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Sample records for edible medicinal fungus

  1. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos

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    Wei Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologues in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds.

  2. Hericium erinaceus: an edible mushroom with medicinal values.

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    Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Liu, Rui; Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur

    2013-05-24

    Mushrooms are considered as nutritionally functional foods and source of physiologically beneficial medicines. Hericium erinaceus, also known as Lion's Mane Mushroom or Hedgehog Mushroom, is an edible fungus, which has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine. This mushroom is rich in some physiologically important components, especially β-glucan polysaccharides, which are responsible for anti-cancer, immuno-modulating, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and neuro-protective activities of this mushroom. H. erinaceus has also been reported to have anti-microbial, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, wound healing properties among other therapeutic potentials. This review article has overviewed the recent advances in the research and study on H. erinaceus and discussed the potential health beneficial activities of this mushroom, with the recognition of bioactive compounds responsible for these medicinal properties.

  3. Protective influence of Hibiscus sabdariffa , an edible medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to examine the protective influence of the alcoholic leaf extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Linn) Malvaceae (an indigenous edible medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic and traditional Medicine in India, China and Thailand) on oxidative stress during ammonium chloride induced ...

  4. Trends in Medicinal Uses of Edible Wild Vertebrates in Brazil

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    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of food medicines is a widespread practice worldwide. In Brazil, such use is often associated with wild animals, mostly focusing on vertebrate species. Here we assessed taxonomic and ecological trends in traditional uses of wild edible vertebrates in the country, through an extensive ethnobiological database analysis. Our results showed that at least 165 health conditions are reportedly treated by edible vertebrate species (n=204, mostly fishes and mammals. However, reptiles stand out presenting a higher plasticity in the treatment of multiple health conditions. Considering the 20 disease categories recorded, treatment prescriptions were similar within continental (i.e., terrestrial and freshwater and also within coastal and marine habitats, which may reflect locally related trends in occurrence and use of the medicinal fauna. The comprehension of the multiplicity and trends in the therapeutic uses of Brazilian vertebrates is of particular interest from a conservation perspective, as several threatened species were recorded.

  5. Gathering an edible wild plant: food or medicine? A case study on wild edibles and functional foods in Granada, Spain

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    Guillermo Benítez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on wild edible resources has been performed in the western part of Granada Province (Spain using ethnobotanical methods. We document and analyze knowledge concerning wild edible plants and mushrooms and their folk medicinal uses in the study area. Several botanical features and use characteristics have been analyzed for the species included, with special attention to their medicinal uses, highlighting a large number of edible-medicinal species. Local importance of the medicinal uses for these resources has been confirmed. Up to 135 species are gathered from the wild in the study area, from which 46 can be considered folk functional foods. In addition, 45 crop plants with uncommon edible or medicinal uses are included, 29 of these being considered functional foods as well. Therefore, a total of 75 plant species are used as edible medicines which serve to treat 36 different conditions. The local concept of food and medicine regarding wild plant resources seems not to be well established. Studies on the pharmacological properties of these foods are needed in order to establish their real or potential benefits for the treated affections.

  6. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 from naturally contaminated maize using the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

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    Jackson, Lauren W; Pryor, Barry M

    2017-12-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic secondary metabolites that can contaminate approximately 25% of crops and that cause or exacerbate multiple adverse health conditions, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South and Southeast Asia. Regulation and decontamination of aflatoxins in high exposure areas is lacking. Biological detoxification methods are promising because they are assumed to be cheaper and more environmentally friendly compared to chemical alternatives. White-rot fungi produce non-specific enzymes that are known to degrade aflatoxin in in situ and ex situ experiments. The aims of this study were to (1) decontaminate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in naturally contaminated maize with the edible, white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) using a solid-state fermentation system that followed standard cultivation techniques, and to (2) and to assess the risk of mutagenicity in the resulting breakdown products and mushrooms. Vegetative growth and yield characteristics of P. ostreatus were not inhibited by the presence of AFB1. AFB1 was degraded by up to 94% by the Blue strain. No aflatoxin could be detected in P. ostreatus mushrooms produced from AFB1-contaminated maize. Moreover, the mutagenicity of breakdown products from the maize substrate, and reversion of breakdown products to the parent compound, were minimal. These results suggest that P. ostreatus significantly degrades AFB1 in naturally contaminated maize under standard cultivation techniques to levels that are acceptable for some livestock fodder, and that using P. ostreatus to bioconvert crops into mushrooms can reduce AFB1-related losses.

  7. Identification and Characterization of Small Noncoding RNAs in Genome Sequences of the Edible Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

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    Qu, Jibin; Zhao, Mengran; Hsiang, Tom; Feng, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Jinxia; Huang, Chenyang

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified in many fungi. However, no genome-scale identification of ncRNAs has been inventoried for basidiomycetes. In this research, we detected 254 small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in a genome assembly of an isolate (CCEF00389) of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a widely cultivated edible basidiomycetous fungus worldwide. The identified sncRNAs include snRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNAs, and miRNAs. SnRNA U1 was not found in CCEF00389 genome assembly and some other basidiomycetous genomes by BLASTn. This implies that if snRNA U1 of basidiomycetes exists, it has a sequence that varies significantly from other organisms. By analyzing the distribution of sncRNA loci, we found that snRNAs and most tRNAs (88.6%) were located in pseudo-UTR regions, while miRNAs are commonly found in introns. To analyze the evolutionary conservation of the sncRNAs in P. ostreatus, we aligned all 254 sncRNAs to the genome assemblies of some other Agaricomycotina fungi. The results suggest that most sncRNAs (77.56%) were highly conserved in P. ostreatus, and 20% were conserved in Agaricomycotina fungi. These findings indicate that most sncRNAs of P. ostreatus were not conserved across Agaricomycotina fungi.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Small Noncoding RNAs in Genome Sequences of the Edible Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

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    Zhao, Mengran; Hsiang, Tom; Feng, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified in many fungi. However, no genome-scale identification of ncRNAs has been inventoried for basidiomycetes. In this research, we detected 254 small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in a genome assembly of an isolate (CCEF00389) of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a widely cultivated edible basidiomycetous fungus worldwide. The identified sncRNAs include snRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNAs, and miRNAs. SnRNA U1 was not found in CCEF00389 genome assembly and some other basidiomycetous genomes by BLASTn. This implies that if snRNA U1 of basidiomycetes exists, it has a sequence that varies significantly from other organisms. By analyzing the distribution of sncRNA loci, we found that snRNAs and most tRNAs (88.6%) were located in pseudo-UTR regions, while miRNAs are commonly found in introns. To analyze the evolutionary conservation of the sncRNAs in P. ostreatus, we aligned all 254 sncRNAs to the genome assemblies of some other Agaricomycotina fungi. The results suggest that most sncRNAs (77.56%) were highly conserved in P. ostreatus, and 20% were conserved in Agaricomycotina fungi. These findings indicate that most sncRNAs of P. ostreatus were not conserved across Agaricomycotina fungi. PMID:27703969

  9. Application of micro-computed tomography to microstructure studies of the medicinal fungus Hericium coralloides.

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    Pallua, Johannes D; Kuhn, Volker; Pallua, Anton F; Pfaller, Kristian; Pallua, Anton K; Recheis, Wolfgang; Pöder, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    The potential of 3-D nondestructive imaging techniques such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was evaluated to study morphological patterns of the potential medicinal fungus Hericium coralloides (Basidiomycota). Micro-CT results were correlated with histological information gained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). It is demonstrated that the combination of these imaging methods results in a more distinct picture of the morphology of the edible and potentially medicinal Hericium coralloides basidiomata. In addition we have created 3-D reconstructions and visualizations based on micro-CT imagery from a randomly selected part of the upper region of a fresh H. coralloides basidioma: Analyses for the first time allowed an approximation of the evolutionary effectiveness of this bizarrely formed basidioma type in terms of the investment of tissue biomass and its reproductive output (production of basidiospores). © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  10. Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms.

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    Geng, Ping; Siu, Ka-Chai; Wang, Zhaomei; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue is the symptom of tiredness caused by physical and/or psychological stresses. As fatigue is becoming a serious problem in the modern society affecting human health, work efficiency, and quality of life, effective antifatigue remedies other than pharmacological drugs or therapies are highly needed. Mushrooms have been widely used as health foods, because of their various bioactive constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. This paper reviews the major findings from previous studies on the antifatigue effects, the active components of mushrooms, and the possible mechanisms. Many studies have demonstrated the antifatigue effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms. These mushrooms probably mitigate human fatigue through effects on the functional systems, including the muscular, cardiovascular, hormone, and immune system. The bioactive constituents that contribute to the antifatigue effects of mushrooms may include polysaccharides, peptides, nucleosides, phenolic compounds, and triterpenoids. Further research is still needed to identify the active ingredients and to investigate their mechanism of action on the antifatigue effects. Since most previous studies have been carried out in animal models, more human trials should be performed to verify the antifatigue function of edible and medicinal mushrooms.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolated from medicinal honeysuckle plant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang Huiru; Sun Xinchen; Xu Chunping

    2016-01-01

    .... An endophytic fungus was isolated from honeysuckle, an important Chinese medicinal plant. The phylogenetic and physiological characterization indicated that the isolated strain JY2corresponded to Fusarium sp...

  12. Proximate nutrient composition of some wild edible medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are high levels of malnutrition especially among children in Africa. In Uganda, this is compounded by widespread food insecurity. There are various wild edible plant species in Uganda. However, little research has been carried out to document and validate the claims associated with their use. A study was, therefore, ...

  13. Analysis of Chemical Properties of Edible and Medicinal Ginger by Metabolomics Approach

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    Ken Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional herbal medicine, comprehensive understanding of bioactive constituent is important in order to analyze its true medicinal function. We investigated the chemical properties of medicinal and edible ginger cultivars using a liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS approach. Our PCA results indicate the importance of acetylated derivatives of gingerol, not gingerol or shogaol, as the medicinal indicator. A newly developed ginger cultivar, Z. officinale cv. Ogawa Umare or “Ogawa Umare” (OG, contains more active ingredients, showing properties as a new resource for the production of herbal medicines derived from ginger in terms of its chemical constituents and rhizome yield.

  14. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and edible plants of Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state, Ethiopia.

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    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2017-07-05

    The Afar people inhabit the sub-arid and arid part of Ethiopia. Recurrent drought and invasive encroaching plants are taking out plants that have cultural importance, and threaten the biodiversity and the associated traditional knowledge. Thus, the aim of the current study is to conduct an ethnobotanical survey and document medicinal and edible plants in Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state. A cross-sectional ethnobotanical study was carried out in eight kebeles of Yalo Woreda from October 2015 to December 2016. One hundred sixty informants were selected using purposive sampling. The data on diseases, medicinal and edible plants were collected using semi-structure interview and group discussion. The statistical methods, informant consensus factor, fidelity level, and preference ranking were conducted to analyze the data. One hundred and six plants were reported; gender and age differences had implication on the number of plants reported by informants. The knowledge of medicinal plants among informants of each kebele was not different (p famine food' that were collected and stored for years. People in Yalo Woreda are more dependent on natural resources of the area for their livelihood. The threat of climatic change and encroaching invasive plants on medicinal and edible plants affects the traditional use of plants in the Yalo Woreda. The conservation of the plants in the home garden and natural habitat and integration of edible plants into agroforestry development programs in sub-arid and arid regions has to be encouraged to conserve plants of medical and economic importance.

  15. Molecular Identification and Characterization of the Edible and Medicinal Morchellaceae Germplasm Collection of "Mulch Morels"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondřej, V.; Havránek, P.; Kitner, M.; Němcová, Pavla

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2011), s. 369-375 ISSN 1521-9437 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : morels * edible and medicinal fungi * ITS and AFLP analyses Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2011

  16. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the edible fungus Volvariella volvacea.

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    Jiang, Wei; Lv, Beibei; Wu, Xiao; Wang, Jinbin; Wu, Guogan; Shi, Chunhui; Tang, Xueming

    2017-03-01

    In this study, trends in synonymous codons usage of Volvariella volvecea have been first examined by analysis of complete coding sequences and gene chip data. The results showed that GC content at three codon positions are obviously different and there were several factors shaping the codon usage of V. volvacea genes, including base composition. The comparison of codon usage among four edible fungi such as V. volvacea, Agaricus bisporus, Coprinopsis cinerea, and Pleurotus ostreatus indicated that the similar codon usage pattern was used among V. volvacea, A. bisporus and P. ostreatus, but there was significantly different codon usage pattern of C. cinerea. Two arrays of optimal codons were determined by effective number of codons (ENC) values and gene chip database separately, resulting that most of the ENC-predicted optimal codons were included in the array of gene chip resulted optimal codons. This study can provide useful information for codon usage pattern analysis and gene transformation of V. volvacea. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Naukan ethnobotany in post-Soviet times: lost edibles and new medicinals.

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    Jernigan, Kevin A; Belichenko, Olga S; Kolosova, Valeria B; Orr, Darlene J

    2017-11-17

    This study focuses on health-related plant use among speakers of the critically endangered Naukan language (Inuit-Yupik-Unangan family) in the Russian Far East. The Naukan people were forced, in 1958, under Soviet consolidation, to move from their original settlement on Cape Dezhnev, leading to significant changes in spiritual worldview, subsistence, social structure, and language proficiency in the years that followed. Here, we focus on changes that elders report in their edible, medicinal, and spiritual uses of local plant species since their childhood. The authors worked from 2014 to 2016 in the villages of Lavrentiya, Lorino, and Uelen, in the Chukotskiy district of the Chukotka autonomous region, directly adjacent to the Bering Strait. We conducted structured interviews, using an oral history approach, along with participant observation and collection of voucher specimens from the local arctic tundra. Those with Naukan names and uses represent 42 species in 25 families. Participants reported a decrease of 13% in the number of edible species that people currently harvest, from what they recall harvesting in their youth. On the other hand, the number of local species considered to be medicinal has actually increased by 225%. Current and past Naukan medicinal practices diverge in some notable ways from those of neighboring societies on the Alaskan side of the Bering Strait. Most of the spiritual significance of local plants species is remembered by only a few elders. Naukan elders explained the large increase in use of medicinal plants by noting that their original concept of medicine emphasized prevention and that illnesses were often assigned a spiritual rather than physical cause. Increased integration with ethnic Russians after moving from Naukan led to the adoption not only of new plant uses, but also of an entirely different, more naturalistic way of viewing illness and treatment.

  18. Extracts of edible and medicinal plants damage membranes of Vibrio cholerae.

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    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-10-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pH(in)), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism.

  19. Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of Vibrio cholerae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

  20. Induced production of mycotoxins in an endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jieyin; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro

    2012-10-15

    Epigenetic modifiers, including DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are useful to induce the expression of otherwise dormant biosynthetic genes under standard laboratory conditions. We isolated several endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L., which produces pharmaceutically important tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Although none of the endophytic fungi produced the tropane alkaloids, supplementation of a DNMT inhibitor, 5-azacytidine, and/or a HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, to the culture medium induced the production of mycotoxins, including alternariol, alternariol-5-O-methyl ether, 3'-hydroxyalternariol-5-O-methyl ether, altenusin, tenuazonic acid, and altertoxin II, by the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. This is the first report of a mycotoxin-producing endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant D. stramonium L. This work demonstrates that treatments with epigenetic modifiers induce the production of mycotoxins, thus providing a useful tool to explore the biosynthetic potential of the microorganisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal fungus Ganoderma applanatum (Polyporales, Basidiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Cun; Shao, Junjie; Liu, Chang

    2016-07-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the medicinal fungus Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. using the next-generation sequencing technology. The circular molecule is 119,803 bp long with a GC content of 26.66%. Gene prediction revealed genes encoding 15 conserved proteins, 25 tRNAs, the large and small ribosomal RNAs, all genes are located on the same strand except trnW-CCA. Compared with previously sequenced genomes of G. lucidum, G. meredithiae and G. sinense, the order of the protein and rRNA genes is highly conserved; however, the types of tRNA genes are slightly different. The mitochondrial genome of G. applanatum will contribute to the understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of Ganoderma and Ganodermataceae, the group containing many species with high medicinal values.

  2. Radionuclides in some edible and medicinal macrofungal species from Tara Mountain, Serbia.

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    Rakić, Milana; Karaman, Maja; Forkapić, Sofija; Hansman, Jan; Kebert, Marko; Bikit, Kristina; Mrdja, Dušan

    2014-10-01

    Edible and medicinal macrofungi used in human diet represent not only important sources of nutritive elements but toxic substances as well (heavy metals and radionuclides). Radioactivity levels of four radionuclides ((40)K, (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (228)Ra) were determined in the basidiomata (fruiting bodies of a Basidiomycetes) of six lignicolous (Fomitopsis pinicola, Ganoderma applanatum, Hericium clathroides, Megacollybia platyphylla, Pluteus cervinus, Trametes gibbosa) and three mycorrhizal (Boletus luridus, Boletus sp. 1, Boletus sp. 2) species as well as their soil (wood) substrates by gamma spectrometry (high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector). The aim was to investigate their ability for radionuclide absorption according to transfer factors (from soil and wood), to predict potential bioindicator species as well as species with potential risk for human use. Samples were taken during years 2011 and 2012, at two sites in forest ecosystem of Tara Mountain (Serbia). Observed concentration ranges per dry weight were as follows: 29-3,020 Bq/kg ((40)K), 21.9-735 Bq/kg ((137)Cs), 3-39 Bq/kg ((226)Ra), and 2.0-18 Bq/kg ((228)Ra). Obtained results indicate that the type of basidiome (fleshy/tough), most likely due to a different metabolic rate, has a very important role in radionuclide accumulation. The highest activity concentrations of all analyzed radionuclides were found in species with fleshy basidiomata--P. cervinus, H. clathroides, M. platyphylla, and Boletus species. A species-specific influence on radionuclide uptake was more prominent comparing to habitat differences and the role of fungal trophic mode. No significant variations were observed regarding radionuclide activity among the same fungal species from different sampling sites.

  3. Biotechnology for in vitro growing of edible and medicinal mushrooms on wood wastes

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    Marian Petre

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was focused on finding out the best way to convert the wood wastes into useful food supplements, such as mushroom fruit bodies, by using them as growing sources for the edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, three fungal species from Basidiomycetes, namely Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr. P. Karst, Lentinus edodes (Berkeley Pegler and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex Fries Kummer were tested to determine their biological potential to grow on substrates made of wood wastes (sawdusts as well as shavings which could be used in this way as main ingredients for preparation of natural culture composts.The experiments were achieved by in vitro growing of all these fungal species in special rooms, where the main culture parameters were kept at optimal levels in order to get the highest production of mushroom fruit bodies. The effects of culture compost composition (carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources as well as other physical and chemical factors (such as: temperature, inoculum amount, pH level and incubation time, etc. on mycelial net formation and especially on fruit body induction, were investigated. From all these fungal species tested in our experiments, P. ostreatus was registered as the fastest mushroom culture, then L. edodes and finally, G. lucidum asthe longest mushroom culture. During the experiments, different logs of the same species were used as control samples for each culture compost variants. Applying such biotechnology, the environmental problems generated by the plant wastes accumulation in wood industry could be solved only by using biological means for theirvalorising, simultaneously with food supplements producing having high nutritive values as well as healing effects by increasing the consumers` health.

  4. Coniochaeta ligniaria: antifungal activity of the cryptic endophytic fungus associated with autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae)

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    Few studies have addressed the presence and bioactivity of endophytic fungi living in plantlets growing under in vitro conditions. We isolated a fungus UM 109 from autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon). The species was identified as Coniochaeta ligniaria using ...

  5. Bioactive secondary metabolites from Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, an endophytic fungus of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam.

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    Zhao, J H; Zhang, Y L; Wang, L W; Wang, J Y; Zhang, C L

    2012-05-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam. Based on analyzing the rDNA sequence, the fungus was identified as Nigrospora sp. This is the first report of the isolation of endophytic Nigrospora from M. oleifera. By bioassay-guided fractionation, four antifungal secondary metabolites were isolated from liquid cultures of the fungus Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, and their chemical structures were determined to be griseofulvin (1), dechlorogriseofulvin (2), 8-dihydroramulosin (3) and mellein (4) on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from Nigrospora sp. for the first time. In vitro antifungal assay showed that griseofulvin displayed clear inhibition of the growth of 8 plant pathogenic fungi. Dechlorogriseofulvin and mellein exhibited only weak antifungal activities, whereas 8-dihydroramulosin displayed no antifungal activities.

  6. Functional nutraceutical profiling of wild edible and medicinal mushrooms consumed by ethnic tribes in India.

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    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2015-01-01

    Wild edible mushrooms occupy an important place in the traditional food habits of the ethnic tribes of India. Specimens collected from the forests and local markets of Meghalaya, India were affiliated to ten different species. The mushroom extracts were analyzed for nutrient and mineral compositions along with phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and lycopene. These extracts were also investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Fungal extracts were found to be rich in nutrients and minerals, and exhibited potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities under assay conditions. The nutrient profiles generated for each of these ten species revealed them to be rich sources of functional nutraceuticals.

  7. Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms: Emerging Brain Food for the Mitigation of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

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    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2017-01-01

    There is an exponential increase in dementia in old age at a global level because of increasing life expectancy. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) will continue to rise steadily, and is expected to reach 42 million cases worldwide in 2020. Despite the advancement of medication, the management of these diseases remains largely ineffective. Therefore, it is vital to explore novel nature-based nutraceuticals to mitigate AD and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Mushrooms and their extracts appear to hold many health benefits, including immune-modulating effects. A number of edible mushrooms have been shown to contain rare and exotic compounds that exhibit positive effects on brain cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we summarize the scientific information on edible and culinary mushrooms with regard to their antidementia/AD active compounds and/or pharmacological test results. The bioactive components in these mushrooms and the underlying mechanism of their activities are discussed. In short, these mushrooms may be regarded as functional foods for the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Phytochemical and phytopharmacological review of Perilla frutescens L. (Labiatae), a traditional edible-medicinal herb in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hua; Qiu, Jian-Feng; Ma, Li-Juan; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Li, Peng; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2017-10-01

    Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt., a worldwide distributed plant, is an important economic crop and with a long cultivation history in China as well as some other countries in Asia. Except for the edible applications, the plant of P. frutescens is also traditionally used as a medicinal herb in China for thousands years. The leaves, seeds and stems of P. frutescens are recommended by the Chinese Pharmacopeia as three medicinal materials for various therapeutic applications. In the past decades, amount investigations have been done about different aspects for P. frutescens. However, no literature review about these works has been compiled. This review aims to present the findings of research conducted up-to-date (2015) on the traditional use, phytochemicals, pharmacological activities and toxicities of P. frutescens to provide scientific evidence for well-understanding and future research of P. frutescens. It was found that more than 100 compounds have been reported for P. frutescens and most of them are contributed to its medical benefits such as anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anticancer, anti-microbial, anti-depressive and anti-cough effects. Toxicology studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of P. frutescens to provide information on their dosages and usages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants against Aspergillus flavus, pistachio aflatoxin producing fungus in vitro

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    Sahar Omidpanah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination with aflatoxin, by Aspergillus flavus, is one the major challenges in agriculture and food industry. Preparation of organic products using natural components is widely considered these days. Aims: In this study, effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal herbs, including thyme, senna, mentha, basil, and safflower on the growth of the A. flavus were investigated. Mterials and Methods: The extracts with different concentrations (200-800 µg/mL and polyethylene glycol with the equal osmotic potential of plant extracts were added to the potato dextrose agar medium to evaluate fungus growth after 7 days using agar dilution method. Benomyl, a fungicide, was used as a positive standard. The tests were performed in triplicate, and the mean diameters of fungus growth were calculated as well. Results and Conclusion: All concentrations of the plants extracts significantly inhibited the fungus growth in comparison with each other and control treatments, while the extracts of thyme and safflower manifested the most effective prohibition compared to benomyl with minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 and 400 µg/mL, respectively.

  10. Ethnomycological studies of some wild medicinal and edible mushrooms in the Kashmir Himalayas (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Shauket Ahmed; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Bhat, Mohmmad Yaqoub

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of mushrooms has a very long tradition in Asian countries because of their use as a valuable tonic, food, and in herbal medicines. A study was carried out to document the indigenous uses of various mushrooms growing in the Kashmir Himalayas. After consulting local herbal healers (Hakims) and people from tribal communities inhabiting inaccessible hinterlands of the region regarding the use of mushrooms growing in their locality, it was found that 35 species of mushrooms belonging to different ecological and taxonomical groups were used for their nutritional and medicinal values. These mushrooms were used for their activities against a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from simple skin diseases to present-day complex diseases such as diabetes and tumors.

  11. Use of edible and medicinal mushrooms spent compost in remediation of polluted soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šašek, Václav; Eggen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 3, 2-3 (2001), s. 215 ISSN 1521-9437. [Perspectives of Medicinal Mushrooms in Health Care and Nutrition in the 21th Century. 12.09.2001-14.09.2001, Kiev] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  12. Mineral composition of different strains of edible medicinal mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Peck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györfi, Júlia; Geösel, András; Vetter, János

    2010-12-01

    Agaricus subrufescens Peck is a well-known Basidiomycota fungus (Royal Sun Agaricus), with rising demand in consumption and production worldwide. This particular mushroom with high medical value has been used successfully in cancer therapy and in the treatment of some bacterial and viral diseases. Four strains of A. subrufescens (Si2.2, 853, 1105, and 2603) were cultivated, and 22 mineral elements of basidiomes (fruit bodies) were analyzed (caps and stipes separately). The data obtained about the mineral compositions were compared to the "reference" Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) and to the average of wild growing Agaricus species. The mineral composition of A. subrufescens strains can be characterized by the following: (1) high levels of valuable macroelements, i.e., potassium (28-30,000 mg/kg of dry matter), phosphorus (7-11,000 mg/kg of dry matter), and calcium and magnesium (for both elements, 1,000-1,500 mg/kg of dry matter); (2) significantly higher level of copper (compared to A. bisporus, 70-150 mg/kg of dry matter) and zinc (140-250 mg/kg of dry matter); (3) low quantity of sodium (140-180 mg/kg of dry matter); (4) attention should paid to the detectable amount of cadmium (2-17 mg/kg of dry matter) in strain Si2.2; (5) low or undetectable concentrations of some other poisonous microelements like As, Cr, and V; and (6) the distribution of elements in caps and stipes is characteristic-the majority of beneficial elements have higher contents in caps than in stipes, but some other elements, such as Ca, Fe, and Na, appear in an inverse proportion. In conclusion, it can be said that the mineral composition of A. subrufescens is definitely positive, with the exception of the above-mentioned Cd level.

  13. The root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering, higher biomass and altered secondary metabolites of the medicinal plant, Coleus forskohlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aparajita; Kamal, Shwet; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar; Varma, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of plant probiotic fungus Piriformospora indica on the medicinal plant C. forskohlii. Interaction of the C. forskohlii with the root endophyte P. indica under field conditions, results in an overall increase in aerial biomass, chlorophyll contents and phosphorus acquisition. The fungus also promoted inflorescence development, consequently the amount of p-cymene in the inflorescence increased. Growth of the root thickness was reduced in P. indica treated plants as they became fibrous, but developed more lateral roots. Because of the smaller root biomass, the content of forskolin was decreased. The symbiotic interaction of C. forskohlii with P. indica under field conditions promoted biomass production of the aerial parts of the plant including flower development. The plant aerial parts are important source of metabolites for medicinal application. Therefore we suggest that the use of the root endophyte fungus P. indica in sustainable agriculture will enhance the medicinally important chemical production.

  14. Determination of Radionuclides Concentration and Average Annual Committed Effective Dose Due to Ingestion for Some Medicinal and Edible Plants from Shazand (Markazi Province, Iran

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    Reza Pourimani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Natural and artificial radionuclides are the main sources of human radiation exposure, which enter the food chain from the environment. Radionuclides can affect human health by transferring from soil to plants and entering the human body. In this research study, we aimed to determine the activity concentrations of radionuclides and calculate the average annual committed effective dose (AACED due to the ingestion of some medicinal and edible plants from Shazand, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs in eight medicinal and edible plant species and their surrounding soils were determined, using gamma-ray spectrometry and a high-purity germanium (HPGe detector. The samples were collected from Shazand, situated in Markazi Province, Iran. Results The maximum soil-to-plant transfer factor (TFfor 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cswas estimated at 0.13, 0.13, 3.17, and 0.09, respectively. Based on the findings, the AACED for 1kg of edible plants varied from 0.63±0.16 to 13.71±0.14μSv/y. The annual gonadal dose Equivalent (AGDE varied from 556 to 717 µSv/y for the soil samples (mean: 642µSv/y. The threshold consumption rate for edible plants ranged between21.86and 82.63 kg/y. Conclusion In this study, AACED due to the ingestion of radionuclides was lower than the global average (0.3 mSv/y. Therefore, the present results indicated no radiation health risks, associated with the use of these medicinal plants for disease treatment. However, it should be noted that all soil samples and some plants were polluted by radiocesium.

  15. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Mycelial Extracts from the Medicinal Fungus Paecilomyces hepiali (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lan; Li, Yi; Wang, Wen-Jing; Imoulan, Abdessamad; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepialid, a fungus originating in the Tibetan Plateau, has been used as a substitute for Ophiocordyceps sinensis because the primary chemical compounds and pharmacological effects of P. hepialid are similar to those of O. sinensis. P. hepialid has been developed into a dietary supplement and pharmaceutical products. The antioxidant activity of extracts using 2 solvents (water and ethanol) from mycelia obtained from 2 cultivation modes (solid-state and submerged cultivation) were evaluated in this study. Four strains of P. hepialid obtained from Qinghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan Provinces were included; the total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of mycelial extracts were compared. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of strains were found to be affected by the cultivation mode and extraction solvent. The ethanol extracts of solid-state cultivation of strain 2138, obtained from Sichuan Province, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The results showed that different strains might require different cultivation modes and extraction solvents for better antioxidant activity. However, solid-state cultivation and ethanol extraction are generally recommended based on the analyses conducted. Strain 2138 may be a good candidate for the purpose of producing functional foods. The results suggest that strain selection is important when P. hepialid is used to manufacture pharmaceutical products.

  16. Bioactive metabolites from Phoma species, an endophytic fungus from the Chinese medicinal plant Arisaema erubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Wei; Xu, Bai-Ge; Wang, Jia-Ying; Su, Zhen-Zhu; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Zhang, Chu-Long; Kubicek, Christian P

    2012-02-01

    Through bioassay-guided fractionation, the EtOAc extract of a culture broth of the endophytic fungus Phoma species ZJWCF006 in Arisaema erubescens afforded a new α-tetralone derivative, (3S)-3,6,7-trihydroxy-α-tetralone (1), together with cercosporamide (2), β-sitosterol (3), and trichodermin (4). The structures of compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 were obtained from Phoma species for the first time. Additionally, the compounds were subjected to bioactivity assays, including antimicrobial activity, against four plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporium, Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Magnaporthe oryzae) and two plant pathogenic bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris and Xanthomonas oryzae), as well as in vitro antitumor activities against HT-29, SMMC-772, MCF-7, HL-60, MGC80-3, and P388 cell lines. Compound 1 showed growth inhibition against F. oxysporium and R. solani with EC₅₀ values of 413.22 and 48.5 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, compound 1 showed no cytotoxicity, whereas compound 2 exhibited cytotoxic activity against the six tumor cell lines tested, with IC₅₀ values of 9.3 ± 2.8, 27.87 ± 1.78, 48.79 ± 2.56, 37.57 ± 1.65, 27.83 ± 0.48, and 30.37 ± 0.28 μM, respectively. We conclude that endophytic Phoma are promising sources of natural bioactive and novel metabolites.

  17. Chromosome-level genome map provides insights into diverse defense mechanisms in the medicinal fungus Ganoderma sinense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Xu, Jiang; Sun, Chao; Zhou, Shiguo; Xu, Haibin; Nelson, David R.; Qian, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Luo, Hongmei; Xiang, Li; Li, Ying; Xu, Zhichao; Ji, Aijia; Wang, Lizhi; Lu, Shanfa; Hayward, Alice; Sun, Wei; Li, Xiwen; Schwartz, David C.; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Shilin

    2015-01-01

    Fungi have evolved powerful genomic and chemical defense systems to protect themselves against genetic destabilization and other organisms. However, the precise molecular basis involved in fungal defense remain largely unknown in Basidiomycetes. Here the complete genome sequence, as well as DNA methylation patterns and small RNA transcriptomes, was analyzed to provide a holistic overview of secondary metabolism and defense processes in the model medicinal fungus, Ganoderma sinense. We reported the 48.96 Mb genome sequence of G. sinense, consisting of 12 chromosomes and encoding 15,688 genes. More than thirty gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, as well as a large array of genes responsible for their transport and regulation were highlighted. In addition, components of genome defense mechanisms, namely repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), DNA methylation and small RNA-mediated gene silencing, were revealed in G. sinense. Systematic bioinformatic investigation of the genome and methylome suggested that RIP and DNA methylation combinatorially maintain G. sinense genome stability by inactivating invasive genetic material and transposable elements. The elucidation of the G. sinense genome and epigenome provides an unparalleled opportunity to advance our understanding of secondary metabolism and fungal defense mechanisms. PMID:26046933

  18. Heavy metals translocation and accumulation from the rhizosphere soils to the edible parts of the medicinal plant Fengdan (Paeonia ostii) grown on a metal mining area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhang Jun; Xu, De Cong; Chen, Yan Song; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Fengdan (Paeonia ostii) is one of Chinese 34 famous medicinal materials. This study investigated the concentrations of Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), and Zinc (Zn) in rhizosphere soils, cortex mouton and seeds of Fengdan planted in a metal mining area, China. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Zn in the rhizosphere soils were above the limits set by the Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB 15618-1995). The contamination factor (CF) of Cd was >5, while it was >2for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in all the soils. The integrated pollution index for all the soils was >3 and ˂ 5. Metal concentrations in the edible parts of Fengdan were in the following decreasing order: Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>As>Cr≥Cd. The transfer factor mean values for As, Cu, Cd and Fe in the cortex moutan of old Fengdan (over 6 years) were significantly higher than in young Fengdan. Available metal concentrations, pH and soil organic matter content influenced the metal concentrations of the cortex moutan. The results indicated that mining and smelting operations have led to heavy metals contamination of soils and medicinal parts of Fengdan. The major metal pollutants were elemental Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Heavy metals mainly accumulated in the cortex moutan of Fengdan. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Pb in the old cortex moutan (over 6 years) were above those of the Chinese Green Trade Standards for Medicinal Plants and Preparations in Foreign Trade (WM/T2-2004). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation with medicinal fungus in fasting glycemia levels of patients with colorectal cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, R C; Recôva, V L; Melo, A L; Novaes, M R C G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus medicinal fungus in fasting glycemia of post-surgery patients with colorectal cancer. Proctology Ambulatory of Federal District Base Hospital-Brazil. Fifty-six colorectal cancer patients in postsurgery phase, stadiums phase I, II and II, which followed specific criteria of inclusion and exclusion. All patients were randomized in two groups: supplemented with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus (30 mg/kg/day) and placebo, and were followed up for six months. Subjects were divided later on according to BMI--Body Mass Index, sex and stage. Three fasting glycemia evaluations were carried out throughout the treatment. Subjects presented BMI medium = 24.65 kg/m2 (57.1% women and 42.9% men). The placebo group (average age 59.14 +/- 12.95 years) had initial glycemia levels of 94.36 +/- 15.34 mg/dL, after three months 98.12 +/- 15.54 mg/dL (p = 0.03) and in the sixth month 98.52 +/- 9.03 mg/dL (p = 0.01). The supplemented group (average age of 56.34 +/- 15.53 years) had initial glycemia levels of 95.92 +/- 11.64 mg/dL, after three months 94.88 +/- 12.24 mg/dL (p = 0.65) and, in the sixth month, a significant reduction to 92.86 +/- 6.82 mg/dL (p = 0.01). The results suggest that the dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus medicinal fungus can significantly reduce fasting glycemia levels of colorectal cancer patients in post-surgery phase.

  20. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Molares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60% in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species, mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts.

  1. Diversity of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms Used in the Noun Division of the West Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njouonkou, André Ledoux; De Crop, Eske; Mbenmoun, Abdoulayi Mbouombouo; Kinge, Tonjock Rosemary; Biyé, Elvire Hortense; Verbeken, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    This article presents discussions of mushrooms as a source of food, income, as well as medicine among the Bamoun people of the highlands of West Cameroon, where the vegetation is mainly savannah mixed with forest galleries. Like most tribes in tropical Africa, the Bamoun people use a wide range of natural products as mushrooms. This study attempts to identify the various mushrooms exploited by the Bamoun. Ethnomycological surveys and field trips were conducted over 4 years in several villages in the Noun Division. Samples of wild mushrooms were collected from both the savannah and the forest galleries. These were described, preserved, and identified. The study shows that the Bamoun people use at least 40 species of mushrooms for either food or medicine. These species belong to 8 genera: Auricularia, Cantharellus, Ganoderma, Pleurotus, Lactarius, Lactifluus, Russula, and Termitomyces. Species of genera Lactarius, Lactifluus, Russula, and Termitomyces are most often used for food, whereas Ganoderma spp. and Pleurotus tuber-regium are mainly exploited for medicinal purposes. This survey provides an overview of the diversity of mushrooms and their importance to the local people of this area. Since some of the species mentioned by the local population were not fruiting at the time of our field trips, additional investigations are needed to further clarify the diversity and the usage of mushrooms in this region.

  2. Four new steroids from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. M453 derived of Chinese herbal medicine Huperzia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei-Xue; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yao; Yang, Yin-He; Li, Guo-Hong; Zhao, Pei-Ji

    2017-03-01

    An endophytic fungus, Chaetomium sp. M453, was isolated from Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. and subjected to phytochemical investigation. Three unusual C25 steroids, neocyclocitrinols E-G (1-3), and 3β-hydroxy-5,9-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (4) together with three known steroids were isolated from solid fermentation products of the fungus, which were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS experiments. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis and CD analyses. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of compounds 1-4 were tested in vitro. Compound 4 showed weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight)...

