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Sample records for edison welding institute

  1. Summary of Dissimilar Metal Joining Trials Conducted by Edison Welding Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Lambert

    2005-11-18

    Under the direction of the NASA-Glenn Research Center, the Edison Welding Institute (EWI) in Columbus, OH performed a series of non-fusion joining experiments to determine the feasibility of joining refractory metals or refractory metal alloys to Ni-based superalloys. Results, as reported by EWI, can be found in the project report for EWI Project 48819GTH (Attachment A, at the end of this document), dated October 10, 2005. The three joining methods used in this investigation were inertia welding, magnetic pulse welding, and electro-spark deposition joining. Five materials were used in these experiments: Mo-47Re, T-111, Hastelloy X, Mar M-247 (coarse-grained, 0.5 mm to several millimeter average grain size), and Mar M-247 (fine-grained, approximately 50 {micro}m average grain size). Several iterative trials of each material combination with each joining method were performed to determine the best practice joining method. Mo-47Re was found to be joined easily to Hastelloy X via inertia welding, but inertia welding of the Mo-alloy to both Mar M-247 alloys resulted in inconsistent joint strength and large reaction layers between the two metals. T-111 was found to join well to Hastelloy X and coarse-grained Mar M-247 via inertia welding, but joining to fine-grained Mar M-247 resulted in low joint strength. Magnetic pulse welding (MPW) was only successful in joining T-111 tubing to Hastelloy X bar stock. The joint integrity and reaction layer between the metals were found to be acceptable. This single joining trial, however, caused damage to the electromagnetic concentrators used in this process. Subsequent design efforts to eliminate the problem resulted in a loss of power imparted to the accelerating work piece, and results could not be reproduced. Welding trials of Mar M-247 to T-111 resulted in catastrophic failure of the bar stock, even at lower power. Electro-spark deposition joining of Mo-47Re, in which the deposited material was Hastelloy X, did not have a

  2. Summary of Dissimilar Metal Joining Trials Conducted by Edison Welding Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MJ Lambert

    2005-01-01

    Under the direction of the NASA-Glenn Research Center, the Edison Welding Institute (EWI) in Columbus, OH performed a series of non-fusion joining experiments to determine the feasibility of joining refractory metals or refractory metal alloys to Ni-based superalloys. Results, as reported by EWI, can be found in the project report for EWI Project 48819GTH (Attachment A, at the end of this document), dated October 10, 2005. The three joining methods used in this investigation were inertia welding, magnetic pulse welding, and electro-spark deposition joining. Five materials were used in these experiments: Mo-47Re, T-111, Hastelloy X, Mar M-247 (coarse-grained, 0.5 mm to several millimeter average grain size), and Mar M-247 (fine-grained, approximately 50 (micro)m average grain size). Several iterative trials of each material combination with each joining method were performed to determine the best practice joining method. Mo-47Re was found to be joined easily to Hastelloy X via inertia welding, but inertia welding of the Mo-alloy to both Mar M-247 alloys resulted in inconsistent joint strength and large reaction layers between the two metals. T-111 was found to join well to Hastelloy X and coarse-grained Mar M-247 via inertia welding, but joining to fine-grained Mar M-247 resulted in low joint strength. Magnetic pulse welding (MPW) was only successful in joining T-111 tubing to Hastelloy X bar stock. The joint integrity and reaction layer between the metals were found to be acceptable. This single joining trial, however, caused damage to the electromagnetic concentrators used in this process. Subsequent design efforts to eliminate the problem resulted in a loss of power imparted to the accelerating work piece, and results could not be reproduced. Welding trials of Mar M-247 to T-111 resulted in catastrophic failure of the bar stock, even at lower power. Electro-spark deposition joining of Mo-47Re, in which the deposited material was Hastelloy X, did not have a

  3. In-field Welding and Coating Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Edison Welding Institute (EWI) created both laboratory and infield girth weld samples to evaluate the effects of weld geometry and hydrogen off-gassing on the performance of protective coatings. Laboratory made plat...

  4. 2002 activities report of the welding institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Here is given the 2002 activities report of the welding institute. Are described into details: -the welding institute group -the risk management -the industrial research and development -the standardization -the certification -the inspection and control -the higher education -the professional training -the services -the documentation. (O.M.)

  5. 78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1210-1212 (Preliminary)] Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping Duty..., by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe...

  6. Thomas Alva Edison

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lived thousand years in a single night," he often used to say. Edison's creativity, courage ... sense of discerning what would be useful to people were perhaps his main attributes. .... 21, 1879. The first successful incandescent electric light of the.

  7. Practicing like Thomas Edison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil; Ornstein, Hal

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, medicine has practiced in a vacuum, and the healthcare profession has been isolated from other scientific disciplines. Beginning in the 20th century, doctors and scientists have looked to others for ideas, suggestions, innovations, and new technologies. Probably no one in the past hundred years has done so much to change the world than Thomas Edison. This article will discuss eight principles of Edison and how they may apply to our profession and our practices.

  8. Happy Birthday, Thomas Edison!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Edward A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the work and inventions of Thomas Edison and their use in making teachers and students aware of the importance of electrotechnology in their lives and in their futures. Enables students to learn about science, experimentation, research, the process of invention, and the thrill of discovery. Describes educational resources available from…

  9. PREFACE: Edison 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varani, Luca; Palermo, Christophe; Bastard, Gérald

    2009-11-01

    Conference logo On behalf of the organizing committee we welcome all participants to the 16th International Conference on Electron Dynamics In Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON). Since the first meeting, organized in 1973 in Modena (Italy), this international conference has been regularly organized mostly each two years, and after 28 years EDISON is back to Montpellier for its 16th edition. This conference was previously known as 'Hot Carriers In Semiconductors' (HCIS). For some years the name was changed into 'Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors' (keeping the acronym HCIS). Then, during the last meeting of the international advisory committee in Tokyo, the decision was taken to find a new denomination that should be more adapted to the latest evolutions in the domains covered by the conference. After several discussions and a vote within the committee, the new acronym of EDISON was chosen. Therefore EDISON 16 can be considered as the last of a long series of conferences and, at the same time, the first of a new cycle of conferences. The primary focus of EDISON is to provide an international meeting place to discuss the latest progress in the field of nonequilibrium classical and quantum carrier dynamics, from semiconductor bulk materials up to advanced structures and nanometric devices. This includes: classical incoherent transport, as well as coherent transport, usually analyzed by means of ultrafast electrical and optical excitations. To accompany the newest developments, TeraHertz phenomena, with a special attention to quantum cascade lasers, have been added to the list of topics. More recently new subjects have been included such as spintronics, transport in organic materials, graphene and carbon nanotubes. This list of topics is regularly modified and updated at each edition of the conference to represent but also anticipate the latest scientific evolutions. The distinctive features of EDISON are: A long-lasting history

  10. Company profile: Edison of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The energy subsidiary of the Montedison chemicals company (Ferruzzi Group), Edison is Italy's largest private sector electricity producer. Last year production amounted to 4.7 TWh, an increase of 8.2% on 1990, and at the end of June this year, total net production of 2.4 TWh was 14.8% higher than in the first half of 1991. Edison also ranks first in the Italian league of private sector hydrocarbons producers, its Edison Gas subsidiary controlling a group that has significant exploration and development interests. These are mainly in Italy where production amounted to 333m cubic metres of natural gas and 690,000 barrels of oil in the first half of the year. The recent acquisition of Deutsche Shell's Italian fields should allow Edison to reach 2bn cubic metres of gas production by 1996. (author)

  11. Thomas Alva Edison (170th Anniversary of His Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Samokhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the major technical achievements of Thomas Edison, an outstanding American inventor, author of more than 1,000 US patents and several thousand patents in other countries, honorary academician of the USSR. Presents biographical information and details of the formation of Edison, his work as a telegrapher, organizing the world's first industrial research laboratory for the continuous development of technological innovations, as well as some interesting facts about his life and work. This includes pioneering work on the creation of Edison incandescent lighting, the distribution system for their power and cinema. Edison can be considered the founder of the multimedia technology, as it was the beginning of the invention of the phonograph of phonics and disc phonograph recording of depth was the basis of mechanical recording. Name Edison are geographic features, a lot of companies and educational institutions. He was a member of many Academies of Sciences and entered the list of "100 most outstanding people for 1,000 years." Bust open in the Hall of Fame of great Americans, and a bronze statue - sculptures at the National Hall on Capitol Hill.

  12. Edison Home Community Study Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    History is not merely events that occurred in the past. The past has influenced the present, as the present will influence the future. The purpose of this community study unit is to provide fourth grade students with an opportunity to investigate some of the history of Lee County, Florida. The unit's focus is on Thomas Edison, who built a home in…

  13. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Earl; And Others

    The curriculum guide for welding instruction contains 16 units presented in six sections. Each unit is divided into the following areas, each of which is color coded: terminal objectives, specific objectives, suggested activities, and instructional materials; information sheet; transparency masters; assignment sheet; test; and test answers. The…

  14. New Jersey's Thomas Edison and the fluoroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselos, G D

    1995-11-01

    Thomas Edison played a major role in the development of early x-ray technology in 1896, notably increasing tube power and reliability and making the fluoroscope a practical instrument. Eventually, Edison would move x-ray technology from the laboratory to the marketplace.

  15. A Model Technology Educator: Thomas A. Edison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzer, William S.; Rogers, George E.; Bush, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    Reflecting back over a century ago to the small village of Menlo Park, New Jersey provides insight into a remarkable visionary and an exceptional role model for today's problem-solving and design-focused technology educator: Thomas A. Edison, inventor, innovator, and model technology educator. Since Edison could not simply apply existing knowledge…

  16. Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

  17. Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks (EDSN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Edison Demonstration of SmallSat Networks (EDSN) mission will launch and deploy a group of eight cubesats into a loose formation approximately 250 miles (400...

  18. Thomas Edison State College and Colorado State University: Using Cutting-Edge Technology to Enhance CE Unit Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Henry; Powell, Albert, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Thomas Edison State College (TESC) and Colorado State University (CSU) offer significant contrasts in institutional culture, student demographics, faculty and institutional priorities and approaches to distance education course development and delivery. This article offers case studies showing that widely disparate program design and delivery…

  19. Commonwealth Edison operating experience: the people factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soth, L.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1955, Commonwealth Edison's nuclear commitment has evolved into three operating stations, another in startup, and two more under construction. Paralleling this evolution has been the investment in the personnel resources to operate, maintain, and manage these facilities. The personnel resource, its training and development, is the foundation for safe operation at any nuclear plant - the people factor. The personnel requirement at Edison has expanded and evolved with each station to meet ever increasing regulatory requirements. An extensive training organization has been developed to emphasize the importance of the man side of the human factors man/machine interface. Personnel errors are investigated to identify and correct the root causes, and outstanding personnel performance is recognized by the Company

  20. Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.

  1. A self-assessment program for Commonwealth Edison Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, D.; Krowzak, F.; Wishau, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper explains the assessment program developed by Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) to evaluate the effectiveness of technical activities at its nuclear generating stations. The technical activities evaluated are in the areas of chemistry, emergency planning, radiation protection, and radioactive waste operations. The stations have technical programs for each of these areas and are set up to comply with applicable governmental laws and regulations, industry guidelines, and corporate policies and procedures. Reviews and audits need to be performed to ensure that technical program objectives are being met and that the programs are progressing as intended. Many organizations, including the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, American Nuclear Insurers, and the CECo Quality Assurance Department perform such reviews and audits, which generate a wide variety of information on the stations' activities

  2. Edison Is the Symptom, NCLB Is the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Engaging students requires giving them a say in what they learn and how they will learn it. However, in strictly disciplined, rule-bound schools with test-driven curricula, this cannot happen. Edison Schools, Inc., a for-profit Education Management Organization (EMO), and Confluence Academy, an Edison-run school located in one of the most…

  3. Commonwealth Edison captures intruders on screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison has developed three software programs, with the supporting hardware, that significantly upgrade security monitoring capabilities at nuclear power stations. These are Video Capture, the Alternate Perimeter Alarm Reporting System, and the Redundant Access Control System. Conventional video systems only display what is happening at the moment and rewinding a VCR to discover what occurred earlier takes time. With Video Capture the images can be instantly restored to the monitor screen and printed out. When one of the security devices used to monitor the perimeter of a Commonwealth Edison nuclear power station is tripped, the Video Capture program stores the visual image digitally. This is done using similar technology to the employed in fax machines. The security staff are thus able to distinguish immediately between disturbances taking place simultaneously at different security zones. They can magnify and compare the stored images and print them out. The Alternate Perimeter Alarm Reporting System was developed to speed the transmission of alarm signals from the security sensors to the security computer. The Redundant Access Control System (RACS) was originally developed to meet the requirement of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a secondary computer-operated security measure to monitor employee access to a nuclear power station. When employee drug testing became an additional NRC requirement, the Nuclear Division of Commonwealth Edison asked their programmers to modify RACS to generate a random list of personnel to be tested for substance abuse. RACS was then further modified to produce numerous station operating reports that had been previously compiled manually. (author)

  4. Using OFI libfabric on Cori/Edison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, Howard Porter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Choi, Sung-Eun [Cray, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-08-22

    These are slides from a presentation during an NERSC site visit to Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following topics are covered: building/installing libfabric, OpenMPI using libfabric, MPICH using libfabric, Open SHMEM (Sandia), other applications, and what is next. The next steps are: get a libfabric 1.4 out, it would be nice to have libfabric 1.4 installed in system space on Cori, add libfabric modules on Cori, might be a good idea to have a SLURM PMI module to simplify its use when building/using Open MPI and MPICH built to use libfabric, and upgrade Edison to CLE 5.2 UP04 or newer.

  5. Analysis of a homemade Edison tinfoil phonograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagers, Jason D; McNeese, Andrew R; Lenhart, Richard D; Wilson, Preston S

    2012-10-01

    Thomas Edison's phonograph was a landmark acoustic invention. In this paper, the phonograph is presented as a tool for education in acoustics. A brief history of the phonograph is outlined and an analogous circuit model that describes its dynamic response is discussed. Microphone and scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) measurements were made on a homemade phonograph for model validation and inversion for unknown model parameters. SLDV measurements also conclusively illustrate where model assumptions are violated. The model elements which dominate the dynamic response are discussed.

  6. 76 FR 67473 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and The Philippines; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines would be likely to lead to... antidumping duty orders on imports of stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the...

  7. University-Industry Teaching Collaborations: A Case Study of the MSc in Structural Integrity Co-Produced by Brunel University London and The Welding Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Donovan, Claire; Lee, Jeung

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of an MSc in Structural Integrity co-produced by Brunel University London and industry partner The Welding Institute (TWI), designed to supply 'work-ready' graduates. Pre-, mid- and post-course quantitative surveys were administered to students, and two mid-term focus groups were conducted. Pre- and post-course…

  8. What would Edison do with solid state lighting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will

    2010-08-01

    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  9. Friction Stir Welding Process: A Green Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Esther T. Akinlabi; Stephen A. Akinlabi

    2012-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented and patented by The Welding Institute (TWI) in the United Kingdom in 1991 for butt and lap welding of metals and plastics. This paper highlights the benefits of friction stir welding process as an energy efficient and a green technology process in the field of welding. Compared to the other conventional welding processes, its benefits, typical applications and its use in joining similar and dissimilar materia...

  10. Southern California Edison instrument setpoint program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockhorst, R.M.; Quinn, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    In November of 1989, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted an electrical safety system functional inspection (ESSFI) at the San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS), which was followed by an NRC audit on instrument setpoint methodology in January 1991. Units 2 and 3 at SONGS are 1100-MW(electric) Combustion Engineering (C-E) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) operated by Southern California Edison (SCE). The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the NRC audit and SCE's follow-up activities. The NRC team inspection reinforced the need to address several areas relative to the SCE setpoint program. The calculations withstood the intensive examination of four NRC inspectors for 2 weeks and only a few minor editorial-type problems were noted. Not one of the calculated plant protections system setpoints will change as a result of the audit. There were no questions raised relative to setpoint methodology

  11. Metal concentrations from permeable pavement parking lot in Edison, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements...

  12. Thomas Alva Edison (170th Anniversary of His Birth)

    OpenAIRE

    V. P. Samokhin; E A. Tikhomirovа

    2017-01-01

    A brief overview of the major technical achievements of Thomas Edison, an outstanding American inventor, author of more than 1,000 US patents and several thousand patents in other countries, honorary academician of the USSR. Presents biographical information and details of the formation of Edison, his work as a telegrapher, organizing the world's first industrial research laboratory for the continuous development of technological innovations, as well as some interesting facts about his life a...

  13. The light bulb, cystoscopy, and Thomas Alva Edison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2010-09-01

    Thomas Alva Edison was an icon of American achievement who literally invented the 20th century. Although best known as the inventor of the electric light bulb, the phonograph, and motion pictures, he also left a lasting legacy via peripheral developmental applications, such as endoscopes. A review of published urologic writings about incandescent cystoscopes was cross-referenced to writings about or from Edison. Important events that allowed transference of technology from the Edison laboratory to clinical practice were emphasized. Edison was born in 1847 while Lincoln was serving in Congress; he died in 1931 when Hoover struggled with the Great Depression. Edison's life spanned the formative period of America that Henry Adams called the "coming of age." Edison received a Sprengel vacuum device in late 1879, and as usual, he was able to tweak the machine to better performance. For 5 days in October, 16 to 21, he improved the vacuum from 1/100,000 to 1/1,000,000 atm, and his first incandescent bulb burned softly. On December 21, 1879, he leaked the story to N.Y. Herald journalist Marshall Fox, and the world was notified of the light bulb. Special Christmas light visits started in Menlo Park just 4 days later. Edison patented the screw cap for easy changes, and the first bulbs sold for 40 cents (cost $1.40). 100,000 bulbs sold in 1882, 4 million by 1892, and 45 million in 1903. Immediately, competitors and specialty manufacturers entered the market. Dr. Henry Koch and Charles Preston in Rochester, N.Y., developed a smaller, low amperage bulb that could be fitted to medical devices. No discussion of electricity and modern applications would be complete without some discussion of Thomas Alva Edison and his sentinel contributions. The first church, post office, and ship were illuminated in 1892. The first hotel, theater, and electric sign were in 1893. The rapidity of dispersal and secondary applications of Edison's inventions is typified by the rise of cystoscopes

  14. Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raebiger, R.F.; King, R.D.; Friess, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in 1989 Consolidated Edison Company of New York which initiated a comprehensive tank cleaning and inspection program of their petroleum distillate storage facilities. The program was initiated by the issuance of new regulations of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. A total of 10 storage tanks were cleaned, inspected and detailed engineering reports prepared for each storage tank. A total of 28 distillate storage facilities will be inspected over a three year period of time. The tanks ranged in size from 18,000 to 2,701,00 gallons and contained either No. 2 Fuel Oil or Kerosene. The project included waste disposal, tank cleaning, inspection, engineering evaluations and the design of tank repairs. Of the 10 tanks inspected, three of the tanks required extensive repairs including the design and installation of a new bottom shell course and partial floor replacement for one of the tanks. The project was completed on schedule and within the budget allocated. The ten tank project was evaluated upon its completion and recommendations regarding tank operations and maintenance were provided to minimize maintenance problems for the future

  15. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots in Edison Environmental Center, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed tha...

  16. Thomas Edison's Inventions in the 1900s and Today: From "New" to You! [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The purpose of this lesson is to familiarize students with life and technology around 1900 so that they can better understand how Thomas Edison and his many inventions influenced both. Without some understanding of Edison's time, it is unclear just how significant an impact Edison had on the world, both then and now. While the incandescent light…

  17. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, T.; Martín-Martínez, M. J.; Mateos, J.

    2015-10-01

    The 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19) was held at the Hospedería Fonseca (Universidad de Salamanca, Spain), on 29 June - 2 July, 2015, and was organized by the Electronics Area from the University of Salamanca. The Conference is held biannually and covers the recent progress in the field of electron dynamics in solid-state materials and devices. This was the 19th meeting of the international conference series formerly named Hot Carriers in Semiconductors (HCIS), first held in Modena in 1973. In the edition of 1997 in Berlin the name of the conference changed to International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors, keeping the same acronym, HCIS; and finally in the edition of Montpellier in 2009 the name was again changed to the current one, International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON). The latest editions took place in Santa Barbara, USA, in 2011 and Matsue, Japan, in 2013. Research work on electron dynamics involves quite different disciplines, and requires both fundamental and technological scientific efforts. Attendees to the conference come mostly from academic institutions, belonging to both theoretical and experimental groups working in a variety of fields, such as solid-state physics, electronics, optics, electrical engineering, material science, laser physics, etc. In this framework, events like the EDISON conference become a basic channel for the progress in the field. Here, researchers working in different areas can meet, present their latest advances and exchange their ideas. The program of EDISON'19 included 13 invited papers, 61 oral contributions and 73 posters. These contributions originated from scientists in more than 30 different countries. The Conference gathered 140 participants, coming from 24 different countries, most from Europe, but also with a significant participation

  18. The Edison Environmental Center Permeable Pavement Site - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation for a second Community Outreach Event called "Chemistry Works!" at West Windsor Public Library on Saturday, November 5th. It will review the permeable pavement research project at the Edison Environmental center. Besides slide persentation, two demo units w...

  19. Electric Vehicle Fleet Integration in the Danish EDISON Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Træholt, Chresten; Marra, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both the individual car owners and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  20. EDISON – Study on optimal grid integration of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foosnæs, Anders Holm; Andersen, Claus Amtrup; Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both individual car owners, and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  1. The Invention Factory: Thomas Edison's Laboratories. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Benjamin

    This lesson explores the group of buildings in West Orange, New Jersey, built in 1887, that formed the core of Thomas Edison's research and development complex. They consisted of chemistry, physics, and metallurgy laboratories; machine shop; pattern shop; research library; and rooms for experiments. The lesson explains that the prototypes (ideas…

  2. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  3. CERN's LHC is awarded the 2012 EPS Edison Volta Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The European Physical Society (EPS), the Centro di Cultura Scientifica “Alessandro Volta” and Edison S.p.A. have awarded the 2012 EPS Edison Volta Prize for outstanding contributions to physics to three CERN physicists.   The award was given to: • Rolf-Dieter Heuer, CERN Director-General, • Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Computing, • Stephen Myers, CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology, for having led - building on decades of dedicated work by their predecessors - the culminating efforts in the direction, research and operation of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which resulted in many significant advances in high energy particle physics, in particular, the first evidence of a Higgs-like boson in July 2012. To learn more, check out e-EPS News.

  4. Welding Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum guide is a handbook for the development of welding trade programs. Based on a survey of Alaskan welding employers, it includes all competencies a student should acquire in such a welding program. The handbook stresses the importance of understanding the principles associated with the various elements of welding.…

  5. A Brief Introduction to the Theory of Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and is already an important welding process for the aerospace industry, where welds of optimal quality are demanded. The structure of welds determines weld properties. The structure of friction stir welds is determined by the flow field in the weld metal in the vicinity of the weld tool. A simple kinematic model of the FSW flow field developed at Marshall Space Flight Center, which enables the basic features of FSW microstructure to be understood and related to weld process parameters and tool design, is explained.

  6. Organism Detection in Permeable Pavement Parking Lot Infiltrates at the Edison Environmental Center, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared t...

  7. 75 FR 66795 - Enesco, LLC, Gund Division, Distribution Center, Edison, NJ; Notice of Affirmative Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Division, Distribution Center, Edison, NJ; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for..., Distribution Center, Edison, New Jersey (subject firm). The determination was issued on August 27, 2010. The...). The workers are engaged in activities related to the supply of packaging and distribution services...

  8. Electrical Connections: Letters to Thomas Edison in Response to His Claim of Solving Incandescent Lighting, 1878.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the way in which letters sent to Thomas Edison following the report that he had solved the problem of incandescent lighting reveal the many discursive worlds that Edison's work touched. Claims these letters indicate how a technological accomplishment is also a multiple, complex social, and communicative accomplishment, creating place and…

  9. 76 FR 30739 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for Southern California Edison's Eldorado...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... LLCAD09000] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for Southern California Edison's Eldorado... INFORMATION: Southern California Edison (SCE) filed an application under Title V of the Federal Land Policy...) for further requirements. Authority: 40 CFR 1506.6. Thomas Pogacnik, Deputy State Director. [FR Doc...

  10. Prediction and optimization methods for electric vehicle charging schedules in the EDISON project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabrandt, Andreas; Andersen, Peter Bach; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    project has been launched to investigate various areas relevant to electric vehicle integration. As part of EDISON an electric vehicle aggregator has been developed to demonstrate smart charging of electric vehicles. The emphasis of this paper is the mathematical methods on which the EDISON aggregator...

  11. Advanced Welding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  12. Resistance seam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the resistance seam welding process are presented. Types of seam welds, types of seam welding machines, seam welding power supplies, resistance seam welding parameters and seam welding characteristics of various metals

  13. Welding Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken

    2009-01-01

    About 95% of all manufactured goods in this country are welded or joined in some way. These welded products range in nature from bicycle handlebars and skyscrapers to bridges and race cars. The author discusses what students need to know about careers for welding technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career advancement…

  14. Mobile incineration services at Commonwealth Edison's nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    As the costs for low-level waste disposal escalate, and as the January 1, 1986 date draws nearer, utilities throughout the United States are formulating and implementing plans to reduce the volumes of the low-level radioactive waste being generated at their nuclear power stations. Techniques being used to accomplish this goal range from sorting of dry active waste to complete volume reduction systems, like the Aerojet VR Systems being installed at Commonwealth Edison's Byron and Braidwood Stations. In between these extremes are partial solutions to the problem, including compaction, shredding and compaction, super-compaction, resin dewatering, liquid drying, and now, mobile incineration. In June, 1983, Commonwealth Edison Company (CECO) of Chicago, Illinois, contracted Aerojet Energy Conversion Company (AECC) of Sacramento, California, to supply mobile VR services to the Dresden, La Salle, Quad Cities, and Zion Nuclear Stations. Per the contract, AECC is responsible for the design, fabrication, delivery, operation, and maintenance of a Mobile Volume Reduction System (MVRS) capable of processing combustible dry active waste and contaminated oil generated at these Com-Ed facilities. Initial commercial operation of the MVRS is planned for the Dresden Nuclear Power Station in May, 1985. This paper is intended to summarize some of the key elements resulting from the design, fabrication, and testing of the MVRS. In addition, it is intended to identify the tasks a potential user of the MVRS service must complete in order to receive permission from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to operate the MVRS at their site

  15. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...... to weld by traditional spot welding operations. Such joining processes are, however, not simple to develop due to the large number of parameters involved. Development has traditionally been carried out by large experimental investigations, but the development of a numerical programme system has changed...... this enabling prediction of the welding performance in details. The paper describes the programme in short and gives examples on industrial applications. Finally investigations of causes for failure in a complex industrial joint of two dissimilar metals are carried out combining numerical modelling...

  16. Southern California Edison High Penetration Photovoltaic Project - Year 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-06-01

    This report discusses research efforts from the first year of a project analyzing the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) resources interconnected onto Southern California Edison's (SCE's) distribution system. SCE will be interconnecting a total of 500 MW of commercial scale PV within their service territory by 2015. This Year 1 report describes the need for investigating high-penetration PV scenarios on the SCE distribution system; discusses the necessary PV system modeling and distribution system simulation advances; describes the available distribution circuit data for the two distribution circuits identified in the study; and discusses the additional inverter functionality that could be implemented in order to specifically mitigate some of the undesirable distribution system impacts caused by high-penetration PV installations.

  17. Exploring Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Souhern California Edison Service Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Kingston, Tim [Gas Technology Institute

    2005-12-01

    Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the desires to globally reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and concerns with interconnection on the distribution system. This study assesses the costs and benefits of DE to both consumers and distribution utilities and expands upon a precursory study done with Detroit Edison (DTE)1, by evaluating the combined impact of DE, energy-efficiency, photovoltaics (a use of solar energy), and demand response that will shape the grid of the future. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Gas Research Institute (GRI), American Electric Power (AEP), and Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) Distributed Energy Collaborative Program (DECP). It focuses on two real Southern California Edison (SCE) circuits, a 13 MW suburban circuit fictitiously named Justice on the Lincoln substation, and an 8 MW rural circuit fictitiously named Prosper on the Washington Substation. The primary objectives of the study were threefold: (1) Evaluate the potential for using advanced energy technologies, including DE, energy-efficiency (EE), demand response, electricity storage, and photovoltaics (PV), to reshape electric load curves by reducing peak demand, for real circuits. (2) Investigate the potential impact on guiding technology deployment and managing operation in a way that benefits both utilities and their customers by: (a) Improving grid load factor for utilities; (b) Reducing energy costs for customers; and (c) Optimizing electric demand growth. (3) Demonstrate benefits by reporting on a recently installed advanced energy system at a utility customer site

  18. Soldadura (Welding). Spanish Translations for Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    Thirty transparency masters with Spanish subtitles for key words are provided for a welding/general mechanical repair course. The transparency masters are on such topics as oxyacetylene welding; oxyacetylene welding equipment; welding safety; different types of welds; braze welding; cutting torches; cutting with a torch; protective equipment; arc…

  19. WELDING TORCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correy, T.B.

    1961-10-01

    A welding torch into which water and inert gas are piped separately for cooling and for providing a suitable gaseous atmosphere is described. A welding electrode is clamped in the torch by a removable collet sleeve and a removable collet head. Replacement of the sleeve and head with larger or smaller sleeve and head permits a larger or smaller welding electrode to be substituted on the torch. (AEC)

  20. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable pavers...

  1. Update to permeable pavement research at the Edison Environmental Center - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable paver...

  2. ALARA Council: Sharing our resources and experiences to reduce doses at Commonwealth Edison Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescek, F. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Commonwealth Edison Company is an investor-owned utility company supplying electricity to over three million customers (eight million people) in Chicago and northern Illinois, USA. The company operates 16 generating stations which have the capacity to produce 22,522 megawatts of electricity. Six of these generating stations, containing 12 nuclear units, supply 51% of this capacity. The 12 nuclear units are comprised of four General Electric boiling water (BWR-3) reactors, two General Electric BWR-5 reactors, and six Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactors (PWR). In August 1993, Commonwealth Edison created an ALARA Council with the responsibility to provide leadership and guidance that results in an effective ALARA Culture within the Nuclear Operations Division. Unlike its predecessor, the Corporate ALARA Committee, the ALARA Council is designed to bring together senior managers from the six nuclear stations and corporate to create a collaborative effort to reduce occupational doses at Commonwealth Edison`s stations.

  3. Con Edison power failure of July 13 and 14, 1977. Final staff report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    On July 13, 1977 the entire electric load of the Con Edison system was lost, plunging New York City and Westchester County into darkness. The collapse resulted from a combination of natural events, equipment malfunctions, questionable system-design features, and operating errors. An attempt is made in this report to answer the following: what were the specific causes of the failure; if equipment malfunctions and operator errors contributed, could they have been prevented; to what extent was Con Edison prepared to handle such an emergency; and did Con Edison plan prudently reserve generation, for reserve transmission capability, for automatic equipment to protect its system, and for proper operator response to a critical situation. Following the introductory and summary section, additional sections include: the Consolidated Edison system; prevention of bulk power-supply interruptions; the sequence of failure and restoration; analysis of the July 1977 power failure; restoration sequence and equipment damage assessment; and other investigations of the blackout. (MCW)

  4. Welding stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Barbe, B.; Jolly, N.

    1976-01-01

    The aim is to show how internal stresses are generated and to fix the orders of magnitude. A realistic case, the vertical welding of thick plates free to move one against the other, is described and the deformations and stresses are analyzed. The mathematical model UEDA, which accounts for the elastic modulus, the yield strength and the expansion coefficient of the metal with temperature, is presented. The hypotheses and results given apply only to the instantaneous welding of a welded plate and to a plate welded by a moving electrode [fr

  5. WELDING METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.

    1959-09-29

    A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.

  6. Novel Process Revolutionizes Welding Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Glenn Research Center, Delphi Corporation, and the Michigan Research Institute entered into a research project to study the use of Deformation Resistance Welding (DRW) in the construction and repair of stationary structures with multiple geometries and dissimilar materials, such as those NASA might use on the Moon or Mars. Traditional welding technologies are burdened by significant business and engineering challenges, including high costs of equipment and labor, heat-affected zones, limited automation, and inconsistent quality. DRW addresses each of those issues, while drastically reducing welding, manufacturing, and maintenance costs.

  7. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavements including interlocking concrete permeable pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. The permeable pavements are limited to parking spaces while adjacent driving lanes are impermeable and drain to the permeable surfaces. The parking lot is instrumented for continuous monitoring with thermistors and water content reflectometers that measure moisture as infiltrate passes through the storage gallery beneath the permeable pavements into the underlying native soil. Each permeable surface of the parking lot has four lined sections that capture infiltrate in tanks for water quality analyses; these tanks are capable of holding volumes up to 4.1 m3, which represents up to 38 mm (1.5 in.) for direct rainfall on the porous pavement and runoff from adjacent driving lanes that drain into the permeable surface.Previous technical releases concerning the demonstration site focused on monitoring techniques, observed chloride and nutrient concentrations, surface hydrology, and infiltration and evaporation rates. This presentation summarizes these past findings and addresses current water quality efforts including pH, solids analysis, total organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand. Stormwater runoff continues to be a major cause of water pollution in

  8. Improving productivity and quality in plastic and thin metallic plates manufacturing by using ultrasonic welding processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehelean,D.; Oanca,O.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the research done at the Romanian National R&D Institute for Welding and Material Testing ISIM Timisoara in the field of ultrasonic process development. It starts with a general presentation of the value added by the welding sector in Europe. There are presented figures representing the size of the welding sector in Romania. The need of development of new high efficiency welding processes is mentioned, ultrasonic welding being one of the special welding proce...

  9. Welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For the final chapter of this book, there is basic introduction on welding process. The good radiography must know somehow on welding process so that they can know what kind of welding that must rejected or not. All of the exposure technique that mention in earlier chapter almost applicable in this field because welding process is critical problem if there is no inspection will be done. So, for this chapter, all the discontinuity that usually appeared will be discussed and there is another discontinuity maybe not to important and do not give big impact if found it, do not described here. On top of that, the decision to accept or reject based on code, standard and specification that agreed by both to make sure that decision that agreed is corrected and more meaningful.

  10. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  11. Virtual Reality Simulator Developed Welding Technology Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Faizal Amin Nur; Baser, Jamil Abd; Masran, Saiful Hadi; Razali, Nizamuddin; Rahim, Bekri

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the suitability of VR welding simulator application towards CBT in developing welding skills upon new trainees at the Centre of Instructor and Advanced Skills Training (CIAST) Shah Alam Selangor and National Youth Skills Institute (IKBN) Pagoh Johor. The significance of the study was to create a…

  12. Welding template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Venue, R.J. of.

    1976-01-01

    A welding template is described which is used to weld strip material into a cellular grid structure for the accommodation of fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. On a base plate the template carries a multitude of cylindrical pins whose upper half is narrower than the bottom half and only one of which is attached to the base plate. The others are arrested in a hexagonal array by oblong webs clamped together by chuck jaws which can be secured by means of screws. The parts are ground very accurately. The template according to the invention is very easy to make. (UWI) [de

  13. Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site - presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch has been monitoring an instrumented 110-space pervious pavement parking lot. The lot is used by EPA personnel and visitors to the Edison Environmental Center. The design includes 28-space rows of three permeable pavement types: asphal...

  14. WELDABILITY, WELDING METALLURGY, WELDING CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Sarjito Jokosisworo

    2012-01-01

    Sambungan las merupakan bagian penting dari stuktur/bangunan yang dilas, dan kunci dari logam induk yang baik adalah kemampuan las (weld ability). Kemampuan las yang baik dan kemudahan dalam fabrikasi dari suatu logam merupakan pertimbangan dalam memilih suatu logam untuk konstruksi.

  15. WELDING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.; Hausner, H.

    1957-09-24

    A method of joining metal parts for the preparation of relatively long, thin fuel element cores of uranium or alloys thereof for nuclear reactors is described. The process includes the steps of cleaning the surfaces to be jointed, placing the sunfaces together, and providing between and in contact with them, a layer of a compound in finely divided form that is decomposable to metal by heat. The fuel element members are then heated at the contact zone and maintained under pressure during the heating to decompose the compound to metal and sinter the members and reduced metal together producing a weld. The preferred class of decomposable compounds are the metal hydrides such as uranium hydride, which release hydrogen thus providing a reducing atmosphere in the vicinity of the welding operation.

  16. Microscopic characterisation of TIG-deposition and -welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, P.

    1992-11-01

    In the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme austenitic RVS AISI 316LN is considered as candidate material for the First Wall. In this report, among others, tungsten-arc (TIG) welding connections are investigated as a part of the ECN project 1.653. It concerns respectively; the deposition of TIG-electrode-material and the welding connection. The connections are fabricated by the Danish Welding Institute Svejsecentrals in Broendby. This study is supposed to give a welding qualification by microscopic characterisation of a TIG-deposition and a TIG-weld. 3 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs

  17. A Study to Increase Weld Penetration in P91 Steel During TIG Welding by using Activating Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Kumar, Mayank; Dey, Vidyut; Naresh Rai, Ram

    2017-08-01

    Activated Flux TIG (ATIG) welding is a unique joining process, invented at Paton Institute of electric welding in 1960. ATIG welding process is also known as flux zoned TIG (FZTIG). In this process, a thin layer of activating flux is applied along the line on the surface of the material where the welding is to be carries out. The ATIG process aids to increase the weld penetration in thick materials. Activating fluxes used in the literature show the use of oxides like TiO2, SiO2, Cr2O3, ZnO, CaO, Fe2O3, and MnO2 during welding of steels. In the present study, ATIG was carried out on P-91 steel. Though, Tungsten Inert Gas welding gives excellent quality welds, but the penetration obtained in such welding is still demanding. P91 steel which is ferritic steel is used in high temperature applications. As this steel is, generally, used in thick sections, fabrication of such structures with TIG welding is limited, due to its low depth of penetration. To increase the depth of penetration in P91while welding with ATIG, the role of various oxides were investigated. Apart from the oxides mentioned above, in the present study the role of B2O3, V2O5 and MgO, during ATIG welding of P91 was investigated. It was seen that, compared to TIG welding, there was phenomenal increase in weld penetration during ATIG welding. Amongst all the oxides used in this study, maximum penetration was achieved in case of B2O3. The measurements of weld penetration, bead width and heat affected zone of the weldings were carried out using an image analysis technique.

  18. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2011-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the range of available welding technologies. This title includes chapters on individual techniques that cover principles, equipment, consumables and key quality issues. It includes material on such topics as the basics of electricity in welding, arc physics, and distortion, and the weldability of particular metals.$bThe first edition of Welding processes handbook established itself as a standard introduction and guide to the main welding technologies and their applications. This new edition has been substantially revised and extended to reflect the latest developments. After an initial introduction, the book first reviews gas welding before discussing the fundamentals of arc welding, including arc physics and power sources. It then discusses the range of arc welding techniques including TIG, plasma, MIG/MAG, MMA and submerged arc welding. Further chapters cover a range of other important welding technologies such as resistance and laser welding, as well as the use of welding techniqu...

