D; Schofield, D J
Mathers and Schofield, from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, review recent studies, including Australian research, on the health effects of unemployment and the mechanisms by which unemployment causes adverse health outcomes. The relationship is complex: ill-health also causes unemployment, and confounding factors include socioeconomic status and lifestyle. However, longitudinal studies with a range of designs provide reasonably good evidence that unemployment itself is detrimental to health and has an impact on health outcomes--increasing mortality rates, causing physical and mental ill-health and greater use of health services.
This article explores the determinants of the perceptions of the unemployed in 29 European countries along three dimensions: whether people see the unemployed as the ‘government’s responsibility’; whether they believe the unemployed do not ‘try hard to find a job’; and whether they think that the standard of living of the unemployed is ‘bad’. I derive a number of expectations from the political economy literature on policy preferences and test whether these expectations explain variation in t...
Murray, Cynthia L; Gien, Lan; Solberg, Shirley M
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of unemployment on the mental health of women in the context of massive unemployment. Comparisons were made between the level of mental distress experienced by unemployed and employed women, in two areas of Newfoundland, Canada that were affected by the northern cod moratorium. In addition, the relationships between women's mental distress and a number of variables were explored. Questionnaires were administered to 112 unemployed and 112 employed women three years after the moratorium began. The unemployed women reported significantly poorer mental well-being in the year prior to data collection. At the time of the study, however, both groups of women were experiencing high levels of distress. The moratorium, financial problems, and feelings of uncertainty were identified as key stressors for all the women, but especially for those without work. Among the working women, past experience with unemployment and level of education had significant correlations with their mental well-being.
Zhang, X-J; Wang, G-Y; Shen, Q; Yu, Y-L; Sun, Y-H; Yu, G-B; Zhao, D; Ye, D-Q
This study aims to explore the current status of married women in regard of their use of contraceptive methods (permanent methods versus non-permanent methods) and to find out factors that affect the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Anhui Province of China. Survey. Anhui, China. A total of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. All women were asked to provide detailed information by completing detailed questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence and influence factors. The total birth control rate of the sample was 95.2%. Samples choosing the permanent and nonpermanent contraceptive methods have taken up 46.7 and 48.5% respectively. Female sterilisation was the first choice with a usage rate of 43.6%, followed by intrauterine device (IUD), which was used by 41.1% of samples. Single-variable analysis showed that the choice of contraceptive methods was associated with age, education level, parity, frequency of sex intercourses in a month, contraceptive knowledge, RTI symptom and the gender of the last child of rural married women. A significant increase in contraceptive use of rural married women in Anhui Province of China. Female sterilisation and IUD still play the dominant role. Effective family planning methods should be advocated through adequate counselling on the correct use and proper management, with consideration of the background of custom and belief.
Tøge, Anne Grete
Social and economic security could be particularly important for health among the unemployed. Nevertheless, knowledge is still lacking as to whether and how different policy contexts affect health when people move into unemployment. This article investigates whether and to what degree the unemployment generosity explains why individual health effects of unemployment vary across Europe. The 2008–2011 longitudinal panel of the European Union statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) ...
This book looks at the issue of youth unemployment and examines policy responses. Part I considers the youth unemployment problem. Chapter 1 is an overview, covering size of the problem and the close relationship between youth and adult unemployment. Chapter 2 examines youth unemployment characteristics and distribution of unemployment across…
Cockx, B.; Picchio, M.
This study investigates whether and to what extent further unemployment experience for youths who are already long-term unemployed imposes a penalty on subsequent labor market outcomes. We propose a flexible method for analyzing the effect on wages aside of transitions from unemployment and
Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.
This paper explores the optimal interaction between the tax system and unemployment compensation in insuring people against the risks of involuntary unemployment and low ability.To that end, we introduce search unemployment in a model of optimal non-linear income taxation.We find that the optimal
This study discusses in depth the youth unemployment "problem" and examines the various policy responses to it, including education and training, and active labour market policy. It emphasizes the need for adequate labour market information, policy monitoring and programme evaluation to help provide more and better-quality jobs for young people - while also offering specific recommendations and guidelines for this age group in industrialized, transition and developing countries, While anal...
Webber, Don J; Gail Pacheco
Reducing the unemployment rate is an aim of most governing authorities. This paper presents a socio-economic analysis of area-level employment rate changes across Auckland using Census area-level data for the time period 1996 to 2006. Exploratory spatial data analyses suggest the presence of strong spatial patterns in intra-city employment rates changes. Application of seemingly unrelated regressions highlight forces, such as education, that are associated with increases in part time and full...
The transmission of individual characteristics and behaviors across generations has frequently been studied in the social sciences. For a growing number of children, however, the biological father was present in the household for only part of the time; and for many children, stepfathers were present. What are the implications of these changes for the process of intergenerational transmission? To answer this question, this article compares intergenerational transmission among married, divorced, and stepparents. Two forms of reproduction are studied: educational attainment and church attendance. For education, divorced fathers were as influential as married fathers, whereas stepfathers were less influential. For church attendance, married fathers were most influential, divorced fathers were least influential, and stepfathers were in between. Divorced mothers, in contrast, appeared to be more influential than married mothers. These findings lend negative support for the social capital hypothesis and positive support for notions of value socialization. The strong role of the divorced father for educational transmission is consistent with genetic processes and hypotheses about early advantages.
Christofides, Louis N.; Sofronis Clerides; Costas Hadjiyiannis; Michael S. Michael; Marios Stephanides
The number of foreign workers in Cyprus has been increasing sharply in the last 15 years. This paper investigates the impact of foreign workers on unemployment, labour force participation and part-time employment in Cyprus, using data from the EU Labour Force Surveys for the period 1999-2005. This is examined overall, and by age group, or education, level. The study finds that the presence of foreign workers has not affected total unemployment or total labour force participation in Cyprus. Pa...
Gould, M I; Fieldhouse, E
"The Sample of Anonymised Records drawn from the 1991 [United Kingdom] Census is used to model geographical, demographic, and socioeconomic variations in male unemployment by means of multilevel logit models. The underlying structure of the problem is such that cells in a multiway cross-tabulation of individual characteristics (level 1) are nested within places (level 2). Geographical variations in male unemployment are found even after allowing for age, marital status, ethnicity, higher education qualifications, social class, and industry." excerpt
Rhee-Weise, Michelle; Horn, Michael B.
Even as the economy appears to have turned a corner, high unemployment persists. Strangely, as millions nationwide struggle to find work, there are millions of jobs that remain unfilled. High unemployment rates may therefore have less to do than commonly assumed with an economy that is not healthy enough to produce jobs or employers who are…
Gough, Margaret; Killewald, Alexandra
Unemployment has consequences for individuals, but its impacts also reverberate through families. This paper examines how families adapt to unemployment in one area of life--time in housework. Using 74,881 observations from 10,390 couples in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we estimate fixed effects models and find that individuals spend…
Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda
This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 1980-2000, and adopting a quasi-experimental design,…
Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus
The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…
Research on unemployment started during the 1930’s and still attracts the attention of many researchers. It has been found that job loss has serious negative consequences for many aspects of the individual’s life. However, the influence of unemployment on the individual is not simple and is
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).
This report examines the causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. Summarized first is the youth unemployment situation since the 1974/1975 recession. In a section on recent developments in youth labor markets a series of tables and graphs provide data on youth…
Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda
This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period
Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe
the impact of higher punishmentrates and a higher audit rate on labour market performance. We findthat a higher punishment rate reduces the size of the informal sectorand reduces unemployment. A higher audit rate has an ambiguousimpact on unemployment, and may actually increase the size of theunderground...
M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)
textabstractIn this paper, I study the wage a firm sets to attract high ability workers (hipo's) in situations of unemployment. I show that the higher unemployment, the larger a firm's incentives to sort high and low ability workers. Moreover, workers will signal their (high) ability in situations
It is common knowledge that the level of unemployment in Nigeria has continued to rise over the years. It is therefore worrisome that even graduates of tertiary institutions considered as skilled manpower have been bitten by this unemployment bug. However, studies on the subject matter have remained historic in their ...
Adams, Arvil V.; And Others
The study is based on an analysis of recent trends in youth unemployment from published sources and on additional analysis of a national sample of young men and young women 16 to 18 years of age who were followed longitudinally over a seven year period in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The book establishes the dimensions of youth unemployment and…
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unemployed members. 452.92 Section 452.92 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Right To Vote § 452.92 Unemployed members. Members who are otherwise qualified to vote may...-time basis in the industry served by the union, provided, of course, that such members are paying dues. ...
Taking recourse to the traditional gender-role expectation which views males as the family breadwinner and head, it is assumed that the psychological consequences of unemployment may not be the same for both male and female unemployed. In view of this, this study examined gender disparities in hopelessness in a ...
The troika of poverty, unemployment and inequality are hallmarks of the South African socio-economic landscape. With approximately one out of every four young people between the ages of 15 and 35 being employed, unemployment is a fact of life experienced by the majority of South African youth. This study sets out to ...
Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Cao, Yumei; Ji, Lingyun; Costello, Tracy J; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S; Li, Yisheng; Castro, Yessenia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W
African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative
Green, A E
Local unemployment rates are often used as economic and social indicators at the subregional scale. Recently, however, there has been growing debate among social scientists, economists, and planners over the scope, coverage, and usefulness of unemployment counts and rates. This paper compares and contrasts unemployment data from the Employment Department claimant count, the Census of Population, and the Labor Force Survey with the central goal of comparing the census and claimant-based counts for different subgroups of the population disaggregated by age and gender at a range of spatial scales. Analysis reveals that in some cases there are substantial variations in unemployment counts and rates derived from different data sources. These findings suggest the merit of using alternative parallel measures of unemployment designed for a specific purpose. To effectively apply this approach necessitates a better understanding on the part of users of the strengths and weaknesses of alternative sources in order that the most appropriate measure is selected.
Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G.; Hartigan, Lacey. A.; Boden, Joseph; Guttmannova, Katarina; Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Catalano, Richard F.
The current study tested whether unemployment predicted young adults’ heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking, and cannabis use after taking into account individual development in substance use. Furthermore, building on the life course perspective, this study examined whether the link between unemployment and substance use among young adults differed for those who experienced low childhood SES compared to those who did not. Data for the present study came from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a panel study examining a broad range of developmental outcomes from ages 10 to 33. A life history calendar (LHC) was administered to assess substance use and unemployment status during young adulthood. Covariates included baseline symptoms of psychopathology, baseline substance use, gender, ethnicity, and adult educational attainment. Results suggest that unemployment is associated with young adults’ heavy episodic drinking and possibly cigarette use, but not cannabis use. Moreover, for all three substances, the detrimental impact of unemployment on substance use seems to be exacerbated among young adults who spent their childhood and adolescence in a lower SES household. Public health efforts that provide other viable and affordable options to cope with unemployment among young adults from low SES backgrounds are needed to address this disproportionate concentration of adverse impacts of unemployment on behavioral health. PMID:26342911
Ferrarini, Tommy; Nelson, Kenneth; Sjöberg, Ola
The global financial crisis of 2008 is likely to have repercussions on public health in Europe, not least through escalating mass unemployment, fiscal austerity measures and inadequate social protection systems. The purpose of this study is to analyse the role of unemployment insurance for deteriorating self-rated health in the working age population at the onset of the fiscal crisis in Europe. Multilevel logistic conditional change models linking institutional-level data on coverage and income replacement in unemployment insurance to individual-level panel data on self-rated health in 23 European countries at two repeated occasions, 2006 and 2009. Unemployment insurance significantly reduces transitions into self-rated ill-health and, particularly, programme coverage is important in this respect. Unemployment insurance is also of relevance for the socioeconomic gradients of health at individual level, where programme coverage significantly reduces health risks attached to educational attainment. Unemployment insurance mitigated adverse health effects both at individual and country-level during the financial crisis. Due to the centrality of programme coverage, reforms to unemployment insurance should focus on extending the number of insured people in the labour force. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G; Hartigan, Lacey A; Boden, Joseph M; Guttmannova, Katarina; Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Catalano, Richard F
The current study tested whether unemployment predicted young adults' heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking, and cannabis use after taking into account individual development in substance use. Furthermore, building on the life course perspective, this study examined whether the link between unemployment and substance use among young adults differed for those who experienced low childhood SES compared to those who did not. Data for the present study came from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a panel study examining a broad range of developmental outcomes from ages 10 to 33. A life history calendar (LHC) was administered to assess substance use and unemployment status during young adulthood. Covariates included baseline symptoms of psychopathology, baseline substance use, gender, ethnicity, and adult educational attainment. Results suggest that unemployment is associated with young adults' heavy episodic drinking and possibly cigarette use, but not cannabis use. Moreover, for all three substances, the detrimental impact of unemployment on substance use seems to be exacerbated among young adults who spent their childhood and adolescence in a lower SES household. Public health efforts that provide other viable and affordable options to cope with unemployment among young adults from low SES backgrounds are needed to address this disproportionate concentration of adverse impacts of unemployment on behavioral health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This review presents a summary of evidence on outcomes from active labour market programs. Active labour market programs aim to increase the likelihood of employment for individuals who are unemployed or at risk of unemployment. The focus of this review is on studies of active labour market programs in Australia, supplemented with international evidence. An overview and historical background on active labour market programs is provided, as well as an introduction to the empirical methods used to estimate the effect of the programs. Evidence on the effects of the main types of programs – case management, work experience programs and formal education and training – is reviewed, and the main findings are distilled into a set of lessons for policy makers. The review concludes that active labour market programs cannot by themselves have a major impact on the rate of unemployment, but some spending on these programs is justified by outcomes such as increasing the pool of unemployed who are job ready and sharing the burden of unemployment. Job search and wage subsidy programs are suggested to be good ways to assist unemployed who are less disadvantaged. For unemployed with higher levels of disadvantage, priority should be given to programs that create jobs with opportunities for linked training, and that provide a pathway to a permanent job.
Sanger, Maureen; Jordan, Lori; Pruthi, Sumit; Day, Matthew; Covert, Brittany; Merriweather, Brenda; Rodeghier, Mark; DeBaun, Michael; Kassim, Adetola
An estimated 25-60% of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) are unemployed. Factors contributing to the high unemployment rate in this population are not well studied. With the known risk of cognitive deficits associated with SCD, we tested the hypothesis that unemployment is related to decrements in intellectual functioning. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 50 adults with sickle cell anemia who completed cognitive testing, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, as part of standard care. Employment status was recorded at the time of testing. Medical variables examined as possible risk factors for unemployment included disease phenotype, cerebral infarction, and pain frequency. The mean age of the sample was 30.7 years (range = 19-59); 56% were women. Almost half of the cohort (44%) were unemployed. In a multivariate logistic regression model, lower IQ scores (odds ratio = 0.88; p = .002, 95% confidence interval, CI [0.82, 0.96]) and lower educational attainment (odds ratio = 0.13; p = .012, 95% CI [0.03, 0.65]) were associated with increasing odds of unemployment. The results suggest that cognitive impairment in adults with sickle cell anemia may contribute to the risk of unemployment. Helping these individuals access vocational rehabilitation services may be an important component of multidisciplinary care.
Dushi, Irena; Iams, Howard M
We present descriptive statistics on pension participation and types of pensions among married couples, using data from the 1996/2008 Panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation and Social Security administrative records. Previous research has focused on pension coverage by marital status, but has not examined couples as a unit. Because couples usually share income, viewing them as a unit provides a better picture of potential access to income from retirement plans. Our analysis compares 1998 and 2009 data because substantial changes occurred in the pension landscape over this decade that could have influenced the prevalence of different pension plans, although we observe modest changes in participation rates and types of plans over the period. We find that in 20 percent of couples, neither spouse participated in a pension plan; in 10 percent, the wife was the only participant; and in 37 percent, the husband was the only participant.
Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the problems related to unemployment in the Moravian and Silesian Region in the Czech Republic. We have analysed the problems by means of age and education structure of population and thereafter by means of the sector structure. The analysis results provide evidence that the sector structure as well as the age structure of population in the Region shows similar tendencies like in the Czech Republic. The education structure of the Region’s population reflects the previous orientation of the Region to mining and raw material exploitation and carries along a number of problems related to the structural unemployment as a result of the Region's restructuring. The unemployment rate in the Region exceeds the national average and the individual areas of the Region achieve double amounts. In addition, the analysis indicates that the wage level in the Region when compared to the CZ develops similarly in the individual sectors; the differences tend to deepen, however. The benefits of solution of these problems may be seen in the increasing interest of foreign investors in the Region, namely in the area of modern manufacturing industry and sophisticated sectors.
Laditka, James N; Laditka, Sarah B
Unemployment may be associated with health through factors including stress, depression, unhealthy behaviors, reduced health care, and loss of social networks. Little is known about associations of total lifetime unemployment with disability and life expectancy. People with high unemployment (≥the median) will live shorter lives with more disability than those with less unemployment. Data were nationally representative of African Americans and non-Hispanic whites, from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (37 waves 1968-2011, n = 7,970, mean work years = 24.7). Seven waves (1999-2011, 58,268 person-years) measured disability in activities of daily living. We estimated monthly probabilities of disability and death associated with unemployment using multinomial logistic Markov models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, health status at baseline and throughout work life, and social support. We used the probabilities to create large populations with microsimulation, each individual having known monthly disability status, age 40 to death. We analyzed the populations to measure outcomes. Respectively for African American and white women and African American and white men, life expectancies (with 95% confidence intervals) from age 40 with low unemployment were ages: 77.1 (75.0-78.3), 80.6 (78.4-81.4), 71.4 (69.6-72.5), and 76.9 (74.9-77.9). Corresponding high unemployment results were: 73.7 (71.7-75.0), 77.5 (75.1-78.0), 68.4 (66.8-69.0), and 73.7 (71.5-74.3). The percentage of life disabled from age 40 was greater with high unemployment for the same groups, by 23.9%, 21.0%, 21.3%, and 21.1% (all p unemployment may be associated with a larger proportion of later life with disability and lower life expectancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Unwanted pregnancy is still a major problem in the modern world despite the widely available contraception services. This study was conducted to determine the knowledge and attitude of married women in the reproductive age group regarding emergency contraception in selected rural areas of Udupi district, India. Material and Methods: The study group comprised of 350 married women in the reproductive age group residing in rural areas of Udupi district, India. A structured questionnaire and an attitude scale were used to assess the knowledge and the attitude. Results: Majority, 69.1% of the married women belonged to Hindu religion, 46.9% had an educational qualification of 10th standard and below. About 13.1% of the married women had undergone abortion. Nearly 96.9% of the married women had heard about emergency contraceptives and only 2% of the married women had used emergency contraceptive pills. About 63.7% out of 339 married women had got information about emergency contraceptive pills from health personnel and about 77.7% from television. Majority 84% had poor knowledge on emergency contraception. About 99.7% had favourable attitude on the use of emergency contraceptives. There was a significant association between knowledge scores and selected variable like education, knowledge and the attitude scores had a correlation. Conclusion: The study identifies the knowledge and attitude of the rural married women regarding emergency contraception, hence to help them to plan future pregnancies and prevent any unwanted or unintended pregnancies.
Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe
This paper challenges the traditional view that unemployment is high because insiders determine the union wage. The insiders in this paper are characterised by being more efficient when they search for a job than the outsiders, implying that they experience relatively less unemployment. We assume...... that wages are determined by a monopoly union and further that a union leader is elected by a majority voting rule. Insiders may prefer a lower wage that outsiders, implying the possibility of lower unemployment when insiders are decisive in the union than if outsiders were decisive in the union....
Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas
This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...
Blanco, M.; Dalton, Patricio; Vargas, J.F.
This paper studies the effects of unemployment benefit schemes on individual productivity. We created employment and unemployment in the field and compared workers' productivity under no unemployment benefits to productivity under two different unemployment schemes. In one scheme, the unemployed
Erkin, Ashim; Hamrajan, Memtili; Kadirjan, Mijit; Adil, Eli; Elijan, Abdureshit; Ibrahim, Ubul; Abdulla, Tursun; Hasanjan, Abdurehim; Turgun, Hekim; Eli, Ablet; Eset, Metmusa
To study the psycho-social risk factors of sexual failure among newly married young males in the Uyghur population. We conducted a paired case control study of 186 newly married Uyghur young males (aged 17－30 ［23.4±2.9］ yr) with sexual failure and another 186 (aged 18－34 ［24.0±3.1］ yr) with no such problem as controls. We performed a logistic regression analysis on the possible psycho-social risk factors of this condition. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of sexual failure among the newly married men included personality (OR=0.271, 95% CI 0.176－0.420), income (OR=0.391, 95% CI 0.264－0.580), history of masturbation (OR=0.824, 95% CI 0.710－0.956), premarital sex (OR=0.757, 95% CI 0.677－0.847), sense of obligation (OR=1.756, 95% CI 1.157－2.693), equality of the social status (OR=0.574, 95% CI 0.435－0.756), degree of mutual care (OR=1.605, 95% CI 1.268－2.032), female's psychological obstacle (OR=2.832, 95% CI 1.221－6.569), and religion (OR=0.643, 95% CI 0.472－0.967). There was a statistical significance in the correlation between these factors and sexual failure in the newly married males (all P<0.05). Sexual failure of newly married Uyghur young males are associated with many psycho-social factors, which necessitates sexual education among young males and particularly pre-marriage sexual education and psychological guide among both males and females.
I conducted a mental Health Assessment and Marital therapy / Couple Therapy of a young newly married couple at my clinic. Husband ( Mr. A ) was 28 years old Computer Engineer and wife ( Mrs. A ) was 23 years old, graduate and a team leader in sports (Football). They were married 3 months ago and it was an arranged ...
Smetana, Judith G.; And Others
Families were interviewed and participated in a social interaction task. Results indicated that married mothers of adolescents generated more conflicts than did divorced mothers, and adolescents from married families exhibited more positive communication than did adolescents from divorced families. There was a greater trend toward harmonious…
van der Lippe, Tanja; Voorpostel, Marieke; Hewitt, Belinda
BACKGROUND Cross-national research suggests that married people have higher levels of well-being than cohabiting people. However, relationship quality has both positive and negative dimensions. Researchers have paid little attention to disagreements within cohabiting and married couples. OBJECTIVE
Due to the impact of Confucianism on Taiwanese society, Taiwanese married women play multiple family roles including being a daughter-in-law, wife, mother, and working woman. Having to play multiple roles usually brings Taiwanese married women burdens and stress. It is reported that Zen meditation improves people's physical and mental wellbeing.…
Morina, N.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
We assessed prevalence rates of mental disorders in 206 mothers who had experienced the Kosovo war 10 years previously: 100 lone mothers widowed by the war, 71 non-bereaved married mothers, and 35 married mothers bereaved since the war (loss of family other than husband). A total of 96% of widowed
THE PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO DETERMINE WHAT HAPPENS TO CAREER AMBITIONS AFTER THE COLLEGE GIRL MARRIES, WHETHER INTERESTS AND AMBITIONS CHANGE IN SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS DURING MARRIAGE, AND IN WHAT WAYS MARRIED WOMEN WITH CAREER AMBITIONS DIFFER FROM THOSE WITH NONE. RESPONDENTS TO A FORCED-CHOICE QUESTIONNAIRE WERE 310 MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN…
Stroup, Margaret H.; Valentin, Marjorie R.; Seebeck, Randall G.; Williams, Joseph; Jeffers, Deborah; Markoja, Robert
Three Rivers Community College, in conjunction with CiDRA Corporation a fiber-optic telecommunication company and Middlesex Community College, offered a 12 week, 9.5 college credit Fiber Optics training program for 14 unemployed and underemployed women in central Connecticut. Classes were held at the Meriden Center of Middlesex Community College, with some laboratory activities held at CiDRA's headquarters in Wallingford. Connecticut photonics related manufacturing companies project a need to hire anywhere from 100 to 1000 new photonics workers over the next several years. Despite this incredible demand, Three Rivers Community College is the only community college to offer an associate degree program in Photonics Engineering Technology in Connecticut, and one of only two colleges in new England. Funded in part by monies targeting Non-Traditional Occupations for women through the Connecticut Department of Labor, this accelerated program enabled participants to learn industry basics, be interview ready, and earn valuable credit towards an associate degree. The goal of the training program is to provide these former waitresses, truck drivers, certified nurse aides and medical technicians an opportunity to enter the higher-paying field of fiber-optic technology. The course, designed with curriculum assistance from Connecticut companies, will provide education and training needed to qualify for an entry-level position in fiber-optic manufacturing. In addition to free tuition students enrolled in the program received all supplies needed for the course including textbooks, a scientific calculator and an optics experiment kit. Students also practiced fiber termination and splicing skills and were eligible to take the Fiber Optic Association Certification Test at the conclusion of the program. The cost for the test was also paid by the grant. Students met regularly with female employees of CiDRA who served as mentors for the 12- week program. Math and science tutoring was
Arokiasamy, J T
A study was conducted at the Army Garrison Hospital at Port Dickson in Peninsular Malaysia to determine the attitudes of 110 married men towards family planning. The sample included 80 Malays and 30 Indians who are army personnel attending the hospital either for medical treatment or a check-up. The study instrument was a pre-tested questionnarie administered by 2 male nurses during the November-December 1975 period. 76 of the respondents were between the ages of 20-34 years. 81 of the respondents had been married for a duration of up to 11 years. A breakdown by religion showed that 80 were Muslims, 25 were Hindus, and 5 were Christians, the latter being all Roman Catholics. All of the respondents were able to read and write in at least 1 language, 36 had had schooling varying from standard 1-6, 40 had had schooling varying between Form 1-Form 3, and 34 had had schooling varying from Form 4-to either Malaysian Certificate of Education Level or Higher School Certificate Level. 103 of the respondents approved of family planning, and of these 63 had always felt this way in the past. 6 respondents indicated that they had not thought about family planning in the past. 87 respondents did not approve of the practice of family planning before having the 1st child. Only 7 of 80 Malays in contrast to 16 of 30 Indian respondents -- a significant difference -- approved of family planning before the 1st child. 89 of the 110 respondents had discussed family planning with their wives; 21 respondents had not. 93 respondents disapproved of induced abortion; 17 approved of it. Only 3 of 80 Malay respondents approved induced abortion, but 14 of 30 Indian respondents indicated approval. 98 of the respondents indicated that they were interested in learning more about family planning, and 96 approved of their wife practicing family planning. 56 respondents were practicing family planning, and 20 indicated that they would do so in the future. 6 said they would not practice family
China has launched the one-child policy to control its rapidly expanding population since 1979. Local governments, tasked with limiting regional birth rates, commonly imposed induced abortions. After 1994, China's family planning policy was relatively loosened and mandatory induced abortion gradually gave way to client-centered and informed-choice contraceptive policy and the "Compensation" Fee policy. This study assesses trends in and determinants of induced abortion among married women aged 20-49 in China from 1979 to 2010, using data from national statistics and nationally representative sample surveys. The incidence of induced abortions among married women aged 20-49 began to decrease in the mid-1990s. The induced abortion rate reached its highest level in the early 1980s (56.07%) and its lowest level in the 2000s (18.04%), with an average annual rate of 28.95% among married women 20-49 years old. The likelihood of a pregnant woman undergoing an induced abortion during this period depended not only on individual characteristics (including ethnicity, age, education level, household registration, number of children, and sex of children), but also on the stringency of the family planning policy in place. The less stringent the family planning policy, the less likely married women were to undergo an induced abortion. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Mi Kyoung; Moon, So Hyun
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of an individual breast-feeding promotion program to address breast-feeding knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practice for married immigrant women. A non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design was used (experimental group=16, control group=17). The intervention consisted of 3 phases: (1) Within 2 hours of delivery - individual breast-feeding training through video/verbal/practical training education and demonstration (2) After 1~2 days - group training using video, model doll, and breast models (3) After 7 days - family visit, counseling, retraining and reinforcement training. The data were analyzed using non-parametric tests with the SPSS program. Married immigrant women who participated in the individual breast-feeding program scored high in knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practice compared to the control group. The results indicate that the individual breast-feeding program is very effective in increasing breast-feeding knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practicing breast feeding for married immigrant women. So, nurses are encouraged to aggressively utilize individual breast-feeding programs to help married immigrant women, who are exposed to vulnerability due to various situations.
Terceira A. Berdahl
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand self-rated health (SRH trajectories by social location (race/ethnicity by gender by social class among married individuals in the United States. We estimate multilevel models of SRH using six observations from 1980 to 2000 from a nationally representative panel of married individuals initially aged 25–55 (Marital Instability Over the Life Course Study. Results indicate that gender, race/ethnicity, and social class are associated with initial SRH disparities. Women are less healthy than men; people of color are less healthy than whites; lower educated individuals are less healthy than higher educated individuals. Women’s health declined slower than men’s but did not differ by race/ethnicity or education. Results from complex intersectional models show that white men with any college had the highest initial SRH. Only women with any college had significantly slower declines in SRH compared to white men with any college. For married individuals of all ages, most initial SRH disparities persist over twenty years. Intersecting statuses show that education provides uneven health benefits across racial/ethnic and gender subgroups.
Browning, Martin; Crossley, Thomas
We use a survey of unemployed people to examine how a job loss impacts on household expenditures. The principal focus is on the effect of the level of income replacement provided by Unemployment Insurance. We restrict attention to a sub-sample of respondents who are still in their first spell...... of unemployment after six months. For this group we find large consumption falls, averaging about 16% of total expenditure. The actual fall depends on a variety of factors of which the most important is the pre-job loss ratio of the respondent's income to household income. The effects of varying the replacement...... within the household and hence on other facets of behaviour such as job search, unemployment duration and the quality of any new job taken...
The author discusses the state of unemployment in the 1970s among teenagers, some reasons for its existence, the long-term consequences, and the net impact of the teenage experience on joblessness. (RK)
van der Ploeg, F.
Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.
Brown, Sarah; Taylor, Karl
We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.
Boone, J.; van Ours, J.
We model how unemployment benefit sanctions - benefit reductions that are imposed if unemployed do not comply with job search guidelines - affect unemployment. We find that benefit sanctions are more effective in reducing unemployment than an across-the-board reduction in the replacement rate, for a
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits. (a...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner as...
Full Text Available Recent advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI, robotics, control systems, software and related technologies have revived the debate on the influence that technology has on labor markets. So far, the focus of the literature has been on advanced economies. This document aims to analyze the following variables: domestic spending in science and technology, GDP per capita, nominal minimum wage, domestic spending in education and their impact on unemployment rate in seven Latin American countries from 1996 to 2011. Panel data was used to measure the relation of these variables with unemployment rates in the region. The results allowed us to conclude that investment in Science and Technology in the region has not reached levels that potentially reduce employment; on the contrary, innovation is regarded as a source of labor productivity gains. The broader implications of technology and automation are yet to be seen, however, both firms and the public sector in the region must prepare for massive technological unemployement, as predicted by recent models.
Calero, Jorge; Choi, Álvaro
The most painful effect of the Great Recession in European countries has been the surge in unemployment rates during a period that has been characterised by an increase in income inequality and the heterogeneous pattern of this inequality by educational level. Thus, workers with low levels of educational attainment were among the first to lose…
Watts, A. G.; Knasel, E. G.
This manual is intended to provide practical help to those local educational agencies, colleges, and institutes in Great Britain interested in developing educational programs for the unemployed. Section I is an introduction. Section II describes the conceptual framework, which includes five general areas: employability, coping, context, leisure,…
unemployment rate stood at 20.5% in Ethiopia, 23.5% in South Africa, 4.3% in China,. 5% in Japan, 9.1% in France, 8.3% in Brazil and Sweden and 9.3% in the US. Recently, unemployment has increased due to the global economic crisis of 2007/08 which caused the collapse of aggregate output and led to job cuts.
Christofides, Louis N; McKenna, C J
The authors use data from the Canadian two-year longitudinal Labour Market Activity Survey of 1986-87 to estimate the effect of the Unemployment Insurance (UI) system on job duration. Particular attention is focused on the 'entrance requirements' of the UI system, which relate eligibility for UI benefits to an individual's recent employment history. The article makes operational the UI entrance requirement provisions which take into account variations in the regional unemployment rate. Contro...
Iglesias-García, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar A; Burón, Patricia; Sánchez-Lasheras, Fernando; Jiménez-Treviño, Luis; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Al-Halabí, Susana; Corcoran, Paul; García-Portilla, M Paz; Bobes, Julio
The aim of the present work is to determine the association between unemployment and suicide, and to investigate whether this association is affected by changes in the economic cycle or other variables such as age and sex. A time-trend analysis was conducted to study changes in the number of suicides between 1999 and 2013 in Spain. Pearson's correlation coefficients and regression models were used to find the association between unemployment and suicide. A significant positive association was found between unemployment and suicide in the pre-crisis period in men. In that period (1999-2007), each 1% annual increase in unemployment was associated with a 6.90% increase in the annual variation of suicide in the total population, and with a 9.04% increase in the annual variation of suicide in working age men. The correlation between unemployment and suicide is significant in periods of economic stability, but has weakened during the recent financial crisis. Unemployment and suicide have a complex relationship modulated by age, sex and economic cycle. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kai Christoffel; Keith Kuester
If the Mortensen and Pissarides model with efficient bargaining is calibrated to replicate the fluctuations of unemployment over the business cycle, it implies a far too strong rise of the unemployment rate when unemployment benefits rise. This paper explores an alternative, right-to-manage bargaining scheme. This also generates the right degree of fluctuations of unemployment but at the same time implies a reasonable elasticity of unemployment with respect to benefits.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health issue among married rural-to-urban migrant workers, the largest group of internal migrants in China. This study aims to explore the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhejiang province in China between July 2015 and April 2016, and a total of 1,744 married rural-to-urban migrant workers ultimately took part in the study. Conflict Tactics Scales and several short demographic questions were applied. Data were principally analyzed with logistic regression. Results The majority of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were middle-aged couples with a low education level and a relatively long-term duration of migration in fixed migrant cities. Nearly 45% of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months. The joint occurrence of multiple forms of violence is the most commonly reported features of intimate partner violence, especially three overlapping patterns of intimate partner violence. Some individual (education and age, relationship (marital satisfaction, premarital sex and extramarital affairs and social (duration of migration and number of migratory cities factors of the respondents, were negatively or positively associated with intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers. Conclusion The results indicated that one out of two married rural-to-urban migrant workers experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months in China. Accordingly, there is an obvious demand of intervention and treatment activities to prevent and reduce the occurrence of intimate partner violence among the millions of migrant workers in China.
Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph; Tariq, Zoon; Williams, Callum; Atun, Rifat; Davies, Alun H; Zeltner, Thomas
The global economic downturn has been associated with unemployment rises, reduced health spending, and worsened population health. This has raised the question of how economic variations affect health outcomes. We sought to determine the effect of changes in unemployment and government healthcare expenditure on cerebrovascular mortality globally. Data were obtained from the World Bank and World Health Organization. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the effect of changes in unemployment and government healthcare expenditure on cerebrovascular mortality. Country-specific differences in infrastructure and demographics were controlled for. One- to five-year lag analyses and robustness checks were conducted. Across 99 countries worldwide, between 1981 and 2009, every 1% increase in unemployment was associated with a significant increase in cerebrovascular mortality (coefficient 187, CI: 86.6-288, P = 0.0003). Every 1% rise in government healthcare expenditure, across both genders, was associated with significant decreases in cerebrovascular deaths (coefficient 869, CI: 383-1354, P = 0.0005). The association between unemployment and cerebrovascular mortality remained statistically significant for at least five years subsequent to the 1% unemployment rise, while the association between government healthcare expenditure and cerebrovascular mortality remained significant for two years. These relationships were both shown to be independent of changes in gross domestic product per capita, inflation, interest rates, urbanization, nutrition, education, and out-of-pocket spending. Rises in unemployment and reductions in government healthcare expenditure are associated with significant increases in cerebrovascular mortality globally. Clinicians may also need to consider unemployment as a possible risk factor for cerebrovascular disease mortality. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.
Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Burke, Lindsay; Brook, David W
This longitudinal study examined the association between trajectories of cigarette smoking and unemployment across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in 2 upstate New York counties. Data were collected at 7 timepoints. Using growth mixture modeling, 5 trajectory groups of cigarette smokers were identified. The trajectory groups were as follows: heavy/continuous smokers, occasional smokers, late-starting smokers, quitters/decreasers, and nonsmokers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's trajectory group membership and unemployment in the fifth decade of life. The association was determined with controls for age, gender, current cigarette use, current alcohol use, current marijuana use, physical diseases, occupation, educational level, past unemployment experience, socioeconomic status measures of family of origin, depressive mood, and self-control from adolescence through the early 40s. The findings indicate that patterns of adolescent and young adult cigarette smoking have implications for later unemployment. Overall, the results showed that people who fell into the categories of heavy/continuous smokers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.84) and occasional smokers (AOR = 4.03) were more likely to be unemployed at mean age 43 when compared with nonsmokers. There was no significant difference between the quitters/decreasers and the nonsmokers with respect to unemployment. Intervention programs designed to deal with unemployment should consider focusing on heavy/continuous and occasional cigarette smokers as risk factors for unemployment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bilgiç, Reyhan; Yılmaz, Nilgün
The purpose of this study is to examine the major determinants of psychological health during unemployment. With this in mind, 438 (17% female and 83% male) unemployed individuals were contacted through Turkey's State Employment Office. It was expected that the relationship between duration of unemployment and psychological wellbeing would be nonlinear. Additionally it was hypothesized that perceived social support would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. Further, we suggested that self-esteem would be related to psychological health and moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. The results supported the curvilinearity hypothesis of the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health as measured by General Health Questionnaire. However, social support was not found to moderate the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological distress was not supported, although self-esteem was a strong negative determinant of psychological distress during unemployment. Regression analysis showed that the best predictors of psychological health were self-esteem, perceived social support and perceived adequacy of financial aid received from relatives. Interestingly, perceived adequacy of the financial aid was negatively related to psychological health. This result was contradictory with the previous literature pointing out that financial aid reduces the effects of poverty due to unemployment. The findings of this study are important since the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health was nonlinear, indicating that relevant services should be especially careful to intervene to increase social support and self-esteem during these critical times. The other results and limitations are discussed.
Landhuis, C Erik; Perry, David K; Hancox, Robert J
To assess the long-term association between childhood television viewing and adult unemployment, and if this association is mediated by educational achievement. Study members were a general-population birth cohort of 1037 participants born in New Zealand in 1972/1973. Hours of weekday television viewing were reported at ages 5-15. Since age 18, unemployment was assessed retrospectively using life-history calendars to age 32. Information on educational qualifications was collected at age 32. Childhood and adolescent television viewing predicted adult unemployment. This association was significant for male Study members only (β=0.20, punemployment after adjusting for this (p=0.0035). By logistic regression, each additional hour of daily television viewing was associated with an increased likelihood of spending at least 6 months in unemployment between ages 18 and 32 years (OR=1.36, 95%, CI=1.06, 1.76, p=0.0157). Childhood and adolescent television viewing may have long-lasting consequences for adult unemployment for boys. This association is only partially explained by the association between television viewing and educational achievement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Premarital sex in big cities like Tehran, has increased significantly and could also have an impact on future relations people after marriage. The main objective of this study was to compare marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction in married men with and without a history of premarital sex.Materials and Methods: This research was causal-comparative. The population of this study consists of all married men less than 45 years in Tehran. 144 married men in Tehran were selected by convenience sampling method. To collect the data, Kansas marital satisfaction and Enrich sexual satisfaction subscale were used. Independent sample t test were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that marital satisfaction in married men with a history of premarital sex other than with current wife with a mean (SD 15.6 (4.1 is less than men with no history of 17.6 (3.5 (P<0.01. Sexual satisfaction in married men with a history of premarital sex other than with current wife with a mean (SD 31.4 (6.9 is less than men with no history of 33.7 (5.4 (P<0.01. Marital and sexual satisfactions among married men with and without a history of sex with current partner were similar.Conclusion: This research suggests that married men with a premarital sexual history with other partners, have lower marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction
van Ours, J.C.; Tuit, S.
We study how changes in the maximum benefit duration affec the inow into unemployment in the Netherlands. Until August 2003, workers who became un- employed after age 57.5 were entitled to unemployment benefits until the age of 65, after which they would receive old age pensions. This characteristic
Pelzer, B; Schaffrath, S; Vernaleken, Ingo
Unemployment is known to be associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. However, there is ambiguity about the direction of this association. Different to large surveys, the present pilot-study focuses on a detailed characterization of unemployed and strictly matched employed subjects. Besides depressive symptoms and personality factors, their level of social and communicative skills was determined by an experimental behavioral paradigm. Ninety-two subjects were screened; 62 showed relevant exclusion criteria or failed the matching procedure. Finally, 30 subjects (15 employed, 15 unemployed) participated. The experimental group-paradigm consisted of a complex standardized challenge situation, which demands communicative and social skills for a successful solution. This was followed by an individualized video-based behavioral analysis. Expectedly, unemployed subjects showed more depressive symptoms than employed subjects but did not show higher levels of susceptible personality traits. There were no differences between employed and unemployed subjects in social and communicative competencies; these skills however correlated positively with the level of depression. Unemployment is an important stressor, affecting mental health. The absence of susceptible traits and skills deficits suggests that depressive syndromes are rather resulting than cause of unemployment. Social skills do not prevent depressive reactions during unemployment.
Engbersen, Godfried; Schuyt, Kees; Timmer, Jaap; Waarden, van Frans
In the 1980s a team of Dutch sociologists conducted a study on the daily life of unemployed in the Netherlands. They were inspired by the classical work Marienthal: the Sociology of an Unemployed Community first published in 1933. The authors conducted three neighborhood studies to analyze the
Raquel de Lima Mendes
Full Text Available This study will consider of professionalism to the Brazilian socioeconomic scenario, relating it to unemployment, professional qualification, salary, educational opportunity, demonstrated throw statistical data, as well as the representation of the professions and the legitimacy of trade unions and social groups to represents. These elements grounded an analysis of the Individual Labour law in relation to work and employment relationship; capitalism, productive restructuring, globalization, new technologies and Easing. Address the ethical question of the autonomy of the professional group, the self-monitoring and self-punishment, which reflect not only the defense of the professional group, but also in consumer protection or contractor.
Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata; Kłos, Jan; Adamek, Renata; Zysnarska, Monika; Kara, Izabela
There is no doubt today, that any amount of tobacco products use and excessive alcohol consumption are among the fundamental causes of diseases. The health situation of the unemployed is worse than employed. One of the consequences of unemployment and also ways of coping with it can be unhealthy behaviors. The aim of this paper is to present the prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption, and to identify their causes among the unemployed, and also to show possible changes in these behaviors as a result of finding themselves in a situation of employment deprivation. The results of this study have demonstrated that the unemployed often have anti-health behaviors such as smoking and alcohol consumption with high frequency and single intake exceeding health standards. One of the important factors of smoking and drinking alcohol is a desire to reduce the emotional tension. Being outside the labor market affects the start of the consumption of alcohol and tobacco, but does not result in the cessation of consumption. It happens that the unemployment influence the reduction of consumption of alcohol and tobacco, and the key role is played by the economic factor.
Ayllón, Sara; Ferreira-Batista, Natalia N
This paper studies changes in the patterns of drug consumption and attitudes towards drugs in relation to sky-high (youth) unemployment rates brought about by the Great Recession. Our analysis is based on data for 28 European countries that refer to young people. We find that the consumption of cannabis and 'new substances' is positively related to increasing unemployment rates. An increase of 1% in the regional unemployment rate is associated with an increase of 0.7 percentage points in the ratio of young people who state that they have consumed cannabis at some point in time. Our findings also indicate that higher unemployment may be associated with more young people perceiving that access to drugs has become more difficult, particularly access to ecstasy, cocaine and heroin. According to young Europeans, when the economy worsens, anti-drug policies should focus on the reduction of poverty and unemployment, and not on implementing tougher measures against users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rosqvist, Hanna Bertilsdotter
There has long been ambivalence in the LGBT movement and related research as to the meaning of gay identity in relation to marriage. The article explores changing homonormative discourses of marriage and married men within the Swedish gay press from the mid 1950s to the mid 1980s. Expressions of the changes are a shift in language and in views of extramarital relationships, openness, and gay male identity. As a result of the shift, “married men,” including both “married homosexuals” and “bisexuals,” came to be distinguished from “gays.”
Full Text Available Background: In India, women are not keen to seek formal help to solve the issue of domestic violence (DV. Aim and objectives: Current study attempted to understand the profile of women who sought or availed institutional help (legal/counselling services etc. to address DV. Material and methods: Data were collected from sixty women aged between 18 years and 50 who faced domestic violence from their husbands. Results: Most of the respondents were young, unemployed and not well educated. They faced physical, emotional & verbal, sexual and economic types of violence from husbands and husbands’ family members. Their children also witnessed DV. Perceived causes for DV were; husbands’ exposure on their parental violence, psychoactive substance abuse, dissatisfied sexual life, extra marital relationships in husbands and influence of other wife-beating family members. Most of them felt that DV as their fate and had attempted suicide. Even though many of them received legal help; many felt that, legal help was not adequate in addressing DV. Conclusion: Importance of mental health approach to address DV has been discussed.
Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
We assessed prevalence rates of mental disorders in 206 mothers who had experienced the Kosovo war 10 years previously: 100 lone mothers widowed by the war, 71 non-bereaved married mothers, and 35 married mothers bereaved since the war (loss of family other than husband). A total of 96% of widowed lone mothers reported a major depressive episode, an anxiety disorder or a substance use disorder as compared with 54.9% and 60% in the married groups. Furthermore, 45% of widowed lone mothers reported current suicide risk as compared with 16.9% and 22.9% in the married samples. War-related widowhood combined with lone motherhood constitutes a significant factor for elevated psychopathology.
Hegedűs, Ibolya; Morvai, Veronika; Rudnai, Péter; Szakmáry, Éva; Paksy, András; Ungváry, György
In their previous studies authors of the present work showed that public health situation and socioeconomic position of unemployed Roma persons in the Ozd microregion were well below the average of the whole Hungarian population. To continue these previous studies, the authors wanted to determine whether the greater proportion of the unemployed Roma persons in the Ózd microregion compared to the country average could contribute to the worse public health situation and the poor hygienic situation of the living environment of unemployed persons hardly or not suitable for learning. Data from 400 unemployed Roma (96 males, 97 females) and caucasian non-Roma subjects (114 males, 93 females) obtained in 2012 and 2013 using self-completed and interview questionnaires were analysed. In addition, occupational medical examination methods were applied and the results were analysed. It was found that all studied parameters (public health and epidemiological safety, in-door living environmental hygiene, conditions for learning) indicated significantly disadvantaged situation of the Roma compared to the non-Roma unemployed persons. There was a clear relationship between these examined parameters and other factors adversely influencing the quality of life of Roma persons (unemployment, deep poverty, lower level of education, shorter life span). Finally, the results showed that the quality of life conditions of the lowest 1/10, 1/5 of the non-Roma unemployed persons were comparable to those found in the average of Roma unemployed persons. The authors conclude that i) the greater proportion of unemployed Roma persons in the Ozd microregion contributes to the worse public health, epidemiological safety and the worse living conditions of unemployed persons in this regions of the country; ii) It would be essential to provide Roma persons with conditions appropriate for learning, which could enable them to get qualification necessary for employment.
Garcy, Anthony M.
Background: Mass unemployment in Europe is endemic, especially among the young. Does it cause mortality? Methods: We analyzed long-term effects of unemployment occurring during the deep Swedish recession 1992–96. Mortality from all and selected causes was examined in the 6-year period after the recession among those employed in 1990 (3.4 million). Direct health selection was analyzed as risk of unemployment by prior medical history based on all hospitalizations 1981–91. Unemployment effects on mortality were estimated with and without adjustment for prior social characteristics and for prior medical history. Results: A prior circulatory disease history did not predict unemployment; a history of alcohol-related disease or suicide attempts did, in men and women. Unemployment predicted excess male, but not female, mortality from circulatory disease, both ischemic heart disease and stroke, and from all causes combined, after full adjustment. Adjustment for prior social characteristics reduced estimates considerably; additional adjustment for prior medical history did not. Mortality from external and alcohol-related causes was raised in men and women experiencing unemployment, after adjustment for social characteristics and medical history. For the youngest birth cohorts fully adjusted alcohol mortality HRs were substantial (male HR = 4.44; female HR = 5.73). The effect of unemployment on mortality was not uniform across the population; men, those with a low education, low income, unmarried or in urban employment were more vulnerable. Conclusions: Direct selection by medical history explains a modest fraction of any increased mortality risk following unemployment. Mass unemployment imposes long-term mortality risk on a sizeable segment of the population. PMID:27085193
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The World Health Organization declared violence against women a top priority for health and emphasized the importance of the world's attention to the prevention and control programs. This study was conducted aimed to identify the training needs of married women referring to health centers in Ahvaz with the objective of enabling the design of a program to prevent violence. Methodology: This sectional study consisted of two qualitative and quantitative studies. In qualitative study, the opinions of 30 married women residing in Ahvaz were collected and analyzed in four focus group discussions. using a validated and reliable questionnaire, the knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and performance of 320 married women in area of domestic violence were identified Findings: 79% of the women surveyed had adequate awareness about violence against women. 34% of the target group in the field of domestic violence against women has had the right attitude and more than 80% of them stated that violence by men is considered inevitable and natural. 89% of the target group expressed lack of efficacy for the prevention of domestic violence against women. The findings also suggest that there is significant relationship between education and early marriage with violent behavior. Conclusion: providing proper education and awareness to women and group discussion and clarification in order to change attitudes and increase efficacy in abused women against domestic violence are the necessary strategies which result in changing attitudes of women and increasing empowerment of women against domestic violence.
Kim, Jung A; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; An, Jisook
This study examined the effects of health status and health behaviors on depression in married female immigrants in South Korea. Sampling 316 immigrant women from the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and other Asian countries, a cross-sectional research design was used with self-report questionnaires that assessed sociodemographic characteristics, health status, health behaviors, and depression. There were significant differences in stillbirth experience, induced abortion, morbidity, perceived health status, meal skipping, and physical activity between depressed and nondepressed immigrant women. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, stillbirth experience, poorer perceived health status, more meal skipping, and less physical activity were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Both health status and health behaviors had significant impacts on depression, suggesting that development of nursing interventions and educational programs should be targeted towards improving maternal health, healthy lifestyle, and subjective health perception to promote married female immigrants' psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
"This paper examines the implications of unemployment resulting from efficiency wages for international factor movements in a standard Heckscher-Ohlin model where the relative size of the endowments of skilled and unskilled workers and the efficiency wage induced unemployment level in the unskilled labour market are simultaneously determined given the population, supply of capital and its distribution in the economy.... It is shown that the optimum labour inflow in the market with domestic distortion and the optimum capital inflow are always positive because they reduce the severity of distortion by raising employment and income for the residents. The income and employment of foreigners also increase. Under this situation the optimum labour or capital outflow on the other hand is always zero. These conclusions directly contradict the result obtained for international factor movements in the presence of exogenously determined unemployment." excerpt
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze unemployment duration and reemployment chances of low educated individuals registered as unemployed in Romania during 2008-2010. A dataset with 721424 registered unemployment spells is used to analyze the effect of different variables on the unemployment duration and reemployment chances of this population.
Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág; Martos, Tamás
Nowadays the theme of unemployment and the given answers of it are up to date questions in psychology. In spite of this fact, the psychological methods measuring this phenomenon are often missing. That is why the Unemployment Stress Scale (USS) is presented in this article. The aim of our study is to develop a scale called USS and test it's validity and reliability. There were 287 adult unemployed persons asked in this study. Besides the USS we used the Beck Depression Scale, the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT), the Sense of Coherence Scale (Hungarian version) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. According to our results, USS has showed an excellent criterion and construct validity. A useful scale has been formed according to test-retest results. (Cronbach-alfa: 0.88 and 0.86 according to the samples). Moreover our scale has a strong correlation with the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT) and the Beck Depression Scale. These chracteristics of the new scale proved that we fond a factor, independent from the self esteem and the sense of coherence, which represents the stress level in the situation of unemployment. This scale is a professional construction to measure stress contributed to unemployment. The USS can be a useful scale in clinical practice because after measuring with this scale we can protect the personality of the unemployed by representing the actual unemployment stress level. That is why professionals can help earlier in a crisis like this.
Full Text Available The mankind progress is built on economic growth.Yet, the high rates of economic growth must be properly used and correlated with other macroeconomic indicators in order to get the aimed effects.At the Romanian economic level, there is an inverse ratio connection between the gross domestic product and the unemployed number, a connection of low intensity.The correlation of these two indicators was established using parametric and nonparametric methods of analyzing the statistic connection using the informatic soft. Setting the recession function allows us to calculate the unemployed number depending on the forecasting of the economic growth in Romania.
During the past decade, the marriage rate has declined and the divorce rate has increased in Great Britain. Becker (1981) attributes such changes to improvements in the economic status of women, in that high-wage women gain less from marriage relative to other women. However, an empirical analysis of data from the General Household Survey 1985 in Great Britain shows that male unemployment is another important determinant of changes in marital status. High rates of male unemployment reduce the incidence of marriage and increase the likelihood of divorce.