  4. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight) by gavage once daily. Up to 40% alcohol (12 mL/kg body weight) was administered orally 1 h after artichoke treatment. All mice were fed for 10 consecutive days. Results showed that artichoke extract significantly prevented elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, the decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were elevated by artichoke administration. Histopathological examination showed that artichoke attenuated degeneration, inflammatory infiltration and necrosis of hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in liver tissues were significantly suppressed by artichoke treatment. Results obtained demonstrated that artichoke extract exhibited significant preventive protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury. This finding is mainly attributed to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and suppress the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway. To the best of our knowledge, the underlying mechanisms of artichoke on acute ALD have been rarely reported. PMID:28891983

  5. Edible Cyanobacterial Genus Arthrospira: Actual State of the Art in Cultivation Methods, Genetics, and Application in Medicine

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    Magda A. Furmaniak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterial genus Arthrospira appears very conserved and has been divided into five main genetic clusters on the basis of molecular taxonomy markers. Genetic studies of seven Arthrospira strains, including genome sequencing, have enabled a better understanding of those photosynthetic prokaryotes. Even though genetic manipulations have not yet been performed with success, many genomic and proteomic features such as stress adaptation, nitrogen fixation, or biofuel production have been characterized. Many of above-mentioned studies aimed to optimize the cultivation conditions. Factors like the light intensity and quality, the nitrogen source, or different modes of growth (auto-, hetero-, or mixotrophic have been studied in detail. The scaling-up of the biomass production using photobioreactors, either closed or open, was also investigated to increase the production of useful compounds. The richness of nutrients contained in the genus Arthrospira can be used for promising applications in the biomedical domain. Ingredients such as the calcium spirulan, immulina, C-phycocyanin, and γ-linolenic acid (GLA show a strong biological activity. Recently, its use in the fight against cancer cells was documented in many publications. The health-promoting action of “Spirulina” has been demonstrated in the case of cardiovascular diseases and age-related conditions. Some compounds also have potent immunomodulatory properties, promoting the growth of beneficial gut microflora, acting as antimicrobial and antiviral. Products derived from Arthrospira were shown to successfully replace biomaterial scaffolds in regenerative medicine. Supplementation with the cyanobacterium also improves the health of livestock and quality of the products of animal origin. They were also used in cosmetic preparations.

  6. Nail Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause is a type of fungus called dermatophyte. Yeast and molds also can cause nail infections. Fungal ... more years of exposure to fungi and slower growing nails Sweating heavily Having a history of athlete's ...

  7. Molecular profiling and bioactive potential of an endophytic fungus Aspergillus sulphureus isolated from Sida acuta: a medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, M; Mahendra, C; Hema, P; Rajashekar, N; Nataraju, A; Sudarshana, M S; Amruthesh, K N

    2017-12-01

    Sida acuta Burm.f. (Malvaceae) extracts are reported to have applications against malaria, diuretic, antipyretic, nervous and urinary diseases. No fungal endophytes of S. acuta are reported. Isolation, identification and evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer and haemolytic potential of fungal endophytes from the ethnomedcinal plant S. acuta. Sida acuta stem segments were placed on PDA medium to isolate endophytic fungi. The fungus was identified by genomic DNA analysis and phylogenetic tree was constructed using ITS sequences (GenBank) to confirm species. The antibacterial efficacy of Aspergillus sulphureus MME12 ethyl acetate extract was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. DPPH free radical scavenging activity, anticancer and DNA fragmentation against EAC cells, and direct haemolytic activity (100-500 μg/mL) using human erythrocytes were determined. The ethyl acetate extract of A. sulphureus (Fresen.) Wehmer (Trichocomaceae) demonstrated significant antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi compared to streptomycin. MIC against test pathogens was in the range of 15.6-62.5 μg/mL. The antioxidant results revealed significant RSA from 12.43% to 62.02% (IC50 = 350.4 μg/mL, p ≤ 0.05). MME12 offered considerable inhibition of EAC proliferation (23% to 84%, IC50 = 216.7 μg/mL, p ≤ 0.05) supported by DNA fragmentation studies. The extract also offered insignificant haemolysis (5.6%) compared to Triton X-100. A single endophytic fungus, A. sulphureus MME12 was isolated and identified using molecular profiling. The above-mentioned findings support the pharmacological application of A. sulphureus MME12 extract and demand for purification of the active principle(s).

  8. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  9. Ultrasonic disruption of fungal mycelia for efficient recovery of polysaccharide-protein complexes from viscous fermentation broth of a medicinal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yi-Ching; Liu, Xing-Xun; Wang, Wing-Qiang; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity ultrasound (US) was applied to facilitate the extraction of intracellular and extracellular polysaccharide-protein complexes (PSPs) from the viscous mycelial fermentation broth of a medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis Cs-HK1. The US treatment caused the disruption of fungal mycelia, a dramatic reduction of the apparent broth viscosity, and the release of intracellular products into the liquid medium. The degree of mycelium disruption and the rate of intracellular product release were dependent on US power intensity, treatment period and biomass concentration of broth. The extraction or release kinetics of total water-soluble products and PSPs (yield Y versus time t) under the effect of US was fitted closely to the Elovich model Y=Yo+Y1 lnt and parabolic model Y=Yo+Y1t(½), respectively. Another interesting effect of the US treatment was a notable increase in the antioxidant cytoprotective activity of PSP against H2O2 induced cell death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving the Fermentation Production of the Individual Key Triterpene Ganoderic Acid Me by the Medicinal Fungus Ganoderma lucidum in Submerged Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Qiang Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced ganoderic acid Me (GA-Me, an important anti-tumor triterpene yield was attained with the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum using response surface methodology (RSM. Interactions were studied with three variables, viz. glucose, peptone and culture time using a Central Composite Design (CCD. The CCD contains a total of 20 experiments with the first 14 experiments organized in a fractional factorial design, with the experimental trails from 15 to 20 involving the replications of the central points. A polynomial model, describing the relationships between the yield of GA-Me and the three factors in a second-order equation, was developed. The model predicted the maximum GA-Me yield of 11.9 mg·L−1 for glucose, peptone, culture time values of 44.4 g·L−1, 5.0 g·L−1, 437.1 h, respectively, and a maximum GA-Me yield of 12.4 mg·L−1 was obtained in the validation experiment, which represented a 129.6% increase in titre compared to that of the non-optimized conditions. In addition, 11.4 mg·L−1 of GA-Me was obtained in a 30-L agitated fermenter under the optimized conditions, suggesting the submerged culture conditions optimized in the present study were also suitable for GA-Me production on a large scale.

  11. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  12. The Design and Implementation of the Matching Method of Chimes Dance and Music for Growth of Edible Mushrooms Based on Hevner Music Emotion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Zhou; Zhongzhen Yan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the synchronization mechanism for music and dance in the production encouragement system of edible fungus. The synchronization between the music and dance may significantly influence the stimulating effect on the growth of edible fungus. However, very limited work has been done to address this issue. To deal with the synchronization problem of music and dance, the Hevner music emotion model based on adjective circle is proposed in this study to achieve matching ...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Thai traditional medicinal plants extract incorporated alginate-tapioca starch based edible films against food related bacteria including foodborne pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Tepsorn, Racha

    2009-01-01

    In Thai traditional medicine, different plant extracts are known to have a bactericidal or at least a bacteriostatic effect on bacteria and/or fungi. In Thailand, medicinal plants have been used safely since ancient times as herbal medicines and also as food colouring and flavouring agents. The application of selected plant extracts to foods could prevent foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In this study the antimicrobial activities of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, Curcuma zedoari...

  14. The Edible Mushroom Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats.......A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  15. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  16. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2017-02-22

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  17. Tasty THC: Promises and Challenges of Cannabis Edibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrus, Daniel G.; Capogrossi, Kristen L.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Gourdet, Camille K.; Peiper, Nicholas C.; Novak, Scott P.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2016-01-01

    Food products containing cannabis extract (edibles) have emerged as a popular and lucrative facet of the legalized market for both recreational and medicinal cannabis. The many formulations of cannabis extracts used in edibles present a unique regulatory challenge for policy makers. Though edibles are often considered a safe, discreet, and effective means of attaining the therapeutic and/or intoxicating effects of cannabis without exposure to the potentially harmful risks of cannabis smoking, little research has evaluated how ingestion differs from other methods of cannabis administration in terms of therapeutic efficacy, subjective effects, and safety. The most prominent difference between ingestion and inhalation of cannabis extracts is the delayed onset of drug effect with ingestion. Consumers often do not understand this aspect of edible use and may consume a greater than intended amount of drug before the drug has taken effect, often resulting in profoundly adverse effects. Written for the educated layperson and for policy makers, this paper explores the current state of research regarding edibles, highlighting the promises and challenges that edibles present to both users and policy makers, and describes the approaches that four states in which recreational cannabis use is legal have taken regarding regulating edibles. PMID:28127591

  18. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  19. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  20. Edible Polymers: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhas C. Shit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible polymers have established substantial deliberation in modern eons because of their benefits comprising use as edible materials over synthetic polymers. This could contribute to the reduction of environmental contamination. Edible polymers can practically diminish the complexity and thus improve the recyclability of materials, compared to the more traditional non-environmentally friendly materials and may be able to substitute such synthetic polymers. A synthetic hydrogel polymer unlocked a new possibility for development of films, coatings, extrudable pellets, and synthetic nanopolymers, particularly designed for medical, agricultural, and industrial fields. Edible polymers offer many advantages for delivering drugs and tissue engineering. Edible polymer technology helps food industries to make their products more attractive and safe to use. Novel edible materials have been derived from many natural sources that have conventionally been regarded as discarded materials. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive introduction to edible polymers by providing descriptions in terms of their origin, properties, and potential uses.

  1. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...

  2. European medicinal and edible plants associated with subacute and chronic toxicity part I: Plants with carcinogenic, teratogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanc, Luka; Kreft, Samo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, the use of herbal medicines and food products has been widely embraced in many developed countries. These products are generally highly accepted by consumers who often believe that "natural" equals "safe". This is, however, an oversimplification because several botanicals have been found to contain toxic compounds in concentrations harmful to human health. Acutely toxic plants are in most cases already recognised as dangerous as a result of their traditional use, but plants with subacute and chronic toxicity are difficult or even impossible to detect by traditional use or by clinical research studies. In this review, we systematically address major issues including the carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine-disrupting effects associated with the use of herbal preparations with a strong focus on plant species that either grow natively or are cultivated in Europe. The basic information regarding the molecular mechanisms of the individual subtypes of plant-induced non-acute toxicity is given, which is followed by a discussion of the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. We describe the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of alkenylbenzenes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and bracken fern ptaquiloside, the teratogenicity issues regarding anthraquinone glycosides and specific alkaloids, and discuss the human health concerns regarding the phytoestrogens and licorice consumption in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antihyperglycemic Activities of Leaves of Three Edible Fruit Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae), and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) are three common plants in Bangladesh, the fruits of which are edible. The leaves and fruits of A. carambola and F. hispida are used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of ...

  4. Anti-ulcerogenic efficacy and mechanisms of edible and natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of the most commonly used medicines and proven to be effective for certain disorders. Some people use NSAIDs on daily basis for preventive purpose. But a variety of severe side effects can be induced by NSAIDs. Studies have shown that edible ...

  5. Edible mycorrhizal mushrooms as sources of bioactive phenolic compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    João C. M. Barreira; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Mushrooms are emerging as one of the most appreciated foods on a global basis. Besides their nutritional properties and unique organoleptic characteristics, mushrooms might act as functional foods in view of the medicinal properties of their bioactive compounds [1,2]. Those medicinal properties are often due the antioxidant activity of specific molecules such as phenolic compounds [3]. In the present work, five edible mycorrhizal mushoom species (Amanita caesarea, Cortinarius anomalus, Co...

  6. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  7. Sociocultural and ecological factors influencing management of edible and non-edible plants: the case of Ixcatlán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel-Landa, Selene; Casas, Alejandro; García-Frapolli, Eduardo; Lira, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Background Identifying factors influencing plant management allows understanding how processes of domestication operate. Uncertain availability of resources is a main motivation for managing edible plants, but little is known about management motives of non-edible resources like medicinal and ceremonial plants. We hypothesized that uncertain availability of resources would be a general factor motivating their management, but other motives could operate simultaneously. Uncertainty and risk mig...

  8. Growth and cultural-morphological characteristics of vegetative mycelia of medicinal caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis G.H. Sung et al. (Ascomycetes) isolates from Tibetan plateau (P.R.China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, Gayane S; Holliday, John C; Price, Thomas C; Madison, Leah M; Wasser, Solomon P

    2011-01-01

    The morphological and cultural characteristics of vegetative mycelia of 29 Tibetan strains of medicinal caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (= Cordyceps sinensis) were studied. Data on mycelial growth of the above-mentioned fungi strains on different types of nutrients, the macro- and micromorphological description of colonies grown on different agar media, and anamorph stage identification are provided. It was shown that strains of O. sinensis demonstrated moderately slow growth on selected nutrients compared with other ascomycetous fungi. The highest growth rate value from all analyzed strains is O. sinenis N14-2.7 mm/day was completed with a mycelial run on potato-dextrose agar (pH = 6.0) in 15 d. Most of the examined strains preferred Sabouraun’s dextrose agar; some of the strains preferred potato-dextrose agar as the medium for optimal development. The least favorable nutrient for all strains was Czapek solution agar. Analyses of morphological and microstructural peculiarities on different types of nutrients were conducted and detailed descriptions and illustrations were provided. Based on macro- and micromorphological characteristics, the investigated strains were identified as Hirsutella sinensis and Tolypocladium sinensis species, which were identified as the anamorphs of Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

  9. Bioactive and chemical properties of edible mycorrhizal mushrooms from Northeast Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    REIS, F. S.; Sandrina A. Heleno; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Martins, Anabela; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Mushrooms are widely appreciated all over the world for their nutritional properties1 and pharmacological value as sources of important bioactive compounds.2,3 Mycorrhizal macrofungi associate with plant roots constituting a symbiotic relationship, beneficial for both plant and fungus. In the present work five edible mycorrhizal species (Amanita caesarea, Cortinarius anomalus, Cortinarius violaceus, Lactarius volemus and Suillus luteus) from Northeast Portugal were studied for their bioac...

  10. Metals in edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Napoleone, G; Luis-González, G; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hardisson, A; Revert, C

    2017-04-01

    The concentration levels of 20 metals were analyzed by ICP-OES in edible seaweed (Chondrus, Eisenia, Gelidium, Himanthalia, Laminaria, Palmaria, Porphyra, Undaria), from two origins (Asia vs EU) according to their cultivation practices (conventional vs organic). Red seaweed showed higher concentrations of trace and toxic elements. Porphyra may be used as a potential bioindicator for metals. Significant differences were found between the Asian vs European mean contents. The mean Cd level from the conventional cultivation (0.28 mg/kg) was two points higher than the organic cultivation (0.13 mg/kg). A daily consumption of seaweed (4 g/day) contributes to the dietary intake of metals, mainly Mg and Cr. The average intakes of Al, Cd and Pb were 0.064, 0.001 and 0.0003 mg/day, respectively. Based on obtained results, this study suggests that exposure to the toxic metals analyzed (Al, Cd and Pb) through seaweed consumption does not raise serious health concerns, but other toxic metals should be monitored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Growth, fruiting and lignocellulolytic enzyme production by the edible mushroom Grifola frondosa (maitake).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Sandra; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Levin, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Cultivation of specialty mushrooms on lignocellulosic wastes represents one of the most economical organic recycling processes. Compared with other cultivated mushrooms, very little is known about the nature of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by the edible and medicinal fungus Grifola frondosa, the parameters affecting their production, and enzyme activity profiles during different stages of the developmental cycle. In this work we investigated the enzymes that enable G. frondosa, to colonize and deconstruct two formulations based on industrial lignocellulosic by-products. G. frondosa degraded both substrates (oak-sawdust plus corn bran, and oak/corn bran supplemented with coffee spent-ground) decreasing 67 and 50% of their lignin content, along with 44 and 37% of the polysaccharides (hemicellulose and cellulose) respectively. 35.3% biological efficiency was obtained when using oak sawdust plus corn bran as substrate. Coffee spent-ground addition inhibited mushroom production, decreased growth, xylanase and cellulase activities. However, taking into account that G. frondosa successfully colonized this residue; this substrate formula might be considered for its growth and medicinal polysaccharide production. Although G. frondosa tested positive for Azure B plate degradation, a qualitative assay for lignin-peroxidase, attempts to detect this activity during solid state fermentation were unsuccessful. Enzyme activities peaked during colonization but declined drastically during fruiting body formation. Highest activities achieved were: endoglucanase 12.3, exoglucanase 16.2, β-glucosidase 2.3, endoxylanase 20.3, amylase 0.26, laccase 14.8 and Mn-peroxidase 7.4 U/g dry substrate.

  12. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  13. Antioxidant properties of cultivated edible mushroom (Agaricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Omenda (Dr.)

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... Key words: Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), edible mushroom, antioxidant, reducing power, scavenging ability, phytochemicals. INTRODUCTION. The button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange). Imbach, is the premier cultivated edible mushroom and is consumed throughout the world.

  14. Plant-Fungus Marriages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 4. Plant-Fungus Marriages. Ramesh Maheshwari. General Article Volume 11 Issue 4 April 2006 pp 33-44. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/04/0033-0044. Keywords. Fungi ...

  15. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  16. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  17. Edible insects and research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    The recent research interest is illustrated by the many refereed articles that appeared during the last years. Only in 2016, there were 47 articles listed in Web of Science (consulted 15 February 2017) when using ‘edible insects’ compared to only 25 during the entire five-year period 2006-2010. At

  18. Antioxidant polyketide phenolic metabolites from the edible mushroom Cortinarius purpurascens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Chen; Zong, Shi-Chun; Lei, Ming; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2013-12-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the edible macrofungus, Cortinarius purpurascens, led to the isolation of nine anthraquinone-related pigments, citreorosein 6,8-dimethyl ether (1), physcione (2), rufoolivacin (3), rufoolivacin C (4), rufoolivacin D (5), leucorufoolivacin (6), verbindung cr11 (7), verbindung cr60 (8) and 1-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-isopropanyl-6,8-dimethoxyanthraquinone (9). The structures of these isolated compounds were characterised by spectroscopic methods and comparison with published data. Among the tested compounds, 3-6 exhibited potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity with IC50 values in the range of 3-8 μg/ml. The results indicated that the fungus is a possible source of natural products with potential antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or...

  20. Effects of different ratios of pig manure to fungus residue on physicochemical parameters during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangming; Wang, Litong; Wang, Houming; Jiang, Long; Jiang, Xinyou

    2016-05-01

    This study examined physicochemical parameters to assess their effectiveness as stability and maturity indicators during the process of composting pig manure and fungus residue at different ratios. The results showed that composting mixtures with all ratios of pig manure to fungus residue maintained a temperature exceeding 50 °C for more than 10 days during composting and met the requirement for pathogen destruction. The treatment containing mainly pig manure showed higher nitrogen loss and a shorter thermophilic phase and maturity time than the treatment containing mainly fungus residue. The germination index (GI) values indicated that compost maturity was achieved in the final compost with initial ratios of pig manure to fungus residue of 9:1-7:3 (GIs of 101.4%, 91.2%, and 81.3%); the ratio of 6:4 did not reach compost maturity (GI of 63.8%) and had an inhibitory effect on seed germination. The results of this study suggest that a ratio of pig manure to fungus residue of approximately 8:2 can be considered suitable for the efficient and quality composting of pig manure and fungus residue. Co-composting of pig manure and edible fungi residue with appropriate proportion can effectively reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes, as well as achieve a safer and high-quality organic fertilizer, which can be used to improve physical and chemical properties of the soil, increase crop yields, and promote agricultural sustainable development. Therefore, technique of co-composting of pig manure and edible fungi residue has a wide prospect of application in practical production all over the world.

  1. Effect of addition of semi refined carrageenan on mechanical characteristics of gum arabic edible film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyorini, D.; Nurcahyani, P. R.

    2016-04-01

    Currently the seaweed is processed flour and Semi Refined Carraagenan (SRC). However, total production is small, but both of these products have a high value and are used in a wide variety of products such as cosmetics, processed foods, medicines, and edible film. The aim of this study were (1) to determine the effect of SRC on mechanical characteristics of edible film, (2) to determine the best edible film which added by SRC with different concentration. The edible film added by SRC flour which divided into three concentrations of SRC. There are 1.5%; 3%; and 4.5% of SRC, then added 3% glycerol and 0.6% arabic gum. The mechanical properties of the film measured by a universal testing machine Orientec Co. Ltd., while the water vapor permeability measured by the gravimetric method dessicant modified. The experimental design used was completely randomized design with a further test of Duncan. The result show SRC concentration differences affect the elongation breaking point and tensile strength. But not significant effect on the thickness, yield strength and the modulus of elasticity. The best edible film is edible film with the addition of SRC 4.5%.

  2. Edible insects contributing to food security?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huis, van, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    .... Edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact than livestock. Insect meal can replace scarce fishmeal as feed ingredient, in particular in the fast growing aquaculture industry...

  3. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts against phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp Actividad antifúngica de extractos de plantas medicinales contra el hongo fitopatógeno Alternaria spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Díaz Dellavalle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of extracts of 10 plant species used in traditional Uruguayan medicine against the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp. The plants were selected on the basis of their reported ethnobotanical uses. Aqueous, saline buffer and acid extracts of different plant species were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against Alternaria spp. For the antifungal evaluation we used a microspectrophotometric assay. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of the extracts were determined. Three solvents were assayed on different tissues of the plants and among the 29 evaluated extracts, 31% of the extracts inhibited growth, similar to the effects of a chemical fungicide. Acid extracts of the plants were more effective than the aqueous or buffer extracts against Alternaria spp. The MIC values of the extracts were determined ranging between 1.25 and 25 µg mL-1. The MFC values of the extracts ranged between 1.25 µg mL-1 (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and 10 µg mL-1 (Cynara scolymus L.. MICs and MFCs values obtained from leaves (Salvia officinalis L. and R. officinalis and seeds extracts (Salvia sclarea L. were quite comparable to values obtained with the conventional fungicide captan (2.5 µg mL-1. The extracts of Salvia sclarea, S. officinalis and R. officinalis could be considered as potential sources of antifungal compounds for treating diseases in plants. These extracts showed maximum activity, even at very low concentrations, and the same fungicide effects as chemical fungicide. We conclude from this that these extracts exhibit amazing fungicidal properties that support their traditional use as antiseptics.El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la actividad antifúngica de extractos vegetales de 10 especies utilizadas en la medicina tradicional uruguaya contra el hongo fitopatógeno Alternaria spp. Las plantas fueron seleccionadas en base a usos

  4. Biology, cultivation, and medicinal functions of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sokół

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr. Pers. is an edible fungus of great significance in medicine. It is rarely found in Europe, in contrast, it is common in Japan and North America. Its fruitbodies have been well-known for hundreds of years in traditional Chinese medicine and cuisine. A cradle of H. erinaceum cultivation is Asia. In Eastern Europe is rare in natural habitats, but can be successfully cultivated. Both fruitbodies and mycelia are rich in active, health promoting substances. Tests of substances extracted from this mushroom carried out on animals and in vitro have given good results. They can be used in the treatment of cancer, hepatic disorders, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, wound healing. They improve cognitive abilities, support the nervous and immune systems. Promising results have been reported in clinical trials and case reports about the human treatment (e.g., recovery from schizophrenia, an improvement of the quality of sleep, alleviation of the menopause symptoms. The subject of this paper is to summarize information about the development of mycelium, the best conditions for cultivation of fruitbodies, bioactive substances and their use in medicine.

  5. "Those edibles hit hard": Exploration of Twitter data on cannabis edibles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Francois R; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Carlson, Robert G

    2016-07-01

    Several states in the U.S. have legalized cannabis for recreational or medical uses. In this context, cannabis edibles have drawn considerable attention after adverse effects were reported. This paper investigates Twitter users' perceptions concerning edibles and evaluates the association edibles-related tweeting activity and local cannabis legislation. Tweets were collected between May 1 and July 31, 2015, using Twitter API and filtered through the eDrugTrends/Twitris platform. A random sample of geolocated tweets was manually coded to evaluate Twitter users' perceptions regarding edibles. Raw state proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles were ajusted relative to the total number of Twitter users per state. Differences in adjusted proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles between states with different cannabis legislation status were assesed via a permutation test. We collected 100,182 tweets mentioning cannabis edibles with 26.9% (n=26,975) containing state-level geolocation. Adjusted percentages of geolocated Twitter users posting about edibles were significantly greater in states that allow recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The differences were statistically significant. Overall, cannabis edibles were generally positively perceived among Twitter users despite some negative tweets expressing the unreliability of edible consumption linked to variability in effect intensity and duration. Our findings suggest that Twitter data analysis is an important tool for epidemiological monitoring of emerging drug use practices and trends. Results tend to indicate greater tweeting activity about cannabis edibles in states where medical THC and/or recreational use are legal. Although the majority of tweets conveyed positive attitudes about cannabis edibles, analysis of experiences expressed in negative tweets confirms the potential adverse effects of edibles and calls for educating edibles-naïve users, improving edibles labeling, and testing their THC

  6. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebebew Fassil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study discussed ethnobotany of and threats to wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia. Semi-structured interview, field observation, group discussion, market survey, and pair wise ranking were employed to gather ethnobotanical data. The information was collected from informants of three ethnic groups namely, Kusume, Derashe and Gamo people. The study documented 66 edible plant species belonging to 54 genera and 34 families. Of the reported edibles, 83.3% have more than one use categories. Food, medicine, construction/technology, and fuel wood had contributed 79% of the total uses. Of the recorded wild edible plant species, 78.8% were reported to be edible both in normal and food shortage times. Procurement and use of most edibles were found to be age and gender specific. However, species use under various use categories does not vary among the communities (X2 = 3.89, df = 6, α = 0.05 and 1-α = 12.6. The study showed that the majority (62.1% of the species were collected from wooded grassland/or bush land vegetation type. Pair wise ranking results indicated that agricultural expansion, over stocking/overgrazing, fuel wood collection, and uncontrolled fire setting as principal threats to wild edible plants in the study areas. The findings suggest that (i Public awareness and community based management need to be encouraged at all levels in order to overcome the threats; (ii further investigation into nutritional properties of all the species reported; and (iii Since the species are also nutraceutical, study on the pharmacological attributes would help to understand their medicinal applications. Furthermore, urgent collection of germplasm from areas under human pressure is recommended.

  7. In Vivo Antiplaque Effect of Three Edible Toothpastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Feijoo, Javier; Limeres, Jacobo; García-Caballero, Lucía; Abeleira, María T.; Diz, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyse the antibacterial and antiplaque activity of three edible toothpastes with the widest worldwide distribution: KidScents™, which contains essential oils; Browning B&B™, with medicinal plants; and Wysong Probiodent™, which contains probiotics. Study Design: The study group was formed of twenty healthy volunteers (dental students) with a good oral health status. Using a balanced randomisation system, all volunteers performed toothbrushing with four products (the three edible toothpastes and water) at intervals of one week. Bacterial vitality in the saliva was analysed by epifluorescence microscopy and plaque regrowth was evaluated using the Turesky-Quigley-Hein plaque index. Results: Bacterial vitality in the saliva was significantly higher after toothbrushing with water (positive control) than with the three toothpastes (P=0.002, P=0.003 and Ptoothpastes than after toothbrushing with water (P=0.047, P=0.032 and Ptoothpastes analysed have some antimicrobial activity but favour plaque regrowth. Key words:Edible toothpaste, dental plaque, oral bacteria. PMID:23986022

  8. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerkamp, Yvonne; Paz, Ana Margarita; Guzmán, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species.

  9. Toenail Fungus (Onychomycosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TDI Public Health Fellowship American Public Health Association Disaster Relief Volunteering Humanitarian Missionary Community Medicine Databases Students & Residents A Career in Podiatry What ...

  10. Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems comprehensively covers the basic principles of entomology and population dynamics; edible insects and culture; nutrition and health; gastronomy; insects as animal feed; factors influencing preferences and acceptability of insects; environmental impacts...... and conservation; considerations for insect farming and policy and legislation. The book contains practical information for researchers, NGOs and international organizations, decision-makers, entrepreneurs and students...

  11. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  12. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...

  13. Molecular Karyotype of the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gumer; Peñas, María M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    1999-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible basidiomycete with increasing agricultural and biotechnological importance. Genetic manipulation and breeding of this organism are restricted because of the lack of knowledge about its genomic structure. In this study, we analyzed the genomic constitution of P. ostreatus by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis optimized for the separation of its chromosomes. We have determined that it contains 11 pairs of chromosomes with sizes ranging from 1.4 to 4.7 Mbp. In addition to chromosome separation, the use of single-copy DNA probes allowed us to resolve the ambiguities caused by chromosome comigration. When the two nuclei present in the dikaryon were separated by protoplasting, analysis of their karyotypes revealed length polymorphisms affecting various chromosomes. This is, to our knowledge, the clearest chromosome separation available for this species. PMID:10427028

  14. [Medusomyces (tea fungus): scientific history, composition, physiology, and metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurkevich, D I; Kutyshenko, V P

    2002-01-01

    The literature data on medusomyces published since 1913 are discussed. Different versions of appearance and distribution of this microorganism are considered. The features of its structure, metabolism and growth conditions are analyzed. It is shown that the tea fungus is a symbiosis is of several sorts of yeast and acetic acid bacteria. Evidence is presented indicating that fermented tea fungus has a therapeutic effect and can be applied in medicine. It was proved, that the antimicrobial properties of tea fungus metabolic products are due to the presence of particular antibiotic substances. The regularities of the biosynthesis of these substances and the pathways of its stimulation were studied. The results obtained will lead to the large-scale use of tea fungus in biotechnology. The fungus has unique adaptation properties, as confirmed by experiments on cultivation of the organism on deuterium oxide (D2O) and in the conditions of "cold stress". It is suggested that medusomyces is a unique model for the investigation of the phenomenon of symbiosis.

  15. POTENSI EDIBLE FILM ANTIMIKROBA SEBAGAI PENGAWET DAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskiyah (Maskiyah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh meat are highly perishable due to their enriched nutrient composition which is easily contaminated by almost any microorganisms. The application of antimicrobial edible films is one of the effective method to extend the shelf life of fresh meat. This study aimed to get antimicrobial edible films formula that have the potential to preserve fresh meat. The study consisted of several steps: 1 research for making a fresh garlic extract, 2 extraction of gelatin from chicken feet, 3 formulation and manufacturing of antimicrobial edible films and 4 the application of edible films on fresh meat. Gelatin-based antimicrobial edible films was the best one that can be applied on fresh meat. Characteristics of the antimirobial edible film: color L 97.28; elongation: 20 mm; tensile strength <0.1 kgf; thickness 0.06 mm; WVTR 15.49 g/(mm.jam; Aw 0.526; moisture content: 22.73%, and has antimicrobial characteristic because of it’s inhibition ability to the growth of S. aureus and E. coli. (Key words: Antimicrobial, Edible film, Meat

  16. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  17. Edible insects contributing to food security?

    OpenAIRE

    Huis, van, Marijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Because of growing demand for meat and declining availability of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternative protein sources. Edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact than livestock. Insect meal can replace scarce fishmeal as feed ingredient, in particular in the fast growing aquaculture industry. Edible insects can alleviate waste disposal problems by growing them on organic by-products. About 2000 insect species are eaten worldwide, mostly in tropical...

  18. Proteomics of edible mushrooms: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R

    2016-05-01

    Mushrooms are considered an important food for their traditionally famous nutritional and medicinal values, although much information about their potential at the molecular level is unfortunately unknown. Edible mushrooms include fungi that are either collected wild or cultivated. Many important species are difficult to cultivate but attempts have been made with varying degrees of success, with the results showing unsatisfactory economical cultivation methods. Recently, proteomic analysis has been developed as a powerful tool to study the protein content of fungi, particularly basidiomycetes. This mini-review article highlights the contribution of proteomics platforms to the study of edible mushrooms, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in developmental stages. This includes extracellular and cytoplasmic effector proteins that have potential or are involved in the synthesis of anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, in blood pressure control, in the supply of vitamins and minerals, and in other responses to environmental changes. The contribution of different proteomics techniques including classical and more advanced techniques is also highlighted. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Estimating concentration of fluoride in edible leaves locally grown around Raipur, Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhuti Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluorine is the 13th most abundant element in the earth crust and is available in various environmental, clinical, and food samples in varied concentrations. Aim: To estimate concentration of fluoride in five medicinal and five nonmedicinal edible leaves locally grown around Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India. Materials and Methods: Samples of ten medicinal and nonmedicinal edible leaves, namely, spinach (Spinacia oleracea, coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum, chawli bhaji (Amaranthus spinach, lal bhaji (Alternanthera bettzickiana, mooli bhaji (Raphanus sativus, neem (Azadirachta indica, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum, mint leaves (Mentha longifolia, betel leaves (Piper betle, and bael leaves (Aegle marmelos were collected in the clean polyethene bags. After thorough washing with water, leaves were left to dry in ambient temperature and crushed into powder using a mixer grinder. One gram of each of the powdered samples was taken and analyzed for fluoride concentration using a 2-(4-sulfophenylazo 1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt spectrophotometric method. Results: The presence of fluoride in varied concentrations in locally grown edible leaves were analyzed. The highest concentration of fluoride was reported in tulsi (6.0 μg/g and lowest in mint leaves (1.1 μg/g. Two edible leaves, neem and bael, showed fluoride concentration below detection limit. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding the importance of edible leaves may be lost in the near future unless efforts are made to educate younger generations about their importance. Hence, the time has come to make good use of centuries-old knowledge through modern approaches for their better economic and therapeutic utilization.

  20. Indigenous knowledge and utilization of edible mushrooms in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge on edible fungi in Ghana has mostly been limited to rural people. Edible mushrooms are collected from forest reserves, secondary forests and fields under fallow. However, with the current rate of bush burning and deforestation, collection of edible mushrooms from the wild is threatened. A survey was ...

  1. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  2. Structural Characteristics of the Novel Polysaccharide FVPA1 from Winter Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Flammulina velutipes (Agaricomycetes), Capable of Enhancing Natural Killer Cell Activity against K562 Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Feng, Jie; Zhang, Jing-Song; Lin, Chi-Chung; Wang, Wen-Han; Chen, Hong-Ge

    2017-01-01

    FVPA1, a novel polysaccharide, has been isolated from fruiting bodies of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Flammulina velutipes, a historically popular, widely cultivated and consumed functional food with an attractive taste, beneficial nutraceutical properties such as antitumor and immunomodulatory effects, and a number of essential biological activities. The average molecular weight was estimated to be ~1.8 × 104 Da based on high-performance size exclusion chromatography. Sugar analyses, methylation analyses, and 1H, 13C, and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the following structure of the repeating units of the FVPA1 polysaccharide Identification of this structure would conceivably lead to better understanding of the nutraceutical functions of this very important edible fungus. Bioactivity tests in vitro indicated that FVPA1 could significantly enhance natural killer cell activity against K562 tumor cells.

  3. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered.

  4. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  5. Community of endophytic fungi from the medicinal and edible plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of their morphological and molecular characteristics, thirteen distinct fungal isolates were identified, and belonged to Alternaria, Bionectria, Botryosphaeria, Fusarium, Guignardia, Nectria, Neonectria, Phomopsis, Pseudocercospora and Verticillium spp. Of these, Pseudocercospora owned the maximum ...

  6. Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ping Geng; Ka-Chai Siu; Zhaomei Wang; Jian-Yong Wu

    2017-01-01

    ... or therapies are highly needed. Mushrooms have been widely used as health foods, because of their various bioactive constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber...

  7. Community of endophytic fungi from the medicinal and edible plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in proteins, unsaturated fatty acid, amino acids, vitamins and trace elements, as well as various ... potency for the production of antimicrobial components was evaluated further. ..... Table 2: Antibacterial activity of sixteen fungal endophytes from F. tataricum against five test bacteria by broth dilution-MTT assay. Fungal isolate.

  8. Filler functionality in edible solid foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the functionality of particulate ingredients in edible brittle foams, such as expanded starchy snacks. In food science and industry there is not a complete awareness of the full functionality of these filler ingredients, which can be fibers, proteins, starch granules and whole grains.

  9. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  10. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cholera, hepatitis-B, and many more are in the process of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1 Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (12), pp. 679-683, December 2003 ...

  11. Identification of Tanzanian saprophytic edible mushrooms by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, ten wild saprophytic edible mushrooms samples, collected from Tanzania natural forests and planted trees, and their two domesticated forms were characterized by in-vitro/in-vivo amplification and sequencing of ITS/LSU regions. Mushroom genomic DNA was extracted by ZR Fungal/Bacterial DNA MniPrep Kit.

  12. Edible insects contributing to food security?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Because of growing demand for meat and declining availability of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternative protein sources. Edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact than livestock. Insect meal can replace scarce fishmeal as feed ingredient, in particular

  13. “Those edibles hit hard”: Exploration of Twitter data on cannabis edibles in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Francois R.; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Martins, Silvia S.; Boyer, Edward W.; Carlson, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Several states in the U.S. have legalized cannabis for recreational or medical uses. In this context, cannabis edibles have drawn considerable attention after adverse effects were reported. This paper investigates Twitter users’ perceptions concerning edibles and evaluates the association edibles-related tweeting activity and local cannabis legislation. Methods Tweets were collected between May 1 and July 31, 2015, using Twitter API and filtered through the eDrugTrends/Twitris platform. A random sample of geolocated tweets was manually coded to evaluate Twitter users’ perceptions regarding edibles. Raw state proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles were ajusted relative to the total number of Twitter users per state. Differences in adjusted proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles between states with different cannabis legislation status were assesed via a permutation test. Results We collected 100,182 tweets mentioning cannabis edibles with 26.9% (n=26,975) containing state-level geolocation. Adjusted percentages of geolocated Twitter users posting about edibles were significantly greater in states that allow recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The differences were statistically significant. Overall, cannabis edibles were generally positively perceived among Twitter users despite some negative tweets expressing the unreliability of edible consumption linked to variability in effect intensity and duration. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Twitter data analysis is an important tool for epidemiological monitoring of emerging drug use practices and trends. Results tend to indicate greater tweeting activity about cannabis edibles in states where medical THC and/or recreational use are legal. Although the majority of tweets conveyed positive attitudes about cannabis edibles, analysis of experiences expressed in negative tweets confirms the potential adverse effects of edibles and calls for educating edibles-naïve users, improving

  14. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sabolová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  15. The Importance of Edible Landscape in the Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Çelik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century sustainable city requires the merging of urbanism with sustainable food systems. The challenges industrial food system separates people from their food sources. The design strategies for edible landscape are about re-inviting food back into the city and re-connecting people with their local/regional food system to promote a healthier lifestyle. Edible landscapes are a movement in transition and sprouting up as a response to the slow food movement and living a greener lifestyle. These urban agricultural landscapes are fast becoming iconic media darlings and are demonstrating that they are far more than growing vegetables and fruits on abandoned lots. Edible landscaping is the use of food plants as design features in a landscape. These plants are used both for aesthetic value as well as consumption. Edible landscapes encompass a variety of garden types and scales but do not include food items produced for sale. Edible landscaping is the practical integration of food plants within an ornamental or decorative setting. Using edibles in landscape design can enhance a garden by providing a unique ornamental component with additional health, aesthetic, and economic benefits. In this study; emergence of edible landscape, edible landscape design and maintenance, samples of edible landscape, productive plants, importance of edible landscaping for urban environments have been explained.