  19. High Temperature Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Studies in Stainless Steel 316L(N Welds Processed by A-TIG and MP-TIG Welding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Welded stainless steel components used in power plants and chemical industries are subjected to mechanical load cycles at elevated temperatures which result in early fatigue failures. The presence of weld makes the component to be liable to failure in view of residual stresses at the weld region or in the neighboring heat affected zone apart from weld defects. Austenitic stainless steels are often welded using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG process. In case of single pass welding, there is a reduced weld penetration which results in a low depth-to-width ratio of weld bead. If the number of passes is increased (Multi-Pass TIG welding, it results in weld distortion and subsequent residual stress generation. The activated flux TIG welding, a variant of TIG welding developed by E.O. Paton Institute, is found to reduce the limitation of conventional TIG welding, resulting in a higher depth of penetration using a single pass, reduced weld distortion and higher welding speeds. This paper presents the fatigue crack growth rate characteristics at 823 K temperature in type 316LN stainless steel plates joined by conventional multi-pass TIG (MP-TIG and Activated TIG (A-TIG welding process. Fatigue tests were conducted to characterize the crack growth rates of base metal, HAZ and Weld Metal for A-TIG and MP-TIG configurations. Micro structural evaluation of 316LN base metal suggests a primary austenite phase, whereas, A-TIG weld joints show an equiaxed grain distribution along the weld center and complete penetration during welding (Fig. 1. MP-TIG microstructure shows a highly inhomogeneous microstructure, with grain orientation changing along the interface of each pass. This results in tortuous crack growth in case of MP-TIG welded specimens. Scanning electron microscopy studies have helped to better understand the fatigue crack propagation modes during high temperature testing.

  20. No Underskirts in Africa: Edison Carneiro and the "Lineages" of Afro-Brazilian Religious Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Maggie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the folklorist, essayist, journalist and anthropologist Edison Carneiro (1912-1972 and situates him among the “lineages” or intellectual affiliations in the context of studies on Afro-Brazilian religious groups. Describing the life of Edison Carneiro, his relationship with American anthropologist Ruth Landes and his participation in the folkloric movement, I look to situate Carneiro among the various intellectual trends found within the study of Afro-Brazilian religions. I argue that the author occupied an ambiguous position in terms of the African presence in the constitution of Afro-Brazilian religions, showing close proximities to Ruth Landes, Franklin Frazier, Ruth Benedict, Donald Pierson and Robert Park on the one hand, and Melville Herskovitz, Roger Bastide and Arthur Ramos on the other. Carneiro’s studies of Candomblé de Caboclo express this double bind.

  1. Thomas Edison, le magicien de Menlo Park la vie lumineuse d'un inventeur insatiable

    CERN Document Server

    Reyners, Benjamin; Klein-Scholz, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Découvrez enfin tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur Thomas Edison et ses inventions en moins d'une heure ! Inventeur de génie, Thomas Edison est aussi l'un des plus prolifiques de tous les temps. Pourtant, rien ne laissait présager un tel destin... Peu scolarisé, il est d'abord vendeur de journaux à 12 ans, puis télégraphiste à 15, avant de devenir l'un des meilleurs ingénieurs de Wall Street à seulement 22 ans. Il ne cesse dès lors d'accumuler les succès. Doté d'une curiosité insatiable et passionné depuis l'enfance par les expériences en tous genres, il crée coup sur coup les plus grandes inventio

  2. Introduction to Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; Gregory, Mike

    This curriculum guide provides six units of instruction on basic welding. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: employment opportunities for welders, welding safety and first aid, welding tools and equipment, basic metals and metallurgy, basic math and measuring, and procedures for applying for a welding job.…

  3. Distortion Control during Welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbari Pazooki, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The local material expansion and contraction involved in welding result in permanent deformations or instability i.e., welding distortion. Considerable efforts have been made in controlling welding distortion prior to, during or after welding. Thermal Tensioning (TT) describes a group of in-situ

  4. Welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, P.; Schulze Frielinghaus, W.

    1978-01-01

    This is a survey, with 198 literature references, of the papers published in the fields of welding and cutting within the last three years. The subjects dealt with are: weldability of the materials - Welding methods - Thermal cutting - Shaping and calculation of welded joints - Environmental protection in welding and cutting. (orig.) [de

  5. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the Consolidated Edison Uranium-Solidification Program Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear criticality assessment of the Consolidated Edison Uranium-Solidification Program facility confirms that all operations involved in the process may be conducted with an acceptable margin of subcriticality. Normal operation presents no concern since subcriticality is maintained by design. Several recommendations are presented to prevent, or mitigate the consequences of, any abnormal events that might occur in the various portions of the process. These measures would also serve to reduce to a minimum the administrative controls required to prevent criticality

  6. DC Grids for Smart LED-Based Lighting: The EDISON Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Thielemans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the benefits and possible drawbacks of a DC-based lighting infrastructure for powering Light Emitting Diode (LED-lamps. It also evaluates the efforts needed for integrating the so called smart lighting and other sensor/actuator based control systems, and compares existing and emerging solutions. It reviews and discusses published work in this field with special focus on the intelligent DC-based infrastructure named EDISON that is primarily dedicated to lighting, but is applicable to building automation in general. The EDISON “PowerLAN” consists of a DC-based infrastructure that offers telecommunication abilities and can be applied to lighting retrofitting scenarios for buildings. Its infrastructure allows simple and efficient powering of DC-oriented devices like LED lamps, sensors and microcontrollers, while offering a wired communication channel. This paper motivates the design choices for organizing DC lighting grids and their associated communication possibilities. It also shows how the EDISON based smart lighting solution is evolving today to include new communication technologies and to further integrate other parts of building management solutions through the OneM2M (Machine to Machine service bus.

  7. CRADA Final Report: Weld Predictor App

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, Jay Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2018-01-25

    Welding is an important manufacturing process used in a broad range of industries and market sectors, including automotive, aerospace, heavy manufacturing, medical, and defense. During welded fabrication, high localized heat input and subsequent rapid cooling result in the creation of residual stresses and distortion. These residual stresses can significantly affect the fatigue resistance, cracking behavior, and load-carrying capacity of welded structures during service. Further, additional fitting and tacking time is often required to fit distorted subassemblies together, resulting in non-value added cost. Using trial-and-error methods to determine which welding parameters, welding sequences, and fixture designs will most effectively reduce distortion is a time-consuming and expensive process. For complex structures with many welds, this approach can take several months. For this reason, efficient and accurate methods of mitigating distortion are in-demand across all industries where welding is used. Analytical and computational methods and commercial software tools have been developed to predict welding-induced residual stresses and distortion. Welding process parameters, fixtures, and tooling can be optimized to reduce the HAZ softening and minimize weld residual stress and distortion, improving performance and reducing design, fabrication and testing costs. However, weld modeling technology tools are currently accessible only to engineers and designers with a background in finite element analysis (FEA) who work with large manufacturers, research institutes, and universities with access to high-performance computing (HPC) resources. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the US do not typically have the human and computational resources needed to adopt and utilize weld modeling technology. To allow an engineer with no background in FEA and SMEs to gain access to this important design tool, EWI and the Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) developed the online weld

  8. Advanced Welding Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  9. 76 FR 32238 - Detroit Edison Company, Fermi 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ..., to M. S. Fertel, Nuclear Energy Institute (ADAMS Accession No. ML091410309)). The licensee's request... Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact (76 FR 187) for the treatment of..., the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. The facility consists of one boiling-water reactor located...

  10. Selected Welding Techniques, Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1964-01-01

    Partial contents: CONVENTIONAL WELD JOINTS VERSUS BUTT JOINTS IN 1-INCH ALUMINUM PLATE, SPECIAL WELD JOINT PREPARATION, UPSET METAL EDGES FOR INCREASED WELD JOINT STRENGTH, OUT-OF-POSITION WELDING OF HEAVY GAGE...

  11. Automatic welding of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briola, J.

    1958-01-01

    The welding process depends on the type of fuel element, the can material and the number of cartridges to be welded: - inert-gas welding (used for G2 and the 1. set of EL3), - inert atmosphere arc welding (used for welding uranium and zirconium), - electronic welding (used for the 2. set of EL3 and the tank of Proserpine). (author) [fr

  12. Detecting flaws in welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodacre, A.; Lawton, H.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for detecting flaws in welds in a workpiece, the portion of the workpiece containing the weld is maintained at a constant temperature and the weld is scanned by an infra red detector. The weld is then scanned again with the workpiece in contact with a cooling probe to produce a steeper temperature gradient across the weld. Comparison of the signals produced by each scan reveals the existence of defects in the welds. The signals may be displayed on an oscilloscope and the display may be observed by a TV camera and recorded on videotape. (UK)

  13. Fusion welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  14. Weld controller for automated nuclear service welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfield, K.L.; Strubhar, P.M.; Green, D.I.

    1995-01-01

    B and W Nuclear Technologies (BWNT) uses many different types of weld heads for automated welding in the commercial nuclear service industry. Some weld heads are purchased as standard items, while others are custom designed and fabricated by BWNT requiring synchronized multiaxis motion control. BWNT recently completed a development program to build a common weld controller that interfaces to all types of weld heads used by BWNT. Their goal was to construct a system that had the flexibility to add different modules to increase the capability of the controller as different application needs become necessary. The benefits from having a common controller are listed. This presentation explains the weld controller system and the types of applications to which it has been applied

  15. Tensile properties of four types of austenitic stainless steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balladon, P.

    1990-01-01

    In the field of an LMFBR research programme on austenitic stainless steel welds in a Shared Cost Action Safety, Research Area 8, coordinated by JRC-Ispra, four cooperating laboratories (ECN, IKE/MPA, the Welding Institute and UNIREC) have been involved in the fabrication and extensive characterization of welded joints made from one plate of ICL 167 stainless steel. The materials included parent metal, four vacuum electron beam welds, one non vacuum electron beam weld, one submerged arc weld, one gas metal arc weld and one manual metal arc weld. This report summarizes the 106 tensile tests performed at room temperature and 550 0 C, including the influence of strain rate, specimen orientation and welding procedure. Main results are that electron beam welds have tensile properties close to those of parent metal with higher values of yield strength in longitudinal orientation and lower values of total elongation in transverse orientation but with a similar reduction of area, that filler metal welds own the highest values of yield strength and lowest values of ductility. Most of the welds properties are higher than the minimum specified for parent metal, except for some values of total elongation, mainly in transverse orientation. In view of using electron beam welding for production of components used in LMFBR, results obtained show that tensile properties of electron beam welds compare well to those of classical welds. (author)

  16. Report Summarizing the Effort Required to Initiate Welding of Irradiated Materials within the Welding Cubicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Greg [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Sutton, Benjamin J. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Tatman, Jonathan K. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Vance, Mark Christopher [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Allen W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, Scarlett R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, Zhili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Roger G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chen, Jian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tang, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hu, Xunxiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gibson, Brian T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The advanced welding facility within a hot cell at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which has been jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy, Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and the Electric Power Research Institute, Long Term Operations Program and the Welding and Repair Technology Center, is in the final phase of development. Research and development activities in this facility will involve direct testing of advanced welding technologies on irradiated materials in order to address the primary technical challenge of helium induced cracking that can arise when conventional fusion welding techniques are utilized on neutron irradiated stainless steels and nickel-base alloys. This report details the effort that has been required since the beginning of fiscal year 2017 to initiate welding research and development activities on irradiated materials within the hot cell cubicle, which houses welding sub-systems that include laser beam welding (LBW) and friction stir welding (FSW) and provides material containment within the hot cell.

  17. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plastic...... materials and provides an extensive knowhow on the industrial plastic welding process. The objectives of the report include: - Provide the general knowhow of laser welding for the beginners - Summarize the state-of-the-art information on the laser welding of plastics - Find the technological limits in terms...... of design, materials and process - Find the best technology, process and machines adaptive to Sonion’s components - Provide the skills to Sonion’s Design Engineers for successful design of the of the plastic components suitable for the laser welding The ultimate goal of this report is to serve...

  18. EDISON-WMW: Exact Dynamic Programing Solution of the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Marx

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In many research disciplines, hypothesis tests are applied to evaluate whether findings are statistically significant or could be explained by chance. The Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney (WMW test is among the most popular hypothesis tests in medicine and life science to analyze if two groups of samples are equally distributed. This nonparametric statistical homogeneity test is commonly applied in molecular diagnosis. Generally, the solution of the WMW test takes a high combinatorial effort for large sample cohorts containing a significant number of ties. Hence, P value is frequently approximated by a normal distribution. We developed EDISON-WMW, a new approach to calculate the exact permutation of the two-tailed unpaired WMW test without any corrections required and allowing for ties. The method relies on dynamic programing to solve the combinatorial problem of the WMW test efficiently. Beyond a straightforward implementation of the algorithm, we presented different optimization strategies and developed a parallel solution. Using our program, the exact P value for large cohorts containing more than 1000 samples with ties can be calculated within minutes. We demonstrate the performance of this novel approach on randomly-generated data, benchmark it against 13 other commonly-applied approaches and moreover evaluate molecular biomarkers for lung carcinoma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We found that approximated P values were generally higher than the exact solution provided by EDISON-WMW. Importantly, the algorithm can also be applied to high-throughput omics datasets, where hundreds or thousands of features are included. To provide easy access to the multi-threaded version of EDISON-WMW, a web-based solution of our algorithm is freely available at http://www.ccb.uni-saarland.de/software/wtest/.

  19. Armour plating by welding resurfacing and plasma spraging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Research and experimentation are still today the onstanding characteristics of all scientific institutions. This greatly involves welding technique as it is required in nearly all natural and engineering sciences with aim to progress. This was proven in the lecture program 'Welding and Cutting 80' given in 7 lectures. A brief report is given on these. (orig./IHOE) [de

  20. Welded tracheal stent removal in a child under cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, S C; Chang, W K; Pong, M W; Cheng, K W; Chan, K H; Tsai, S K

    2003-08-01

    Metallic tracheal stents have been used in the treatment of paediatric tracheomalacia for more than a decade. We describe a case in which critical airway obstruction occurred during removal of a welded tracheal stent using a rigid bronchoscope under general anaesthesia. Life-saving cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted urgently, and the welded stent was then removed successfully by directly opening the trachea.

  1. Bringing Pulsed Laser Welding into Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, some research and develop-ment activities within pulsed laser welding technology at the Tech-nical University of Denmark will be described. The laser group at the Insti-tute for Manufacturing Technology has nearly 20 years of experience in laser materials process-ing. Inter......-nationally the group is mostly known for its contri-butions to the development of the laser cutting process, but further it has been active within laser welding, both in assisting industry in bringing laser welding into production in several cases and in performing fundamental R & D. In this paper some research...... activities concerning the weldability of high alloyed austenitic stainless steels for mass production industry applying industrial lasers for fine welding will be described. Studies on hot cracking sensitivity of high alloyed austenitic stainless steel applying both ND-YAG-lasers and CO2-lasers has been...

  2. Nondestructive testing: welding industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev; Subramanian, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter highlights various conventional and advanced nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques that have been used for weld evaluation. Welding Codes and Standards of International and National organisations that have been followed in India for various weld evaluation purposes are also included. The chapter also emphasises the importance of NDT by way of a few case studies that have been carried out on important critical welded components. (author). 12 refs., 17 figs., 1 appendix

  3. Psychological health damage as an environmental effect: Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    The Supreme court took a narrow view of the term environmental in Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy when it stated that the purpose of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is to protect the physical environment. Psychological health damage caused by the perception of the risk of a nuclear accident is not an environmental effect cognizable under NEPA unless their is a demonstrable relationship. Litigants seeking the protection of NEPA must carefully examine the origin and nature of alleged psychological harms and frame their complains to establish a close relationship between a change in the physical environment and the alleged psychological harm

  4. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  5. Welding Course Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genits, Joseph C.

    This guide is intended for use in helping students gain a fundamental background on the major aspects of the welding trade. The course emphasis is on mastery of the manipulative skills necessary to develop successful welding techniques and on acquisition of an understanding of the specialized tools and equipment used in welding. The first part…

  6. Underwater welding of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental basis to understand the behavior of wet underwater welding of steel is introduced. Both the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy concepts are discussed. Modifications of welding consumables and practice are suggested. This chapter promotes further contributions of meatllurgical research to improve and promote wet underwater welding. (orig.)

  7. Welding Over Paint Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Kevin S; Liu, Stephen; Olson, David L

    1998-01-01

    .... According to the hydrogen-oxygen and }hydrogen-fluorine equilibrium considerations, an increase in the partial pressure of oxygen or fluorine could decrease the partial pressure of hydrogen within the welding arc. Consequently, a welding consumable that contains chemical ingredients of high oxygen and fluorine potential would be capable of minimizing hydrogen pick-up in the weld pool.

  8. On crack propagation in the welded polyolefin pipes with and without the presence of weld beads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Jakub; Hutař, Pavel; Nezbedová, E.; Lach, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Ševčík, Martin; Pinter, G.; Grellmann, W.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, DEC (2015), s. 95-104 ISSN 0264-1275 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1560; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Slow crack growth * Butt weld * Lifetime estimation * Polyolefin pipes * Weld bead Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 3.997, year: 2015

  9. IIW guidelines on weld quality in relationship to fatigue strength

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Bertil; Hobbacher, A F; Kassner, M; Marquis, G

    2016-01-01

    This book presents guidelines on quantitative and qualitative measures of the geometric features and imperfections of welds to ensure that it meets the fatigue strength requirements laid out in the recommendations of the IIW (International Institute of Welding). Welds that satisfy these quality criteria can be assessed in accordance with existing IIW recommendations based on nominal stress, structural stress, notch stress or linear fracture mechanics. Further, the book defines more restrictive acceptance criteria based on weld geometry features and imperfections with increased fatigue strength. Fatigue strength for these welds is defined as S-N curves expressed in terms of nominal applied stress or hot spot stress. Where appropriate, reference is made to existing quality systems for welds.In addition to the acceptance criteria and fatigue assessment curves, the book also provides guidance on their inspection and quality control. The successful implementation of these methods depends on adequate training for o...

  10. Orbital welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeschen, W.

    2003-01-01

    The TIG (Tungsten-inert gas) orbital welding technique is applied in all areas of pipe welding. The process is mainly used for austenitic and ferritic materials but also for materials like aluminium, nickel, and titanium alloys are commonly welded according to this technique. Thin-walled as well as thick-walled pipes are welded economically. The application of orbital welding is of particular interest in the area of maintenance of thick-walled pipes that is described in this article. (orig.) [de

  11. Corrosion resistance of copper canister weld material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubner, Rolf; Andersson, Urban

    2007-03-01

    The proposed design for a final repository for spent fuel and other long-lived residues is based on the multi-barrier principle. The waste will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, which will be placed in granite bedrock and surrounded by compacted bentonite clay. The canister design is based on a thick cast iron insert fitted inside a copper canister. SKB has since several years developed manufacturing processes for the canister components using a network of manufacturers. For the encapsulation process SKB has built the Canister Laboratory to demonstrate and develop the encapsulation technique in full scale. The critical part of the encapsulation of spent fuel is the sealing of the canister which is done by welding the copper lid to the cylindrical part of the canister. Two welding techniques have been developed in parallel, Electron Beam Welding (EBW) and Friction Stir Welding (FSW). During the past two decades, SKB has developed the technology EBW at The Welding Institute (TWI) in Cambridge, UK. The development work at the Canister Laboratory began in 1999. In electron beam welding, a gun is used to generate the electron beam which is aimed at the joint. The beam heats up the material to the melting point allowing a fusion weld to be formed. The gun was developed by TWI and has a unique design for use at reduced pressure. The system has gone through a number of improvements under the last couple of years including implementation of a beam oscillation system. However, during fabrication of the outer copper canisters there will be some unavoidable grain growth in the welded areas. As grains grow they will tend to concentrate impurities at the new grain boundaries that might pose adverse effects on the corrosion resistance of welds. As a new method for joining, SKB has been developing friction stir welding (FSW) for sealing copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel in cooperation with TWI since 1997. FSW was invented in 1991 at TWI and is a thermo

  12. Corrosion resistance of copper canister weld material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubner, Rolf; Andersson, Urban [Corrosion and Metals Research Institute, Sto ckholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The proposed design for a final repository for spent fuel and other long-lived residues is based on the multi-barrier principle. The waste will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, which will be placed in granite bedrock and surrounded by compacted bentonite clay. The canister design is based on a thick cast iron insert fitted inside a copper canister. SKB has since several years developed manufacturing processes for the canister components using a network of manufacturers. For the encapsulation process SKB has built the Canister Laboratory to demonstrate and develop the encapsulation technique in full scale. The critical part of the encapsulation of spent fuel is the sealing of the canister which is done by welding the copper lid to the cylindrical part of the canister. Two welding techniques have been developed in parallel, Electron Beam Welding (EBW) and Friction Stir Welding (FSW). During the past two decades, SKB has developed the technology EBW at The Welding Institute (TWI) in Cambridge, UK. The development work at the Canister Laboratory began in 1999. In electron beam welding, a gun is used to generate the electron beam which is aimed at the joint. The beam heats up the material to the melting point allowing a fusion weld to be formed. The gun was developed by TWI and has a unique design for use at reduced pressure. The system has gone through a number of improvements under the last couple of years including implementation of a beam oscillation system. However, during fabrication of the outer copper canisters there will be some unavoidable grain growth in the welded areas. As grains grow they will tend to concentrate impurities at the new grain boundaries that might pose adverse effects on the corrosion resistance of welds. As a new method for joining, SKB has been developing friction stir welding (FSW) for sealing copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel in cooperation with TWI since 1997. FSW was invented in 1991 at TWI and is a thermo

  13. The energy efficiency partnership - Kraft General Foods and Boston Edison Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.C.; Donoghue, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    During the past twenty years, inordinate shifts in the supply and demand of energy have forced both electric utility companies and their customers to investigate new and innovative ways to satisfy the ever increasing demand for electricity. The Energy Efficiency Partnership, developed between Kraft General Foods and Boston Edison Company, presents an exemplary study of how two corporate giants creatively solved the problem of uncontrolled energy costs and its positive effect on the overall operations of Kraft General Foods, Framingham. But the Energy Efficiency Partnership did more than reduce energy costs, it provided benefits to all parties on the playing field. To understand its significance, a review of the partnership's history is paramount. The first official announcement of the Energy Efficiency Partnership was made on April 9, 1990. Framingham, MA, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Kraft General Foods Framingham, and Boston Edison Company have joined forces in a $3.6 million dollar energy partnership that will help keep 250 industrial jobs in Massachusetts and could lead to the future expansion of the international food company's Framingham facility

  14. Benchmark of the CASMO-3G/MICROBURN-B codes for Commonwealth Edison boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.K.; Pallotta, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Commonwealth Edison Company has performed an extensive benchmark against measured data from three boiling water reactors using the Studsvik lattice physics code CASMO-3G and the Siemens Nuclear Power three-dimensional simulator code MICROBURN-B. The measured data of interest for this benchmark are the hot and cold reactivity, and the core power distributions as measured by the traversing incore probe system and gamma scan data for fuel pins and assemblies. A total of nineteen unit-cycles were evaluated. The database included fuel product lines manufactured by General Electric and Siemens Nuclear Power, wit assemblies containing 7 x 7 to 9 x 9 pin configurations, several water rod designs, various enrichments and gadolina loadings, and axially varying lattice designs throughout the enriched portion of the bundle. The results of the benchmark present evidence that the CASMO-3G/MICROBURN-B code package can adequately model the range of fuel and core types in the benchmark, and the codes are acceptable for performing neutronic analyses of Commonwealth Edison's boiling water reactors

  15. Homogeneous weldings of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campurri, C.; Lopez, M.; Fernandez, R.; Osorio, V.

    1995-01-01

    This research explored the metallurgical and mechanical properties of arc welding of copper related with influence of Argon, Helium and mixtures of them. Copper plates of 6 mm thickness were welded with different mixtures of the mentioned gases. The radiography of welded specimens with 100% He and 100% Ar does not show show any porosity. On the other hand, the copper plates welded different gas mixtures presented uniform porosity in the welded zone. The metallographies show recrystallized grain in the heat affected zone, while the welding zone showed a dendritic structure. The results of the tensile strength vary between a maximum of 227 MPa for 100% He and a minimum of 174 MOa for the mixture of 60% He and 40% Ar. For the elongation after fracture the best values, about 36%, were obtained for pure gases. As a main conclusion, we can say that arc welding of copper is possible without loosing the mechanical and metallurgical properties of base metal. 6 refs

  16. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  17. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals Associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  18. 76 FR 42725 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Southern California Edison Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA-17905, LLCAD06000 L51010000 ER0000 LVRWB09B1820] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Southern California Edison Company Devers-Palo Verde No. 2 Transmission Line Project, California AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...

  19. Systematic investigation of the fatigue performance of a friction stir welded low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumpis, Athanasios; Galloway, Alexander; Molter, Lars; Polezhayeva, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The fatigue behaviour of a friction stir welded low alloy steel has been assessed. • The welds’ fatigue lives outperform the International Institute of Welding’s recommendations for fusion welds. • The slow weld exhibits the best fatigue performance of the investigated welds. • Fracture surface analysis shows that minor embedded flaws do not offer crack initiation sites. • Process-related surface breaking flaws have a significant effect on the fatigue life. - Abstract: A comprehensive fatigue performance assessment of friction stir welded DH36 steel has been undertaken to address the relevant knowledge gap for this process on low alloy steel. A detailed set of experimental procedures specific to friction stir welding has been put forward, and the consequent study extensively examined the weld microstructure and hardness in support of the tensile and fatigue testing. The effect of varying welding parameters was also investigated. Microstructural observations have been correlated to the weldments’ fatigue behaviour. The typical fatigue performance of friction stir welded steel plates has been established, exhibiting fatigue lives well above the weld detail class of the International Institute of Welding even for tests at 90% of yield strength, irrespective of minor instances of surface breaking flaws which have been identified. An understanding of the manner in which these flaws impact on the fatigue performance has been established, concluding that surface breaking irregularities such as these produced by the tool shoulder’s features on the weld top surface can be the dominant factor for crack initiation under fatigue loading

  20. Welding skate with computerized controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    New welding skate concept for automatic TIG welding of contoured or double-contoured parts combines lightweight welding apparatus with electrical circuitry which computes the desired torch angle and positions a torch and cold-wire guide angle manipulator.

  1. Complete Report on the Development of Welding Parameters for Irradiated Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Greg [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States); Sutton, Benjamin J. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States); Tatman, Jonathan K. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States); Vance, Mark Christopher [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, Scarlett R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, Zhili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Roger G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chen, Jian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tang, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gibson, Brian T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The advanced welding facility at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which was conceived to enable research and development of weld repair techniques for nuclear power plant life extension, is now operational. The development of the facility and its advanced welding capabilities, along with the model materials for initial welding trials, were funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, the Electric Power Research Institute, Long Term Operations Program and the Welding and Repair Technology Center, with additional support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Welding of irradiated materials was initiated on November 17, 2017, which marked a significant step in the development of the facility and the beginning of extensive welding research and development campaigns on irradiated materials that will eventually produce validated techniques and guidelines for weld repair activities carried out to extend the operational lifetimes of nuclear power plants beyond 60 years. This report summarizes the final steps that were required to complete weld process development, initial irradiated materials welding activities, near-term plans for irradiated materials welding, and plans for post-weld analyses that will be carried out to assess the ability of the advanced welding processes to make repairs on irradiated materials.

  2. Micro and nanohardness testing of laser welds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestová, H.; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Chmelíčková, H.; Tomáštík, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2014), s. 247-253 ISSN 1454-9069 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Vickers microhardness * depth sensing indentation * laser welding Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.658, year: 2014

  3. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  4. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  5. Automatization of welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Tomita, Jinji; Nishihara, Katsunori.

    1978-01-01

    Automatization of welding is one of the effective measures for securing high degree of quality of nuclear power equipment, as well as for correspondence to the environment at the site of plant. As the latest ones of the automatic welders practically used for welding of nuclear power apparatuses in factories of Toshiba and IHI, those for pipes and lining tanks are described here. The pipe welder performs the battering welding on the inside of pipe end as the so-called IGSCC countermeasure and the succeeding butt welding through the same controller. The lining tank welder is able to perform simultaneous welding of two parallel weld lines on a large thin plate lining tank. Both types of the welders are demonstrating excellent performance at the shops as well as at the plant site. (author)

  6. Industry standards catch up with in-service welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, W.A.

    1999-11-01

    Welding onto a pipeline after it has been put into service, a practice commonly referred to as hot tap welding, is frequently required for several reasons. Repair sleeves are installed to reinforce areas of corrosion or mechanical damage, and branch connections are made for system modifications. There are often significant economic incentives to perform this welding without removing the system from service. Operations are maintained during welding and the pipe's contents are not vented into the atmosphere. Due to technological advances in in-service welding, industry needed an update to standards and recommended practices. This year, the American Petroleum Institute (API) hopes to meet that need. The 19th edition of API Standard 1104--Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities, includes a new appendix that pertains to in-service welding. Appendix B, In-Service Welding, is intended to eventually replace API Recommended Practice 1107--Pipeline Maintenance Welding Practices. API 1107, which was introduced in 1966 and updated in 1987 and 1991, is intended to provide recommended practices for pipeline maintenance welding. The current third edition approached its mandatory five-year review in 1996 by the API-AGA Joint Committee on Oil and Gas Pipeline Field Welding Practices, which also maintains API 1104. The committee saw 11078 needed to reflect the updates that had been made to 1104 as well as the technological advances for in-service welding. To alleviate redundancy between the two documents, and to alleviate lag time between updates, the committee approved a proposal to update and incorporate requirements of API 1107 into an appendix of API 1104. In the meantime, the third edition of API 1107 was reapproved for another five-year review cycle.

  7. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  8. Electric arc welding gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

  9. Electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.M.

    1974-01-01

    Electron-beam equipment is considered along with fixed and mobile electron-beam guns, questions of weld environment, medium and nonvacuum welding, weld-joint designs, tooling, the economics of electron-beam job shops, aspects of safety, quality assurance, and repair. The application of the process in the case of individual materials is discussed, giving attention to aluminum, beryllium, copper, niobium, magnesium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, metal alloys, superalloys, and various types of steel. Mechanical-property test results are examined along with the areas of application of electron-beam welding

  10. Robot welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  11. Use of servo controlled weld head for end closure welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, S.K.; Setty, D.S.; Rameswara Rao, A.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-07-01

    In the PHWR fuel fabrication line resistance welding processes are used for joining various zirconium based alloy components to fuel tube of similar material. The quality requirement of these welding processes is very stringent and has to meet all the product requirements. At present these welding processes are being carried out by using standard resistance welding machines. In the resistance welding process in addition to current and time, force is one of the critical and important parameter, which influences the weld quality. At present advanced feed back type fast response medium frequency weld controllers are being used. This has upslope/down slope, constant and repetitive weld pattern selection features makes this critical welding process more reliable. Compared to weld controllers, squeeze force application devices are limited and normally standard high response pneumatic cylinders are used in the welding process. With this type of devices the force is constant during welding process and cannot be varied during welding process as per the material deformation characteristics. Similarly due to non-availability of feed back systems in the squeeze force application systems restricts the accuracy and quality of the welding process. In the present paper the influence of squeeze force pattern on the weld quality using advanced feed back type servo based force control system was studied. Different squeeze forces were used during pre and post weld heat periods along with constant force and compared with the weld quality. (author)

  12. EDISON - research programme on electricity distribution automation 1993-1997. Interim report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report comprises a summary of the results of the first four years of the research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish utilities. The five year research programme (1993-1997) is conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of the funding is from the Technology Development Centre TEKES and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme is to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer associated automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management are developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim is to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of fifteen projects are now given. These results should be considered intermediate, since most projects will be continued in 1997. (orig.) 43 refs.

  13. EDISON - research programme on electricity distribution automation 1993-1997. Interim report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    The report comprises a summary of the results of the first three years of the research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish electrical utilities. The five year research programme (1993-1997) is conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of funding is from the Technology Development Centre (Tekes) and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme is to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management are developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim is to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of thirteen projects are now given. These results should be considered intermediate, since most projects will be continued in 1996. (orig.)

  14. Processing of sump sludges at the Commonwealth Edison Byron Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.; Gardner, D.A.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A basic criterion for the disposal of radioactive waste by shallow land burial is that the material must not contain free liquids. In addition burial sites' requirements regarding radioactive waste containing oils, even though solidified, are restrictive. At Commonwealth Edison Byron Nuclear Generating Station a methodology for processing treated waste sludges, originating form the turbine building's floor drains was developed and implemented. As a result of this effort, 322 drums of oil and water sludge were processed. A dry cake, i.e., no free liquids, was produced, packaged, and readied for disposal. The dry cake contained less than 2% oil. The liquid phases resulting from the processing of the treated waste sludge were oil (that was to be processed for disposal as non-radioactive) and filtrate containing less than 5 ppm total suspended solids (TSS) and oil/grease. The filtrate TSS was below the Station's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit release limits. 4 figs

  15. EDISON - research programme on electric distribution automation 1993-1997. Final report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M [ed.; VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-08-01

    This report comprises a summary of the results of the five year research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish utilities. The research programme (1993 - 1997) was conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of the funding has been from the Technology Development Centre TEKES and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme was to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer associated automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management were developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim was to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of nineteen projects are given in this report

  16. EDISON - research programme on electricity distribution automation 1993-1997. Interim report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M [ed.; VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report comprises a summary of the results of the first three years of the research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish electrical utilities. The five year research programme (1993-1997) is conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of funding is from the Technology Development Centre (Tekes) and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme is to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management are developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim is to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of thirteen projects are now given. These results should be considered intermediate, since most projects will be continued in 1996. (orig.)

  17. Field Demonstration of a 24-kV Superconducting Cable at Detroit Edison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, Nathan; Corsaro, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    Customer acceptance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology requires a substantial field demonstration illustrating both the system's technical capabilities and its suitability for installation and operation within the utility environment. In this project, the world's first underground installation of an HTS cable using existing ductwork, a 120 meter demonstration cable circuit was designed and installed between the 24 kV bus distribution bus and a 120 kV-24 kV transformer at Detroit Edison's Frisbie substation. The system incorporated cables, accessories, a refrigeration system, and control instrumentation. Although the system was never put in operation because of problems with leaks in the cryostat, the project significantly advanced the state-of-the-art in the design and implementation of Warm Dielectric cable systems in substation applications. Lessons learned in this project are already being incorporated in several ongoing demonstration projects

  18. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W. [ABB Power Plant Labs., Windsor, CT (United States); Lookman, A.A. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Manos, M.G.; Corfman, D.W.; Waddingham, A.L. [Ohio Edison, Akron, OH (United States); Johnson, S.A. [Quinapoxet Engineering Solutions, Inc., Windham, NH (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Station for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.

  19. Experimental investigation of the thickness effect for large as-welded SAW S355 steel specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Ólafur Magnús; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Berggreen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The presented work aims to investigate and establish a pre-cise, thorough and detailed database from series of experi-mental testing of submerged arc welded (SAW) specimens of various thicknesses typically applied in ships and offshore structures and foundations. Welded structures of all sizes...... and shapes exhibit fatigue failure primarily in the welded region, rather than in the base material, due to imperfections and flaws relating to the welding procedure. The welded region has therefore received much attention from universities, re-search institutions along with industry as it is of significant...

  20. Measuring weld heat to evaluate weld integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauder, V., E-mail: schauder@hks-prozesstechnik.de [HKS-Prozesstechnik GmbH, Halle (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Eddy current and ultrasonic testing are suitable for tube and pipe mills and have been used for weld seam flaw detection for decades, but a new process, thermography, is an alternative. By measuring the heat signature of the weld seam as it cools, it provides information about weld integrity at and below the surface. The thermal processes used to join metals, such as plasma, induction, laser, and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), have improved since they were developed, and they get better with each passing year. However, no industrial process is perfect, so companies that conduct research in flaw detection likewise continue to develop and improve the technologies used to verify weld integrity: ultrasonic testing (UT), eddy current testing (ET), hydrostatic, X-ray, magnetic particle, and liquid penetrant are among the most common. Two of these are used for verifying the integrity of the continuous welds such as those used on pipe and tube mills: UT and ET. Each uses a transmitter to send waves of ultrasonic energy or electrical current through the material and a receiver (probe) to detect disturbances in the flow. The two processes often are combined to capitalize on the strengths of each. While ET is good at detecting flaws at or near the surface, UT penetrates the material, detecting subsurface flaws. One drawback is that sound waves and electrical current waves have a specific direction of travel, or an alignment. A linear defect that runs parallel to the direction of travel of the ultrasonic sound wave or a flaw that is parallel to the coil winding direction of the ET probe can go undetected. A second drawback is that they don't detect cold welds. An alternative process, thermography, works in a different fashion: It monitors the heat of the material as the weld cools. Although it measures the heat at the surface, the heat signature provides clues about cooling activity deep in the material, resulting in a thorough assessment of the weld's integrity It

  1. TIG welding method and TIG welding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Eishi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of TIG welding for members having different heat capacities including a cladding tube and an end plug of a fuel rod to be used, for example, in a reactor, and a device therefor. Namely, in the TIG welding method, the flow rate of a sealed gas to the side of a member having smaller heat capacity is made greater than that on the side of the member having greater heat capacity bordered on the top end of a welding electrode. Since the sealed gas is jetted being localized relative to the welding electrode, arc is restricted in a region of the member having smaller heat capacity and is increased at a region having a larger heat capacity. As a result, the arc is localized, so that the heat input amount to the region having a large heat capacity is increased, and then a plurality of members at the abutting portion are melted uniformly thereby capable of obtaining a uniform molten pool. A bead is formed at the abutting portion thereby capable of obtaining a welded portion with less unevenness and having large strength. (I.S.)