De Coninck, Zaake; Feyissa, Ibrahim A; Ekström, Anna Mia; Marrone, Gaetano
The HIV prevalence rate in Ethiopia for married (or cohabiting) women is 3 times that found amongst women who have never been married. While marriage used to be seen as a protective factor against HIV, evidence suggests that this is no longer necessarily the case. This study analyses the trend and socio-demographic determinants of HIV awareness and safe sex negotiation among married women in Ethiopia between 2005 and 2011. Data from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2005 and in 2011 were analysed. Socio-demographic variables as well as 'survey year' were selected to assess their interaction with selected HIV awareness and safe sex negotiation indicators. Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were computed. A significant increase in knowledge of HIV and ability to negotiate safer sex occurred between 2005 and 2011 reflecting a positive trend in gender empowerment amongst married Ethiopian women. Some of these advancements were striking, for instance respondents were 3.6 times more likely to have "Heard of AIDS" in 2011 than in 2005. HIV awareness and safer sex negotiation were significantly associated with higher education, higher socioeconomic status, those who had heard of HIV, those of the Orthodox Christian faith, and (to some extent) those living in rural areas. HIV awareness has increased significantly in Ethiopia over the last decade but married women are still disproportionately susceptible to HIV. Community programmes, already effective in Ethiopia, also need to target this vulnerable sub-group of women.
Walter, Stefan; Glymour, Maria; Avendano, Mauricio
Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypothesis that more generous benefits reduce CVD risk. Cohort data came from 16,108 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) aged 50-65 at baseline interviewed from 1992 to 2010. Data on first and recurrent CVD diagnosis assessed through biennial interviews were linked to the generosity of unemployment benefit programmes in each state and year. Using state fixed-effect models, we assessed whether state changes in the generosity of unemployment benefits predicted CVD risk. States with higher unemployment benefits had lower incidence of CVD, so that a 1% increase in benefits was associated with 18% lower odds of CVD (OR:0.82, 95%-CI:0.71-0.94). This association remained after introducing US census regional division fixed effects, but disappeared after introducing state fixed effects (OR:1.02, 95%-CI:0.79-1.31).This was consistent with the fact that unemployment was not associated with CVD risk in state-fixed effect models. Although states with more generous unemployment benefits had lower CVD incidence, this appeared to be due to confounding by state-level characteristics. Possible explanations are the lack of short-term effects of unemployment on CVD risk. Future studies should assess whether benefits at earlier stages of the life-course influence long-term risk of CVD.
Walter, Stefan; Glymour, Maria; Avendano, Mauricio
Objective Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypothesis that more generous benefits reduce CVD risk. Methods Cohort data came from 16,108 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) aged 50–65 at baseline interviewed from 1992 to 2010. Data on first and recurrent CVD diagnosis assessed through biennial interviews were linked to the generosity of unemployment benefit programmes in each state and year. Using state fixed-effect models, we assessed whether state changes in the generosity of unemployment benefits predicted CVD risk. Results States with higher unemployment benefits had lower incidence of CVD, so that a 1% increase in benefits was associated with 18% lower odds of CVD (OR:0.82, 95%-CI:0.71–0.94). This association remained after introducing US census regional division fixed effects, but disappeared after introducing state fixed effects (OR:1.02, 95%-CI:0.79–1.31).This was consistent with the fact that unemployment was not associated with CVD risk in state-fixed effect models. Conclusion Although states with more generous unemployment benefits had lower CVD incidence, this appeared to be due to confounding by state-level characteristics. Possible explanations are the lack of short-term effects of unemployment on CVD risk. Future studies should assess whether benefits at earlier stages of the life-course influence long-term risk of CVD. PMID:25025281
Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Hoque, Nazrul; Chowdhury, Md Rocky Khan; Hossain, Md Sabbir
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic continues to be associated with misconceptions and misinformed opinions, which increase the risk of HIV transmission. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the determinant factors among different socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting misconceptions about HIV transmission among ever-married women in Bangladesh. Data and necessary information of 9,272 ever-married women were extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Three types of misconceptions were considered. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were used as the statistical tools to determine the factors affecting misconceptions about HIV transmission. The results revealed that misconceptions are more prevalent among women who are older, less educated, have husbands who are less educated, live in rural areas, have poor economic conditions, and have less access to mass media. The respondent's age, education, husband's education, place of residence, wealth index, and exposure to mass media are significantly associated with the misconceptions. Finally, logistic regression analysis identified age, education, place of residence, wealth index, and exposure to mass media as significant predictors. Because socioeconomic factors are the key determinants of misconceptions about HIV transmission, intervention programs should be aimed at HIV prevention via education and awareness programs to reduce misconceptions as important parts of the prevention strategy.
Compton, Wilson M; Gfroerer, Joe; Conway, Kevin P; Finger, Matthew S
The economic shock of 2008-2009 provided an opportunity to study the robustness of observed statistical associations between unemployment and problematic substance use. Data from 405,000 non-institutionalized adult participants in the 2002 to 2010 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health were used to compare substance outcomes among unemployed and employed persons. Association of unemployment with substance outcomes was examined for the years 2002-2004, 2005-2007, 2008, and 2009-2010, corresponding to periods prior to and after the economic downturn of 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, current DSM-IV Major Depression, and local county unemployment rates. Higher rates of past month tobacco and illicit drug use, heavy alcohol use, and past-year drug or alcohol abuse/dependence were found among the unemployed. Markedly increased unemployment in 2009-2010 did not moderate the association between substance outcomes and employment. This association was not confounded by sex, age group, or race/ethnicity for tobacco and illicit drugs, although it varied for alcohol outcomes among 18-25 year-olds. Results based on retrospective data regarding marijuana use in the period prior to unemployment suggest its use was associated with future job loss. Employment status was strongly and robustly associated with problematic use of substances. Prevention and treatment interventions are warranted for a group whose employment and resulting insurance status may impair access to much needed health care. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Fernandes, Pedro Afonso
The process for recognising, validating and certifying (RVC) non-formally or informally acquired lifelong learning, launched in 2000, is now part of mainstream education and training policies in Portugal. This article aims to determine how much the labour-market behaviour of the RVC-certified unemployed differs from that of other unemployed…
This article considers the role of university staff and students in camps for the unemployed in interwar Britain. These ventures can be seen as showing continuities both with nineteenth-century social service initiatives like the educational settlements, but also with contemporary concerns with service learning. The article explores three camping…
Femi, Sunday Akinwumi; Yemisi, Etomi Edwin
This study investigated effective teaching with the aid of ICT in Nigerian higher education institutions as a proposed solution to graduates' unemployability. The survey method was utilized for this study. Respondents were randomly selected from students and teachers of selected higher institutions in Nigeria. The findings reveal that, even though…
Norström, Fredrik; Virtanen, Pekka; Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E; Janlert, Urban
Almost all studies on the effect on health from unemployment have concluded that unemployment is bad for your health. However, only a few review articles have dealt with this relation in recent years, and none of them have focused on the analysis of subgroups such as age, gender, and marital status. The objective of our article is to review how unemployment relates to self-assessed health with a focus on its effect on subgroups. A search was performed in Web of Science to find articles that measured the effect on health from unemployment. The selection of articles was limited to those written in English, consisting of original data, and published in 2003 or later. Our definition of health was restricted to self-assessed health. Mortality- and morbidity-related measurements were therefore not included in our analysis. For the 41 articles included, information about health measurements, employment status definitions, other factors included in the statistical analysis, study design (including study population), and statistical method were collected with the aim of analysing the results on both the population and factor level. Most of the studies in our review showed a negative effect on health from unemployment on a population basis. Results at the factor levels were most common for gender (25 articles), age (11 articles), geographic location (8 articles), and education level (5 articles). The analysis showed that there was a health effect for gender, age, education level, household income, and geographic location. However, this effect differed between studies and no clear pattern on who benefits or suffers more among these groups could be determined. The result instead seemed to depend on the study context. The only clear patterns of association found were for socioeconomic status (manual workers suffer more), reason for unemployment (being unemployed due to health reasons is worse), and social network (a strong network is beneficial). Unemployment affects groups of
William T. Dickens; Robert K. Triest; Rachel B. Sederberg
In this article we present new evidence that the capacity of households to cover earnings lost during spells of unemployment through a combination of drawing down of wealth and receipt of unemployment...
Kohara, Miki; Sasaki, Masaru; Machikita, Tomohiro
This paper examines whether or not a prolonged unemployment period can raise the quality of job matching after unemployment. We focus on job tenure as an indicator of a good quality job match after unemployment. We match two sets of Japanese administrative data compiled by the public employment...... security offices: one includes information about the circumstances of job seekers receiving unemployment insurance, and the other includes information about job seekers applying for jobs. We first show a negative relationship between unemployment duration and the subsequent job duration. Restricting...... the sample to job seekers who changed search behaviors in the final 59 days before expiration of unemployment insurance, we secondly show an even greater negative effect of unemployment duration on the following job duration. The importance lies not only in the duration of unemployment. If job seekers keep...
Kostikova E. K.
Full Text Available The article lists factors affecting the socio-economic situation and questions concerning unemployment in Russia are discussed specifically. The purpose is to identify weak points in the labor market. Visual support reflects the dynamics of unemployment in Russia during economy crisis. Unemployment trends by federal districts, the causes of regional unemployment imbalances are examined. The novelty of the author’s approach is to forecast the unemployment rate for future periods with expert assessments to determine the risk of deviation of unemployment from trend. Data were analyzed in terms of unemployment level in Europe and comparison with Russian indicators was conducted. Based on the research, causes of unemployment in Russia and ways of its decline were discovered. Appropriate conclusions were made.
Rumrill, P D
The article examines the high (75%) rate of unemployment among Americans with multiple sclerosis (MS). Specifically, it considers the demographic, medical, psychological, sociopolitical, and work related aspects of MS which have been linked to unemployment.
Roelfs, David J; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E
Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. We use six meta-regression models (each using a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (P = .27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (P = .46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (P = .87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (P = .73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; P = .61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (P unemployment experiences change when macroeconomic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macroeconomic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henry S. Farber
Full Text Available We use an audit study approach to investigate how unemployment duration, age, and holding a low-level interim job while applying for a better job affect the likelihood that experienced college-educated females applying for an administrative support job receive a callback from potential employers. First, the results show no relationship between callback rates and unemployment duration. Second, workers age fifty and older are significantly less likely to receive a callback. Third, taking an interim job significantly reduces the likelihood of receiving a callback. Finally, employers who have higher callback rates respond less to observable differences across workers in determining whom to call back.
Under new dimensions of individualisation, decentralisation and particularly marketisation, new forms of public-private partnerships between the actors involved in the employment services for the unemployed have emerged. This is because for-profit providers have now entered the arena of welfare to
Caswell, Dorte; Høybye-Mortensen, Matilde
The development of paternalist policies, such as the increase of punitive methods in welfare services, has been identified and analysed internationally (Mead, 1998; Soss et al., 2011a). The combination of these with an emphasis on instruments such as competition and performance measurement has be...... are categorised as having problems besides unemployment (Caswell et al., 2011)....
A.J. Dur (Robert)
textabstractIn this paper, a small macroeconomic model of the Dutch labour market is estimated. The model is used to detect the causes of the rise in unemployment since the early 70s. In contrast to existing empirical work, we treat labour supply as an endogenous variable. This adjustment appears to
Vermeulen, W.; van Ommeren, J.N.
Why are regional unemployment differentials in Europe so persistent if, as the wage curve literature demonstrates, there is no compensation through wages? Using Urban Audit data for 142 cities over 12 EU countries, as well as a Dutch household survey, we estimate relationships between local labour
Tatsiramos, K.; van Ours, J.C.
With the emergence of the Great Recession unemployment insurance (UI) is once again at the heart of the policy debate. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and empirical evidence on the labor market effects of UI design. We also discuss policy issues related to UI design, including the
Tatsiramos, K.; van Ours, J.C.
Abstract: With the emergence of the Great Recession unemployment insurance (UI) is once again at the heart of the policy debate. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and empirical evidence on the labor market effects of UI design. We also discuss policy issues related to UI design,
Laufer, William S.
Examined the vocational interests and personality characteristics of 69 homeless unemployed men using the Vocational Preference Inventory. Results indicated significant occupational interest, comparable to data reported on employed adults and numerous vocational "types." Personality scales, however, were indicative of possible behavioral…
de Groot, H.L.F.
This thesis consists of three parts that deal with the relationship between the relative wealth of nations, economic growth, and the sectoral structure of economies. In the first part, the focus is on the relative stagnancy of Europe versus the USA in terms of productivity levels and unemployment.
Ingholt, Marcus Mølbak
Geographical mobility correlates positively with house prices and negatively with unemployment over the U.S. business cycle. I present a DSGE model in which declining house prices and tight credit conditions impede the mobility of indebted workers. This reduces the workers’ cross-area competition...
Rosholm, Michael; Munch, Jakob Roland; Svarer, Michael
This article investigates the effects of homeownership on labour mobility and unemployment duration. We distinguish between finding employment locally or being geographically mobile. We find that homeownership hampers the propensity to move for job reasons, but improves the chances of finding loc...
Svarer, Michael; Munch, Jakob Roland
This paper investigates the effects of homeownership on labour mobility and unemployment duration. We distinguish between finding employment locally or being geographically mobile. We find that homeownership hampers the propensity to move for job reasons, but improves the chances of finding local...
Andersen, Torben M.; Christoffersen, Mark Strøm; Svarer, Michael
Unemployment insurance schemes include conditions on past employment history as part of the eligibility conditions. This aspect is often neglected in the literature which primarily focuses on benefit levels and benefit duration. In a search-matching framework we show that benefit duration and emp...
Social Psychology, Unemployment and Adjustment Policies. A E AKINLO. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ifep.v6i1.23519 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...
Rotger, Gabriel Pons
Exposing newly unemployed workers to intensive activation aims to enhancing individual employment through its effects on search incentives and skills. However if the incentive effect is missing, activation may reduce the job search activity of many employable individuals by locking them in a time...... activation, contrary to job search meetings, reduces employment and increases sickness benefit claims....
Notwithstanding the impressive achievements recorded in poverty reduction, extraordinarily high levels of violent rebellion and strikes are encountered, unexpected after 20 years of democratic transition. This paper locates the drivers of this socio-political instability in poverty, inequality and unemployment: the consequence ...
Krogh Graversen, Brian; van Ours, Jan
In a field experiment in two Danish counties about half of the unemployed workers were randomly assigned to a mandatory activation program. Analyzing data from this experiment we show that activation can be very effective in reducing unemployment durations.......In a field experiment in two Danish counties about half of the unemployed workers were randomly assigned to a mandatory activation program. Analyzing data from this experiment we show that activation can be very effective in reducing unemployment durations....
Bruce Chapman; Matthew Gray
This paper analyses the incidence and impact of unemployment among young Australians. It is argued that the scale and seriousness of the current youth problem are often overstated. There is no evidence that the aggregate unemployment experience of young Australians has changed over the last two decades. The groups of young people most at risk of unemployment are identified. While the overall scale of the problem is not worsening, some of the young unemployed face adverse future labour market ...
The crises of the past few years have led to a significant increase in youth unemployment in Europe. This, in turn, has highlighted the long standing phenomenon of well above average youth unemployment. In some countries, the youth unemployment rate reached unprecedented levels, although the rise of unemployment among young people was no more significant than among adults. Furthermore, the media portrayal of young people's situation is sometimes more negative than the reality, failing to take...
Serhat YUKSEL; Zafer Adalı
Higher unemployment rate is the problem of most of the countries in the world. Because of this situation, these countries try to make many actions in order to decrease unemployment rate. However, to make such a recommendation, first of all, the reasons of the unemployment should be analyzed. Within this framework, the aim of this study is to identify the factors which influence unemployment in Turkey. For this purpose, quarterly data for the periods between 2003 and 2016 is evaluated with MAR...
Five years after the 2008 recession, provincial unemployment rates in Canada remain higher than pre-recession levels. In some provinces, initial declines in unemployment have plateaued. When structural changes occur, a higher unemployment rate can persist even after a full economic recovery. This study undertakes an empirical analysis of provincial panel data to uncover potential causes of persistent unemployment across Canada. The results indicate that, after the recession, the structural co...
Kohara, Miki; Sasaki, Masaru; Machikita, Tomohiro
This paper examines whether or not a prolonged unemployment period can raise the quality of job matching after unemployment. We focus on job tenure as an indicator of a good quality job match after unemployment. We match two sets of Japanese administrative data compiled by the public employment security offices: one includes information about the circumstances of job seekers receiving unemployment insurance, and the other includes information about job seekers applying for jobs. We first show...
Müller, Severina; Fieseler, Christian; Meckel, Miriam; Suphan, Anne
This article examines the argument regarding whether perceived social exclusion during unemployment leads to procrastination through online media, which in turn lessens the job search efforts of the unemployed. Based on data from 386 unemployed Internet users, we argue that online procrastination plays an important role in the lives of the unemployed but has no immediate effects on their perceived job search efforts. Contextual factors play an important role; that is, the amount of motivation...
Preti, A; P Miotto
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether either the condition of being unemployed, or changes in unemployment rates are associated with suicide risk. DESIGN: Administrative data for suicide according to occupational status have been analysed considering three employment categories: employed, seeking new job (unemployed), seeking first job (never employed). Comparison of suicide rates by economic position and correlation between suicide and unemployment rates have been made. SUBJECTS AND SETTIN...
Sara LaLumia; Laura Kawano
This paper uses tax return data from 1999 to 2009 to provide new estimates of wage losses during unemployment, and to examine how other types of income change dur- ing an unemployment spell. Periods of unemployment are associated with significant reductions in wage income, equivalent to approximately 16% of pre-unemployment household-level earnings and 30% of individual-level earnings. Households partially compensate for these wage losses in ways that vary across groups: Spousal earnings incr...