  16. Biodegradation of ciprofloxacin by white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sushil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka; Kaur, Loveleen

    2017-05-01

    Unrestricted and reckless use of antibiotics has resulted in their accumulation in environment. This, in turn, has led to the emergence of multiple drug-resistant microbes. The present study focuses on degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) by an edible white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Effect of CIP was determined on radial growth and biomass of P. ostreatus. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assays were carried out to assess the degrading potential of P. ostreatus towards CIP. It was found that CIP has a stimulatory effect on growth and enzyme activity of P. ostreatus. Maximum enzyme (glucanase, ligninases, laccase) production was observed at the highest concentration of CIP (500 ppm). Antibiotic degradation of about 68.8, 94.25 and 91.34% was estimated after 14 days of incubation at 500 ppm CIP using Titrimetric, Indigo carmine and Methyl orange assay, respectively. Degradation of CIP was further validated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microbiological analysis. HPLC analysis revealed 95.07% degradation while microbiological test also exhibited a decreased antimicrobial activity of degraded products against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study wherein P. ostreatus was used for the degradation of ciprofloxacin.

  17. Relationship between Monokaryotic Growth Rate and Mating Type in the Edible Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gúmer; Iribarren, Iñaki; Blanco, Juan A.; Alfonso, Mikel; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2001-01-01

    The edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) is an industrially produced heterothallic homobasidiomycete whose mating is controlled by a bifactorial tetrapolar genetic system. Two mating loci (matA and matB) control different steps of hyphal fusion, nuclear migration, and nuclear sorting during the onset and progress of the dikaryotic growth. Previous studies have shown that the segregation of the alleles present at the matB locus differs from that expected for a single locus because (i) new nonparental B alleles appeared in the progeny and (ii) there was a distortion in the segregation of the genomic regions close to this mating locus. In this study, we pursued these observations by using a genetic approach based on the identification of molecular markers linked to the matB locus that allowed us to dissect it into two genetically linked subunits (matBα and matBβ) and to correlate the presence of specific matBα and matA alleles with differences in monokaryotic growth rate. The availability of these molecular markers and the mating type dependence of growth rate in monokaryons can be helpful for marker-assisted selection of fast-growing monokaryons to be used in the construction of dikaryons able to colonize the substrate faster than the competitors responsible for reductions in the industrial yield of this fungus. PMID:11472908

  18. [Biotechnological cultivation of edible macrofungi: an alternative for obtaining nutraceutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Arango, Carolina; Nieto, Ivonne Jeannette

    2013-01-03

    Macromycetes have been part of the human culture for thousand years, and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of macromycetes have been described, such as anti-cancer, anti-tumour, cholesterol lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, or immunomodulatory, among others. Given that production of mushrooms by traditional cultivation and extraction of bioactive metabolites is very difficult in some cases, biotechnology is essential for the development of profitable and productive techniques for obtaining these metabolites. It is the development of this technology, and the ease in which it enables the use of its variables that has allowed mycelium to be cultivated in liquid medium of macrofungi, with a significant reduction in time and an increased production of metabolites. This increased production has led to the study of compounds that have medicinal, nutriceutical and quasi-farmaceutical potential, in the exhausted media and the mycelium. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of liquid-state fermentation as a technological tool for obtaining edible fungi, and the study of these and their metabolites, by describing the different cultivation conditions used in recent years, as well as the results obtained. The relevance of Agaricus, Flammulina, Grifola, Pleurotus and Lentinula genera, will also be discussed, with emphasis on the last one, since Shiitake has been always considered as the ultimate medicinal mushroom. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Edible Earth and Space Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  20. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaqu?n

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we int...

  1. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  2. Estimating demand and supply of edible oil in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haq, Rashida

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the demand for edible oil in Pakistan and a dynamic supply response model to show price responsiveness by sunflower oilseed farmers. The demand for edible oil is estimated by using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique. It has been found that an increase in the consumption of edible oil is highly affected by urbanization, increase in per capita income, relative high price of its substitutes and the rapid growth of the population. In order to estimate supply response mod...

  3. ANTI-ULCEROGENIC EFFICACY AND MECHANISMS OF EDIBLE AND NATURAL INGREDIENTS IN NSAID-INDUCED ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Weiping; Hu, Lizhi; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of the most commonly used medicines and proven to be effective for certain disorders. Some people use NSAIDs on daily basis for preventive purpose. But a variety of severe side effects can be induced by NSAIDs. Studies have shown that edible natural ingredients exhibit preventive benefit of gastric ulcer. This paper reviews the efficacy and safety of edible natural ingredients in preventing the development of gastric ulcer induced by NSAIDs in animal models. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed, using the terms “herbal medicines” and “gastric ulcer”, “herbal medicines” and “peptic ulcer”, “food” and “peptic ulcer”, “food” and “gastric ulcer”, “natural ingredient” and “peptic ulcer”, “natural ingredient” and “gastric ulcer”, “alternative medicine” and “peptic ulcer”, “alternative medicine” and “gastric ulcer”, “complementary medicine” and “peptic ulcer”, “complementary medicine” and “gastric ulcer” in papers published in English between January 1, 1960 and January 31, 2016, resulting in a total of 6146 articles containing these terms. After exclusion of studies not related prevention, not in NSAID model or using non-edible natural ingredients, 54 articles were included in this review. Results: Numerous studies have demonstrated that edible natural ingredients exhibit antiulcerogenic benefit in NSAID-induced animal models. The mechanisms by which edible, ingredient-induced anti-ulcerogenic effects include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, antioxidation, inhibition of gastric acid secretion, as well as inhibition of H (+), K (+)- ATPase activities. Utilization of edible, natural ingredients could be a safe, valuable alternative to prevent the development of NSAID-induced gastric ulcer, particularly for the subjects who are long-term users of NSAIDs. PMID:28638885

  4. Knowledge and use of wild edible plants in rural communities along Paraguay River, Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotto, Ieda Maria; Amorozo, Maria Christina de Mello; Neto, Germano Guarim; Oldeland, Jens; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2015-05-30

    Wild plants are used as food for human populations where people still depend on natural resources to survive. This study aimed at identifying wild plants and edible uses known in four rural communities of the Pantanal-Brazil, estimating the use value and understanding how distance to the urban areas, gender, age and number of different environments available in the vicinity can influence the knowledge and use of these plants by local people. Data on edible plants with known uses by communities were obtained through semi-structured interviews. A form with standardized information was used for all communities in order to obtain comparable data for analysis. For the quantitative analysis of the factors that could influence the number of species known by the population, a generalized linear model (GLM) was conducted using a negative binomial distribution as the data consisted of counts (number of citations). A total of 54 wild species were identified with food uses, included in 44 genera and 30 families of angiosperms. Besides food use, the species are also known as medicine, bait, construction, technology and other. The species with the highest use value was Acrocomia aculeata. Older people, aged more than 60 years, and those living in more remote communities farther from cities know more wild edible plants. Statistical analysis showed no difference regarding gender or number of vegetation types available in the vicinity and the number of plants known by locals. This study indicated more knowledge retained in communities more distant from the urban area, indifference in distribution of knowledge between genders and the higher cultural competence of elderly people in respect to knowledge of wild edible botanicals.

  5. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  6. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  7. THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE PROTEIN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ogur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, edible films from isolated or concentrated protein sources and from proteins of two different fish species were produced. The texture properties, light transmission (LT and oxygen permeability (OP of producing films were determined. The CL film settled in the second range according to both tension test parameters, thus outclassing the other tested films. The WG film possessed the lowest LT, so making it more effective in protecting of food products from light than the other tested films. The SPI film with the lowest OP value can be used for the purpose of protecting of food products from harmful effects of oxidation.

  8. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms | Adedayo | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in West Yagba Local Government Areas of Kogi state of Nigeria to ... The high fibre content make them a good source of roughages while their low acidity and alkalinity confirms their edibility and the fact that they are not likely to ...

  9. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare edible corn starch phosphate under optimized experimental conditions. Methods: Edible corn starch phosphate was prepared via the reaction of starch with active sodium tripolyphosphate. Reaction efficiency and viscosity were used as indices to optimize experimental conditions. Freeze-thaw stability ...

  10. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

  11. Analysis of Edible Mushroom Marketing in Three Villages in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the marketing of edible mushroom in three villages (Alesi, Ekukunela and Ohon) in Central Cross River State, Nigeria. The marketing of edible mushroom in the state offers job opportunities for both skilled and unskilled rural population at farm gate and offers market employment opportunities for ...

  12. Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To identify them, a chemical comparison of edible and toxic forms was done in order to highlight differences between both forms. Dichloromethane leaf extracts from toxic and edible trees were analyzed by gas chromatography. Phenolic profile and volatile compounds from fruits extracts were studied respectively by High ...

  13. Notes on some Edible wild plants found in the Kalahari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Keith

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited work done on edible, indigenous plants to date, mainly concerns seasonal species. To develop a more reliable guide on food-plant sources for survival conditions in the field, a study directed at a survey of non-seasonal plants is conducted in the Kalahari. Descriptions of six edible non-seasonal plants for the Kalahari are given.

  14. Edible Amphibian Species: Local Knowledge of their Consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge of the consumption of edible amphibian species in southwest Nigeria was investigated based on interviews. There were a total of 900 respondents of which 92.8% were aware of edible frogs being consumed by humans. Six hundred and sixty (73.3%) respondents had seen various individuals eating frogs.

  15. Wild edible plants: sustainable use and management by indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wild edible plants are valuable resources in rural livelihoods for supplementing the staple food, ensuring food security, dietary diversification and sustained income. This study aimed to identify and document indigenous uses and management of wild edible plants being used by the Afar and Oromo communities in and the ...

  16. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

    2010-08-17

    and consumed from 'Duka' (March) to 'Halet' (May) and from 'Meko' (August) to 'Tejo' (November). Sixteen (41%) of the plant parts were used as a substitute for cultivated vegetables during times of scarcity. The vegetables were chopped and boiled to make 'Belesha' (sauce) or as a relish to 'Adano' (porridge). The ripe fruits were gathered and consumed fresh and some were made into juices. The seeds and underground parts were only consumed in times of famine. Thirty-seven percent of the wild edible plants were used as medicine and 23.6% were used for other functions. The wild edible plants were used as supplements to the cultivated crops and as famine foods between harvesting seasons. But information on the nutritional values and possible toxic effects of most of the wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego, and others in different part of Ethiopia is not available. Therefore, the documented information on the wild edible plants may serve as baseline data for future studies on nutritional values and possible side effects, and to identify plants that may improve nutrition and increase dietary diversity. Some of these wild edible plants may have the potential to be valuable food sources (if cultivated) and could be part of a strategy in tackling food insecurity.

  17. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2010-08-01

    wild edible plants were gathered and consumed from 'Duka' (March to 'Halet' (May and from 'Meko' (August to 'Tejo' (November. Sixteen (41% of the plant parts were used as a substitute for cultivated vegetables during times of scarcity. The vegetables were chopped and boiled to make 'Belesha' (sauce or as a relish to 'Adano' (porridge. The ripe fruits were gathered and consumed fresh and some were made into juices. The seeds and underground parts were only consumed in times of famine. Thirty-seven percent of the wild edible plants were used as medicine and 23.6% were used for other functions. Conclusions The wild edible plants were used as supplements to the cultivated crops and as famine foods between harvesting seasons. But information on the nutritional values and possible toxic effects of most of the wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego, and others in different part of Ethiopia is not available. Therefore, the documented information on the wild edible plants may serve as baseline data for future studies on nutritional values and possible side effects, and to identify plants that may improve nutrition and increase dietary diversity. Some of these wild edible plants may have the potential to be valuable food sources (if cultivated and could be part of a strategy in tackling food insecurity.

  18. Gamma radiation effects on the frequency of toxigenic fungus on sene (Cassia angustifolia) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) samples; Efeito da radiacao gama na frequencia de fungos toxigenicos em amostras de sene (Cassia angustifolia) e cha verde (Camellia sinensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, S.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com; Reis, T.A.; Zorzete, P.; Correa, B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Microbiologia; Goncalez, E.; Rossi, M.H. [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The levels of contamination and gamma radiation effects were analyzed in the reduction of toxigenic filamentous fungus in two types of medicinal plants. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the predominant genders and 73,80% of the samples showed high levels of fungus contamination.

  19. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  20. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  1. U.S. National Fungus Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — The U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI) are the “Smithsonian for fungi” and are the repository for over one million fungal specimens worldwide - the largest such...

  2. Filler functionality in edible solid foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sman, R G M

    2016-05-01

    We review the functionality of particulate ingredients in edible brittle foams, such as expanded starchy snacks. In food science and industry there is not a complete awareness of the full functionality of these filler ingredients, which can be fibers, proteins, starch granules and whole grains. But, we show that much can be learned about that from the field of synthetic polymeric foams with (nano)fillers. For edible brittle foams the enhancement of mechanical strength by filler ingredients is less relevant compared to the additional functionalities such as 1) the promotion of bubble nucleation and 2) cell opening-which are much more relevant for the snack texture. The survey of particulate ingredients added to snack formulations shows that they cannot be viewed as inert fillers, because of their strong hygroscopic properties. Hence, these fillers will compete with starch for water, and that will modify the glass transition and boiling point, which are important factors for snack expansion. Filler properties can be modified via extrusion, but it is better if that processing step is decoupled from the subsequent processing steps as mixing and expansion. Several filler ingredients are also added because of their nutritional value, but can have adverse effect on snack expansion. These adverse effects can be reduced if the increase of nutritional value is decoupled from other filler functionality via compartmentalization using micropellets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan ŠIRIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr. Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr. Sing.,. Completely developed and mature fruiting bodies were collected at random selection in localities of Trakošćan, Jaska and Petrova gora. At the same time, the substrate soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-10. Determination of heavy metals in mushrooms and the substrate soil were carried out by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The data obtained were analysed by means of the statistical program SAS V9.2. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd between analysed species of mushrooms and localities of sampling (P 1. The consumption of investigated mushrooms poses no toxicological risk to human health due to low concentrations analysed metals.

  4. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  5. Ethno-botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua-Barcelo, Racquel Tan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey on the common name/s, traditional uses and cultural importance of the edible wild fruits in different municipalities of Benguet, Cordillera administrative region. Methods Interviews using questionnaires with barangay leaders and indigenous people were conducted with 176 key informants from June 2011 to July 2013. Results A total of 36 fruit species were found in different municipalities of Benguet. These fruit species belong to 27 genera and 20 families. Among the 13 municipalities of Benguet, Kibungan has the highest number of species. There are many uses of wild fruits which ranged from food (snack/dessert/table food), forage (especially for birds, monkeys and wild animals such as cloud rat and grass eaters), offertory, processed/preserved (as jam, jellies, candies, juice and wine), condiment or ingredient (for cooking), source of dye or ink, decoration (to garnish food) and as medicine to common ailments or health problems. Based on the inventory and calculated cultural importance index, Garcinia binucao (balokok) belonging to Clusiaceae is the most abundant fruit, hence it is the commonly used fruit for various purposes such as food, forage, processing/preservation and condiment/ingredient; Vaccinium myrtoides (ayusip) for offerings and as source of dye/ink; Saurauia elegans (uyok) for decoration, and, Antidesma bunius (bugnay) for medicine. Conclusions Benguet province in the Cordillera region provides a diversity of edible wild fruits. The data gathered from the study signifies that collection, processing and utilization of edible wild fruits are still part of the daily activities of the people in Benguet. PMID:25183144

  6. Knowledge and use of edible mushrooms in two municipalities of the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñónez-Martínez, Miroslava; Ruan-Soto, Felipe; Aguilar-Moreno, Ivonne Estela; Garza-Ocañas, Fortunato; Lebgue-Keleng, Toutcha; Lavín-Murcio, Pablo Antonio; Enríquez-Anchondo, Irma Delia

    2014-09-17

    The Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua in Northern Mexico is inhabited by indigenous Raramuris, mestizos, and other ethnic groups. The territory consists of canyons and ravines with pine, oak and pine-oak forests in the higher plateaus. A great diversity of potentially edible mushrooms is found in forests of the Municipalities of Bocoyna and Urique. Their residents are the only consumers of wild mushrooms in the Northern Mexico; they have a long tradition of collecting and eating these during the "rainy season." However, despite the wide diversity of edible mushrooms that grow in these areas, residents have a selective preference. This paper aims to record evidence of the knowledge and use of wild potentially edible mushroom species by inhabitants of towns in the Sierra Tarahumara of Chihuahua, Mexico. Using a semi-structured technique, we surveyed 197 habitants from seven locations in Urique, Bocoyna, and the Cusarare area from 2010 to 2012. Known fungi, local nomenclature, species consumed, preparation methods, appreciation of taste, forms of preservation, criteria for differentiating toxic and edible fungi, other uses, economic aspects, and traditional teaching were recorded. To identify the recognized species, photographic stimuli of 22 local edible species and two toxic species were used. The respondents reported preference for five species: Amanita rubescens, Agaricus campestris, Ustilago maydis, Hypomyces lactifluorum, and the Amanita caesarea complex. No apparent differences were found between ethnic groups in terms of preference, although mestizos used other species in Bocoyna (Boletus edulis and B. pinophilus). Some different uses of fungi are recognized by respondents, i.e. home decorations, medicine, as food in breeding rams, etc. The studied population shows a great appreciation towards five species, mainly the A. caesarea complex, and an apparent lack of knowledge of nearly 20 species which are used as food in other areas of Mexico. There are no

  7. Development of Seaweed-based Biopolymers for Edible Films and Lectins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.

    2017-04-01

    Marine macroalgae (seaweeds) as one of important groups of biopolymers play an important role in human life. Biopolymers have been studied regarding their film-forming properties to produce edible films intended as food packaging and active ingredient carriers. Edible film, a thin layer or which is an integral part of food and can be eaten together with, have been used to avoid food quality deterioration due to physico-chemical changes, texture changes, or chemical reactions. Film-forming materials can be utilized individually or as mixed composite blends. Proteins and polysaccharides used for their mechanical and structural properties, and hydrophobic substances (lipids, essential oils, and emulsifiers) to provide good moisture barrier properties. In addition, bioactive substances from marine natural products, including seaweeds, have been explored for being used in the fields of medicine, food science, pharmaceutical science, biochemistry, and glycobiology. Among them, lectins or carbohydrate-binding proteins from seaweeds have recently been remarked. Lectins (hemagglutinins) are widely distributed in nature and also good candidates in such prospecting of seaweeds. They are useful as convenient tools to discriminate differences in carbohydrate structures and reveal various biological activities through binding and interacting to carbohydrates, suggesting that they are promising candidates for medicinal and clinical application.

  8. Thielavins A, J and K: alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from MEXU 27095, an endophytic fungus from Hintonia latiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the bio-active organic extract obtained from solid-media culture of MEXU 27095, an endophytic fungus isolated from the Mexican medicinal plant Hintonia latiflora (Rubiaceae), led to separation of three tridepsides which were identified as thielavins A, J and K. All ...

  9. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Non-edible Oil Cakes as a Novel Substrate for DPA Production and Augmenting Biocontrol Activity of Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kalpana; Sharma, Satyawati; Krishna, Suresh B N; Adam, Jamila K; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of waste non-edible oil cakes (Jatropha, Karanja, Neem, and Mahua) as a substrate for the growth of Paecilomyces variotii and dipicolinic acid (DPA) production. Previous researches proved the efficacy of DPA in suppressing certain pathogens that are deleterious to the plants in the rhizosphere. DPA production was statistical optimized by amending non-edible oil cakes in growing media as nitrogen and sugars (Dextrose, Glucose, and Lactose) as carbon source. Plackett-Burman design (PBD), indicated that Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose were the most significant components (p cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose at the concentration of 12.5, 4.5, and 10 g/l, respectively, yielded 250 mg/l of DPA, which was 2.5 fold more than that obtained from basal medium. HPLC analysis of the optimized medium (peak at retention time of 30 min) confirmed the enhanced DPA production by P. variotii. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that optimized medium impose a stress like condition (due to less C:N ratio) for the fungus and generated more spores as compared to the basal medium in which carbon source is easily available for the mycelial growth. The antimicrobial activity of the fungal extract was tested and found to be effective even at 10-2 dilution after 72 h against two plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahlia. Statistical experimental design of this study and the use of non-edible oil cakes as a substrate offer an efficient and viable approach for DPA production by P. variotii.

  11. Creep test observation of viscoelastic failure of edible fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, C. R.; Grimson, M. J.; Smith, B. G.; Wills, P. R.

    2011-03-01

    A rheological creep test was used to investigate the viscoelastic failure of five edible fats. Butter, spreadable blend and spread were selected as edible fats because they belong to three different groups according to the Codex Alimentarius. Creep curves were analysed according to the Burger model. Results were fitted to a Weibull distribution representing the strain-dependent lifetime of putative fibres in the material. The Weibull shape and scale (lifetime) parameters were estimated for each substance. A comparison of the rheometric measurements of edible fats demonstrated a clear difference between the three different groups. Taken together the results indicate that butter has a lower threshold for mechanical failure than spreadable blend and spread. The observed behaviour of edible fats can be interpreted using a model in which there are two types of bonds between fat crystals; primary bonds that are strong and break irreversibly, and secondary bonds, which are weaker but break and reform reversibly.

  12. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.; Huis, van A.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and

  13. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-12

    Jun 12, 2015 ... 1Research Department of Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food ..... Inhibition of Salmonella enteritidis in cheese by zein edible film incorporated ... cup is then sealed to prevent vapor loss except through the test.

  14. Nanocomposite Edible Films from Mango Puree Reinforced with Cellulose Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose nanoreinforcements have been used to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Nanocomposite edible films have been developed by adding cellulose nanofibers (CNF) in different concentrations (u...

  15. Lipid Profile in Different Parts of Edible Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Xu, Jilin; Guo, Chunyang; Zheng, Huakun; Hu, Jiabao; Chen, Juanjuan; Wang, Yajun; Xu, Shanliang; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-09-23

    Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum has been exploited commercially as a delicious food for a long time. Although the edible and medicinal values of R. esculentum have gained extensive attention, the effects of lipids on its nutritional value have rarely been reported. In the present of study, the lipid profile including lipid classes, fatty acyl compositions, and fatty acid (FA) positions in lipids from different parts (oral arms, umbrella, and mouth stalk) of R. esculentum was explored by ultraperformance liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization--quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS). More than 87 species from 10 major lipid classes including phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), phosphatidylserine (PS), ceramide (Cer), ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), and triacylglycerol (TAG) were separated and characterized. Semiquantification of individual lipid species in different parts of R. esculentum was also conducted. Results showed that glycerophospholipids (GPLs) enriched in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) were the major compenents in all parts of R. esculentum, which accounted for 54-63% of total lipids (TLs). Considering the high level of GPLs and the FA compositions in GPLs, jellyfish R. esculentum might have great potential as a health-promoting food for humans and as a growth-promoting diet for some commercial fish and crustaceans. Meanwhile, LPC, LPE, and LPI showed high levels in oral arms when compared with umbrella and mouth stalk, which may be due to the high proportion of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in oral arms. Moreover, a high CAEP level was detected in oral arms, which may render cell membranes with resistance to chemical hydrolysis by PLA2. The relatively low TAG content could be associated with specific functions of oral arms.

  16. Unintentional ingestion of Cordyceps fungus-infected cicada nymphs causing ibotenic acid poisoning in Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Uyen Vy; Mendez Rojas, Bomar; Kirby, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    Cordyceps fungus found in infected cicada nymphs ("cicada flowers") is utilized in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps fungus toxicity in humans has not been previously reported. We report 60 cases of apparent Cordyceps poisoning in Southern Vietnam. We retrospectively collected demographic and clinical data from the medical records (21 cases) and by telephone interview (39 cases) of patients admitted to seven hospitals in Southern Vietnam following ingestion of cicada flowers between 2008 and 2015. We also determined the species of Cordyceps present in the cicada flowers and performed a partial chemical analysis of the fungus. Sixty cases of toxic effects following ingestion of cicada flowers were documented. Symptom onset occurred within 60 minutes following ingestion. Symptoms included dizziness, vomiting, salivation, mydriasis, jaw stiffness, urinary retention, seizures, agitated delirium, hallucinations, somnolence and coma. None of the patients suffered liver or kidney injury. There was one fatality. The Cordyceps fungus involved in these poisoning was identified as Ophiocordyceps heteropoda. The presence of ibotenic acid was confirmed, but musimol and muscarine were absent. Cicada infected with Ophiocordyceps heteropoda in Vietnam contain ibotenic acid and are associated with a clinical syndrome consistent with its effects.

  17. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2007-01-11

    Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc. Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. The compound index divided the cultural significance into several cultural domains and showed

  18. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided

  19. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cultivated Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Reveals Insights into Lignocellulose Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianfu; Gong, Yuhua; Cai, Yingli; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Zhangyi; Liu, Yin; Lei, Xiaoyu; Wang, Gangzheng; Guo, Mengpei; Ma, Xiaolong; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-01-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most popular, edible mushroom species with a high content of proteins and polysaccharides as well as unique aroma, is widely cultivated in many Asian countries, especially in China, Japan and Korea. As a white rot fungus with lignocellulose degradation ability, L. edodes has the potential for application in the utilization of agriculture straw resources. Here, we report its 41.8-Mb genome, encoding 14,889 predicted genes. Through a phylogenetic analysis with model species of fungi, the evolutionary divergence time of L. edodes and Gymnopus luxurians was estimated to be 39 MYA. The carbohydrate-active enzyme genes in L. edodes were compared with those of the other 25 fungal species, and 101 lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified in L. edodes, similar to other white rot fungi. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of genes encoding two cellulases and 16 transcription factor was up-regulated when mycelia were cultivated for 120 minutes in cellulose medium versus glucose medium. Our results will foster a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and provide the basis for partial replacement of wood sawdust with agricultural wastes in L. edodes cultivation. PMID:27500531

  20. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cultivated Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Reveals Insights into Lignocellulose Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianfu; Gong, Yuhua; Cai, Yingli; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Zhangyi; Liu, Yin; Lei, Xiaoyu; Wang, Gangzheng; Guo, Mengpei; Ma, Xiaolong; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-01-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most popular, edible mushroom species with a high content of proteins and polysaccharides as well as unique aroma, is widely cultivated in many Asian countries, especially in China, Japan and Korea. As a white rot fungus with lignocellulose degradation ability, L. edodes has the potential for application in the utilization of agriculture straw resources. Here, we report its 41.8-Mb genome, encoding 14,889 predicted genes. Through a phylogenetic analysis with model species of fungi, the evolutionary divergence time of L. edodes and Gymnopus luxurians was estimated to be 39 MYA. The carbohydrate-active enzyme genes in L. edodes were compared with those of the other 25 fungal species, and 101 lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified in L. edodes, similar to other white rot fungi. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of genes encoding two cellulases and 16 transcription factor was up-regulated when mycelia were cultivated for 120 minutes in cellulose medium versus glucose medium. Our results will foster a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and provide the basis for partial replacement of wood sawdust with agricultural wastes in L. edodes cultivation.

  1. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cultivated Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake Reveals Insights into Lignocellulose Degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianfu Chen

    Full Text Available Lentinula edodes, one of the most popular, edible mushroom species with a high content of proteins and polysaccharides as well as unique aroma, is widely cultivated in many Asian countries, especially in China, Japan and Korea. As a white rot fungus with lignocellulose degradation ability, L. edodes has the potential for application in the utilization of agriculture straw resources. Here, we report its 41.8-Mb genome, encoding 14,889 predicted genes. Through a phylogenetic analysis with model species of fungi, the evolutionary divergence time of L. edodes and Gymnopus luxurians was estimated to be 39 MYA. The carbohydrate-active enzyme genes in L. edodes were compared with those of the other 25 fungal species, and 101 lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified in L. edodes, similar to other white rot fungi. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of genes encoding two cellulases and 16 transcription factor was up-regulated when mycelia were cultivated for 120 minutes in cellulose medium versus glucose medium. Our results will foster a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and provide the basis for partial replacement of wood sawdust with agricultural wastes in L. edodes cultivation.

  2. Contamination of Pine Seeds by the Pitch Canker Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Dwinell; S.W. Fraedrich

    1999-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, has been identified as a significant problem in man pine seed orchards and nursuries in the South. THe fungus causes strobilus mortality, seed deterioation, and cankers on the main stem, branches, and shoots of pines Dwinell and others 1985). The pitche canker fungus...

  3. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found...

  4. Bisphenol A in Edible Part of Seafood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repossi, Adele; Farabegoli, Federica; Zironi, Elisa; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC), epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015) on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one. PMID:27800447

  5. Bisphenol A in Edible Part of Seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repossi, Adele; Farabegoli, Federica; Gazzotti, Teresa; Zironi, Elisa; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-04-19

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC), epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015) on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one.

  6. Bisphenol A in edible part of seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Repossi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC, epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015 on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one.

  7. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A endophytic fungus, Ramichloridium cerophilum, promotes growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... Key words: Ramichloridium cerophilum, endophytic fungus, Chinese cabbage, plant growth promoting. INTRODUCTION. The mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and fungi is common and most plant species are dependent on this symbiosis for improving the productivity and sustainability, including ...

  9. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... Despite this, a large proportion (75 to 90%) of fertilizer P .... nitrogen salts such as Urea, KNO3, NaNO3, NH4Cl, NaNO2 (Figure. 2). Phospholytic activity of fungus along with MHB strains without any carbon and nitrogen sources acted as control and .... complexity of CaP chemistry, release of microbial.

  10. A endophytic fungus, Ramichloridium cerophilum , promotes growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fungal endophyte, Ramichloridium cerophilum, was identified as a Class 2 endophytes species obtained from the leaf of common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L). This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of Chinese cabbage seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized Chinese cabbage ...

  11. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  12. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  13. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, few mycorrhizal helper bacterial (MHB) strains such as Pseudomonas putida, Erwinia herbicola and Bacillus subtilis were isolated and identified from surface sterilized basidiomata and mycorrhizosphere of an ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria fraterna association with Eucalyptus globulus. To evaluate ...

  14. Upregulation of isoflavonoids and soluble proteins in edible legumes by light and fungal elicitor treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Ashish; Warber, Sara; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Duke, James A

    2003-06-01

    In this study, our working hypothesis was that continuous light and fungal elicitation treatment of legume seedlings would lead to enhanced levels of isoflavonoids and soluble proteins. Based on short-term light and dark treatments, isoflavonoid (genistein, genistin, daidzein, and daidzin) and soluble protein concentrations were significantly upregulated in the "light" environment compared to the "dark" environment for all edible legume species (kudzu vine, soybean, garbanzo bean, fava bean, mung bean, adzuki bean) that were tested. Kudzu seedlings showed the highest levels of both isoflavonoids and soluble proteins after light-elicited upregulation compared to the other legumes analyzed. All legumes showed less up-regulation of isoflavonoid synthesis when treated with Phytophtora sojae fungal elicitor. Oligosaccharide fungal elicitor caused no such upregulation. The findings in this study show that edible legume seedlings have enhanced levels of isoflavonoids and soluble proteins when they are grown in the light compared to the conventional practice of growing such seedlings in the dark. This will clearly result in significant improvement in their nutritive and medicinal value.

  15. Healing and edible clays: a review of basic concepts, benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Celso de Sousa Figueiredo

    2017-02-01

    The use of clay by humans for medicinal and wellness purposes is most probably as old as mankind. Within minerals, due to its ubiquitous occurrence in nature and easy availability, clay was the first to be used and is still used worldwide. Healing clays have been traditionally used by man for therapeutic, nutritional and skin care purposes, but they could impart some important health and skin care risks. For instance, clay particles could adsorb and make available for elimination or excretion any potential toxic elements or toxins being ingested or produced, but they could adsorb and make available for incorporation, through ingestion or through dermal absorption, toxic elements, e.g. heavy metals. Edible clays, a particular case of healing clays, have been traditionally used by man for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. Geophagy, the deliberate soil eating, earth eating, clay eating and pica (medical condition or eating disorder shown by individuals addicted to eat earth substances), has been observed in all parts of the world since antiquity, reflecting cultural practice, religious belief and physiological needs, be they nutritional (dietary supplementation) or as a remedy for disease. This paper pretends to review historical data, basic concepts and functions, as well as benefits and risks of the use of healing clays, in general, for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes, and of edible clays, in particular, for therapeutic purposes.

  16. Consumers' Perceptions of Edible Marijuana Products for Recreational Use: Likes, Dislikes, and Reasons for Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombi, Kristen C; Kosa, Katherine M; Rains, Carrie; Cates, Sheryl C

    2017-09-14

    Edible marijuana products have become extremely popular in states that have legalized marijuana for recreational use. The goal of this research was to provide a better understanding of consumer perceptions of edible marijuana products, including why they prefer edibles relative to other forms of marijuana (e.g., smoking) and their concerns regarding the consumption of edibles. We conducted eight focus groups (four groups in Denver, Colorado, and four groups in Seattle, Washington) in February 2016 with 62 adult consumers of edibles. Focus group transcripts were coded in QSR NVivo 10.0 qualitative analysis software, and coding reports identified trends across participants. Most participants preferred edibles to smoking marijuana because there is no smell from smoke and no secondhand smoke. Other reasons participants like edibles included convenience, discreetness, longer-lasting highs, less intense highs, and edibles' ability to aid in relaxation and reduce anxiety more so than smoking marijuana. Concerns and dislikes about edibles included delayed effects, unexpected highs, the unpredictability of the high, and inconsistency of distribution of marijuana in the product. No participants in either location mentioned harmful health effects from consuming edibles as a concern. Conclusions/Importance: The present study was qualitative in nature and provides a good starting point for further research to quantify through surveys how consumers understand and use edibles. Such information will help guide policy makers and regulators as they establish regulations for edibles. Also, such research can help inform educational campaigns on proper use of edibles for recreational purposes.

  17. [Fast discrimination of edible vegetable oil based on Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiu-Jun; Dai, Lian-Kui; Li, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    A novel method to fast discriminate edible vegetable oils by Raman spectroscopy is presented. The training set is composed of different edible vegetable oils with known classes. Based on their original Raman spectra, baseline correction and normalization were applied to obtain standard spectra. Two characteristic peaks describing the unsaturated degree of vegetable oil were selected as feature vectors; then the centers of all classes were calculated. For an edible vegetable oil with unknown class, the same pretreatment and feature extraction methods were used. The Euclidian distances between the feature vector of the unknown sample and the center of each class were calculated, and the class of the unknown sample was finally determined by the minimum distance. For 43 edible vegetable oil samples from seven different classes, experimental results show that the clustering effect of each class was more obvious and the class distance was much larger with the new feature extraction method compared with PCA. The above classification model can be applied to discriminate unknown edible vegetable oils rapidly and accurately.

  18. Edible films and coatings: Sources, properties and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend product shelf life while preserving the quality scientific attention focused to biopolymers research that are base for edible films and coatings production. Another major advantage of this kind of food packaging is their eco-friendly status because biopolymers do not cause environmental problems as packaging materials derived from non-renewable energy sources do. Objective of this work was to review recently studied edible films and coatings - their sources, properties and possible application. As sources for edible biopolymers were highlighted polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. The most characteristic subgroups from each large group of compounds were selected and described regarding possible physical and mechanical protection; migration, permeation, and barrier functions. The most important biopolymers characteristic is possibility to act as active substance carriers and to provide controlled release. In order to achieve active packaging functions emulsifiers, antioxidants and antimicrobial agents can also be incorporated into film-forming solutions in order to protect food products from oxidation and microbial spoilage, resulting in quality improvement and enhanced safety. The specific application where edible films and coatings have potential to replace some traditional polymer packaging are explained. It can be concluded that edible films and coatings must be chosen for food packaging purpose according to specific applications, the types of food products, and the major mechanisms of quality deterioration.

  19. Carolus Linnaeus and the Edible Dormouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Violani

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carolus Linnaeus was totally unacquainted with the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis (L., a species not found in Sweden: while describing Mus Rattus in the 10th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1758, the Swedish naturalist confessed his ignorance concerning the "Glis" of the ancients and suggested that it might have been the marmot or the hamster. Thanks to written information received from his correspondent in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linnaeus was able to include the new species Sciurus Glis in his 12th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1766, reporting almost verbatim a summary of Scopoli's description of the rodent. Scopoli's letter is still preserved in the Library of the Linnean Society of London. The Linnean type locality "Habitat in Europa australi" for the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis glis must therefore be restricted to "Southern Carniola, Slovenia", contra "Germany" as stated, for instance, by Miller (1912, Toschi (1965, Corbet (1978 and Storch (1978. A new name is required for the continental European form, for which M. glis germanicus ssp. nov. is here proposed. Some information on the appreciation of Myoxus glis as a delicacy ("carnes avide eduntur" in Linnaeus' words conclude the paper. Riassunto Carlo Linneo ed il Ghiro - Dopo aver descritto Mus Rattus nella decima edizione del "Systema Naturae" (1758 il naturalista svedese Carlo Linneo confessava di non essere a conoscenza del "Glis" degli antichi autori e ne suggeriva l'identificazione con la Marmotta o con il Criceto comune; è infatti noto che Myoxus glis non è diffuso in Svezia. In base ad una lettera ricevuta dal suo corrispondente in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linneo fu in grado di descrivere questa nuova specie come Sciurus Glis nella dodicesima edizione del "Systema

  20. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  1. Cytotoxic metabolites produced by Alternaria no.28, an endophytic fungus isolated from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ya-Mei; Hu, Ling; Ma, Ya-Tuan; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2009-11-01

    From the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba the fungal endophyte Alternaria no.28 was isolated. Extract of the fungus grown in liquid culture media exhibited marked cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Eight compounds were isolated from the extract of cultures of this endophytic fungus and were elucidated as alterperylenol (1), altertoxin I (2), alternariol (3), alternariol monomethyl ether (4), tenuazonic acid (5) and its derivative (6), together with ergosterol and ergosta-4, 6, 8, 22-tetraen-3-one by means of spectroscopic analysis. Among them, both 5 and 6 showed significant cytotoxic effects in the brine shrimp bioassy, with mortality rates of 73.6% and 68.9%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 microg x mL(-1), and they were first isolated from endophytic fungi.