  2. Explosion metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popoff, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Process parameters pertaining to welding similar and dissimilar metals using explosives are reviewed. The discussion centers on the interrelationship of physical parameters which play a part in achieving desirable metallurgical results. Present activities in explosion metal welding at LASL are presented and shown how they related to the interests of the ERDA community

  3. Electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbay, M.

    1972-01-01

    The bead characteristics and the possible mechanisms of the electron beam penetration are presented. The different welding techniques are exposed and the main parts of an electron beam welding equipment are described. Some applications to nuclear, spatial and other industries are cited [fr

  4. Welding of metallic fuel elements for the irradiation test in JOYO. Preliminary tests and welding execution tests (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Hironobu; Nakamura, Kinya; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo

    2009-10-01

    Irradiation tests of metallic fuels elements in fast test reactor JOYO are planned under the joint research of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). Six U-Pu-Zr fuel elements clad with ferritic martensitic steel are fabricated in Plutonium Fuel Research Facility (PFRF) of JAEA-Oarai for the first time in Japan. In PFRF, the procedures of fabrication of the fuel elements were determined and the test runs of the equipments were carried out before the welding execution tests for the fuel elements. Test samples for confirming the welding condition between the cladding tube and top and bottom endplugs were prepared, and various test runs were carried out before the welding execution tests. As a result, the welding conditions were finalized by passing the welding execution tests. (author)

  5. Welding problems in nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The problems of welding industry in nuclear power plant engineering, mainly related to the improvement of molten bath protection, are considered. Development of new materials for welding electrodes, for cladding and welding fluxes, is pointed out. Production of the following equipment is brought to a commercial level: welding heads and welding machines for branch pipe welding, anticorrosion cladding, zonal thermal treatment, electron beam welding facilities for the welding and maintenance of turbineblades, equipment for nondestructive testing of welded joints

  6. Method for welding beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  7. Method for welding beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O'Leary, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs

  8. Transition welds in welding of two-ply steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fartushnyj, V.G.; Evsyukov, Yu.G.

    1977-01-01

    Studied were physico-mechanical properties of welds made by various welding wires of chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium steels in submerged arc welding of double-layer steels with main layer of the VSt.3sp. carbon steel. It is shown that service-reliable structures welded of two-layer steels are obtained by providing the content from 11 to 20 % Ni in the automatically welded transition layer

  9. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  10. Prediction of Weld Residual Stress of Narrow Gap Welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun Seog; Huh, Nam Su

    2010-01-01

    The conventional welding technique such as shield metal arc welding has been mostly applied to the piping system of the nuclear power plants. It is well known that this welding technique causes the overheating and welding defects due to the large groove angle of weld. On the other hand, the narrow gap welding(NGW) technique has many merits, for instance, the reduction of welding time, the shrinkage of weld and the small deformation of the weld due to the small groove angle and welding bead width comparing with the conventional welds. These characteristics of NGW affect the deformation behavior and the distribution of welding residual stress of NGW, thus it is believed that the residual stress results obtained from conventional welding procedure may not be applied to structural integrity evaluation of NGW. In this paper, the welding residual stress of NGW was predicted using the nonlinear finite element analysis to simulate the thermal and mechanical effects of the NGW. The present results can be used as the important information to perform the flaw evaluation and to improve the weld procedure of NGW

  11. Capabilities of infrared weld monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, P.G.; Keske, J.S.; Leong, K.H.; Kornecki, G.

    1997-11-01

    A non-obtrusive pre-aligned, solid-state device has been developed to monitor the primary infrared emissions during laser welding. The weld monitor output is a 100-1000 mV signal that depends on the beam power and weld characteristics. The DC level of this signal is related to weld penetration, while AC portions of the output can be correlated with surface irregularities and part misalignment or contamination. Changes in DC behavior are also noted for both full and deep penetration welds. Full penetration welds are signified by an abrupt reduction in the weld monitor output. Bead on plate welds were made on steel, aluminum, and magnesium with both a CW CO{sub 2} laser and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser to explore the relationships between the weld characteristics and the weld monitor output.

  12. Welding method, and welding device for use therein, and method of analysis for evaluating welds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aendenroomer, A.J.; Den Ouden, G.; Xiao, Y.H.; Brabander, W.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Described is a method of automatically welding pipes, comprising welding with a pulsation welding current and monitoring, by means of a sensor, the variations occurring in the arc voltage caused by weld pool oscillations. The occurrence of voltage variations with only frequency components below 100

  13. Nondestructive Evaluation of the Friction Weld Process on 2195/2219 Grade Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suits, Michael W.; Clark, Linda S.; Cox, Dwight E.

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center began an ambitious program designed to find alternative methods of repairing conventional TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welds and VPPA (Variable Polarity Plasma Arc) welds on the Space Shuttle External Tank without producing additional heat-related anomalies or conditions. Therefore, a relatively new method, invented by The Welding Institute (TWI) in Cambridge, England, called Friction Stir Welding (FSW), was investigated for use in this application, as well as being used potentially as an initial weld process. As with the conventional repair welding processes, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) plays a crucial role in the verification of these repairs. Since it was feared that conventional NDE might have trouble with this type of weld structure (due to shape of nugget, grain structure, etc.) it was imperative that a complete study be performed to address the adequacy of the NDE process. This paper summarizes that process.

  14. Weld analysis and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Larry Z. (Inventor); Rodgers, Michael H. (Inventor); Powell, Bradley W. (Inventor); Burroughs, Ivan A. (Inventor); Goode, K. Wayne (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a Weld Analysis and Control System developed for active weld system control through real time weld data acquisition. Closed-loop control is based on analysis of weld system parameters and weld geometry. The system is adapted for use with automated welding apparatus having a weld controller which is capable of active electronic control of all aspects of a welding operation. Enhanced graphics and data displays are provided for post-weld analysis. The system provides parameter acquisition, including seam location which is acquired for active torch cross-seam positioning. Torch stand-off is also monitored for control. Weld bead and parent surface geometrical parameters are acquired as an indication of weld quality. These parameters include mismatch, peaking, undercut, underfill, crown height, weld width, puddle diameter, and other measurable information about the weld puddle regions, such as puddle symmetry, etc. These parameters provide a basis for active control as well as post-weld quality analysis and verification. Weld system parameters, such as voltage, current and wire feed rate, are also monitored and archived for correlation with quality parameters.

  15. Heat input effect of friction stir welding on aluminum alloy AA 6061-T6 welded joint

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmak, A.; Kumar, R.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej; Tadić, S.; Djurdjević, A. A.; Čeković, I. R.; Dončeva, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2016), s. 637-641 ISSN 0354-9836 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : friction stir welding * defect * heat input * maximum temperature Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2016 http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0354-9836/2016/0354-98361500147D.pdf

  16. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2003-01-01

    Deals with the main commercially significant and commonly used welding processes. This title takes the student or novice welder through the individual steps involved in each process in an easily understood way. It covers many of the requirements referred to in European Standards including EN719, EN 729, EN 729 and EN 287.$bWelding processes handbook is a concise, explanatory guide to the main commercially significant and commonly-used welding processes. It takes the novice welder or student through the individual steps involved in each process in a clear and easily understood way. It is intended to provide an up-to-date reference to the major applications of welding as they are used in industry. The contents have been arranged so that it can be used as a textbook for European welding courses in accordance with guidelines from the European Welding Federation. Welding processes and equipment necessary for each process are described so that they can be applied to all instruction levels required by the EWF and th...

  17. Thermal stir welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A welding method is provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  18. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  19. Review of Welding Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Petrėtienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses welding terms in accordance with the Lithuanian standard LST EN 1792 „Welding. The multilingual list of welding terms and similar processes”, „The Russian–Lithuanian dictionary of the terms of mechanical engineering technology and welding“ and the examples from postgraduates‘ final works. It analyses the infringement of lexical, word-building and morphological rules. First-year students should already be familiar with the standardized terms of their speciality. More active propagation of the terms should help to avoid terminology mistakes in various scientific spheres.

  20. Half bead welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.; Holz, P.P.

    1978-05-01

    The ORNL has employed the Section XI half-bead procedure for six repair welds. Table 2 identifies the repairs and the components upon which they were accomplished. The weld repairs were performed to permit us to evaluate material properties, residual stresses, weld repair procedures, and structural behavior of repaired pressure vessels. As a consequence of our study we concluded that when the half bead procedure is correctly applied: (1) there is no metallurgical degradation of the base material, (2) residual stresses of yield point magnitude will be present, and (3) the structural integrity of the pressure vessel is not impaired at Charpy V-notch upper shelf temperatures

  1. Recent developments in pipeline welding practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen chapters are included: overview of pipeline welding systems and quality assurance, CRC automatic welding system, H.C. Price Co. automatic welding system, semi-automatic MIG-welding process, partial penetration welding of steel pipes for gas distribution, construction procedures and quality control in offshore pipeline construction, welding in repair and maintenance of gas transmission pipelines, British Gas studies of welding on pressurized gas transmission pipelines, hot tapping pipelines, underwater welding for offshore pipelines and associated equipment, radial friction welding, material composition vs weld properties, review of NDT of pipeline welds, and safety assurance in pipeline construction. A bibliography of approximately 150 references is included, arranged according to subject and year.

  2. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  3. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  4. Welding of refractory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessmann, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    This review primarily summarizes welding evaluations supported by NASA-Lewis Research Center in the 1960s. A literature search run in preparation for this review indicates that more recent work is modest by comparison. Hence, this review restates these accomplishments briefly and addresses opportunities which have evolved in welding technology (such as lasers) in the intervening decade. Emphasis in this review is given to tantalum- and niobium-base alloys. Considerable work was also done to assure that a consistent comparison was made with tungsten. A wide variety of candidate alloys derived primarily from developments directed at aircraft propulsion applications were available. Early efforts by NASA were directed at screening studies to select promising structural alloys for the space power application. This objective required fine tuning of welding procedures, e.g., the demonstration of stringent standards for control of welding atmosphere to assure good corrosion resistance in liquid alkali metals. 16 figures, 6 tables

  5. Multispot fiber laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutt Hansen, Klaus

    This dissertation presents work and results achieved in the field of multi beam fiber laser welding. The project has had a practical approach, in which simulations and modelling have been kept at a minimum. Different methods to produce spot patterns with high power single mode fiber lasers have...... been examined and evaluated. It is found that both diamond turned DOE’s in zinc sulphide and multilevel etched DOE’s (Diffractive Optical Elements) in fused silica have a good performance. Welding with multiple beams in a butt joint configuration has been tested. Results are presented, showing it has...... been possible to control the welding width in incremental steps by adding more beams in a row. The laser power was used to independently control the keyhole and consequently the depth of fusion. An example of inline repair of a laser weld in butt joint configuration was examined. Zinc powder was placed...

  6. Friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle,; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy, A [Ammon, ID

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  7. Highlights from e-EPS: Jean-Michel Raimond wins EPS Edison-Volta Prize 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Martina Knoop, e-EPS News

    2014-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   The European Physical Society has the pleasure to announce that the 2014 EPS Edison-Volta Prize is awarded to Jean-Michel Raimond for “seminal contribution to physics (that) have paved the way for novel explorations of quantum mechanics and have opened new routes in quantum information processing”. J.-M. Raimond’s PhD thesis was supervised by Serge Haroche at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, France, in the early 1980′s, and together S. Haroche, M. Brune and J.-M. Raimond have built an extremely successful research group since then. J.-M. Raimond has made seminal contributions to the development of cavity QED experiments, in particular involving circular Rydberg atoms interacting with very high-Q superc...

  8. Outages of electric power supply resulting from cable failures Boston Edison Company system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Factual data are provided regarding 5 electric power supply interruptions that occurred in the Boston Metropolitan area during April to June, 1979. Common to all of these outages was the failure of an underground cable as the initiating event, followed by multiple equipment failures. There was significant variation in the voltage ratings and types of cables which failed. The investigation was unable to delineate a single specific Boston Edison design operating or maintenance practice that could be cited as the cause of the outages. After reviewing the investigative report the following actions were recommended: the development and implementation of a plan to eliminate the direct current cable network; develop a network outage restoration plan; regroup primary feeder cables wherever possible to minimize the number of circuits in manholes, and to separate feeders to high load density areas; develop a program to detect incipient cable faults; evaluate the separation of the north and south sections of Back Bay network into separate networks; and, as a minimum, install the necessary facilities to make it possible to re-energize one section without interfering with the other; and re-evaluate the cathodic protection scheme where necessary. (LCL)

  9. Underwater Welding Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Esam F. Alajmi; Ahmad A. Alqenaei

    2017-01-01

    Welding demand in offshore and marine applications is increased with the increasing in oil and gas activities as well as increasing in the marine transportation and industrial applications. Applications of underwater welding well be increased in Kuwait in the coming years due to the strategic directive of the country toward starting the offshore oil and gas exploration and production, and the increase in marine transportation projects. Therefore, there is a need to understand the concept of u...

  10. Automatic welding machine for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Takaichi; Iizuka, Tomio; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Takami, Katsumi.

    1978-01-01

    A remotely controlled automatic special welding machine for piping was developed. This machine is utilized for long distance pipe lines, chemical plants, thermal power generating plants and nuclear power plants effectively from the viewpoint of good quality control, reduction of labor and good controllability. The function of this welding machine is to inspect the shape and dimensions of edge preparation before welding work by the sense of touch, to detect the temperature of melt pool, inspect the bead form by the sense of touch, and check the welding state by ITV during welding work, and to grind the bead surface and inspect the weld metal by ultrasonic test automatically after welding work. The construction of this welding system, the main specification of the apparatus, the welding procedure in detail, the electrical source of this welding machine, the cooling system, the structure and handling of guide ring, the central control system and the operating characteristics are explained. The working procedure and the effect by using this welding machine, and the application to nuclear power plants and the other industrial field are outlined. The HIDIC 08 is used as the controlling computer. This welding machine is useful for welding SUS piping as well as carbon steel piping. (Nakai, Y.)

  11. Metal Cutting Theory and Friction Stir Welding Tool Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Lewis N.

    2003-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new industrial process that was invented at The Weld Institute (TWI, United Kingdom) and patented in 1992 under research funded by in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Often quoted advantages of the process include good strength and ductility along with minimization of residual stress and distortion. Less well advertised are the beneficial effects of this solid state welding process in the field of occupational and environmental safety. It produces superior weld products in difficult to weld materials without producing any toxic fumes or solid waste that must be controlled as hazardous waste. In fact, it reduces noise pollution in the workspace as well. In the early days of FSW, most welding was performed on modified machine tools, in particular on milling machines with modified milling cutters. In spite of the obvious milling heritage of the process, the techniques and lessons learned from almost 250 years of successful metalworking with milling machines have not been applied in the field of modern Friction Stir Welding. The goal of the current research was to study currently successful FSW tools and parameterize the process in such a way that the design of new tools for new materials could be accelerated. Along the way, several successful new tooling designs were developed for current issues at the Marshall Space Flight Center with accompanying patent disclosures

  12. Process Model for Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Glynn

    1996-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new process being applied for joining of metal alloys. The process was initially developed by The Welding Institute (TWI) in Cambridge, UK. The FSW process is being investigated at NASA/MSEC as a repair/initial weld procedure for fabrication of the super-light-weight aluminum-lithium shuttle external tank. The FSW investigations at MSFC were conducted on a horizontal mill to produce butt welds of flat plate material. The weldment plates are butted together and fixed to a backing plate on the mill bed. A pin tool is placed into the tool holder of the mill spindle and rotated at approximately 400 rpm. The pin tool is then plunged into the plates such that the center of the probe lies at, one end of the line of contact, between the plates and the shoulder of the pin tool penetrates the top surface of the weldment. The weld is produced by traversing the tool along the line of contact between the plates. A lead angle allows the leading edge of the shoulder to remain above the top surface of the plate. The work presented here is the first attempt at modeling a complex phenomenon. The mechanical aspects of conducting the weld process are easily defined and the process itself is controlled by relatively few input parameters. However, in the region of the weld, plasticizing and forging of the parent material occurs. These are difficult processes to model. The model presented here addresses only variations in the radial dimension outward from the pin tool axis. Examinations of the grain structure of the weld reveal that a considerable amount of material deformation also occurs in the direction parallel to the pin tool axis of rotation, through the material thickness. In addition, measurements of the axial load on the pin tool demonstrate that the forging affect of the pin tool shoulder is an important process phenomenon. Therefore, the model needs to be expanded to account for the deformations through the material thickness and the

  13. Alternate Welding Processes for In-Service Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-24

    Conducting weld repairs and attaching hot tap tees onto pressurized pipes has the advantage of avoiding loss of service and revenue. However, the risks involved with in-service welding need to be managed by ensuring that welding is performed in a rep...

  14. Certification of a weld produced by friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaditch, Chris; Grant, Glenn J

    2013-10-01

    Methods, devices, and systems for providing certification of friction stir welds are disclosed. A sensor is used to collect information related to a friction stir weld. Data from the sensor is compared to threshold values provided by an extrinsic standard setting organizations using a certification engine. The certification engine subsequently produces a report on the certification status of the weld.

  15. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikie, B.L.; Wagg, A.R.; Whittle, M.J.; Yapp, D.

    1976-01-01

    The ultrasonic examination of austenitic stainless steel weld metal has always been regarded as a difficult proposition because of the large and variable ultrasonic attenuations and back scattering obtained from apparently similar weld deposits. The work to be described shows how the existence of a fibre texture within each weld deposit (as a result of epitaxial growth through successive weld beads) produces a systematic variation in the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the velocity of sound, depending upon the angle between the ultrasonic beam and the fibre axis. Development work has shown that it is possible to adjust the welding parameters to ensure that the crystallographic texture within each weld is compatible with improved ultrasonic transmission. The application of the results to the inspection of a specific weld in type 316 weld metal is described

  16. Arc-weld pool interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.

    1978-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in arc-weld pool interactions are extremely complex and no complete theory is presently available to describe much of the phenomena observed during welding. For the past several years, experimental and analytical studies have been undertaken at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to increase basic understanding of the gas tungsten arc welding process. These studies have included experimental spectral analysis of the arc in order to determine arc temperature and analytical modeling of the arc and weld puddle. The investigations have been directed toward determining the cause and effects of variations in the energy distribution incident upon the weldment. In addition, the effect of weld puddle distortion on weld penetration was investigated, and experimental and analytical studies of weld process variables have been undertaken to determine the effects of the variables upon weld penetration and configuration. A review of the results and analysis of these studies are presented

  17. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  18. Multipass autogenous electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.L.; Mustaleski, T.M. Jr.; Watson, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    A multipass, autogenous welding procedure was developed for 7.6 mm (0.3 in.) wall thickness Type 304L stainless steel cylinders. The joint geometry has a 1.5 mm (0.06 in.) root-face width and a rectangular stepped groove that is 0.762 mm (0.03 in.) wide at the top of the root face and extends 1.5 mm in height, terminating into a groove width of 1.27 mm which extends to the outside of the 1.27 mm high weld-boss. One weld pass is made on the root, three passes on the 0.762 mm wide groove and three passes to complete the weld. Multipass, autogenous, electron beam welds maintain the characteristic high depth-to-width ratios and low heat input of single-pass, electron beam welds. The increased part distortion (which is still much less than from arc processes) in multipass weldments is corrected by a preweld machined compensation. Mechanical properties of multipass welds compare well with single-pass welds. The yield strength of welds in aluminum alloy 5083 is approximately the same for single-pass or multipass electron beam and gas, metal-arc welds. The incidence and size of porosity is less in multipass electron beam welding of aluminum as compared to gas, metal-arc welds. The multipass, autogenous, electron beam welding method has proven to be a reliable way to make some difficult welds in multilayer parts or in an instance where inside part temperature or weld underbead must be controlled and weld discontinuities must be minimized

  19. Laser welding engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhieh, N. M.; El Eesawi, M. E.; Hashkel, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Laser welding was in its early life used mainly for unusual applications where no other welding process would be suitable that was twenty five years ago. Today, laser welding is a fully developed part of the metal working industry, routinely producing welds for common items such as cigarette lighters, which springs, motor/transformer lamination, hermetic seals, battery and pacemaker cans and hybrid circuit packages. Yet very few manufacturing engineering have seriously considers employing lasers in their own operations. Why? There are many reasons, but a main one must be not acquainted with the operation and capabilities of a laser system. Other reasons, such as a relatively high initial cost and a concern about using lasers in the manufacturing environment, also are frequently cited, and the complexity of the component and flexibility of the light delivery system. Laser welding could be used in place of many different standard processes, such as resistance (spot or seam), submerged arc, RF induction, high-frequency resistance, ultrasonic and electronic and electron-beam. while each of these techniques has established an independent function in the manufacturing world, the flexible laser welding approach will operate efficiently and economically in many different applications. Its flexibility will even permit the welding system to be used for other machining function, such as drilling, scribing, sealing and serializing. In this article, we will look at how laser welding works and what benefits it can offer to manufacturing engineers. Some industry observers state that there are already 2,000 laser machine tools being used for cutting, welding and drilling and that the number could reach 30,000 over the next 15 years as manufacturing engineers become more aware of the capabilities of lasers [1). While most laser applications are dedicated to one product or process that involves high-volume, long-run manufacturing, the flexibility of a laser to supply energy to hard

  20. Inspection of welded joints and cords using industrial x-ray and gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar R, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The first part of this work contains five chapters related to theoretical aspects and basic knowledge of welding metallurgy, welding, welded joint discontinuity, non-destructive testing (NDT) and industrial x-rays. The second part contains experimental works applied and carried out by the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN). Due to the importance of identifying and applying the different methods of NDT in the industry's quality control, more emphasis is placed on industrial x-ray and gamma radiography, a method that involves the radiographic inspection of welded joints and cords

  1. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  2. Welding. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a basic welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (2 hours daily) course developed to teach the fundamentals of welding shop work, to become familiar with the operation of the welding shop…

  3. Pulsed TIG welding of pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killing, U.

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigates into the effects of impulse welding parameters on weld geometry in the joint welding of thin-walled sheets and pipes (d=2.5 mm), and it uses random samples of thick-walled sheets and pipes (d=10 mm), in fixed positions. (orig./MM) [de

  4. Friction welding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Ryuichi; Hatanaka, Tatsuo.

    1969-01-01

    A friction welding method for forming a lattice-shaped base and tie plate supporter for fuel elements is disclosed in which a plate formed with a concavity along its edge is pressure welded to a rotating member such as a boss by longitudinally contacting the projecting surfaces remaining on either side of the concavity with the rotating member during the high speed rotation thereof in the presence of an inert gas. Since only the two projecting surfaces of the plate are fused by friction to the rotary member, heat expansion is absorbed by the concavity to prevent distortion; moreover, a two point contact surface assures a stable fitting and promotes the construction of a rigid lattice in which a number of the abovementioned plates are friction welded between rotating members to form any desired complex arrangement. The inert has serves to protect the material quality of the contacting surfaces from air during the welding step. The present invention thus provides a method in which even Zircaloy may be friction welded in place of casting stainless steel in the construction of supporting lattices to thereby enhance neutron economy. (K. J. Owens)

  5. Friction stir welding tool and process for welding dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J; Jana, Saumyadeep; Mattlin, Karl F

    2013-05-07

    A friction stir welding tool and process for lap welding dissimilar materials are detailed. The invention includes a cutter scribe that penetrates and extrudes a first material of a lap weld stack to a preselected depth and further cuts a second material to provide a beneficial geometry defined by a plurality of mechanically interlocking features. The tool backfills the interlocking features generating a lap weld across the length of the interface between the dissimilar materials that enhances the shear strength of the lap weld.

  6. Plasma Processes of Cutting and Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    TIG process. 2.2.2 Keyhole Welding In plasma arc welding , the term...Cutting 3 3 4 4 4 2.2 Plasma Arc Welding 5 2.2.1 Needle Arc Welding 2.2.2 Keyhole Welding 5 6 3. Applications 8 93.1 Economics 4. Environmental Aspects of...Arc Lengths III. Needle Arc Welding Conditions IV. Keyhole Welding Conditions v. Chemical Analyses of Plates Used - vii - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

  7. Report on the Progress of Weld Development of Irradiated Materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Miller, Roger G. [ORNL; Chen, Jian [ORNL; Tang, Wei [ORNL; Clark, Scarlett R. [ORNL; Gibson, Brian T. [ORNL; Vance, Mark Christopher [ORNL; Frederick, Greg [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Tatman, Jonathan K. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Sutton, Benjamin J. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2018-04-01

    This report summarizes recent welding activities on irradiated alloys in the advanced welding facility at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the development of post-weld characterization capabilities and procedures that will be critical for assessing the ability of the advanced welding processes housed within the facility to make successful repairs on irradiated alloys. This facility and its capabilities were developed jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and the Electric Power Research Institute, Long Term Operations Program (and the Welding and Repair Technology Center), with additional support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The significant, on-going effort to weld irradiated alloys with high Helium concentrations and comprehensively analyze the results will eventually yield validated repair techniques and guidelines for use by the nuclear industry in extending the operational lifetimes of nuclear power plants.

  8. Weld Nugget Temperature Control in Thermal Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A control system for a thermal stir welding system is provided. The control system includes a sensor and a controller. The sensor is coupled to the welding system's containment plate assembly and generates signals indicative of temperature of a region adjacent and parallel to the welding system's stir rod. The controller is coupled to the sensor and generates at least one control signal using the sensor signals indicative of temperature. The controller is also coupled to the welding system such that at least one of rotational speed of the stir rod, heat supplied by the welding system's induction heater, and feed speed of the welding system's weld material feeder are controlled based on the control signal(s).

  9. Thermal Stir Welding: A New Solid State Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Thermal stir welding is a new welding process developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Thermal stir welding is similar to friction stir welding in that it joins similar or dissimilar materials without melting the parent material. However, unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the process are all independent of each other and are separately controlled. Furthermore, the heating element of the process can be either a solid-state process (such as a thermal blanket, induction type process, etc), or, a fusion process (YG laser, plasma torch, etc.) The separation of the heating, stirring, forging elements of the process allows more degrees of freedom for greater process control. This paper introduces the mechanics of the thermal stir welding process. In addition, weld mechanical property data is presented for selected alloys as well as metallurgical analysis.

  10. Numerical simulation of welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan Langkjær; Thorborg, Jesper

    Aim of project:To analyse and model the transient thermal field from arc welding (SMAW, V-shaped buttweld in 15mm plate) and to some extend the mechanical response due to the thermal field. - To implement this model in a general purpose finite element program such as ABAQUS.The simulation...... stress is also taken into account.Work carried out:With few means it is possible to define a thermal model which describes the thermal field from the welding process in reasonable agreement with reality. Identical results are found with ABAQUS and Rosenthal’s analytical solution of the governing heat...... transfer equation under same conditions. It is relative easy tointroduce boundary conditions such as convection and radiation where not surprisingly the radiation has the greatest influence especially from the high temperature regions in the weld pool and the heat affected zone.Due to the large temperature...

  11. Milestones in welding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolby, Richard E.

    2013-09-01

    Sir Alan's PhD thesis describes his research into cracking during arc welding of armour steels. Throughout his career, he had a strong interest in defects of all types, how they formed in metallic structures and how the larger ones could be detected and sized by non-destructive techniques. He was also vitally concerned with how defects impacted on the engineering integrity of welded structures, particularly the risk of fracture in nuclear plant. This study presents a view of some of the major milestones in global welding technology that took place over the 60 or more years of Sir Alan's career and highlights those where he had a personal and direct involvement.

  12. Welding technologies for nuclear machinery and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro; Yokono, Tomomi.

    1991-01-01

    The main welding methods applied to nuclear machinery and equipment are shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, MAG welding and TIG welding. But in the last 10 years, in order to improve the reliability required for the welding of nuclear machinery and equipment, the welding technologies aiming at the reduction of heat input, the decrease of the number of welding pass and the automatic control of welding factors have been applied for the main purpose of bettering the quality and excluding human errors. The merits and the technology of narrow gap, pulsed MAG welding and melt-through welding are explained. As the automation of TIG welding, image processing type narrow gap, hot wire TIG welding and remote control type automatic TIG welding are described. For the longitudinal welding of active metal sheet products, plasma key-hole welding is applied. Since the concentration of its arc is good, high speed welding with low heat input can be done. For the stainless steel cladding by welding, electroslag welding has become to be employed in place of conventional submerged arc welding. Arc is not generated in the electroslag welding, and the penetration into base metal is small. (K.I.)

  13. Mechanized hyperbaric welding by robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Santos, J.F. dos; Bohm, K.H.; Hensel, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    At the GKSS-Forschungszentrum investigations are carried out on mechanized welded test plates produced under working pressure between 10 to 110 bar in breathable TRIMIX-5-atmosphere. The welds are performed by a modified industrial robot, which was adapted in its components to withstand these severe conditions. Variations on the welding parameters were made to maintain a stable arc as well as to provide on indication of the effect of the variables on the mechanical properties of the welded joint. During all tests the robot showed a very good function. Good reliable welds were achieved meeting the requirements according API II04 or BS 4515-1984. (orig.) [de

  14. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  15. Understanding Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum explains the friction stir welding process in terms of two basic concepts: the concentration of deformation in a shear surface enveloping the tool and the composition of the overall plastic flow field around the tool from simple flow field components. It is demonstrated how weld structure may be understood and torque, drag, and lateral tool forces may be estimated using these concepts. Some discrepancies between computations and accompanying empirical data are discussed in the text. This work is intended to be helpful to engineers in diagnosing problems and advancing technology.

  16. Welding method by remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashinokuchi, Minoru.

    1994-01-01

    Water is charged into a pit (or a water reservoir) and an article to be welded is placed on a support in the pit by remote handling. A steel plate is disposed so as to cover the article to be welded by remote handling. The welding device is positioned to the portion to be welded and fixed in a state where the article to be welded is shielded from radiation by water and the steel plate. Water in the pit is drained till the portion to be welded is exposed to the atmosphere. Then, welding is conducted. After completion of the welding, water is charged again to the pit and the welding device and fixing jigs are decomposed in a state where the article to be welded is shielded again from radiation by water and the steel plate. Subsequently, the steel plate is removed by remote handling. Then, the article to be welded is returned from the pit to a temporary placing pool by remote handling. This can reduce operator's exposure. Further, since the amount of the shielding materials can be minimized, the amount of radioactive wastes can be decreased. (I.N.)

  17. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, J R; Wagg, A R; Whittle, M J [N.D.T. Applications Centre, CEGB, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1980-11-01

    The metallurgical structure of austenitic welds is described and contrasted with that found in ferritic welds. It is shown that this structure imparts a marked elastic anisotropy in the ultrasonic propagation parameters. Measurements of variations in the apparent attenuation of sound and deviations in the beam direction are described. The measurements are interpreted in terms of the measured velocity anisotropy. Two applications of the fundamental work are described. In the first it is shown how, by using short pulse compression wave probes, and with major modification of the welding procedure, a stainless steel fillet weld in an AGR boiler can be inspected. In the second application, alternative designs of a transition butt weld have been compared for ease of ultrasonic inspection. The effects of two different welding processes on such an inspection are described. Finally, the paper examines the prospects for future development of inspection and defect-sizing techniques for austenitic welds. (author)

  18. Visualization of Spot- welding Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution devotes to monitoring of processes running during joining of steel sheets by incadescent so called point welding using non-destructive trial method – acoustic emission (AE. The joining process is detailed described within experimental measuring from the point of view of metallurgic effects runnig during weld creation (records obtained by means of AE method. It takes into consideration quality of joined steels within welding data of steel producer. Steel welding (determined by chemical composition during mechanical verification and firmness of welds consider results of measurement AE and fracture effect of point joints. The measurement also demonstrates conclusion about connection of metallurgic processes with material wave effects (AE measurement and their impact on firmness of joint at steel with guaranteed welding, difficult welding and at their potential combination.

  19. Recent Corrosion Research Trends in Weld Joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwan Tae; Kil, Sang Cheol; Hwang, Woon Suk

    2007-01-01

    The increasing interest in the corrosion properties of weld joints in the corrosive environment is placing stringent demands on the manufacturing techniques and performance requirements, and the manufacture employs the high quality and efficiency welding process to produce welds. Welding plays an important role in the fabrication of chemical plants, nuclear power plant, ship construction, and this has led to an increasing attention to the corrosion resistant weld joints. This paper covers recent technical trends of welding technologies for corrosion resistance properties including the COMPENDEX DB analysis of welding materials, welding process, and welding fabrications

  20. Welding technology transfer task/laser based weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Sensors to control and monitor welding operations are currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The laser based weld bead profiler/torch rotation sensor was modified to provide a weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds. The tracking system features a precision laser based vision sensor, automated two-axis machine motion, and an industrial PC controller. The system benefits are elimination of weld repairs caused by joint tracking errors which reduces manufacturing costs and increases production output, simplification of tooling, and free costly manufacturing floor space.

  1. First industrial application of MAG STT welding with auto adaptative joint control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Tien, Thong

    2006-01-01

    The Welding Institute has participated to an extraordinary plan: the manufacture of the new LHC (Large Hadron Collider) particles accelerator in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference, at the European laboratory for particles physics (CERN) located at the Franco-Swiss frontier. The LHC dipolar magnets wires constituted in semi-cylinders of 15 m length in 316 LN, thickness 10 mm, are assembled in horizontal-vertical position. The Welding Institute has developed a software allowing to implement the auto-adaptative welding with follow of laser joint, using the MAG STT (Surface Tension Transfer) process. The modeling of welding laws connected with the strategy of joints filling runs (in multi-passes), absorb the physical tolerances of the preparation (clearance, poor alignment, root of joint...) and this in welding dynamical condition. (O.M.)

  2. First industrial application of the auto-adaptative MAG STT welding technique with laser joint tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Tien, Th.

    2007-01-01

    The Welding Institute has participated to the plan of construction of the Large Hadron Collider. The hoops of the dipolar magnets are composed of two half cylinders 15 m in length in 10 mm 316LN austenitic stainless steel and are assembled around the magnet in a horizontal-vertical position. The Welding Institute has developed a software for carrying out the auto-adaptative welding technique with laser joint tracking, in using the MAG STT (Surface Tension Transfer) process. The modelling of the welding laws and the strategy of filling the joints in multi-paths absorb the physical tolerances of the preparation (clearance, poor alignment, root..) in dynamic welding condition too. (O.M.)

  3. 49 CFR 192.225 - Welding procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding procedures. 192.225 Section 192.225... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.225 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures...

  4. Integrated sensors for robotic laser welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, D.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Meijer, J.; Beyer, E.; Dausinger, F; Ostendorf, A; Otto, A.

    2005-01-01

    A welding head is under development with integrated sensory systems for robotic laser welding applications. Robotic laser welding requires sensory systems that are capable to accurately guide the welding head over a seam in three-dimensional space and provide information about the welding process as

  5. ICT diagnostic method of beryllium welding quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lingxia; Wei Kentang; Ye Yunchang

    2002-01-01

    To avoid the interference of high density material for the quality assay of beryllium welding line, a slice by slice scanning method was proposed based upon the research results of the Industrial Computerized Tomography (ICT) diagnostics for weld penetration, weld width, off-centered deviation and weld defects of beryllium-ring welding seam with high density material inside

  6. Sensor integration for robotic laser welding processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, D.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Meijer, J.; Ostendorf, A; Hoult, A.; Lu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The use of robotic laser welding is increasing among industrial applications, because of its ability to weld objects in three dimensions. Robotic laser welding involves three sub-processes: seam detection and tracking, welding process control, and weld seam inspection. Usually, for each sub-process,

  7. Numerical analysis of weld pool oscillation in laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jung Ho [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Farson, Dave F [The Ohio State University, Columbus (United States); Hollis, Kendall; Milewski, John O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Volume of fluid (VOF) numerical simulation was used to investigate melt flow and volumetric oscillation of conduction-mode pulsed laser weld pools. The result is compared to high speed video stream of titanium laser spot welding experiment. The total simulation time is 10ms with the first 5 ms being heating and melting under constant laser irradiation and the remaining 5 ms corresponding to resolidification of the weld pool. During the melting process, the liquid pool did not exhibit periodic oscillation but was continually depressed by the evaporation recoil pressure. After the laser pulse, the weld pool was excited into volumetric oscillation by the release of pressure on its surface and oscillation of the weld pool surface was analyzed. The simulation model suggested adjusting thermal diffusivity to match cooling rate and puddle diameter during solidification which is distinguishable from previous weld pool simulation. The frequency continuously increased from several thousand cycles per second to tens of thousands of cycles per second as the weld pool solidified and its diameter decreased. The result is the first trial of investigation of small weld pool oscillation in laser welding although there have been several reports about arc welding.

  8. Deconvoluting the Friction Stir Weld Process for Optimizing Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C.

    2008-01-01

    In the friction stir welding process, the rotating surfaces of the pin and shoulder contact the weld metal and force a rotational flow within the weld metal. Heat, generated by the metal deformation as well as frictional slippage with the contact surface, softens the metal and makes it easier to deform. As in any thermo-mechanical processing of metal, the flow conditions are critical to the quality of the weld. For example, extrusion of metal from under the shoulder of an excessively hot weld may relax local pressure and result in wormhole defects. The trace of the weld joint in the wake of the weld may vary geometrically depending upon the flow streamlines around the tool with some geometry more vulnerable to loss of strength from joint contamination than others. The material flow path around the tool cannot be seen in real time during the weld. By using analytical "tools" based upon the principles of mathematics and physics, a weld model can be created to compute features that can be observed. By comparing the computed observations with actual data, the weld model can be validated or adjusted to get better agreement. Inputs to the model to predict weld structures and properties include: hot working properties ofthe metal, pin tool geometry, travel rate, rotation and plunge force. Since metals record their prior hot working history, the hot working conditions imparted during FSW can be quantified by interpreting the final microstructure. Variations in texture and grain size result from variations in the strain accommodated at a given strain rate and temperature. Microstructural data from a variety of FSWs has been correlated with prior marker studies to contribute to our understanding of the FSW process. Once this stage is reached, the weld modeling process can save significant development costs by reducing costly trial-and-error approaches to obtaining quality welds.

  9. Russian and Ukrainian welding industries learn to handle change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegenfuss, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    Less than three weeks after the coup against Communist Party General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev that eventually led to the disbanding of the Soviet Union, a technical delegation from the US entered the newly renamed city of St. Petersburg. The delegation visited manufacturing facilities and welding institutions that were changing from central control to a local decentralized operation and that were unsure of what would be the government's role in their operations. Plans for the trip began at the AWS Welding Show in Detroit, Mich., in April 1991, when in-depth discussions were held with Deputy Director Sergey Kuchuk-Yatsenko of the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, Kiev, Ukraine. A summary of the trip is given in this paper

  10. Welding in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The 3rd international conference 'Welding in nuclear engineering', organized in 1978 by the Deutscher Verband fuer Schweisstechnik e.V., was, like the two foregoing conferences in 1970 and 1974, an absolute success. The noteworthy echo to this meeting in the international technical world - the number of 650 participants from 26 countries is self-evidence - and this fact, was for the Deutscher Verband fuer Schweisstechnik e.V. occasion and at the same time an obligation now to follow in the same way, the meeting that was started 12 years ago, by organizing the international conference 'Welding in nuclear engineering'. The conference this year offers in addition to the two plenary session lectures, 34 short reports and a further 28 single contributions in the form of two poster-sessions. Unfortunately, it was again not possible to accept all the papers submitted because the conference was limited to 2 days only. Nevertheless, the papers will offer a representative cross-section through the total range of welding engineering. In particular, the poster session, which take place for the first time within the scope of a meeting organized by the Working Group 'Welding in Nuclear Engineering', should contribute to the aim that this time again the discussions will form the main point of the conference. (orig./RW) [de

  11. Welding. Student Learning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    This student learning guide contains 30 modules for completing a course in welding. It is designed especially for use in secondary schools in Palm Beach County, Florida. Each module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities keyed to resources, information sheets, student self-check…

  12. Thermal Stresses in Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan Langkjær

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the transient temperature fields and the hereby induced deformations and stressses in a butt-welded mild steel plate modelledrespectively in 2D plane stress state (as well as plane strain state) and in full 3D have been done. The model has been implemented in the generalpurpose FE...