Gien, L T
The closure of the east coast fishery in Canada in 1992 has affected the lives of individuals and communities both directly and indirectly, causing massive unemployment. Previous research indicates that unemployment negatively affects people's health and other aspects of family functioning. This study assesses the perceived effects of unemployment on the individuals' health, and compares the psychological well-being of the employed and that of the unemployed individuals in the same communities affected by the cod moratorium. The sample consisted of 681 individuals, 16 years of age and older from randomly selected households. They were individually interviewed using structured questionnaires. The GHQ-28 with a high test-retest coefficient (0.90) and split-half reliability (0.92) was used to measure the psychological well-being. The unemployed reported more stress, boredom, high level of uncertainty, less satisfaction with themselves, their life, their educational level, income and health. Implications for health promotion, policy formulation and future research are put forward.
Santhya, K G; Haberland, Nicole; Ram, F; Sinha, R K; Mohanty, S K
Although there is a growing body of research examining the issue of nonconsensual sex among adolescents, few studies have looked at coerced sex within marriage in settings where early marriage is common, or at sex that may not be perceived as forced, but that is unwanted. A cross-sectional study, using both survey research and in-depth interviews, was conducted among 1,664 married young women in Gujarat and West Bengal, India. Descriptive data and multinomial logistic regression were used to identify the prevalence and risk factors for occasional and frequent unwanted sex. Qualitative data were analyzed to examine the context in which unwanted sex takes place. Twelve percent of married young women experienced unwanted sex frequently; 32% experienced it occasionally. The risk of experiencing unwanted sex was lower among women who knew their husband fairly well at the time of marriage, regularly received support from their husband in conflicts with other family members or lived in economically better-off households. Frequent unwanted sex was associated with not yet having had a child or having become pregnant, with lower education and with agreeing with norms that justify wife beating. For married young women, sex is not always consensual or wanted. Further research is required to determine the effects of unwanted sex on sexual and reproductive health outcomes and to help programs develop the best strategies for dealing with coerced sex within marriage.
Lackovic-Grgin, Katica; And Others
Examined the relationships between length of unemployment time, self-esteem and general life satisfaction of university graduates (n=98). Also examined the function of social support during the period of unemployment. Results indicated length of unemployment, contrary to previous findings, was not related to self-esteem and general life…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the waiting...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b) of...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment deferral. 606.41 Section... UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.41 High unemployment deferral. (a) Applicability. Subsection (b)(3)(C) of section...
... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years beginning...
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in accordance...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster unemployment...
Blaustein, Saul J.
Without changes in Michigan's unemployment insurance law, the state's unemployment insurance debt will probably reach $3.8 billion by the end of 1985. Currently, Michigan's employers pay unemployment insurance tax rates that vary from 1 to 9 percent, depending upon the amount of benefits charged against their accounts. Beginning with the federal…
Racidon P. Bernarte
Full Text Available Internet pornography has many adverse effects, especially to the relationship commitment. The use of pornography directly correlates to a decrease in sexual intimacy. Hence, this might lead to weakening of the relationship of their partner. To find out the relevance of the claim, the researchers aimed to explore the relationship of Internet pornography consumption to the relationship commitment of married individuals in the Philippines. Different factors such as level of satisfaction, investment, quality of alternatives, relationship stability and viewing habits were also considered in determining the relationship of watching online pornography and the relationship commitment of Filipino married individuals. The study used the descriptive-correlational design. A self-administered survey was distributed to 400.It is revealed that Internet pornography consumption has an adverse effect on the relationship commitment of married Filipino couples. Furthermore, watching porn online weakened the relationship commitment that leads to an unstable relationship. This investigation found out that internet pornography consumption has a nominal negative effect on the relationship commitment of Filipino married individuals. It is proven on this study that internet pornography consumption can weaken the relationship commitment of married individuals thus, it promotes knowledge about numerous effect of it, negatively and even positively. This paper also contributes to pornography related researches on the country which can give further awareness about the said area.
Odigie, V I; Tanaka, Rika; Yusufu, L M D; Gomna, A; Odigie, E C; Dawotola, D A; Margaritoni, Marko
Few studies have examined the psychosocial impact of breast cancer and its treatment on African women who come from a poverty-stricken, uneducated background in a developing country. The purpose of this study was to describe the specific psychosocial effects of breast cancer on married African women in order to help physicians educate and counsel future women and their families in Northwestern Nigeria. Two semi-structured, self-report questionnaires were given to 81 consenting married African women treated with unilateral total mastectomy secondary to operable breast cancer at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital. Questionnaires were answered at the time of the diagnosis and treatment consultation and at 6 months postmastectomy and included questions about demographics, frequency of conjugal relations and how the woman's sense of femininity was affected. Marital status was also tracked up to 3 years. Six months after surgery, the survey responses revealed that 67.9% of women felt inadequate as a woman because of the mastectomy and that 79.0% experienced a decrease in frequency of conjugal relations. Three years after primary breast cancer treatment, 61.7% of the participants were still married while 38.3% reported being divorced/separated from their husbands. These results indicated that married African women face significant physical, emotional and social changes and difficulties following primary breast cancer treatment. Culturally sensitive therapeutic groups and interventions should be established to help Nigerian women with breast cancer and their spouses and families understand and cope with the disease and its long-term health and quality-of-life implications. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Background The use of contraception can prevent pregnancies related complication and helps in improving the women’s health and quality of their lives. Objective To explore reproductive characteristics among married women of reproductive age. To find out method of contraceptive use and side effects among married women of reproductive age. To uncover factors related to contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age. Methods This cross-sectional was carried out among (369 married couples of reproductive age group in ward number 5, 6 and 7 of Dhulikhel Municipality using purposive sampling. Those who fell in between the age group of (14-49 years and willing to participate were included and pregnant women were excluded from the study. Questionnaire was used to obtain informations. Results Among 369(81.3% of the respondents of reproductive age were using a modern contraceptive method. Regarding education 331(89.5% of women’s and 352(95.1% of husbands were literate and 275(91.6% of women were found to be involved in decision making and had good inter-spousal communication that is 280(93.3%. Among the temporary method of family planning, Depo-Provera was the choice 150(54.5% of contraceptive method. Conclusion The present study put more emphasis on increase in women’s literacy, women’s involvement in decision making and inter-spousal communication which helps to promote the effective use of contraceptive methods. As women play an important role in the decision making, women should be included in all aspects of reproductive health and family planning programs. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-4, 24-29 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i4.10233
Princewill, Chitu Womehoma; Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Wangmo, Tenzin; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Elger, Bernice Simone
A woman's lack of or limited reproductive autonomy could lead to adverse health effects, feeling of being inferior, and above all being unable to adequately care for her children. Little is known about the reproductive autonomy of married Ikwerre women of Rivers State, Nigeria. This study demonstrates how Ikwerre women understand the terms autonomy and reproductive rights and what affects the exercise of these rights. An exploratory research design was employed for this study. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to conduct thirty-four in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions with purposively sampled educated, semi-educated, and uneducated Ikwerre women in monogamous or polygynous marriages. The collected data was analysed qualitatively with MAXQDA 11 using open and axial coding. The interviews and focus group responses reveal a low level of awareness of autonomy and reproductive rights amongst the Ikwerre women in Nigeria. While some educated women were aware of their reproductive rights, cultural practices were reported to limit the exercise of these rights. Participants reported that Ikwerre culture is a patriarchal one where married women are expected to submit and obey their husbands in all matters; and a good married woman according to Ikwerre standard is one who complies with this culture. Women's refusal of sexual advances from their husbands is described as not being acceptable in this culture; and hence rape in marriage is not recognized in Ikwerre culture. Education and awareness creation on the importance of women's reproductive autonomy could improve their reproductive rights and autonomy in marital settings. Overcoming the patriarchal aspects of Ikwerre culture-for example, the greater value placed on male children than female children and treating women as incompetent individuals-is necessary to promote gender equality as well as help improve women's reproductive autonomy.
Figura, Andrew; Barnichon, Regis
This paper presents estimates of the effect of emergency and extended unemployment benefits (EEB) on the unemployment rate and the labor force participation rate using a data set containing information on individuals likely eligible and ineligible for EEB back to the late 1970s. To identify these estimates, we examine how exit rates from unemployment change across different points of the distribution of unemployment duration when EEB is and is not available, controlling for changes in labor d...
Muazzez Şaşmaz Ataçocuğu
Full Text Available Unemployment has been recognized as an important indicator of economies of the countries. Unemployment which expresses the status of complete unavailability of “labor” as the main factor of production, is a multidimensional problem, which can be encountered in all countries from less developed countries to developed countries. It is emerging in all sectors with various proportions and features. The research question of this paper was created by issues in the context of unemployment of graduates of the faculties of sports sciences which are raising labor supply to sports sector which is growing with every passing day. In the study, it was intended to analyze the unemployment experiences of faculty of sports sciences graduates (former words, the “PES” and to put the variables about the causes and consequences of this experience forward. In this context, the study sample was selected from people who were graduated from 4 separate departments of relevant faculties and have experienced unemployment. The sample consists of 20 participants for a total, 7 Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department, 5 Sports Management Department, 4 Coaching Education Department, 4 Recreation Department graduates. In the study, “Semi-structured in-depth interview” which is a specific research technique peculiar to “Qualitative Method” was applied. Interviews were recorded on a voice recorder, transferred to the “Word” text. Related findings (text subjected to content analysis, were classified under 5 themes that reflect the primary problematics relevant to the subject: 1. Unemployment Duration and Job Search Practices of Graduates, 2. The Perception of Employment in Anatolian Cities, 3. Pedagogic Formation Certificate as a Business Opportunity, 4. Effective Elements in Finding a Job, 5. The Perception of the Profession. From the results of the research, in general, the following tips were obtained: It appeared that those who have graduated from
Wehby, George L; Gimenez, Lucas G; López-Camelo, Jorge S
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of economic cycles in Argentina on infant and maternal health between 1994 and 2006, a period that spans the major economic crisis in 1999-2002. We evaluate the effects of province-level unemployment rates on several infant health outcomes, including birth weight, gestational age, fetal growth rate, and hospital discharge status after birth in a sample of 15,000 infants born in 13 provinces. Maternal health and healthcare outcomes include acute and chronic illnesses, infectious diseases, and use of prenatal visits and technology. Regression models control for hospital and year fixed effects and province-specific time trends. Unemployment rise reduces fetal growth rate particularly among high educated parents. Also, maternal poverty-related infectious diseases increase, although reporting of acute illnesses declines (an effect more pronounced among low educated parents). There is also some evidence for reduced access to prenatal care and technology among less educated parents with higher unemployment. Unemployment rise in Argentina has adversely affected certain infant and maternal health outcomes, but several measures show no evidence of significant change.
Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill
Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages
Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94
Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill
Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94.3-97.4). Alcohol
Whooley, Mary A; Kiefe, Catarina I; Chesney, Margaret A; Markovitz, Jerome H; Matthews, Karen; Hulley, Stephen B
Previous studies have suggested an association between depression and low socioeconomic status, but few have empirically examined the effect of depressive symptoms on income and employment over time. To determine whether depressive symptoms are associated with subsequent unemployment or loss of family income. We performed a prospective cohort study of 5115 adults aged 18 to 30 years. These participants included approximately equal numbers of African Americans and whites and men and women from 4 cities in the United States who completed the 1990-1991 examination of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. For this analysis, we included 2334 participants who were employed full or part time and who reported an annual family income of $25 000 or more. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and were considered to have depressive symptoms if they scored 16 or higher on the 60-point scale. We evaluated self-reported unemployment and annual family income during 5 years of follow-up. Thirty-three percent (118/354) of participants with depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score >/=16) in 1990-1991 and 21% (335/1581) of participants without substantial depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score education, history of unemployment, current part-time (vs full-time) employment, and cigarette smoking (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.0; P =.001). Seventeen percent (62/371) of participants with depressive symptoms and 7% (113/1631) of participants without substantial depressive symptoms in 1990-1991 reported that their family income had decreased below $25 000 by 1995-1996 (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-3.8; P<.001). This association also remained strong after adjusting for potential confounding variables (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.7; P<.001). Depressive symptoms are associated with subsequent
A. A. Sаmоkhvаlоv
Full Text Available In the article the question of resource efficiency and the problem of unemployment. Stressed the importance of efficient use of human resources for domestic companies and the country as a whole. The definition of unemployment, which is one of the greatest challenges of the market economy. The problem of unemployment is one of the most important today, particularly for the Russian labor market. Analyzed, compared, such as the types of unemployment: frictional, structural and cyclical. The problem of unemployment exacerbates a difficult financial position, pushing to seek work of housewives, pensioners and students. It reflects the main approaches for the consideration of unemployment. The correlation between unemployment and economic crisis. Companies that are in a crisis, trying to maneuver and keep your team. Practice the system of long administrative leave and the use of part-time employment, resulting in a hidden unemployment. The extent of its increase as the phase-out. The main methods of state regulation that reduce unemployment associated with the development of ways of retraining the unemployed, social support for the unemployed, assistance in the creation of additional jobs, and others. We consider the law "On employment in the Russian Federation" and the activities of labor exchanges, represented by their main position and functions designed to support and help in finding work. It analyzes the level of unemployment over the past five years. To date, according to the Federal State Statistics Service, unemployment in Russia is 5.3 %. The lowest unemployment is currently in Moscow – less than 1 %, the highest in Ingushetia – more than 40 %. Nevertheless, unemployment in our country for more than seven million people, and it is a huge untapped resource.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any day...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has a...
Sein, Kyi Kyi
This study aimed to identify maternal care services utilization among ever married female youths (15-24 years) in Kyimyindaing Township, Yangon, Myanmar. A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 196 ever married females who had delivered at least one child were included. Multistage sampling was employed. Face to face interviews using a structured questionnaire were carried out. Respondents were asked about their maternal care services utilization at the last pregnancy. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were applied to determine the factors associated with utilization of maternal care services. Overall 96% of respondents received antenatal care (ANC) at least once and 79% had at least 4 ANC visits. The mean number of antenatal visits increased with women's education level. The majority received late ANC regardless of residence, age, education and family income. Nearly 39% delivered at home, especially in rural areas and 79% of home deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants (TBAs). Only 56.6% of women received at least one postnatal care visit. Inadequate postnatal care (rural women and women with little or no education. Quality ANC should be the entry point of safe delivery and postnatal care. Further intensification of information, education and communication activities on "safe motherhood" is needed.
Anderson, John E; Jamieson, Denise J; Warner, Lee; Kissin, Dmitry M; Nangia, Ajay K; Macaluso, Maurizio
Vasectomy has been found to be a highly cost-effective contraceptive method. For couples, tubal sterilization and vasectomy have the same result, but the two methods are used by different segments of the population. We conducted an analysis of data from male and female samples of the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, nationally representative samples of men and women in the United States aged 15-44 years. Among married men, 13.1% reported vasectomies (95% confidence interval 10.4%-16.3%), compared to 21.1% (17.8%-24.9%) of married women who reported tubal sterilizations. Men with higher education and income had greater prevalence of vasectomy than those less educated, while women with lower education and income had the highest prevalence of tubal sterilization. Efforts to promote vasectomy use need to understand the reasons behind these differences. Increasing the availability and use of vasectomy will require education about its benefits. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F
Although female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a serious public health issue endangering women's well-being, systematic research on FSD among reproductive-aged Chinese women in Hong Kong is quite scarce. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences of FSD among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong. This study was based on a community-based survey across Hong Kong conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong in 2012 with 1,518 married women aged 21-49 years. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition classification was adopted to assess FSD. It was found that 25.6% of the married women surveyed reported at least one form of sexual dysfunction and that the prevalence of six domains of sexual dysfunction was as follows: 10.6% for lack of interest in sex, 10.5% for not finding sex pleasurable, 9.3% for lubrication difficulties, 8.8% for inability to achieve orgasm, 8.8% for orgasm delay, and 8.4% for physical pain during sex. Multivariate analyses showed that low education and income, average or poor health, lower frequency of sex, abortion history, traditional attitudes toward sex, and marital dissatisfaction are all significant risk factors for different components of FSD. It was also been found that four domains of FSD (the exceptions being orgasm delay and physical pain during sex) have severe consequences for married women's life satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. The prevalence of FSD is lower among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong than among women in the United States and some Asian countries. The risk factors associated with FSD include sociodemographic factors, physical health, sexual experience and attitudes, and relationship factors. FSD has significant consequences for married women's life quality. These findings have great implications for FSD prevention and relevant service delivery. © 2014 International Society for Sexual
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, 16% of the women aged 15–19 years are married. Many get married shortly after they attain menarche. This study explores the preparedness for and actual experiences of married life (inter-spousal relationship, sexual activity and pregnancy among adolescent women. Methods Among married adolescent women residing in a slum of Islamabad ten were selected with the help of a community health worker and interviewed qualitatively till saturation was reached. They were interviewed three times at different occasions. Narrative structuring was used to explore how the participants represented their background, social situation, decision making and spousal communication and how they explained, understood and managed married life and bore children. Results Two categories identifying the respondents as either submissive-accepting or submissive-victims emerged. The married young women who belonged to the accepting group lived under compromised conditions but described themselves as satisfied with their situation. They were older than the other group identifying themselves as victims. However, none of the respondents felt prepared for marriage. Women belonging to the victimized group experienced physical and verbal abuse for their inability to cope with the duties of a wife, caretaker of the home and bearer of children. Their situation was compounded by the power dynamics within the household. Conclusion Knowledge about sexuality could prepare them better for the future life and give them more control of their fertility. Adolescent development and life skills education need to be addressed at a national level. There is need for innovative interventions to reach out and provide support to young women in disadvantaged homes.
Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas
To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new...... match depends on the applicant's unemployment duration and on the method of search. The hiring subsidy raises job destruction and extends contrary to Mortensen-Pissarides (1999, 2003) the duration of a job search, so that equilibrium unemployment increases. Like the subsidy, organizational reforms...