  2. Piperine production by endophytic fungus Periconia sp. isolated from Piper longum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vijay C; Lobkovsky, Emil; Gange, Alan C; Singh, Santosh K; Prakash, Satya

    2011-06-01

    The endophytic fungus Periconia sp. produces piperine (5-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-1-piperidinopent-2, 4-dien-1-one) under liquid culture. This is the first report of the alternative source for this chemical other than its host, Piper longum. The highly functionalized fungus-derived piperine exhibits strong antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. smegmetis with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.74 and 2.62 μg ml(-1), respectively. The compound was crystallized and the structure was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. This finding is of significance as piperine is a potential cancer preventative agent. It is reaffirmed by this report that important pharmaceuticals can be produced by endophytic microbes, and these molecules appear to be mimetic to their host origin. Therefore, we can enhance the bioactive principles of medicinal plants by isolating and identifying the endophytes, thereby showing the importance of preserving the biodiversity of these plants.

  3. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  4. Lentinula edodes based GIS mapping, biometabolites and antiinflamatory activity of wild edible mushrooms from tropical ‘sacred grove’ forests of Meghalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Khaund, Polashree; S R Joshi

    2016-01-01

    The biodiversity rich state of Meghalaya, India located in the realms of mega-biodiversity hotspots, is home to numerous species of wild edible macrofungi that are used extensively by the mycophillic ethnic population, as a part of their traditional cuisine and medicine systems. However, habitat loss, due to deforestation and climate change, is destroying the natural population of these mushrooms, depleting their availability to the local communities. In the present investigation, a GIS guide...

  5. ZnS semiconductor quantum dots production by an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddandarao, Priyanka, E-mail: uddandaraopriyanka@gmail.com; B, Raj Mohan, E-mail: rajmohanbala@gmail.com

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida was used for the synthesis of quantum dots. • Morris-Weber kinetic model and Lagergren's pseudo-first-order rate equation were used to study the biosorption kinetics. • Polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots of 18 nm and 58.9 nm from TEM and DLS, respectively. - Abstract: The development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of metal sulphide quantum dots has been considered as a major challenge in the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots were synthesized from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus. It is noteworthy that apart from being rich sources of bioactive compounds, endophytic fungus also has the ability to mediate the synthesis of nanoparticles. TEM and DLS revealed the formation of spherical particles with an average diameter of about 18 nm and 58.9 nm, respectively. The ZnS quantum dots were further characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The obtained results confirmed the synthesis of polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots and these quantum dots are used for studying ROS activity. In addition this paper explains kinetics of metal sorption to study the role of biosorption in synthesis of quantum dots by applying Morris-Weber kinetic model. Since Aspergillus flavus is isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida, quantum dots synthesized from this fungus may have great potential in broad environmental and medical applications.

  6. The development of the edible cricket industry in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Flore, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    additional themes in the development of the cricket industry in connection to the work of other scholars, as well as future considerations to maintain the positive impacts of the industry on rural economic development, entrepreneurship and employment. Eight types of actors in the cricket industry were...... opportunities and threats to the industry. Considering the edible cricket industry as a part of the rural entrepreneurship and development policy discourse may be beneficial to sustainable development.......Since cricket farming was introduced in Thailand in 1997, domestic, regional and international interest in the edible cricket industry has increased. This study aims to identify emerging themes related the development of the edible cricket industry over the past decades. It also discusses...

  7. Films and edible coatings containing antioxidants - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliana Sitonio Eça

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of natural antioxidants into films and edible coatings can modify their structure, improving their functionality and applicability in foods, such as in fresh-cut fruits. This paper reviews the more recent literature on the incorporation of antioxidants from several sources into films and edible coatings, for application in fruits and vegetables. The use of synthetic antioxidants in foods has been avoided due to their possible toxic effects. Instead, a wide range of natural antioxidants (such as essential oils and plant extracts, as well as pure compounds, like ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol have been incorporated into edible films and coatings to improve their bioactive properties. Films and coatings containing added antioxidants help to preserve or enhance the sensory properties of foods and add value to the food products by increasing their shelf life.

  8. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  9. Calcium in edible insects and its use in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is one of the most problematic substances in human nutrition. Nutrition in the present population is not optimal, because of insufficient consumption of milk and dairy products. Due to the expanding interest of specialists and the general public about entomophagy, as well as increase of the EU interest in this type of food, there is a need to consider the use of edible insects as an alternative source of nutrition. From the perspective of edible insects as a source of calcium, edible insects could be considered as a possible source of calcium for enriching the diet and also as a substitute for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to other categories of foods rich in calcium. Of the six analysed species of edible insect, Bombyx mori had the highest calcium content, almost comparable to semi-skimmed cow's milk. Gryllus assimillis can also be a rich source of calcium as well as other analysed species. The lowest content of calcium was detected in Zophobas morio. Common meat (chicken, beef, pork has lower calcium content comparing with all analysed species of edible insect (Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Gryllus assimillis, Locusta migratoria, Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio. Therefore, the selected species of edible insect could serve as an alternative source of calcium for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to soy. Phosphorus level in human body is closely related to calcium in the calcium-phosphate metabolism, therefore phosphorus level was detected in these samples too. Bombyx mori had the highest phosphorus content and the lowest content of phosphorus was measured in Zophobas morio samples.

  10. Diversity of Wild Edible Mushrooms in Indian Subcontinent and Its Neighboring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Choudhary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are cosmopolitan heterotrophic organisms that are quite specific in their nutritional and ecological requirements. They are among the most relished food commodities among a number of nonconventional foodstuffs primarily because of their unique flavor and texture. Wild edible mushrooms have been collected and consumed by people since thousands of years. Mushrooms have been exploited commercially the world over. In India due to its diverse climatic conditions, many types of mushrooms are found in the wild. The knowledge of their historical uses as food, medicine, a source of income, and for small-scale businesses and the sociological impacts (myth, culture, and spirituality are apparently threatened due to slow ethnomycology-research drive.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Pistacia lentiscus L. edible oil and phenolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezni, F; Aouadhi, C; Khouja, M L; Khaldi, A; Maaroufi, A

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. is known in some Tunisian forest area by its fixed oil used in traditional medicine as an antiseptic product. This investigation is the first to study the antimicrobial activity of P.lentiscus edible oil and its phenolic extract. Oil was extracted from fruits harvested from six provenances located in Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity was tested using disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Kbouch and Sidi Zid oils were most efficient (p < 0.003) against, respectively, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger with an inhibition zone of 9.33 mm. The phenolic extract had the largest spectrum of sensitive microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration results showed that all strains were inhibited by both oil and extract.

  12. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or usual name of a mixture of edible fats and oils containing less than 100 percent and more than 0 percent...

  13. Antioxidant potential of cold-pressed and refined edible oils

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinovik, Sanja; Mitrev, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study is antioxidant potential of different cold-pressed and refined edible oils by application of different antioxidant assays. Antioxidant potential for particular cold-pressed oil depends of the origin of seeds or the plant from which the oil is obtained and the way on which the oil is extracted. For examination of the radical scavenger potential of the most consumable edible oils: DPPH assay, TEAC assay, HAPX assay and β-carotene assay were applied. Cold pressed sunf...

  14. [Study on pyrogen in natural and cultivated edible mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masanao; Tsuzuki, Hideaki; Tomita, Ban-ichi

    2006-08-01

    We examined endotoxin and pyrogen contents in several kinds of natural and cultivated edible mushrooms, as well as some cultivated vegetables. According to the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 14th Ed., two types of endotoxin (gel-clot Limulus amebocyte lysate) test and the pyrogen test were performed using natural edible mushrooms collected in Aichi Prefecture and cultivated mushrooms and vegetables purchased at a market. The endotoxin contents of natural mushrooms were apparently higher than those of cultivated mushrooms or vegetables. The endotoxin contents in the cultivated mushrooms were slightly higher than those in the vegetables. Similar results were obtained in the pyrogen test.

  15. Management of Edible Stinkbugs ( Encosternum delegorguei ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest products resources in most communal areas of developing countries are common property resources. Forests are important for the exploitation of timber and non-timber forest products such as industrial wood, fuel wood, grass, fibre, medicinal herbs and roots, harvesting of fauna associated with forests such as ...

  16. Antimicrobial constituents from endophytic fungus Fusarium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Hussain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of fraction of the fungus Fusarium sp. and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: Six compounds were purified from an fraction of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. using column chromatography and their structures have been confirmed based on 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, 2D COSY, heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation experiments. The six isolated compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion method. Results: Phytochemical investigation of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. lead to the isolation and identification of the following compounds viz., colletorin B, colletochlorin B, LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B, 4,5-dihydroascochlorin, ascochlorin, and 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin. Colletorin B and colletochlorin B displayed moderate herbicidal, antifungal and antibacterial activities towards Chlorella fusca, Ustilago violacea, Fusarium oxysporum, and Bacillus megaterium. On the other hand LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B showed moderate antifungal activity towards Ustilago violacea and Fusarium oxysporum while 4,5-dihydroascochlorin showed strong antibacterial activity towards Bacillus megaterium. Furthermore, 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin showed very strong antifungal activity towards Eurotium repens. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities demonstrated by five of the six isolated compounds clearly demonstrate that these fungi extracts and active compounds present a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Development of novel edible luminescent nanoparticle sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalian, Sanaz

    This project has developed a novel class of edible hydrocolloid food nanosensors which are doped with luminescent chromophores and investigated whether they can be used to provide information about the local food matrix - temperature, oxygen concentration, and the presence of food-borne pathogens. The luminescence properties of the probes such as phosphorescence and fluorescence provide the sensor sensitivity to the food properties. Hydrocolloid nanoparticles were made from gelatin and starch with diameters ranging from 50 to ˜200 nm and labeled with food grade luminescent probes. The chromophore was covalently and non-covalently attached to the nanoparticle and the photophysical properties of the probe in the food system were studied. Temperature sensors were developed by using the phosphorescence sensitivity of a chromophore to temperature. Experiments with two different probes, namely erythrosine B labeled gelatin nanoparticles and phloxine B labeled gelatin nanoparticles have demonstrated that both probes can be effectively used as temperature sensors in liquid and solid food. The Van't Hoff plots of ln(IDF/IP) versus 1/T vary monotonically over a relatively wide temperature range and thus provide a basis for estimating temperature from measurements of phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence. The tests indicated that the presence of some ingredients such as tannin and anthocyanins in the composition of the food may prohibit the use of gelatin nanoparticle probes due to precipitation of gelatin nanoparticles. The luminescence quenching of the probe by oxygen was used to develop a nanoparticle sensor for oxygen. The results of experiments on liquid and solid food samples indicate that erythrosine B labeled gelatin nanoparticles can be used as a probe to detect the presence or absence of oxygen in some liquid foods. Precise control of oxygen concentration in solutions will pose a challenge as has been observed in this study. The probe did not work as an

  18. Blends of biodiesels synthesized from non-edible and edible oils: Influence on the OS (oxidation stability)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, Amit [Department of Applied Sciences, Amritsar College of Engineering and Technology, Amritsar 143001 (India); Arora, Rajneesh; Singh, N.P. [Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar (India); Sarin, Rakesh; Malhotra, R.K. [Indian oil Corporation Ltd., R and D Centre, Sector-13, Faridabad 121007 (India)

    2010-08-15

    Biodiesels jatropha and pongamia synthesized from their respective non-edible seed oils, and PBD (palm biodiesel) synthesized from edible oil were blended with different weight ratios to examine the influence on the OS (oxidation stability). Dependence of the OS on esters of fatty acid composition was also examined. Good correlation between the OS and PAME (palmitic acid methyl ester) was obtained. A correlation between the OS and X (total unsaturated fatty acid methyl ester) was also obtained. Using these correlations, OS of different biodiesel blends can be determined. (author)

  19. Secondary metabolites from the saprotrophic fungus Granulobasidium vellereum

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The production of secondary metabolites by the saprotrophic fungus Granulobasidium vellereum was investigated. G. vellereum is a wood decomposing basidiomycete fungus that arrives at dead trunks of fallen hard wood trees at a later stage of the decomposition process and hence need to outcompete the organisms already colonizing the site. It was hypothesised that part of the fungus competitive ability was based on the production of secondary metabolites. In total, 33 secondary metabolites, ...

  20. Performance of Edible Coatings from Carboxymethylcellulose(CMC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of Edible Coatings from Carboxymethylcellulose(CMC) and Corn Starch(CS) Incorporated with Moringa Oleifera Extract on Citrus Sinensis Stored at ... that polysaccharides coating from (CSME) and (CMCME) on orange fruits when compared to untreated in the following order: (CSME) > (CMCME) >Control in ...

  1. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zein based edible film was developed and incorporated with Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil. Mechanical and microbiological characteristics of this biofilms were measured. Increasing concentration of antimicrobial agent in film reduced stretchability, tensile strength and elongation, however increased the thickness and ...

  2. 269 megasporo genesis and female fertility in three ' edible triploid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MEGASPORO GENESIS AND FEMALE FERTILITY IN THREE. ' EDIBLE TRIPLOID BANANAS. BY N. W_ SIMMONDS. [Regional Research Cairo-a, ImPeria/l College of Tropical. ' Agriculture, Trinidad, l'V.1.)* (Received 28 July, 1959). INTRODUCTION. iThe Wild bananas are highly seed fertile and show regular ...

  3. analysis of edible mushroom marketing in three villages in central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    agricultural products like sawdust, straws, sugar-cane waste products and coconut waste products. .... =Taxes (naira). X8,. = Quantity of edible mushroom consumed monthly(kg). X9,. = Average cost of transportation per month(naira). X10,. = Experience in (years) e1. = Error term four linear function forms were fitted in the ...

  4. Utilization of seafood processing wastes for cultivation of the edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to examine the utilization of seafood processing wastes for artificial cultivation of edible mushroom Pleurotus flabellatus in laboratory condition. Utilizing bioconversion technology such as the slow release of nutrients for agricultural based activities like producing mushroom will profitably reduce ...

  5. HOW PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE OILS ARE IMPROVED BY ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA AMARIEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  6. Edible oils from microalgae: insights in TAG accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, A.J.; Lamers, P.P.; Martens, D.E.; Draaisma, R.B.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising future source for sustainable edible oils. To make microalgal oil a cost-effective alternative for common vegetable oils, increasing TAG productivity and TAG content are of high importance. Fulfilling these targets requires proper understanding of lipid metabolism in

  7. Nutritive, Value of Selected Forest/woodland Edible Fruits, Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional value of 18 indigenous forest fruit species from different parts, of Tanzania., The edible fruit pulp, nuts and seeds were analysed for protein,fat, ash,fibre, total carbohydrates, minerals (Fe, Na, K, Ca, Mg and P), reducing sugars and vitamin C. Protein for fruit pulps ranged from ...

  8. Evaluation of Bioactivities and Phenolic Content of Selected Edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected Edible Mushrooms in Malaysia. Fai-Chu ... Methods: Mushrooms (H. tessulatus, P. eryngii, P. florida, A. polytricha and F. velutipes) were oven- ..... 8. Mothana R, Awadh N, Julich W, Lindequist U. Ganomycin A and B, new antimicrobial farnesyl hydroquinones from the basidiomycete. Ganoderma pfeifferi. J. Nat.

  9. Nutritive value of Lepidoptara litoralia (edible caterpillar) found in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritive value of Lepidoptara litoralia (edible caterpillar) found in Jos Nigeria: implication for food security and poverty alleviation. ... The live caterpillars were hand-picked from bushes in the month of September, and processed under laboratory conditions according to local methods used by the indigenes. The processed ...

  10. Local Perception and Proximate Analysis of some Edible Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local perception and proximate analysis of some edible forest plants around the University of Agriculture Makurdi Wildlife Park were investigated. The selected plants were Anona senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tacca leontopetaloides and Vitex doniana. The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) technique was employed to ...

  11. Cytotoxic activity and apoptotic induction of some edible Thai local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate eight edible Thai local plant extracts (Camellia sinensis, Careya sphaerica, Cratoxylum formosum, Eleutherococcus trifoliatus, Ficus auriculata, Persicaria odorata, Schima wallichii, and Vaccinium sprengelii) against colon and liver cancer cell lines. Methods: The 80 % ethanol plant extracts were ...

  12. local perception and proximate analysis of some edible forest plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2. S.A. Shomkegh and. 3. Mbakwe, R. 1. Department of Forest Production and Products, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State. ... Key words: Local Perception, Proximate Analysis, Edible Forest Plants, Focused Group. Discussions. INTRODUCTION ..... Deciduous Forests of India: An Explorative. Study Towards Non ...

  13. Extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six edible seed samples were obtained from Yankura market in Kano metropolis, Kano state. The samples were subjected to extraction for their oil contents. The percentage oil yield from the seeds were 40.60% for Moringa oleifera, 49.39% for cashew, 47.80% for sesame, 11.92% for bitter kola, 38.30% for melon and ...

  14. Evaluation of cardiovascular effects of edible fruits of Syzygium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of cardiovascular effects of edible fruits of Syzygium cumini Myrtaceae (L) skeels in rats. EA Herculano, C da Costa, AKBF Rodriques, JX Araújo-Júnior, EG Santana, PHB França, EA Gomes, MJ Salvador, FBP Moura, EAN Ribeiro ...

  15. Genomic Sequencing of Ranaviruses Isolated from Edible Frogs (Pelophylax esculentus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Subramaniam, Kuttichantran; Imnoi, Kamonchai

    2017-01-01

    Ranaviruses were isolated from wild edible frogs (Pelophylax esculentus) during epizootics in Denmark and Italy. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that these isolates are closely related and belong to a clade of ranaviruses that includes the Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV), common midwife toad...

  16. Macro and Trace Element Accumulation in Edible Crabs and Frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tissue accumulation of five macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe) and twelve trace elements (Vd, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were assessed in the organs of the edible frogs; Xenopus laevis and Rana esculentus, and whole body of the crab, Callinestes caught from Alaro Stream Floodplain (Ibadan, ...

  17. Yield Of Edible Pleurotus Mushrooms Grown On Rice Straw With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance of different species of edible Pleurotus mushrooms grown on rice straw substrate with and without chicken manure supplementation. The Pleurotus species /varieties tested were P. flabellatus of Tanzania, India and Thailand origin, and P. sajor caju from Tanzania ...

  18. Nutritive potential of some 'edible' soils in Blantyre city, Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, both the Blantyre and Indian 'edible' soils also have some traces of lead (0.05 to 0.07 .... The antibodies occur in breast milk and have a major role in mucosal ... This study attempted to assess the quality of the deep soils that are ...

  19. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Van Itterbeeck, Joost

    2017-02-17

    Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems.

  20. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L. R. Payne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems.

  1. Distribution and abundance of the edible orchids of the southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All orchids have showy flowers and many are therefore popular as exotic houseplants as well as contributing significantly to eco-tourism. A special attribute of some orchid genera is the production of edible tubers, an attribute that can contradict eco-tourism if harvesting is not done sustainably. Such is the case in the ...

  2. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The periods for spawn running, pinhead and fruit body formation, number of flushes, yield and biological efficiency of the three Tanzanian wild edible mushrooms, Coprinus cinereus, Pleurotus flabellatus and Volvariella volvocea, grown on composted sisal decortications residue were studied. Results revealed that the ...

  3. Acceptability of Edible Mushroom as a Dietary Supplement in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the acceptability of edible mushroom as a dietary supplement. Virtually all the respondents (96.6 %) know what mushrooms are, but only half (55.2 %) consumes it. Less than half of the respondents (34.5 %) know the dietary components/benefits of mushroom. A greater majority of the respondents ...

  4. Applications of edible films and coatings to processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings have been successfully applied in processed foods such as meat, cereals, confectionaries, dried fruits, nuts and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. These coatings are used to improve the quality and shelf-life of foods. Furthermore, different food ingredients, derived from ...

  5. Optimization of ISSR marker for African edible-seeded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied a molecular approach using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers on three African edible-seeded cucurbits (Citrullus lanatus L. Matsumura and Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii L. Naudin and Cucumis melo var. agrestis L. Naudin). To obtain clear and reproducible bands on 1.5% agarose gels, we ...

  6. The nutritional value of fourteen species of edible insects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen species of edible insects representing nine families from south western Nigeria were analyzed for nutrient composition. They include the orders of Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Isoptera. Analeptes trifasciata, Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Zonocerus variegatus has the highest crude ...

  7. Nutritive potential of some 'edible' soils in Blantyre city, Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Pregnant women in Malawi consume soil, but the nutritive potential of these soils is uncertain. Methods We collected 'edible' Malawian soil samples from Ndirande, Mpingwe and Soche hills and bought an Indian soil sample from a shop in Limbe and tested them for iron, calcium, zinc, magnesium, lead, pH, ...

  8. Infections associated with edible termites and their public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional dependence on termites for proteins could predispose consumers to various infections. This study was carried out to determine the infections associated with winged-reproductive edible termites at Ahiazu Mbaise Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Four hundred and forty five (445) termites were randomly sampled from ...

  9. Oil spillage and its impact on the edible mangrove periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted on refined oil impacted and fire ravaged mangrove ecosystem to determine the effect of oil spillage on the edible periwinkle Tympanotus fuscatus. The results showed that recolonisation occurred one year after the pollution. Tympanotonus fuscatus was observed in higher ...

  10. Effects of artificially induced aestivation on edible tropical land snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of artificially induced aestivation on edible tropical land snail species Achatina achatina under controlled laboratory conditions for 12 weeks in plastic snaileries was studied, comparing active (control) snails given water and food ad libitum with aestivated snails without food and water. Parameters determined ...

  11. A Preference Test for Sweet Taste That Uses Edible Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y.; Stull, Judith C.; Abarintos, Ray A.; Khan, Neiladri K.; Park, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. PMID:24225255

  12. A preference test for sweet taste that uses edible strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y; Stull, Judith C; Abarintos, Ray A; Khan, Neiladri K; Park, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mycelium cultivation, chemical composition and antitumour activity of a Tolypocladium sp. fungus isolated from wild Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, P H; Zhang, Q X; Wu, J Y

    2006-08-01

    To examine and illustrate the morphological characteristics and growth kinetics of Cs-HK1, a Tolypocladium fungus, isolated from wild Cordyceps sinensis in solid and liquid cultures, and the major chemical constituents and antitumour effects of Cs-HK1 mycelium. The Cs-HK1 fungus was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild C. sinensis and identified as a Tolypocladium sp. fungus. It grew rapidly at 22-25 degrees C on a liquid medium containing glucose, yeast extract, peptone and major inorganic salts, with a specific growth rate of 1.1 day(-1), reaching a cell density of 23.0 g dw l(-1) in 7-9 days. Exopolysaccharides accumulated in the liquid culture to about 0.3 g l(-1) glucose equivalent. In comparison with natural C. sinensis, the fungal mycelium had similar contents of protein (11.7-microg) and carbohydrate (654.6-microg) but much higher contents of polysaccharide (244.2 mg vs 129.5 mg), adenosine (1116.8-microg vs 264.6 microg) and cordycepin (65.7 microg vs 20.8 microg) (per gram dry weight). Cyclosporin A, an antibiotic commonly produced by Tolypocladium sp., was also detected from the mycelium extract. The hot water extract of mycelium showed low cytotoxic effect on B16 melanoma cells in culture (about 25% inhibition) but significant antitumour effect in animal tests, causing 50% inhibition of B16 cell-induced tumour growth in mice. The Tolypocladium sp. fungus, Cs-HK1, can be easily cultivated by liquid fermentation. The mycelium biomass contained the major bioactive compounds of C. sinensis, and the mycelium extract had significant antitumour activity. The Cs-HK1 fungus may be a new and promising medicinal fungus and an effective and economical substitute of the wild C. sinensis for health care.

  14. Synthesis of biodiesel from edible and non-edible oils in supercritical alcohols and enzymatic synthesis in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Rathore; Giridhar Madras [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    Biodiesel is an attractive alternative fuel because it is environmentally friendly and can be synthesized from edible and non-edible oils. The synthesis of biodiesel from edible oils like palm oil and groundnut oil and from crude non-edible oils like Pongamia pinnata and Jatropha curcas was investigated in supercritical methanol and ethanol without using any catalyst from 200 to 400{sup o}C at 200 bar. The variables affecting the conversion during transesterification, such as molar ratio of alcohol to oil, temperature and time were investigated in supercritical methanol and ethanol. Biodiesel was also synthesized enzymatically with Novozym-435 lipase in presence of supercritical carbon dioxide. The effect of reaction variables such as temperature, molar ratio, enzyme loading and kinetics of the reaction was investigated for enzymatic synthesis in supercritical carbon dioxide. Very high conversions (>80%) were obtained within 10 min and nearly complete conversions were obtained at within 40 min for the synthesis of biodiesel in supercritical alcohols. However, conversions of only 60-70% were obtained in the enzymatic synthesis even after 8 h. 48 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Bacterial components are the major contributors to the macrophage stimulating activity exhibited by extracts of common edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Heather L; Haron, Mona H; Pugh, Nirmal D; Zhang, Jin; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2016-10-12

    Recent studies have indicated that a major contributor to the innate immune enhancing properties of some medicinal plants is derived from the cell wall components of bacteria colonizing these plants. The purpose of the current study was to assess if the bacteria present within edible and medicinal mushrooms substantially contribute to the innate immune stimulating potential of these mushrooms. Whole mushrooms from thirteen types of edible fungi and individual parts from Agaricus bisporus were analyzed for in vitro macrophage activation as well as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) content, cell load, and community composition. Substantial variation between samples was observed in macrophage activation (over 500-fold), total bacterial load (over 200-fold), and LPS content (over 10 million-fold). Both LPS content (ρ = 0.832, p mushroom extracts. Extract activity was negated by treatment with NaOH, conditions that inactivate LPS and other bacterial components. Significant correlations between macrophage activation and total bacterial load (ρ = 0.723, p = 0.0001) and LPS content (ρ = 0.951, p mushroom associated bacteria contribute substantially to the innate immune enhancing activity exhibited by mushrooms and may result in similar therapeutic actions as reported for ingestion of bacterial preparations such as probiotics.

  16. Antioxidant activity via DPPH, gram-positive and gram-negative antimicrobial potential in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Mahmood, Fazal; Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2014-10-01

    Edible mushrooms (EMs) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. In the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial potential in EMs (Pleurotus ostreatus, Morchella esculenta, P. ostreatus (Black), P. ostreatus (Yellow) and Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in Morchella esculenta at a maximum concentration. Similarly, the dose-dependent concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µg) were also used for other four EMs. Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited 36.13% activity, P. ostreatus (Black (B)) exhibited 30.64%, P. ostreatus (Yellow (Y)) exhibited 40.75% and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibited 47.39% activity at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential were investigated for its toxicity against gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens), gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) in comparison with standard antibiotics. Antimicrobial screening revealed that the ethanol extract of P. ostreatus was active against all microorganism tested except E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition (13 mm) was observed against fungus and A. tumifaciens. P. sajor-caju showed best activities (12.5 mm) against B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus and K. pneumonia. P. ostreatus (Y) showed best activities against P. aeroginosa (21.83 mm), B. atrophaeus (20 mm) and C. albicans (21 mm). P. ostreatus (B) exhibited best activities against C. albicans (16 mm) and slightly lower activities against all other microbes except S. typhi. M. esculenta possess maximum activities in terms of inhibition zone against all microorganisms tested except S. typhi. © The Author(s) 2012.

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of different developmental stages of the edible mushroom Termitomyces heimii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel R Al-Obaidi Norasfaliza Rahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Termitomyces heimii is a basidiomycete fungus that has a symbiotic relationship with termites, and it is an edible mushroom with a unique flavour and texture. T. heimii is also one of the most difficult mushrooms to cultivate throughout the world. Little is known about the growth and development of these mushrooms, and the available information is insufficient or poor. The purpose of this study was to provide a base of knowledge regarding the biological processes involved in the development of T. heimii. The proteomic method of 2 dimensional difference gel electrophoresis 2D-DIGE was used to determine and examine the protein profiles of each developmental stage (mycelium, primordium and fruiting body. Total proteins were extracted by TCA-acetone precipitation. RESULTS: A total of 271 protein spots were detected by electrophoresis covering pH 3 - 10 and 10 - 250 kDa. Selected protein spots were subjected to mass spectrometric analyses with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI TOF/TOF. Nineteen protein spots were identified based on peptide mass fingerprinting by matching peptide fragments to the NCBI non-redundant database using MASCOT software. The 19 protein spots were categorised into four major groups through KEGG pathway analysis, as follows: carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and response to environmental stress. CONCLUSIONS: The results from our study show that there is a clear correlation between the changes in protein expression that occur during different developmental stages. Enzymes related to cell wall synthesis were most highly expressed during fruiting body formation compared to the mycelium and primordial stages. Moreover, enzymes involved in cell wall component degradation were up-regulated in the earlier stages of mushroom development.

  18. Lentinula edodes based GIS mapping, biometabolites and antiinflamatory activity of wild edible mushrooms from tropical ‘sacred grove’ forests of Meghalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2016-03-01

    The biodiversity rich state of Meghalaya, India located in the realms of mega-biodiversity hotspots, is home to numerous species of wild edible macrofungi that are used extensively by the mycophillic ethnic population, as a part of their traditional cuisine and medicine systems. However, habitat loss, due to deforestation and climate change, is destroying the natural population of these mushrooms, depleting their availability to the local communities. In the present investigation, a GIS guided habitat search, using Lentinula edodes as a representative species, was used in mapping the habitats of wild edible macrofungi of the study region. Sampling of around 4 000 specimens per distinct morphological type available in the traditional markets and “sacred grove” forests indicated presence of ten common genera, belonging to nine different families of wild edible mushrooms. Nutritional profiling of the representative species Lentinula edodes was carried out by evaluation of its moisture, total fat, crude protein and carbohydrates contents by standard methods. Similarly, bioactive components determination was performed by estimation of total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopenes. Bioactivity of the mushrooms extracts was studied using the DPPH radical scavenging and Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization assays. The present investigation successfully attempted to explore remote sensing technologies and GIS (Geographic Information System) based system to predict the natural habitats of wild edible mushrooms of Meghalaya, India which we believe will lead to the generation of a mushroom specific non-wood forest resource mapping system in the near future. Results of nutritional profiling and biological activity studies on the representative species of wild edible mushrooms from the studied region revealed that it is a rich source of essential nutrients and antioxidants.

  19. Effect of turning frequency on co-composting pig manure and fungus residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-Ming, Zhou

    2017-03-01

    agricultural applications. However, the composting process and final product are easily affected by the limited oxygen supply that results from insufficient aeration, especially in the center of a large-scale windrow. Hence, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the turning frequency on the composting efficiency and compost quality of used pig manure and fungus residue, so as to capture an operational technique suitable for the effective co-composting pig manure and edible fungi residue for a large-scale composting plant.

  20. Biofabrication of gold nanoparticles using marine endophytic fungus -Penicillium citrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, Hulikere M; Joshi, Chandrashekhar G; Raju, Narayanappa Govinda

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the promising fields of research and generating new avenues and applications in medicine. Recently, marine floras such as, marine endophytes are gaining the attention of many researchers due to the myriad of bioactive molecules that they possess. In addition, they find applications in many pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this study, they have studied the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from Penicillium citrinum ( P. citrinum ) and its antioxidant activity. P. citrinum was isolated from brown algae. The identity of the fungus was established by comparing its 18S rDNA sequence. AuNPs were synthesised using P. citrinum and were characterised by UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). AuNPs were tested for free radical scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The particle sizes of AuNps were determined by FESEM and DLS. The reduction of gold metal ion was confirmed from the UV-vis spectrum. AuNPs showed significant antioxidant potential and the activity was comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. Further, in vitro and in vivo studies on these AuNPs will help in developing an alternative, cost-effective and acceptable drug for various ailments.

  1. Phototaxis in the Marine Fungus Rhizophydium littoreum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlstein, L K; Amon, J P; Leffler, D L

    1987-08-01

    Phototaxis appears to be a factor that influences the dispersal of zoospores of the marine fungus Rhizophydium littoreum. By using a quantitative method to study phototaxis, zoospores were found to be positively phototactic toward blue wavelengths of light. White light in the range of 20 to 6,000 microeinsteins m s and blue light in the range of 1 to 300 microeinsteins m s gave positive responses in the laboratory. Results of field studies confirmed the ability of zoospores to respond to light under natural conditions. Phototaxis may be an important adaptive mechanism which influences vertical migration of zoospores in the photic zone where plant products are available as nutrients.

  2. Phototaxis in the Marine Fungus Rhizophydium littoreum

    OpenAIRE

    Muehlstein, Lisa K.; Amon, James P.; Leffler, Deborah L.

    1987-01-01

    Phototaxis appears to be a factor that influences the dispersal of zoospores of the marine fungus Rhizophydium littoreum. By using a quantitative method to study phototaxis, zoospores were found to be positively phototactic toward blue wavelengths of light. White light in the range of 20 to 6,000 microeinsteins m−2 s−1 and blue light in the range of 1 to 300 microeinsteins m−2 s−1 gave positive responses in the laboratory. Results of field studies confirmed the ability of zoospores to respond...

  3. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  4. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  5. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  6. Screening of antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of some edible mushrooms cultivated in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammed; Kubra, Khadizatul; Ahmed, Sheikh

    2015-02-07

    .21 ± 0.01 mg/ml) in all the isolates. All the isolates showed high phenol and flavonoid content (except Pleurotus ostreatus), but ascorbic acid content was found in traces. This study has revealed that selected edible mushrooms have not only nutritional values but also some therapeutic values. Proper and more investigations can lead us to use these as strong medicine in future.

  7. Bacterial diversity in the intestinal tract of the fungus- cultivating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Macrotermes gilvus provides further support for the hypothesis that microorganisms in intestinal tracts of termites ... with their hosts. Key words: Fungus-cultivating termites, bacterial diversity, intestinal tract, 16S rRNA gene, RFLP. ..... Functions of symbiotic fungus gardens in higher termites of the genus.

  8. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  9. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Asselberghs, Johan; Martel, An; Bales, Emma K.; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C.; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F.; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  10. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  11. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; et al, ...; Schmidt, B R

    2016-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010–2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  12. [The fungus maitake (Grifola frondosa) and its therapeutic potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illana-Esteban, Carlos

    2008-09-30

    Grifola frondosa (Dicks.) Gray is a polyporaceous fungus and, due to its medical properties, has been used in Eastern cultures for thousands of years. A review of previously published literature on this fungus, its ethnomycological, nutritional, pharmacological and medical aspects were investigated.

  13. Ultastructure of the hyphae of ecfendomycorrhizal fungus of Scotch pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pachlewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the transverse septa of the mycelium of an ectendomycorrhizal fungus of the pine (strain MrgX 1 using a transmission electron microscope has shown that the septa contain simple pores, which indicates that the fungus belongs to the Ascomycetes.

  14. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  15. Putative origins of the fungus Leptographium procerum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taerum, Stephen J; Hoareau, Thierry B; Duong, Tuan A; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Jankowiak, Robert; Wingfield, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate management of invasive fungi requires adequate understanding of their global diversities and movement histories. The fungus Leptographium procerum is associated with root-colonizing forest insects in pine forests throughout the world, and may have contributed to the aggressive behaviour of the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens) in the beetle's invasive range in China. We used microsatellites and mating type loci to investigate the global diversity of L. procerum and the source population of L. procerum associated with D. valens in China. Clustering analyses supported the separation of the fungal data set into three genetically and geographically-distinct clusters: Europe, North America, and China. The fungus had the highest genetic diversity in Europe, followed by North America and China. Analyses using Approximate Bayesian Computation supported Europe as the most likely source of the North American and Chinese populations. Overall, the results suggested that Europe is the global centre of diversity of L. procerum. Furthermore, they suggested that L. procerum most likely arrived in China independently of D. valens and adopted this beetle as a vector after its introduction. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  17. Preliminary comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine of Bulgaria and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Ivancheva, Stephanie

    2003-08-01

    Despite their geographical, historical and cultural differences, Bulgaria and Italy share a surprisingly similar patrimony as regards the popular uses of medicinal plants. The extensive knowledge acquired over the centuries by people living in these countries and engaged in agriculture, derives from continuous contact with natural resources. This paper compares approximately 250 medicinal plants present in both countries and used in popular medicine. From this comparison it emerges that knowledge of medicinal plants and their uses are well founded. In fact, more than 80% of the plants are employed in identical or similar kinds of ailments, their preparation also showing marked similarities. The remaining 20% have very different uses, several of these being particularly noteworthy. The role played by edible plants, moreover, is important, about 30% being employed as medicine.

  18. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.