  13. State Skill Standards: Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  14. Elementary TIG Welding Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, John E., III

    The text was prepared to help deaf students develop the skills needed by an employed welder. It uses simplified language and illustrations to present concepts which should be reinforced by practical experience with welding skills. Each of the 12 lessons contains: (1) an information section with many illustrations which presents a concept or…

  15. Welding, Bonding and Fastening, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, J. D. (Editor); Stein, B. A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Soceity, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  16. Galvanic corrosion of beryllium welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium is difficult to weld because it is highly susceptible to cracking. The most commonly used filler metal in beryllium welds is Al-12 wt.% Si. Beryllium has been successfully welded using Al-Si filler metal with more than 30 wt.% Al. This filler creates an aluminum-rich fusion zone with a low melting point that tends to backfill cracks. Drawbacks to adding a filler metal include a reduction in service temperature, a lowering of the tensile strength of the weld, and the possibility for galvanic corrosion to occur at the weld. To evaluate the degree of interaction between Be and Al-Si in an actual weld, sections from a mock beryllium weldment were exposed to 0.1 M Cl - solution. Results indicate that the galvanic couple between Be and the Al-Si weld material results in the cathodic protection of the weld and of the anodic dissolution of the bulk Be material. While the cathodic protection of Al is generally inefficient, the high anodic dissolution rate of the bulk Be during pitting corrosion combined with the insulating properties of the Be oxide afford some protection of the Al-Si weld material. Although dissolution of the Be precipitate in the weld material does occur, no corrosion of the Al-Si matrix was observed

  17. Alexander Graham Bell's Patent for the Telephone and Thomas Edison's Patent for the Electric Lamp. The Constitution Community: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Joan Brodsky

    In 1876 Americans held a Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) to celebrate the nation's birth 100 years earlier. Machinery Hall drew the most admiration and wonder. Alexander Graham Bell exhibited the first telephone, and Thomas Alva Edison presented the automatic telegraph, one of more than 1,000 inventions he would patent in his…

  18. 77 FR 1667 - Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ..., Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent; Order Relating to Nelson S. Galgoul The Bureau of... entry of the Order, Nelson S. Galgoul, with a last known address of Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, and when acting for or on his behalf, his representatives, assigns...

  19. Potential Applications of Friction Stir Welding to the Hydrogen Economy. Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program In Pennsylvania, Materials Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendlinger, Jennifer [Concurrent Technologies Corporation, Johnstown, PA (United States)

    2009-07-17

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding technique developed by The Welding Institute (TWI) of Cambridge, UK in the early 1990’s. The process uses a non-consumable rotating tool to develop frictional heat and plastically deform workpieces to be joined, resulting in a solid-state weld on the trailing side of the advancing tool. Since the materials to be joined are not melted, FSW results in a finer grain structure and therefore enhanced properties, relative to fusion welds. And unlike fusion welding, a relatively small number of key process parameters exist for FSW: tool rotational speed, linear weld velocity and force perpendicular to the joining surface. FSW is more energy efficient than fusion welding and can be accomplished in one or two passes, versus many more passes required of fusion welding thicker workpieces. Reduced post-weld workpiece distortion is another factor that helps to reduce the cost of FSW relative to fusion welding. Two primary areas have been identified for potential impact on the hydrogen economy: FSW of metallic pipes for hydrogen transmission and FSW of aluminum pressure vessels for hydrogen storage. Both areas have been under active development and are explored in this paper.

  20. Perspectives of special welding methods. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herden, G.; Buness, G.; Wiesner, P.

    1976-01-01

    Laser, electron, ion, and light beam welding as well as plasma arc welding are considered to be special fusion welding methods. The stage of development and possible future applications of these methods are described. (author)

  1. Improvements in and relating to welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.D.

    1979-01-01

    This invention concerns apparatus for use in welding, particularly welding which must be effected in a predetermined, for example, inert atmosphere, e.g. the welding of reactive materials such as zircaloy, titanium, magnesium, aluminium, etc. (U.K.)

  2. Welding for the CRBRP steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalaris, C.N.; Ring, P.J.; Durand, R.E.; Wright, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rationale for selecting weld design, welding procedures and inspection methods was based upon the desire to obtain the highest reliability welds for the CRBRP steam generators. To assure the highest weld reliability, heavy emphasis was placed on the control of material cleanliness and composition substantially exceeding the requirements of the ASME Code for 2-1/4Cr--1Mo. The high tube/tubesheet weld quality was achieved through close material control, an extensive weld development program and the selection of high reliability welding equipment. Shell and nozzle weld fabrication using TIG, MIG, and submerged arc procedures are also being controlled through precise specifications, including preheat and postheat programs, together with radiography and ultrasonic inspection to ascertain the weld quality desired. Details of the tube/tubesheet welding and shell welding are described and results from the weld testing program are discussed

  3. Developments in welding and joining methods of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilarczyk, J.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of the welding technology on the economy development. The welding and joining methods review. The particular role of the laser welding and its interesting applications: with filler metal, twin spot laser welding, hybrid welding process, remote welding. The fiber lasers. The high intensity electron beams applications for surface modification. The TIG welding with the use of the active flux. Friction welding, friction stir welding and friction linear welding. (author)

  4. Electron Gun for Computer-controlled Welding of Small Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupák, Jan; Vlček, Ivan; Zobač, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 62, 2-3 (2001), s. 159-164 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2065015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : Electron beam-welding machine * Electron gun * Computer- control led beam Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2001

  5. Energy losses estimation during pulsed-laser seam welding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestová, Hana; Havelková, M.; Chmelíčková, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2014), s. 1116-1121 ISSN 1073-5615 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser welding * pulsed-laser * Nd:YAG laser Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2014

  6. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  7. Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1998-01-01

    In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...... video pictures (400 Hz), a clear impact on the seam characteristics has been identified when a hump occurs.Finally, a clear correlation between the position of the focus point, the resultant process type and the corresponding signal intensity and signal variation has been found for sheets welded...

  8. INERT GAS SHIELD FOR WELDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.O.; Daly, F.V.

    1958-10-14

    S>An inert gas shield is presented for arc-welding materials such as zirconium that tend to oxidize rapidly in air. The device comprises a rectangular metal box into which the welding electrode is introduced through a rubber diaphragm to provide flexibility. The front of the box is provided with a wlndow having a small hole through which flller metal is introduced. The box is supplied with an inert gas to exclude the atmosphere, and with cooling water to promote the solidification of the weld while in tbe inert atmosphere. A separate water-cooled copper backing bar is provided underneath the joint to be welded to contain the melt-through at the root of the joint, shielding the root of the joint with its own supply of inert gas and cooling the deposited weld metal. This device facilitates the welding of large workpieces of zirconium frequently encountered in reactor construction.

  9. Metals welding by using laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qaisy, R.A.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the present work, same welding ''conduction limited type'' under atmospheric conditions was performed using pulsed Ng:YAG laser to weld; low carbon steel (LCS), stainless steel (304) (SUS304), stainless steel (303) (SUS303), and brass. Microstructure of welded zone, heat affected zone (HAZ), and the laser energy on penetration depth and effective diameter were studied. Tensile test, micro-hardness, and surface roughness of welded and parent metals were also dealt with. Melting efficiency was worked out and an under vacuum seam welding of low carbon steel has been accomplished. Finally spot welding of aluminium tungsten, and platinium wires were employed using different layer energies. 34 tabs.; 82 figs.; 51 refs.; 1 app

  10. Corrosion of carbon steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, B.

    1988-09-01

    This report assesses the factors which cause preferential attack to occur in carbon steel fusion welds. It was concluded that the main factors were: the inclusion content of the weld metal, the potential of the weld metal being less noble than that of the parent, and the presence of low-temperature transformation products in the heat-affected zone of the weld. These factors should be minimized or eliminated as appropriate so that the corrosion allowances determined for carbon steel waste drums is also adequate for the welds. An experimental/theoretical approach is recommended to evaluate the relative corrosion resistance of welds prepared from BS 4360 grade 43A steel to that of the parent material. (author)

  11. Investigation on mechanical properties of welded material under different types of welding filler (shielded metal arc welding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Abdullah Mohd; Lair, Noor Ajian Mohd; Wei, Foo Jun

    2018-05-01

    The Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) is (or the Stick welding) defined as a welding process, which melts and joins metals with an arc between a welding filler (electrode rod) and the workpieces. The main objective was to study the mechanical properties of welded metal under different types of welding fillers and current for SMAW. This project utilized the Design of Experiment (DOE) by adopting the Full Factorial Design. The independent variables were the types of welding filler and welding current, whereas the other welding parameters were fixed at the optimum value. The levels for types of welding filler were by the models of welding filler (E6013, E7016 and E7018) used and the levels for welding current were 80A and 90A. The responses were the mechanical properties of welded material, which include tensile strength and hardness. The experiment was analyzed using the two way ANOVA. The results prove that there are significant effects of welding filler types and current levels on the tensile strength and hardness of the welded metal. At the same time, the ANOVA results and interaction plot indicate that there are significant interactions between the welding filler types and the welding current on both the hardness and tensile strength of the welded metals, which has never been reported before. This project found that when the amount of heat input with increase, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness decrease. The optimum tensile strength for welded metal is produced by the welding filler E7016 and the optimum of hardness of welded metal is produced by the welding filler E7018 at welding current of 80A.

  12. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding system includes a welding head assembly having a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. During a welding operation, ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod as it rotates about its longitudinal axis. The ultrasonic pulses are applied in such a way that they propagate parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rod.

  13. Viewing Welds By Computer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Antonio G.; Roy, Jagatjit

    1990-01-01

    Computer tomography system used to inspect welds for root penetration. Source illuminates rotating welded part with fan-shaped beam of x rays or gamma rays. Detectors in circular array on opposite side of part intercept beam and convert it into electrical signals. Computer processes signals into image of cross section of weld. Image displayed on video monitor. System offers only nondestructive way to check penetration from outside when inner surfaces inaccessible.

  14. Welding facilities for NPP assembling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojtenberg, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Recommendations concerning the choice of equipment for welding in pre-assembling work shops, in the enlarging assembling shops and at the assembling site, are given. Advanced production automatic welders and semiautomatic machines, applied during the NPP equipment assembling as well as automatic machines specially produced for welding the main reactor components and pipelines are described. Automatic and semiautomatic machine and manual welding post supply sources are considered

  15. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of performing ultrasonic stir welding uses a welding head assembly to include a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. In the method, the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis during a welding operation. During the welding operation, a series of on-off ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod such that they propagate parallel to the rod's longitudinal axis. At least a pulse rate associated with the on-off ultrasonic pulses is controlled.

  16. Socket welds in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.A.; Torres, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Socket welds are easier and faster to make than are butt welds. However, they are often not used in nuclear facilities because the crevices between the pipes and the socket sleeves may be subject to crevice corrosion. If socket welds can be qualified for wider use in facilities that process nuclear materials, the radiation exposures to welders can be significantly reduced. The current tests at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) are designed to determine if socket welds can be qualified for use in the waste processing system at a nuclear fuel processing plant

  17. Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    An ambitious project to develop an advanced, automated welding system is being funded as part of the Navy Joining Center with Babcock & Wilcox as the prime integrator. This program, the Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS), involves the integration of both planning and real-time control activities. Planning functions include the development of a graphical decision support system within a standard, portable environment. Real-time control functions include the development of a modular, intelligent, real-time control system and the integration of a number of welding process sensors. This paper presents each of these components of the PAWS and discusses how they can be utilized to automate the welding operation.

  18. Comparison of Welding Residual Stresses of Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding and Submerged Arc Welding in Offshore Steel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Yu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In the offshore industry, welding-induced distortion and tensile residual stresses have become a major concern in relation to the structural integrity of a welded structure. Particularly, the continuous increase in size of welded plates and joints needs special attention concerning welding induced...... residual stresses. These stresses have a negative impact on the integrity of the welded joint as they promote distortion, reduce fatigue life, and contribute to corrosion cracking and premature failure in the weld components. This paper deals with the influence and impact of welding method on the welding...... induced residual stresses. It is also investigated whether the assumption of residual stresses up to yield strength magnitude are present in welded structures as stated in the design guidelines. The fatigue strength for welded joints is based on this assumption. The two welding methods investigated...

  19. Steels and welding nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessa, M.; Milella, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This ENEA Data-Base regards mechanical properties, chemical composition and heat treatments of nuclear pressure vessel materials: type A533-B, A302-B, A508 steel plates and forgings, submerged arc welds and HAZ before and after nuclear irradiation. Irradiation experiments were generally performed in high flux material test reactors. Data were collected from international available literature about water nuclear reactors pressure vessel materials embrittlement

  20. Gas Metal Arc Welding. Welding Module 5. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching an eight-unit module in gas metal arc welding. The module is part of a welding curriculum that has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The following topics are covered in the module: safety and testing, gas metal arc…

  1. Laser Welding Test Results with Gas Atmospheres in Welding Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Heo, Sung-Ho; Jang, Seo-Yun; Yang, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The weld beads of specimens welded under identical conditions in the helium and argon gas were cleaner, more regular, and steadier than those in a vacuum. The penetration depth of the FZ in the vacuum was much deeper than those in the helium and argon gas. To measure the irradiation properties of nuclear fuel in a test reactor, a nuclear fuel test rod instrumented with various sensors must be fabricated with assembly processes. A laser welding system to assemble the nuclear fuel test rod was designed and fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rods to joint between a cladding tube and end-caps. It is an air-cooling optical fiber type and its emission modes are a continuous (CW) mode of which the laser generates continuous emission, and pulse (QCW) mode in which the laser internally generates sequences of pulses. We considered the system welding a sample in a chamber that can weld a specimen in a vacuum and inert gas atmosphere, and the chamber was installed on the working plate of the laser welding system. In the chamber, the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a cladding tube and an end-cap.

  2. Sustainability of Welding Process through Bobbin Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sued, M. K.; Samsuri, S. S. M.; Kassim, M. K. A. M.; Nasir, S. N. N. M.

    2018-03-01

    Welding process is in high demand, which required a competitive technology to be adopted. This is important for sustaining the needs of the joining industries without ignoring the impact of the process to the environment. Friction stir welding (FSW) is stated to be benefitting the environment through low energy consumption, which cannot be achieved through traditional arc welding. However, this is not well documented, especially for bobbin friction stir welding (BFSW). Therefore, an investigation is conducted by measuring current consumption of the machine during the BFSW process. From the measurement, different phases of BFSW welding process and its electrical demand are presented. It is found that in general total energy in BFSW is about 130kW inclusive of all identified process phases. The phase that utilise for joint formation is in weld phase that used the highest total energy of 120kWs. The recorded total energy is still far below the traditional welding technology and the conventional friction stir welding (CFSW) energy demand. This indicates that BFSW technology with its vast benefit able to sustain the joining technology in near future.

  3. [New welding processes and health effects of welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, G Marina; Maestrelli, Piero

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some of the recent developments in the control technology to enhance capability of Pulse Gas Metal Arc Welding. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processing has been also considered. FSW is a new solid-state joining technique. Heat generated by friction at the rotating tool softens the material being welded. FSW can be considered a green and energy-efficient technique without deleterious fumes, gas, radiation, and noise. Application of new welding processes is limited and studies on health effects in exposed workers are lacking. Acute and chronic health effects of conventional welding have been described. Metal fume fever and cross-shift decline of lung function are the main acute respiratory effects. Skin and eyes may be affected by heat, electricity and UV radiations. Chronic effects on respiratory system include chronic bronchitis, a benign pneumoconiosis (siderosis), asthma, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Pulmonary infections are increased in terms of severity, duration, and frequency among welders.

  4. Recent changes in code requirements for repair of in-service pipelines by welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, W.A. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Corrosion damage on pipelines represents the second most important cause of damage to natural gas pipelines in the United States. The area containing the corrosion damage must be reinforced to prevent the pipeline to rupture and from bulging. The predominant method of reinforcing corrosion damage in cross-country pipelines is to install a full-encirclement repair sleeve. The recent up-date of American Petroleum Institute (API) code requirement for repair of in-service pipelines by welding was published to provide a recommended practice for pipeline maintenance welding. The recent changes to the code are explained. The appendix B to the up-date is intended to alleviate redundancy between API 1104 and API 1107 and the time lag between up-dates, and to address technological advances made in the area of in-service welding. An alternative repair method of deposited weld metal, or weld deposition repair is briefly explained. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  5. A control system for uniform bead in fillet arc welding on tack welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Woong; Lee, Jun Young

    2008-01-01

    Positioning a workpiece accurately and preventing weld distortion, tack welding is often adopted before main welding in the construction of welded structures. However, this tack weld deteriorates the final weld bead profile, so that the grinding process is usually performed for a uniform weld bead profile. In this study, a control system for uniform weld bead is proposed for the fillet arc welding on tack welds. The system consists of GMA welding machine, torch manipulator, laser vision sensor for measuring the tack weld size and the database for optimal welding conditions. Experiments have been performed for constructing the database and for evaluating the control capability of the system. It has been shown that the system has the capability to smooth the bead at the high level of quality

  6. Effects of Fusion Tack Welds on Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Pendleton, M. L.; Brooke, S. A.; Russell, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to know whether fusion tack welds would affect the strength of self-reacting friction stir seam welds in 2195-T87 aluminum alloy, the fracture stresses of 144 tensile test coupons cut from 24 welded panels containing segments of friction stir welds were measured. Each of the panels was welded under unique processing conditions. A measure of the effect of the tack welds for each panel was devised. An analysis of the measures of the tack weld effect supported the hypothesis that fusion tack welds do not affect the strength of self-reacting friction stir welds to a 5% level of confidence.

  7. Investigation and modelling of friction stir welded copper canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellgren, Therese

    2010-02-15

    This work has been focused on characterisation of FSW joints, and modelling of the process, both analytically and numerically. The Swedish model for final deposit of nuclear fuel waste is based on copper canisters as a corrosion barrier with an inner pressure holding insert of cast iron. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is the method to seal the copper canister, a technique invented by The Welding Institute (TWI). The first simulations were based on Rosenthal's analytical medium plate model. The model is simple to use, but has limitations. Finite element models (FEM) were developed, initially with a two-dimensional geometry. Due to the requirements of describing both the heat flow and the tool movement, three-dimensional models were developed. These models take into account heat transfer, material flow, and continuum mechanics. The geometries of the models are based on the simulation experiments carried out at TWI and at Swedish Nuclear Fuel Waste and Management Co (SKB). Temperature distribution, material flow and their effects on the thermal expansion were predicted for a full-scale canister and lid. The steady state solutions have been compared with temperature measurements, showing good agreement. In order to understand the material flow during welding a marker technique is used, which involves inserting dissimilar material into the weld zone before joining. Different materials are tested showing that brass rods are the most suitable material in these welds. After welding, the weld line is sliced, etched and examined by optical microscope. To understand the material flow further, and in the future predict the flow, a FEM is developed. This model and the etched samples are compared showing similar features. Furthermore, by using this model the area that is recrystallised can be predicted. The predicted area and the grain size and hardness profile agree well

  8. Residual stress reduction in the penetration nozzle weld joint by overlay welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wenchun; Luo, Yun; Wang, B.Y.; Tu, S.T.; Gong, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Residual stress reduction in penetration weld nozzle by overlay welding was studied. • The overlay weld can decrease the residual stress in the weld root. • Long overlay welding is proposed in the actual welding. • Overlay weld to decrease residual stress is more suitable for thin nozzle. - Abstract: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the penetration nozzle weld joint endangers the structural reliability of pressure vessels in nuclear and chemical industries. How to decrease the residual stress is very critical to ensure the structure integrity. In this paper, a new method, which uses overlay welding on the inner surface of nozzle, is proposed to decrease the residual stresses in the penetration joint. Finite element simulation is used to study the change of weld residual stresses before and after overlay welding. It reveals that this method can mainly decrease the residual stress in the weld root. Before overlay welding, large tensile residual stresses are generated in the weld root. After overlay weld, the tensile hoop stress in weld root has been decreased about 45%, and the radial stress has been decreased to compressive stress, which is helpful to decrease the susceptibility to SCC. With the increase of overlay welding length, the residual stress in weld root has been greatly decreased, and thus the long overlay welding is proposed in the actual welding. It also finds that this method is more suitable for thin nozzle rather than thick nozzle

  9. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikie, B.L.; Wagg, A.R.; Whittle, M.J.; Yapp, D.

    1976-01-01

    Optical and X-ray metallography combined with ultrasonic testing by compression waves was used for inspection of stainless steel weld metal produced by three different welding techniques. X-ray diffraction showed that each weld possessed a characteristic fibre textured structure which was shown by optical microscopy to be parallel to columnar grain boundaries. Metallographic evidence suggested that the development of fibre texture is due to the mechanism of competitive growth. From observations made as a result of optical metallographic examination the orientation of the fibre axis could be predicted if the weld geometry and welding procedure were known. Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements as a continuous function of grain orientation, made on cylinders machined from weld samples, showed that attenuation was strongly orientation dependent. It was concluded that the sensitivity of ultrasonic inspection to small defects is unlikely to be as high for austenitic welds as for ferritic even when transmission is improved by modifying the welding procedure to improve the ultrasonic transmission. (U.K.)

  10. Metal Working and Welding Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by metal workers and welders. Addressed in the six individual units of the course are the following topics: weldable metals and their alloys, arc welding, gas welding,…

  11. Welding abilities of UFG metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawiński, Łukasz; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Olejnik, Lech; Buffa, Gianluca; Campanella, Davide; Fratini, Livan

    2018-05-01

    Ultrafine Grained (UFG) metals are characterized by an average grain size of welded joints with similar properties to the base of UFG material are crucial for the production of finished engineering components. Conventional welding methods based on local melting of the joined edges cannot be used due to the UFG microstructure degradation caused by the heat occurrence in the heat affected zone. Therefore, the possibility of obtaining UFG materials joints with different shearing plane (SP) positions by means of friction welded processes, which do not exceed the melting temperature during the process, should be investigated. The article focuses on the Linear Friction Welding (LFW) method, which belongs to innovative welding processes based on mixing of the friction-heated material in the solid state. LFW is a welding process used to joint bulk components. In the process, the friction forces work due to the high frequency oscillation and the pressure between the specimens is converted in thermal energy. Character and range of recrystallization can be controlled by changing LFW parameters. Experimental study on the welded UFG 1070 aluminum alloy by means of FLW method, indicates the possibility of reducing the UFG structure degradation in the obtained joint. A laboratory designed LFW machine has been used to weld the specimens with different contact pressure and oscillation frequency.

  12. Arc modeling for welding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.

    1978-04-01

    A one-dimensional model of the welding arc that considers heat generation by the Joule effect and heat losses by radiation and conduction has been used to study the effects of various gases and gas mixtures currently employed for welding applications. Minor additions of low ionization potential impurities to these gases are shown to significantly perturb the electrical properties of the parent gas causing gross changes in the radial temperature distribution of the arc discharge. Such changes are reflected in the current density distribution and ultimately in the input energy distribution to the weldment. The result is observed as a variation in weld penetration. Recently published experiments and analyses of welding arcs are also evaluated and shown to contain erroneous data and results. Contrary to previous beliefs, the inclusion of a radiation loss term in the basic energy balance equation is important and cannot be considered as negligible in an argon arc at temperatures as low as 10,000 0 K. The one-dimensional analysis of the welding arc as well as the evaluation of these earlier published reports helps to explain the effects of various gases used for welding, improves our understanding of the physics of the welding arc, and provides a stepping stone for a more elaborate model which can be applied to help optimize welding parameters

  13. Laser welding of tailored blanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecas, P.; Gouveia, H.; Quintino, L.; Olsen, F.O.

    1998-01-01

    Laser welding has an increasing role in the automotive industry, namely on the sub-assemblies manufacturing. Several sheet-shape parts are laser welded, on a dissimilar combination of thicknesses and materials, and are afterwards formed (stamped) being transformed in a vehicle body component. In this paper low carbon CO 2 laser welding, on the thicknesses of 1,25 and 0.75 mm, formability investigation is described. There will be a description of how the laser welded blanks behave in different forming tests, and the influence of misalignment and undercut on the formability. The quality is evaluated by measuring the limit strain and limit effective strain for the laser welded sheets and the base material, which will be presented in a forming limit diagram. (Author) 14 refs

  14. Residual strains and microstructure development in single and sequential double sided friction stir welds in RQT-701 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, S.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: simon.barnes-2@manchester.ac.uk; Steuwer, A. [FaME38, ILL ESRF, 6 rue J.Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex (France); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Mahawish, S. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Johnson, R. [TWI Yorkshire, Wallis Way, Catcliffe, Rotherham S60 5TZ (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-25

    Single and double sided partial penetration friction stir butt welds, in a rolled, quenched and tempered steel (RQT-701), were produced at The Welding Institute (TWI) under controlled process conditions. The residual strain distributions in the longitudinal and transverse directions have been measured using energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The measured strains were indicative of longitudinal tensile residual stresses at levels greater than the 0.2% yield stress of the parent metal in both the single and double pass welds. In both cases, the maximum tensile strain was found in the parent metal at the boundary of the heat affected zone (HAZ). Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy and hardness variations were also mapped across the weld-plate cross-section. The maximum hardness was observed in the mixed bainite/martensite structure of the weld nugget on the advancing side of the stir zone. The minimum hardness was observed in the HAZ.

  15. Residual strains and microstructure development in single and sequential double sided friction stir welds in RQT-701 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.J.; Steuwer, A.; Mahawish, S.; Johnson, R.; Withers, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Single and double sided partial penetration friction stir butt welds, in a rolled, quenched and tempered steel (RQT-701), were produced at The Welding Institute (TWI) under controlled process conditions. The residual strain distributions in the longitudinal and transverse directions have been measured using energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The measured strains were indicative of longitudinal tensile residual stresses at levels greater than the 0.2% yield stress of the parent metal in both the single and double pass welds. In both cases, the maximum tensile strain was found in the parent metal at the boundary of the heat affected zone (HAZ). Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy and hardness variations were also mapped across the weld-plate cross-section. The maximum hardness was observed in the mixed bainite/martensite structure of the weld nugget on the advancing side of the stir zone. The minimum hardness was observed in the HAZ

  16. Reduction of Biomechanical and Welding Fume Exposures in Stud Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fethke, Nathan B; Peters, Thomas M; Leonard, Stephanie; Metwali, Mahmoud; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A

    2016-04-01

    The welding of shear stud connectors to structural steel in construction requires a prolonged stooped posture that exposes ironworkers to biomechanical and welding fume hazards. In this study, biomechanical and welding fume exposures during stud welding using conventional methods were compared to exposures associated with use of a prototype system that allowed participants to weld from an upright position. The effect of base material (i.e. bare structural beam versus galvanized decking) on welding fume concentration (particle number and mass), particle size distribution, and particle composition was also explored. Thirty participants completed a series of stud welding simulations in a local apprenticeship training facility. Use of the upright system was associated with substantial reductions in trunk inclination and the activity levels of several muscle groups. Inhalable mass concentrations of welding fume (averaged over ~18 min) when using conventional methods were high (18.2 mg m(-3) for bare beam; 65.7 mg m(-3) for through deck), with estimated mass concentrations of iron (7.8 mg m(-3) for bare beam; 15.8 mg m(-3) for through deck), zinc (0.2 mg m(-3) for bare beam; 15.8 mg m(-3) for through deck), and manganese (0.9 mg m(-3) for bare beam; 1.5 mg m(-3) for through deck) often exceeding the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Values (TLVs). Number and mass concentrations were substantially reduced when using the upright system, although the total inhalable mass concentration remained above the TLV when welding through decking. The average diameters of the welding fume particles for both bare beam (31±17 nm) through deck conditions (34±34 nm) and the chemical composition of the particles indicated the presence of metallic nanoparticles. Stud welding exposes ironworkers to potentially high levels of biomechanical loading (primarily to the low back) and welding fume. The upright system used in this study improved exposure

  17. Nd-YAG laser welding of bare and galvanised steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.C.; Norris, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Until recently, one of the problems that has held back the introduction of lasers into car body fabrication has been the difficulty of integrating the lasers with robots. Nd-YAG laser beams can be transmitted through fibre optics which, as well as being considerably easier to manipulate than a mirror system, can be mounted on more lightweight accurate robots. Although previously only available at low powers, recent developments in Nd-YAG laser technology mean that lasers of up to 1kW average power will soon be available, coupled to a fibre optic beam delivery system. The increasing usage of zinc coated steels in vehicle bodies has led to welding problems using conventional resistance welding as well as CO 2 laser welding. The use of Nd-YAG lasers may be able to overcome these problems. This paper outlines work carried out at The Welding Institute on a prototype Lumonics 800W pulsed Nd-YAG laser to investigate its welding characteristics on bare and zinc coated car body steels

  18. Modelling Polymer Deformation and Welding Behaviour during 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    2016-11-01

    3D printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The most common method, fused deposition modelling, involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion of the material to fabricate a three-dimensional object. The key to the ensuring strength at the weld between these layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, as the printed layer cools towards the glass transition temperature, the time available for diffusion is limited. In addition, the extrusion process significantly deforms the polymer micro-structure prior to welding and consequently affects how the polymers "re-entangle" across the weld. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal printing process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and amorphous polymer rheology have on the ultimate weld structure. In particular, we incorporate both the stretch and orientation of the polymer using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine how the melt flows through the nozzle and is deposited onto the build plate. We then address how this deformation relaxes and contributes to the thickness and structure of the weld. National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) and Georgetown University.

  19. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe welding. 154.660 Section 154.660 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt welds...

  20. 49 CFR 195.214 - Welding procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding procedures. 195.214 Section 195.214... PIPELINE Construction § 195.214 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures qualified under Section 5 of API 1104 or Section IX of the ASME Boiler and...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.255 - Resistance welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resistance welding. 1910.255 Section 1910.255 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Welding, Cutting and Brazing § 1910.255 Resistance welding. (a.... Ignitron tubes used in resistance welding equipment shall be equipped with a thermal protection switch. (3...

  2. METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR LASER WELDING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to laser welding of at least two adjacent, abutting or overlapping work pieces in a welding direction using multiple laser beams guided to a welding region, wherein at least two of the multiple laser beams are coupled into the welding region so as to form a melt and at least...

  3. 49 CFR 179.300-9 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.300-9 Section 179.300-9... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-9 Welding. (a) Longitudinal... fusion welded on class DOT-110A tanks. Welding procedures, welders and fabricators must be approved in...

  4. Tailor-welded blanks and their production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi

    2005-01-01

    Tailor welded blanks had been widely used in the automobile industry. A tailor welded blank consists of several flat sheets that were laser welded together before stamping. A combination of different materials, thickness, and coatings could be welded together to form a blank for stamping car body panels. As for the material for automobile industry, this technology was one of the development trend for automobile industry because of its weight reduction, safety improvement and economical use of materials. In this paper, the characters and production of tailor welded blanks in the market were discussed in detail. There had two major methods to produce tailor welded blanks. Laser welding would replace mesh seam welding for the production of tailor welded blanks in the future. The requirements on the edge preparation of unwelded blanks for tailor welded blanks were higher than the other steel processing technology. In order to produce the laser welded blank, there had the other process before the laser welding in the factory. In the world, there had three kinds of patterns for the large volume production of tailor welded blanks. In China, steel factory played the important role in the promotion of the application of tailor welded blanks. The competition for the supply of tailor welded blanks to the automobile industry would become fierce in the near future. As a result, the demand for the quality control on the production of tailor welded blanks would be the first priority concern for the factory.

  5. Clamp and Gas Nozzle for TIG Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gue, G. B.; Goller, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Tool that combines clamp with gas nozzle is aid to tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding in hard-to-reach spots. Tool holds work to be welded while directing a stream of argon gas at weld joint, providing an oxygen-free environment for tungsten-arc welding.

  6. Electron beam welding fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, G.L.; Armstrong, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The electron beam welding process is described and the unique mode of operation and penetration explained by a description of the forces operating within the weld pool. This penetration model is demonstrated by high speed cinematography of the weld pool on several materials. The conditions under which weld defects are formed are discussed and examples are presented. (auth)

  7. Electron beam welding of aluminium components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maajid, Ali; Vadali, S.K.; Maury, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is one of the most widely used materials in industries like transportation, shipbuilding, manufacturing, aerospace, nuclear, etc. The challenges in joining of aluminium are distortion, cleanliness and quality. Main difficulties faced during fusion welding of aluminium components are removal of surface oxide layer, weld porosity, high heat input requirement, distortion, hot cracking, etc. Physical properties of aluminium such as its high thermal conductivity, high coefficient of thermal expansion, no change in colour at high temperature, large difference in the melting points of the metal and its oxide (∼ 1400 °C) compound the difficulties faced during welding. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Plasma Arc Welding (PAW), etc are generally used in industries for fusion welding of aluminium alloys. However in case of thicker jobs the above processes are not suitable due to requirements of elaborate edge preparation, preheating of jobs, fixturing to prevent distortion, etc. Moreover, precise control over the heat input during welding and weld bead penetration is not possible with above processes. Further, if heat sensitive parts are located near the weld joint then high energy density beam welding process like Electron Beam Welding (EBW) is the best possible choice for aluminium welding.This paper discusses EB welding of aluminium components, typical geometry of components, selection/optimization of welding parameters, problems faced during standardization of welding and process parameters and their remedies etc.

  8. Electron beam welding: study of process capabilities and limitations towards development of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadolia, Gautam; Singh, Kongkham Premjit

    2015-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) welding technology is an established and widely adopted technique in nuclear research and development area. Electron Beam welding is thought of as a candidate process for ITER Vacuum Vessel Fabrication. Dhruva Reactor @ BARC, Mumbai and Niobium Superconducting accelerator Cavitity @ BARC has adopted the EB welding technique as a fabrication route. The highly concentrated energy input of the electron beam has added the advantages over the conventional welding as being less HAZ and provided smooth and clean surface. EB Welding has also been used for the joining of various reactive and refractory materials. EB system as heat source has also been used for vacuum brazing application. The Welding Institute (TWI) has demonstrated that EBW is potentially suitable to produce high integrity joints in 50 mm pure copper. TWI has also examined 150 kV Reduced Pressure Electron Beam (RPEB) gun in welding 140 mm and 147 mm thickness Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (SA 508 grade). EBW in 10 mm thick SS316 plates were studied at IPR and results were encouraging. In this paper, the pros and cons and role of electron beam process will be studied to analyze the importance of electron beam welding in nuclear components fabrication. Importance of establishing the high precision Wire Electro Discharge Machining (WEDM) facility will also be discussed. (author)

  9. Machine for welding solar cell connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorans, D.Y.

    1977-08-09

    A machine for welding a connection wire over a solar cell electrode is described which comprises a base, a welding mount for the solar cell which is supported on the base, means for holding the solar cell on the welding mount, welding electrodes, means to lower the welding electrodes over the solar cell and the connection wire superimposed thereon, means for applying electric current pulses to said welding electrodes. It is characterized by the fact that it further comprises means for imparting to said mount an alternating transverse movement in relation to said base before and during the welding operation.

  10. Spot Welding Characterizations With Time Variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Hafid; Pinitoyo, A.; History; Paidjo, Andryansyah; Sagino, Sudarmin; Tamzil, M.

    2001-01-01

    For obtain spot welding used effective data, this research is made, so that time operational of machine increasing. Welding parameters are material classification, electrical current, and weld time. All of the factors are determined welding quality. If the plate more thick, the time must be longer when the current constant. Another factor as determined welding quality are surface condition of electrode, surface condition of weld material, and material classifications. In this research, the weld machine type IP32A2 VI (110 V), Rivoira trademark is characterized

  11. Development of automatic laser welding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwaki, Katsura

    2002-01-01

    Laser are a new production tool for high speed and low distortion welding and applications to automatic welding lines are increasing. IHI has long experience of laser processing for the preservation of nuclear power plants, welding of airplane engines and so on. Moreover, YAG laser oscillators and various kinds of hardware have been developed for laser welding and automation. Combining these welding technologies and laser hardware technologies produce the automatic laser welding system. In this paper, the component technologies are described, including combined optics intended to improve welding stability, laser oscillators, monitoring system, seam tracking system and so on. (author)

  12. Research on the Effects of Technical Parameters on the Molding of the Weld by A-TIG Welding

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Kai; Pan, Wu

    2012-01-01

    The effects of welding parameters on the molding of weld by A-TIG welding of a 4mm thickness mild steel plate is studied in the present paper. The results obtained show that: as welding current increases A-TIG welding penetration gets deeper than TIG welding; size and shape of HAZ has remarkable change; A-TIG welding has the narrower weld pool width than TIG welding.

  13. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  14. Automatic welding of stainless steel tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of automatic welding for making girth welds in stainless steel tubing was investigated as well as the reduction in fabrication costs resulting from the elimination of radiographic inspection. Test methodology, materials, and techniques are discussed, and data sheets for individual tests are included. Process variables studied include welding amperes, revolutions per minute, and shielding gas flow. Strip chart recordings, as a definitive method of insuring weld quality, are studied. Test results, determined by both radiographic and visual inspection, are presented and indicate that once optimum welding procedures for specific sizes of tubing are established, and the welding machine operations are certified, then the automatic tube welding process produces good quality welds repeatedly, with a high degree of reliability. Revised specifications for welding tubing using the automatic process and weld visual inspection requirements at the Kennedy Space Center are enumerated.

  15. Torque Measurement of Welding of Endplug-Endplate using Multi-pin Remote Welding System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Soo-Sung; Park, Geun-Il; Lee, Jung-Won; Song, Kee-Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    As fuel bundles in PHWR irradiates, inner pressure in claddings of fuel rods increases owing to outer pressure and fission products of nuclear fissions. Because of leak possibility of welding between cladding and end plug, this welding part connects with safety of nuclear fuel rods. Because of importance of this welding part, weldability of end plug-cladding of nuclear fuel rods is continually researched. Welding method for research and commercialization is classified as melting, solid type welding or resistance welding. End plug cladding welding of nuclear fuel rods in PHWR takes advantage of resistance upset butt welding using multicycle mode. This method makes weld flash and shapes re-entrant corner owing to welding heat due to resistivity, contact resistance of cladding-end plug, and inelasticity deformation due to pressure. Welding part between cladding and end plug receives stresses and makes small cracks. In this study, remote welding system for multi-pin assembly was designed, fabricated and welding specimens of end plug-endplate were made using electrical resistance method. The torques of welding between end plug and endplate were measured. These results on welding current, pressure of main electrode and pressure of branch electrode were analyzed. Weldability between end plug and endplate was confirmed through metallographic examinations. In the future, optimal welding examinations due to welding current, welding pressure and welding time will be performed to improve weldability of end plug-endplate.