Starace, Fabrizio; Mungai, Francesco; Sarti, Elena; Addabbo, Tindara
During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis. We used data from the National surveys on "Health conditions and use of health services" carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions. The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country. These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems.
Full Text Available The high rate of unemployment in South Africa is of national concern yet the experience of being unemployed is little understood; not enough is known about the unemployed condition in South Africa. In this study eight unemployed mid-career adults who had been out of work for longer than six months were interviewed in order to explore their lived experience. A qualitative methodology was used and from the extensive interview data, using qualitative content analysis, themes relating to the unemployed condition emerged. Results support, to a large degree, the existing literature and studies on the stressors impacting on the unemployed. This study offers additional insight into the support structures available for the unemployed adult.
Andrés Aguilera; María Gabriela Ramos Barrera
...: domestic spending in science and technology, GDP per capita, nominal minimum wage, domestic spending in education and their impact on unemployment rate in seven Latin American countries from 1996 to 2011...
Bell, David N.F.; Blanchflower, David G.
A historically high level of youth unemployment presents Greece with a huge social and economic challenge. This paper analyses various dimensions of this challenge. We argue that though the conventional definition of "youth" is the 16-24 age group, there is a strong case for considering 25 to 29-year-olds as sharing common problems with conventionally defined youth. There are also grounds for examining why females seem to fare worse than males in the Greek labour market. The negative effects ...
S. Mahendra Dev; M. Venkatanarayana
Increase in the share of youth population due to demographic `dividend' or the `youth bulge' seems to be one of the sources of future economic growth in India. Although with increase in school and college enrolment rates, the proportion of youth in the labour force has been declining, their high proportions in the labour force indicate that the problem of youth unemployment and underemployment would remain a serious policy issue for many more years to come in India. In this context, this pape...
Ioannides, Y.M.; Soetevent, A.R.
Empirical studies of labor markets show that social contacts are an important source of job-related information. At the same time, wage differences among workers may be explained only in part by differences in individual background characteristics. Such findings motivate our model in which differences in "social connectedness" among otherwise identical workers result in wage inequality and differences in unemployment rates. The model of this paper allows for heterogeneity in the number of con...
Full Text Available This note aims to achieve a parsimonious fractionally-integrated autoregressive and moving average (ARFIMA model for recent time series data of Japan's unemployment rate. A brief review of the ARFIMA model is provided, leading to econometric modeling of the data in the ARFIMA framework. It is demonstrated that the preferred ARFIMA model is a satisfactory representation of the data and is useful as a forecasting device.
This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...... compared to an individual who was employed at period "t-1". This average partial effect is the same for western compared to non-western immigrants and women compared to men....
This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...... compared to an individual who was employed at period “t-1”. This average partial effect is the same for western compared to non-western immigrants and women compared to men....
Chu, Wei-Min; Liao, Wen-Chun; Li, Chi-Rong; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Tang, Yih-Jing; Ho, Hsin-En; Lee, Meng-Chih
To evaluate whether late-career unemployment is associated with increased all-cause mortality, functional disability, and depression among older adults in Taiwan. In this long-term prospective cohort study, data were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. This study was conducted from 1996 to 2007. The complete data from 716 men and 327 women aged 50-64 years were retrieved. Participants were categorized as normally employed or unemployed depending on their employment status in 1996. The cumulative number of unemployment after age 50 was also calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of the association between late-career unemployment and cumulative number of late-career unemployment on all-cause mortality, functional disability, and depression in 2007. The average age of the participants in 1996 was 56.3 years [interquartile range (IQR)=7.0]. A total of 871 participants were in the normally employed group, and 172 participants were in the unemployed group. After adjustment of gender, age, level of education, income, self-rated health and major comorbidities, late-career unemployment was associated with increased all-cause mortality [Odds ratio (OR)=2.79; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.74-4.47] and functional disability [OR=2.33; 95% CI=1.54-3.55]. The cumulative number of late-career unemployment was also associated with increased all-cause mortality [OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.35-2.70] and functional disability [OR=2.35; 95% CI=1.55-3.55]. Late-career unemployment and cumulative number of late-career unemployment are associated with increased all-cause mortality and functional disability. Older adults should be encouraged to maintain normal employment during the later stage of their career before retirement. Employers should routinely examine the fitness for work of older employees to prevent future unemployment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Rottenberg, Yakir; Ratzon, Navah Z; Cohen, Miri; Hubert, Ayala; Uziely, Beatrice; de Boer, Angela G E M
About half of colorectal patients are diagnosed less than 65 years of age and they have a relatively high cure rate. However, little is known about their employment and related risk factors. The aim of the current study was to clarify the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and subsequent risk of being unemployed. A historical prospective cohort study included baseline socio-demographic measurements of age, sex, ethnicity, residential socio-economic position and education from the 1995 Israeli National Census, cancer incidence between 2000 and 2007 and employment data between 1998 and 2011. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess odds ratios for unemployment, while controlling for socio-economic measurements and employment status at 2 years prior to diagnosis. The final study population included 885 colorectal patients and 2646 healthy controls. After controlling for confounders, positive associations were found between stages II (odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-2.76 or III (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.13-2.54) and increased risk for unemployment at 2 years. At 4 years follow-up, stages I (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.11-2.19), II (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.09-2.26) and III (OR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.55-3.37) were associated with increased risk for unemployment. Higher risk was seen among rectal cancer patients and among patients aged ≤50 years old at the time of cancer diagnosis. CRC patients are at increased long-term risk for unemployment, especially among rectal cancer and younger patients. The clinical ramifications of our findings emphasise the importance of an accurate evaluation and attention to unemployment status during the care of these patients. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rottenberg, Yakir; Ratzon, Navah Z; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Cohen, Miraim; Peretz, Tamar; de Boer, Angela G E M
Among patients with cancer, returning to full working may serve as an indicator for return to normal lifestyle following illness, as opposed to unemployment or shifting to part-time work. The aim of the project was to clarify the association between unemployment risk and decreased income at 4 years after the diagnosis of testicular cancer (TC). A case control in a cohort study includes baseline measurement of people participating in the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics 1995 National Census, and follow-up until 2011. Cancer incidence, employment status, and income level were ascertained through the Israel Cancer Registry and Tax Authority, respectively. A matched group was sampled from the population in the census. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess odds ratios (ORs) for study׳s outcomes, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education, and socioeconomic and employment status at 2 years before diagnosis. A total of 113 cases of TC and 468 persons in the matched group were included in the study after excluding persons who died during the study period. No association was found between TC and subsequent risk after the 4 years of unemployment (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.65-1.95) or decreased income (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.84-2.36). Predictors of subsequent unemployment were unemployment 2 years before diagnosis (OR = 6.91, 95% CI: 4.39-10.86) and increasing age (OR = 1.03 per year, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06). TC survivorship is not associated with subsequent unemployment or decreased income at 4 years after diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Population in Nigeria is turning into an issue that needs public alertness. Informing men on family planning services and contraceptives is extremely necessary. For this will promote more favorable attitudes and increase their involvement. This study aimed at investigating the source of family planning information for married ...
... a discrimination based on sex. (b) It may be that under certain circumstances, such a rule could be justified within the meaning of section 703(e)(1) of title VII. We express no opinion on this question at... applicable to married men is a discrimination based on sex prohibited by title VII of the Civil Rights Act...
Dec 20, 2008 ... Marriage is a socially acknowledged and approved union between men and women for the purpose of procreation (Ogunde, 1997). Every religious institution enjoins man and woman to marry. Each of the religions asserted that there is happiness, compassion and love in it, and thereby encourages the.
Lasswell, Marcia E.
The best age for marriage and childbirth appear to be much later than the popular age for marriage presently. Evidence indicates that women should wait until 25 to marry and should have their 2 children at age 28 and 30. (EK)
HIV is one of the leading health threats and cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Among many preventive measures, condom use is the most effective methods of preventing HIV. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with condom use among currently married men in Zambia. Secondary data from ...
Mineke Schipper's Never Marry a Woman with Big Feet is a fascinating and painstaking examination of proverbs about women from various cultures and periods of history. In the process of researching her book, Schipper compiled a list of approximately sixteen thousand proverbs in two hundred and fortyfive languages ...
Although recently married couples report debt as one of their top concerns, research has not measured how debt changes relate to changes in their marital satisfaction. Further, the mechanisms that link debt and marital satisfaction are unknown. Findings using the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,078 couples) demonstrated that…
Cairney, John; Boyle, Michael; Offord, David R; Racine, Yvonne
This study examined the effect of stress and social support on the relationship between single-parent status and depression. A secondary data analysis of the 1994-95 National Population Health Survey was conducted. Single and married mothers who participated in the survey were derived from the general sample (N = 2,921). Logistic regression techniques were used to assess the mediating and moderating effects of stress and social support on the relationship between family structure and depression. Bivariate analyses showed that, compared to married mothers, single mothers were more likely to have suffered an episode of depression (12-month prevalence), to report higher levels of chronic stress, more recent life events and a greater number of childhood adversities. Single mothers also reported lower levels of perceived social support, social involvement and frequency of contact with friends and family than married mothers. The results of the multivariate analyses showed that, together, stress and social support account for almost 40% of the relationship between single- parent status and depression. We also found a conditional effect of stress on depression by family structure. Life events were more strongly related to depression in married than in single mothers. A substantial part of the association between single-parent status and depression can be accounted for by differences in exposure to stress and social support. Our results suggest that it is important to examine multiple sources of stress, as exposure to both distal and proximal stressors were higher among single mothers. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Abstract. In this study we explored the level of awareness and practice on HIV prevention among married couples from selected communities in. Malawi. Methods. We carried out the study from October to December, 2008 in four communities, two each from Chiradzulu and Chikhwawa districts of. Malawi. We conducted ...
Delivery Site Preferences and Associated Factors among Married Women of Child Bearing Age in Bench Maji Zone, Ethiopia. ... Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to assess the association of variables. P-value less than 5% was used to declare significant association. RESULTS: Three hundred five (61.9%) ...
Domestic violence was found to be common, marital rape was not clearly understood, and there was no tendency to disapprove it. This study revealed that the attitude of people and traditional norms played the major role in determining the acceptability of gender-based violence on married women. Increasing awareness on ...
Indepth interviews were carried out with six married women who were involved in extra marital affairs with other men and these took place on a face to face basis. Goffman's dramaturgical theory and Michel Foucault's concept of the gaze and the African concept of Ubuntu are the sociological lenses which were used to ...
Being the first novel in English written by a black Namibian woman, Ndeutala Hishongwa's Marrying Apartheid (1986) represents a turning point within the history of Namibian literature. This novel shows new and important aspects in the Namibian women's liberation struggle, for Hishongwa presents a black woman as the ...
Ganong, L H; Coleman, M; Riley, C
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of information about a pregnant client's marital status on nursing students' initial perceptions of the client, attributions of group stereotypes to the client, predictions of client behavior, data sought, and verbal responses toward the client. Forty-three undergraduate nursing students from a large Midwestern university volunteered to participate. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups, the "married client" or "unmarried client." Subjects viewed a videotape of a nurse interviewing a pregnant client and were administered a series of questionnaires. Following this, they were asked to respond in writing to five statements made by the videotaped client. Videotapes were identical except that one group was told they were viewing an unmarried woman and the other group was told the client was married. Results indicated that students evaluated the married client more positively than the unmarried client. Students' perceptions were consistent with several cultural stereotypes. In addition, students predicted that, if hospitalized, the unmarried client would have greater difficulty than the married client. There were no differences between groups in the information they would seek from the client or in responses towards the client.
Müller, G; Wellmann, J; Hartwig, S; Greiser, K H; Moebus, S; Jöckel, K-H; Schipf, S; Völzke, H; Maier, W; Meisinger, C; Tamayo, T; Rathmann, W; Berger, K
To analyse the association of neighbourhood unemployment with incident self-reported physician-diagnosed Type 2 diabetes in a population aged 45-74 years from five German regions. Study participants were linked via their addresses at baseline to particular neighbourhoods. Individual-level data from five population-based studies were pooled and combined with contextual data on neighbourhood unemployment. Type 2 diabetes was assessed according to a self-reported physician diagnosis of diabetes. We estimated proportional hazard models (Weibull distribution) in order to obtain hazard ratios and 95% CIs of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, taking into account interval-censoring and clustering. We included 7250 participants residing in 228 inner city neighbourhoods in five German regions in our analysis. The incidence rate was 12.6 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 11.4-13.8). The risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus was higher in men [hazard ratio 1.79 (95% CI 1.47-2.18)] than in women and higher in people with a low education level [hazard ratio 1.55 (95% CI 1.18-2.02)] than in those with a high education level. Independently of individual-level characteristics, we found a higher risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in neighbourhoods with high levels of unemployment [quintile 5; hazard ratio 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.42)] than in neighbourhoods with low unemployment (quintile 1). Low education level and high neighbourhood unemployment were independently associated with an elevated risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Studies examining the impact of the residential environment on Type 2 diabetes mellitus will provide knowledge that is essential for the identification of high-risk populations. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.
Full Text Available This paper examines the problems associated with youth capacity building and unemployment in Ethiopia. It argues that capacity building is a continuous process of development that could be accomplished through participation of the citizens in their own development. The dynamics of development at both national and grassroots levels in Ethiopia must involve the exposure of government change agents to participatory learning and action methodologies. The paper uses data derived from primary and secondary sources to analyze the problems associated with youth capacity building and unemployment in Ethiopia. The conceptual framework is based on the social constructionist, the build block model of development, monetarist and the Keynesian theories. The findings show that technical capacity building in Ethiopia will serve as a lever for economic and social development. There is, however, a negative correlation between the nation’s educational system and the kind of technical skills needed to achieve its sustainable development goals. In addition, the Ethiopian Government policies have not been able to effectively galvanize the private sector and NGOs to create more jobs for youths. Further, current government policy tends to focus on the supply side. Less emphasis has been placed on the demand side and comparable strategies to address the youth unemployment problems. The paper recommends that the in the new global economy, young people need to acquire more than just basic education, and curricula. They should be influenced by the current trends in of globalization, regional integration and technological transformation. The established public labour-intensive infrastructure projects in urban areas, like cobblestone, housing, Micro and Small Enterprises and others, need to be strengthened and supported by government, private sectors and NGOs, both technically and financially. Thus, government, private sector and NGOs should collaborate to establish a
Norström, Fredrik; Janlert, Urban; Hammarström, Anne
Many studies have reported that unemployment has a negative effect on health. However, little is known about the long-term effect for those who become unemployed when they are young adults. Our aim was to examine how unemployment is related to long-term self-rated health among 30 year olds, with an emphasis on how health differs in relation to education level, marital status, previous health, occupation, and gender. In the Northern Swedish Cohort, 1083 teenagers (~16 years old) were originally invited in 1981. Of these, 1001 participated in the follow-up surveys in 1995 and 2007. In our study, we included participants with either self-reported unemployment or activity in the labor force during the previous three years in the 1995 follow-up so long as they had no self-reported unemployment between the follow-up surveys. Labor market status was studied in relation to self-reported health in the 2007 follow-up. Information from the 1995 follow-up for education level, marital status, self-reported health, and occupation were part of the statistical analyses. Analyses were stratified for these variables and for gender. Analyses were performed with logistic regression, G-computation, and a method based on propensity scores. Poor self-rated health in 2007 was reported among 43 of the 98 (44%) unemployed and 159 (30%) of the 522 employed subjects. Unemployment had a long-term negative effect on health (odds ratio with logistic regression 1.74 and absolute difference estimates of 0.11 (G-computation) and 0.10 (propensity score method)). At the group level, the most pronounced effects on health were seen in those with upper secondary school as their highest education level, those who were single, low-level white-collar workers, and women. Even among those becoming unemployed during young adulthood, unemployment is related to a negative long-term health effect. However, the effect varies among different groups of individuals. Increased emphasis on understanding the groups
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported that unemployment has a negative effect on health. However, little is known about the long-term effect for those who become unemployed when they are young adults. Our aim was to examine how unemployment is related to long-term self-rated health among 30 year olds, with an emphasis on how health differs in relation to education level, marital status, previous health, occupation, and gender. Methods In the Northern Swedish Cohort, 1083 teenagers (~16 years old were originally invited in 1981. Of these, 1001 participated in the follow-up surveys in 1995 and 2007. In our study, we included participants with either self-reported unemployment or activity in the labor force during the previous three years in the 1995 follow-up so long as they had no self-reported unemployment between the follow-up surveys. Labor market status was studied in relation to self-reported health in the 2007 follow-up. Information from the 1995 follow-up for education level, marital status, self-reported health, and occupation were part of the statistical analyses. Analyses were stratified for these variables and for gender. Analyses were performed with logistic regression, G-computation, and a method based on propensity scores. Results Poor self-rated health in 2007 was reported among 43 of the 98 (44% unemployed and 159 (30% of the 522 employed subjects. Unemployment had a long-term negative effect on health (odds ratio with logistic regression 1.74 and absolute difference estimates of 0.11 (G-computation and 0.10 (propensity score method. At the group level, the most pronounced effects on health were seen in those with upper secondary school as their highest education level, those who were single, low-level white-collar workers, and women. Conclusions Even among those becoming unemployed during young adulthood, unemployment is related to a negative long-term health effect. However, the effect varies among different groups of
Cylus, Jonathan; Avendano, Mauricio
Research suggests that job loss can cause illness and premature death. This raises the question of whether unemployment benefit programs, which are intended to alleviate the financial stress of job loss, can protect the health of the unemployed. To investigate this question, we analyzed data for the period 1984-2009 from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We found that receiving unemployment benefits significantly reduced the probability of reporting poor health in the year after job loss, by around 5 percentage points. The health-promoting effects of receiving the benefits were robust across multiple model specifications and after we accounted for preexisting differences between benefit recipients and nonrecipients. Our results add to the growing body of literature that suggests that social policies can have unanticipated health effects. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Jammeh, Sulayman S S; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lee-Hsieh, Jane
Family planning services have been free of charge and available in all the health facilities in the Gambia since 1975 yet contraceptive prevalence is only 17.5% and even 6% in some areas. Since the last census in 2003, there existed no available data on married couples' contraception status. To explore married couples' family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices in rural and urban Gambia and to analyze what factors may affect such knowledge, attitudes and practices. Quantitative cross-sectional study design was used. Through convenience sampling, 176 men and 235 women representing a total of 176 couples participated. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The mean scores of the married couples family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices were 19.00 ± 6.11(ranging from 0 to 64), 6.90 ± 3.08 (0 to 14) and 4.69 ± 3.3 (0 to 19) respectively. Urban residents had higher scores on family planning practice than rural residents (pAttitude is the strongest predictor of practice (accounted for 34.6% of variance). These findings offer a descriptive answer to "what are married couples' family planning knowledge, attitude and practice in Gambia", as well as suggesting broader health intervention programs in health education and promotion.