  19. Chitosan based edible films and coatings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabee, Maher Z; Abdou, Entsar S

    2013-05-01

    Chitosan is a biodegradable biocompatible polymer derived from natural renewable resources with numerous applications in various fields, and one of which is the area of edible films and coatings. Chitosan has antibacterial and antifungal properties which qualify it for food protection, however, its weak mechanical properties, gas and water vapor permeability limit its uses. This review discusses the application of chitosan and its blends with other natural polymers such as starch and other ingredients for example essential oils, and clay in the field of edible films for food protection. The mechanical behavior and the gas and water vapor permeability of the films are also discussed. References dealing with the antimicrobial behavior of these films and their impact on food protection are explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cryptosporidium species from common edible bivalves in Manila Bay, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoso, Edison Jay A; Rivera, Windell L

    2017-06-15

    Manila Bay is one of the major propagation sites of edible bivalves in the Philippines. Studies have shown that bivalves might be contaminated with human pathogens like the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium, one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in the world. In this study, Cryptosporidium from four species of edible bivalves were isolated using a combination of sucrose flotation and immunomagnetic separation. Using direct fluorescent antibody test, Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 67 out of 144 samples collected. DNA sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of the isolates detected C. parvum and C. hominis (major causes of human cryptosporidiosis) and C. meleagridis (causes infection in avian species). Analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene further confirmed the genotypes of the Cryptosporidium isolates. This study is the first to provide baseline information on Cryptosporidium contamination of Manila Bay where bivalves are commonly cultured. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PENGARUH PLASTICIZER PADA KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM DARI PEKTIN

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    Sang Kompiang Wirawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF PLASTICIzER ON THE PECTINIC EDIBLE FILM CHARACTERISTICS. The peel of Balinese Citrus contains high concentration of pectin which can be further processed to be edible films. The edible films can be utilized as a food coating which protects the food from any external mass transports such as humid, oxygen, and soluble material and can be served as a carrier to improve the mechanical-handing properties of the food. Edible films made of organic polymers tend to be brittle and thus addition of a plasticizer is required during the process. The work studies the effect of the type and the concentration of plasticizers on the tensile strength, the elongation of break, and the water vapor permeabilty of the edible film. Sorbitol and glycerol were used as plasticizers. Albedo from the citrus was hydrolized with hydrochloride acid 0.1 N to get pectinate substance. Pectin was then dissolved in water dan mixed with the plasticizers and CaCl2.2H2O solution. The concentrations of the plasticizers were 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mL/mL of solution. The results showed that increasing the concentration of plasticizers will decrease the tensile strength, but increase the elongation and film permeability. Sorbitol-plasticized films are more brittle, however exhibited higher tensile strength and water vapor permeability than of glycerol-plasticized film. The results suggested that glycerol is better plasticizer than sorbitol.  Kulit jeruk bali banyak mengandung pektin yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku edible film. Edible film bisa digunakan untuk melapisi bahan makanan, melindungi makanan dari transfer massa eksternal seperti kelembaban, oksigen, dan zat terlarut, serta dapat digunakan sebagai carrier untuk meningkatkan penanganan mekanik produk makanan. Film yang terbuat dari bahan polimer organik ini cenderung rapuh sehingga diperlukan penambahan plasticizer. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kadar dan jenis

  2. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  3. Nicotine from edible Solanaceae and risk of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Susan Searles; Franklin, Gary M; Longstreth, W T; Swanson, Phillip D; Checkoway, Harvey

    2013-09-01

    To test whether risk of Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with consumption of nicotine-containing edibles from the same botanical family as tobacco, Solanaceae, including peppers, tomatoes, and potatoes. In a population-based study with 490 newly diagnosed idiopathic PD cases diagnosed during 1992-2008 at the University of Washington Neurology Clinic or Group Health Cooperative in western Washington State and 644 unrelated, neurologically normal controls, we examined whether PD was associated with self-reported typical frequency of consumption of peppers, tomatoes, tomato juice, and potatoes during adulthood, while adjusting for consumption of other vegetables, age, sex, race/ethnicity, tobacco use, and caffeine. PD was inversely associated with consumption of all edible Solanaceae combined (relative risk [RR] = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65-1.01 per time per day), but not consumption of all other vegetables combined (RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.92-1.10). The trend strengthened when we weighted edible Solanaceae by nicotine concentration (ptrend = 0.004). An inverse association was also evident for peppers specifically (ptrend = 0.005). The potentially protective effect of edible Solanaceae largely occurred in men and women who had never used tobacco or who had smoked cigarettes < 10 years. Dietary nicotine or other constituents of tobacco and peppers may reduce PD risk. However, confirmation and extension of these findings are needed to strengthen causal inferences that could suggest possible dietary or pharmaceutical interventions for PD prevention. Copyright © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  4. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  5. Some Edible Mushrooms of Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Keleş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted on macrofungi collected from Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt between the years of 2010 and 2011. The colorful photographs of macrofungi in the natural habitat were taken and their morphological and ecological features were determined and the information on macrofungi given by local people was recorded. According to the field and laboratory studies; 44 edible macrofungi taxa belonging to 14 families and 5 ordos located in Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes classes were identified.

  6. A Preference Test for Sweet Taste That Uses Edible Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y.; Stull, Judith C.; Abarintos, Ray A.; Khan, Neiladri K.; Park, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined b...

  7. 3D jet printer of edible gels for food creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizawa, Ryo; Shitara, Mariko; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, aging is progressing in Japan. Elderly people can't swallow the food well. So, the need of soft food is increasing greatly with the aging of the population. There are so few satisfying foods for the elderly to enjoy a meal. An equipment of printing soft food gives the elderly a big dream and is promising. In this study, we aim at developing a 3D edible gel printer in order to make soft food for the elderly. We made a prototype of the 3D edible gel printer. The printer consists of syringe pump and dispenser. The syringe pump extrudes the solution. The dispenser allows to model threedimensional objects. We use agar solution as the ink to carry out the printing. Agar's gelation deeply depends on temperature. Therefore temperature control of the solution is important to mold optimal shapes because the physical crosslinking network of agar's solution is instable. We succeeded in making the gels and plate-shape gel using the 3D edible gel printer. Further more, in order to increase the gelation speed agar's solution, we changed the dispenser and the printing test is being done now. 4 kinds of soft food prepared from agar and gelatin were printed by the 3D edible gel printer. The compression tests of the printed soft food samples were done and their hardness is measured because the hardness is one of very important factors which influence the food texture greatly. In the future, the viscosity of the agar solution or other food ink should be adjusted to suitable for printing.

  8. Chemical composition and mineral elements of edible insects (at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chemical Composition and Mineral Elements of two edible insects' larvae and termite soldiers were assayed. Their ash content were between 1.01% and 7.50%. The legless larva (LS) had 28.52% fat, while the solider ant had 7.14% and the Legged larva (LG) had 1.50%. The white ant (SA) had 15.61% protein while ...

  9. Pemanfaatan Biji Alpukat (Persea Americana Mill.) Untuk Pembuatan Edible Film

    OpenAIRE

    Yudiandani, Ana '; Efendi, Raswen '; Ibrahim, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Avocado seed was found to have high starchs of content and yet it has not been optimally utilized. Therefore this research was aimed to utilized the starchs of avocado seed as material of edible film and to get the best formulations of addition of starchs avocado seed. This research was conducted experimentaly by used Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatmens and three replications which followed by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT) at level 5%. The treatmens in this researc...

  10. Characterization of Starch Edible Films with Different Essential Oils Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated properties of starch-based edible films with oregano and black cumin essential oil addition. Essential oils addition positively affected film swelling (decreased due to essential oil addition, mechanical properties (tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased, and water vapor barrier properties (decreased along with essential oils addition. Control film did not have any biological activity, which proves the need for essential oils addition in order to obtain active packaging. Oregano oil was more effective in terms of biological activity. Endothermal peak, above 200°C, represents total thermal degradation of edible films. Diffraction pattern of control film showed significant destruction of A-type crystal structure. Addition of essential oils resulted in peak shape change: diffraction peaks became narrower. Principal Component Analysis has been used to assess the effect of essential oils addition on final starch-based edible films characteristics with the aim to reveal directions for the film characteristics improvement, since the next phase will be optimal film application for food packaging.

  11. Physiological limits to zinc biofortification of edible crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip John White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that almost one third of the world’s population lack sufficient Zn for adequate nutrition. This can be alleviated by increasing dietary Zn intakes through Zn-biofortification of edible crops. Biofortification strategies include the application of Zn-fertilisers or the development of crop genotypes that acquire more Zn from the soil and accumulate it in edible portions. Zinc concentrations in roots, leaves and stems can be increased through the application of Zn-fertilisers. Root Zn concentrations of up to 500-5000 mg kg-1 DM, and leaf Zn concentrations of up to 100-700 mg kg-1 dry matter (DM, can be achieved without loss of yield when Zn-fertilisers are applied to the soil. It is possible that greater Zn concentrations in non-woody shoot tissues can be attained using foliar Zn-fertilisers. By contrast, Zn concentrations in fruits, seeds and tubers are severely limited by low Zn mobility in the phloem and Zn concentrations higher than 30-100 mg kg-1 DM are rarely observed. However, genetically modified plants with improved abilities translocate Zn in the phloem might be used to biofortify these phloem-fed tissues. In addition, genetically modified plants with increased tolerance to high tissue Zn concentrations could be used to increase Zn concentrations in all edible produce and, thereby, increase dietary Zn intakes.

  12. Regeneration and reuse waste from an edible oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerroui, Abdelhamid; Belhocine, Lydia; Ferroudj, Sonia

    2017-08-21

    A spent bleaching earth (SBE) from an edible oil refinery has been regenerated by thermal processing in oven, followed by washing with a cold solution of hydrochloric acid (1M). Optimal regeneration conditions have been controlled by decolorization tests of degummed and neutralized soybean oil. Optimal values of treatment (temperature 350°C, carbonization time 01 h, and HCl concentration 1M) gave a very efficient material. After bleaching oil by regenerated spent bleaching earth (RSBE), the chlorophyll-a and β-carotenes contained in crude edible oil and observed respectively at 430, 454, and 483 nm, value of λ max, are very much decreased. The results obtained after decolorization of edible oil by RSBE material indicate, that, during the process, the bleaching oil did not undergo any changes in the free fatty acid content. The peroxide value (PV) was reduced from 4.2 to 1.8 meq O2/kg, and the color has been improved (Lovibond color yellow/red: from 50/0.5 to 2.7/0.3, respectively). The RSBE material obtained was characterized by several techniques (FTIR, SEM). The results show that the heat treatment did not affect the mineral structure of RSBE, and the regenerated material recovered its porous structure.

  13. Edible films and coatings in seafood preservation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Samira; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Regenstein, Joe M

    2018-02-01

    Seafood is highly perishable and has a short shelf-life. During storage many reactions occur leading to changes in quality such as endogenous chemical and enzymatic reactions. The safety and shelf-life are related to the presence of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Despite improved manufacturing facilities and implementation of effective process control procedures such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system by seafood companies, the number of seafood-related foodborne illnesses has increased. Edible coatings can improve the quality of fresh and frozen products by retarding microbial growth, reducing lipid oxidation and moisture loss, and functioning as a carrier of food additives such as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Biodegradable edible coatings have various advantages over synthetic coatings such as being edible and generally being more environmentally friendly. This paper reviews the application of various types of natural bio-polymer and different active ingredients incorporated into the films and their effects on seafood quality attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Eating flowers? Exploring attitudes and consumers' representation of edible flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, H; Cielo, D P; Goméz-Corona, C; Silveira, A A S; Marchesan, T A; Galmarini, M V; Richards, N S P S

    2017-10-01

    Edible flowers have gained more attention in recent years thanks to their perceived health benefits. Despite this attention, it seems that edible flowers are not popularized for consumption in South America, being considered unfamiliar for some cultures from this continent. In this context, the general goal of the present study was to investigate the three dimensions of social representation theory, the representational field, the information and the attitude of the two conditions of edible flowers: a more general "food made with flowers" and more directional product "yoghurt made with flowers", using Brazilian consumers. To achieve this goal, a free word association task was applied. A total of 549 consumers participated in this study. Participants were divided into two conditions, in which the inductor expressions for the free word association task changed: (a) food products made with flowers and (b) yoghurt made with flowers. Results showed a very positive attitude to both situations, and consumers associated Food products made with flowers to "health care" while the central core of yoghurt made with flowers reflected the innovative condition of this product, supported here by their unpredictable character (information generated). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpold, Birgit A; Schlüter, Oliver K

    2013-05-01

    Insects, a traditional food in many parts of the world, are highly nutritious and especially rich in proteins and thus represent a potential food and protein source. A compilation of 236 nutrient compositions in addition to amino acid spectra and fatty acid compositions as well as mineral and vitamin contents of various edible insects as derived from literature is given and the risks and benefits of entomophagy are discussed. Although the data were subject to a large variation, it could be concluded that many edible insects provide satisfactorily with energy and protein, meet amino acid requirements for humans, are high in MUFA and/or PUFA, and rich in several micronutrients such as copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorous, selenium, and zinc as well as riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, and in some cases folic acid. Liabilities of entomophagy include the possible content of allergenic and toxic substances as well as antinutrients and the presence of pathogens. More data are required for a thorough assessment of the nutritional potential of edible insects and proper processing and decontamination methods have to be developed to ensure food safety. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Novel edible oil sources: Microwave heating and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lopez-Cervantes, Jaime; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi; Hosseini, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Karimi, Masoumeh; Motazedian, Azam; Asadifard, Samira

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various microwave heating times (1, 3, 5, 10, and 15min) on the chemical properties of novel edible oil sources, including Mashhadi melon (Cucumis melo var. Iranians cv. Mashhadi), Iranian watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. Fire Fon), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca), and yellow apple (Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious) seed oils. The evaluated parameters were peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene (CD) and triene (CT) values, carbonyl value (CV), p-anisidine value (AnV), oil stability index (OSI), radical scavenging activity (RSA), total tocopherols, total phenolics, as well as chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Results showed that extended microwave heating involves decreased quality of the seed oils, mainly due to the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. Microwave heating time also affects the total contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenolics and tocopherols, which clearly decrease by increasing the exposure time. The order of oxidative stability of the analyzed edible oils was pumpkin>Mashhadi melon>Iranian watermelon>yellow apple. The obtained results demonstrated the promising potential of these novel edible oils for different food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two novel ravenelones from the edible mushroom Pulveroboletus ravenelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Dang Ngoc; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Nukada, Makiko; Yamamoto, Isao; Tanaka, Masami; Takaoka, Shigeru; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2003-03-01

    Two novel butenolides, isoravenelone (1) and ravenelone (2), and a large amount of a known compound, vulpinic acid (3), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the Japanese fungus Pulveroboletus ravenelii (Boletales). These structures were elucidated by two dimensional (2D) NMR, MS, IR and UV spectra, and X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  18. 9) Microbiological quality of medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Karen Reis Barbosa; João Paulo Ramos Costa; Filipe Pereira Giardini Bonfim; Anna Christina de Almeida; Ernane Ronie Martins

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the microbiologic contamination of samples of medicinal plants collected and commercialized in Montes Claros – MG, Brazil. The plants were acquired in various places and in a public market in Montes Claros. They were estimated for infection by fecal coliforms, mold and yeast, through the method described in APHA (1992). The results showed that 72.3% of plants commercializad in popular markets in Montes Claros were infected by fungus and that 100% ...

  19. Compositional changes in (iso)flavonoids and estrogenic activity of three edible Lupinus species by germination and Rhizopus-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, Siti; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Andini, Silvia; Mardiah, Zahara; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-02-01

    The effects of germination and elicitation on (iso)flavonoid composition of extracts from three edible lupine species (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius) were determined by RP-UHPLC-MS(n). The total (iso)flavonoid content of lupine increased over 10-fold upon germination, with the total content and composition of isoflavonoids more affected than those of flavonoids. Glycosylated isoflavones were the most predominant compounds found in lupine seedlings. Lesser amounts of isoflavone aglycones, including prenylated ones, were also accumulated. Elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae, in addition to germination, raised the content of isoflavonoids further: the total content of 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives was increased considerably, without increasing that of genistein derivatives. Elicitation by fungus triggered prenylation of isoflavonoids, especially of the 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives. The preferred positions of prenylation differed among the three lupine species. The change in isoflavone composition increased the agonistic activity of the extracts towards the human estrogen receptors, whereas no antagonistic activity was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phytochemical Content, Health Benefits, and Toxicology of Common Edible Flowers: A Review (2000-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baiyi; Li, Maiquan; Yin, Ran

    2016-07-29

    Edible flowers contain numerous phytochemicals which contribute to their health benefits, and consumption of edible flowers has increased significantly in recent years. While many researchers have been conducted, no literature review of the health benefits of common edible flowers and their phytochemicals has been compiled. This review aimed to present the findings of research conducted from 2000 to 2015 on the species, traditional application, phytochemicals, health benefits, and the toxicology of common edible flowers. It was found in 15 species of common edible flowers that four flavonols, three flavones, four flavanols, three anthocyanins, three phenolic acids and their derivatives were common phytochemicals and they contributed to the health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and neuroprotective effect. Toxicology studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of common edible flowers and provide information on their dosages and usages.

  1. Enzyme Inhibitory Radicinol Derivative from Endophytic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana LK12, Associated with Rhazya stricta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes, living inside plant tissues, play an essential role in plant growth and development, whilst producing unique bioactive secondary metabolites. In the current study, the endophytic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana LK12 was isolated from the leaves of ethno-medicinal and alkaloidal rich Rhazya stricta. The bulk amount of ethyl acetate extract of fungus was subjected to advance column chromatographic techniques, which resulted in the isolation of a new radicinol derivative, bipolarisenol (1. It was found to be a derivative of radicinol. The structure elucidation was carried out by the combined use of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, mass, and UV spectrometric analyses. The bipolarisenol was assessed for its potential role in enzyme inhibition of urease and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE. Results showed that bipolarisenol significantly inhibited the AChE activity with low IC50 (67.23 ± 5.12 µg·mL−1. Bipolarisenol inhibited urease in a dose-dependent manner with high IC50 (81.62 ± 4.61 µg·mL−1. The new compound also showed a moderate anti-lipid peroxidation potential (IC50 = 168.91 ± 4.23 µg·mL−1. In conclusion, endophytes isolated from medicinal plants possess a unique potential to be considered for future drug discovery.

  2. Phoma glomerata D14: An Endophytic Fungus from Salvia miltiorrhiza That Produces Salvianolic Acid C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuqing; Zhai, Xin; Shu, Zhiheng; Dong, Ruifang; Ming, Qianliang; Qin, Luping; Zheng, Chengjian

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, more and more researches focus on endophytic fungi derived from important medicinal plants, which can produce the same bioactive metabolites as their host plants. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a traditional medicinal plant with versatile pharmacological effects. But the wild plant resource has been in short supply due to the overcollection for bioactive metabolites. Our study was therefore conducted to isolate endophytic fungi from S. miltiorrhiza and get candidate strains that produce the same bioactive compounds as the plant. As a result, an endophyte that produces salvianolic acid C was obtained and identified as Phoma glomerata D14 based on its morphology and internal transcribed spacer analysis. Salvianolic acid C was found present in both the mycelia and fermentation broth. Our study indicates that the endophytic fungus has significant industrial potential to meet the pharmaceutical demands for salvianolic acid C in a cost-effective, easily accessible, and reproducible way.

  3. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  4. Edible coating as factor of preserving freshness and increasing biological value of gingerbread cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Shulga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents experimental study on the feasibility of using edible films (in the coating as a means of preventing staling and method of increasing the biological value of gingerbread products. Grounded components of edible coating. Based on the organoleptic and physico-chemical showers properties (moisture content, water absorptivity and friability proved the feasibility and necessity of use last one edible coating, which also can increase the biological value of products, as part of the cover is linseed oil.

  5. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo Min; Zemei Guo; Kai Wang; Ang Zhang; Hua Li; Yulin Fang

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was si...

  6. Evaluation studies of some medicinal plant extracts and fungicides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation has been taken to evaluate the effect of medicinal plant (leaf) extracts and their combination with fungicides (Carbendazim) against radial growth of Alternaria solani.. The fungus was collected from infected leaf spots of potato plant and grown in PDA (potato dextrose agar) media. The water extracts ...

  7. Interaction of Mycobiont: Piriformospora Indica with Medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An endophytic symbiotic fungus, Piriformospora indica isolated from desert soils of Rajasthan, India promotes growth as well as important ingredients of the medicinal as well as economically important plants by forming association with roots of various plants and it has been established as biofertilizer, bioprotector, ...

  8. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Unusual case of bilateral maxillary fungus ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Alessandro; Saibene, Alberto Maria; Lozza, Paolo; Maccari, Alberto

    2016-12-15

    An otherwise healthy 34-year-old man was referred to our ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinic for a bilateral maxillary radiologic opacity. This condition was accidentally discovered with a panoramic radiography performed during a follow-up visit after a bilateral endodontic treatment. The patient did not report any specific sinonasal symptom such as purulent nasal discharge, loss of smell and cough, apart from an unspecific sinus pressure. The CT scans showed a bilateral inflammatory process into the maxillary-ethmoidal sinuses and an iron-like density within the maxillary sinuses, while nasal endoscopy showed purulent discharge in the ostiomeatal complex. The patient underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery under general anaesthesia and the inflammatory material collected was histologically diagnosed as a rare case of bilateral fungus ball. The patient was dismissed the following day with no complications; there were not any sign of recurrence or symptoms during a 4 month follow-up. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Secondary metabolites from fungus Nigrospora sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Tian, Li; Wu, Hong-Hua; Bai, Jiao; Lu, Xuan; Xu, Ying; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Six compounds were purified from the extracts of fungus Z18-17 (Nigrospora sp.) isolated from Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, a tree from the intertidal zone of Shankou, Guangxi Province of China, which was reported to have cytotoxic activity. Systematic study on the chemical constituents of Nigrospora sp. resulted in the isolation of one new 6-phenylhexanoic acid derivative, one new derivative of uridine, and four known compounds. Their structures were characterized, respectively, as methyl 5-acetamido-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxohexanoate (1), uridine-5'α-hydroxypropanoate (2), 4-hydroxyphenethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate (3), methyl pyroglutamate (4), cyclo (Pro-Val) (5), and cyclo (Phe-Hyp) (6). The cytotoxic activities of the two new compounds against HL-60 cell line were tested and the IC(50) values of the two new compounds were all over 100 μM.

  11. Investigation of the Fatty Acid Contents of Edible Snails Helix lucorum, Eobania vermiculata and Non-Edible Slug Limax flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Ekin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to reveal the fatty acid composition of phospholipids, neutral and total lipid content of edible land snails Helix lucorum, Eobania vermiculata and non-edible land slug Limax flavus(Gastropoda: Pulmonata. The analyses revealed that the snails and slug are rich in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1ω9 and C18:2ω6 acids. Phospholipid fractions contained very high amounts of C20:4ω6 (15.37% in H. lucorum, 12.37% in E. vermiculata and 8.59% in L. flavus which is the most importantprecursor of eicosanoids. The level of ΣPUFA, in edible snails, was found to be higher than ΣSFA and ΣMUFA. However, in the slug, ΣMUFA level was higher than ΣSFA and ΣPUFA levels in neutral and total lipid contents. Ʃω6 / Ʃω3 (Omega 6 / Omega 3 ratio was defined to be very high in the phospholipid of H. lucorum, E. vermiculata and L. flavus; 6.07, 8.29 and 5.39, respectively. Furthermore, the study showed that all three species are valuable sources of omega 6 and essential fatty acids; C18:2ω6 and C18:3ω6 .

  12. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  13. Ethnobotanical study of traditional edible plants used by the Naxi people during droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Chai, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yu; Geng, Yanfei; Wang, Yuahua

    2016-09-12

    Since 2009, millions of people have been forced to live under food shortage by the continuous drought in Southwestern China. The market was the primary source of aid grains, and fears that the market will be unable to provide sufficient food make safeguarding food security in the face of climate change crucial. Traditional adaptive strategies of pre-market indigenous people are a potential source of innovation. We studied three questions among the Naxi people: 1) What edible plants did they consume during droughts? 2) How did they produce enough food? 3) How did they consume these plants? This study investigates and documents traditional Naxi food knowledge to safeguard food security during drought and facilitate Chinese policy decisions. Ethnobotanical investigation was conducted through literature review, semi-structured interviews, collaborative fieldwork and group discussions in three Naxi villages. 89 informants (including 35 key informants) were surveyed from 2012 to 2013. Significant Index (SI) was adopted to evaluate each edible plant's food supply significance. Voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. 1) In total, 141 edible plants (38 cultivated and 103 wild) were consumed-primarily landrace crops, supplementary edible plants and famine plants. 2) Naxi people produced sufficient food through widespread food production systems, strong landrace crop resilience, and diversity in wild edible plants. 3) Through a diverse diet and consuming almost all edible parts of the plant, the Naxi used edible plants fully to meet food and nutrition needs during drought. Edible plant diversity is a cornerstone of drought food security. Cultivated crops (especially landrace plants) and wild edible plants were both important. Naxi people protect edible plant diversity through ecological morality and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). National inventories of edible plant diversity and studies of the TEK of other Chinese indigenous peoples should be

  14. Glucoamylase isoform (GAII) purified from a thermophilic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucoamylase isoform (GAII) purified from a thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum 15.8 with biotechnological potential. M Cereia, LHS Guimarães, SC Peixoto-Nogueira, JA Jorge, HF Terenzi, LJ Greene, M de Lourdes, TM Polizeli ...

  15. Heart failure - medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken once ...

  16. Detection of 3-hydroxykynurenine in a plant pathogenic fungus.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, T J Greer; Thomsen, Karl Kristian; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Ø.; Oliver, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    A redox-active compound has been purified from the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria ( Erysiphe ) graminis f. sp. hordei. A combination of spectrophotometry, MS and NMR has identified it as 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKyn). This compound, never previously detected in any fungus or pathogen, is best known for its role in vertebrate cataracts. It is found abundantly in developing and germinating spores and also in runner hyphae. Two roles for 3OHKyn are discussed: first, the presence of active ...

  17. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  18. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic) documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora) has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rub...

  19. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  20. Preparation, properties and applications of wheat gluten edible films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. TANADA-PALMU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible films from wheat gluten were prepared with various amounts of glycerol as a plasticizer. Water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, tensile strength and percentage elongation at break at different water activities ( aw were measured. Films with low amounts of glycerol had lower water vapor and oxygen permeabilities, higher tensile strength and lower elongation at break. Wheat gluten coatings reduced weight loss during two weeks of storage for cherry tomatoes and sharon fruits compared to uncoated controls. A bilayer film of wheat gluten and beeswax significantly lowered weight loss from coated cheese cubes compared to single layer coating of wheat gluten.;

  1. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of edible flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Skrajda, Marta Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Skrajda Marta Natalia. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of edible flowers. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(8):946-956. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.995637 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4877 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7...

  2. Portable Biomass Gasifier Power Generation Using Non Edible Seed Cake

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vivek; Srividhya, PK; K Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Non edible seeds are used most of the applications but the dehydration of seed cakes is too difficult. And the same time the seeds could not feed food as animal. Hence, to adopt various techniques it can be used for other applications. 1 ton crude oil yield from 3 tons of seeds and the remaining becomes seed cake. After oil extraction using screw press machine, seed cake still has 10 % to 15 % of oil. Hence this is a good combustible material with calorific value of approximately 600 Kcal/m3...

  3. Vitamin A-related potential of wild edible plants in a school vegetable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Vitamin A-related potential of wild edible plants in a school vegetable garden: a case study from. North-West province .... potential of promoting edible wild plants as a ... Sustainable food production includes school food gardens. Studies in the United States of America and. Australia showed that, when part of a nutrition.

  4. Prospects of semi-cultivating the edible weaver and Oecophylla smaragdina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: entomophagy, edible insects, Formicidae, global food security, agricultural revolution, Lao PDR An increased use of edible insects as human food and animal feed is a viable means to feed the growing human population and to tackle sustainability issues of the food production systems. The

  5. Place over traits? Purchasing edibles from medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepple, Nancy Jo; Freisthler, Bridget

    2017-10-01

    To examine discrete purchasing behaviors of marijuana-infused edibles from medical marijuana dispensaries with the aim to identify potential venue- and individual-level targets for prevention. Two-stage, venue-based sampling approach was used to randomly select patrons exiting 16 medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles, California during Spring 2013. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling was used to examine the likelihood of purchasing edibles among 524 patrons reporting a discrete purchase regressed on characteristics of the sampled dispensaries and their patrons. At a venue level, patrons were more likely to purchase edibles from dispensaries located within Census tracts with higher median incomes or in close proximity to a higher number of dispensaries. At an individual level, patrons who identified as Black or Hispanic were associated with a lower likelihood of purchasing edibles when compared to patrons who identified as other non-White, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. Place-based policies focused on regulating edible sales through dispensaries may be fruitful in influencing access to edibles. Additionally, social marketing campaigns may benefit from targeting both locations where edible purchases are more likely and populations who are more likely to purchase edibles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethno–botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racquel Tan Chua-Barcelo

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Benguet province in the Cordillera region provides a diversity of edible wild fruits. The data gathered from the study signifies that collection, processing and utilization of edible wild fruits are still part of the daily activities of the people in Benguet.

  7. Effect of lactic acid bacteria on the textural properties of an edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rodrigo

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of different components and the addition of probiotic bacteria of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus casei) on the physicochemical and textural characteristics of edible films using a response surface Box-Behnken design. The edible films were made of the ...

  8. An Overview of Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms in Neurodegeneration and Neurotrauma Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Ng, Chai-Chee; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Yow, Yoon-Yen; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2017-01-01

    Culinary and medicinal mushrooms have been appreciated since prehistoric times as valuable resources for food and medicine. Edible mushrooms represent an untapped source of nutraceuticals and valuable palatable food. Long considered tonics, they are now treasured as functional foods that can improve human health and quality of life. Numerous studies have provided insights into the neuroprotective effects of edible mushrooms, which are attributed to their antioxidant, antineuroinflammatory, and cholinesterase inhibitory properties, and their ability to prevent neuronal death. Here we review the recent literature on the role of culinary and medicinal mushrooms in the management of neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma. We highlight some of the molecular mechanisms for how these alternative medicines provide health benefits that could help us to harness their neuroprotective effects.

  9. A mini-review of chemical composition and nutritional value of edible wild-grown mushroom from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Li-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Li; Li, Tao; Li, Jie-Qing; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Liu, Hong-Gao

    2014-05-15

    In China, many species of edible wild-grown mushrooms are appreciated as food and also found use in traditional Chinese medicine. In this mini-review, for the first time, is summarized and discussed data available on chemical components of nutritional significance for wild-grown mushrooms collected from China. We aimed to update and discuss the latest data published on ash, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, proteins, essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids, some essential (P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) and toxic elements (As, Hg, Cd, Pb), vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, tocopherol, vitamin D), flavour and taste compounds, antioxidants and also on less studied organic compounds (lectin, adustin, ribonuclease and nicotine) contents of wild-grown mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Secondary metabolites from the fungus Emericella nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, Amer H; León, Francisco; Radwan, Mohamed M; Rosa, Luiz H; Cutler, Stephen J

    2013-09-01

    A new polyketide derivative koninginin H (1), has been isolated from the fungus Emericella nidulans, together with koninginin E (2), koninginin A (3), trichodermatide B (4), citrantifidiol (5), (4S,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-methylfuran-2-one (6), the glycerol derivatives gingerglycolipid B (7), (2S)-bis[9Z,12Z]-1-O, 2-O-dilinoleoyl-3-O-[alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1" --> 6') beta-D-galactopyranosyl]glycerol (8), (2S)-bis[9Z,12Z]-1-O, 2-O-dilinoleoyl-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosylglycerol (9), the cerebroside flavuside B (10), and the known sterols beta-sitosterol glucoside and ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol. Their structures were established by extensive NMR studies (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC) and mass spectrometry. The antibacterial, antimalarial, antifungal and antileishmanial activities of compounds 1-10 were examined and the results indicated that compound 4 showed good antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 4.9 microg/mL.

  11. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  12. Indigenous knowledge of the edible weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.; Sivongxay, N.; Praxaysombath, B.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-)cultivating and farming edible

  13. KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM YANG DIPRODUKSI DARI KOMBINASI GELATIN KULIT KAKI AYAM DAN SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Hasdar

    2012-09-01

    SDS-PAGE dan menunjukkan sebagai molekul kolagen. Hasil analisis kandungan asam amino edible film menggunakan HPLC dihasilkan komposisi residu asam amino terbesar adalah glysin yaitu 29,42%, 37,88%, 38,32%, 39,28% dan 39,17% pada masing-masing perlakuan. Hal itu menggambarkan bahwa profil protein edible film dapat dipastikan sebagian besar berasal dari kolagen gelatin. Pengamatan dengan scaning electron microscope menunjukkan telah terbentuk cross linking antara molekul protein gelatin dan molekul soy protein isolate dan yang ditunjukan semakin berkurangnya retakan seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi gelatin. Perbedaan kombinasi gelatin kulit kaki ayam dan soy protein isolate untuk membentuk edible film tidak memberikan pengaruh nyata pada kekuatan tarik (tensile strenght, dan kemuluran (elongation, namun berpengaruh nyata pada laju transmisi uap air (Water Vapour Transmision Rate. Kombinasi 95:5 protein gelatin kulit kaki ayam dan soy protein isolate menghasilkan edible film yang terbaik. (Kata kunci: Edible film, Gelatin kaki ayam, Soy protein isolate

  14. Overview of current applications in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.

    2017-02-01

    Plasma medicine is a rapidly growing field of treatment, with the number and type of medical applications growing annually, such as dentistry, cancer treatment, wound treatment, Antimicrobial (bacteria, biofilm, virus, fungus, prions), and surface sterilization. Work promoting muscle and blood vessel regeneration and osteointegration is being investigated. This review paper will cover the latest treatments using gas-based plasmas in medicine. Disinfection of water and new commercial systems will also be reviewed, as well as vaccine deactivation. With the rapid increase in new investigators, development of new devices and systems for treatment, and wider clinical applications, Plasma medicine is becoming a powerful tool in in the field of medicine. There are a wide range of Plasma sources that allows customization of the effect. These variations include frequency (DC to MHz), voltage capacity (kV), gas source (He, Ar; O2, N2, air, water vapor; combinations), direct/indirect target exposure, and water targets.

  15. Olive Mill Waste Enhances α-Glucan Content in the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Avni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus. Since mushrooms respond markedly to changes in environmental and growth conditions, we developed cultivation methods aiming to increase the levels of α and β-glucans. Using olive mill solid waste (OMSW from three-phase olive mills in the cultivation substrate. We were able to enrich the levels mainly of α-glucans. Maximal total glucan concentrations were enhanced up to twice when the growth substrate contained 80% of OMSW compared to no OMSW. Taking together this study demonstrate that Pleurotus eryngii can serve as a potential rich source of glucans for nutritional and medicinal applications and that glucan content in mushroom fruiting bodies can be further enriched by applying OMSW into the cultivation substrate.

  16. Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J; Kennelly, Edward J

    2008-08-15

    Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH˙ IC(50), ranged from very active (19.4 μg/ml) to inactive (389 μg/ml).

  17. Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH˙ IC50, ranged from very active (19.4 μg/ml) to inactive (389 μg/ml). PMID:21340048

  18. Fate of antibiotics in soil and their uptake by edible crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotics are bioactive substances, and their use as human and animal medicines for illness prevention, disease treatment and growth promotion has increased in recent decades. They are excreted, either unchanged or metabolized, and are discharged to the environment through animal manure, municipal wastewater or biosolids. Consequently, these chemicals reach cropland, which is advocated as a means of recycling. As these drugs are used in escalating quantities, there is growing concern over their presence, toxicity and fate in the soil, which may pose adverse effects on plant growth and productivity, as well as result in their uptake and accumulation in crops. These will contaminate the food chain and eventually affect human health. In this review, we summarize recent research and provide a detailed overview of antibiotics in soil-plant systems, including 1) the occurrence and determination of antibiotics around the world and their routes of entry to the environment, 2) the impact of wastewater irrigation and animal manure or biosolids amendment on agricultural soils, 3) the transport and persistence of antibiotics in the terrestrial environment, and 4) the bioaccumulation and translocation of antibiotics in different tissues of edible crops under laboratory and field conditions. Their impacts on the environment and potential human exposure are elucidated. Knowledge gaps and future research perspectives are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cytotoxicity of some edible mushrooms extracts over liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells in conjunction with their antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Gökhan; Emsen, Buğrahan; Kaya, Abdullah; Kocabaş, Aytaç; Çınar, Seval; Kartal, Deniz İrtem

    2015-05-01

    Mushrooms have been valued for their nutritive content and as traditional medicines; several important medicinal properties of mushrooms have been recognized worldwide. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the cell growth inhibitory potential of four edible mushrooms; Coprinus comatus (O.F. Mull.) Pers. (Agaricaceae), Tricholoma fracticum (Britzelm.) Kreisel (Tricholomataceae), Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. and Nordholm (Rhizopogonaceae), Lentinus tigrinus (Bull.) Fr. (Polyporaceae) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells in conjunction with their antioxidant and antibacterial capacities. Five different extracts of edible mushrooms were obtained using water, methanol, acetone, n-hexane and chloroform as solvent systems for cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. C. comatus showed substantial in vitro cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cell lines with all extracts especially with chloroform 50% inhibition (IC50 value of 0.086 mg/ml) and acetone (IC50 value of 0.420 mg/ml). Chloroform extract of C. comatus had maximum amount of β-carotene (25.94 μg/mg), total phenolic content (76.32 μg/mg) and lycopene (12.00 μg/mg), and n-hexane extract of L. tigrinus had maximum amount of flavonoid (3.67 μg/mg). While chloroform extract of C. comatus showed the highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) capturing activity (1.579 mg/ml), the best result for metal chelating activity was obtained from methanolic extract (0.842 mg/ml). Moreover, all tested mushrooms demonstrated antibacterial activity and n-hexane extract of L. tigrinus and acetone extracts of T. fracticum were the most active against tested microorganism. These results indicate that different extracts of investigated mushroom have considerable cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties and may be utilized as a promising source of therapeutics.