  16. Welding Penetration Control of Fixed Pipe in TIG Welding Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskoro, Ario Sunar; Kabutomori, Masashi; Suga, Yasuo

    This paper presents a study on welding penetration control of fixed pipe in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding using fuzzy inference system. The welding penetration control is essential to the production quality welds with a specified geometry. For pipe welding using constant arc current and welding speed, the bead width becomes wider as the circumferential welding of small diameter pipes progresses. Having welded pipe in fixed position, obviously, the excessive arc current yields burn through of metals; in contrary, insufficient arc current produces imperfect welding. In order to avoid these errors and to obtain the uniform weld bead over the entire circumference of the pipe, the welding conditions should be controlled as the welding proceeds. This research studies the intelligent welding process of aluminum alloy pipe 6063S-T5 in fixed position using the AC welding machine. The monitoring system used a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to monitor backside image of molten pool. The captured image was processed to recognize the edge of molten pool by image processing algorithm. Simulation of welding control using fuzzy inference system was constructed to simulate the welding control process. The simulation result shows that fuzzy controller was suitable for controlling the welding speed and appropriate to be implemented into the welding system. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the fuzzy controller. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the control system that is confirmed by sound welds.

  17. Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

  18. Cast-to-cast variation in end-plug welds for TRIGA fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondac, C.; Truta, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti - TRIGA Reactor Department there are under development activities for assembling TRIGA-LEU fuel elements locally manufactured, through autogenous Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG) welding. Due to specific problems occurring in welding Ni alloys, namely the dissimilar joint between Inconel 600 and Inconel 800 at the end-plug weld, weldability tests on Inconel 600 under various conditions were performed. The tests had been carried out in two stages: basic tests, on simple turned rods of Inconel 600; confirmation tests, on real (actual) end plug –to – clad welding. The basic tests had been done on simple rods machined (turned) at 13.8 mm (main diameter of the plugs) on which there have been made simple semicircular weldings ( no joint involved). Confirmation tests were done on the plug-clad assembly (dissimilar welding Incoloy-Inconel), with the welding parameters resulted from the preliminary conclusions of the basic tests. After welding, the samples were transversally sectioned, prepared for metallographic examination according to the specific procedure. The samples were examined at the metallographic microscope, and photo records for each sectioned welding bead have been taken . Measurements have been made on the recorded photos resulting the essential characteristics of the penetration: width W, depth d and ratio W/d. From the obtained results the following conclusions can be formulated: the penetration depth of the end-plug weld at the TRIGA fuel element varies substantially depending on the material cast of which the plug is produced; the optimization tests had covered the whole range of parameters in which do not appear systematic defects in welds that are specific to the alloys of Nickel ( porosity, hot cracking); for 2011-2012 casts higher energy (640 As) is required compared to the welding energy used for the 2009 batch, but to be sure that the manufacturing requirements are fulfilled, it is necessary to carry

  19. Corrosion Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Jakob; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the corrosion properties of laser welded AISI 316L stainless steel are examined. A number of different welds has been performed to test the influence of the weld parameters of the resulting corrosion properties. It has been chosen to use the potential independent critical pitting...... temperature (CPT) test as corrosion test. The following welding parameters are varied: Welding speed, lsser power, focus point position and laser operation mode (CW or pulsed)....

  20. Heat Source - Materials Interactions during Fusion Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-30

    the capabilities of ultrasonic weld pool measurement, and to address questions of applications to active pool size control. -- mom- 44 TIG welding ...preparation. The fraction of absorbed power increases dramatically upon formation of a keyhole . As a result, welds made with sharply beveled edge...laser end electron beam welding processes characteristically produce a deel,, narrow weld bead. This bead is formed by a keyhole mode of operation in

  1. Real time computer controlled weld skate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A real time, adaptive control, automatic welding system was developed. This system utilizes the general case geometrical relationships between a weldment and a weld skate to precisely maintain constant weld speed and torch angle along a contoured workplace. The system is compatible with the gas tungsten arc weld process or can be adapted to other weld processes. Heli-arc cutting and machine tool routing operations are possible applications.

  2. Collection of arc welding process data

    OpenAIRE

    K. Luksa; Z. Rymarski

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the research was to examine the possibility of detecting welding imperfections by recording the instant values of welding parameters. The microprocessor controlled system for real-time collection and display of welding parameters was designed, implemented and tested.Design/methodology/approach: The system records up to 4 digital or analog signals collected from welding process and displays their run on the LCD display. To disturb the welding process artificial disturbances...

  3. Analysis And Control System For Automated Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Bradley W.; Burroughs, Ivan A.; Kennedy, Larry Z.; Rodgers, Michael H.; Goode, K. Wayne

    1994-01-01

    Automated variable-polarity plasma arc (VPPA) welding apparatus operates under electronic supervision by welding analysis and control system. System performs all major monitoring and controlling functions. It acquires, analyzes, and displays weld-quality data in real time and adjusts process parameters accordingly. Also records pertinent data for use in post-weld analysis and documentation of quality. System includes optoelectronic sensors and data processors that provide feedback control of welding process.

  4. Friction Welding of Titanium and Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi, HASUI; Yoichi, KIRA; Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University; Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co., Ltd.

    1985-01-01

    Titanium-steel is a combination of dissimilar materials, which are difficult to weld in general, owing to inevitable formation of brittle intermetallic compounds. A prominent feature of friction welding process is ability to weld dissimilar materials in many kinds of combinations. This report deals with friction weldabilily of pure titanium and S25C steel, which are 12 mm in diameter. Main results are summarized as follows; (1) Suitable welding conditions to obtain a sound weld, which has a j...

  5. Recent advances in the TIG welding process and the application of the welding of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, W.; Males, B.O.

    1982-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of precision arc welding techniques and infacilities for production of nuclear power plant components arc presented. Of the precision welding techniques, pulsed TIG welding, pulsed plasma arc welding, hot-wire TIG welding, and pulsed inert-gas metal-arc welding. In the field of weld cladding, GMA plasma welding is cited as an alternative to submerged-arc welding with a strip electrode. Transistors and computer-controlled welding systems get a special mention. Applications of TIG welding in the UK are cited, e.g. welding of components for the AGR nuclear power plant and construction of equipment for repair work in feedwater pipes of the MAGNOX reactor. (orig.) [de

  6. Investigation into Variations of Welding Residual Stresses and Redistribution Behaviors for Different Repair Welding Widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chiyong; Lee, Hweesueng; Huh, Namsu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the variations in welding residual stresses in dissimilar metal butt weld due to width of repair welding and re-distribution behaviors resulting from similar metal welding (SMW) and mechanical loading. To this end, detailed two-dimensional axi-symmetric finite element (FE) analyses were performed considering five different repair welding widths. Based on the FE results, we first evaluated the welding residual stress distributions in repair welding. We then investigated the re-distribution behaviors of the residual stresses due to SMW and mechanical loads. It is revealed that large tensile welding residual stresses take place in the inner surface and that its distribution is affected, provided repair welding width is larger than certain value. The welding residual stresses resulting from repair welding are remarkably reduced due to SMW and mechanical loading, regardless of the width of the repair welding

  7. The international institute of welding (IIW, its potential positive influence in the world and some national models for technology innovation O instituto internacional de soldagem (IIS, sua influência potencial positiva no mundo e alguns modelos nacionais de inovação tecnológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Smallbone

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its establishment 60 years ago, the International Institute of Welding (IIW has had numerous successes that have helped the world. In 2006, the IIW introduced a major project entitled "To Improve the Global Quality of Life Through Optimum Use of Welding Technology". Many of the initiatives being implemented will be of benefit to many countries, particularly with such significant global growth taking place throughout the world. It is estimated that during this next decade, many trillions of US dollars will be spent on infrastructure projects in the energy and processing industry, in this truly global world. Besides the normal fabrication, construction and maintenance work within countries, the additional infrastructure projects will create challenges for welding technology. Such challenges include the fabrication, construction, maintenance, inspection and testing of trillions of components whilst ensuring that they are made efficiently and cost effectively, in an environmentally friendly manner and have high integrity and reliability in service. In most industrialised countries, pressure equipment is aging and plant life is pushed well beyond original design considerations. Much plant is now required to operate at extremely high levels of availability with very limited time available for inspection and maintenance. This is a recipe for disaster. It is predicted that in five years time the world will see an increasing number of failures such as these, possibly resulting in death, injury, environmental damage and lost production. The subsequent economic impact will be enormous. This paper gives an overview of the work of IIW internationally, in various regions of the world and industry sectors utilising welding, the challenges being faced, opportunities available, and probable requirements for the successful introduction and optimum use of welding technology. Successful models used in other countries, particularly for technology diffusion to

  8. 10,170 flawless welds

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    The welding of tubes containing the principal current-carrying busbars in the LHC magnets was one of the main activities of the SMACC project. After a year of preparation and another of intense activity in the tunnel, the last weld was completed on Wednesday 14 May. Over 10,170 welds have been inspected and not a single fault has been found.    The welder (above) creates the weld using an orbital welding machine (below) specifically designed for CERN. Each of the eight sectors of the LHC contains around 210 interconnects between the superconducting magnets. Consolidating these interconnections was the SMACC project’s primary objective. One of the last jobs before closing the interconnects is the welding of the M lines: each has a 104 mm diameter and a radial clearance of just 45 mm. In total: 10,170 welds carried out in a single year of activities. A true challenge, which was carried out by a team of 30 highly specialised welders, working under the supervision o...

  9. Deformation During Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Henry J.

    2002-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

  10. LASER WELDING WITH MICRO-JET COOLING FOR TRUCK FRAME WELDING

    OpenAIRE

    Jan PIWNIK; Bożena SZCZUCKA-LASOTA; Tomasz WĘGRZYN; Wojciech MAJEWSKI

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the mechanical properties of the weld steel structure of car body truck frames after laser welding. The best welding conditions involve the use of proper materials and alloy elements in steel and filer materials, in addition to welding technology, state of stress and temperature of exploitation. We present for the first time the properties of steel track structures after laser welding with micro-jet cooling. Therefore, good selection of both welding paramet...

  11. The ultrasonic testing of austenitic welds and claddings as described in the handbooks of the IIW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, E.; Wuestenberg, H.

    1991-01-01

    The handbooks of the International Institute of Welding (IIW) are to give guidance in the use of ultrasonic testing techniques developed for austenitic welded joints and platings, and serve as a pattern for working out testing instructions for these special tests. Basically these handbooks consist of the metallurgical description of the test subjects; sound propagation in acoustically anisotropic structures; description of testing techniques, and guidance in preparing testing instructions. (orig./DG) [de

  12. Autocorrelation analysis of plasma plume light emissions in deep penetration laser welding of steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrňa, Libor; Šarbort, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Jedlička, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-10, č. článku 012009. ISSN 1042-346X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : laser welding * plasma plume * light emissions * autocorrelation analysis * weld depth Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.492, year: 2016

  13. A study of weld quality in ultrasonic spot welding of similar and dissimilar metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sarraf, Z; Lucas, M

    2012-01-01

    Several difficulties are faced in joining thinner sheets of similar and dissimilar materials from fusion welding processes such as resistance welding and laser welding. Ultrasonic metal welding overcomes many of these difficulties by using high frequency vibration and applied pressure to create a solid-state weld. Ultrasonic metal welding is an effective technique in joining small components, such as in wire bonding, but is also capable of joining thicker sheet, depending on the control of welding conditions. This study presents the design, characterisation and test of a lateral-drive ultrasonic metal welding device. The ultrasonic welding horn is modelled using finite element analysis and its vibration behaviour is characterised experimentally to ensure ultrasonic energy is delivered to the weld coupon. The welding stack and fixtures are then designed and mounted on a test machine to allow a series of experiments to be conducted for various welding and ultrasonic parameters. Weld strength is subsequently analysed using tensile-shear tests. Control of the vibration amplitude profile through the weld cycle is used to enhance weld strength and quality, providing an opportunity to reduce part marking. Optical microscopic examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the weld quality. The results show how the weld quality is particularly sensitive to the combination of clamping force and vibration amplitude of the welding tip.

  14. The technology and welding joint properties of hybrid laser-tig welding on thick plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenghai, Zhang; Yifu, Shen; Huijuan, Qiu

    2013-06-01

    The technologies of autogenous laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding are used on thick plate of high strength lower alloy structural steel 10CrNiMnMoV in this article. The unique advantages of hybrid laser-TIG welding is summarized by comparing and analyzing the process parameters and welding joints of autogenous laser welding laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding. With the optimal process parameters of hybrid welding, the good welding joint without visible flaws can be obtained and its mechanical properties are tested according to industry standards. The results show that the hybrid welding technology has certain advantages and possibility in welding thick plates. It can reduce the demands of laser power, and it is significant for lowering the aspect ratio of weld during hybrid welding, so the gas in the molten pool can rise and escape easily while welding thick plates. Therefore, the pores forming tendency decreases. At the same time, hybrid welding enhances welding speed, and optimizes the energy input. The transition and grain size of the microstructure of hybrid welding joint is better and its hardness is higher than base material. Furthermore, its tensile strength and impact toughness is as good as base material. Consequently, the hybrid welding joint can meet the industry needs completely.

  15. Plasticity Theory of Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    a safe and statically admissible stress distribution is established. The plasticity solutions are compared with tests carried out at the Engineering Academy of Denmark, Lyngby, in the early nineties, and old fillet weld tests. The new failure conditions are in very good agreement with the yield load......This paper deals with simple methods for calculation of fillet welds based on the theory of plasticity. In developing the solutions the lower-bound theorem is used. The welding material and parts of the base material are subdivided into triangular regions with homogeneous stress fields; thereby...... tests, but not so good agreement with the old failure load tests....

  16. Review of laser hybrid welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus

    2004-01-01

    In this artucle an overview og the hybrid welding process is given. After a short historic overview, a review of the fundamental phenomenon taking place when a laser (CO2 or Nd:YAG) interacts in the same molten pool as a more conventional source of energy, e.g. tungsten in-active gas, plasma......, or metal inactive gas/metal active gas.This is followed by reports of how the many process parameters governing the hybrid welding process can be set and how the choice of secondary energy source, shielding gas, etc. can affect the overall welding process....

  17. Waste canister closure welding using the inertia friction welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.F.; Siemens, D.H.; Kuruzar, D.L.

    1986-02-01

    Liquid radioactive waste presently stored in underground tanks is to undergo a vitrifying process which will immobilize it in a solid form. This solid waste will be contained in a stainless steel canister. The canister opening requires a positive seal weld, the properties and thickness of which are at least equal to those of the canister material. This paper describes the inertia friction welding process and a proposed equipment design concept that will provide a positive, reliable, inspectable, and full thickness seal weld while providing easily maintainable equipment, even though the weld is made in a highly contaminated hot cell. All studies and tests performed have shown the concept to be highly feasible. 2 refs., 6 figs

  18. Dictionary: Welding, cutting and allied processes. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiber, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The dictionary contains approximately 40 000 entries covering all aspects of welding technology. It is based on the evaluation of numerous English, American and German sources. This comprehensive and up to date dictionary will be a reliable and helpful aid in evaluation and translating. The dictionary covers the following areas: Welding: gas welding, arc welding, gas shielded welding, resistance welding, welding of plastics, special welding processes; Cutting: flame cutting, arc cutting and special thermal cutting processes; Soldering: brazing and soldering; Other topics: thermal spraying, metal to metal adhesion, welding filler materials and other consumables, test methods, plant and equipment, accessories, automation, welding trade, general welding terminology. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Leak-Before-Break assessment of a welded piping based on 3D finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mingya; Yu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhilin; Qian, Guian; Lu, Feng; Xue, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of load reduction, strength match, welding width, load level, crack size and constraint are studied. • The results show that the LBB margin is dependent on the load level. • The results show that higher strength-match of WPJs will have higher crack-front constraints. • The results show that the engineering method has a high precision only if the width of weld is comparable to the crack depth. - Abstract: The paper studies the effects of the load reduction (discrepancy between designing and real loadings), strength match of the welded piping joint (WPJ), welding width, crack size and crack tip constraint on the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) assessment of a welded piping. The 3D finite element (FE) method is used in the study of a surge line of the steam generator in a nuclear power plant. It is demonstrated that the LBB margin is dependent on the loading level and the load reduction effect should be considered. When the loading is high enough, there is a quite large deviation between the J-integral calculated based on the real material property of WPJ and that calculated based on the engineering method, e.g. Zahoor handbook of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The engineering method assumes that the whole piping is made of the unique welding material in the calculation. As the influence of the strength matching and welding width is ignored in the engineering method for J-integral calculation, the engineering method has a sufficient precision only if the width of welding is comparable to the crack depth. Narrower welding width leads to higher constraint of the plastic deformation in the welding and larger high stress areas in the base for the low strength-match WPJ. Higher strength matching of WPJs has higher crack-front constraints.

  20. Effects of welding fumes on nuclear air cleaning system carbon adsorber banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, P.W. [Duke Power Company, Huntersville, NC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Standard Technical Specifications for nuclear air cleaning systems include requirements for surveillance tests following fire, painting, or chemical release in areas communicating with the affected system. To conservatively implement this requirement, many plants categorize welding as a chemical release process, and institute controls to ensure that welding fumes do not interact with carbon adsorbers in a filter system. After reviewing research data that indicated welding had a minimal impact on adsorber iodine removal efficiency, further testing was performed with the goal of establishing a welding threshold. It was anticipated that some quantity of weld electrodes could be determined that had a corresponding detrimental impact on iodine removal efficiency for the exposed adsorber. This value could be used to determine a conservative sampling schedule that would allow the station to perform laboratory testing to ensure system degradation did not occur without a full battery of surveillance tests. A series of tests was designed to demonstrate carbon efficiency versus cumulative welding fume exposure. Three series of tests were performed, one for each of three different types of commonly used weld electrodes. Carbon sampling was performed at baseline conditions, and every five pounds of electrode thereafter. Two different laboratory tests were performed for each sample; one in accordance with ASTM 3803/1989 at 95% relative humidity and 30 degrees C, and another using the less rigorous conditions of 70% relative humidity and 80 degrees C. Review of the test data for all three types of electrodes failed to show a significant correlation between carbon efficiency degradation and welding fume exposure. Accordingly, welding is no longer categorized as a `chemical release process` at McGuire Nuclear Station, and limits on welding fume interaction with ventilation systems have been eliminated. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Automatic welding and cladding in heavy fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamer, A. de

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of the automatic welding processes used by an Italian fabricator of pressure vessels for petrochemical and nuclear plant. The automatic submerged arc welding, submerged arc strip cladding, pulsed TIG, hot wire TIG and MIG welding processes have proved satisfactory in terms of process reliability, metal deposition rate, and cost effectiveness for low alloy and carbon steels. An example shows sequences required during automatic butt welding, including heat treatments. Factors which govern satisfactory automatic welding include automatic anti-drift rotator device, electrode guidance and bead programming system, the capability of single and dual head operation, flux recovery and slag removal systems, operator environment and controls, maintaining continuity of welding and automatic reverse side grinding. Automatic welding is used for: joining vessel sections; joining tubes to tubeplate; cladding of vessel rings and tubes, dished ends and extruded nozzles; nozzle to shell and butt welds, including narrow gap welding. (author)

  2. Materials participation in welded joints manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2016-08-01

    Management of materials dilution to form a joint with higher features asked by complex metallic structures is a problem that took attention and efforts of welding processes researchers and this communication will give a little contribution presenting some scientific and experimental results of dilution processes studied by Welding Research Group from Iasi, Romania, TCM Department. Liquid state welding processes have a strong dependence related to dilution of base and filler materials, the most important are for automatic joining using welding. The paper presents a review of some scientific works already published and their contributions, results of dilution coefficient evaluation using weighing, graphics and software applied for shielded metal arc welding process. Paper results could be used for welders’ qualification, welding procedure specification and other welding processes researchers’ activities. The results of Welding Research Group from Iasi, Romania, TCM Department, show dilution coefficient values between 20-30 % of base material and 70-80 % of filler material for studied welding process.

  3. Gas Shielding Technology for Welding and Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur J.; Gradl, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Welding is a common method that allows two metallic materials to be joined together with high structural integrity. When joints need to be leak-tight, light-weight, or free of contaminant-trapping seams or surface asperities, welding tends to be specified. There are many welding techniques, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of these techniques include Forge Welding, Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, Friction Stir Welding, and Laser Beam Welding to name a few. Whichever technique is used, the objective is a structural joint that meets the requirements of a particular component or assembly. A key practice in producing quality welds is the use of shielding gas. This article discusses various weld techniques, quality of the welds, and importance of shielding gas in each of those techniques. Metallic bonds, or joints, are produced when metals are put into intimate contact. In the solid-state "blacksmith welding" process, now called Forge Welding (FOW), the site to be joined is pounded into intimate contact. The surfaces to be joined usually need to be heated to make it easier to deform the metal. The surfaces are sprinkled with a flux to melt surface oxides and given a concave shape so that surface contamination can be squeezed out of the joint as the surfaces are pounded together; otherwise the surface contamination would be trapped in the joint and would weaken the weld. In solid-state welding processes surface oxides or other contamination are typically squeezed out of the joint in "flash."

  4. Method for enhanced control of welding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Donald A.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tung, David M.; Schroder, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Method and system for producing high quality welds in welding processes, in general, and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding, in particular by controlling weld penetration. Light emitted from a weld pool is collected from the backside of a workpiece by optical means during welding and transmitted to a digital video camera for further processing, after the emitted light is first passed through a short wavelength pass filter to remove infrared radiation. By filtering out the infrared component of the light emitted from the backside weld pool image, the present invention provides for the accurate determination of the weld pool boundary. Data from the digital camera is fed to an imaging board which focuses on a 100.times.100 pixel portion of the image. The board performs a thresholding operation and provides this information to a digital signal processor to compute the backside weld pool dimensions and area. This information is used by a control system, in a dynamic feedback mode, to automatically adjust appropriate parameters of a welding system, such as the welding current, to control weld penetration and thus, create a uniform weld bead and high quality weld.

  5. MFDC - technological improvement in resistance welding controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somani, A.K.; Naga Bhaskar, V.; Chandramouli, J.; Rameshwara Rao, A. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)

    2008-07-01

    Among the various Resistance Welding operations carried out in the production line of a fuel bundle end plug welding is the most critical operation. Welding controllers play a very vital role in obtaining consistent weld quality by regulating and controlling the weld current. Conventional mains synchronized welding controllers are at best capable of controlling the weld current at a maximum speed of the mains frequency. In view of the very short welding durations involved in the various stages of a fuel bundle fabrication, a need was felt for superior welding controllers. Medium Frequency Welding Controllers offer a solution to these limitations in addition to offering other advantages. Medium Frequency power sources offer precise welding current control as they regulate and correct the welding current faster, typically twenty times faster when operated at 1000Hz. An MFDC was employed on one of the welding machines and its performance was studied. This paper discusses about the various advantages of MFDCs with other controllers employed at NFC to end plug welding operation. (author)

  6. Cu-Fe welding techniques by electromagnetic and electron beam welding processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Satendra; Saroj, P.C.; Kulkarni, M.R.; Sharma, A.; Rajawat, R.K.; Saha, T.K.

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic welding being a solid state welding process has been found suitable for welding Copper and Iron which are conventionally very tricky. Owing to good electrical conductivity of both copper and iron, they are best suited combination for EM welding. For the experimental conditions presented above, 1.0 mm wall thickness of Cu tube was lap welded to Fe disc. A heavy duty four disc stainless steel coil was used for electromagnetic welding of samples. MSLD of the welded samples indicated leak proof joints. Metallographic examination of the welds also revealed defect free interfaces. Electron beam welding is also a non-conventional welding process used for joining dissimilar materials. Autogenous welding of the above specimen was carried out by EBW method for the sake of comparison. A characterization analysis of the above mentioned joining processes will be discussed in the paper. (author)

  7. Effect of Welding Parameters on Dilution and Weld Bead Geometry in Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effect of pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) variables on the dilution and weld bead geometry in cladding X65 pipeline steel with 316L stainless steel was studied. Using a full factorial method, a series of experiments were carried out to know the effect of wire feed rate, welding speed, distance between gas nozzle and plate, and the vertical angle of welding on dilution and weld bead geometry. The findings indicate that the dilution of weld metal and its dimension i.e. width, height and depth increase with the feed rate, but the contact angle of the bead decreases first and then increases. Meantime, welding speed has an opposite effect except for dilution. There is an interaction effect between welding parameters at the contact angle. The results also show forehand welding or decreasing electrode extension decrease the angle of contact. Finally,a mathematical model is contrived to highlight the relationship between welding variables with dilution and weld bead geometry.

  8. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    . The overall assessment of the weld bonding process is made using several commercial adhesives with varying working times under different surface conditions. The quality of the resulting joints is evaluated by means of macroetching observations, tension-shear tests and peel tests. The theoretical investigation......This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot-welding...... of the process consists of numerical predictions based on the commercial finite element program SORPAS with the purpose of establishing the most favourable parameters that allow spot-welding through the adhesives....

  9. Welding and Production Metallurgy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 6000 square foot facility represents the only welding laboratory of its kind within DA. It is capable of conducting investigations associated with solid state...

  10. Thermomechanical Modelling of Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes a generic programme for analysis, optimization and development of resistance spot and projection welding. The programme includes an electrical model determining electric current and voltage distribution as well as heat generation, a thermal model calculating heat...

  11. Welding process modelling and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Peter L.; Adenwala, Jinen A.

    1993-01-01

    The research and analysis performed, and software developed, and hardware/software recommendations made during 1992 in development of the PC-based data acquisition system for support of Welding Process Modeling and Control is reported. A need was identified by the Metals Processing Branch of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, for a mobile data aquisition and analysis system, customized for welding measurement and calibration. Several hardware configurations were evaluated and a PC-based system was chosen. The Welding Measurement System (WMS) is a dedicated instrument, strictly for the use of data aquisition and analysis. Although the WMS supports many of the functions associated with the process control, it is not the intention for this system to be used for welding process control.

  12. Welding development for LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, G.M.; Edmonds, D.P.; Goodwin, G.M.; King, J.F.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    High-quality welds with suitable properties for long-time elevated-temperature nuclear service are among the most critical needs in today's welding technology. Safe, reliable, and economic generation of future power depends on welded construction in systems such as Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs). Rapid thermal transients in LMFBR systems at coolant temperatures around 590 to 650 0 C (1000 to 1200 0 F) could cause creep and creep-fatigue damage that is not encountered in lower temperature reactor systems. The undesirable consequences of interaction between the two working fluids - sodium and steam - in the steam generators are also of major concern. Thus sound welds that have excellent reliability over a 30-year service life are essential. Several programs are actively underway at ORNL to satisfy this critical need and selected portions of three of these programs are discussed briefly

  13. Laser welding of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    This thesis treats laser welding of aluminium alloys from a practical perspective with elements of mathematical analysis. The theoretical work has in all cases been verified experimentally. The aluminium alloys studied are from the 5xxx and 6xxx groups which are common for example in the automotive industry. Aluminium has many unique physical properties. The properties which more than others have been shown to influence the welding process is its high reflection, high thermal conductivity, lo...

  14. Austenitic stainless steel weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.; Emmons, J.S.; Michaels, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical techniques applied to ultrasonic waveforms obtained from inspection of austenitic stainless steel welds are described. Experimental results obtained from a variety of geometric and defect reflectors are presented. Specifically, frequency analyses parameters, such as simple moments of the power spectrum, cross-correlation techniques, and adaptive learning network analysis, all represent improvements over conventional time domain analysis of ultrasonic waveforms. Results for each of these methods are presented, and the overall inspection difficulties of austenitic stainless steel welds are discussed

  15. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  16. Welding of Prosthetic Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the techniques of joining metal denture elements, used in prosthetic dentistry: the traditional soldering technique with a gas burner and a new technique of welding with a laser beam; the aim of the study was to make a comparative assessment of the quality of the joints in view of the possibility of applying them in prosthetic structures. Fractographic examinations were conducted along with tensile strength and impact strength tests, and the quality of the joints was assessed compared to the solid metal. The experiments have shown that the metal elements used to make dentures, joined by the technique which employs a laser beam, have better strength properties than those achieved with a gas burner.

  17. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  18. Hybrid laser-TIG welding, laser beam welding and gas tungsten arc welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liming; Wang Jifeng; Song Gang

    2004-01-01

    Welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy was carried out using hybrid laser-TIG (LATIG) welding, laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc (TIG) welding. The weldability and microstructure of magnesium AZ31B alloy welded using LATIG, LBW and TIG were investigated by OM and EMPA. The experimental results showed that the welding speed of LATIG was higher than that of TIG, which was caught up with LBW. Besides, the penetration of LATIG doubles that of TIG, and was four times that of LBW. In addition, arc stability was improved in hybrid of laser-TIG welding compared with using the TIG welding alone, especially at high welding speed and under low TIG current. It was found that the heat affect zone of joint was only observed in TIG welding, and the size of grains in it was evidently coarse. In fusion zone, the equiaxed grains exist, whose size was the smallest welded by LBW, and was the largest by TIG welding. It was also found that Mg concentration of the fusion zone was lower than that of the base one by EPMA in three welding processes

  19. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: camilarezende.cr@gmail.com, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: vladimirsoler@hotmail.com, E-mail: ahfv02@outlook.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  20. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G.

    2017-01-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  1. Influence of Welding Process and Post Weld Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Dissimilar Aluminium Alloy Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Ramana, V. S. N.; Mohammed, Raffi; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Welding of dissimilar Aluminum alloy welds is becoming important in aerospace, shipbuilding and defence applications. In the present work, an attempt has been made to weld dissimilar aluminium alloys using conventional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and friction stir welding (FSW) processes. An attempt was also made to study the effect of post weld heat treatment (T4 condition) on microstructure and pitting corrosion behaviour of these welds. Results of the present investigation established the differences in microstructures of the base metals in T4 condition and in annealed conditions. It is evident that the thickness of the PMZ is relatively more on AA2014 side than that of AA6061 side. In FS welds, lamellar like shear bands are well noticed on the top of the stir zone. The concentration profile of dissimilar friction stir weld in T4 condition revealed that no diffusion has taken place at the interface. Poor Hardness is observed in all regions of FS welds compared to that of GTA welds. Pitting corrosion resistance of the dissimilar FS welds in all regions was improved by post weld heat treatment.

  2. Study on Laser Welding Process Monitoring Method

    OpenAIRE

    Knag , Heeshin

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a study of quality monitoring technology for the laser welding was conducted. The laser welding and the industrial robotic systems were used with robot-based laser welding systems. The laser system used in this study was 1.6 kW fiber laser, while the robot system was Industrial robot (pay-load : 130 kg). The robot-based laser welding system was equipped with a laser scanner system for remote laser welding. The welding joints of steel plate and steel plat...

  3. Study on Laser Welding Process Monitoring Method

    OpenAIRE

    Heeshin Knag

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a study of quality monitoring technology for the laser welding was conducted. The laser welding and the industrial robotic systems were used with robot-based laser welding systems. The laser system used in this study was 1.6 kW fiber laser, while the robot system was Industrial robot (pay-load : 130 kg). The robot-based laser welding system was equipped with a laser scanner system for remote laser welding. The welding joints of steel plate and steel plate coated with zinc were ...

  4. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  5. Nuclear fuel rod end plug weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M. A.; Patrick, S. S.; Rice, G. F.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for testing TIG (tungsten inert gas) welds of end plugs on a sealed nuclear reactor fuel rod. An X-ray fluorescent spectrograph testing unit detects tungsten inclusion weld defects in the top end plug's seal weld. Separate ultrasonic weld inspection system testing units test the top end plug's seal and girth welds and test the bottom end plug's girth weld for penetration, porosity and wall thinning defects. The nuclear fuel rod is automatically moved into and out from each testing unit and is automatically transported between the testing units by rod handling devices. A controller supervises the operation of the testing units and the rod handling devices

  6. Welding wires for high-tensile steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laz'ko, V.E.; Starova, L.L.; Koval'chuk, V.G.; Maksimovich, T.L.; Labzina, I.E.; Yadrov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Strength of welded joints in arc welding of high-tensile steels of mean and high thickness by welding wires is equal to approximately 1300 MPa in thermohardened state and approximately 600 MPa without heat treatment. Sv-15Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EhK44-VI) -Sv-30Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EkK47-VI) welding wires are suggested for welding of medium-carbon alloyed steels. These wires provide monotonous growth of ultimate strength of weld metal in 1250-1900 MPa range with increase of C content in heat-treated state

  7. Upgraded HFIR Fuel Element Welding System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The welding of aluminum-clad fuel plates into aluminum alloy 6061 side plate tubing is a unique design feature of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel assemblies as 101 full-penetration circumferential gas metal arc welds (GMAW) are required in the fabrication of each assembly. In a HFIR fuel assembly, 540 aluminum-clad fuel plates are assembled into two nested annular fuel elements 610 mm (24-inches) long. The welding process for the HFIR fuel elements was developed in the early 1960 s and about 450 HFIR fuel assemblies have been successfully welded using the GMAW process qualified in the 1960 s. In recent years because of the degradation of the electronic and mechanical components in the old HFIR welding system, reportable defects in plate attachment or adapter welds have been present in almost all completed fuel assemblies. In October 2008, a contract was awarded to AMET, Inc., of Rexburg, Idaho, to replace the old welding equipment with standard commercially available welding components to the maximum extent possible while maintaining the qualified HFIR welding process. The upgraded HFIR welding system represents a major improvement in the welding system used in welding HFIR fuel elements for the previous 40 years. In this upgrade, the new inner GMAW torch is a significant advancement over the original inner GMAW torch previously used. The innovative breakthrough in the new inner welding torch design is the way the direction of the cast in the 0.762 mm (0.030-inch) diameter aluminum weld wire is changed so that the weld wire emerging from the contact tip is straight in the plane perpendicular to the welding direction without creating any significant drag resistance in the feeding of the weld wire.

  8. FEM Analysis and Measurement of Residual Stress by Neutron Diffraction on the Dissimilar Overlay Weld Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Lee, Ho Jin; Woo, Wan Chuck; Seong, Baek Seok; Byeon, Jin Gwi; Park, Kwang Soo; Jung, In Chul

    2010-01-01

    Much research has been done to estimate the residual stress on a dissimilar metal weld. There are many methods to estimate the weld residual stress and FEM (Finite Element Method) is generally used due to the advantage of the parametric study. And the X-ray method and a Hole Drilling technique for an experimental method are also usually used. The aim of this paper is to develop the appropriate FEM model to estimate the residual stresses of the dissimilar overlay weld pipe. For this, firstly, the specimen of the dissimilar overlay weld pipe was manufactured. The SA 508 Gr3 nozzle, the SA 182 safe end and SA376 pipe were welded by the Alloy 182. And the overlay weld by the Alloy 52M was performed. The residual stress of this specimen was measured by using the Neutron Diffraction device in the HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) research reactor, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Secondly, FEM Model on the dissimilar overlay weld pipe was made and analyzed by the ABAQUS Code (ABAQUS, 2004). Thermal analysis and stress analysis were performed, and the residual stress was calculated. Thirdly, the results of the FEM analysis were compared with those of the experimental methods

  9. Emissions of fluorides from welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Pągowska, Emilia; Pyrzyńska, Krystyna

    2015-11-01

    The levels of fluoride airborne particulates emitted from welding processes were investigated. They were sampled with the patented IOM Sampler, developed by J. H. Vincent and D. Mark at the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), personal inhalable sampler for simultaneous collection of the inhalable and respirable size fractions. Ion chromatography with conductometric detection was used for quantitative analysis. The efficiency of fluoride extraction from the cellulose filter of the IOM sampler was examined using the standard sample of urban air particle matter SRM-1648a. The best results for extraction were obtained when water and the anionic surfactant N-Cetyl-N-N-N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used in an ultrasonic bath. The limits of detection and quantification for the whole procedure were 8μg/L and 24μg/L, respectively. The linear range of calibration was 0.01-10mg/L, which corresponds to 0.0001-0.1mg of fluorides per m(3) in collection of a 20L air sample. The concentration of fluorides in the respirable fraction of collected air samples was in the range of 0.20-1.82mg/m(3), while the inhalable fraction contained 0.23-1.96mg/m(3) of fluorides during an eight-hour working day in the welding room. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Development of technique for laser welding of biological tissues using laser welding device and nanocomposite solder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, A; Ichcitidze, L; Podgaetsky, V; Ryabkin, D; Pyankov, E; Saveliev, M; Selishchev, S

    2015-08-01

    The laser device for welding of biological tissues has been developed involving quality control and temperature stabilization of weld seam. Laser nanocomposite solder applied onto a wound to be weld has been used. Physicochemical properties of the nanocomposite solder have been elucidated. The nature of the tissue-organizing nanoscaffold has been analyzed at the site of biotissue welding.

  11. Welding of Thin Steel Plates by Hybrid Welding Process Combined TIG Arc with YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewon; Suga, Yasuo; Koike, Takashi

    TIG arc welding and laser welding are used widely in the world. However, these welding processes have some advantages and problems respectively. In order to improve problems and make use of advantages of the arc welding and the laser welding processes, hybrid welding process combined the TIG arc with the YAG laser was studied. Especially, the suitable welding conditions for thin steel plate welding were investigated to obtain sound weld with beautiful surface and back beads but without weld defects. As a result, it was confirmed that the shot position of the laser beam is very important to obtain sound welds in hybrid welding. Therefore, a new intelligent system to monitor the welding area using vision sensor is constructed. Furthermore, control system to shot the laser beam to a selected position in molten pool, which is formed by TIG arc, is constructed. As a result of welding experiments using these systems, it is confirmed that the hybrid welding process and the control system are effective on the stable welding of thin stainless steel plates.