Lavis, John N.; MacNab, Ying C.; Hertzman, Clyde
Objectives. We examined the relationship between unemployment and mortality in Germany, a coordinated market economy, and the United States, a liberal market economy. Methods. We followed 2 working-age cohorts from the German Socio-economic Panel and the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics from 1984 to 2005. We defined unemployment as unemployed at the time of survey. We used discrete-time survival analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. Results. There was an unemployment–mortality association among Americans (relative risk [RR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7, 3.4), but not among Germans (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0, 2.0). In education-stratified models, there was an association among minimum-skilled (RR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.4, 4.7) and medium-skilled (RR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.8) Americans, but not among minimum- and medium-skilled Germans. There was no association among high-skilled Americans, but an association among high-skilled Germans (RR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.3, 7.0), although this was limited to those educated in East Germany. Minimum- and medium-skilled unemployed Americans had the highest absolute risks of dying. Conclusions. The higher risk of dying for minimum- and medium-skilled unemployed Americans, not found among Germans, suggests that the unemployment–mortality relationship may be mediated by the institutional and economic environment. PMID:22698036
Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes
The loss of one's job has been conceptualized as a major stressful life event in an adult's life and has consistently been associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies after the experience of stressful events has emerged as an important predictor of adverse psychological and health outcomes. However, the effect of these coping strategies on the HRQoL of unemployed people has not been examined until now. We aimed to study the associations of these cognitive emotion regulation strategies on HRQoL of unemployed people. Using cross-sectional data, 1,125 unemployed adults were assessed using a Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for cognitive coping and SF-12 to assess HRQoL. We studied the effect of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on mental and physical health composite separately, adjusting for gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, using hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed unemployed men tended to express greater use of self-blame, other-blame, and catastrophizing, and lower use of perspective taking strategies when confronted with unemployment. Moreover, self-blame (for mental health composite only), blaming others, rumination, and catastrophizing negatively correlated, while positive reappraisal, putting into perspective, planning, and positive refocusing positively correlated with both mental and physical health composite in unemployed people. Further hierarchical regression analyses indicate that five strategies (a lower reported use of self-blame, rumination, and catastrophizing, as well as higher scores of positive reappraisal and positive refocusing) and three strategies (lower scores of catastrophizing and rumination and high scores in planning) have significant and independent contributions, beyond gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, to the prediction of mental health and physical health composite, respectively
Lahlum, Nils Ivar
This is a study on the main causes of urban youth unemployment in Iran. It argues that, based upon structural and classical explanations of unemployment, urban youth unemployment in Iran is caused by deficiencies in human capital development. Based in the two approaches to human capital development, the study uses empirical findings obtained through interviews, surveys and statistics in Iran to discuss earlier studies on the phenomenon, and to see whether investments in human capital developm...
Full Text Available The unemployment is a permanent phenomenon in majority countries of the world, either with advanced economies, either in course of developed economies, and the implications and the consequences are more complexes, so that, practically, the fight with unemployment becomes a fundamental objective for the economy politics. In context, the authors proposed to set apart essentially components for unemployment analyse with the scope of identification the measures and the instruments of counteracted.
A developing country like Pakistan is heavily dependent on the oil as inputs for almost every industrial sector therefore increase in oil prices, increases inputs cost, consequently increasing production costs and unemployment rate. Existing literature has mostly focused on the relationship between unemployment and oil prices of developed countries, the current study used the data from developing country Pakistan to investigate the relationship between oil prices and unemployment. The current...
Maria-Cristina Stefan; Valentin Radu
The main purpose of this paper is to make an analysis of unemployment in Romania, as market labor imbalance between 2007 and 2011. The necessity of the work is given by the complex evolution of unemployment phenomenon depending on a multiplicity of economic and social factors. Strategies for combating unemployment and stimulate employment must be build upon the main objective established in the market labor of Romania: development of human resources and increase it competitiveness on labor ma...
Faith Oluwajodu; Derick Blaauw; Lorraine Greyling; Ewert P.J. Kleynhans
Orientation: South Africa is experiencing growth in its graduate labour force, but graduateunemployment is rising with the overall unemployment rate. Graduate unemployment isproblematic, because it wastes scarce human capital, which is detrimental to the economy inthe long run.Research purpose: This study explores the perceived causes of graduate unemployment fromthe perspective of the South African banking sector.Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted various studies on graduat...
Zahra Bakhshi; Mehrzad Ebrahimi
Unemployment is one of the problems that global economics, especially the economy of developing countries such as Iran is faced with. Therefore, there have been many studies to investigate the variables which affect unemployment in macroeconomics. Considering exchange rate volatility in recent years which have affected most of major variables of economy in Iran, this study tried to investigate the relationship between exchange rate and unemployment in Iran using the annual data of 30 years (f...
Simulations suggest that under the most optimistic conditions, halving the official rate of unemployment would require 3.7 million jobs to be created between 2004 and 2014. Halving the number of expanded unemployed under pessimistic assumptions about the growth rate of the economically active would require 11 million jobs in the same period. Unlike unemployment, poverty levels can, through the social security system, be directly affected by government. One of the goals of the United Nations M...
Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, J?rgen; Wagner, Gert G.; Heckhausen, Jutta
Unemployment is a major challenge to individuals' development. An important personal resource to ameliorate the negative impact of unemployment may be perceived control, a general-purpose belief system. Little is known, however, about how perceived control itself changes with the experience of unemployment and what the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of such change in perceived control are in different ages. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (N ...
Stadler, Manfred; Wapler, Rüdiger
This paper presents a general-equilibrium model of endogenous skilled-biased technological change and matching unemployment in a disaggregated economy. We simultaneously endogenise both the direction and pace of technological change as well as the unemployment rates. We show that an increase in the supply of high-skilled labour can explain skilled-biased technological change, a reduction in high-skilled unemployment and a rise in the high-skilled wage differential. In accordance with convinci...
Scholz, Christian M.
This paper analyzes if unemployment can be reduced through labor tax cuts that are financed in a revenue neutral way through energy tax increases. In contrast to other papers on this topic we consider investment behavior of firms in energy saving technologies, irreversibilities, embodied technological progress and involuntary unemployment. Arguments are presented that reducing the sunk costs instead of the labor tax seems to be the better instrument to reduce energy input and unemployment sin...
Fatemi, Azadeh S; Younesi, Seyed Jalal; Azkhosh, Manouchehr; Askari, Ali
This study aims to compare dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment in infertile employed and unemployed females. Due to the stresses of infertility, infertile females are faced with a variety of sexual and psychological problems, as well as dysfunctional attitudes that can lead to depression. Moreover, infertility problems provoke women into maladjustment and inadvertent corruption of relationships. In this regard, our goal is to consider the effects of employment in conjunction with education on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile women in Iran. In this work, we employed the survey method. We recruited 240 infertile women, utilizing the cluster random sampling method. These women filled out the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and the social adjustment part of the California Test of Personality. Next, multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the relationship of employment status and education with dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. Our results indicated that dysfunctional attitudes were far more prevalent in infertile unemployed women than in infertile employed women. Also, social adjustment was better in infertile employed women than in infertile unemployed women. It was shown that education level alone does not have significant effect on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. However, we demonstrated that the employment status of infertile women in conjunction with their education level significantly affects the two dimensions of dysfunctional attitudes (relationships, entitlements) and has insignificant effects on social adjustment. It was revealed that in employed infertile women in Iran, the higher education level, the less dysfunctional were attitudes in relationships and entitlements, whereas in unemployed infertile women, those with a college degree had the least and those with master's or higher degrees had the most dysfunctional attitudes in terms of relationships and entitlements.
... INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-3 Special rules applicable to married... legally separated under a decree of divorce or separate maintenance or who is treated as not married under...
Lo, Simon M. S.; Stephan, Gesine; Wilke, Ralf
The copula graphic estimator (CGE) for competing risks models has received little attention in empirical research, despite having been developed into a comprehensive research method. In this paper, we bridge the gap between theoretical developments and applied research by considering a general...... class of competing risks copula models, which nests popular models such as the Cox proportional hazards model, the semiparametric multivariate mixed proportional hazards model (MMPHM), and the CGE as special cases. Analyzing the effects of a German Hartz reform on unemployment duration, we illustrate...
Skott, Peter; Auerbach, Paul
Using a simple model with two levels of skill, we assume that high-skill workers who fail to get high-skill jobs may accept low-skill positions; low-skill workers do not have the analogous option of filling high-skill positions. This asymmetry implies that a slowdown in Hicks-neutral technical change (or other adverse, skill-neutral shocks) may cause an increase in wage inequality, both between and within skill categories, as well as an increase in unemployment, especially among low-skill wor...
A. ASIMAKOPULOS A.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is threefold. The first purpose is to emphasise the importance of the insights to be found in Sylos Labini’s work. The second purpose is to expand upon it by distinguishing between the different types of technical progress. Finally, the third purpose is to comment on Labini’s comparison of Ricardo and Keynes on the possibility of technological unemployment. Regarding his description of technological progress as “labour saving”, the author shows that a more comprehensive description would be more useful for his purposes.
Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch
The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend...... to reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has...
"This paper develops a simple two-country model of illegal immigration in an attempt to examine the interaction among variables such as the stock of migrant labor, the unemployment rates of the two economies, and the rate of spending by the host country on the enforcement of its immigration restrictions. The focus of the analysis is on the dynamics of immigration policy and on its role in determining the nature of the mechanism by which disturbances to the labor market of one country are transmitted to that of the other in the short run and in the long run." excerpt
unemployment increased relative to nonveteran youth unemployment between 2003 and 2005 (and that this relative increase is statistically significant) and...that veteran youth unemployment decreased between 2005 and 2006. However, analysis of ACS unemployment data also draws into question whether veteran... youth unemployment in fact increased relative to nonveteran youth unemployment between 2003 and 2005. While veteran youth unemployment did increase in
Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas
To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profilin techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment serviceand random search, jobseekers choose between...... that under both regimes the equilibrium unemployment rate is increasing with respect to the hiring subsidy. The subsidy like the profiling measures, which improve the effectiveness of the public placement service, crowd-out the active jobseekers among the short- and the long-term unemployed and reduce total...
Kok, L.; Berden, C.; de Graaf-Zijl, M.
This paper analyses the integration of active labour market policies for two groups of unemployed from a theoretical perspective. In general a model with only one type of agent performs better than a model with two types of agents. If there are two types of agents part of the effort of one agent
Danish unemployment assistance depends on age; it increases by 70% when unemployedindividuals turn 25. This feature is used to identify the impact of income on theunemployment-to-employment hazard rate. A mixed proportional hazard frameworkbased on a 10% representative Danish registry data set is...
Liu, Zhi-Yong; Li, Jiang; Hong, Yang; Yao, Lan
Reproductive health (RH) education and services of female migrants in China have become an important health issue. This research aimed to investigate the RH knowledge and utilization among married female migrants, and to explore the influencing factors from the perspectives of population and sociology. We conducted a cross-section survey in Shenzhen and Wuhan, China, using the purposive sampling method. A total of 1021 rural-to-urban married migrants were recruited, with 997 valid survey results obtained. A face-to-face structured questionnaire survey was used, with primary focus on knowledge of fertility, contraception, family planning policy and sexual transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STD/AIDs), and RH service utilization. The results showed that the RH service utilization (38.0%) was at a low level in married migrants and the accessibility of RH service was poor. Females who migrated to (OR=0.32) Wuhan obtained fewer RH consultations than those in Shenzhen. The workers with high school education received additional RH consultations and checkup services than those with other background education, apart from the white collar workers who received extra RH consultations and checkup services than the blue collar workers (Pmigrants remains at a low level in China. RH service utilization can be improved via the relevant health departments by enhancing the responsibility of maternal and health care in the community health service center.
Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K
Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, more than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples.
Forste, R; Tanfer, K; Tedrow, L
Data from the 1991 National Survey of Men indicate that about 12% of married men aged 20-39 have had a vasectomy and about 13% are married to a woman who is sterilized. Multivariate analyses indicate that the likelihood of sterilization rises with husband's age, wife's age, duration of marriage and number of children. Black couples are significantly less likely than white couples to rely on sterilization, and interracial couples are less likely than same-race couples to be sterilized. The likelihood of reliance on vasectomy rather than tubal ligation also rises with husband's age, while black men are significantly less likely than white men to elect male over female sterilization. Use of male sterilization is strongly associated with having had a recent contraceptive failure while using a male method.
Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi
Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.
Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Santos, Teresa; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas de Almeida, J M
Due to the economic recession, several people in Europe became unemployed. This situation may risk their mental health. This study explored parents' perceptions about their unemployment's effects in daily life during the recession. A total of 59 unemployed parents (40.7% fathers and 59.3% mothers), ageing 44.4 years (±6.2), answer a question on how the unemployment affected their family lives. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. The findings suggest that unemployment is a source of adult and youth mental distress and of economic hardship and changes in family relations. Support to unemployed individuals and their families could benefit from these insights when granting the needed financial and socioemotional assistance. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ung, Mengieng; Boateng, Godfred O; Armah, Frederick A; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Luginaah, Isaac; Kuuire, Vincent
Negotiating safer sex among married women has been identified as an important determinant of vulnerability or resilience to new HIV infections. Using the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data of 2010, this paper examined negotiation for safer sex among 11,218 married women in the context of Cambodia's highly touted reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The results from a complementary log-log regression model indicate that wealthier and highly educated married women were more likely to report that they can refuse sexual intercourse and ask their husbands to use a condom. Interestingly, while women who were fully involved in decision-making on their own health care were 19% more likely to refuse sex, they were 14% less likely to be able to ask their husbands to use a condom, compared with their counterparts who were not involved in this decision-making. Women who were partially involved in decision-making on family visits were 17% less likely to be able to ask their husbands to use a condom compared with those who were not involved. In this context, involvement in decision-making may have translated into trust and risk compensation. Those who believed in HIV transmission myths were less likely to negotiate safer sex relative to their counterparts who did not hold such myths to be true. Women's ability to negotiate for safer sex is, therefore, a function of their autonomy in terms of their full participation in decision-making in health care, household expenditure and mobility. Policy implications of the capacity of women to negotiate for safer sex are delineated.
Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Singh, Lucky
Background Coupled with the largest number of maternal deaths, adolescent pregnancy in India has received paramount importance due to early age at marriage and low contraceptive use. The factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescents in rural India are poorly discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the data from third wave of National Family Health Survey (2005–06), available in public domain for the use by researchers, this paper examines the factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescent women (aged 15–19 years) in rural India. Three components of maternal healthcare service utilization were measured: full antenatal care, safe delivery, and postnatal care within 42 days of delivery for the women who gave births in the last five years preceding the survey. Considering the framework on causes of maternal mortality proposed by Thaddeus and Maine (1994), selected socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors influencing outcome events were included as the predictor variables. Bi-variate analyses including chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion, and logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on selected outcomes were applied. Findings indicate the significant differences in the use of selected maternal healthcare utilization by educational attainment, economic status and region of residence. Muslim women, and women belonged to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes are less likely to avail safe delivery services. Additionally, adolescent women from the southern region utilizing the highest maternal healthcare services than the other regions. Conclusions The present study documents several socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting the utilization of maternal healthcare services among rural adolescent women in India. The ongoing healthcare programs should start targeting household
Prashant Kumar Singh
Full Text Available Coupled with the largest number of maternal deaths, adolescent pregnancy in India has received paramount importance due to early age at marriage and low contraceptive use. The factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescents in rural India are poorly discussed.Using the data from third wave of National Family Health Survey (2005-06, available in public domain for the use by researchers, this paper examines the factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescent women (aged 15-19 years in rural India. Three components of maternal healthcare service utilization were measured: full antenatal care, safe delivery, and postnatal care within 42 days of delivery for the women who gave births in the last five years preceding the survey. Considering the framework on causes of maternal mortality proposed by Thaddeus and Maine (1994, selected socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors influencing outcome events were included as the predictor variables. Bi-variate analyses including chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion, and logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on selected outcomes were applied. Findings indicate the significant differences in the use of selected maternal healthcare utilization by educational attainment, economic status and region of residence. Muslim women, and women belonged to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes are less likely to avail safe delivery services. Additionally, adolescent women from the southern region utilizing the highest maternal healthcare services than the other regions.The present study documents several socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting the utilization of maternal healthcare services among rural adolescent women in India. The ongoing healthcare programs should start targeting household with married adolescent women belonging to
Malini M Bhattathiry
Full Text Available Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP, which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of "unmet need for FP" and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.
Siti Nor Yaacob,, Elham Vaez, Rumaya Juhari
In recent decade, there has been an increasing rate of International students all over the world, but little is known about the marital life of this population. The need to understand graduate students' intentions to pursue an academic career has become more important over the years. While International students' cross-cultural adjustment has received considerable attention in the sojourner literature, there is a paucity of research that addresses the unique challenges faced by the married In...