  20. Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at indo-burma hotspot: a case study from northeast India

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    Singh HB

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wetlands of the North East India fall among the global hotspots of biodiversity. However, they have received very little attention with relation to their intrinsic values to human kind; therefore their conservation is hardly addressed. These wetlands are critical for the sustenance of the tribal communities. Methods Field research was conducted during 2003 to 2006 in seven major wetlands of four districts of Manipur state, Northeast India (viz. Imphal-East, Imphal-West, Thoubal, and Bishnupur. A total of 224 wetland-plant-collectors were interviewed for the use and economics of species using semi-structured questionnaires and interview schedules. Imphal, Bishenpur and Thoubal markets were investigated in detail for influx and consumption pattern of these plants. The collectors were also inquired for medicinal use of wetland species. Nutritive values of 21 species were analyzed in laboratory. The vouchers were collected for all the species and deposited in the CSIR-NEIST (Formerly Regional Research Laboratory, Substation, Lamphelpat, Imphal, Manipur, India. Results We recorded 51 edible wetland species used by indigenous people for food and medicinal purposes. Thirty eight species had high medicinal values and used in the traditional system to treat over 22 diseases. At least 27 species were traded in three markets studied (i.e. Imphal, Thoubal and Bishenpur, involving an annual turnover of 113 tons of wetland edible plants and a gross revenue of Rs. 907, 770/- (US$1 = Rs. 45/-. The Imphal market alone supplies 60% of the total business. Eighty per cent of the above mentioned species are very often used by the community. The community has a general opinion that the availability of 45% species has depleted in recent times, 15 species need consideration for conservation while another 7 species deserved immediate protection measures. The nutrient analysis showed that these species contribute to the dietary balance of tribal

  1. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

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    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  2. Edible Neotropical Blueberries: Antioxidant and Compositional Fingerprint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DASTMALCHI, KEYVAN; FLORES, GEMA; PETROVA, VANYA; PEDRAZA-PEÑALOSA, PAOLA; KENNELLY, EDWARD J.

    2012-01-01

    Edible blueberry species are well recognized for their potential health benefits. Ericaceae fruits including the North American highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and five less common edible blueberry relatives from the New World tropics, Anthopterus wardii Ball, Cavendishia grandifolia Hoerld, Macleania coccoloboides A. C. Sm., Sphyrospermum buxifolium Poepp. & Endl., and Sphyrospermum cordifolium Benth, were investigated for their antioxidant properties and phenolic profiles. The Neotropical berries C. grandifolia and A. wardii exhibited significantly higher DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging and iron chelation activities than V. corymbosum. Total phenolic content and HPLC-PDA compositional fingerprint analyses were also carried out. Significant correlations were observed among total phenolic contents, DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging, and iron chelation activities. Using HPLC-PDA, the phenolic constituents in the berries were identified as chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isoorientin, isovitexin, orientin and vitexin. Principal components analysis reduced the dimensions of antioxidant and total phenolic data to two components, which accounted for 95% of total variation among the six fruits. Each fruit species formed its own cluster, and therefore the antioxidant profile of each species was shown to be distinct. PMID:21391608

  3. Nutritional composition of Polyrhachis vicina Roger (Edible Chinese black ant

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    Yucui Ren

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible black ant (Polyrhachis vicina Roger is a traditional edible insect species in China. It has been used as a functional ingredient in various tonics or health foods. This study determined the nutritional composition of the black ant, which included minerals, amino acids, superoxide dismutase (SOD, Vitamin E, and total acid. Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction was used to extract the organic compounds. The compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Results showed that the ant powder contained 77000 IU/100g of SOD, 56.6g/100g protein, 9.0g/100g fat, 13.2g/100g volatile oil, 6.0g/100g moisture, 1.6g/100g total acid and 6.3g/100g ash. There were 18 amino acids, of which, glutamic acid, glycine, aspartic acid, alanine, leucine, proline and tyrosine were predominant. Among the 16 minerals, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn were predominant. More than 20 organic components were identified, the main ones were 9-octadecenoic acid, ethyl oleate, cholesterol and n-hexadecanoic acid. Six of the compounds found, i.e. hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, linoleic acid, ethyl oleate, oleic acid and cholesta-3, 5-diene, have not been reported previously. The results indicate that P. vicina Roger is rich in nutrients and is a potential ingredient for health food.

  4. Quality parameters for cold pressed edible argan oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Argan oil belongs to the high-price vegetable oils on the market. Therefore, consumers have the right to purchase a high-quality product. The quality of edible vegetable oils is defined in food standards in which sensory quality is the most important feature. Additional parameters are defined to assess the identity of oils or to evaluate their oxidative state. The sensory quality of cold pressed argan oil is altered if the production has not been performed with reasonable care regarding raw material and extraction. Only oil from roasted seeds extracted by a screw-press had a sufficient sensory quality over a period of 20 weeks without unacceptable sensory attributes. Under accelerated storage conditions oil from roasted seeds extracted by a screw-press remained below the limits given by the Codex Alimentarius or the German guideline for Edible Fats and Oils for peroxide and totox value. Oil from unroasted seeds or oil from goat-digested roasted seeds and extracted by a screw-press, as well as oil from roasted seeds traditionally extracted, exceeded these limits. Initial oxidative stability of oil from unroasted seeds was significantly lower than that of the other oils. After 35 days under accelerated storage, oil from roasted seeds obtained using a screw-press showed the highest oxidative stability. Moreover, tocopherol and phytosterol compositions are useful features of argan oil.

  5. Occurrence of inorganic arsenic in edible Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Barbero, Mercedes; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2014-09-01

    The present study reports arsenic speciation analysis in edible Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) products. The study focused on the extraction, and accurate quantification of inorganic arsenic (iAs), the most toxic form of arsenic, which was selectively separated and determined using anion exchange LC-ICPMS. A wide variety of edible Shiitake products (fresh mushrooms, food supplements, canned and dehydrated) were purchased and analysed. A cultivated Shiitake grown under controlled conditions was also analysed. The extraction method showed satisfactory extraction efficiencies (>90%) and column recoveries (>85%) for all samples. Arsenic speciation revealed that iAs was the major As compound up to 1.38 mg As kg(-1) dm (with a mean percentage of 84% of the total arsenic) and other organoarsenicals were found as minor species. Shiitake products had high proportions of iAs and therefore should not be ignored as potential contributors to dietary iAs exposure in populations with a high intake of Shiitake products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in prebiotic edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Yonekura, Lina; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D

    2014-09-15

    The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion did not significantly change the structure of the films. Glucose-oligosaccharides and polydextrose significantly enhanced L. rhamnosus GG viability during air drying (by 300% and 75%, respectively), whilst a 33% and 80% reduction in viable counts was observed for inulin and wheat dextrin. Contrarily, inulin was the most effective at controlling the sub-lethal effects on L. rhamnosus GG during storage. However, in all cases the supplementation of edible films with prebiotics ameliorated the storage stability of L. rhamnosus GG. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Edible neotropical blueberries: antioxidant and compositional fingerprint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Flores, Gema; Petrova, Vanya; Pedraza-Peñalosa, Paola; Kennelly, Edward J

    2011-04-13

    Edible blueberry species are well recognized for their potential health benefits. Ericaceae fruits including the North American highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and five less common edible blueberry relatives from the New World tropics, Anthopterus wardii Ball, Cavendishia grandifolia Hoerold, Macleania coccoloboides A. C. Smith, Sphyrospermum buxifolium Poeppig & Endlicher, and Sphyrospermum cordifolium Benth, were investigated for their antioxidant properties and phenolic profiles. The neotropical berries C. grandifolia and A. wardii exhibited significantly higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS(• +)) free radical scavenging and iron chelation activities than V. corymbosum. Total phenolic content and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) compositional fingerprint analyses were also carried out. Significant correlations were observed among total phenolic contents, DPPH(•) and ABTS(• +) scavenging, and iron chelation activities. By use of HPLC-PDA, the phenolic constituents in the berries were identified as chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isoorientin, isovitexin, orientin and vitexin. Principal component analysis reduced the dimensions of antioxidant and total phenolic data to two components, which accounted for 95% of total variation among the six fruits. Each fruit species formed its own cluster, and therefore the antioxidant profile of each species was shown to be distinct.

  8. Identification of New Lactone Derivatives Isolated from Trichoderma sp., An Endophytic Fungus of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELFITA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi is a rich source of novel organic compounds with interesting biological activities and a high level of structural diversity. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures and specific profiles from endophytic fungi, an endophytic fungus was isolated from roots of brotowali (Tinaspora crispa, an important medicinal plant. Colonial morphological trait and microscopic observation revealed that the endophytic fungus was Trichoderma sp. The pure fungal strain was cultivated on 7 L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB medium under room temperature (no shaking for 8 weeks. The ethyl acetate were added to cultur medium and left overnight to stop cell growth. The culture filtrates were collected and extracted with EtOAc and then taken to evaporation. Two new lactone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1 and (5-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H pyran-4-yl methyl acetate (2 were obtained from the EtOAc extracts of Trichoderma sp. Their structures were determined on the basic of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, and HMBC.

  9. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  10. Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  11. Nutrigenomic effects of edible bird’s nest on insulin signaling in ovariectomized rats

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    Hou ZP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhiping Hou,1,2 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Maznah Ismail,1,3 Der Jiun Ooi,1 Aini Ideris,4 Rozi Mahmud5 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 2Department of Pathology, Chengde Medical University, Chengde, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 4Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 5Department of Imaging, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Abstract: Estrogen deficiency alters quality of life during menopause. Hormone replacement therapy has been used to improve quality of life and prevent complications, but side effects limit its use. In this study, we evaluated the use of edible bird’s nest (EBN for prevention of cardiometabolic problems in rats with ovariectomy-induced menopause. Ovariectomized female rats were fed for 12 weeks with normal rat chow, EBN, or estrogen and compared with normal non-ovariectomized rats. Metabolic indices (insulin, estrogen, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, oral glucose tolerance test, and lipid profile were measured at the end of the experiment from serum and liver tissue homogenate, and transcriptional levels of hepatic insulin signaling genes were measured. The results showed that ovariectomy worsened metabolic indices and disrupted the normal transcriptional pattern of hepatic insulin signaling genes. EBN improved the metabolic indices and also produced transcriptional changes in hepatic insulin signaling genes that tended toward enhanced insulin sensitivity, and glucose and lipid homeostasis, even better than estrogen. The data suggest that EBN could meliorate estrogen deficiency-associated increase in risk of cardiometabolic disease in rats, and may in fact be useful as a functional food for the prevention of such a problem in

  12. [SPORT MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon

    2016-06-01

    Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process.

  13. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

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    Keyhani Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

  14. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  15. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess and Philippines edible medicinal wild mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NRRL B-59985) (Hou and Lin, 2013). The objective of this study is to identify the chemical ...

  16. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

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    Carolina Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The bioactive extract fraction was purified further and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectral and X-ray crystallography analysis. A polyketide compound, 5-hydroxyramulosin, was identified as the constituent of the bioactive fungal extract fraction. This compound inhibited the fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger (IC50 1.56 μg/mL and was cytotoxic against murine leukemia cells (IC50 2.10 μg/mL. 5-Hydroxyramulosin was the major compound produced by the endophytic fungus. This research suggests that fungal endophytes are a good source of bioactive metabolites which have potential applications in medicine.

  17. Two New Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp. A744 Derived from Morinda officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Hong-Xin; Chen, Yu-Chan; Sun, Zhang-Hua; Li, Hao-Hua; Li, Sai-Ni; Yan, Ming-Li; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2017-05-08

    Two new compounds isobenzofuranone A ( 1 ) and indandione B ( 2 ), together with eleven known compounds ( 3 - 13 ) were isolated from liquid cultures of an endophytic fungus Alternaria sp., which was obtained from the medicinal plant Morinda officinalis . Among them, the indandione ( 2 ) showed a rarely occurring indanone skeleton in natural products. Their structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. All of the compounds were evaluated with cytotoxic and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assays. Compounds 11 and 12 showed significant inhibitory activities against four tumor cell lines; MCF-7, HepG-2, NCI-H460 and SF-268, with IC 50 values in the range of 1.91-9.67 μM, and compounds 4 , 5 , 9 , 10 , 12 and 13 showed excellent inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase with IC 50 values in the range of 12.05-166.13 μM.

  18. Quinoline biodegradation by filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans and adaptive modifications of the fungal membrane composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felczak, Aleksandra; Bernat, Przemysław; Różalska, Sylwia; Lisowska, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Quinoline, which belongs to N-heterocyclic compounds, occurs naturally in the environment and is used in numerous industrial processes. The structures of various chemicals, such as dyes and medicines, are based on this compound. Due to that fact, quinoline and its derivatives are widely distributed in environment and can exert toxic effects on organisms from different trophic levels. The ability of the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans IM 1785/21Gp to degrade quinoline and modulate the membrane composition in response to the pollutant was studied. C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp removes quinoline with high efficiency and transforms the pollutant into two novel hydroxylated derivatives, 2-hydroxyquinoline and 3-hydroxyquinoline. Moreover, due to the disruption in the membrane stability by quinoline, C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp modulates the fatty acid composition and phospholipid profile.

  19. Larvicidal spirobisnaphthalenes from the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin; Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Zhi Long; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-05-01

    In our screening programme for new agrochemicals from endophytic fungi, the ethyl acetate extract of an endophytic Berkleasmium sp. isolated from the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis was found to possess strong larvicidal activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungal extract has led to the isolation of seven spirobisnaphthalenes, including palmarumycins C8, C12, C15 and B6 and diepoxins γ, δ and ζ. Among them, palmarumycins C8 and B6 showed strong larvicidal activity against the fourth-instar larvae of A. albopictus, with LC50 values of 8.83 and 11.51 µg mL(-1) respectively. Interestingly, only spirobisnaphthalenes with a chlorine substituent possessed strong larvicidal activity. The results indicated that the spirobisnaphthalenes derived from the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. could be promising leads for the development of new larvicides against A. albopictus. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Novel spirocyclic trichothecanes, spirotenuipesine A and B, isolated from entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces tenuipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Miyagawa, Yasuhiro; Sahashi, Yuko; Inatomi, Satoshi; Haganuma, Asami; Nakahata, Norimichi; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2004-01-23

    Entomopathogenic fungi forming fruiting bodies have been employed as tonics and antitussives from ancient times. Paecilomyces tenuipes, which is also called Isaria japonica, is a very popular entomopathogenic fungus and is often considered a health food in northeast Asian countries such as China, Korea, and Japan. We cultivated the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces tenuipes. Among the large-scale cultivations, fruiting body grown in barley grain contained two novel spirocyclic trichothecane derivatives, spirotenuipesine A (1) and B (2), and known trichothecane mycotoxins. Compounds 1 and 2 showed potent activity in neurotrophic factor biosynthesis in glial cells. The isolation of these compounds indicated that P. tenuipes is a promising source for producing various biologically active substances including trichothecanes. It is noteworthy that trichothecane mycotoxins are present in Paecilomyces tenuipes, which is typically used in medicinal health food.

  1. Preussilides A-F, Bicyclic Polyketides from the Endophytic Fungus Preussia similis with Antiproliferative Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumeur, Sara R; Helaly, Soleiman E; Jansen, Rolf; Gereke, Marcus; Stradal, Theresia E B; Harzallah, Daoud; Stadler, Marc

    2017-05-26

    Six novel bioactive bicyclic polyketides (1-6) were isolated from cultures of an endophytic fungus of the medicinal plant Globularia alypum collected in Batna, Algeria. The producer organism was identified as Preussia similis using morphological and molecular phylogenetic methods. The structures of metabolites 1-6, for which the trivial names preussilides A-F are proposed, were elucidated using a combination of spectral methods, including extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and CD spectroscopy. Preussilides were tested for antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects, and, in particular, compounds 1 and 3 showed selective activities against eukaryotes. Subsequent studies on the influence of 1 and 3 on the morphology of human osteosarcoma cells (U2OS) suggest that these two polyketides might target an enzyme involved in coordination of the cell division cycle. Hence, they might, for instance, affect timing or spindle assembly mechanisms, leading to defects in chromosome segregation and/or spindle geometry.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the white-rot fungus Ganoderma meredithiae (Polyporales, Basidiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Cun; Wu, Kai; Chen, Haimei; Shao, Junjie; Zhang, Nana; Chen, Xiangdong; Lan, Jin; Liu, Chang

    2016-11-01

    Complete nucleotide sequence of the 78,447 bp mitochondrial genome of the white-rotting fungus Ganoderma meredithiae Adask. & Gilb. has been determined by next-generation sequencing technology. The circular molecule encodes a set of mitochondrial protein and RNA genes, including 15 conserved proteins, 29 tRNAs, large and small ribosomal RNAs, and 18 homing endonucleases, with a GC content of 26.14%. All structural genes are located on the same strand except trnW-CCA. Compared with previously sequenced mtDNAs of G. lucidum and G. sinense, the gene order of protein and rRNA genes among the three mitogenomes is highly conserved; however, the tRNA composition is slightly different. The mitochondrial genome of G. meredithiae will contribute to understanding the phylogeny and evolution of Ganoderma and Ganodermataceae, the group containing many species with high medicinal values.

  3. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings for fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Palou, Lluís; Del Río, Miguel A; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2011-01-01

    The use of edible films and coatings is an environmentally friendly technology that offers substantial advantages for shelf-life increase of many food products including fruits and vegetables. The development of new natural edible films and coatings with the addition of antimicrobial compounds to preserve fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Antimicrobial agents have been successfully added to edible composite films and coatings based on polysaccharides or proteins such as starch, cellulose derivatives, chitosan, alginate, fruit puree, whey protein isolated, soy protein, egg albumen, wheat gluten, or sodium caseinate. This paper reviews the development of edible films and coatings with antimicrobial activity, typically through the incorporation of antimicrobial food additives as ingredients, the effect of these edible films on the control of target microorganisms, the influence of antimicrobial agents on mechanical and barrier properties of stand-alone edible films, and the effect of the application of antimicrobial edible coatings on the quality of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  4. Peach gum polysaccharides-based edible coatings extend shelf life of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengzhong; Tao, Jun; Zhang, Huanxin

    2017-07-01

    Cherry tomato is a nutritious, but highly perishable fruit. Peach gum polysaccharides (PGPs) can form edible films with antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The effects of PGP-based edible coatings on cherry tomatoes during hypothermic storage (4 °C) were investigated. PGP-based edible coatings effectively maintained firmness, decreased weight loss, inhibited respiration rate and delayed the changes in total acidity, ascorbic acid and sugar content of cherry tomatoes during hypothermic storage (4 °C) compared with those of the control (p cherry tomatoes.

  5. An endosymbiotic conidial fungus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, protects the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, from desiccation imposed by an entomopathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jay A; Benoit, Joshua B; Denlinger, David L; Tank, Justin L; Zettler, Lawrence W

    2008-02-01

    The functional role of an endosymbiotic conidial fungus (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) prevalent within the integumental glands and hemocoel of the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) was investigated to explore the nature of this tick/fungus association. D. variabilis is normally highly resistant to Metarhizium anisopliae, a widely-distributed entomopathogenic fungus, but when mature female ticks harboring S. brevicaulis were fed a solution containing a mycotoxin (Amphotericin B) to purge this mycobiont internally, the ticks inoculated with M. anisopliae displayed classic signs of pathogenicity, as evidenced by recovery of M. anisopliae from ticks by internal fungus culture, greatly accelerated net transpiration water loss rates (nearly 3x faster than ticks containing S. brevicaulis naturally) and elevation of critical equilibrium humidity (CEH) closer to saturation, implying a reduced capacity to absorb water vapor and disruption of water balance (water gain not equal water loss) that resulted in tick death. The presence of S. brevicaulis within the tick was previously puzzling: the fungus is transmitted maternally and there is no apparent harm inflicted to either generation. This study suggests that S. brevicaulis provides protection to D. variabilis ticks against M. anisopliae. Thus, the S. brevicaulis/tick association appears to be mutualistic symbiosis. Given that both organisms are of medical-veterinary importance, disruption of this symbiosis has potential for generating novel tools for disease control.

  6. Metabolite diversification by cultivation of the endophytic fungus Dothideomycete sp. in halogen containing media: Cultivation of terrestrial fungus in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekera, Kanchana; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2017-06-01

    The endophytic fungus, Dothideomycete sp. CRI7, isolated from the terrestrial plant, Tiliacora triandra, was salt tolerant, capable of growing in the culture medium prepared from seawater; salts in seawater did not have any effects on the fungal growth. Metabolite productions of the fungus CRI7 cultivated in media prepared from seawater (MSW), prepared from deionized water supplemented with potassium bromide (MKBr) or potassium iodide (MKI), and prepared from deionized water (MDW) were investigated. It was found that the cultivation of the fungus CRI7 in MKBr and MSW enabled the fungus to produce nine new metabolites (1-9). The production of an azaphilone, austdiol (10), of the fungus CRI7 grown in MDW was 0.04g/L, which was much lower than that grown in MSW, MKBr, and MKI media which provided the yields of 0.5, 0.9, and 1.2g/L, respectively, indicating that halogen salts significantly enhanced the production of the polyketide 10. The cultivation of terrestrial fungi in media containing halogen salts could therefore be useful for the metabolite diversification by one strain-many compounds (OSMAC) approach. Moreover, the isolated polyketides had significant biosynthetic relationship, suggesting that the cultivation of fungi in halogen containing media could provide the insights into certain polyketide biosynthesis. One of the isolated compounds exhibited antibacterial activity with the MIC value of 100μg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Three new amino acid derivatives from edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Jie; Feng, Bao-Min; Chen, Shao-Fei; Zhao, Dan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Hai-Feng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2017-12-01

    Three new amino acid derivatives, oxalamido-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (1), oxalamido-L-leucine methyl ester (2), and lumichrome hydrolyzate (3), together with nine known compounds (4-12), were isolated from the solid culture of edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were established by the chiral synthesis and confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) analysis of their total synthesis products and natural isolates. All new compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant effects, antimicrobial activities, and cytotoxic activity. Compounds 1-3 showed weak antifungal activities against Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 500 μg/ml.

  8. Seaweed Extracts as Edible Coatings for Minimally Processed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the better performance by minimizing physical and chemical changes in RTE apples, namely: minor changes of moisture, total soluble solids and firmness values. In relation to the browning index, after 20 days of storage, RTE apples coated with EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the lowest values, also the results of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase showed lower activity compared with the EC containing Fucus spirals, Bifurcaria bifurcate and Codium vermilara seaweed extracts, citric acid EC and the control. These results also allowed a pending patent application nº 107369 “Revestimento de origem marinha para aplicação em produtos minimamente processados ou de quarta gama” which is related with an edible coating with the incorporation of bioactive compounds from macroalgae for minimally processed products.

  9. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  10. Genetic Linkage Map of the Edible Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gúmer; Ritter, Enrique; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2000-01-01

    We have constructed a genetic linkage map of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus (var. Florida). The map is based on the segregation of 178 random amplified polymorphic DNA and 23 restriction fragment length polymorphism markers; four hydrophobin, two laccase, and two manganese peroxidase genes; both mating type loci; one isozyme locus (est1); the rRNA gene sequence; and a repetitive DNA sequence in a population of 80 sibling monokaryons. The map identifies 11 linkage groups corresponding to the chromosomes of P. ostreatus, and it has a total length of 1,000.7 centimorgans (cM) with an average of 35.1 kbp/cM. The map shows a high correlation (0.76) between physical and genetic chromosome sizes. The number of crossovers observed per chromosome per individual cell is 0.89. This map covers nearly the whole genome of P. ostreatus. PMID:11097904

  11. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G.; Abbott, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05-2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min.

  12. [Binding of Volatile Organic Compounds to Edible Biopolymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Medvedeva, I B

    2016-01-01

    Capillary gas chromatography was used to study the influence of the composition and structure of different edible polymers (polysaccharides, vegetable fibers, and animal protein gelatin) on the binding of essential oil components. The retention of volatile organic compounds on biopolymers was shown to depend on their molecule structure and the presence, type, and position of a functional group. The maximum extent of the binding was observed for nonpolar terpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, and the minimum extent was observed for alcohols. The components of essential oils were adsorbed due mostly to hydrophobic interactions. It was shown that the composition and structure of a compound, its physico-chemical state, and the presence of functional groups influence the binding. Gum arabic and guar gum were found to bind nonpolar compounds to a maximum and minimum extent, respectively. It was demonstrated the minimum adsorption ability of locust bean gum with respect to all studied compounds.

  13. Antioxidant capacities of ten edible North American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz; Atha, Daniel E; Ma, Jun; Nee, Michael H; Kennelly, Edward J

    2002-02-01

    The EtOAc extract obtained from ten edible North American plants, Acorus calamus, Clintonia borealis, Gaultheria shallon, Juniperus osteosperma, Opuntia polyacantha, Prunus americana, Prunus virginiana, Sambucus cerulea, Sorbus americana and Vaccinium parvifolium, were tested in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. High antioxidant activity was obtained from the extracts of three fruits, Gaultheria shallon, Sambucus cerulea and Prunus americana and one extracted rhizome, Acorus calamus. Catechin and epicatechin, potent polyphenolic antioxidants, were identified in the EtOAc extracts of Gaultheria shallon and Sambucus cerulea by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Comprehensive chlorophyll composition in the main edible seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kewei; Ríos, José Julián; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Roca, María

    2017-08-01

    Natural chlorophylls present in seaweeds have been studied regarding their biological activities and health benefit effects. However, detailed studies regarding characterization of the complete chlorophyll profile either qualitatively and quantitatively are scarce. This work deals with the comprehensive spectrometric study of the chlorophyll derivatives present in the five main coloured edible seaweeds. The novel complete MS(2) characterization of five chlorophyll derivatives: chlorophyll c2, chlorophyll c1, purpurin-18 a, pheophytin d and phytyl-purpurin-18 a has allowed to obtain fragmentation patterns associated with their different structural features. New chlorophyll derivatives have been identified and quantified by first time in red, green and brown seaweeds, including some oxidative structures. Quantitative data of the chlorophyll content comes to achieve significant information for food composition databases in bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional Evaluation of Oleogel Made from Micronutrient Rich Edible Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Moumita; Begg, Faruk; Bhattacharyya, Dipak K; Bandyopadhya, Nilratan; Ghosh, Mahua

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the nutritional properties of trans-free edible oleogels made from oil blends of rice bran and flaxseed in animal model. Oleogels were prepared by using mixture of palm stearin (PS) with cetyl laurate (CL) and palm stearin (PS) with cetyl caprylate (CC) as oleogelators. The oleogel samples were prepared with 15 weight % oleogelators (2:1 molar ratio of PS:CC or PS:CL) at 60°C with 1 hr constant stirring in blended oil. The prepared oleogel samples were subjected to DSC and XRD studies in order to evaluate their melting and crystal characteristics. Oleogel formed by using PS and CC showed the desired thermal characteristics. The peak melting temperature of the said sample was almost 44.5°C as determined by the DSC technique. The X-ray diffraction study clearly signified that the crystals were well developed. For nutritional evaluation, Male Wister rats were fed with prepared oleogel samples along with control diet for 4 weeks. Animals were divided into four groups. The control group was fed with normal stock diet containing blend of rice bran oil and flaxseed oil (4:1); one was fed with TFA rich vanaspati (TFA content is about 11.20%); experimental groups were fed with oleogel prepared by using PS:CC and oleogel prepared by using PS:CL respectively. Analysis of the blood lipid profile of the four groups was done. In vivo study established the cholesterol lowering properties of prepared oleogel samples which further enhanced the novelty of oleogel as healthy alternative of trans fat. The positive changes were more pronounced in case of rats fed with oleogel prepared with PS:CC as oleogelators. This study provides an elegant approach of producing trans-free edible quality oleogel with recognized cholesterol lowering property.

  16. Modified Starch-Chitosan Edible Films: Physicochemical and Mechanical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Escamilla-García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch and chitosan are widely used for preparation of edible films that are of great interest in food preservation. This work was aimed to analyze the relationship between structural and physical properties of edible films based on a mixture of chitosan and modified starches. In addition, films were tested for antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. Films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CT, waxy (WS, oxidized (OS and acetylated (AS corn starches and their mixtures. The CT-starches films showed improved barrier and mechanical properties as compared with those made from individual components, CT-OS film presented the lowest thickness (74 ± 7 µm, water content (11.53% ± 0.85%, w/w, solubility (26.77% ± 1.40%, w/v and water vapor permeability ((1.18 ± 0.48 × 10−9 g·s−1·m−1·Pa−1. This film showed low hardness (2.30 ± 0.19 MPa, low surface roughness (Rq = 3.20 ± 0.41 nm and was the most elastic (Young’s modulus = 0.11 ± 0.06 GPa. In addition, films made from CT-starches mixtures reduced CT antimicrobial activity against L. innocua, depending on the type of modified starch. This was attributed to interactions between acetyl groups of AS with the carbonyl and amino groups of CT, leaving CT with less positive charge. Interaction of the pyranose ring of OS with CT led to increased OH groups that upon interaction with amino groups, decreased the positive charge of CT, and this effect is responsible for the reduced antimicrobial activity. It was found that the type of starch modification influenced interactions with chitosan, leading to different films properties.

  17. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Desmedt, Sandrine; Blecker, Christophe; Béra, François; Haubruge, Éric; Alabi, Taofic; Francis, Frédéric

    2017-01-13

    Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g). Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step) before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  18. Production of Fully Homozygous Genotypes from Various Edible Alliums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. ALAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Allium is a very large genus containing over 700 distinct species including the various edible onions, garlics, chives, and leeks. About a dozen of the species are economically important as crops or garden vegetables where as many others are cultivated as ornamental plants. Allium breeding programs generally take very long time with low success due to problems such as long life cycle, sterility, polyploidy, high levels of heterozygosity. Development of inbreed lines is a very difficult process due to severe inbreeding depression. Doubled haploid (DH techniques can be utilized to obtain fully homozygous Allium materials. In Alliums, gynogenesis is the major technique used to produce haploid and DH plants from unfertilized female gamets with reduced chromosome number. We are in the process of developing gynogenesis induction protocols for several edible Allium species. We showed that gynogenic embryos can be obtained from a wide range of Allium materials. About half of the gynogenic embryos continue to grow and become plantlets. In general, gynogenic plantlets are green, but some of them show chlorophyll abnomalities. Results obtained from flow cytometric analysis of nuclei isolated from gynogenic materials indicate that majority of the gynogenic Allium materials are haploid and DH plants. DH onion lines developed in our program are generally vigorous plants with high levels of fecundity. The seeds obtained from DH onions show high germination. Plants of DH onion lines grow uniformly and produce bulbs very uniform in size, shape, color and quality features. These DH lines are excellent inbreds to be used as male parents in the production of F1 hybrid onion lines. Success obtained in DH onion materials indicates that a similar approach can be applied in the breeding programs of other important Alliums.

  19. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Caparros Megido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g. Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  20. Oxidative Stability of Polyunsaturated Edible Oils Mixed With Microcrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Linda C; Rukke, Elling-Olav; Liland, Kristian Hovde; Kirkhus, Bente; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Karlsen, Jan; Volden, Jon

    2011-12-01

    The oxidative stability of mixtures of edible oils containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was investigated. The mixtures studied consisted of oils of either camelina (CAM), cod liver (CLO), or salmon (SO) mixed with either colloidal or powdered MCC. A 50:50 (w/w) ratio of oil:MCC resulted in an applicable mixture containing high levels of PUFA edible oil and dietary fiber. The oxidative stability of the formulated mixtures and the pure oils was investigated over a period of 28 days. The peroxide value (PV) was assessed as a parameter for primary oxidation products and dynamic headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze secondary volatile organic compounds (VOC). CAM and the respective mixtures were oxidatively stable at both 4 and 22 °C during the storage period. The marine oils and the respective mixtures were stable at 4 °C. At 22 °C, an increase in hydroperoxides was found, but no increase in VOC was detected during the time-frame investigated. At 42 °C, prominent increases in PV and VOC were found for all oils and mixtures. Hexanal, a common marker for the degradation of n-6 fatty acids, propanal and 2,4-heptadienal (E,E), common indicators for the degradation of n-3 fatty acids, were among the volatiles detected in the headspace of oils and mixtures. This study showed that a mixture containing a 50:50 ratio of oil:MCC can be obtained by a low-tech procedure that does not induce oxidation when stored at low temperatures during a period of 1 month.

  1. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  2. Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus, Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0-10.0), agitation rate (100-150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0-4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast-fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L).

  3. KAJIAN TEKNOLOFI EDIBLE COATING DARI PATI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PENGEMAS PRIMER LEMPOK DURIAN [Technological Assessment of Starch Edible Coating and Its Application on Primary Packaging of Durian Sweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to determine the shelf life of edible coating packaged of durian lempok. The experimental method used in this study was Factorial Randomized Block Design consisting of three factors. These factors were tapioca starch, stearate acid, and CMC. The edible coating solution was applied in to durian lempok by using dip method. The result showed that edible coating packaged of durian lempok could increase the durian lempok shelf life by 67 percent than durian lempok without edible coating. The edible coating was capable of decreasing the durian lempok weight loss by magnitude of 36.38% during storage, decreasing the peroxide number by magnitude of 33.33%, decreasing the water content by magnitude of 7.54%, and suppressing the microbial growth by the amount of 31.20%, respectively. Visual change of non-coating lempok had occurred on the day of 19th, which was indicated by greyish-white colour change due to certain type of mold on lempok surface, while the similar change happened at day of 31th (T2A3C3 treatment.

  4. Carotenoid pigments in the fungus of Coltsfoot (Coleosporium tussilaginis)

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrila NEAMTU; Gh. ILLYES; Maria OTOIU

    1983-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the carotenoid pigments in the fruiting bodies of the parasitic fungus Coleosporium tussilaginis (Pers.) Kleb., harvested in autumn from the lower mide of the leaves of coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L.). The fructification of this fungus held only g-carotene and m-carotene. There were found no ranthophylls, epoxides; neither carboxyl nor carboxyl groups. The content of g-carotene was of 22 mg/100 g D.M. and that of b-carotene of 15 mg/100 g D.M. The content o...

  5. Roles of Peroxisomes in the Rice Blast Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a model plant pathogenic fungus and is a severe threat to global rice production. Over the past two decades, it has been found that the peroxisomes play indispensable roles during M. oryzae infection. Given the importance of the peroxisomes for virulence, we review recent advances of the peroxisomes roles during M. oryzae infection processes. We firstly introduce the molecular mechanisms and life cycles of the peroxisomes. And then, metabolic functions related to the peroxisomes are also discussed. Finally, we provide an overview of the relationship between peroxisomes and pathogenicity.

  6. Infection of silkworm larvae by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The isolate E9 of Metarhizium anisopliae was used in commercial hybrids of Bombyx mori larvae to evaluate its biological effect. Symptomatological analyses showed typical signs of fungal infection. Histopathology revealed the presence of large numbers of hemocytes in the hemocoel, and on the sixth dpi the bodies of the insects appeared to be colonised by the fungus. The isolate E9 is pathogenic to larvae B. mori and; therefore, death of the insects was caused by the colonization of fungus in the epidermal and mesodermal tissues.

  7. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  8. Detection of 3-hydroxykynurenine in a plant pathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T J Greer; Thomsen, Karl Kristian; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens Ø; Oliver, Richard P

    2003-05-01

    A redox-active compound has been purified from the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria ( Erysiphe ) graminis f. sp. hordei. A combination of spectrophotometry, MS and NMR has identified it as 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKyn). This compound, never previously detected in any fungus or pathogen, is best known for its role in vertebrate cataracts. It is found abundantly in developing and germinating spores and also in runner hyphae. Two roles for 3OHKyn are discussed: first, the presence of active oxygen species would enable 3OHKyn to cross-link the spore chemically with the plant. Secondly, it may be acting as an UV protectant and an antioxidant.

  9. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose

  10. Use of wild and semi-wild edible plants in nutrition and survival of people in 1430 days of siege of Sarajevo during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzić, Sulejman

    2010-06-01

    This study is a systematic overview of data on use of wild and semi-wild edible plants in nutrition of people in 1430 days of the siege of Sarajevo during aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995). The author of this study spent all that time in Sarajevo. In 1993, the author prepared a survival program for people that included usage of edible wild plants. In addition, he conducted a detailed survey, including special interviews, on 630 people of average age 37.4 years (55% residential inhabitants, the rest were refuges), 310 males and the rest were females. According to survey, 91 species of mostly wild plants and three species of fungus were used: Küchneromyces mutabilis, Armillariella mellea and Coprinus comatus. Wild vegetables included 49 species, spices 24, wild fruits 16, and 2 species of bread-plants. They belong to 26 plants communities, and grew on 24 different habitats (urban surfaces, river coasts, low forest and scrubs, meadows and rocky grasslands). The 156 plant parts (leaves, young branches, fruit, flower, seed, root and rhizome) from 91 plant species were used. Vegetables were dominant category of use (soups, pottages, sauces) with 80 ways of preparation (30.53%), then salads 41 (15.65%), spices 39 (14.89%), different beverages 38 (14.50%), sweets 21 (8.02%), nutritive teas 15 (5.73%), and other preparations. In order to improve conventional food (war pasta, rice, lentils, old beans) people used spices made from different wild plants.

  11. [Expedition medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  12. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Diseases and Conditions Tests and Procedures Recipes Nutrition Information Prevention Guidelines ... Prostate Cancer: Herbal Supplements Topic Index - Complementary and Alternative Medicine ...

  13. Optimized integration of T-DNA in the taxol-producing fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We previously reported a taxol-producing fungus Pestalotiopsis malicola. There, we described the transformation of the fungus mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. T-DNA carrying the selection marker was transferred into the fungus and randomly integrated into the genome as shown by Southern blotting.

  14. EFFECT OF PLASTICIZERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE FILM FROM JANENG STARCH – CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narlis Juandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of edible and biodegradable films has increased because it is every day more evident that non degradable are doing much damage to the environment. In this research, edible films were based on blends of janeng starch in different proportions, added of palm oil or glycerol, which were used as plasticizers. The objective was to study the effect of two different plasticizers, palm oil and glycerol of edible film from janeng starch–chitosan on the mechanical properties and FTIR spectra. Increasing concentration of glycerol as plasticizer resulted tend to increased tensile strength and elongation at break. The tensile strength and elongation at break values for palm oil is higher than glycerol as plasticizer at the same concentration. FTIR spectra show the process of making edible film from janeng starch–chitosan with palm oil or glycerol as plasticizers are physically mixing in the presence of hydrogen interactions between chains.

  15. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    .... Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganism...