  12. Occupational health concerns in the welding industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczynski, R E

    2000-12-01

    The Workplace Safety and Health Branch initiated a proactive study in the welding industry in Manitoba. Eight welding companies participated in this study. Health concerns raised by welders were welders' flash, sore/red/teary eyes, headaches, nosebleeds, and a black mucous discharge from their nasal membrane. Most welders expressed concern regarding excessive smoke levels in the workplace and inadequate ventilation. Types of welding identified were MIG mild steel, MIG stainless steel, and TIG aluminum. Monitoring involved an assessment of noise levels, fume composition, and carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations. Metal analyses were according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7300. Noise dosimeters used were the Quest model 100 and Micro 14 & 15. Carbon monoxide was monitored using the Gastech Model 4700 and ozone using the AID Portable Ozone Meter Model 560. In Manitoba, a hearing conservation program is required when the equivalent sound exposure level (normalized Lex 8-hr) exceeds 80 dBA-weighted. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value-time weighted average (ACGIH TLV-TWA) for iron is 5.0 mg/m3, manganese is 0.2 mg/m3, carbon monoxide is 25 ppm, and ozone is 0.05 ppm (heavy work), 0.08 ppm (moderate work), and 0.1 ppm (light work). Welders' personal exposures to manganese ranged from 0.01-4.93 mg/m3 (N = 42; AM = 0.5; GM = 0.2; SD +/- 0.9; GSD +/- 3.2) and to iron ranged from 0.04-16.29 mg/m3 (N = 42; AM = 3.0; GM = 1.4; SD +/- 3.5; GSD +/- 2.5). Noise exposures ranged from 79-98 dBA (N = 44; AM = 88.9; GM = 88.8; SD +/- 4.2; GSD +/- 1.0). Carbon monoxide levels were less than 5.0 ppm (at source) and ozone levels varied from 0.4-0.6 ppm (at source). Ventilation upgrades in the workplace were required in most welding shops. Only 7 percent of the welders wore respiratory protection. A hearing conservation program and hearing protection were required at all monitored workplaces.

  13. Advanced ultrasonic techniques for nondestructive testing of austenitic and dissimilar welds in nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengert, Anne; Dugan, Sandra; Homann, Tobias; Mitzscherling, Steffen; Prager, Jens; Pudovikov, Sergey; Schwender, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Austenitic stainless steel welds as well as dissimilar metal welds with nickel alloy filler material, used in safety relevant parts of nuclear power plants, still challenge the ultrasonic inspection. The weld material forms large oriented grains that lead, on the one hand, to high sound scattering and, on the other hand, to inhomogeneity and to the acoustic anisotropy of the weld structure. The ultrasonic wave fronts do not propagate linearly, as in ferritic weld joints, but along the curves, which depend on the specific grain structure of the weld. Due to the influence of these phenomena, it is difficult to analyze the inspection results and to classify the ultrasonic indications, which could be both from the weld geometry and from the material defects. A correct flaw sizing is not possible. In an ongoing research project, different techniques to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing at these kinds of welds are investigated. In a first step (in the previous research project) two ultrasonic inspection techniques were developed and validated on plane test specimens with artificial and realistic flaws. In the ongoing project, these techniques are applied to circumferential pipe welds with longitudinal and transverse flaws. The technique developed at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) in Germany uses a combination of ray tracing and synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). To investigate the unknown grain structure, the velocity distribution of weld-transmitting ultrasound waves is measured and used to model the weld by ray tracing. The second technique, developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP) in Germany, uses Sampling Phased Array (Full Matrix Capture) combined with the reverse phase matching (RPM) and the gradient elastic constant descent algorithm (GECDM). This inspection method is able to estimate the elastic constants of the columnar grains in the weld and offers an improvement of the

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL ISSUES IN MECHANISED FEED WIG/TIG WELDING SURFACING OF WELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURCA Mircea

    2016-09-01

    manual welding tests in the light of using the process for welding surfacing being known that in such applications mechanised operations are recommended whenever possible given the latter strengths i.e. increased productivity and quality deposits. The research also aims at achieving a comparative a study between wire mechanised feed based WIG manual welding and the manual rod entry based manual welding in terms of geometry deposits, deposits aesthetics, operating technique, productivity, etc . In this regard deposits were made by means of two welding procedures, and subsequently welding surfacing was made with the optimum values of the welding parameters in this case.

  15. Nitrogen And Oxygen Amount In Weld After Welding With Micro-Jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzyn T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro-jet cooling after welding was tested only for MIG welding process with argon, helium and nitrogen as a shielded gases. A paper presents a piece of information about nitrogen and oxygen in weld after micro-jet cooling. There are put down information about gases that could be chosen both for MIG/MAG welding and for micro-jet process. There were given main information about influence of various micro-jet gases on metallographic structure of steel welds. Mechanical properties of weld was presented in terms of nitrogen and oxygen amount in WMD (weld metal deposit.

  16. Mechanical and electrochemical characteristics with welding materials in robotic MIG welding of dissimilar Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jong; Han, Min Su; Woo, Yong Bin [Mokpo Maritime Univ., Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In this study, mechanical and electrochemical characteristics with welding material in MIG welded with ROBOT for dissimilar Al alloys were investigated using various experiment methods. The MIG welding by ROBOT with ER5183 and ER5556 for the 5456-H116 and 6061-T6 Al alloy were carried out. The hardness of welding zone was lower than that of base metal. In electrochemical experiment, ER5183 welding material presented excellent characteristics. The yield strength and maximum tensile strength in welding with welding material of ER5183 presented lower value than those of ER5556. The elongation and time-to-fracture showed the opposite results.

  17. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  18. Automatic monitoring of vibration welding equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, John Patrick; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Abell, Jeffrey A; Bracey, Jennifer; Cai, Wayne W

    2014-10-14

    A vibration welding system includes vibration welding equipment having a welding horn and anvil, a host device, a check station, and a robot. The robot moves the horn and anvil via an arm to the check station. Sensors, e.g., temperature sensors, are positioned with respect to the welding equipment. Additional sensors are positioned with respect to the check station, including a pressure-sensitive array. The host device, which monitors a condition of the welding equipment, measures signals via the sensors positioned with respect to the welding equipment when the horn is actively forming a weld. The robot moves the horn and anvil to the check station, activates the check station sensors at the check station, and determines a condition of the welding equipment by processing the received signals. Acoustic, force, temperature, displacement, amplitude, and/or attitude/gyroscopic sensors may be used.

  19. Advances in welding science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Babu, S.S.; Vitek, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based design of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes. In the last several decades, welding has evolved as an interdisciplinary activity requiring synthesis of knowledge from various disciplines and incorporating the most advanced tools of various basic applied sciences. A series of international conferences and other publications have covered the issues, current trends and directions in welding science and technology. In the last few decades, major progress has been made in (i) understanding physical processes in welding, (ii) characterization of microstructure and properties, and (iii) intelligent control and automation of welding. This paper describes some of these developments

  20. Physical bases for diffusion welding processes optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulygina, S.M.; Berber, N.N.; Mukhambetov, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    One of wide-spread method of different materials joint is diffusion welding. It has being brought off at the expense of mutual diffusion of atoms of contacting surfaces under long-duration curing at its heating and compression. Welding regime in dependence from properties of welding details is defining of three parameters: temperature, pressure, time. Problem of diffusion welding optimization concludes in determination less values of these parameters, complying with requirements for quality of welded joint. In the work experiments on diffusion welding for calculated temperature and for given surface's roughness were carried out. Tests conduct on samples of iron and iron-nickel alloy with size 1·1·1 cm 3 . Optimal regime of diffusion welding of examined samples in vacuum is defined. It includes compression of welding samples, heating, isothermal holding at temperature 650 deg C during 0.5 h and affords the required homogeneity of joint

  1. Laser-GMA Hybrid Pipe Welding System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reutzel, Edward W; Kern, Ludwig; Sullivan, Michael J; Tressler, Jay F; Avalos, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The combination of laser welding with conventional gas metal arc welding technology offers substantial increases in production rate of joining pipe through single-pass joining compared to multi-pass...

  2. Repair welding of fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments have shown that irradiated Type 316 stainless steel is susceptible to heat-affected-zone (HAZ) cracking upon cooling when welded using the gas tungsten arc (GTA) process under lateral constraint. The cracking has been hypothesized to be caused by stress-assisted helium bubble growth and rupture at grain boundaries. This study utilized an experimental welding setup which enabled different compressive stresses to be applied to the plates during welding. Autogenous GTA welds were produced in Type 316 stainless steel doped with 256 appm helium. The application of a compressive stress, 55 MPa, during welding suppressed the previously observed catastrophic cracking. Detailed examinations conducted after welding showed a dramatic change in helium bubble morphology. Grain boundary bubble growth along directions parallel to the weld was suppressed. Results suggest that stress-modified welding techniques may be used to suppress or eliminate helium-induced cracking during joining of irradiated materials

  3. Interpretation of aluminum-alloy weld radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, P. C.; Risch, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report proposes radiographic terminology standardization which allows scientific interpretation of radiographic films to replace dependence on individual judgement and experience. Report includes over 50 photographic pages where radiographs of aluminum welds with defects are compared with prepared weld sections photomacrographs.

  4. Nickel-base alloy overlay weld with improved ultrasonic flaw detection by magnetic stirring welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi, Hirano; Kenji, Hirano; Masayuki, Watando; Takahiro, Arakawa; Minoru, Maeda

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in Nickel-base alloy welds containing dendrites owing to the decrease ultrasonic transmissibility they cause. The present paper discusses application of magnetic stirring welding as a means for reducing dendrite growth with consequent improvement in ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were conducted to determine optimal welding conditions. By PT and macro observation subsequent to welding was carried out, optimal operation conditions were clarified. Overlay welding tests and UT clearly indicated ultrasonic beam transmissibility in overlay welds to be improved and detection capacity to be greater through application of magnetic stirring welding. Optimal operation conditions were determined based on examination of temper bead effects in the heat affected zone of low alloy steel by application of magnetic stirring welding to the butt welded joints between low alloy and stainless steel. Hardness in this zone of low alloy steel after the fourth layer was less than 350 HV. (author)

  5. Modeling of welded bead profile for rapid prototyping by robotic MAG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong; ZHU Sheng; WANG Tao; WANG Wanglong

    2009-01-01

    As a deposition technology, robotic metal active gas(MAG) welding has shown new promise for rapid prototyping (RP) of metallic parts. During the process of metal forming using robotic MAG welding, sectional profile of single-pass welded bead is critical to formed accuracy and quality of metal pans. In this paper, the experiments of single-pass welded bead for rapid prototyping using robotic MAG welding were carried out. The effect of some edge detectors on the cross-sectional edge of welded bead was discussed and curve fitting was applied using leat square fitting. Consequently, the mathematical model of welded bead profile was developed. The experimental results show that good shape could be obtained under suitable welding parameters. Canny operawr is suitable to edge detection of welded bead profile, and the mathematical model of welded bead profile developed is approximately parabola.

  6. The effects of welded joint characteristics on its properties in HDPE thermal fusion welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongbin; Peng, Jun

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, PE100 pipes with the diameter of 200 mm and the thickness of 11.9 mm were used as material. The welded joints were obtained in different welding pressures with the optimal welding temperature of 220∘C. Reheating process on the welded joints with the temperature of 130∘C was carried out. The joints exhibited X-type, and the cause of X-type joints was discussed. The temperature field in the forming process of welded joints was measured, and tensile and bending tests on welded joints were carried out. The fracture surface of welded joints was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and crystallinity calculation was taken by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanism of X-type weld profile effects on welded joints properties was analyzed. It was concluded that the mechanical properties of welded joints decrease with the reduced X distance between lines.

  7. Physical aspects of arc welding : Proceedings of seminar in honour of J.F. Lancaster, 1 September 1993, Glasgow (U.K.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ouden, G.

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at a seminar held in honour of Prof. J.F. Lancaster on 1 September 1993 in order to mark the occasion of his retirement as Chairman of Study Group 212 (Physics of Welding) of the International Institute of Welding. Prof. Lancaster was Chairman of Study Group

  8. Fusion welding of thin metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, H.

    1975-01-01

    Aspects of fusion welding of thin metal foils are reviewed and the current techniques employed at LASL to join foils are described. Techniques for fusion welding approximately 0.025-mm-thick foils of copper, aluminum, and stainless steels have been developed using both electron beam and laser welding equipment. These techniques, together with the related aspects of joint design, tooling and fixturing, joint preparation, and modifications to the commercially available welding equipment, are included in the review. (auth)

  9. Characterization of duplex stainless steel weld metals obtained by hybrid plasma-gas metal arc welding

    OpenAIRE

    Yurtisik,Koray; Tirkes,Suha; Dykhno,Igor; Gur,C. Hakan; Gurbuz,Riza

    2013-01-01

    Despite its high efficiency, autogenous keyhole welding is not well-accepted for duplex stainless steels because it causes excessive ferrite in as-welded duplex microstructure, which leads to a degradation in toughness and corrosion properties of the material. Combining the deep penetration characteristics of plasma arc welding in keyhole mode and metal deposition capability of gas metal arc welding, hybrid plasma - gas metal arc welding process has considered for providing a proper duplex mi...

  10. Corrosion Behavior of Arc Weld and Friction Stir Weld in Al 6061-T6 Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byoung Hyun; Kim, Heung Ju; Chang, Woong Seong; Kweon, Young Gak

    2006-01-01

    For the evaluation of corrosion resistance of Al 6061-T6 Alloy, Tafel method and immersion test was performed with Friction Stir Weld(FSW) and Gas Metal Arc Weld(GMAW). The Tafel and immersion test results indicated that GMA weld was severely attacked compared with those of friction stir weld. It may be mainly due to the galvanic corrosion mechanism act on the GMA weld

  11. 46 CFR 154.665 - Welding procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding procedures. 154.665 Section 154.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Construction § 154.665 Welding procedures. Welding procedure tests for cargo tanks for a design temperature...

  12. 49 CFR 195.224 - Welding: Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Weather. 195.224 Section 195.224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.224 Welding: Weather. Welding must be protected from weather conditions that...

  13. 49 CFR 179.100-9 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.100-9 Section 179.100-9... Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-9 Welding. (a) All..., appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Welding procedures, welders and fabricators shall be...

  14. 49 CFR 179.400-11 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.400-11 Section 179.400-11...-11 Welding. (a) Except for closure of openings and a maximum of two circumferential closing joints in... subchapter). (d) Each welding procedure, welder, and fabricator must be approved. [Amdt. 179-32, 48 FR 27708...

  15. 49 CFR 179.200-10 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.200-10 Section 179.200-10... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-10 Welding. (a) All joints... W (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Welding procedures, welders and fabricators shall be...

  16. 49 CFR 179.11 - Welding certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding certification. 179.11 Section 179.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Design Requirements § 179.11 Welding certification. (a) Welding procedures, welders and fabricators shall...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1729 - Welding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding operations. 75.1729 Section 75.1729 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1729 Welding operations. Welding...

  18. 30 CFR 77.408 - Welding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding operations. 77.408 Section 77.408 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.408 Welding operations. Welding operations shall be shielded and the...

  19. 49 CFR 179.220-10 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.220-10 Section 179.220-10... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-10 Welding. (a) All joints... of this subchapter). Welding procedures, welders, and fabricators shall be approved. (b) Radioscopy...

  20. Welding metallurgy of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels welds are commonly found in nuclear reactor systems. The macrostructure and the transformation of delta -phase into γ - phase which occur during rapid solidification of such welds are discussed. Finally, several types of defects which are derived from the welding operation, particularly defects of crack type, are also discussed in brief. (author)

  1. Low Speed Control for Automatic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Amplifier module allows rotating positioner of automatic welding machine to operate at speeds below normal range. Low speeds are precisely regulated by a servomechanism as are normal-range speeds. Addition of module to standard welding machine makes it unnecessary to purchase new equipment for low-speed welding.

  2. New process for weld metal reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The industry-wide nature of weld cracking alerts one to the possibility that there is a fundamental law being overlooked. And in overlooking this law, industry is unable to counteract it. That law mandates that restraint during welding causes internal stress; internal stress causes weld metal to crack. Component restraint during welding, according to the welding standard, is the major cause of weld metal failures. When the metal working industry accepts this fact and begins to counter the effects of restraint, the number of weld failures experienced fall dramatically. Bonal Technologies, inc., of Detroit, has developed the first consistently effective non-thermal process to relieve stress caused by restraint during welding. Bonal's patented Mets-Lax sub-resonant stress relief acts as a restraint neutralizer when used during welding. Meta-Lax weld conditioning produces a finer more uniform weld grain structure. A finer, more uniform grain structure is a clear metallurgical indication of improved mechanical weld properties. Other benefits like less internal stress, and less warpage are also achieved

  3. Resistance welding equipment manufacturing capability for exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, V.S.; Raju, Y.S.; Somani, A.K.; Setty, D.S.; Rameswara Raw, A.; Hermantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderbad (India)

    2010-07-01

    Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) fuel bundle is fully welded and is unique in its design. Appendage welding, end closure welding, and end plate welding is carried out using resistance welding technique. Out of many joining processes available, resistance-welding process is reliable, environment friendly and best suitable for mass production applications. Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), an industrial unit is established in Hyderabad, under the aegis of the Dept of Atomic Energy to manufacture fuel for Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors. From inception, NFC has given importance for self-reliance and indigenization with respect to manufacturing process and equipment. Sintering furnaces, centreless grinders, appendage-welding machines, end-closure welding equipment and end-plate welding equipments, which were initially imported, are either indigenized or designed and manufactured in house. NFC has designed, manufactured a new appendage-welding machine for manufacturing 37 element fuel bundles. Recently NFC has bagged an order from IAEA through international bidding for design, manufacture, supply, erection and commissioning of end-closure welding equipment. The paper gives in detail the salient features of these welding equipment. (author)

  4. Fracture toughness of stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1985-11-01

    The effects of temperature, composition and weld-process variations on the fracture toughness behavior for Types 308 and 16-8-2 stainless steel (SS) welds were examined using the multiple-specimen J/sub R/-curve procedure. Fracture characteristics were found to be dependent on temperature and weld process but not on filler material. Gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welds exhibited the highest fracture toughness, a shielded metal-arc (SMA) weld exhibited an intermediate toughness and submerged-arc (SA) welds yielded the lowest toughness. Minimum-expected fracture properties were defined from lower-bound J/sub c/ and tearing modulus values generated here and in previous studies. Fractographic examination revealed that microvoid coalescence was the operative fracture mechanism for all welds. Second phase particles of manganese silicide were found to be detrimental to the ductile fracture behavior because they separated from the matrix during the initial stages of plastic straining. In SA welds, the high density of inclusions resulting from silicon pickup from the flux promoted premature dimple rupture. The weld produced by the SMA process contained substantially less manganese silicide, while GTA welds contained no silicide inclusions. Delta ferrite particles present in all welds were substantially more resistant to local failure than the silicide phase. In welds containing little or no manganese silicide, delta ferrite particles initiated microvoid coalescence but only after extensive plastic straining

  5. Multipass welding of nuclear reactor components - computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedblom, E.

    2002-01-01

    The finite element method is used to compare different welding procedures. The simulations are compared with measurements. Two different geometries and two different welding procedures are evaluated. It is found that a narrow gap weld gives smaller tensile residual axial stresses on the inside of the pipe. This is believed to reduce the risk for intergranular stress corrosion cracking

  6. Performance of mesh seam welds in tailor welded blanks; Terado blank yo mash seam yosetsubu no tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchihara, M; Takahashi, M; Kurita, M; Hirose, Y; Fukui, K [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Formability, fatigue properties and corrosion behavior of mash seam welded steel sheets were investigated and the results were compared with laser weld. The stretch formability of mash seam weld and laser weld were same level. Mash seam weld however, showed slightly smaller formability in hole expansion test. The fatigue strength of mash seam welds was lower than that of laser welds in case of differential thickness joints. Corrosion was apt to initiate at weld in both mash seam and laser weld with E-coat. The corrosion resistance of welds was improved by using zinc coated steel. 3 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Advances in automatic welding control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.; Woodacre, A.; Taylor, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    The development at the Reactor Fuel Element Laboratories, UKAEA Springfields, of a computer-based welding process control system, was aimed initially at the TIG welding of the end seals of nuclear fuel elements. The system provides for mixed multi-station operation with on-line real-time capability and can be used either as a research tool or for production requirements at competitive costs. The operation of the control system, the form of power source, and the servo motor control units are described. Typically, continuous or pulse-arc welding sequences can be digitally programmed on 0.1 sec increments, with current in 0.5 A increments up to a maximum of 256 A; up to three servo motors can be operated with speeds selected in 0.1 percent increments of their maximum. Up to six welding parameters can be monitored digitally at speeds from once every 10 msec. Some applications are described and it is shown that the equipment has wider uses outside the nuclear fuel element field. High quality industrial welding requirements can also be met and the system is not limited to the TIG process

  8. Advances in automatic welding control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.; Woodacre, A.; Taylor, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    The development at the Reactor Fuel Element Laboratories, UKAEA Springfields, of a computer-based welding process control system, was aimed initially at the TIG welding of the end seals of nuclear fuel elements. The system provides for mixed multi-station operation with on-line real-time capability and can be used either as a research tool or for production requirements at competitive costs. The operation of the control system, the form of power source and servo motor control units are described. Typically, continuous or pulse-arc welding sequences can be digitally programmed on 0.1 sec increments, with current in 0.5 A increments up to a maximum of 256 A; up to three servo motors can be operated with speeds selected in 0.1% increments of their maximum. Up to six welding parameters can be monitored digitally at speeds from once every 10 msec. Some applications are described and it is shown that the equipment has wider uses outside the nuclear fuel element field. High quality industrial welding requirements can also be met and the system is not limited to the TIG process. (author)

  9. Laser weld process monitoring and control using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation from a weld pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chin Man

    2000-06-01

    The application of high power Nd: YAG lasers for precision welding in industry has been growing quite fast these days in diverse areas such as the automobile, the electronics and the aerospace industries. These diverse applications also require the new developments for the precise control and the reliable process monitoring. Due to the hostile environment in laser welding, a remote monitoring is required. The present development relates in general to weld process monitoring techniques, and more particularly to improved methods and apparatus for real-time monitoring of thermal radiation of a weld pool to monitor a size variation and a focus shift of the weld pool for weld process control, utilizing the chromatic aberration of focusing lens or lenses. The monitoring technique of the size variation and the focus shift of a weld pool is developed by using the chromatic filtering of the thermal radiation from a weld pool. The monitoring of weld pool size variation can also be used to monitor the weld depth in a laser welding. Furthermore, the monitoring of the size variation of a weld pool is independent of the focus shift of a weld pool and the monitoring of the focus shift of a weld pool is independent of the size variation of a weld pool

  10. Laser weld process monitoring and control using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation from a weld pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chin Man

    2000-06-01

    The application of high power Nd: YAG lasers for precision welding in industry has been growing quite fast these days in diverse areas such as the automobile, the electronics and the aerospace industries. These diverse applications also require the new developments for the precise control and the reliable process monitoring. Due to the hostile environment in laser welding, a remote monitoring is required. The present development relates in general to weld process monitoring techniques, and more particularly to improved methods and apparatus for real-time monitoring of thermal radiation of a weld pool to monitor a size variation and a focus shift of the weld pool for weld process control, utilizing the chromatic aberration of focusing lens or lenses. The monitoring technique of the size variation and the focus shift of a weld pool is developed by using the chromatic filtering of the thermal radiation from a weld pool. The monitoring of weld pool size variation can also be used to monitor the weld depth in a laser welding. Furthermore, the monitoring of the size variation of a weld pool is independent of the focus shift of a weld pool and the monitoring of the focus shift of a weld pool is independent of the size variation of a weld pool.

  11. Estimation of weld nugget temperature by thermography method in resistance projection welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setty, D.S.; Rameswara Roa, A.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jaya Raj, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    In the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) fuel manufacturing, zirconium alloy appendages like spacer and bearing pads are welded to the thin wall zirconium alloy fuel tubes by using resistance projection welding process. Out of many joining processes available, resistance-welding process is reliable, environment friendly and best suitable for mass production applications. In the fuel assembly, spacer pads are used to get the required inter-element spacing and Bearing pads are used to get the required load-bearing surface for the fuel assembly. Performance of the fuel assembly in the reactor is greatly influenced by these weld joint's quality. Phase transformation from α to β phase is not acceptable while welding these tiny appendages. At present only destructive metallography test is available for this purpose. This can also be achieved by measuring weld nugget temperature where in the phase transformation temperature for zirconium alloy material is 853 o C. The temperature distribution during resistance welding of tiny parts cannot be measured by conventional methods due to very small space and short weld times involved in the process. Shear strength, dimensional accuracy and weld microstructures are some of the key parameters used to measure the quality of appendage weld joints. Weld parameters were optimized with the help of industrial experimentation methodology. Individual projection welding by split electrode concept, and during welding on empty tube firm support is achieved on inner side of the tube by using expandable pneumatic mandrel. In the present paper, an attempt was made to measure the weld nugget temperature by thermography technique and is correlated with standard microstructures of zirconium alloy material. The temperature profiles in the welding process are presented for different welding conditions. This technique has helped in measuring the weld nugget temperature more accurately. It was observed that in the present appendage welding

  12. Effect of weld spacing on microstructure and mechanical properties of CLAM electron beam welding joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yutao; Huang, Bo, E-mail: aufa0007@163.com; Zhang, Junyu; Zhang, Baoren; Liu, Shaojun; Huang, Qunying

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The welded joints of CLAM steel with different weld spacings have been fabricated with electron beam welding, and a simplified model of CLAM sheet was proposed. • The microstructure and mechanical properties such as microhardness, impact and tensile were investigated at different welding spacing for both conditions of as-welded and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). • The effect of the welding thermal cycle was significantly when the weld spacings were smaller than 4 mm. • When the weld spacing was small enough, the original microstructures would be fragmented with the high heat input. - Abstract: China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel has been chosen as the primary structural material in the designs of dual function lithium-lead (DFLL) blanket for fusion reactors, China helium cooled ceramic breeder (HCCB) test blanket module (TBM) for ITER and China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) blanket. The cooling components of the blankets are designed with high density cooling channels (HDCCs) to remove the high nuclear thermal effectively. Hence, the welding spacing among the channels are small. In this paper, the welded joints of CLAM steel with different weld spacings have been fabricated with electron beam welding (EBW). The weld spacing was designed to be 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm. The microstructure and mechanical properties such as microhardness, impact and tensile were investigated at different welding spacing for both conditions of as-welded and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). The PWHT is tempering at 740 °C for 120 min. The results showed that the grain size in the heat affected zone (HAZ) increased with the increasing weld spacing, and the joint with small weld spacing had a better performance after PWHT. This work would give useful guidance to improve the preparation of the cooling components of blanket.

  13. Repair welding and online radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuding, W.; Grimm, R.; Link, R.; Schroeder, P.; Schroeder, G.

    1990-01-01

    The status of a joint project is reported, which is to develop a computerized testing and welding system for repair work in turbine blades. An X-ray radiographic testing device consisting of microfocus tube, manipulator and image processing system, is modified for this purpose so as to offer a greater number of image points scanned for image processing, and to thus achieve a better resolution for reliable detection of even very small defects. The consistency of the X-ray tube performance, which is a pre-requisite for automation, is to be achieved by a wa tercooled, high-duty tube head. The recording of defect coordinates in the repair zone is done for input into a welding robot to be developed by other partners in the project, so as to allow automated welding work. (orig.) [de

  14. Residual stresses in zircaloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R.; Fernandez, L; Vizcaino, P.; Banchik, A.D.; Samper, R; Martinez, R. L; Almer, J; Motta, A.T.; Colas, K.B; Kerr, M.; Daymond, M.R

    2009-01-01

    Welds in Zirconium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, as H enters the material due to dissociation of water. The yield strain for hydride cracking has a complex dependence on H concentration, stress state and texture. The large thermal gradients produced by the applied heat; drastically changes the texture of the material in the heat affected zone, enhancing the susceptibility to delayed hydride cracking. Normally hydrides tend to form as platelets that are parallel to the normal direction, but when welding plates, hydride platelets may form on cooling with their planes parallel to the weld and through the thickness of the plates. If, in addition to this there are significant tensile stresses, the susceptibility of the heat affected zone to delayed hydride cracking will be increased. Here we have measured the macroscopic and microscopic residual stressed that appear after PLASMA welding of two 6mm thick Zircaloy-4 plates. The measurements were based on neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments performed at the Isis Facility, UK, and at Advanced Photon Source, USA, respectively. The experiments allowed assessing the effect of a post-weld heat treatment consisting of a steady increase in temperature from room temperature to 450oC over a period of 4.5 hours; followed by cooling with an equivalent cooling rate. Peak tensile stresses of (175± 10) MPa along the longitudinal direction were found in the as-welded specimen, which were moderately reduced to (150±10) MPa after the heat-treatment. The parent material showed intergranular stresses of (56±4) MPa, which disappeared on entering the heat-affected zone. In-situ experiments during themal cyclong of the material showed that these intergranular stresses result from the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient of the hexagonal crystal lattice. [es

  15. Method and device for weld deposit cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    In order to get weld beads of good quality, uniform thickness and faultless transition regions between neighboring beads in weld deposit cladding of metallic workpoeces, it is proposed to use a device in which the electromagnets are arranged adjacent to th zone of molten welding powder and molten metal besides having got suitable supplies for applying the welding powder, the polarity of the magnets being chosen in such a way that the lines of flux between the poles are counteracting the lines of flux surrounding the electrode band because of the welding current. Several variants of arranging the electrodes are presented in detail. (UWI) [de

  16. Grain refinement control in TIG arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. F.; Whiffen, E. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A method for controlling grain size and weld puddle agitation in a tungsten electrode inert gas welding system to produce fine, even grain size and distribution is disclosed. In the method the frequency of dc welding voltage pulses supplied to the welding electrode is varied over a preselected frequency range and the arc gas voltage is monitored. At some frequency in the preselected range the arc gas voltage will pass through a maximum. By maintaining the operating frequency of the system at this value, maximum weld puddle agitation and fine grain structure are produced.

  17. Advances in welding science - a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Babu, S.S.; DebRoy, T.

    1995-01-01

    The ultimate goal of welding technology is to improve the joint integrity and increase productivity. Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based tailoring of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes

  18. Friction Stir Welding of Copper Canisters for Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellgren, Therese

    2005-07-01

    The Swedish model for final disposal of nuclear fuel waste is based on copper canisters as a corrosion barrier with an inner pressure holding insert of cast iron. One of the methods to seal the copper canister is to use the Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a method invented by The Welding Institute (TWI). This work has been focused on characterisation of the FSW joints, and modelling of the process, both analytically and numerically. The first simulations were based on Rosenthal's analytical medium plate model. The model is simple to use, but has limitations. Finite element models were developed, initially with a two-dimensional geometry. Due to the requirements of describing both the heat flow and the tool movement, three-dimensional models were developed. These models take into account heat transfer, material flow, and continuum mechanics. The geometries of the models are based on the simulation experiments carried out at TWI and at Swedish Nuclear Fuel Waste and Management Co (SKB). Temperature distribution, material flow and their effects on the thermal expansion were predicted for a full-scale canister and lid. The steady state solutions have been compared with temperature measurements, showing good agreement. Microstructure and hardness profiles have been investigated by optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Rockwell hardness measurements. EBSD visualisation has been used to determine the grain size distribution and the appearance of twins and misorientation within grains. The orientation maps show a fine uniform equiaxed grain structure. The root of the weld exhibits the smallest grains and many annealing twins. This may be due to deformation after recrystallisation. The appearance of the nugget and the grain size depends on the position of the weld. A large difference can be seen both in hardness and grain size between the start of the weld and when the steady state is reached.

  19. Weld pool and keyhole dynamic analysis based on visual system and neural network during laser keyhole welding

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Masiyang

    2014-01-01

    In keyhole fiber laser welding processes, the weld pool behavior and keyhole dynamics are essential to determining welding quality. To observe and control the welding process, the accurate extraction of the weld pool boundary as well as the width is required. In addition, because of the cause-and-effect relationship between the welding defects and stability of the keyhole, which is primarily determined by keyhole geometry during the welding process, the stability of keyhole needs to be consid...

  20. STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF WELDING PROCESS ON DISTORTION WITH 304L STAINLESS STEEL WELD JOINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dhananjay Kumar*, Dharamvir mangal

    2017-01-01

    The effect of welding process on the distortion with 304L stainless steel 12thk weld joints made by TIG (tungsten inert gas) and SMAW (Shielded metal arc welding) welding process involving different type joint configuration have been studied. The joint configurations employed were double V-groove edge preparation for double side SMAW welding and square – butt preparation for double side TIG welding. All weld joints passed by radiographic. Distortion measurements were carried out using height ...

  1. Shimmed electron beam welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ganjiang; Nowak, Daniel Anthony; Murphy, John Thomas

    2002-01-01

    A modified electron beam welding process effects welding of joints between superalloy materials by inserting a weldable shim in the joint and heating the superalloy materials with an electron beam. The process insures a full penetration of joints with a consistent percentage of filler material and thereby improves fatigue life of the joint by three to four times as compared with the prior art. The process also allows variable shim thickness and joint fit-up gaps to provide increased flexibility for manufacturing when joining complex airfoil structures and the like.

  2. Advantages of new micro-jet welding technology on weld microstructure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan PIWNIK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative apparatus to welding process with micro-jet cooling of the weld made it possible to carry out technological tests, which have proved theoretical considerations about this problem. This project gives real opportunities for professional development in the field of welding with controlling the parameters of weld structure. These tests have proved that the new micro-jet technology has the potential for growth. It may be great achievement of welding technology in order to increase weld metal strength. The new technology with micro-jet cooling may have many practical applications in many fields, for example such as in the transport industry or to repair damaged metal elements. The advantages of the new device over the traditional system are the ability to control the structure of the weld, the weld mechanical performance increases and improve the quality of welded joints.

  3. Influence of weld structure on cross-weld creep behavior in P23 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.J.; Degnan, C.C. [E.ON Engineering (United Kingdom); Brett, S.J. [RWE npower (United Kingdom); Buchanan, L.W. [Doosan Babcock (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    A thick section pipe weld in low alloy steel P23 has been characterised by cross-weld creep rupture testing at a range of stresses, together with all-weld-metal and parent material testing, under the auspices of the UK High Temperature Power Plant Forum. The results generally show that the weld metal can be weak when tested in the transverse (cross-weld) orientation, and can fail with limited overall ductility by cracking in the zone of refined weld metal beneath the fusion boundary of the superposed weld bead. However, one specimen showed a much superior performance, which could be understood in terms of its locally more creep resistant weld macrostructure. The implications for P23 performance and weld manufacture are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Variant selection of martensites in steel welded joints with low transformation temperature weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaru; Yasuda, Hiroyuki Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined the variant selection of martensites in the weld metals. ► We also measured the residual stress developed in the butt and box welded joints. ► 24 martensite variants were randomly selected in the butt welded joint. ► High tensile residual stress in the box welded joint led to the strong variant selection. ► We discussed the rule of the variant selection focusing on the residual stress. -- Abstract: Martensitic transformation behavior in steel welded joints with low transformation temperature weld (LTTW) metal was examined focusing on the variant selection of martensites. The butt and box welded joints were prepared with LTTW metals and 980 MPa grade high strength steels. The residual stress of the welded joints, which was measured by a neutron diffraction technique, was effectively reduced by the expansion of the LTTW metals by the martensitic transformation during cooling after the welding process. In the LTTW metals, the retained austenite and martensite phases have the Kurdjumov–Sachs (K–S) orientation relationship. The variant selection of the martensites in the LTTW metals depended strongly on the type of welded joints. In the butt welded joint, 24 K–S variants were almost randomly selected while a few variants were preferentially chosen in the box welded joint. This suggests that the high residual stress developed in the box welded joint accelerated the formation of specific variants during the cooling process, in contrast to the butt welded joint with low residual stress

  5. EFFECTS OF ELECTRODE DEFORMATION OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING ON 304 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WELD GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachimani Charde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The resistance spot welding process is accomplished by forcing huge amounts of current flow from the upper electrode tip through the base metals to the lower electrode tip, or vice versa or in both directions. A weld joint is established between the metal sheets through fusion, resulting in a strong bond between the sheets without occupying additional space. The growth of the weld nugget (bond between sheets is therefore determined from the welding current density; sufficient time for current delivery; reasonable electrode pressing force; and the area provided for current delivery (electrode tip. The welding current and weld time control the root penetration, while the electrode pressing force and electrode tips successfully accomplish the connection during the welding process. Although the welding current and weld time cause the heat generation at the areas concerned (electrode tip area, the electrode tips’ diameter and electrode pressing forces also directly influence the welding process. In this research truncated-electrode deformation and mushrooming effects are observed, which result in the welded areas being inconsistent due to the expulsion. The copper to chromium ratio is varied from the tip to the end of the electrode whilst the welding process is repeated. The welding heat affects the electrode and the electrode itself influences the shape of the weld geometry.

  6. Experimental investigation on the weld pool formation process in plasma keyhole arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Anh, Nguyen; Tashiro, Shinichi; Van Hanh, Bui; Tanaka, Manabu

    2018-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify the weld pool formation process in plasma keyhole arc welding (PKAW). We adopted, for the first time, the measurement of the 3D convection inside the weld pool in PKAW by stereo synchronous imaging of tungsten tracer particles using two sets of x-ray transmission systems. The 2D convection on the weld pool surface was also measured using zirconia tracer particles. Through these measurements, the convection in a wide range of weld pools from the vicinity of the keyhole to the rear region was successfully visualized. In order to discuss the heat transport process in a weld pool, the 2D temperature distribution on the weld pool surface was also measured by two-color pyrometry. The results of the comprehensive experimental measurement indicate that the shear force due to plasma flow is found to be the dominant driving force in the weld pool formation process in PKAW. Thus, heat transport in a weld pool is considered to be governed by two large convective patterns near the keyhole: (1) eddy pairs on the surface (perpendicular to the torch axis), and (2) eddy pairs on the bulk of the weld pool (on the plane of the torch). They are formed with an equal velocity of approximately 0.35 m s-1 and are mainly driven by shear force. Furthermore, the flow velocity of the weld pool convection becomes considerably higher than that of other welding processes, such as TIG welding and GMA welding, due to larger plasma flow velocity.

  7. Influence of Loading Direction and Weld Reinforcement on Fatigue Performance of TIG Weld Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUI Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of loading direction and weld reinforcement on fatigue performance of TC2 titanium alloy TIG weld seam was investigated via fatigue experiments and SEM fracture observation. The results show that the fatigue life of retaining weld reinforcement specimens is lower than that of removing one in the same weld direction. The fatigue life of oblique weld specimens is higher than that of straight one with the same weld reinforcement treatment. The initiation of removing weld reinforcement specimens' fatigue crack sources is in the hole defect, but the weld reinforcement specimen initiate at the weld toes. During the early stage of fatigue crack propagation, the cracks all grow inside the weld seam metal with obvious fatigue striation. And the fatigue cracks of oblique weld specimens pass through the weld seam into the base with a typical toughness fatigue striation during the last stage of fatigue crack propagation. The dimple of straight weld specimens is little and shallow in the final fracture zone. The oblique weld specimens broke in the base metal area, and the dimple is dense.