Siti Nor Yaacob, Elham Vaez Rumaya Juhari
In recent decade, there has been an increasing rate of international students all over the world, but little is known about the marital life of this population. The need to understand graduate students intentions to pursue an academic career has become more important over the years. While International students cross-cultural adjustment has received considerable attention in the sojourner literature, there is a paucity of research that addresses the unique challenges faced by the married ...
Analysis of features describing sexuality and sexual behavior of married women, deeming their sexual life 'successful' or 'unsuccessful'. 217 women have been interviewed with the help of our original questionnaire about sexual life. All women in question had been married at the time of the interview. The results have been submitted for statistical analysis. Among 217 married women that had been interviewed, 190 (87.6%) described their sexual life as 'successful', while 25 (11.5%) as 'unsuccessful'. Two women were not sexually active and thus have been excluded from the study. 1. Women in failed marriages discuss the causes of their problems with their husbands less frequently, and more often have unrevealed sexual expectations and dreams, in comparison to the group of women in successful marriages. 2. Women who deemed their sexual life 'unsuccessful' have problems with accepting nudity, both theirs and their husbands. 3. Women describing their sexual life as 'unsuccessful' do not perceive sex as pleasure. 4. The belief that one has a 'successful' or 'unsuccessful' sexual life does not have influence on the attempts of undertaking sexual contacts, with or without the consent of a woman. 5. Almost a half of married women giving consent for intercourse against their will, both in 'happy' or 'failed' marriages, are of the opinion that a husband has the right to rape his wife. 6. 'Successful' sexual life in a marriage is not a guarantee of woman's faithfulness. 7. The type of contraceptive used does not have an influence on perceiving one's sexual life as 'successful' or 'unsuccessful'.
Since the 1960s the number of Danish wives going out to work has increased. In 1975, a national survey was conducted to elucidate farmers' wives' work performance in their homes and on and outside the farm. Only women under the age of 60 who were married to self-employed farmers with holdings of more than 5 hectares (1 hectare = 2.47 acres) were…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexuality and its manifestation constitute some of the most complex of human behaviour and its disorders are encountered in community. Sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in women than in men. While studies examining sexual dysfunction among males and females in Ghana exist, there are no studies relating sexual problems in males and females as dyadic units. This study therefore investigated the prevalence and type of sexual disorders among married couples. Method The study participants consisted of married couples between the ages of 19 and 66 living in the province of Kumasi, Ghana. Socio-demographic information and Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS questionnaires were administered to 200 couples who consented to take part in the study. All 28 questions of the GRISS are answered on a five-point (Likert type scale from "always", through "usually', "sometimes", and "hardly ever", to "never". Responses are summed up to give a total raw score ranging from 28-140. The total score and subscale scores are transformed using a standard nine point scale, with high scores indicating greater problems. Scores of five or more are considered to indicate SD. The study was conducted between July and September 2010. Results Out of a total of 200 married couples, 179 completed their questionnaires resulting in a response rate of 89.5%. The mean age of the participating couples as well as the mean duration of marriage was 34.8 ± 8.6 years and 7.8 ± 7.6 years respectively. The husbands (37.1 ± 8.6 were significantly older (p Conclusion The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in married couples is comparable to prevalence rates in the general male and female population and is further worsened by duration of marriage. This could impact significantly on a couple's self-esteem and overall quality of life.
Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the leading economic problems in a developed world. The aim of this paper is to identify the differences in unemployment duration in different strata in the post-crisis Czech Republic via building a minimal adequate model, and to quantify the differences. Data from Labour Force Surveys are used and since they are interval censored in nature, proper metodology must be used. The minimal adequate model is built through the accelerated failure time modelling, maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests. Variables at the beginning are sex, marital status, age, education, municipality size and number of persons in a household, containing altogether 29 model parameters. The minimal adequate model contains 5 parameters and differences are found between men and women, the youngest category and the rest and the university educated and the rest. The estimated expected values, variances, medians, modes and 90th percentiles are provided for all subgroups.
Full Text Available Individuals’ eagerness or desire to get married was investigated in a sample of online daters in China (n = 3,389 using a 6-item version of the Drive to Marry (DTM Scale, which was modified with new questions about normative pressures to marry given the cultural emphasis on social prescription in Eastern versus Western culture. The questionnaire items conformed to a unidimensional Rasch scale with interval-level measurement, although two themes seemed inherent to DTM – positive feelings of excitement or anticipation and negative feelings of urgency or desperation. Consistent with previous theory and research, women exhibited stronger DTM than men and normative pressures resulted in greater perceived DTM. Finally, significant response biases by sex were found, indicating that men and women differ in their qualitative experience of DTM. The results offer a preliminary cross-cultural validation and perspective on DTM and expand the present conceptualization and measurement of the construct to guide future research and theory-building.
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the contraceptive practices among adolescent married women of Tamil Nadu state, India. Methods: We used the data of District Level Household Survey-Reproductive Child Health (DLHS-RCH, Round-II which was conducted in two phases (phase-I during 2002-2003 and phase-II during 2003–2004 in Tamil Nadu. The data consist of 25 522 ever-married women. Results: About 92 percent of the subjects are not currently using any of the contraceptive methods. In terms of social characteristics of married women, who were currently using or not using any one of the family planning methods, caste is found to be highly significant (P<0.000. In economic characteristics per cent of using contraception is considerably higher in the women with medium standard of living. Difference between number of children ever born, gravida and using of contraception methods is highly significant (P<0.000. Conclusions: Study is indicative of implementation of new programme, which may increase awareness about family planning programme in Tamil Nadu state.
Criveanu Radu Cătălin
Full Text Available The education reform has generated in the years 2011 and 2012 the most disastrous results in thehistory of transition from school (pre - university education to active life (through continuation of studiesor by insertion on the labor market, changing social parameters for this period. If from economic outlook,in 2011 the 28,000 young people of the 100,000 who failed to obtain the bachelor’s degree produced a 74million Ron loss for the economy (cost of paying the unemployment benefits, in terms of social equity itwas initiated the relocation of educational and occupational hierarchies. The year 2012 growsexponentially the unemployment among young people and deepens the budget deficit affected by theincreasing amounts for the social benefits.In this context, the present article aims to analyze the effects of the rising unemployment on thelabor market and to identify the best solutions for its balance in the period 2014 - 2020, complementarysolutions for the ones proposed by members of the European Council, signers of the Declaration datedJanuary 30th 2012, which aimed “to favorably strengthen growth and friendly increase employment”.
Full Text Available The main research question for this study is; what is the relationship between social policy, economic development, education, and the level of unemployment in the Nigerian economy? This study contributes information to employers, investors, policy makers, labor planners, academicians, employees and the job seekers. We attempt to evaluate the impact of the high level of unemployment in the country on Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020. The methods of analysis include graphs, tables, pie charts, percentages and multiple regressions; combining primary and secondary data. Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020 will not be entirely smooth sailing in the 8 years ahead, as there are many aspects of the Vision parameters including employment that have failed to live up to people’s expectations. Rural-urban development is imbalanced; rich-poor gap is yet to be bridged. It is difficult for the unemployed and farmers in many poor areas to receive good medical services and education. This absolute poor population has not yet shaken off poverty in preparation for 2020. Many of them even have no land to farm. Their lives should be made meaningful and bearable by 2020. We recommend agriculture and tourism as Nigeria’s priority sectors for employment creation. Our recommendations also include entrepreneurship, infrastructure construction for both rural and urban geography, stable polity, maximum security, sound education and health systems, international partnership, as well as regional economic, social and political integration.
Morrell, S; Taylor, R; Quine, S; Kerr, C; Western, J
Data from the Australian Longitudinal Survey, conducted by the Commonwealth Department of Employment, Education and Training, were analysed to estimate relative risk of psychological disturbance accompanying unemployment in young people aged 15-24 years. Two cohorts were surveyed annually over 4 years during the mid-to-late-1980s; one from the general 15-24 year-old population (N = 8995), and the other selected from Commonwealth Employment Service records (N = 2403). Such large respondent numbers allowed control of confounding by exclusion to isolate employment transition groups suitable for hypothesis testing and quantification of causal relationships. Psychological morbidity was measured using binary outcomes of the 12 item psychological component of the General Health Questionnaire. Excluded from the analysis were those who: suffered from pre-existing physical health problems; were dissatisfied in their job; were self-employed; underwent marriage breakdown during the inter-survey period; had become widowed during the inter-survey period. A Bayesian probabilistic approach was used to calculate probabilities of psychologically normal respondents becoming psychologically morbid, given prior transition from employment to unemployment. Mantel-Haenszel analysis was utilised to estimate relative risks in comparison to a control group of those remaining employed, after controlling for age and gender. An overall relative risk of becoming psychologically disturbed as a consequence of becoming unemployed was estimated to be 1.51 (95% CI: 1.15-1.99). The overall relative risk of recovery from psychological disturbance upon re-employment in those with psychological disturbance was estimated to be 1.63 (95% CI: 1.08-2.48). Residual psychological effects of past unemployment experience and the effects of long-term unemployment were investigated, but found to be non-significant in this study. There was some evidence of psychological adaptation to unemployment, but this was
Jyoti Srivastava, Indira Sharma, Anuradha Khanna
Full Text Available Background: Domestic violence against women is the most pervasive human rights violation in the world today. According to UNiTE to End Violence against Women (2009 by UN Women, In the United States, one-third of women murdered each year are killed by intimate partners. In South Africa, a woman is killed every 6 hours by an intimate partner. The Objective: To assess the magnitude and causes of domestic violence with mental illness & normal women. Material & Methods: The sample of study comprised of 50 women with mental illness and 50 normal women. Mental illness patients diagnosed according to with Axis one psychiatric Disorder DSM IV-TR, who were selected from the Psychiatry OPD and ward of the S.S. Hospital, BHU and normal women were be selected from the accompany with patients of Sir Sunder Lal Hospital. The patients were assessed on the structured questionnaire on Domestic Violence. Results – The domestic violence present in married women with mental illness was 72% and normal women were 36%. Perceived causes of domestic violence in married women with mental illness were more compared to those with normal women. The health care personnel should be given an opportunity to update their knowledge regarding domestic violence and there is need education for domestic violence and cessation, so that they can help the women to protect/prevent domestic violence.
Full Text Available Background Marital satisfaction is a multidimensional concept and depends on many factors including general health. As educated males have an effective role in the productive activities, it is essential to present some appropriate perspectives in the field of their mental health and marital satisfaction. Objectives The current study aimed at investigating the association between mental health and marital satisfaction in married male students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Methods The study sample consisted of 100 married male students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences selected through the convenience sampling method. The data were gathered using the ENRICH marital satisfaction inventory and the general health questionnaire, and analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient by SPSS version 16. Results In 25% of the subjects, scores of physical function was higher than the cutoff point.The anxiety, social function, depression, and general health scores of 30%, 45%, 19%, and 44% of the subjects were higher than the cutoff point, respectively. There was significant association between marital satisfaction of the students and physical symptoms (r = -0.51, anxiety (r = -0.49, social performance (r = -0.34, depression (r = -0.33, and total score of mental health (r = -0.53. Conclusions Prevention and intervention efforts can focus on how mental health problems can trigger interpersonal relationship and vice versa.
Full Text Available This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in two purposively selected rural areas of Faridpur district - Alfadanga and Boalmari. The objectives were to find out the age at marriage and fertility pattern amongst the adolescent married women residing in the study areas. A total of 426 women were selected purposively and interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Most (97.2% were in the age group of 15-19 years, being married by 15.5 ± 1.5 years. Although 57.5% had a secondary level education, almost all (97% were found to be housewives. Monthly income was between Taka 2001-4000 in 41.3% of the households. Regarding fertility pattern, 19% of the adolescent women were found to be pregnant at the time of survey. The total fertility rate (TFR among this age group was estimated to be 2.6 per woman. To help improve the situation, awareness on the negative consequences of early marriage and consequent childbearing needs to be created not only among the young adolescent girls but should be targeted towards their parents too. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2007; 1(2: 9-12
The following research analyzes, through a field study, several relevant personality traits, or variables, that may be used to help the unemployed by directing them to entrepreneurship. Three sample groups (unemployed, employed, and entrepreneurs) were compared using several intrinsically motivating variables: knowledge, inclination to…
Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann
This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…
For a long time probably since late 1980s the youths of this nation have been on bondage as a result of unemployment caused by faulty institutional structures, illiteracy, corruption and poor management of resources. Though unemployment is a global phenomenon, the situation in Nigeria has reached the crises state, yet it ...
The spatial understanding of unemployment in South Africa is often limited to provinces. This paper explores ways to integrate unemployment data from 1991 to 2007 to obtain a spatially more detailed understanding of the phenomenon. Creating such a temporal GIS is challenging because of the changing administrative ...
Doherty, Jim; Davies, Carol
Three groups of 50 adolescents each (those employed since school, those involved in Youth Opportunities Programs YOP!, and those unemployed since school) were administered the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Depression Scale, and two self-esteem inventories. The unemployed youth had lower self-esteem, more psychosomatic…
Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…
Johnson, Anya M.; Jackson, Paul R.
We examined the effect of career transition support and three other situational variables--financial reserves, social inclusion, and a partner--on the psychological strain of unemployed managers. We extended the theories of unemployment by investigating the mechanisms by which these four situational variables affect psychological strain. After…
Tomi, Kyyrä,; Pierpaolo, Parrotta,; Rosholm, Michael
We consider the consequences of working part-time and receiving supplementary benefits for part-time unemployment in the Danish labor market. Following the timing-of-events approach we estimate causal effects of part-time work with supplementary benefits on the hazard rate out of unemployment...
This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the
B.E. Carlier (Bouwine)
markdownabstractUnemployed persons have poorer health compared to employed persons. Also, persons with a poor health are less likely to enter the workforce than healthy persons. So, more insight is needed in determinants of re-employment and effective re-employment programs for unemployed persons
Berg, van den G.J.; Abbring, J.H.
In the past decades several features of U.S. unemployment dynamics have been investigated empirically. The original focus of research was onthe duration of unemployment. In later studies the cyclicality of incidence and duration, compositional effects and duration dependence of the exitrate out of
J.H. Abbring (Jaap); G.J. van den Berg (Gerard); J.C. van Ours (Jan)
textabstractIn the past decades several features of U.S. unemployment dynamics have been investigated empirically. The original focus of research was on the duration of unemployment. In later studies the cyclicality of incidence and duration, compositional effects and duration dependence of the exit
The siege on Nigerian cities by unemployed youths is illustrated by daily violent tendencies that result in insecurity. Insecurity therefore, may be partly linked up with unemployment. Art is an employer of labour. Its utilization by a nation can lead to effective engagement of citizens in worthwhile activities for economic benefits.
Data from the 2004 wave of the Ethiopian Urban Socio Economic Survey on four major cities of Ethiopia is used to investigate the determinants of unemployment in urban Ethiopia and its impact on household welfare. Regression results from a binary probit model estimation show that urban unemployment in Ethiopia in ...
Unemployment appears to be the greatest challenge militating against the development of the African nations. In Nigeria for instance, eradication of unemployment has become a regular item in the agenda of every government epoch of both military and democratic leaders. This study uses the sociological and the literary ...
The establishment of appropriate policy measures for fighting unemployment has always been difficult since causes of unemployment are hard to identify. This paper analyses an approach used mainly in the 1960s and 1970s in economics, in which classification is used as a way to deal with such a
Hartley, G.R.; van Ours, J.C.; Vodopivec, M.
This study examines the determinants of job-finding rates of unemployment benefit recipients under the Chilean program. This is a unique, innovative program that combines social insurance through a solidarity fund (SF) with self-insurance in the form of unemployment insurance savings accounts
Hart, Peter E.
Assesses the extent of the following types of structural unemployment in the United Kingdom: technological change, skills mismatch, geographical mismatch, demographic shifts, institutional rigidity, unemployability, and capital restructuring. Concludes that measurement is difficult and the types create segmented labor markets that obstruct the…
Unemployment has become a major problem bedeviling the lives of Nigerian youth, causing increased militancy, violent crimes, kidnappings, restiveness and socially delinquent behaviour. Youth unemployment is devastating to both the individual and the society as a whole both psychologically and economically.
Ours, van Jan C.; Berg, van den G.J.
This paper investigates the degree in which the individual exit rate out of unemployment for young job seekers changes as a function of the elapsed unemployment duration. We use a nonparametric estimation method that is designed to be applicable to population data on outflows from different duration
Youth unemployment is a serious concern to policy makers in many developing countries because of its multidimensional impact. In this connection, the paper attempts to characterize youth unemployment in Ethiopia and reveal its major determinants. Univariate results indicate that the youth in general, including teenager ...
Stewart, Leslie; Liu, Yujia; Rodriguez, Eunice
Previous studies have shown a positive association between maternal work hours and childhood overweight. However, it is unclear what role job instability plays in this relationship; therefore, this study examined whether children whose mothers experienced unemployment were more likely to have greater increases in body mass index (BMI) as compared with children whose mothers were stably employed. The effects of unemployment benefits, welfare and number of hours worked were also explored. A multiple regression analysis was used to analyse changes in BMI over a 4-year period using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In all, 4890 US children, aged 2-16 at baseline, were included in the analysis. As compared with children of mothers who were employed full-time and did not receive welfare, children of mothers who experienced unemployment and received unemployment benefits were not more likely to have significantly different changes in BMI. Yet children of mothers who experienced unemployment and did not receive unemployment benefits were significantly more likely to have greater increases in BMI. These results were also shown in models which controlled for height. This supports the conclusion that adiposity changes, and not simply growth-rate differences, account for the different BMI changes between groups. Aspects of maternal employment other than number of work hours are associated with child BMI, including unemployment events and what type of support a mother receives during the time of unemployment. This has implications for policies that relate to benefits for mothers who lose their jobs.
Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.
Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…
D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)
textabstractTwo important empirical features of monthly US unemployment are that shocks to the series seem rather persistent and that unemployment seems to rise faster in recessions than that it falls during expansions. To jointly capture these features of long memory and nonlinearity, respectively,