  16. Development, characterization and potential applications of edible film from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moey, Siah Watt; Abdullah, Aminah; Ahmad, Ishak

    2014-09-01

    A new patent pending process is proposed in this study to produce edible film directly from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Seaweed together with other ingredients had been used to produce the film through casting technique. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on the edible film to examine the thickness, colour, transparency, solubility, tensile strength, elongation at break, water permeability rate, oxygen permeability rate and surface morphology. The produced film was transparent, stretchable, sealable and have basic properties for applications in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, toiletries and also agricultural industries. Edible film was successfully developed directly from dry seaweed instead of using alginate and carrageenan. The edible film processing method developed in this research was easier and cheaper compared with the method by using alginate and carrageenan.

  17. Preparasi Dan Karakterisasi Edible Film Dari Poliblend Pati Sukun-Kitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Setiani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak   Plastik biodegradable dan terbuat dari bahan terbarukan seperti edible film merupakan salah satu solusi permasalahan lingkungan. Bahan baku utamanya yaitu pati, karena keberadaannya melimpah serta beragam di Indonesia, salah satunya pati sukun yang memiliki kandungan pati cukup tinggi (60 %. Namun edible film berbahan dasar pati saja memberikan sifat mekanik dan ketahanan air yang masih rendah. Pada penelitian ini akan dipreparasi edible film dari poliblend pati sukun-kitosan dengan plasticizer sorbitol. Metode yang dilakukan yaitu preparasi dan karakterisasi pati sukun kemudian preparasi dan karakterisasi edible film. Hasil karakterisasi pati sukun yang diperoleh yaitu kadar pati total 76,39 %, kadar amilosa dan amilopektin berturut-turut 26,76 % dan 73,24 %, suhu gelatinisasi pati sukun 73,98 ºC, kadar air 22,38 % serta derajat kecerahan yang menunjukkan karakteristik cerah dan berwarna abu-abu pucat. Hasil karakterisasi edible film menunjukkan, dengan bertambahnya kitosan maka kuat tarik dan ketahanan air cenderung meningkat. Secara umum hasil terbaik edible film adalah pada formulasi pati sukun-kitosan 6:4 dengan nilai water uptake sebesar 212,98 %, nilai kuat tarik sebesar 16,34 MPa, nilai elongasi sebesar 6,00 % dan modulus young sebesar 2,72 MPa. Meskipun demikian, hasil analisis morfologi edible film pada formulasi pati sukun-kitosan 6:4 masih terdapat pori dan retakan.   Kata kunci : edible film, pati sukun, kitosa.   Abstract   Biodegradable and renewable plastic such as edible film is one of solution the environmental problem. The main raw material is from starch, because of it is abundant and varied in Indonesia, one of them is breadfruit starch which has enough high starch content (60 %. But edible film based on starch give less mechanical properties and less water resistance. In this research the edible film was made from poliblend of breadfruit starch-chitosan with sorbitol addition. The Method was done, preparation

  18. Triterpenoid profile of fruit and leaf cuticular waxes of edible honeysuckle Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafał Becker; Cezary Pączkowski; Anna Szakiel

    2017-01-01

    Edible honeysuckle (honeyberry) Lonicera caerulea is becoming popular as a novel berry crop with several useful features such as early fruit ripening and exceptional hardiness, particularly resistance to pests and diseases as well...

  19. Evaluation of using edible coating and ripening on Dangke, a traditional cheese of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaka, R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dangke is a traditional soft cheese from Enrekang, South Sulawesi Indonesia which is produced through heat denaturation at 85°C and enzymatic coagulation using papaya latex. The quality, microstructure and storage life of the cheese are affected by several factors such as denaturation temperature, enzyme concentration, moulding pressure, coating, and ripening. The objective of this study was to evaluated of using edible coating and ripening on Dangke cheese. The experiment was conducting using factorial design with five replications. The experimental variables were the type of edible coating used (agar, CMC and bee wax and the length of ripening (10, 20 and 30 days. Parameter was measured hardness, microstructure, and sensory evaluation. The overall result indicated that the use of edible coating can extend the shelf life, increase hardness, and more compact microstructure. Sensory evaluation also indicated that the cheese coated with film forming edible materials had had white color, more milk like smell (smelly milk, and smoother texture.

  20. A Cost-Effective, Simple, and Productive Method of Hydroponic Culture of Edible Opuntia "Maya"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HORIBE, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    .... We designed a new cost-effective and simple method for the hydroponic culture of edible Opuntia, and assessed its effectiveness by comparing the growth of cladodes by this method and by pot culture...

  1. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential...

  2. Analysis of traditional knowledge for wild edible mushrooms consumed by residents living in Jirisan National Park (Korea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang

    2014-04-11

    This study aims to record and analyze the traditional knowledge of wild edible mushrooms utilized by residents living in Jirisan National Park (Korea). Data was collected through participant observations and in-depth interviews with semi-structured questionnaires. Quantitative comparative analyses were accomplished through informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), and inter-network analysis (INA). The amounts of traditional knowledge recorded from the communities were 158 practices classified within 22 families, 33 genera, and 38 species. The representative families were Tricholomataceae (23.20%) followed by Pleurotaceae (13.10%), Polyporaceae (8.21%), and Hymenochaetaceae (6.33%). The results revealed 24 modes of preparation for the mushrooms, with the most common methods being for preparing them as, seasoned cooked mushrooms (40.75%), soups (13.84%), teas (12.18%), simmered (9.19%), and roasted (6.20%). The informant consensus factor (ICF) values in the ailment categories were birth-related disorders (1.00), genitourinary system disorders (1.00), other conditions (0.91), circulatory system disorders (0.76), and diabetes (0.33). In terms of fidelity levels, five mushroom species showed 100% of fidelities. Regarding the inter-network analysis (INA) of mushrooms and ailments, the positions of medicinal mushrooms is distributed into three main groups. Also, regarding the network of mushrooms and foods, the location of edible mushrooms is distributed into two main food groups. The utilization of the inter-network analysis has been used typically within the social sciences for the analysis of social trends and phenomena through the interrelationship of specific social components, from this study it is being applied for the interpretation of traditional knowledge utilizing mushrooms in the local communities. Through this study, we are confident that the useful application of the inter-network analysis has been successfully proven. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  3. Effects of Edible Films Containing Procyanidin on the Preservation of Pork Meat during Chilled Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyoun Wook; Jeong, Jin Young; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Seong, Pil-Nam; Ham, Jun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Procyanidins, which are natural antioxidants and antimicrobials found in grapes, enhance the quality and extend the shelf life of meat. We explored the effects of edible films incorporating procyanidins on pork loin stored for various times. Procyanidins (0, 0.1, and 0.3%, w/w) were incorporated into the edible films. We assessed meat color, pH, levels of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and microbial populations for 14 d. The chromaticities...

  4. Antioxidant Properties of two Edible Green Seaweeds From Northern Coasts of the Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Farasat,Massoumeh; Ramazan-Ali KHAVARI-NEJAD; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Namjooyan, Foroogh

    2013-01-01

    Background Ulva genus, an edible seaweed, and an important food source in many south-east Asian countries is also recognized by its synonymous name as Enteromorpha. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate antioxidant activity, contents of total phenolics, and flavonoids of methanolic extracts of edible green seaweeds including Ulva clathrata (Roth) C. Agardh and three samples of Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller grown at different parts of Bushehr Province along the northern coasts of the P...

  5. Water Vapor Permeability of Edible Films Based on Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Native Starches

    OpenAIRE

    Adjouman, Yao Désiré; Nindjin, Charlemagne; Tetchi, F.Achille; Dalcq, Anne-Catherine; Amani, N.Georges; Sindic, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Starch is used in the production of edible biodegradable packaging as an attractive alternative to synthetic polymers because it is a natural biopolymer of low cost and high availability. Many studies have been carried out on films based on cassava starch and the results show that these have good flexibility and low water vapor permeability. This present research was conducted to analyse the effect of glycerol, peanut oil and soybean lecithin on the water vapor permeability (WVP) of edible fi...

  6. Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.): Maas (Zingiberaceae): an edible plant from Sierra Norte de Puebla (México)

    OpenAIRE

    Macía, Manuel Juan

    2002-01-01

    The edible fruits of Renealmia alpinia are highly valued in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (Mexico) where they are managed at a household level. This plant is wild in the region, although a rare species. The aril of the fruit is the edible part. After harvesting, the aril is extracted fresh and processed for local consumption. Sometimes the fruits are commercialized in traditional markets. Only 19% of the total weight of the fruits is used for food.

  7. Triterpenoid profile of fruit and leaf cuticular waxes of edible honeysuckle Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał Becker; Cezary Pączkowski; Anna Szakiel

    2017-01-01

    Edible honeysuckle (honeyberry) Lonicera caerulea is becoming popular as a novel berry crop with several useful features such as early fruit ripening and exceptional hardiness, particularly resistance to pests and diseases as well as severe frosts in winter and droughts in summer. The triterpenoid profile of fruit and leaf cuticular waxes of edible honeysuckle (a Russian cultivar Chernichka) was analyzed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were the tetracyclic triterpenoids campesterol, ...

  8. Knowledge and use of wild edible plants in rural communities along Paraguay River, Pantanal, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolotto, Ieda Maria; Amorozo, Maria Christina de Mello; Neto, Germano Guarim; Oldeland, Jens; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2015-01-01

    Background Wild plants are used as food for human populations where people still depend on natural resources to survive. This study aimed at identifying wild plants and edible uses known in four rural communities of the Pantanal-Brazil, estimating the use value and understanding how distance to the urban areas, gender, age and number of different environments available in the vicinity can influence the knowledge and use of these plants by local people. Methods Data on edible plants with known...

  9. Vulnerable Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  10. Consistent association of fungus Fusarium mangiferae Britz with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In exotic ones, maximum and minimum infections of 97.33 and 70.67% were noted in the cultivars Sensation and Pop, respectively. Light and transmission electron microscopy proved helpful in investigating the morphological matrix and ultrastructure of the propagules of fungus F. mangiferae. Key words: Mangifera indica, ...

  11. ligninolytic enzymes of the fungus isolated from soil contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FUTE

    laccase and managnese peroxidase production in submerged culture of. Pleurotus sajor-caju. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10(50): 10166-10177. Revankar MS and Lele SS 2006 Enhanced production of laccase using a new isolate of white rot fungus WR-1. Process Biochem. 41: 581–588. Sasek V, Novotny C and Vampola P 1998.

  12. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  13. Diseases of pines caused by the pitch canker fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Dwinell; Stephen W. Fraedrich; D. Adams

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, the pitch canker fungus, causes a number of serious diseases of Pinus species. The pathogen infects a variety of vegetative and reproductive pine structures at different stages of maturity and produces a diversity of symptoms. When the pathogen infects the woody vegetative...

  14. Aphanomyces frigidophilus , fungus-like organisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bait method with the use of hemp seeds Cannabis sativa, small pieces of snake skin Natrix natrix and exuviae of shrimp Gammarus sp. as bait was applied to isolate the fungus Aphanomyces frigidophilus from the springs. The isolate was maintained on Potato Dextrose Agar PDA and stored in the culture collection of the ...

  15. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore...... of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.......Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore...... hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...

  16. Directed Evolution of a Filamentous Fungus for Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filamentous fungi represent the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad-host-range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. One of the most p...

  17. Effect of the Extract of Endophytic fungus, Nigrospora sphaerica CL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of extract on ultrastructure of MRSA and K. pneumoniae cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results: The time-kill ... pneumonia cells. Keywords: Endophytic fungus, Nigrospora sphaerica, Antimicrobial activity, Cellular structure degeneration ...

  18. Comparative nutritional evaluation of fungus and alkali treated rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of rice husk with fungus (mushroom) increased the nutritive (crude protein and ether extract) value and as the feeding experiment demonstrated, is likely to be a useful method for pre-digesting agricultural waste residues for rumen microbial attack. Keywords: rice husk, Pleurotus sajor caju, intake, digestibility

  19. The origin of Ceratocystis fagacearum, the oak wilt fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Thomas C. Harrington; William L. MacDonald; David N. Appel

    2008-01-01

    The oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, may be another example of a damaging, exotic species in forest ecosystems in the United States. Though C. fagacearum has received much research attention, the origin of the fungus is unknown. The pathogen may have been endemic at a low incidence until increased disturbances, changes...

  20. Proteomic analysis of the endophytic fungus Undifilum oxytropis | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The filamentous Ascomycete fungus Undifilum oxytropis is an endophyte of locoweed plants of the genera Oxytropis that produces a toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine, an alpha-mannosidase inhibitor causes a general toxicosis and neurological problems (locoism) when consumed by grazing animals. Swainsonine ...

  1. Genetic diversity of the blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity of the blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr, in Burkina Faso. Y Séré, A Onasanya, A Afolabi, HD Mignouna, K Akator. Abstract. Trapping nurseries trialed at two screening sites in Burkina Faso appeared to be an effective tool to characterize the virulence spectrum of blast populations using limited ...

  2. Entomophaga maimaiga – New entomopathogenic fungus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By field and laboratory studies of the causes of their death, the presence of conidia and resting spores of the entomopathogenic fungus Entomophaga maimaiga was reported in the dead caterpillars. This has been the first report of occurrence of this species in Serbia, that is, Serbia is the third European country in which this ...

  3. Analysis of a Functional Lactate Permease in the Fungus Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  4. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    extant savanna species are found in most genera, this moreover suggests that the savanna has repeatedly been colonized by fungus-growing termites. Furthermore, at least four independent "out-of-Africa" migrations into Asia, and at least one independent migration to Madagascar, have occurred. Although...

  5. Genome sequencing and analysis of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Marco A.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Badger, Jonathan H.; Daran, Jean-Marc; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Garcia-Estrada, Carlos; Fedorova, Natalie D.; Harris, Diana M.; Heijne, Wilbert H. M.; Joardar, Vinita; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Martin, Juan F.; Nierman, William C.; Nijland, Jeroen G.; Pronk, Jack T.; Roubos, Johannes A.; van der Klei, Ida J.; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Veenhuis, Marten; von Doehren, Hans; Wagner, Christian; Wortman, Jennifer; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial penicillin production with the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is based on an unprecedented effort in microbial strain improvement. To gain more insight into penicillin synthesis, we sequenced the 32.19 Mb genome of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin54-1255 and identified numerous genes

  6. (PAHs) degradation by laccase from a tropical white rot fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Laccase enzyme was produced from an isolate of the white rot fungus, Ganoderma lucidum Chaaim-001. BCU. The enzyme was subsequently evaluated for its degradative ability towards sixteen types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The G. lucidum laccase degraded antracene completely ...

  7. Integration of pheromones and the entomopathogenic fungus for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Integration of pheromones and the entomopathogenic fungus for the management of the banana weevil. W. Tinzaara, C. S. Gold, C. Nankinga, M. Dicke2, Arnold van Huis2, P. E. Ragamaand G.H. Kagezi. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Centre, P. O Box 7878, Kampala, ...

  8. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  9. [Efficiency evaluation of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oils from edible vegetable oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lisha; Liu, Honghe; Kang, Li; Jiang, Jie; Liao, Shicheng; Liu, Guihua; Deng, Pingjian

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oil from edible vegetable oil. 14 raw vegetable oils, 24 fried waste oils, 34 kitchen-waste oils, 32 edible non-peanut vegetable oil, 32 edible peanuts oil, 16 edible oil add flavorand and 11 refined bio-waste oils were prepared and examined for capsaicinoids including capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nonylic acid vanillylamide. The detection results of the above samples were statistically tested based on sample category to assessment identify the effectiveness of the bio-waste oils with capsaicinoids. As a indicator, capsaincin was possessed of high detection sensitivity and has the highest efficiency to discern kitchen-waste oils and refined bio-waste oils samples from edible non-peanut vegetable oil correctly. The accuracy rate of identification were 100% and 90.1% respectively. There is the background in peanut oil. CONCLUSION Capsaicin added in cooking process can be retained in the refining process and hardly be removed in the refining process. In the case of fully eliminating the background interference, capsaicinoids can effectively identify bio-waste oils and edible vegetable oil in combination.

  10. Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue for Detection of Mixed Edible-Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Men

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of the waste of the edible-oil in the food processing, on the premise of food security, they often need to add new edible-oil to the old frying oil which had been used in food processing to control the cost of the production. Due to the fact that the different additive proportion of the oil has different material and different volatile gases, we use fusion technology based on the electronic nose and electronic tongue to detect the blending ratio of the old frying oil and the new edible-oil in this paper. Principal component analysis (PCA is used to distinguish the different proportion of the old frying oil and new edible-oil; on the other hand we use partial least squares (PLS to predict the blending ratio of the old frying oil and new edible-oil. Two conclusions were proposed: data fusion of electronic nose and electronic tongue can be used to detect the blending ratio of the old frying oil and new edible-oil; in contrast to single used electronic nose or single used electronic tongue, the detection effect has increased by using data fusion of electronic nose and electronic tongue.

  11. Characteristic of ascorbic acid in crosslinked chitosan edible film as drug delivery system membrane

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    Kistriyani Lilis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a polysaccharide compound in the form of a linear polysaccharide consisting of N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc and D-glucosamine (GlcN monomer, which is a derivative of deacetylization of chitin polymer. Chitin is one of common type of polysaccharide on earth after the excess cellulose from inveterbrata skeletons. Chitosan has anti-microbial properties. Based on this properties, chitosan is potentially used to be an edible film as drug delivery system membrane. Edible film was made by dissolving chitosan in 100 mL acetic acid 1%, then the plasticizer and crosslinker was added while heated at 60° C. It was molded and dried in oven at 50°C for 48 hours. Drug loading in the edible film could be controlled by remodeling membrane characteristics in the presence of crosslinker additions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the mass transfer coefficient (kCa of drug loading in various concentrations of ascorbic acid in the edible film. The characteristics of ascorbic acid in chitosan edible film could be seen from the number of drugs that could be loaded through the uv-vis spectrophotometric analysis. The higher concentration of ascorbic acid was added, the drug would be loaded more into edible film.

  12. Preliminary nitrite, nitrate and colour analysis of Malaysian edible bird’s nest

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    Meei Chien Quek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The high nitrite content in edible bird’s nests is a major concern to the local swiftlet industry. It lowers the price of the edible bird’s nests and it brings severe health hazards to consumers and farmers. This research investigated the nitrite and nitrate contents of eight types of local edible bird’s nests by using ion chromatography system and evaluating its colour using the CIE system in L∗a∗b∗ parameters. The nitrite content obtained ranged from 5.7 μg/g for the house nests to 843.8 μg/g for the cave nests. The nitrate content for the house and cave nests was 98.2 μg/g and 36,999.4 μg/g, respectively. The cave nests with darker and redder colour had higher nitrite and nitrate contents than the brighter and more yellow house nests. This likely suggests that the nitrite and nitrate contents have correlations with edible bird’s nests colour. Correlations studies suggested that the nitrite content had high correlations with colour parameters, L∗a∗b∗ of edible bird’s nests at significant level of P < 0.10. These findings suggest that edible bird’s nests’ colour may be a useful indicator for measuring nitrite and nitrate contaminations.

  13. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

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    Emilio Ochoa-Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05 in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating, while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.

  14. [Evolutionary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wjst, M

    2013-12-01

    Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Culture and molecular identification of fungal contaminants in edible bird nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer Xiao Jing; Wong, Shew Fung; Lim, Patricia Kim Chooi; Mak, Joon Wah

    2015-01-01

    Widespread food poisoning due to microbial contamination has been a major concern for the food industry, consumers and governing authorities. This study is designed to determine the levels of fungal contamination in edible bird nests (EBNs) using culture and molecular techniques. Raw EBNs were collected from five house farms, and commercial EBNs were purchased from five Chinese traditional medicine shops (companies A-E) in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungal contents in the raw and commercial EBNs, and boiled and unboiled EBNs were determined. Culturable fungi were isolated and identified. In this study, the use of these methods revealed that all EBNs had fungal colony-forming units (CFUs) that exceeded the limit set by Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) for yeast and moulds in EBNs. There was a significant difference (p 0.05). The types of fungi isolated from the unboiled raw EBNs were mainly soil, plant and environmental fungi, while the types of fungi isolated from the boiled raw EBNs, unboiled and boiled commercial EBNs were mainly environmental fungi. Aspergillus sp., Candida sp., Cladosporium sp., Neurospora sp. and Penicillum sp. were the most common fungi isolated from the unboiled and boiled raw and commercial EBNs. Some of these fungi are mycotoxin producers and cause opportunistic infections in humans. Further studies to determine the mycotoxin levels and methods to prevent or remove these contaminations from EBNs for safe consumption are necessary. The establishment and implementation of stringent regulations for the standards of EBNs should be regularly updated and monitored to improve the quality of the EBNs and consumer safety.

  16. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene in the Mycelium and Fruit Body of the Edible Mushroom Flammulina velutipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Koo, Ja Sun

    2015-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene is known to be expressed in plants, and is involved in the differentiation, growth and synthesis of secondary metabolites. However, its expression in fungi remains to be explored. To understand its expression in mushroom fungi, the PAL gene of the edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes (Fvpal) was cloned and characterized. The cloned Fvpal consists of 2,175 bp, coding for a polypeptide containing 724 amino acids and having 11 introns. The translated amino acid sequence of Fvpal shares a high identity (66%) with that of ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma matsutake. Distinctively, the Fvpal expression in the mycelium was higher in minimal medium supplemented with L-tyrosine than with other aromatic amino acids. During cultivation of the mushroom on sawdust medium, Fvpal expression in the fruit body correspondingly increased as the mushroom grew. In the fruiting body, Fvpal was expressed more in the stipe than in the pileus. These results suggest that F. velutipes PAL activity differs in the different organs of the mushroom. Overall, this is first report to show that the PAL gene expression is associated with mushroom growth in fungi. PMID:26539050

  17. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota

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    Benjamin H. Conlon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001–FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2.

  18. Refrigeration and edible coatings in blackberry (Rubus spp.) conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dalany Menezes; Kwiatkowski, Angela; Rosa, Cassia Ines Lourenzi Franco; Clemente, Edmar

    2014-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the conservation of blackberry, cv. Tupy, stored under refrigeration and coated with different edible coatings. Four treatments were carried out: control T1 (uncoated), T2 (chitosan 1.5 %), T3 (cassava starch 2.5 %) and T4 (kefir grains in water 20 %), stored at temperatures of 0 and 10 °C; 1.0 % (m/v) sorbitol/glycerol was added as plasticizers. Chemical and physical-chemical evaluations (weight loss, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, SS/TA ratio and anthocyanins) were made, besides rot incidence. The results showed that cooling to 0 °C combined with T2 showed an effect in reducing the physiological loss of weight (4.41 %), in retaining fruit firmness (19.1 N) and presenting lower incidence of rot (6.19 %). Likewise, in physical and chemical parameters: SS did not alter significantly during the whole period of 18 days of storage.

  19. Macromolecular Antioxidants and Dietary Fiber in Edible Seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Pintos, Nerea; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Vergara-Salinas, José Rodrigo; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2017-02-01

    Seaweeds are rich in different bioactive compounds with potential uses in drugs, cosmetics and the food industry. The objective of this study was to analyze macromolecular antioxidants or nonextractable polyphenols, in several edible seaweed species collected in Chile (Gracilaria chilensis, Callophyllis concepcionensis, Macrocystis pyrifera, Scytosyphon lomentaria, Ulva sp. and Enteromorpha compressa), including their 1st HPLC characterization. Macromolecular antioxidants are commonly ignored in studies of bioactive compounds. They are associated with insoluble dietary fiber and exhibit significant biological activity, with specific features that are different from those of both dietary fiber and extractable polyphenols. We also evaluated extractable polyphenols and dietary fiber, given their relationship with macromolecular antioxidants. Our results show that macromolecular antioxidants are a major polyphenol fraction (averaging 42% to total polyphenol content), with hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols being the main constituents. This fraction also showed remarkable antioxidant capacity, as determined by 2 complementary assays. The dietary fiber content was over 50% of dry weight, with some samples exhibiting the target proportionality between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber for adequate nutrition. Overall, our data show that seaweed could be an important source of commonly ignored macromolecular antioxidants. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Phosphatidylcholine, an edible carrier for nanoencapsulation of unstable thiamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juveriya Fathima, Syeda; Fathima, Irum; Abhishek, Virat; Khanum, Farhath

    2016-04-15

    Lipid nanoparticles have been used for carrying different therapeutic agents because of the advantage in improved absorption, bioavailability, targeted deliveries and reduction in the quantity of drugs required. The aim of the study was to prepare and characterize nanoliposomes containing thiamine hydrochloride and study their physicochemical stability as this vitamin is highly unstable. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was used as an edible encapsulant. The average size of nanoliposomes was found to be 150 nm and zeta potential was -34 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was 97%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the size, spherical nature and smooth surface of the nanoliposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) evidenced that the nanoliposomes were stable up to 300°C. The functional groups present were determined by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the presence of vitamin was confirmed in final formulation by biochemical analysis. The crystalline nature of thiamine was analyzed by X-ray diffraction studies. Storage studies indicated that the nanoliposomes were highly stable up to 3 months at different temperatures. Thus, phosphatidylcholine can be used as carrier vehicle of nutrients especially vitamins, as it can form stable nanoliposomes with 97% encapsulation efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant characterization of some Sicilian edible wild greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Sara; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brenna, Oreste V; Del Rio, Daniele; Frasca, Graziella; Brighenti, Furio; Tumino, Rosario

    2005-11-30

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that many antioxidants and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet may protect against cancers and cardiovascular disease. Common fruits and vegetables are good sources of antioxidants, although in some Mediterranean areas traditional wild greens are responsible for a significant percentage of total dietary antioxidant intake. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort of Ragusa (Sicily), a high number of subjects were found to frequently eat wild greens, including Sinapis incana and Sinapis nigra, Diplotaxis erucoides, Cichorium intybus, Asparagus acutifolius, and Borrago officinalis. On the basis of these observations, detailed characterization of single antioxidant components (i.e., polyphenols, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and ascorbic acid) and the TAC of these edible wild traditional plants was performed. The wild plants examined were found to be very rich in antioxidants, such as flavonoids and carotenoids, with high TAC values, suggesting that the importance of these vegetables, not only in the traditional but even in the contemporary diet, needs to be emphasized.

  2. Effective distribution of emulsified edible oil for enhanced anaerobic bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Robert C.

    2007-10-01

    Recent laboratory and field studies have shown that injection of emulsified edible oils can provide an effective, low-cost alternative for stimulating anaerobic biodegradation processes. A pilot-scale permeable reactive bio-barrier (PRBB) was installed at a perchlorate and chlorinated solvent impacted site by injecting 380 L of commercially available emulsion (EOS ®) containing emulsified soybean oil, food-grade surfactants, lactate, and yeast extract through ten direct push injection wells over a two day period. Soil cores collected six months after emulsion injection indicate the oil was distributed up to 5 m downgradient of the injection wells. A previously developed emulsion transport model was used to simulate emulsion transport and retention using independently estimated model parameters. While there was considerable variability in the soil sampling results, the model simulations generally agreed with the observed oil distribution at the field site. Model sensitivity analyses indicate that increasing the injection flow rate or diluting the oil with more water will have little effect on final oil distribution in the aquifer. The only effective approach for enhancing the spread of emulsified oil away from the injection well appears to be injecting a greater mass of oil.

  3. Review of food composition data for edible insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Persijn, Diedelinde; Rittenschober, Doris; Charrondiere, U Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Edible insects are considered rich in protein and a variety of micronutrients, and are therefore seen as potential contributors to food security. However, the estimation of the insects' contribution to the nutrient intake is limited since data are absent in food composition tables and databases. Therefore, FAO/INFOODS collected and published analytical data from primary sources with sufficient quality in the Food Composition Database for Biodiversity (BioFoodComp). Data were compiled for 456 food entries on insects in different developmental stages. A total of 5734 data points were entered, most on minerals and trace elements (34.8%), proximates (24.5%), amino acids (15.3%) and (pro)vitamins (9.1%). Data analysis of Tenebrio molitor confirms its nutritive quality that can help to combat malnutrition. The collection of data will assist compilers to incorporate more insects into tables and databases, and to further improve nutrient intake estimations. Copyright © 2015 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for production of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, P; Kalyani, N; Prathiba, K

    2008-12-01

    The degradation of lignocellulosic wastes such as paddy straw, sorghum stalk, and banana pseudostem was investigated during solid-state fermentation by edible mushrooms Pleurotus eous and Lentinus connotus. Biological efficiency of 55-65% was observed in paddy straw followed by sorghum stalk (45%) and banana pseudostem (33%) for both fungal species. The activity of extracellular enzymes, namely cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and laccase, together with the content of cellulose, lignin, and phenols, was studied in spent substrates on seventh, 17th, and 27th days of spawning, and these values were used as indicators of the extent of lignocellulosic degradation by mushroom. Both the mushroom species proved to be efficient degraders of lignocellulosic biomass of paddy straw and sorghum stalk, and the extent of cellulose degradation was 63-72% of dry weight (d.w.), and lignin degradation was 23-30% of the d.w. In banana pseudostem, the extent of the degradation was observed to be only 15-22% of the d.w. for both lignin and cellulose. Preferential removal of cellulose during initial growth period and delayed degradation of lignin were observed in all three substrates. This is associated with decrease in activity of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase and increase in laccase activity with spawn aging in spent substrates. Thus, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by P. eous and L. connotus offers a promising way to convert low-quality biomass into an improved human food.

  5. Parasites of edible land snails in Edo State, Nigeria

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    Igbinosa I. B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land snails are sources of protein to man and are hosts to a number of parasites. It is imperative that the roles of the snail hosts and parasites are clearly defined. Before then however, the parasites of the different land snails collected in any locality should be identified. Land snails were collected in the wild in both dry and wet seasons. The internal organs and the faeces were examined for the presence of parasite. In the rainy season of 2015, a total of 272 snails were collected across four major towns (Benin, Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi in Edo State, Nigeria, while in the dry season, fewer snails (n=91 were handpicked. The snail species seen are: Achatina achatina (Linnaeus, 1758, Achatina fulica (Férussac, 1821, Acharchatina marginata (Swainson, 1982, Limicolaria aurora (Jay, 1839, L. flammea (Müller, 1774 and Limicolariopsis spp. The larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were isolated from the various snail species with overall prevalence of 54.04 %. Snails positive with Alaria mesocercariae were L. aurora, L. flammea and Limicolariopsis spp. Additionally, few L. flammea were positive of the cercariae of Drocoelium dedriticum. Meanwhile, some samples of A. fulica harboured larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonesis, sporocysts of Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma mansoni. Therefore, these edible snails could pose serious health hazard to man and animals by serving as a possible alternative parasite transmission route.

  6. Usage of Edible Mushrooms in Various Food Products

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    Özge Süfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of edible mushrooms which are generally consumed in houses in dried form is based on mainly instant soup and sauce formulations. Recently, the cultivations of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species have become widespread. Utilization of these cultivated mushrooms in recipes would bring added value to related food products. For this purpose, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species farmed in Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Mushroom House were dried and then pulverized. Firstly, a snack was prepared with Agaricus bisporus powder. Agaricus bisporus powder was substituted for wheat flour at the rates of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % and thus the potential of food product which had relatively lower carbohydrate and fat level and higher fiber content was investigated. In the second part of the study, either 5 %, 10 % of Agaricus bisporus powder or 5 %, 10 % of Pleurotus ostreatus powder were added into traditional Turkish meatball (beef mince, salt which was cooked in conventional oven, so meat flavor could be replaced by herbal flavor coming from mushroom. This property mat obey the purpose that, the created new product will be consumed fondly especially by children. Sensory and physical (colour and texture analysis were performed in both snack and meatball samples and the results were evaluated statistically.

  7. Microsatellites in the Genome of the Edible Mushroom, Volvariella volvacea

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    Ying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using bioinformatics software and database, we have characterized the microsatellite pattern in the V. volvacea genome and compared it with microsatellite patterns found in the genomes of four other edible fungi: Coprinopsis cinerea, Schizophyllum commune, Agaricus bisporus, and Pleurotus ostreatus. A total of 1346 microsatellites have been identified, with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motif. The relative abundance of microsatellites was lower in coding regions with 21 No./Mb. However, the microsatellites in the V. volvacea gene models showed a greater tendency to be located in the CDS regions. There was also a higher preponderance of trinucleotide repeats, especially in the kinase genes, which implied a possible role in phenotypic variation. Among the five fungal genomes, microsatellite abundance appeared to be unrelated to genome size. Furthermore, the short motifs (mono- to tri-nucleotides outnumbered other categories although these differed in proportion. Data analysis indicated a possible relationship between the most frequent microsatellite types and the genetic distance between the five fungal genomes.

  8. Lead in edible mushrooms: levels and bioaccumulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M Angeles; Alonso, Julián; Melgar, M Julia

    2009-08-15

    Lead content was determined in 238 samples of 28 species of edible mushrooms collected from different sites in the province of Lugo (NW Spain) during 2005 and 2006. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The analyses were carried out by an anodic stripping voltammetric technique using drop mercury as the working electrode. The highest mean lead contents (mg/kg dry weight) of 3.6 and 4.1, 3.0 and 2.2, 2.5 and 2.3, 2.4 and 2.3 were determined in Coprinus comatus, Agaricus campestris, Lepista nuda and Calvatia utriformis in hymenophore and the rest of fruiting bodies, respectively, while the lowest in Agaricus bisporus (0.35 in H and 0.54 in RFB) and Fistulina hepatica (0.41 in H and 0.50 in RFB). All mushroom species were bioexclusors of lead (BCF<1) in relation to the underlying soils. There were not statistically significant differences between lead levels in hymenophore and in the rest of the fruiting bodies. The lead concentrations were compared to literature data and levels set by legislation. It can be concluded that the consumption of these mushrooms can not be considered as a toxicological risk from lead content point of view, and they provide a nutritional requirement to the diet.

  9. Metals bioaccumulation in two edible bivalves and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shenawy, Nahla S; Loutfy, Naglaa; Soliman, Maha F M; Tadros, Menerva M; Abd El-Azeez, Ahmed A

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to quantify the bioaccumulation of 13 metals in two edible bivalves (Ruditapes decussatus and Paphia undulata) in Lake Timsah, Egypt. A potential human health risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the hazards from bivalve consumption. Fe, Al, Zn, and Sr had the highest concentrations in the bivalve samples. The levels of Cd were much lower than the maximum permissible level, while Pb concentrations in the two bivalves were nearly two times the permissible level. The extent of bioaccumulation factor was site- and species-specific. For low and high bivalve-consuming groups, the estimated daily intake of Pb and Cd ranged from 0.01 to 0.76 μg/kg/day. For low and high bivalve-consuming groups, hazard quotients (HQs) for metals were found to be less than 1 for both bivalve species, except for Co in the high-consuming group. In conclusion, even though there was no apparent risk to bivalve consumers from being exposed to single metals, there is a risk from being exposed to the 13 studied metals together, especially for high bivalve-consuming groups such as fishermen.

  10. Transferable Antibiotic Resistances in Marketed Edible Grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Aquilanti, Lucia; Milanović, Vesna; Cardinali, Federica; Taccari, Manuela; Pasquini, Marina; Tavoletti, Stefano; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-05-01

    Grasshoppers are the most commonly eaten insects by humans worldwide, as they are rich in proteins and micronutrients. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes in commercialized edible grasshoppers. To this end, the prevalence of 12 selected genes [aac(6')-Ie aph(2″)-Ia, blaZ, erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mecA, tet(M), tet(O), tet(S), tet(K), vanA, vanB] coding for resistance to antibiotics conventionally used in clinical practice was determined. The majority of samples were positive for tet(M) (70.0%), tet(K) (83.3%) and blaZ (83.3%). A low percentage of samples were positive for erm(B) (16.7%), erm(C) (26.7%), and aac(6')-Ie aph(2″)-Ia (13.3%), whereas no samples were positive for erm(A), vanA, vanB, tet(O), and mecA. Cluster analysis identified 4 main clusters, allowing a separation of samples on the basis of their country of origin. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Tocopherol measurement in edible products of vegetable origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coronado, Diego J M; Ibañez, Elena; Rupérez, F Javier; Barbas, Coral

    2004-10-29

    Since natural antioxidants present increasing interest for food industry due to their beneficial effect on health, new potential sources have been screened among edible aromatic plants and a microalgae, Spirulina platensis. The determination was performed after optimising a previously validated method, because important differences have been found among values described in literature for tocopherol content in products of vegetable origin. Values obtained ranged from 3.42 mg alpha-tocopherol/100 g of dill to 132.2 mg/100 g of fresh bay and from 0.14 mg gamma-tocopherol/100 g of spearmint to 3.45 mg/100 g of parsley. In all cases results were calculated from fresh leaves. Preliminary experiments were developed with bay (Laurus nobilis) plant to devise the supercritical fluid extraction of tocopherols, generating environmentally friendly processes to selectively extract fractions enriched with antioxidant compounds while removing fractions corresponding to essential oils, that is, those that correspond to the characteristic aroma of the plants. Another striking result has been the tocopherol content in the microalgae, 1.3 mg alpha-tocopherol/100 g of dried commercial spirulina, which do not justify the supposed source of antioxidant vitamins. Results suggest the need of more reliable determinations of tocopherols in vegetable sources to be included in databases.

  12. MYCOTOXINS CONTAMINATION IN EDIBLE LAND SNAIL AT GRAZING PADDOCK ENVIRONMENT

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    Ime Ebenso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins contamination of animal products is under reported. Juvenile edible land snails (Archachatina marginata were exposed as sentinels in bottomless metal drums for 1 week at abandoned, new and reference sites respectively at grazing paddock environment, to assess the presence of foodborne microbiological mycotoxins contamination during the dry season. Mycological analysis of A. marginata samples revealed high (p<0.05 contamination at all paddocks ranged from 1.2-1.3 x 105 cfu-g. Results revealed values that were found to be unacceptable by FAO/WHO standards. The presence of Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillum expansum were noted as potential toxicogenic mycoflora. Snails were tolerant to all levels of contamination with no clinical signs of infection or mortality. This finding could serve as basis for assessing pre-slaughter microbial contamination of livestock farm/field environment in order to establish data with comparative epidemiological value, which could highlight early warning signals of food safety risk and cross-contamination of mycotoxins in the food chain.

  13. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-09-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as '0' trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil).