  8. TIG welding power supply with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Володимирович Гулаков

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the influence of the DC component of the welding current during TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas welding is discussed. Known methods of DC current cancellation are reviewed, such as capacitor bank or diode/thyristor network insertion in the secondary circuit of the welding transformer. A new method of controlling the magnitude and shape of the TIG welding current is proposed. The idea is to insert a controlled voltage source in the secondary circuit of the welding transformer. This controlled voltage source is realized using a full-bridge voltage source inverter (VSI. VSI control system design issues are discussed. VSI is controlled by a three-level hysteretic current controller, while current reference is generated using lookup table driven by PLL (Phase Locked Loop locked to the mains frequency. Simulation results are shown. The proposed topology of TIG power supply allows to provide magnitude and shape control of the welding current, with the limitation that its DC component must be zero. Thus, some capabilities of professional AC-TIG welders are obtained using substantially lower cost components: VSI built using high-current low voltage MOSFETs with control system based on 32-bit ARM microcontroller. The use of proposed TIG welding power supply will eliminate the DC component of the welding current, improve welding transformer’s power factor and improve welding technology by increasing the welding arc stability

  9. Development of high productivity pipeline girth welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapp, David; Liratzis, Theocharis

    2010-01-01

    The trend for increased oil and gas consumption implies a growth of long-distance pipeline installations. Welding is a critical factor in the installation of pipelines, both onshore and offshore, and the rate at which the pipeline can be laid is generally determined by the speed of welding. This has resulted in substantial developments in pipeline welding techniques. Arc welding is still the dominant process used in practice, and forge welding processes have had limited successful application to date, in spite of large investments in process development. Power beam processes have also been investigated in detail and the latest laser systems now show promise for practical application. In recent years the use of high strength steels has substantially reduced the cost of pipeline installation, with X70 and X80 being commonly used. This use of high strength pipeline produced by thermomechanical processing has also been researched. They must all meet three requirments, high productivity, satisfactory weld properties, and weld quality

  10. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...... tensile testing and metallographic investigations of the welds. The results show that this variant of cut welding is a very reproducible process giving a weld strength equal to 30-40% the strength of the parent material. The experiments have shown that the reason for this relatively low strength...... is an uneven pressure distribution along the weld due to a wave formed during sliding. Attempts to alter the material flow during sliding are presented....

  11. Hybrid Laser Welding of Large Steel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhi, Farhang

    Manufacturing of large steel structures requires the processing of thick-section steels. Welding is one of the main processes during the manufacturing of such structures and includes a significant part of the production costs. One of the ways to reduce the production costs is to use the hybrid...... laser welding technology instead of the conventional arc welding methods. However, hybrid laser welding is a complicated process that involves several complex physical phenomena that are highly coupled. Understanding of the process is very important for obtaining quality welds in an efficient way....... This thesis investigates two different challenges related to the hybrid laser welding of thick-section steel plates. Employing empirical and analytical approaches, this thesis attempts to provide further knowledge towards obtaining quality welds in the manufacturing of large steel structures....

  12. Strengthening Hadfield steel welds by nitrogen alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, C.; Sehitoglu, H.

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening Hadfield steel weld repairs by introducing nitrogen into the weld region was proven to be feasible via two welding techniques. The first technique required a pure Hadfield steel filler material to be diffusion treated in a high pressure nitrogen gas environment, and subsequently used during tungsten inert gas welding with a pure argon shielding gas. The second technique used a Hadfield steel filler material, and a 10% nitrogen containing argon shielding gas during tungsten inert gas welding. Both techniques increased the yield strength, the hardening rate, and the ultimate strength of the weld region. Using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy, we determined that the increased strength of the weld region resulted from a combination of nitrogen alloying and microstructural refinement

  13. Welding processes and ocular hazards and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabley, A S; Keeney, A H

    1981-07-01

    There are approximately 60 different forms of welding, but only six of these are commonly used. Shielded metal-arc or stick welding, gas metal-arc welding, and oxyacetylene welding are the most frequently used. All produce ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation at damaging levels. Conventional glass welding shields contain ultraviolet, visible, and infrared absorbers. Infrared absorbers, however, cause heating and secondary re-radiation. New polycarbonate lenses offer greater impact resistance, and have less tendency to welding spatter. Early abrasion-resistant and reflective coatings on plastics were ineffective. Thin layers of gold with proprietary coatings provide cool reflection and surface resistance. Thermal monitoring of welding indicated that these new shields reduce temperature rises above the ambient by 150% to 175% compared to green glass filter plates without interfering with the welder's vision.

  14. Advances in solar cell welding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, L.G.; Lott, D.R.

    1982-09-01

    In addition to developing the rigid substrate welded conventional cell panels for an earlier U.S. flight program, LMSC recently demonstrated a welded lightweight array system using both 2 x 4 and 5.9 x 5.9 cm wraparound solar cells. This weld system uses infrared sensing of weld joint temperature at the cell contact metalization interface to precisely control weld energy on each joint. Modules fabricated using this weld control system survived lowearth-orbit simulated 5-year tests (over 30,000 cycles) without joint failure. The data from these specifically configured modules, printed circuit substrate with copper interconnect and dielectric wraparound solar cells, can be used as a basis for developing weld schedules for additional cell array panel types.

  15. Linear discriminant analysis for welding fault detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Simpson, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a new method for real time welding fault detection in industry based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). A set of parameters was calculated from one second blocks of electrical data recorded during welding and based on control data from reference welds under good conditions, as well as faulty welds. Optimised linear combinations of the parameters were determined with LDA and tested with independent data. Short arc welds in overlap joints were studied with various power sources, shielding gases, wire diameters, and process geometries. Out-of-position faults were investigated. Application of LDA fault detection to a broad range of welding procedures was investigated using a similarity measure based on Principal Component Analysis. The measure determines which reference data are most similar to a given industrial procedure and the appropriate LDA weights are then employed. Overall, results show that Linear Discriminant Analysis gives an effective and consistent performance in real-time welding fault detection.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Duplex Steel Multipass Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giętka T.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses based on FEM calculations have significantly changed the possibilities of determining welding strains and stresses at early stages of product design and welding technology development. Such an approach to design enables obtaining significant savings in production preparation and post-weld deformation corrections and is also important for utility properties of welded joints obtained. As a result, it is possible to make changes to a simulated process before introducing them into real production as well as to test various variants of a given solution. Numerical simulations require the combination of problems of thermal, mechanical and metallurgical analysis. The study presented involved the SYSWELD software-based analysis of GMA welded multipass butt joints made of duplex steel sheets. The analysis of the distribution of stresses and displacements were carried out for typical welding procedure as during real welding tests.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Plug Welds after Micro-Jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadryś D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New technology of micro-jet welding could be regarded as a new way to improve mechanical properties of plug welds. The main purpose of that paper was analyzing of mechanical properties of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling. The main way for it was comparison of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling and plug welds made by ordinary MIG welding method. It is interesting for steel because higher amount of acicular ferrite (AF in weld metal deposit (WMD is obtained in MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling in relation to ordinary MIG welding method. This article presents the influence of the cooling medium and the number of micro-jet streams on mechanical properties of the welded joint. Mechanical properties were described by force which is necessary to destroy weld joint.

  18. Development of laser weld monitoring system for PWR space grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    1998-06-01

    The laser welding monitoring system was developed to inspect PWR space grid welding for KNFC. The demands for this optical monitoring system were applied to Q.C. and process control in space grid welding. The thermal radiation signal from weld pool can be get the variation of weld pool size. The weld pool size and depth are verified by analyzed wavelength signals from weld pool. Applied this monitoring system in space grid weld, improved the weld productivity. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  19. Mechanical Properties of Plug Welds after Micro-Jet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Hadryś D.

    2016-01-01

    New technology of micro-jet welding could be regarded as a new way to improve mechanical properties of plug welds. The main purpose of that paper was analyzing of mechanical properties of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling. The main way for it was comparison of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling and plug welds made by ordinary MIG welding method. It is interesting for steel because higher amount of acicular ferrite (AF) in weld metal deposit...

  20. Underwater welding and repair technologies applied in PWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scandella, Fabrice; Carpreau, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe several welding processes and technologies which have been used for underwater applications and which can be applied when repairing components of a PWR type reactor. They address, describe and discuss wet arc welding processes, the peculiarities of underwater welding, and the use of various processes such as 111, 114 and 135 processes, underwater welding with the hybrid plasma MIG-MAG process, underwater welding with the laser wire process, underwater welding with the FSW, FSP or UWFSW processes, underwater welding with variants of the friction welding process (friction surfacing, taper stitch welding, hydro-pillar processing

  1. Recommendations for fatigue design of welded joints and components

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbacher, A F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a basis for the design and analysis of welded components that are subjected to fluctuating forces, to avoid failure by fatigue. It is also a valuable resource for those on boards or commissions who are establishing fatigue design codes. For maximum benefit, readers should already have a working knowledge of the basics of fatigue and fracture mechanics. The purpose of designing a structure taking into consideration the limit state for fatigue damage is to ensure that the performance is satisfactory during the design life and that the survival probability is acceptable. The latter is achieved by the use of appropriate partial safety factors. This document has been prepared as the result of an initiative by Commissions XIII and XV of the International Institute of Welding (IIW).

  2. Effects of alloying element on weld characterization of laser-arc hybrid welding of pure copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kangda; Gong, Mengcheng; Xie, Yong; Gao, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Effects of alloying elements of Si and Sn on weld characterizations of laser-arc hybrid welded pure copper (Cu) with thickness of 2 mm was studied in detail by using different wires. The weld microstructure was analyzed, and the mechanical properties (micro-hardness and tensile property), conductivity and corrosion resistance were tested. The results showed that the alloying elements benefit the growth of column grains within weld fusion zone (FZ), increase the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the FZ and weld corrosion resistance, and decrease weld conductivity. The mechanisms were discussed according to the results.

  3. Nitrogen And Oxygen Amount In Weld After Welding With Micro-Jet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Węgrzyn T.; Piwnik J.

    2015-01-01

    Micro-jet cooling after welding was tested only for MIG welding process with argon, helium and nitrogen as a shielded gases. A paper presents a piece of information about nitrogen and oxygen in weld after micro-jet cooling. There are put down information about gases that could be chosen both for MIG/MAG welding and for micro-jet process. There were given main information about influence of various micro-jet gases on metallographic structure of steel welds. Mechanical properties of weld was pr...

  4. 49 CFR 195.234 - Welds: Nondestructive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welds: Nondestructive testing. 195.234 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.234 Welds: Nondestructive testing. (a) A weld may be... weld. (b) Any nondestructive testing of welds must be performed— (1) In accordance with a written set...

  5. 49 CFR 192.235 - Preparation for welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation for welding. 192.235 Section 192.235... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.235 Preparation for welding. Before beginning any welding, the welding surfaces must be clean and free of any material that...

  6. Welding procedure specification for arc welding of St 52-3N steel plates with covered electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovski, S.; Slavkov, D.; Magdeski, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the results of approval welding technology for arc welding of plates made of St 52-3N steel are presented. Metal arc welding with covered electrode is used welding process. Test specimens are butt welded in different welding positions P A , P F , P C and P D . Before start welding preliminary welding procedure was prepared. After welding of test specimens non destructive and destructive testing was performed. Obtained results were compared with standard DIN 17100 which concerns to chemical composition and mechanical properties of base material. It was confirmed that in all cases mechanical properties of welded joint are higher than those of base material, so preliminary welding procedure (pWTS) can be accepted as welding procedure specification WPS for metal arc welding of St52-3N steel. (Original)

  7. Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    These instructional materials assist teachers in improving instruction on the fundamentals of welding. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; and 27 references. Seven units of…

  8. Mechanics Model of Plug Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Q. K.; Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed for the mechanics of friction plug welding. The model accounts for coupling of plastic deformation (material flow) and thermal response (plastic heating). The model predictions of the torque, energy, and pull force on the plug were compared to the data of a recent experiment, and the agreements between predictions and data are encouraging.

  9. Welding the CNGS decay tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    3.6 km of welds were required for the 1 km long CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) decay tube, in which particles produced in the collision with a proton and a graphite target will decay into muons and muon neutrinos. Four highly skilled welders performed this delicate task.

  10. The welding of alloy 800

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, M.; Norman, P.L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews the technical literature published on the welding of alloy 800. Much of this work has been carried out using the Varestraint and Gleeble tests to investigate the susceptibility of the alloy and of high nickel consumables to hot-cracking. Inspite of much reported work, it is pointed out that many years of experience in the use of alloy 800 shows it to be readily weldable without any major problems occurring due to hot-cracking. The elements investigated include titanium, aluminium, sulphur, phosphorus and carbon, and the effects of these elements are discuused in terms of their effects on the hot-ductility curves obtained by Gleeble testing. Conclusions reached by various researchers state that the individual effects of the above five elements may be masked by other unknown factors. It is concluded that with correct welding procedures alloy 800 can be welded without cracking problems even with high heat input welding processes using either high-nickel filler wires or a matching electrode. Matching composition filler wires have been used with success but none are at present available commercially. (author)

  11. Mechanical strength of welding zones produced by material extrusion additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chelsea S; Hillgartner, Kaitlyn E; Han, Seung Hoon; Seppala, Jonathan E

    2017-08-01

    As more manufacturing processes and research institutions adopt customized manufacturing as a key element in their design strategies and finished products, the resulting mechanical properties of parts produced through additive manufacturing (AM) must be characterized and understood. In material extrusion (MatEx), the most recently extruded polymer filament must bond to the previously extruded filament via polymer diffusion to form a "weld". The strength of the weld limits the performance of the manufactured part and is controlled through processing conditions. Under-standing the role of processing conditions, specifically extruder velocity and extruder temperature, on the overall strength of the weld will allow optimization of MatEx-AM parts. Here, the fracture toughness of a single weld is determined through a facile "trouser tear" Mode III fracture experiment. The actual weld thickness is observed directly by optical microscopy characterization of cross sections of MatEx-AM samples. Representative data of weld strength as a function of printing parameters on a commercial 3D printer demonstrates the robustness of the method.

  12. Influence of weld discontinuities on strain controlled fatigue behavior of 308 stainless steel weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Valsan, M.; Sandhya, R.; Mannan, S.L.; Rodriguez, P.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed investigations have been performed for assessing the importance of weld discontinuities in strain controlled low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of 308 stainless steel (SS) welds. The LCF behavior of 308 SS welds containing defects was compared with that of type 304 SS base material and 308 SS sound weld metal. Weld pads were prepared by shielded metal arc welding process. Porosity and slag inclusions were introduced deliberately into the weld metal by grossly exaggerating the conditions normally causing such defects. Total axial strain controlled LCF tests have been conducted in air at 823 K on type 304 SS base and 308 SS sound weld metal employing strain amplitudes in the range from ±0.25 to ±0.8 percent. A single strain amplitude of ±0.25 percent was used for all the tests conducted on weld samples containing defects. The results indicated that the base material undergoes cyclic hardening whereas sound and defective welds experience cyclic softening. Base metal showed higher fatigue life than sound weld metal at all strain amplitudes. The presence of porosity and slag inclusions in the weld metal led to significant reduction in life. Porosity on the specimen surface has been found to be particularly harmful and caused a reduction in life by a factor of seven relative to sound weld metal

  13. Automatic orbital GTAW welding: Highest quality welds for tomorrow's high-performance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henon, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Automatic orbital gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIG welding is certain to play an increasingly prominent role in tomorrow's technology. The welds are of the highest quality and the repeatability of automatic weldings is vastly superior to that of manual welding. Since less heat is applied to the weld during automatic welding than manual welding, there is less change in the metallurgical properties of the parent material. The possibility of accurate control and the cleanliness of the automatic GTAW welding process make it highly suitable to the welding of the more exotic and expensive materials which are now widely used in the aerospace and hydrospace industries. Titanium, stainless steel, Inconel, and Incoloy, as well as, aluminum can all be welded to the highest quality specifications automatically. Automatic orbital GTAW equipment is available for the fusion butt welding of tube-to-tube, as well as, tube to autobuttweld fittings. The same equipment can also be used for the fusion butt welding of up to 6 inch pipe with a wall thickness of up to 0.154 inches.

  14. Welded joints integrity analysis and optimization for fiber laser welding of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yuewei; Shao, Xinyu; Jiang, Ping; Li, Peigen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Dissimilar materials welded joints provide many advantages in power, automotive, chemical, and spacecraft industries. The weld bead integrity which is determined by process parameters plays a significant role in the welding quality during the fiber laser welding (FLW) of dissimilar materials. In this paper, an optimization method by taking the integrity of the weld bead and weld area into consideration is proposed for FLW of dissimilar materials, the low carbon steel and stainless steel. The relationships between the weld bead integrity and process parameters are developed by the genetic algorithm optimized back propagation neural network (GA-BPNN). The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is taken for optimizing the predicted outputs from GA-BPNN for the objective. Through the optimization process, the desired weld bead with good integrity and minimum weld area are obtained and the corresponding microstructure and microhardness are excellent. The mechanical properties of the optimized joints are greatly improved compared with that of the un-optimized welded joints. Moreover, the effects of significant factors are analyzed based on the statistical approach and the laser power (LP) is identified as the most significant factor on the weld bead integrity and weld area. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective for improving the reliability and stability of welded joints in the practical production.

  15. Investigate The Effect Of Welding Parameters On Mechanical Properties During The Welding Of Al-6061 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Friction welding is a solid state welding technique which is being used in recent times to weld similar as well as dissimilar metals for getting defect free weld. Many combinations like low carbon to stainless steel austenitic to ferrite stainless steel aluminium to copper and titanium to aluminium or steel have been tried out by various solid state welding processes with quite good results. In the present work the 3 level full factorial design has been employed to investigate the effect of welding parameters on tensile strength toughness and heat generation during the welding of Al-6061 alloy. Mathematical relationships between friction welding parameters and mechanical properties like heat generation tensile strength and toughness have also been developed. An attempt has also been made to examine the fracture surfaces of test specimens using SEM. It has been found that welding speed is the most significant parameter thats affect the heat generation tensile strength and toughness. it has been found that tensile strength and toughness during welding increases with increased in welding speed while tensile strength and toughness initially increased as the welding time increases after that it decreased with increase in welding time. The difference in weight of alloying elements can be clearly seen by analyzing spectrum of elements.

  16. Laser welding of tailored blanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peças, P.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding has an incrising role in the automotive industry, namely on the sub-assemblies manufacturing. Several sheet-shape parts are laser welded, on a dissimilar combination of thicknesses and materials, and are afterwards formed (stamped being transformed in a vehicle body component. In this paper low carbon CO2 laser welding, on the thicknesses of 1,25 and 0,75 mm, formability investigation is described. There will be a description of how the laser welded blanks behave in different forming tests, and the influence of misalignment and undercut on the formibility. The quality is evaluated by measuring the limit strain and limit effective strain for the laser welded sheets and the base material, which will be presented in a forming limit diagram.

    A soldadura laser assume um papel cada vez mais importante na indústria automóvel, principalmente para a fabricação de sub-conjuntos constituídos por varias partes de chapa de diferentes espessuras (e diferentes materiais, que depois de estampados constituem um componente para integrar num veículo. Descreve-se neste artigo o trabalho de investigação de enformabilidade de chapa de ac.o de baixo carbono soldada por laser de CO2, nas espessuras de 1,25 e 0,75 mm. Apresenta-se uma descrição do comportamento das chapas soldadas por laser em diferentes testes de enformação, e a influência dos defeitos das soldaduras (desalinhamento e queda do banho-undercut no comportamento à enformação. A qualidade é avaliada pela medição da extensão limite e da extensão limite efectiva no material base e no material soldado, que serão representadas num diagrama de limite de enformabilidade.

  17. Latest MIG, TIG arc-YAG laser hybrid welding systems for various welding products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishide, Takashi; Tsubota, Shuho; Watanabe, Masao

    2003-03-01

    Laser welding is capable of high-efficiency low-strain welding, and so its applications are started to various products. We have also put the high-power YAG laser of up to 10 kW to practical welding use for various products. On the other hand the weakest point of this laser welding is considered to be strict in the welding gap aiming allowance. In order to solve this problem, we have developed hybrid welding of TIG, MIG arc and YAG laser, taking the most advantages of both the laser and arc welding. Since the electrode is coaxial to the optical axis of the YAG laser in this process, it can be applied to welding of various objects. In the coaxial MIG, TIG-YAG welding, in order to make irradiation positions of the YAG laser beams having been guided in a wire or an electrode focused to the same position, the beam transmitted in fibers is separated to form a space between the separated beams, in which the laser is guided. With this method the beam-irradiating area can be brought near or to the arc-generating point. This enables welding of all directions even for the member of a three-dimensional shape. This time we carried out welding for various materials and have made their welding of up to 1 mm or more in welding groove gap possible. We have realized high-speed 1-pass butt welding of 4m/min in welding speed with the laser power of 3 kW for an aluminum alloy plate of approximately 4 mm thick. For a mild steel plate also we have realized butt welding of 1m/min with 5 kW for 6 mm thick. Further, in welding of stainless steel we have shown its welding possibility, by stabilizing the arc with the YAG laser in the welding atmosphere of pure argon, and shown that this welding is effective in high-efficiency welding of various materials. Here we will report the fundamental welding performances and applications to various objects for the coaxial MIG, TIG-YAG welding we have developed.

  18. Development of remote laser welding technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo-Sung; Kim, Woong-Ki; Lee, Jung-Won; Yang, Myung-Seung; Park, Hyun-Soo

    1999-01-01

    Various welding processes are now available for end cap closure of nuclear fuel element such as TIG(Tungsten Inert Gas) welding, magnetic resistance welding and laser welding. Even though the resistance and TIG welding process are widely used for manufacturing of the commercial fuel elements, it can not be recommended for the remote seal welding of fuel element at PIE facility due to its complexity of the electrode alignment, difficulty in the replacement of parts in the remote manner and its large heat input for thin sheath. Therefore, Nd:YAG laser system using the optical fiber transmission was selected for Zircaloy-4 end cap welding. Remote laser welding apparatus is developed using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 500 watt average power with optical fiber transmission. The laser weldability is satisfactory in respect of the microstructures and mechanical properties comparing with the TIG and resistance welding. The optimum operation processes of laser welding and the optical fiber transmission system for hot cell operation in remote manner have been developed. (author)

  19. A 1993 review of welding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    This paper describes a prospect on Japanese welding technologies available in 1993. Amid the increasing research publications on non-ferrous metals as structural materials, publications are also increasing on steel materials as to their fracture and welding mechanics, and structural control. Studies are being made on ceramics with respect to its bonding, interface reaction mechanisms, and mechanical characteristics. The paper describes the progress and improvement in conventional technologies in welding and cutting processes. Especially active is the study on solid face welding such as pressure welding and diffusion. A considerable decrease is seen in reports on thermal spraying. The paper also introduces surface processing and hydrostatic pressure processing as new processing techniques. In the area of welding devices, practical use of arc welding robots has come to near a completion stage. Technological development and cost reduction are indispensable to transfer to visual sensing with a higher intelligence level. With respect to the performance of joints, a large number of research has been reported on welding deformation and residual stress. The paper also dwells on corrosion resistance and welding cracks. Quality assurance, inspection, and related standards are described. Details are given on application of welding to different industrial fields.

  20. ITER lip seal welding and cutting developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesy, B.; Cordier, J.J.; Jokinen, T.; Kujanpää, V.; Karhu, M.; Le Barbier, R.; Määttä, T.; Martins, J.P.; Utin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Different TIG and Laser welding techniques are tested. • Twin spot laser welding techniques is the best. • Limited heat input gives a stable weld pool in all positions. • Penetrations is achieved. • Lip seal welding and cutting with a robotic arm is successfully performed on a representative mock-up. - Abstract: The welded lip seals form part of the torus primary vacuum boundary in between the port plugs and the vacuum vessel, and are classified as Protection Important Component. In order to refurbish the port plugs or the in-vessel components, port plugs have to be removed from the machine. The lip seal design must enable up to ten opening of the vacuum vessel during the life time operation of the ITER machine. Therefore proven, remote reliable cutting and re-welding are essential, as these operations need to be performed in the port cells in a nuclear environment, where human presence will be restricted. Moreover, the combination of size of the components to be welded (∼10 m long vacuum compatible thin welds) and the congested environment close to the core of the machine constraint the type and size of tools to be used. This paper describes the lip seal cutting and welding development programme performed at the VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland. Potential cutting and welding techniques are analyzed and compared. The development of the cutting, TIG and laser welding techniques on samples are presented. Effects of lip seal misalignments and optimization of the 2 welding processes are discussed. Finally, the manufacturing and test of the two 1.2 m × 1 m representative mock-ups are presented. The set-up and use of a robotic arm for the mock-up cutting and welding operations are also described.

  1. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezzini-Aouad, M.; Flahaut, P.; Hariri, S.; Winiar, L.

    2010-06-01

    Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic) welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerous advantages against other welding technology commonly used. Obviously, future demands on train traffic are heavier axle loads, higher train speeds and increased traffic density. Thus, a new enhanced weld should be developed to prevent accidents due to fracture of welds and to lower maintenance costs. In order to improve such assembly process, a detailed metallurgical study coupled to a thermomechanical modelling of the phenomena involved in the thermite welding process is carried out. Obtained data enables us to develop a new improved thermite weld (type A). This joint is made by modifying the routinely specified procedure (type B) used in a railway rail by a standard gap alumino-thermic weld. Joints of type A and B are tested and compared. Based on experimental temperature measurements, a finite element analysis is used to calculate the thermal residual stresses induced. In the vicinity of the weld, the residual stress patterns depend on the thermal conditions during welding as it also shown by litterature [1, 2]. In parallel, X-Ray diffraction has been used to map the residual stress field that is generated in welded rail of types A and B. Their effect on fatigue crack growth in rail welds is studied. An experimental study based on fatigue tests of rails welded by conventional and improved processes adjudicates on the new advances and results will be shown.

  2. ITER lip seal welding and cutting developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesy, B.; Cordier, J.J.; Jokinen, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kujanpää, V.; Karhu, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Le Barbier, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Määttä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Martins, J.P.; Utin, Y. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Different TIG and Laser welding techniques are tested. • Twin spot laser welding techniques is the best. • Limited heat input gives a stable weld pool in all positions. • Penetrations is achieved. • Lip seal welding and cutting with a robotic arm is successfully performed on a representative mock-up. - Abstract: The welded lip seals form part of the torus primary vacuum boundary in between the port plugs and the vacuum vessel, and are classified as Protection Important Component. In order to refurbish the port plugs or the in-vessel components, port plugs have to be removed from the machine. The lip seal design must enable up to ten opening of the vacuum vessel during the life time operation of the ITER machine. Therefore proven, remote reliable cutting and re-welding are essential, as these operations need to be performed in the port cells in a nuclear environment, where human presence will be restricted. Moreover, the combination of size of the components to be welded (∼10 m long vacuum compatible thin welds) and the congested environment close to the core of the machine constraint the type and size of tools to be used. This paper describes the lip seal cutting and welding development programme performed at the VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland. Potential cutting and welding techniques are analyzed and compared. The development of the cutting, TIG and laser welding techniques on samples are presented. Effects of lip seal misalignments and optimization of the 2 welding processes are discussed. Finally, the manufacturing and test of the two 1.2 m × 1 m representative mock-ups are presented. The set-up and use of a robotic arm for the mock-up cutting and welding operations are also described.

  3. Advanced fusion welding processes, solid state joining and a successful marriage. [production of aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F. R.

    1972-01-01

    Joining processes for aerospace systems combine fusion welding and solid state joining during production of metal structures. Detailed characteristics of electron beam welding, plasma arc welding, diffusion welding, inertia welding and weldbond processes are discussed.

  4. Vision-based weld pool boundary extraction and width measurement during keyhole fiber laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Masiyang; Shin, Yung C.

    2015-01-01

    In keyhole fiber laser welding processes, the weld pool behavior is essential to determining welding quality. To better observe and control the welding process, the accurate extraction of the weld pool boundary as well as the width is required. This work presents a weld pool edge detection technique based on an off axial green illumination laser and a coaxial image capturing system that consists of a CMOS camera and optic filters. According to the difference of image quality, a complete developed edge detection algorithm is proposed based on the local maximum gradient of greyness searching approach and linear interpolation. The extracted weld pool geometry and the width are validated by the actual welding width measurement and predictions by a numerical multi-phase model.

  5. Forming Completely Penetrated Welded T-joints when Pulsed Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampit, N. Yu; Krampit, M. A.; Sapozhkov, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper is focused on revealing the influence of welding parameters on weld formation when pulsed arc welding. As an experimental sample a T-joint over 10 mm was selected. Welding was carried out in flat position, which required no edge preparation but provided mono-directional guaranteed root penetration. The following parameters of welding were subjected to investigation: gap in the joint, wire feed rate and incline angles of the torch along and across the weld axis. Technological recommendations have been made with respect to pulsed arc welding; the cost price of product manufacturing can be reduced on their basis due to reduction of labor input required by machining, lowering consumption of welding materials and electric power.

  6. Weld pool boundary and weld bead shape reconstruction based on passive vision in P-GMAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhihong; Zhang Guangjun; Gao Hongming; Wu Lin

    2006-01-01

    A passive visual sensing system is established in this research, and clear weld pool images in pulsed gas metal arc welding ( P-GMA W) can be captured with this system. The three-dimensional weld pool geometry, especially the weld height,is not only a crucial factor in determining workpiece mechanical properties, but also an important parameter for reflecting the penetration. A new three-dimensional (3D) model is established to describe the weld pool geometry in P-GMAW. Then, a series of algorithms are developed to extract the model geometrical parameters from the weld pool images. Furthermore, the method to reconstruct the 3D shape of weld pool boundary and weld bead from the two-dimensional images is investigated.

  7. LASER WELDING WITH MICRO-JET COOLING FOR TRUCK FRAME WELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan PIWNIK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the mechanical properties of the weld steel structure of car body truck frames after laser welding. The best welding conditions involve the use of proper materials and alloy elements in steel and filer materials, in addition to welding technology, state of stress and temperature of exploitation. We present for the first time the properties of steel track structures after laser welding with micro-jet cooling. Therefore, good selection of both welding parameters and micro-jet cooling parameters is very important to achieve a proper steel structure. In this study, the metallographic structure, tensile results and impact toughness of welded joints have been analysed in terms of welding parameters.

  8. 49 CFR 195.228 - Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The acceptability of a weld is determined according to the standards in Section 9 of API 1104. However... Appendix A to API 1104 (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3) applies to the weld, the acceptability of...

  9. Simplified welding distortion analysis for fillet welding using composite shell elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the simplified welding distortion analysis method to predict the welding deformation of both plate and stiffener in fillet welds. Currently, the methods based on equivalent thermal strain like Strain as Direct Boundary (SDB has been widely used due to effective prediction of welding deformation. Regarding the fillet welding, however, those methods cannot represent deformation of both members at once since the temperature degree of freedom is shared at the intersection nodes in both members. In this paper, we propose new approach to simulate deformation of both members. The method can simulate fillet weld deformations by employing composite shell element and using different thermal expansion coefficients according to thickness direction with fixed temperature at intersection nodes. For verification purpose, we compare of result from experiments, 3D thermo elastic plastic analysis, SDB method and proposed method. Compared of experiments results, the proposed method can effectively predict welding deformation for fillet welds.

  10. In-process weld sampling during hot end welds of type W overpacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Establish the criteria and process controls to be used in obtaining, testing, and evaluating in-process weld sample during the hot end welding of Type W Overpack capsules used to overpack CsCl capsules for storage at WESF

  11. Application of local vacuum slide sealing electron beam welding procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shozo; Takano, Genta; Minami, Masaharu; Enami, Koji; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuri, Shuhei

    1982-01-01

    Electron beam welding process is efficient and is superior in workmanship and its application to the welding of large plate structures is eagerly awaited. However, since electron beam welding is generally performed with the object of welding entirely put in a vacuum chamber, high welding cost becomes a problem. In response to this demand, two kinds of local vacuum slide sealing type electron beam welding machines have been developed. These welding machines are designed to perform welding with only the neighborhood of the weld line put in vacuum, one of which is for longitudinal joints and the other for circumferential joints. The welding machine for circumferential joints has been put to practical use for the welding of nucear fusion reactor vacuum vessels (outside diameter 3.5 m, inside diameter 1.7 m), showing that it is applicable to the welding of large structures. (author)

  12. Welding in hostile environment for nuclear and offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delauze, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews recent developments of duplex stainless steel and clad pipe welding and under water welding for offshore structures and for reactor fuel storage pool and remote automatic dry welding [fr

  13. Welding of austenitic stainless steel with a high molybdenum content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljas, A.; Holmberg, B.

    1984-01-01

    Welding of austenitic steel is discussed. Welding tests of AVESTA 250 SMO (six percent Mo) are reported. Welding without special additives can make the joints susceptible for corrosion in aggressive environments, e.g. sea water. (L.E.)

  14. Repair welding of cast iron coated electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuk, M.; Górka, J.; Dojka, R.; Czupryński, A.

    2017-08-01

    Welding cast iron is a complex production procedure. Repair welding was used to repair damaged or poorly made castings. This is due to a tendency to cracking of the material during welding as well as after it. Welding cast iron can be carried out on hot or on cold. Hot welding requires high heat material and the use of welding material in the form of cast iron. In the case of cold welding, it is possible to use different materials. Mostly used filler metals are nickel and copper based. The work shows the course of research concerning repairmen of ductile iron with arc welding method. For the reparation process four types of ESAB company coated electrodes dedicated for cast iron were used with diameter 3.2 and 4 mm: ES 18-8-6B (4mm), EB 150 (4mm), OK NiCl, EŻM. In the cast iron examined during the testing grooves were made using plasma methods, in order to simulate the removed casting flaws. Then the welding process with coated electrodes was executed. The process utilized low welding current row of 100A, so there would only be a small amount of heat delivered to the heat affected zone (HAZ). Short stitches were made, after welding it was hammered, in order to remove stresses. After the repair welding the part of studies commenced which purpose was finding surface defects using visual testing (VT) and penetration testing (PT). In the second part, a series of macro and microscopic studies were executed witch the purpose of disclosuring the structure. Then the hardness tests for welds cross sections were performed. An important aspect of welding cast iron is the colour of the padding weld after welding, more precisely the difference between the base material and padding weld, the use of different materials extra gives the extra ability to select the best variant. The research of four types of coated electrode was executed, based on the demands the best option in terms of aesthetic, strength and hardness.

  15. Repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, A.K.; Gill, T.P.S.; Albert, S.K.; Shanmugam, K.; Iyer, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The procedure for repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades made of martensitic stainless steels has been developed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Weld repair procedures were developed using both ER316L austenitic stainless steel filler wire and ER410 martensitic stainless steel filler wire. The repair welding procedure with austenitic filler wire was developed to avoid preheating of the blade as also hydrogen induced cold cracking, and involved evaluation of three different austenitic filler wires, viz. ER309L, ER316L and ERNiCr-3. The overall development of the repair welding procedure included selection of welding consumables (for austenitic filler metal), optimisation of post weld heat treatment parameters, selection of suitable method for local pre-heating and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the blades, determination of mechanical properties of weldments in as-welded and PWHT conditions, and microstructural examination. After various trials using different procedures, the procedure of local PWHT using electrical resistance heating on the top surface of the weldment and monitoring the temperature by placing a thermocouple at the bottom of the weld, was found to give the most satisfactory results. A similar procedure was used for preheating while using ER410 filler metal. Mechanical testing of weldments before and after PWHT involved tensile tests at room temperature, face and root bend tests, and microhardness measurements across the fusion line and heat affected zone. During procedure qualification, mock-ups and actual repair welding, dye penetrant testing was used at different stages and where ever possible radiography was carried out. These procedures were developed for repair welding of cracked blades in the low-pressure (LP) steam turbines of Indian nuclear power plants. The procedure with ER316 L filler wire has so far been applied for repair welding of 2 cracked blades (made of AISI 410 SS) of LP steam turbines, while the procedure

  16. Friction stir welding of 6061 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman, M.A.M.S.

    2009-01-01

    6061 AA (Al-Mg-Si alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance such as marine frames, pipelines, storage tanks, and aircraft components [1]. It is also used for the manufacturing of fuel elements in the nuclear research reactors. Compared to many of the fusion welding processes that are routinely used for joining structural alloys, friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded is not melted and recast [2]. The welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding traverse speed, and tool profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. Several FSW tools (differ from each other in pin angle, shoulder diameter, and shoulder concavity) have been used to fabricate a number of joints in order to obtain a tool with which a sound weld can be produced. It was found that the FSW tool with tapered cone pin, concave shoulder, and shoulder diameter equal to four times the welded plate thickness is suitable to produce a sound weld. The effect of the traverse speed on the global and local tensile properties of friction stir welded joints has been investigated in the 6061-T6 AA. The global tensile properties of the FSW joints were improved with increasing the traverse speed at constant rotation rate. It is found that the global tensile strength of the FSW joint is limited by the local tensile strength of the nearest region to the weld center at which the cross section is composed mainly of the HAZ. The effect of the initial butt surface on the formation of the zigzag line on the tensile properties of the welds was examined by using three types of welding samples differ in the preparation of the initial butt surface. The first type of samples welded without removing the oxide layer from the initial butt surface (uncleaned butt surfaces joint). In the second type of samples the oxide layer was removed from

  17. TomoWELD. Precise detection of weld defects; TomoWELD. Defekte in Schweissnaehten praezise erkennen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, David [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Nuclear power plants are complex and technically elaborate systems whose aim is to produce electricity. They must meet the highest safety requirements. Within the reactors, nuclear reactions and radioactive transformations release energy which is used to evaporate water. The steam generated drives turbines that in turn are coupled with generators which convert the kinetic energy provided by the turbines into electrical energy. The process is easy to illustrate but difficult to control and requires technical equipment such as kilometre-long pipe systems. Austenitic steel is frequently used for this purpose because of its high strength and corrosion resistance. The individual pipe components are joined by welding. However, welds may contain hidden defects. Cracks, lack of fusion or pore nests that can remain undetected may have catastrophic consequences. Therefore, all welds in a nuclear power plant, without exception, must be checked. Approved non-destructive methods use ultrasound and X-ray. The technology developed at BAM is called TomoWELD. [German] Kernkraftwerke sind komplexe und technisch aufwendige Anlagen zur Gewinnung von Elektrizitaet. Sie muessen allerhoechsten Sicherheitsanspruechen genuegen. Die bei Kernreaktionen und radioaktiven Umwandlungen freiwerdende Energie wird genutzt, um Wasser zu verdampfen. Der Dampf treibt Turbinen an und die wiederum sind mit Generatoren gekoppelt, welche die durch die Turbinen bereitgestellte kinetische Energie in elektrische Energie umwandeln. Der Prozess laesst sich einfach darstellen, ihn zu steuern ist allerdings kompliziert und erfordert weitere technische Komponenten, wie beispielsweise kilometerlange Rohrleitungssysteme. Wegen seiner hohen Festigkeit sowie Korrosionsbestaendigkeit wird oft austenitischer Stahl dafuer verwendet. Gefuegt werden die einzelnen Rohrteile durch Schweissen. Doch Schweissnaehte koennen viele verborgene Defekte enthalten. Bleiben Risse, Bindefehler oder Porennester unentdeckt, kann das

  18. Using Taguchi method to optimize welding pool of dissimilar laser welded components

    OpenAIRE

    Anawa, E.; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani

    2008-01-01

    In the present work CO2 continuous laser welding process was successfully applied and optimized for joining a dissimilar AISI 316 stainless steel and AISI 1009 low carbon steel plates. Laser power, welding speed, and defocusing distance combinations were carefully selected with the objective of producing welded joint with complete penetration, minimum fusion zone size and acceptable welding profile. Fusion zone area and shape of dissimilar austenitic stainless steel with ferritic low carbon s...

  19. Finite element simulation of the welding process and structural behaviour of welded components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locci, J.M.; Rouvray, A. de; Barbe, B.; Poirier, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the field of inelastic analysis of nuclear metal structures, the computation of residual stresses in welds, and their effects on the strength of welded components is of major importance. This paper presents an experimentally checked finite element simulation with the general nonlinear program PAM NEP-D, of the electron beam welding of two thick hemispherical shells, and the behaviour of the welded sphere under various additional thermomechanical sollicitations. (Auth.)

  20. Development of resistance welding process. 6. Evaluation test of welding properties of martensitic ODS steel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Shusaku; Seki, Masayuki; Ishibashi, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    The welding condition and the heat-treatment condition were optimized to evaluate welding properties of the martensitic ODS steel cladding tube. The test pieces for evaluation of strength properties of the welded zone were produced by the optimized welding condition. In order to evaluate the strength of the welded zone, the internal creep rapture test, the single axis creep rapture test, the burst test and the tensile test were conducted. Following results were obtained in these tests. (1) Weld ability: An excellent welding characteristic was observed. The micro cracks, etc. were not served at the joint starting point. The joint starting points were connected uniformly with errors less than 0.05 mm. It is considered that an excellent welding characteristic was result of homogeneous micro structure of cladding material. (2) End plug material: In case of the material of end plug was martensitic ODS steel as same as that of cladding tube, the micro structure and the precipitation state carbide near the welded zone were found to be almost same as that of cladding tube. (3) Optimization of heat-treatment condition: The heat treatments of normalizing (1050degC) and tempering (780degC) were performed after welding and the micro structure near the welded zone was the isometric structure with low dislocation density, the precipitation state of carbide was uniform as same as that of cladding tube. These heat treatments can relax the residual stress accumulated when welding; it is considered that these heat treatments after welding are indispensable. (4) Strength of welded zone: The strength of the welded zone was found to be equal to that of cladding tube in all the strength tests. Therefore, it is concluded that the welding technology for the martensitic ODS steel is completed. (author)

  1. Friction Stir Welding of Tapered Thickness Welds Using an Adjustable Pin Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Glynn; Venable, Richard; Lawless, Kirby

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) can be used for joining weld lands that vary in thickness along the length of the weld. An adjustable pin tool mechanism can be used to accomplish this in a single-pass, full-penetration weld by providing for precise changes in the pin length relative to the shoulder face during the weld process. The difficulty with this approach is in accurately adjusting the pin length to provide a consistent penetration ligament throughout the weld. The weld technique, control system, and instrumentation must account for mechanical and thermal compliances of the tooling system to conduct tapered welds successfully. In this study, a combination of static and in-situ measurements, as well as active control, is used to locate the pin accurately and maintain the desired penetration ligament. Frictional forces at the pin/shoulder interface were a source of error that affected accurate pin position. A traditional FSW pin tool design that requires a lead angle was used to join butt weld configurations that included both constant thickness and tapered sections. The pitch axis of the tooling was fixed throughout the weld; therefore, the effective lead angle in the tapered sections was restricted to within the tolerances allowed by the pin tool design. The sensitivity of the FSW process to factors such as thickness offset, joint gap, centerline offset, and taper transition offset were also studied. The joint gap and the thickness offset demonstrated the most adverse affects on the weld quality. Two separate tooling configurations were used to conduct tapered thickness welds successfully. The weld configurations included sections in which the thickness decreased along the weld, as well as sections in which the thickness increased along the weld. The data presented here include weld metallography, strength data, and process load data.

  2. Revealing the surface pattern of medieval pattern welded iron objects - etching tests conducted on reconstructed composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thiele, Á.; Hošek, Jiří; Haramza, M.; Török, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2014), s. 18-24 ISSN 1805-7241 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2289 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : etching * pattern welding * phosphoric iron * archaeometallurgy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. Welding of a neutron high-flux reactor made of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinser, P.; Schupp, N.

    1996-01-01

    The HFR300 of the Institute ''Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL)'' at Grenoble was found to be damaged by a number of serious defects which could not be made good by repair work, so that a new reactor had to be installed. Some of the welding tasks performed so far in this installation are explained. (orig./MM) [de

  4. Digital image correlation in analysis of striffness in local zones of welded joints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milosevic, M.; Milosevic, N.J.; Sedmak, S.; Tatic, U.; Mitrovic, N.; Hloch, Sergej; Jovicic, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2016), s. 19-24 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Aramis software * digital image correlation * strain analysis * stiffness * welded joints Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/225545

  5. Study of the Welding Electron Gun Optical Properties for Work Piece Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, 5-6 (2009), s. 70-72 ISSN 0861-4717 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : electron beam welding * electron gun * electron optics design Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  6. Feedback control of laser welding based on frequency analysis of light emissions and adaptive beam shaping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrňa, Libor; Šarbort, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Jedlička, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, NOV (2012), s. 784-791 ISSN 1875-3892. [LANE 2012. Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering /7./ International Conference on Photonic Technologies. Fürth, 12.11.2012-15.12.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : laser welding * feedback control * frequency analysis * adaptive beam shaping Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  7. Wear characteristics and defects analysis of friction stir welded joint of aluminium alloy 6061-t6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, R.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej; Krolczyk, G.; Legutko, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2016), s. 128-135 ISSN 1507-2711 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Friction stir welding (FSW) * grinding machine * Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.145, year: 2016 http://www.ein.org.pl/2016-01-17

  8. Design Optimization and Fatigue Analysis of Laser Stake Welded Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    is ultimately envisioned that laser welding will be as common in the shipyard as other processes such -- as MIG, TIG and SMAW. Laser stake- welding of...input from conventional welding techniques can be detrimental to the polymer matrix composite material. In comparison, the laser welding process allows...more discrete frequencies. In the laser welding process , the photons are targeted on the work piece surface which needs to be welded . Highly

  9. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Qi, Junlei; Song, Xiaoguo; Feng, Jicai

    2014-01-01

    Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials. PMID:28788113

  10. Friction welded closures of waste canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Liquid radioactive waste presently stored in underground tanks is to undergo a vitrifying process which will immobilize it into a solid form. This solid waste will be contained in a stainless steel canister. The canister opening requires a positive-seal weld, the properties and thickness of which must be at least equal to those of the canister material. All studies and tests performed in the work discussed in this paper have the inertia friction welding concept to be highly feasible in this application. This paper describes the decision to investigate the inertia friction welding process, the inertia friction welding process itself, and a proposed equipment design concept. This system would provide a positive, reliable, inspectable, and full-thickness seal weld while utilizing easily maintainable equipment. This high-quality weld can be achieved even in highly contaminated hot cell

  11. Underwater laser beam welding of Alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Kono, Wataru; Kawano, Shohei; Yoda, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Stress Corrosion Clacking (SCC) has been reported at Alloy 600 welds between nozzles and safe-end in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. Alloy 690, which has higher chromium content than Alloy 600, has been applied for cladding on Alloy 600 welds for repairing damaged SCC area. Toshiba has developed Underwater Laser Beam Welding technique. This method can be conducted without draining, so that the repairing period and the radiation exposure during the repair can be dramatically decreased. In some old PWRs, high-sulfur stainless steel is used as the materials for this section. It has a high susceptibility of weld cracks. Therefore, the optimum welding condition of Alloy 690 on the high-sulfur stainless steel was investigated with our Underwater Laser Beam Welding unit. Good cladding layer, without any crack, porosity or lack of fusion, could be obtained. (author)

  12. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout

  13. Pearson's Functions to Describe FSW Weld Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, D.; Coupard, D.; Tcherniaeff, S.; Girot, F.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new joining technique particularly for aluminium alloys that are difficult to fusion weld. In this study, the geometry of the weld has been investigated and modelled using Pearson's functions. It has been demonstrated that the Pearson's parameters (mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and geometric constant) can be used to characterize the weld geometry and the tensile strength of the weld assembly. Pearson's parameters and process parameters are strongly correlated allowing to define a control process procedure for FSW assemblies which make radiographic or ultrasonic controls unnecessary. Finally, an optimisation using a Generalized Gradient Method allows to determine the geometry of the weld which maximises the assembly tensile strength.

  14. Infrared sensing techniques for adaptive robotic welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.T.; Groom, K.; Madsen, N.H.; Chin, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using infrared sensors to monitor the welding process. Data were gathered using an infrared camera which was trained on the molten metal pool during the welding operation. Several types of process perturbations which result in weld defects were then intentionally induced and the resulting thermal images monitored. Gas tungsten arc using ac and dc currents and gas metal arc welding processes were investigated using steel, aluminum and stainless steel plate materials. The thermal images obtained in the three materials and different welding processes revealed nearly identical patterns for the same induced process perturbation. Based upon these results, infrared thermography is a method which may be very applicable to automation of the welding process

  15. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials.

  16. Orbital friction stir welding of aluminium pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhard, G.; Hillers, T.

    2002-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) was originally developed for flat plates. This contribution shows how it can be applied to the welding of aluminium pipes. Pipes made of AlMG 3 (EN5754), AlMg 4.5Mn (EN5083) and AlMgSi 0.5 (EN6106) with dimensions of Da 600 and 520 x 10-8 mm were welded. The FSW orbital system comprises an annular cage with integrated FSW head, a hydraulic system, and a control unit. The welds were tested successfully according to EN 288. The mechanical and technical properties of the welds were somewhat better than with the TIG orbital process, and welding times were about 40 percent shorter [de

  17. Enabling high speed friction stir welding of aluminum tailor welded blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovanski, Yuri

    Current welding technologies for production of aluminum tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) are utilized in low-volume and niche applications, and have yet to be scaled for the high-volume vehicle market. This study targeted further weight reduction, part reduction, and cost savings by enabling tailor-welded blank technology for aluminum alloys at high-volumes. While friction stir welding (FSW) has traditionally been applied at linear velocities less than one meter per minute, high volume production applications demand the process be extended to higher velocities more amenable to cost sensitive production environments. Unfortunately, weld parameters and performance developed and characterized at low to moderate welding velocities do not directly translate to high speed linear friction stir welding. Therefore, in order to facilitate production of high volume aluminum FSW components, parameters were developed with a minimum welding velocity of three meters per minute. With an emphasis on weld quality, welded blanks were evaluated for post-weld formability using a combination of numerical and experimental methods. Evaluation across scales was ultimately validated by stamping full-size production door inner panels made from dissimilar thickness aluminum tailor-welded blanks, which provided validation of the numerical and experimental analysis of laboratory scale tests.

  18. Numerical evaluation of multipass welding temperature field in API 5L X80 steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Nóbrega

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many are the metallurgical changes suffered by materials when subjected to welding thermal cycle, promoting a considerable influence on the welded structures thermo mechanical properties. In project phase, one alternative for evaluating the welding cycle variable, would be the employment of computational methods through simulation. So, this paper presents an evaluation of the temperature field in a multipass welding of API 5L X80 steel used for oil and gas transportation, using the ABAQUS ® software, based on Finite Elements Method (FEM. During the simulation complex phenomena are considerable including: Variation in physical and mechanical properties of materials as a function of temperature, welding speed and the different mechanisms of heat exchange with the environment (convection and radiation were used. These considerations allow a more robust mathematical modeling for the welding process. An analytical heat source proposed by Goldak, to model the heat input in order to characterize the multipass welding through the GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process on root and the SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding process for the filling passes were used. So, it was possible to evaluate the effect of each welding pass on the welded joint temperature field, through the temperature peaks and cooling rates values during the welding process.

  19. Determination of welding parameters for execution of weld overlayer on PWR nuclear reactor nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Gabriela M.; Lima, Luciana I.; Quinan, Marco A.; Schvartzman, Monica M.

    2009-01-01

    In the PWR reactors, nickel based dissimilar welds have been presented susceptibilities the stress corrosion (S C). For the mitigation the problem a deposition of weld layers on the external surface of the nozzle is an alternative, viewing to provoke the compression of the region subjected to S C. This paper presents a preliminary study on the determination of welding parameters to obtain these welding overlayers. Welding depositions were performed on a test piece welded with nickel 182 alloy, simulating the conditions of a nozzle used in a PWR nuclear power plant. The welding process was the GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), and a nickel 52 alloy as addition material. The overlayers were performed on the base metals, carbon steel an stainless steel, changing the welding parameters and verifying the the time of each weld filet. After that, the samples were micro structurally characterized. The macro structures and the microstructures obtained through optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness are presented. The preliminary results make evident the good weld quality. However, a small weld parameters influence used in the base material microstructure (carbon steel and stainless steel). The obtained results in this study will be used as reference in the construction of a mock up which will simulate all the conditions of a pressurizer nozzle of PWR reactor

  20. Welding electrode for peripheral welds of A-1 reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakatos, L.

    1975-01-01

    The properties are outlined of the VUZ-AC1-52 welding electrode used in welding the Bohunice A-1 reactor pressure vessel. The mechanical properties of welded joints after the final thermal treatment are summed up. (J.K.)

  1. A System for Complex Robotic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole; Sørensen, Carsten Bro; Olsen, Birger

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture of a system for robotic welding of complex tasks. The system integrates off-line programming, control of redundant robots, collision-free motion planning and sensor-based control. An implementation for pipe structure welding made at Odense Steel Shipyard Ltd......., Denmark, demonstrates the system can be used for automatic welding of complex products in one-of-a-kind production....

  2. Case history of tantalum-weld cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knorovsky, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Tantalum welding is normally a routine operation. Of course, the routine involves careful cleaning beforehand, and welding in an atmosphere which excludes reactive gases (O 2 , N 2 , H 2 ). Recently a weld cracking problem was encountered at SNLA despite the fact that normal precautions had been taken. This account reviews what happened, the analytical procedures followed to determine the unusual source of the problem, and the remedy which solved the problem

  3. Repair of steam turbines by welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnstedt, H.J.; Loebert, P.

    1987-01-01

    In some cases, turbine parts can be repaired by welding, even rotating parts such as the shaft or the blades. Practical examples of successful repair work are explained, as for instance: welding of the last web of the turbine wheel of two MD-rotors, repair of erosion damage on turbine blades, of solid-matter erosion on a medium-pressure blading, or welding repair of a high-pressure turbine casing. (DG) [de

  4. Metallurgical examination of powder metallurgy uranium alloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, A.G.M.; Dobbins, A.G.; Holbert, R.K.; Doughty, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Inertia welding provided a successful technique for joining full density, powder metallurgy uranium-6 wt pct niobium alloy. Initial joining attempts concentrated on the electron beam method, but this method failed to produce a sound weld. The electron beam welds and the inertia welds were evaluated by radiography and metallography. Electron beam welds were attempted on powder metallurgy plates which contained various levels of oxygen and nitrogen. All welds were porous. Sixteen inertia welds were made and all welds were radiographically sound. The tensile properties of the joints were found to be equivalent to the p/m base metal properties

  5. On the Generalized Correlation Equation of Welding Current for the Tig Welding Machine Used in Nuclear Fuel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Efrizon

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fabrication, welding plays a very important role to join the end cap to the tube. In order to determine the welding current in TIG welding process for various materials, weld geometries and welding rates, the correlation between the welding current and the other parameters are needed. This paper presents the correlation of those parameters mentioned above. The proposed correlation was tested and produced satisfactory results. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Friction Pull Plug Welding in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Shane A.; Bradford, Vann

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently invested much time and effort into the process development of Friction Pull Plug Welding (FPPW). FPPW, is a welding process similar to Friction Push Plug Welding in that, there is a small rotating part (plug) being spun and simultaneously pulled (forged) into a larger part. These two processes differ, in that push plug welding requires an internal reaction support, while pull plug welding reacts to the load externally. FPPW was originally conceived as a post proof repair technique for the Space Shuttle fs External Tank. FPPW was easily selected as the primary weld process used to close out the termination hole on the Constellation Program's ARES I Upper Stage circumferential Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds (SR-FSW). The versatility of FPPW allows it to also be used as a repair technique for both SR-FSW and Conventional Friction Stir Welds. To date, all MSFC led development has been concentrated on aluminum alloys (2195, 2219, and 2014). Much work has been done to fully understand and characterize the process's limitations. A heavy emphasis has been spent on plug design, to match the various weldland thicknesses and alloy combinations. This presentation will summarize these development efforts including weld parameter development, process control, parameter sensitivity studies, plug repair techniques, material properties including tensile, fracture and failure analysis.

  7. Mechanical behaviour of dissimilar metal welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escaravage, C.

    1990-01-01

    This report addresses the problems of dissimilar metal welds connecting an austenitic stainless steel component to a ferritic steel component. In LMFBRs such welds appear at the junction of the austenitic stainless steel vessel with the ferritic steel roof and in sodium and water or steam pipes. The latter are exposed to high temperatures in the creep range. A wide range of austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels (carbon steels, low allow steels and alloy steels) are covered; the study encompasses more than 20 different weld metals (austenitic stainless steels and nickel base alloys). The report begins with a presentation of the materials, geometries and welding procedures treated in the study, followed by a review of service experience from examinations of dissimilar metal welds after elevated temperature service, in particular failed welds. Results of laboratory tests performed for reproducing service failures are then discussed. A further section is devoted to a review of test results on fatigue behaviour and impact toughness for dissimilar metal welded joints when creep is not significant. Finally, the problem of residual life assessment is addressed. A set of recommendations concludes the report. They concern the material selection, welding procedure, life prediction and testing of dissimilar metal welds. 84 refs

  8. Numerical methods in simulation of resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Zhang, Wenqi

    2015-01-01

    Finite element simulation of resistance welding requires coupling betweenmechanical, thermal and electrical models. This paper presents the numerical models and theircouplings that are utilized in the computer program SORPAS. A mechanical model based onthe irreducible flow formulation is utilized...... a resistance welding point of view, the most essential coupling between the above mentioned models is the heat generation by electrical current due to Joule heating. The interaction between multiple objects is anothercritical feature of the numerical simulation of resistance welding because it influences...... thecontact area and the distribution of contact pressure. The numerical simulation of resistancewelding is illustrated by a spot welding example that includes subsequent tensile shear testing...

  9. Friction stir welding of single crystal aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Wert, John A.; Reynolds, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution...... of crystallographic texture around the tool in each weld. The extent of both dynamic recrystallisation and conventional recrystallisation varied considerably as a function of weld orientation. As the base plate begins to interact with the deformation field surrounding the tool, regions of the single crystal rotate...

  10. Emissions of chromium (VI) from arc welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, William; Yun, Myoung-Jin; Chang, Daniel P Y; Green, Peter G; Halm, Chris

    2007-02-01

    The presence of Cr in the +6 oxidation state (Cr[VI]) is still observed in ambient air samples in California despite steps taken to reduce emissions from plating operations. One known source of emission of Cr(VI) is welding, especially with high Cr-content materials, such as stainless steels. An experimental effort was undertaken to expand and update Cr(VI) emission factors by conducting tests on four types of arc-welding operations: gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), fluxcore arc welding, and pulsed GMAW. Standard American Welding Society hood results were compared with a total enclosure method that permitted isokinetic sampling for particle size-cut measurement, as well as total collection of the aerosol. The fraction of Cr(VI) emitted per unit mass of Cr electrode consumed was determined. Consistent with AP-42 data, initial results indicate that a significant fraction of the total Cr in the aerosol is in the +6 oxidation state. The fraction of Cr(VI) and total aerosol mass produced by the different arc welding methods varies with the type of welding process used. Self-shielded electrodes that do not use a shield gas, for example, SMAW, produce greater amounts of Cr(VI) per unit mass of electrode consumed. The formation of Cr(VI) from standard electrode wires used for welding mild steel was below the method detection limit after eliminating an artifact in the analytical method used.

  11. Welding of a powder metallurgy uranium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbert, R.K.; Doughty, M.W.; Alexander-Morrison, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The interest at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in powder metallurgy (P/M) uranium parts is due to the potential cost savings in the fabrication of the material, to achieving a more homogeneous product, and to the reduction of uranium scrap. The joining of P/M uranium-6 wt-% niobium (U-6Nb) alloys by the electron beam (EB) welding process results in weld porosity. Varying the EB welding parameters did not eliminate the porosity. Reducing the oxygen and nitrogen content in this P/M uranium material did minimize the weld porosity, but this step made the techniques of producing the material more difficult. Therefore, joining wrought and P/M U-6Nb rods with the inertia welding technique is considered. Since no gases will be evolved with the solid-state welding process and the weld area will be compacted, porosity should not be a problem in the inertia welding of uranium alloys. The welds that are evaluated are wrought-to-wrought, wrought-to-P/M, and P/M-to-P/M U-6Nb samples

  12. Welding of structural components and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    'Welding of structural components and vessels' was chosen as the guiding topic for the 17th special conference in Munich so that current problems of this important area of application for welding engineering could be discussed in detail. The following topics were in the focus of the discussions: developments in steel, steel production and steel processing, reports on the practical application of welding in the manufacture of containers and pipes, quality assurance, product liability, safety considerations regarding creep-stressed components, problems of welding in large structures. 7 of the total number of 12 contributions were recorded separately for the data base ENERGY. (orig./MM) [de

  13. Small Bore Piping Socket Weld Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Min; Cho, Hong Seok; Choi, Sang Hoon; Cho, Ki Hyun; Lee, Jang Wook

    2009-01-01

    Kori unit 3 had stopped operation due to leakage at Steam Generator drain line socket weld on June 6, 2008. The Cause of socket weld damage was known as a fatigue crack. According to this case, all socket welds located in RCS pressure boundary are carrying out Radiographic Testing. But to inspect socket welds by RT has some problems. The result of EPRI study showed that RT has limitation to find flaws at socket welds.The orientation of flaws has big influence on RT inspection capability and there is not enough space at socket welds for RT, dose problems as well. Although the gap between coupling and pipe at socket welds must follow up code, surface inspection can't inspect the gap. If there is absence of the gap, socket welds are damaged during operation. The gap should be identified by RT but the distance of gap can't be measured. As this paper, the ultrasonic inspection system was introduced to figure out indication and gap in the socket welds

  14. Study of the Zircaloy-2 welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Solano, R.; Jimenez Moreno, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    After a bibliographical analysis of the Zircaloy-2 properties its welding was approached. The selected procedure is the TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) d.c. arc-welding under an inert atmosphere vessel. A detailed description of the equipment and characteristics is given. During the tests two types of argon were used: one with 96 ppm. Impurities, the other with 7 ppm- impurities. It is al so mentioned the welding in helium atmosphere. The contamination of the welding was evaluated through hardness testing. (Author) 3 refs

  15. Laser-TIG Welding of Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulsky, I.; Somonov, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of investigation the technological opportunity of laser-TIG welding of titanium alloys. The experimental stand for implementation of process with the capability to feed a filler wire was made. The research of the nature of transfer the filler wire into the welding pool has been demonstrated. The influence of distance between the electrode and the surface of the welded plates on the stability of the arc was shown. The relationship between welding velocity, the position of focal plane of the laser beam and the stability of penetration of plates was determined.

  16. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  17. Real-time ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Gopichand; Nair, Satish; Liu, Harry; Brown, Lawrence M.

    1996-11-01

    Ultrasonic testing techniques are currently used as an alternative to radiography for detecting, classifying,and sizing weld defects, and for evaluating weld quality. Typically, ultrasonic weld inspections are performed manually, which require significant operator expertise and time. Thus, in recent years, the emphasis is to develop automated methods to aid or replace operators in critical weld inspections where inspection time, reliability, and operator safety are major issues. During this period, significant advances wee made in the areas of weld defect classification and sizing. Very few of these methods, however have found their way into the market, largely due to the lack of an integrated approach enabling real-time implementation. Also, not much research effort was directed in improving weld acceptance criteria. This paper presents an integrated system utilizing state-of-the-art techniques for a complete automation of the weld inspection procedure. The modules discussed include transducer tracking, classification, sizing, and weld acceptance criteria. Transducer tracking was studied by experimentally evaluating sonic and optical position tracking techniques. Details for this evaluation are presented. Classification is obtained using a multi-layer perceptron. Results from different feature extraction schemes, including a new method based on a combination of time and frequency-domain signal representations are given. Algorithms developed to automate defect registration and sizing are discussed. A fuzzy-logic acceptance criteria for weld acceptance is presented describing how this scheme provides improved robustness compared to the traditional flow-diagram standards.

  18. Numerical modelling of steel arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamide, M.

    2008-07-01

    Welding is a highly used assembly technique. Welding simulation software would give access to residual stresses and information about the weld's microstructure, in order to evaluate the mechanical resistance of a weld. It would also permit to evaluate the process feasibility when complex geometrical components are to be made, and to optimize the welding sequences in order to minimize defects. This work deals with the numerical modelling of arc welding process of steels. After describing the industrial context and the state of art, the models implemented in TransWeld (software developed at CEMEF) are presented. The set of macroscopic equations is followed by a discussion on their numerical implementation. Then, the theory of re-meshing and our adaptive anisotropic re-meshing strategy are explained. Two welding metal addition techniques are investigated and are compared in terms of the joint size and transient temperature and stresses. The accuracy of the finite element model is evaluated based on experimental results and the results of the analytical solution. Comparative analysis between experimental and numerical results allows the assessment of the ability of the numerical code to predict the thermomechanical and metallurgical response of the welded structure. The models limitations and the phenomena identified during this study are finally discussed and permit to define interesting orientations for future developments. (author)

  19. Welding process automation in power machine building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'bard, S.N.; Shakhnov, A.F.; Shergov, I.V.

    1977-01-01

    The level of welding automation operations in power engineering and ways of its enhancement are highlighted. Used as the examples of comlex automation are an apparatus for the horizontal welding of turbine rotors, remotely controlled automatic machine for welding ring joint of large-sized vessels, equipment for the electron-beam welding of steam turbine assemblies of alloyed steels. The prospects of industrial robots are noted. The importance of the complex automation of technological process, including stocking, assemblying, transportation and auxiliary operations, is emphasized

  20. Welding the AT-400A Containment Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, E.

    1998-11-01

    Early in 1994, the Department of Energy assigned Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility for designing and providing the welding system for the girth weld for the AT-400A containment vessel. (The AT-400A container is employed for the shipment and long-term storage of the nuclear weapon pits being returned from the nation's nuclear arsenal.) Mason Hanger Corporation's Pantex Plant was chosen to be the production facility. The project was successfully completed by providing and implementing a turnkey welding system and qualified welding procedure at the Pantex Plant. The welding system was transferred to Pantex and a pilot lot of 20 AT-400A containers with W48 pits was welded in August 1997. This document is intended to bring together the AT-400A welding system and product (girth weld) requirements and the activities conducted to meet those requirements. This document alone is not a complete compilation of the welding development activities but is meant to be a summary to be used with the applicable references.

  1. Sensing the gas metal arc welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Smartt, H. B.; Watkins, A. D.; Larsen, E. D.; Taylor, P. L.; Waddoups, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Control of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) requires real-time sensing of the process. Three sensing techniques for GMAW are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These are (1) noncontacting ultrasonic sensing using a laser/EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) to detect defects in the solidified weld on a pass-by-pass basis, (2) integrated optical sensing using a CCD camera and a laser stripe to obtain cooling rate and weld bead geometry information, and (3) monitoring fluctuations in digitized welding voltage data to detect the mode of metal droplet transfer and assure that the desired mass input is achieved.

  2. Protection of welded joints against corrosion degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Votava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Welded joints form an integral part of steel constructions. Welded joints are undetachable joints, which are however subjects of corrosion processes. The internal energy increases during the fusion welding especially in the heat affected places around the welded joint, which become initiating spot of corrosion degradation.The aim of the experiment is to put a welded joint produced by the MAG method to a test of corrosion degradation under the conditions of the norm ČSN ISO 9227 (salt-spray test. Organic and inorganic anticorrosion protections were applied on welded beads. First of all, there were prepared welded beads using the method MAG; secondly, metallographical analyses of welded metal, heat affected places and base material were processed. Further, microhardness as well as analysis of chemical composition using the EDS microscope were analysed. Based on a current trend in anticorrosion protections, there were chosen three types of protective coatings. First protective system was a double-layer synthetic system, where the base layer is formed by paint Pragroprimer S2000 and the upper layer by finishing paint Industrol S 2013. Second protective system is a duplex system formed by a combination of a base zinc coating with Zinorex paint. The last protective system was formed by zinc dipping only. Corrosion resistance of the individual tested samples was evaluated based on degradation of protective coating. The corrosion origin as well as the corrosion process were observed, the main criteria was the observation of welded bead.

  3. Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers

  4. Welding robot package; Arc yosetsu robot package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S. [Yaskawa Electric Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the conventional high-speed welding robot, the welding current was controlled mainly for reducing the spatters during short circuits and for stabilizing the beads by the periodic short circuits. However, an increase of deposition amount in response to the speed is required for the high-speed welding. Large-current low-spatter welding current region control was added. Units were integrated into a package by which the arc length is kept in short without dispersion of arc length for welding without defects such as undercut and unequal beads. In automobile industry, use of aluminum parts is extended for the light weight. The welding is very difficult, and automation is not so progressing in spite of the poor environment. Buckling of welding wire is easy to occur, and supply of wire is obstructed by the deposition of chipped powders on the torch cable, which stay within the contact chip resulting in the deposition. Dislocation of locus is easy to occur at the corner of rectangular pipe during the welding. By improving these troubles, an aluminum MIG welding robot package has been developed. 13 figs.

  5. Friction welding of steel to ceramic

    OpenAIRE

    Rombaut, Pieter; De Waele, Wim; Faes, Koenraad

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to give a clear summary of the literature review performed during the master thesis on friction welding on dissimilar materials. Of main interest for this work is the welding of steel to a ceramic material such as alumina (Al2O3). Because of the difficulties involved in producing a sound weld for this material combination, not a lot of literature is available on this topic. This paper starts with a discussion on the basics of friction welding and typical problems enc...

  6. Welding engineering handbook. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundarrajan, S.; Bhaskar, S.V.; Amarnath Kumar, G.C.

    1992-11-01

    In this Welding Engineering Handbook, we have brought key application areas of welding which are of technocommercial importance. These details are not normally available. Each author, highly specialized in these areas has spent considerable amount of time and covered the topic exhaustively giving valuable details. Each application area has different quality requirements which are brought out clearly. This handbook is designed to cater the information source for various professionals in core sector industries like fabrication, shipbuilding, automobiles, nuclear plants, machine building, fertilisers and chemical industry, pressure vessel manufactures etc. We are sure that this handbook will serve as a reference reckoner to all plant/works managers, maintenance, projects, engineers, R and D and students. (original)

  7. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, James Louis

    2010-03-09

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  8. Friction Stir Welding and Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Clarke, Kester D.; Krajewski, Paul E.

    2015-05-01

    With nearly twenty years of international research and collaboration in friction stir welding (FSW) and processing industrial applications have spread into nearly every feasible market. Currently applications exist in aerospace, railway, automotive, personal computers, technology, marine, cutlery, construction, as well as several other markets. Implementation of FSW has demonstrated diverse opportunities ranging from enabling new materials to reducing the production costs of current welding technologies by enabling condensed packaging solutions for traditional fabrication and assembly. TMS has sponsored focused instruction and communication in this technology area for more than fifteen years, with leadership from the Shaping and Forming Committee, which organizes a biannual symposium each odd year at the annual meeting. A focused publication produced from each of these symposia now comprises eight volumes detailing the primary research and development activities in this area over the last two decades. The articles assembled herein focus on both recent developments and technology reviews of several key markets from international experts in this area.

  9. Welding faults and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergemann, W.

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations are presented with a view to further improving the nuclear safety and radiological protection in G.D.R. nuclear power plants by altering the requirements set out in the Labour Safety Regulation 880 for the weld quality of components of nuclear power plant systems. In order to fix the requirements to be met in non-destructive testing of welded joints, the individual systems should be classified taking injury to persons and reduction in availability as criteria. As regards the testing for leaks, it is shown that the soap-bubble test can be replaced partially by the system hydrostatic test and, that the halogen test and equivalent methods need not be applied. (author)

  10. Effect of preemptive weld overlay sequence on residual stress distribution for dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hong Yeol; Song, Tae Kwang; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation method which arrest crack. An overlay weld sued in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). PWOL was good for distribution of residual stress of Dissimilar Metal Weld(DMW) by previous research. Because range of overlay welding is wide relatively, residual stress distribution on PWR is affected by welding sequence. In order to examine the effect of welding sequence, PWOL was applied to a specific DMW of KORI nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, the welding direction that from nozzle to pipe is better good for residual stress distribution on PWR.

  11. Effect of preemptive weld overlay sequence on residual stress distribution for dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hong Yeol; Song, Tae Kwang; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2008-01-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation method which arrest crack. An overlay weld sued in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). PWOL was good for distribution of residual stress of Dissimilar Metal Weld(DMW) by previous research. Because range of overlay welding is wide relatively, residual stress distribution on PWR is affected by welding sequence. In order to examine the effect of welding sequence, PWOL was applied to a specific DMW of KORI nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, the welding direction that from nozzle to pipe is better good for residual stress distribution on PWR

  12. Thomas Alva Edison

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    'Yankee' family known for its self reliance and self confidence, he rose to ... tycoon and a living legend. In 1913 he ... work and printing mechanisms and a variety of telegraph instru- ments. .... later added to the quality of life all over the world.

  13. Permeable pavement study (Edison)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types...

  14. Optimization of process parameters in welding of dissimilar steels using robot TIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneeswar Reddy, G.; VenkataRamana, M.

    2018-03-01

    Robot TIG welding is a modern technique used for joining two work pieces with high precision. Design of Experiments is used to conduct experiments by varying weld parameters like current, wire feed and travelling speed. The welding parameters play important role in joining of dissimilar stainless steel SS 304L and SS430. In this work, influences of welding parameter on Robot TIG Welded specimens are investigated using Response Surface Methodology. The Micro Vickers hardness tests of the weldments are measured. The process parameters are optimized to maximize the hardness of the weldments.

  15. Databases in welding engineering - definition and starting phase of the integrated welding engineering information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelmess, H.; Queren, W.; Stracke, M.

    1989-01-01

    The structure and function of the Information AAssociation for Welding Engineering, newly established by the Deutscher Verband fuer Schweisstechnik, are presented. Examined are: special literature for welding techniques - value and prospects; databases accessible to the public for information on welding techniques; concept for the Information Association for Welding Engineering; the four phases to establish databasis for facts and expert systems of the Information Association for Welding Engineering; the pilot project 'MVT-Data base' (hot crack data base for data of modified varestraint-transvarestraint tests). (orig./MM) [de

  16. Weldability of AISI 304 to copper by friction welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirik, Ihsan [Batman Univ. (Turkey); Balalan, Zulkuf [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)

    2013-06-01

    Friction welding is a solid-state welding method, which can join different materials smoothly and is excessively used in manufacturing industry. Friction welding method is commonly used in welding applications of especially cylindrical components, pipes and materials with different properties, for which other welding methods remain incapable. AISI 304 stainless steel and a copper alloy of 99.6 % purity were used in this study. This couple was welded in the friction welding machine. After the welding process, samples were analyzed macroscopically and microscopically, and their microhardness was measured. Tensile test was used to determine the bond strength of materials that were joined using the friction welding method. At the end of the study, it was observed that AISI 304 stainless steel and copper could be welded smoothly using the friction welding method and the bond strength is close to the tensile strength of copper. (orig.)

  17. Quality status display for a vibration welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, John Patrick; Abell, Jeffrey A.; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Bracey, Jennifer; Wang, Hui; Tavora, Peter W.; Davis, Jeffrey S.; Hutchinson, Daniel C.; Reardon, Ronald L.; Utz, Shawn

    2017-03-28

    A system includes a host machine and a status projector. The host machine is in electrical communication with a collection of sensors and with a welding controller that generates control signals for controlling the welding horn. The host machine is configured to execute a method to thereby process the sensory and control signals, as well as predict a quality status of a weld that is formed using the welding horn, including identifying any suspect welds. The host machine then activates the status projector to illuminate the suspect welds. This may occur directly on the welds using a laser projector, or on a surface of the work piece in proximity to the welds. The system and method may be used in the ultrasonic welding of battery tabs of a multi-cell battery pack in a particular embodiment. The welding horn and welding controller may also be part of the system.

  18. Crack growth modeling in a specimen with polymer weld

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Lach, R.; Knésl, Zdeněk; Grellmann, W.

    488-489, č. 1 (2012), s. 158-161 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics - FDM 2011 /10./. Dubrovník, 19.09.2011-21.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GC101/09/J027; GA ČR GD106/09/H035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : polymer weld * crack propagation * graded structure * fracture mechanics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  19. Equipment for Preparing Pipeline Position Butts for Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanov L.M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of developments of the Ye.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute and its specialized departments on the designing national equipment models for preparation during the assembly the edges and butt ends of pipeline position butts with the diameter from 14 up to 159 mm, repair and modernization of power engineering objects, including the power units of nuclear and heat electric stations, in chemical and machine building, at enterprises of oil-gas complex and other branches of industry are presented.

  20. Evaluating the SCC resistance of underwater welds in sodium tetrathionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.A.; Angeliu, T.M.

    1997-01-01

    The susceptibility of welds to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is enhanced by the surface residual tensile stresses generated by the typical welding process. However, underwater plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding has been shown to produce compressive surface residual stresses, an encouraging result if repairs of cracked boiling water reactor (BWR) components are to be made without further endangering them to SCC. This program was designed to verify that underwater PTA welds are resistant to SCC and to determine if underwater PTA welding could mitigate SCC in potentially susceptible welds. This was achieved by exposing various welds on solution annealed (SA) and SA + thermally sensitized 304 stainless steel at 25 C in a solution of 1.5 gm/liter of sodium sulfide added to 0.05M sodium tetrathionate, titrated to a pH of 1.25 with H 2 SO 4 . The autogeneous welds were produced using gas tungsten arc (GTA) and plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding under atmospheric conditions, and PTA welding underwater. After 1 hour of sodium tetrathionate exposure, GTA and air PTA welds exhibited SCC while the underwater PTA weld heat affected zones were more resistant. Underwater PTA welds bisecting a GTA weld eliminated the cracking in the GTA weld heat affected zone under certain conditions. The lack of IG cracking in the region influenced by the underwater PTA weld is consistent with the measurement of compressive surface residual stresses inherent to the underwater welding process