  14. Antioxidant property of edible mushrooms collected from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Abate, Dawit; Haki, Gulelat D; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2014-08-15

    Two cultivated (P. ostreatus and L. edodes) and five wild (L. sulphureus, A. campestris, T. clypeatus, T. microcarpus and T. letestui) edible mushrooms were analyzed for their antioxidant activities, total phenolics, total flavonoids, phenolic profile and ergothioneine content. Results showed that A. campestris had the greatest antioxidant activity in all assays with lower EC50 (mg/ml) values of 1.4, 3.6 and 0.035 for scavenging, reducing and chelating activities, respectively. To correlate well with activities, A. campestris also exhibited greater total phenolics and total flavonoids content of 14.6 mg GAE/g and 1.97 mg CE/g, respectively. The maximum concentration (μg/g) of the individual phenolic compounds were 7.80 (P. ostreatus) for caffeic acid, 4.55 (T. letestui) for chlorogenic acid, 15.8 (T. microcarpus) for p-coumaric acid, 20.3 (A. campestris) for ferulic acid, 561.9 (A. campestris) for gallic acid, 38.7 (A. campestris) for p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 7.08 (A. campestris) for myricetin. All samples tested contained different amounts of ergothioneine ranging from 0.08 (L. sulphureus) to 3.78 (P. ostreatus) mg/g in dry weight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Summer dormancy in edible dormice ( Glis glis) without energetic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Claudia; Ruf, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Average longevity in free-living edible dormice ( Glis glis) can reach 9 years, which is extremely high for a small rodent. This remarkable life span has been related to a peculiar life history strategy and the rarity of reproductive bouts in these seed eaters. Most females (96%) reproduce only once or twice in their lifetime, predominantly during years of mast seeding of, e.g., beech, but entire populations can skip reproduction in years of low seed availability. Surprisingly, in non-reproductive years, large fractions of populations apparently vanished and were never captured above ground. Therefore, we determined the duration of above-ground activity, and body temperature profiles in a subset of animals, of dormice under semi-natural conditions in outdoor enclosures. We found that non-reproductive dormice returned to dormancy in underground burrows throughout summer after active seasons as short as 10 months per year in dormancy. This exceeds dormancy duration of any other mammal under natural conditions. Summer dormancy was not caused by energy constraints, as it occurred in animals in good condition, fed ad libitum and without climatic stress. We suggest that almost year-round torpor has evolved as a strategy to escape birds of prey, the major predators of this arboreal mammal. This unique predator-avoidance strategy clearly helps in explaining the unusually high longevity of dormice.

  16. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rubus idaeus, Fragaria spp., Rubus subgenus Rubus, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and the leaves of Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Chenopodiaceae species, Cardamine amara, Glechoma spp., Taraxacum spp. and Oxalis acetosella. The most commonly used wild food taxa are nearly identical to those used in Poland, and the same negative association of wild vegetables with famine exists in Slovakia, resulting in their near complete disappearance from the present-day diet.

  17. Silk Fibroin as Edible Coating for Perishable Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, B.; Brenckle, M. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Omenetto, F. G.

    2016-05-01

    The regeneration of structural biopolymers into micelles or nanoparticles suspended in water has enabled the design of new materials with unique and compelling properties that can serve at the interface between the biotic and the abiotic worlds. In this study, we leveraged silk fibroin quintessential properties (i.e. polymorphism, conformability and hydrophobicity) to design a water-based protein suspension that self-assembles on the surface of food upon dip coating. The water-based post-processing control of the protein polymorphism enables the modulation of the diffusion of gases through the silk fibroin thin membranes (e.g. O2 and CO2 diffusion, water vapour permeability), which is a key parameter to manage food freshness. In particular, an increased beta-sheet content corresponds to a reduction in oxygen diffusion through silk fibroin thin films. By using the dip coating of strawberries and bananas as proof of principle, we have shown that the formation of micrometre-thin silk fibroin membranes around the fruits helps the management of postharvest physiology of the fruits. Thus, silk fibroin coatings enhance fruits’ shelf life at room conditions by reducing cell respiration rate and water evaporation. The water-based processing and edible nature of silk fibroin makes this approach a promising alternative for food preservation with a naturally derived material.

  18. Antibacterial secondary metabolites from an endophytic fungus, Fusarium solani JK10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyekyeku, James Oppong; Kusari, Souvik; Adosraku, Reimmel Kwame; Bullach, Anke; Golz, Christopher; Strohmann, Carsten; Spiteller, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Extensive chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus, Fusarium solani JK10, harbored in the root of the Ghanaian medicinal plant Chlorophora regia, using the OSMAC (One Strain Many Compounds) approach resulted in the isolation of seven new 7-desmethyl fusarin C derivatives (1-7), together with five known compounds (8-12). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data including 1D, 2D NMR, HRESI-MSn and IR data. The relative configuration of compounds 1/2 was deduced by comparison of their experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and optical rotation data with those reported in literature. The absolute configuration of solaniol (10), a known compound with undefined absolute stereochemistry, was established for the first time by X-ray diffraction analysis of a single-crystal structure using Cu-Kα radiation. The antibacterial activities of the crude fungal extract and the compounds isolated from the fungus were evaluated against some clinically important bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, as well as an environmental strain of Escherichia coli and the soil bacterium Acinetobacter sp. BD4. Compounds 3/4 and 6 exhibited antibacterial efficacies against the soil bacterium Acinetobacter sp., comparable to the reference standard streptomycin. All the tested compounds (1-9) demonstrated antibacterial activity against the environmental strain of E. coli, whereas no antibacterial activity was observed against S. aureus and B. subtilis. The antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds typically against E. coli and Acinetobacter sp. provides further insight into the possible involvement of root-borne endophytes in chemical defense of their host plants in selected ecological niches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Life quality of postsurgical patients with colorectal cancer after supplemented diet with agaricus sylvaticus fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Fortes, R; Lacorte Recôva, V; Lima Melo, A; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, M R

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutical alternatives, directed to improve life quality and reduce adverse effects of cancer treatment, have been the purpose of studies that try to prove the immunomodulator efficacy of medicinal fungi as coadjuvant for conventional therapies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact on the life quality of post-surgical patients with colorectal cancer after supplemented diet with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus cultivated in Brazil. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial carried out at the Federal District Base Hospital-Brazil, for six months. Samples of 56 enrolled patients (24 men and 32 women), stadium phases I, II and III, separated as placebo and Agaricus sylvaticus (30 mg/kg/day) supplemented groups. Form-standard and direct anamnesis-standard were used to evaluate indicators for life quality. The method of analysis was qualitative and descriptive, processed with Microsoft Excel 2003 and Epi Info 2004 programs. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Research Committee-Health Department-Federal District. After six months of treatment, the supplemented group had increased adhesion to physical activity; improved disposition and good mood; reduced complaints of pains and alterations of sleep such as insomnia and restless sleep; presenting more appetite, reduced constipation, diarrhea, alternate diarrhea/constipation, flatulence, flatus retention, pyrosis, postprandial fullness, nausea, abdominal distention and abdominal pain, facts not observed in the placebo group. The results suggest that a dietary supplement with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus is capable of improving the life quality of patients with colorectal cancer in post-surgical phase.

  20. Ethno-Edible Mushroom of Pleurotus sp., Clytocybe nebularis and Auricularia auricula in Ranupani Village, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan Ramdani Haryati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper documented the knowledge about the wild edible fungal flora of Ranupani Village of East Java Indonesia that used by indigenous Tenggerese tribes. Study was conducted by using semi-structured interview and purposive sampling. Data were analyzed quantitatively descriptive. Index of Cultural Significance (ICS was used to evaluate the importance of non-wood forest’s yields for local people. Identification of edible mushrooms was based on Guidelines of Flora Diversity Data Collection. This study was focus on the three edible mushrooms which are eaten mostly by the villagers, i.e. Pleurotus sp., Clytocybe nebularis and Auricularia auricula. The result is the Ranupani residents’ perception of edible mushrooms and its potential as an alternative source of food based on local knowledge and local wisdom of Tenggerese. Pleurotus sp. has the highest preference and intensity to be consumed with 3,2 ICS. It means culturally, this edible mushroom were not too important but intensively used as a secondary food sources such as soup (added or sauted, chips (dried and fried. Ranupani Villagers always consumed edible mushrooms in rainy season. The ability of residents to distinguish edible mushrooms are equal to the searching ability to find edible mushroom substrate. The residents will recognized the substrate of edible mushrooms on dead trunks of Pasang Tree (Lithocarpus sundaicus, Danglu (Engelhardia spicata, Kemlandingan (Albizia Montana, Casuarina (Casuarina junghuhniana and acacia (Acacia decurens. Residents who do not have the ability to distinguish and searching were consumer, get the edible mushrooms by buying from the searcher or distributor in packs. The characteristics of an edible mushrooms are a discrete soft flesh of the fruit body, dark color, no ring on the stipe, the presence of insects (e.g. moths in the lamellae and the type of mushroom substrate. There were also assisted growths of wild mushrooms by the residents’ raw chop the

  1. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Diseases and Conditions Acupuncture Art, Dance, and Music Ayurveda Biofeedback Body Movement Chinese Medicine Electromagnetic Therapy ... American word for "rough" (referring to its root structure). It is generally used for menopausal conditions, painful ...

  2. Medicinal cannabis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-01-01

    .... The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.

  3. The use of amplified flanking region-PCR in the isolation of laccase promoter sequences from the edible fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soden, D M; Dobson, A D W

    2003-01-01

    To determine the regulation of laccase isozyme gene transcription in Pleurotus sajor-caju in response to different aromatic inducers and physiological parameters. The promoter regions for each of four different laccase isozymes were cloned from P. sajor-caju, using amplified flanking region-PCR (AFR-PCR). Sequences stretching 724, 214, 840 and 1740 bp upstream from the predicted start codons for lac1, lac2, lac3 and lac4, respectively, were cloned in each case and analysed for the presence of putative transcriptional response elements. A number of putative response elements including metal response elements, xenobiotic response elements and antioxidant response elements appear to be present. In addition putative consensus sequences such as those for the binding of AP1, AP2, creA and NIT2 transcription factors, which are involved in nitrogen and carbon regulation in different fungi, are also present in the promoter regions of some of the isozymes. These elements may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of laccase gene expression in P. sajor-caju. The presence of a number of putative transcriptional response elements in the promoter regions of different isozyme genes indicates a potential role for these sites in regulating laccase gene transcription in P. sajor-caju. In addition this work demonstrates the potential usefulness of AFR-PCR as a technique to clone fungal DNA sequences located upstream from known sequences.

  4. Primer registro de Calostoma cinnabarina (Sclerodermatales como especie comestible First record of the edibility of Calostoma cinnabarina Desv. (Sclerodermatales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Bautista-Nava

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En México, los estudios sobre Calostoma cinnabarina Desv. han sido principalmente taxonómicos, pero son escasos los que mencionan el uso que de esta especie hacen los grupos humanos. En dichos trabajos, sólo se documenta la utilidad medicinal de este hongo, sin informarse sobre su uso comestible. En el presente estudio C. cinnabarina se registra como especie comestible en el estado de Hidalgo, México. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la localidad de Agua Zarca, municipio de Tenango de Doria, donde se aplicaron entrevistas estructuradas y no estructuradas a pobladores del área, en especial a mestizos y descendientes del grupo étnico hñähñu (otomí. Los esporomas se recolectaron en boques de Pinus-Abies y los ejemplares fueron identificados por los habitantes, quienes les dan el nombre de yemitas. Aparentemente, el conocimiento de C. cinnabarina se ha ido perdiendo en los últimos años, ya que muy pocos habitantes hacen mención de la especie, que actualmente ya no se consume y que en el pasado los niños de la comunidad la comían como una especie de golosina. En este estudio se discute la relevancia y el uso de este hongo.In our country, Calostoma cinnabarina Desv., has been taxonomical studied; but the studies of this species that refer its use by human groups, are scarse. This latter type of studies have documented only the medicinal use, but not the edible feature. The present study records C. cinnabarina as an edible species in Hidalgo state, Mexico. The study was carried out in Agua Zarca, community of Tenango de Doria, where estructured and unstructured interviews to habitants of the area were applied, being mostly half-breed, descended from hñähñu (otomi ethnic group. Therefore, sporomes were collected in Pinus-Abies spp., forest. The specimens were identified by inhabitants, who named them "yemitas". Apparently this knowledge has been lost in recent years, because few people mention about the species and it is not consumed

  5. EVOLUTIONARY TRANSITIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY OF ANT FUNGUS GARDENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2010-01-01

    the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...... are targeted primarily towards partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of non-domesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major...... an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...

  6. Induction of hsp70 in the fungus Rhizopus nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernila, B; Cresnar, B; Breskvar, K

    1999-11-19

    We characterised two positive clones, RnH20/2 and RnH2/3, isolated from the cDNA library prepared from the fungus Rhizopus nigricans previously exposed to heat shock. Nucleotide sequences of both cDNA clones contained open reading frames for polypeptides with a significant amino acid identity to each other and to cytoplasmic members of Hsp70s from different eukaryotic organisms. Northern blot analysis, using a fragment of RnH2/3 as a probe, revealed that in the fungus R. nigricans the Hsp70 transcripts were inducible with deoxycorticosterone and testosterone as well as with heat stress, ethanol, CuSO(4), and H(2)O(2). This is the first report on isolation of cDNAs encoding Hsp70s from the fungal phylum Zygomycota. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  8. Efficient quantification of water content in edible oils by headspace gas chromatography with vapour phase calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2017-11-24

    An automated and accurate headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) technique was investigated for rapidly quantifying water content in edible oils. In this method, multiple headspace extraction (MHE) procedures were used to analyse the integrated water content from the edible oil sample. A simple vapour phase calibration technique with an external vapour standard was used to calibrate both the water content in the gas phase and the total weight of water in edible oil sample. After that the water in edible oils can be quantified. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the present HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 1.13%, the relative differences between the new method and a reference method (i.e. the oven-drying method) were no more than 1.62%. The present HS-GC method is automated, accurate, efficient, and can be a reliable tool for quantifying water content in edible oil related products and research. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Study on the carry capacity of edible jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Bian, Yongning; Ma, Caihua; Chi, Xupeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuyu

    2016-06-01

    Jellyfish fishing is a special type of fishery that mainly exists in some countries of East and Southeast Asia. China has the largest jellyfish fishery yield in the world with an annual harvest of around 300 thousand tons. Liaodong Bay is the most important jellyfish fishery ground in China. However, due to the high benefits of jellyfish fishery, which leads to illegal and out-of-season jellyfish fishing occurring each year in Liaodong Bay. Illegal jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay is a typical example of the tragedy of the commons. The key problem is that fishermen seek to an illegally initiate jellyfish fishing as early as possible. In this paper, basing on the data of edible jellyfish's biology and ecology, we mainly analyzed the history of jellyfish fishery in China, especially in Liaodong bay, and then we calculated the carry capacity of edible jellyfish in Liaodong Bay which is about 300 thousand tons one year. This number is equal to the recent annual yield of edible jellyfish in China. Furthermore, basing on the carry capacity and reasonable quotas price analysis, we set up a Jellyfish fishing quotas and deficit quotas buyback system which could be a suitable and effective solution for jellyfish fishery management and development in Liaodong Bay at the underlying roots. Although China is the first country with edible jellyfish aquaculture, the annual yield of jellyfish aquaculture is only one fifth of jellyfish fishing. So, there is a very bright developing prospect about edible jellyfish aquaculture in China.

  10. Determining the Time of Flight and Speed of Sound on Different types of Edible Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, N. A.; Hamid, S. B. Abd

    2017-11-01

    Edible oil is most often plant-based oils that have been extracted from various seeds. There are cases where the fully virgin edible oil was found to be a fraud. The adulterated edible oil indicates the intentional, fraudulent addition of extraneous, improper or cheaper ingredients puts into the oil or the dilution or removal of some valuable ingredient of the oil in order to increase profits. Hence, decrease the reliability of the Malaysian food product quality. This research was done by using the method of time of flight obtained using the Texas Instrument board, TDC1000-TDC7200 EVM connected to an ultrasonic transducer with 1 MHz frequency. The authors measured the time of flight and temperatures controlled from 20°C to 40°C of five vegetable oils (olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, coconut oil, and mustard oil). The value is observed and compared with other research from the literature review. From the study, time of flight values decreases exponentially while speed of sound value increases. This relationship will be useful in spectrum unfolding method to investigate the adulteration in different type of edible oil.This research outcome is to investigate the quality value of the different type of edible oil while eliminates the issues where the quality of Malaysian food product is not reliable.

  11. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as biopolymers to the edible film sorghum starch hydrophobicity characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Rr. Dewi Artanti; Setiawan, Aji; Anggraini, Puji D.

    2017-03-01

    The use of synthetic plastic should be limited because it causes the plastic waste that can not be decomposed quickly, triggering environmental problems. The solution of the plastic usage is the use of biodegradable plastic as packaging which is environmentally friendly. Synthesis of edible film can be done with a variety of components. The component mixture of starch and cellulose derivative products are one of the methods for making edible film. Sorghum is a species of cereal crops containing starch amounted to 80.42%, where the use of sorghum in Indonesia merely fodder. Therefore, sorghum is a potential material to be used as a source of starch synthesis edible film. This research aims to study the characteristics of edible starch films Sorghum and assess the effect of CMC (Carboxymethyl Cellulose) as additional materials on the characteristics of biopolymers edible film produced sorghum starch. This study is started with the production of sorghum starch, then the film synthesizing with addition of CMC (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% w/w starch), and finally the hydrophobicity characteristics test (water uptake test and water solubility test). The addition of CMC will decrease the percentage of water absorption to the film with lowest level of 65.8% in the degree of CMC in 25% (w/w starch). The addition of CMC also influences the water solubility of film, where in the degree of 25% CMC (w/w starch) the solubility of water was the lowest, which was 28.2% TSM.

  12. Wild edible mushrooms, a valuable resource for food security and rural development in Burundi and Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degreef, J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. This study is the first to compile the diversity of wild edible mushrooms gathered in the different ecosystems (savanna, woodland, montane forest, and exotic tree plantations of Burundi and Rwanda and to consider this resource in a developmental framework for the region. Objectives. The aim of this study is to update the inventory of wild edible mushrooms in Burundi and Rwanda focusing on their sustainable exploitation and their potential for cultivation. Method. The inventory is based on a literature survey completed with referenced specimens gathered during field trips between 2010 and 2015 that are deposited at the Botanic Garden Meise (BR. Results. Seventy-seven species of edible mushrooms have been listed together with their habitat and ecology. This includes 39 new records of species eaten in the region, 8 of which were not previously known to be edible. An attempt to combine the protection of natural ecosystems with the development of local populations is presented in relation to the availability of these mushrooms, their ecology and cultivation potential. Conclusions. Wild edible mushrooms constitute an interesting and under-exploited resource in Burundi and Rwanda. Sustainable gathering of ectomycorrhizal species in miombo woodlands and cultivation of saprotrophic species from montane forests suggest important food issues and interesting business perspectives.

  13. The vector tick Ixodes ricinus feeding on an arboreal rodent-the edible dormouse Glis glis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietz, Joanna; Langer, Franz; Havenstein, Nadine; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Richter, Dania

    2016-04-01

    The reservoir competence and long life expectancy of edible dormice, Glis glis, suggest that they serve as efficient reservoir hosts for Lyme disease (LD) spirochetes. Their arboreality, however, may reduce the probability to encounter sufficient questing Ixodes ricinus ticks to acquire and perpetuate LD spirochetes. To define the potential role of this small arboreal hibernator in the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes, we examined their rate and density of infestation with subadult ticks throughout the season of activity. Of the 1081 edible dormice that we captured at five study sites in Southern Germany and inspected for ticks at 2946 capture occasions, 26 % were infested with at least one and as many as 26 subadult ticks on their ear pinnae. The distribution of ticks feeding on edible dormice was highly aggregated. Although only few individuals harbored nymphal ticks soon after their emergence from hibernation, the rate of nymphal infestation increased steadily throughout the season and reached about 35 % in September. Dormice inhabiting a site with few conspecifics seemed more likely to be infested by numerous ticks, particularly nymphs, than those individuals living in densely populated sites. Male dormice were more likely to be parasitized by numerous nymphs than were females, independent of their age and body mass. Our observation that season, population density, and sex affect the rates of ticks feeding on edible dormice suggests that the contribution of edible dormice to the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes depends mainly on their ranging behavior and level of activity.

  14. Disease Prevention: An Opportunity to Expand Edible Plant-Based Vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Christopher; Cañas, Raúl; Macuer, Johan; Torres, María José; Herrada, Andrés A.; Jamett, Fabiola; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    The lethality of infectious diseases has decreased due to the implementation of crucial sanitary procedures such as vaccination. However, the resurgence of pathogenic diseases in different parts of the world has revealed the importance of identifying novel, rapid, and concrete solutions for control and prevention. Edible vaccines pose an interesting alternative that could overcome some of the constraints of traditional vaccines. The term “edible vaccine” refers to the use of edible parts of a plant that has been genetically modified to produce specific components of a particular pathogen to generate protection against a disease. The aim of this review is to present and critically examine “edible vaccines” as an option for global immunization against pathogenic diseases and their outbreaks and to discuss the necessary steps for their production and control and the list of plants that may already be used as edible vaccines. Additionally, this review discusses the required standards and ethical regulations as well as the advantages and disadvantages associated with this powerful biotechnology tool. PMID:28556800

  15. New chlamydosporol derivatives from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. #001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Ming; Dong, Wen-Bin; Li, Zheng-Hui; Feng, Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2014-01-01

    Two new chlamydosporol derivatives, fusarilactone A (1) and fusarilactone B (2), together with nine known compounds (3-11), have been isolated from the crude extract of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. #001. The structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 showed mild cytotoxicities against three tumor cell lines (SMMC-7721, A-549, and MCF-7).

  16. Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shadab Ali; Ahmad, Absar, E-mail: a.ahmad@ncl.res.in

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN{sub 3}O{sub 9}·6H{sub 2}O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy

  17. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably

  18. Cytochalasin derivatives from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun La; Wang, Haibo; Park, Ju Hee; Hong, Jongki; Choi, Jae Sue; Im, Dong Soon; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Jee H

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with proxiphomin (5), were isolated from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp. The planar structures and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, KB, and HCT116). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biotransformation of adrenosterone by filamentous fungus, Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Naik T; Musharraf, Syed G; Anjum, Shazia; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2007-12-01

    Microbial transformation of adrenosterone (1) by suspended-cell cultures of the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans resulted in the production of five metabolites 2-6, which were identified as 9alpha-hydroxyadrenosterone (2), 11-ketotestosterone (3), 6beta-hydroxyadrenosterone (4), 9alpha-hydroxy-11-ketotestosterone (5), and 6beta-hydroxy-11-ketotestosterone (6). Structures of new metabolites 2, 5, and 6 were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  20. Biotransformation of malachite green by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, C J; Doerge, D R; Cerniglia, C E

    2001-09-01

    The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green with a first-order rate constant of 0.029 micromol x h(-1) (mg of cells)(-1). Malachite green was enzymatically reduced to leucomalachite green and also converted to N-demethylated and N-oxidized metabolites, including primary and secondary arylamines. Inhibition studies suggested that the cytochrome P450 system mediated both the reduction and the N-demethylation reactions.

  1. Biotransformation of Malachite Green by the Fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Chang-Jun; Doerge, Daniel R.; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green with a first-order rate constant of 0.029 μmol h−1 (mg of cells)−1. Malachite green was enzymatically reduced to leucomalachite green and also converted to N-demethylated and N-oxidized metabolites, including primary and secondary arylamines. Inhibition studies suggested that the cytochrome P450 system mediated both the reduction and the N-demethylation reactions.

  2. A new phenylspirodrimane dimer from the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhang-Gui; Ding, Jian-Hai; Zhao, Jiang-Yuan; Chunyu, Wei-Xun; Li, Ming-Gang; Gu, Shao-Jie; Wang, Fei; Wen, Meng-Liang

    2018-03-01

    A new phenylspirodrimane dimer, named stachartarin A (1), was isolated from cultures of the tin mine tailings-associated fungus Stachybotrys chartarum. Its structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods. At the same time, the compound was tested for its cytotoxicity against HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480 cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biotransformation of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pothuluri, J.V.; Freeman, J.P.; Evans, F.E.; Cerniglia, C.E. (Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Fluorene, a tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is formed during the combustion of fossil fuels and is an important pollutant of aquatic ecosystems where it is highly toxic to fish and algae. Few studies on microbial biodegradation of fluorene have been reported. This investigation describes the metabolism of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 and the identification of major metabolites. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The berkeleyamides, amides from the acid lake fungus Penicillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierle, Andrea A; Stierle, Donald B; Patacini, Brianna

    2008-05-01

    We previously reported several novel bioactive hybrid polyketide-terpenoid metabolites from a deep water Penicillium rubrum isolated from Berkeley Pit Lake, Butte, Montana. In this paper we report the structures of four new amides, berkeleyamides A-D (1, 4, 5, 7), isolated from extracts of this fungus. The structures of these compounds were deduced by analysis of NMR data, chemical derivatization, and comparison of their spectroscopic data to those of known compounds.

  5. Oyster Mushroom as Cash-Crop Fungus Cultivated

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Ai Suminarti

    2017-01-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is a fungus that much-loved by the community. In addition to the delicious, oyster mushrooms are also very beneficial to the health of the body. High nutritional content with a variety of essential amino acids contained in it, Oyster mushrooms also contain other compounds that are important for the medical aspects. It is easily cultivated and derives income as cash for the farmer. In nature, oyster mushrooms grow only in certain seasons in limited quanti...

  6. "It Takes Longer, but When It Hits You It Hits You!": Videos About Marijuana Edibles on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Stelzer-Monahan, Haley E; Bierut, Tatiana; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A

    2017-05-12

    Interest in marijuana edibles has increased as perceptions of harm from marijuana have decreased. Media and peer influences impact youth substance use, and YouTube is the most popular video-sharing website. No studies have examined the content and accessibility of YouTube videos related to marijuana edibles. To describe the messages conveyed to viewers in YouTube videos about edibles and determine their accessibility to youth. On June 12, 2015, we searched YouTube for videos about marijuana/cannabis/weed edibles. A total of 51 videos were coded for presence of an age restriction, purpose(s) of the videos, consumption of edibles during the video, effects, and safety concerns. Total views across all 51 videos were >9 million. Only 14% (7/51) were restricted to viewers over the age of 18 years. Over half (27/51, 53%) were informative videos, most (20/27, 74%) teaching how to make edibles, and 37% (19/51) were entertaining videos. Someone consumed an edible in 31% (16/51) of the videos, and the type of high was mentioned in 51% (26/51) of the videos, including delayed (18/26, 69%) or intense high (13/26, 50%). Fifty-five percent (28/51) mentioned delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol potency or dosage. Only 10 of these (36%) presented this information specifically as a warning to prevent adverse effects. Conclusions/Importance: Edibles-related videos are easily found on YouTube, often instructing how to bake your own edibles and lacking information needed for safe consumption, and most are not age-restricted. Videos showing how to make edibles or presenting edibles use in an entertaining way that could influence youth to initiate use.

  7. Travel medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  8. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  9. Biodegradation of polyethylene microplastics by the marine fungus Zalerion maritimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paço, Ana; Duarte, Kátia; da Costa, João P; Santos, Patrícia S M; Pereira, R; Pereira, M E; Freitas, Ana C; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P

    2017-05-15

    Plastic yearly production has surpassed the 300milliontons mark and recycling has all but failed in constituting a viable solution for the disposal of plastic waste. As these materials continue to accumulate in the environment, namely, in rivers and oceans, in the form of macro-, meso-, micro- and nanoplastics, it becomes of the utmost urgency to find new ways to curtail this environmental threat. Multiple efforts have been made to identify and isolate microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers and recent results point towards the viability of a solution for this problem based on the biodegradation of plastics resorting to selected microbial strains. Herein, the response of the fungus Zalerion maritimum to different times of exposition to polyethylene (PE) pellets, in a minimum growth medium, was evaluated, based on the quantified mass differences in both the fungus and the microplastic pellets used. Additionally, molecular changes were assessed through attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Results showed that, under the tested conditions, Z. maritimum is capable of utilizing PE, resulting in the decrease, in both mass and size, of the pellets. These results indicate that this naturally occurring fungus may actively contribute to the biodegradation of microplastics, requiring minimum nutrients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Datasheet: Pseudogymnoascus destructans (white-nose syndrome fungus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David; Lankau, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic (cold-loving) fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of North American bats that has caused unprecedented population declines. The fungus is believed to have been introduced to North America from Europe or Asia (where it is present but does not cause significant mortality), but the full extent of its native range is unknown. The route of introduction is also unknown. In North America, hibernating bats become infected with P. destructans when body temperature decreases during winter torpor into the range permissive for growth of this fungus. Infected bats may develop visible fungal growth on the nose or wings, awaken more frequently from torpor, and experience a cascade of physiologic changes that result in weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and death. P. destructans persists in the environments of underground bat hibernation sites (hibernacula) and is believed to spread primarily by natural movements of infected bats. The first evidence of WNS in North America is from a photograph of a hibernating bat taken during winter of 2005-2006 in a hibernaculum near Albany, New York. P. destructans subsequently spread rapidly from the northeastern United States throughout much of the eastern portions of the United States and Canada, and most recently (as of May 2017) was detected in Washington State. It has killed millions of bats, threatening some species with regional extirpation and putting at risk the valuable environmental services that bats provide by eating harmful insects.

  11. Efficient xylose fermentation by the brown rot fungus Neolentinus lepideus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Kanawaku, Ryuichi; Masumoto, Masaru; Yanase, Hideshi

    2012-02-10

    The efficient production of bioethanol on an industrial scale requires the use of renewable lignocellulosic biomass as a starting material. A limiting factor in developing efficient processes is identifying microorganisms that are able to effectively ferment xylose, the major pentose sugar found in hemicellulose, and break down carbohydrate polymers without pre-treatment steps. Here, a basidiomycete brown rot fungus was isolated as a new biocatalyst with unprecedented fermentability, as it was capable of converting not only the 6-carbon sugars constituting cellulose, but also the major 5-carbon sugar xylose in hemicelluloses, to ethanol. The fungus was identified as Neolentinus lepideus and was capable of assimilating and fermenting xylose to ethanol in yields of 0.30, 0.33, and 0.34 g of ethanol per g of xylose consumed under aerobic, oxygen-limited, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. A small amount of xylitol was detected as the major by-product of xylose metabolism. N. lepideus produced ethanol from glucose, mannose, galactose, cellobiose, maltose, and lactose with yields ranging from 0.34 to 0.38 g ethanol per g sugar consumed, and also exhibited relatively favorable conversion of non-pretreated starch, xylan, and wheat bran. These results suggest that N. lepideus is a promising candidate for cost-effective and environmentally friendly ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report on efficient ethanol fermentation from various carbohydrates, including xylose, by a naturally occurring brown rot fungus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 9 Microbiological quality of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Karen Reis Barbosa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the microbiologic contamination of samples of medicinal plants collected and commercialized in Montes Claros – MG, Brazil. The plants were acquired in various places and in a public market in Montes Claros. They were estimated for infection by fecal coliforms, mold and yeast, through the method described in APHA (1992. The results showed that 72.3% of plants commercializad in popular markets in Montes Claros were infected by fungus and that 100% of these were creepers. The results also showed that 57% of plants acquired in organic cultivation systems and having fungal infections were pilous plants. However, it was noted in the determination of fecal coliforms that all the samples had infections lower than the maximum established limit. Since medicinal plants are often used in natura, there is no need to maintain a higher microbiological quality.

  13. Comparative study of wild edible mushrooms as sources of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore sixteen of the most popular edible species of wild-growing mushrooms as potential sources of antioxidants. Among the mushrooms tested, the highest total polyphenol contents, exceeding 100 mg/100 g fresh mass, were found in five mushrooms: Boletus chrysenteron, B. edulis, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Macrolepiota procera. Antioxidant activity was measured with the FRAP, TEAC, DPPH scavenging ability and ferrous ions chelating ability assays. Results of the study show that wild mushrooms vary according to their antioxidant properties. The highest FRAP potentials, exceeding 1 mmol/100 g, were found in five species ofBoletales: Boletus edulis, B. chrysenteron, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Suillus grevillei. TEAC values were from 1.07 to 4.01 mmol/100 g fresh mass. High TEAC values (>2.3 mmol/100 g) were found in Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus chrysenteron, and B. edulis. The DPPH radical scavenging effectiveness of mushroom extracts, expressed as EC50 values, was in range 2.91-13.86 mg/mL. Scavenging ability was the highest for B. edulis and B. chrysenteron. The metal chelating ability of mushroom extracts expressed as ECso values of chelating ability on ferrous ions were from 8.02 mg/mL in Cantharellus cibarius to 12.10 mg/mL in Suillus luteus. Among the mushrooms tested, Boletus chrysenteron and B. edulis were characterized by high scores of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in the FRAP, TEAC, and DPPH assays. These results place these culinary species of wild-growing mushrooms among products with considerable antioxidant potential.

  14. Enhanced reductive dechlorination in columns treated with edible oil emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Cameron M.; Borden, Robert C.

    2006-09-01

    The effect of edible oil emulsion treatment on enhanced reductive dechlorination was evaluated in a 14 month laboratory column study. Experimental treatments included: (1) emulsified soybean oil and dilute HCl to inhibit biological activity; (2) emulsified oil only; (3) emulsified oil and anaerobic digester sludge; and (4) continuously feeding soluble substrate. A single application of emulsified oil was effective in generating strongly reducing, anaerobic conditions for over 14 months. PCE was rapidly reduced to cis-DCE in all three live columns. Bioaugmentation with a halorespiring enrichment culture resulted in complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene in the soluble substrate column (yeast extract and lactate). However, an additional treatment with a pulse of yeast extract and bioaugmentation culture was required to stimulate complete dechlorination in the emulsion treated columns. Once the dechlorinating population was established, the emulsion only column degraded PCE from 90-120 μM to below detection with concurrent ethene production in a 33 day contact time. The lower biodegradation rates in the emulsion treated columns compared to the soluble substrate column suggest that emulsified oil barriers may require a somewhat longer contact time for effective treatment. In the HCl inhibited column, partitioning of PCE to the retained oil substantially delayed PCE breakthrough. However, reduction of PCE to more soluble degradation products ( cis-DCE, VC and ethene) greatly reduced the impact of oil-water partitioning in live columns. There was only a small decline in the hydraulic conductivity ( K) of column #1 (low pH + emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.57) and column #2 (live + emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.73) indicating emulsion injection did not result in appreciable clogging of the clayey sand. However, K loss was greater in column #3 (sludge +emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.12) and column #4 (soluble substrate, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.03) indicating clogging due

  15. Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Edible Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Edible salt is the most commonly used food additive worldwide. Therefore, any contamination of table salt could be a health hazard. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the levels of heavy metals in table and bakery refined salts. Materials and Methods Eighty-one table refined salt samples and the same number of bakery refined salt samples were purchased from retail market in the province of Hamadan, Iran. The levels of lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, mercury (Hg, copper (Cu, and iron (Fe were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy method. Results The levels (mean ± SD, μg/g of Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Fe in table refined salt samples were 0.852 ± 0.277, 0.229 ± 0.012, 0.054 ± 0.040, 1.25 ± 0.245 and 0.689 ± 1.58, respectively. The results for the same metals in bakery refined salt samples were as follows (mean ± SD, μg/g: 22 ± 0.320 for Pb, 0.240 ± 0.018 for Cd, 0.058 ± 0.007 for Hg, 1.89 ± 0.218 for Cu, and 8.75 ± 2.10 for Fe. Heavy metal concentrations were generally higher in bakery refined salt. Conclusions The results obtained in the present study were compared with the literature and legal limits. All values for these metals in the table and bakery refined salts were lower than the permitted consumption level defined by Codex (2 µg/g of Pb, 0.5 µg/g of Cd, 0.1 µg/g of Hg, and 2 µg/g of Cu.

  16. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širić, Ivan; Humar, Miha; Kasap, Ante; Kos, Ivica; Mioč, Boro; Pohleven, Franc

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals cause serious problems in the environment, and they can be accumulated in organisms, especially in the higher fungi. The concentration of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg in 10 species of edible mushrooms in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia was therefore determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis based on concentrations of the aforementioned metals in the fruiting bodies. The contents of nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, and mercury in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms were obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The highest concentrations of Ni (3.62 mg kg(-1)), Cr (3.01 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (2.67 mg kg(-1)) were determined in Agaricus campestris. The highest concentration of Pb (1.67 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Macrolepiota procera, and the highest concentration of Hg (2.39 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Boletus edulis. The concentration of all heavy metals significantly differed (p mushrooms. Considering anatomical part of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably higher concentration of the analyzed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bioconcentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bioexclusors of Ni, Cr, and Pb and bioaccumulators of Cd and Hg. Cluster analysis performed on the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals revealed great phenotypic similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation.

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  20. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  3. Diterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Botryosphaeria sp. P483 of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Huperzia serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Mei Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new tetranorlabdane diterpenoids, named botryosphaerins G (1 and H (2, were isolated from the solid fermentation products of Botryosphaeria sp. P483 along with seven known tetranorlabdane diterpenes (3–9. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS. Their absolute configuration was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses using the anomalous scattering of Cu Kα radiation. All of the isolated compounds were tested for activity against phytopathogenic fungi and nematodes. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antifungal activity and compound 2 showed weak nematicidal activity.

  4. Biotransformation of vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) by solid-state fermentation using medicinal fungus Poria cocos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Chenhuan; Huang, Gang; Zhao, Jieyuan; Wang, Xinfeng; Ji, Lilian; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2016-08-01

    Vine tea was bio-transformed using Poria cocos by solid-state fermentation in order to improve its taste and quality. Volatile components in vine tea were also identified by GC-MS. The changes of flavonoid, tea polyphenols and polysaccharides in fermented vine tea were evaluated. Flavonoid and polyphenols in vine tea were remained unchanged even after biotransformation, but content of polysaccharides increased to 3.9-fold than that of unfermented vine tea. Antioxidant activity such as DPPH free radical scavenging capacity (SR) was determined that there was a positive correlation between SR and content of polysaccharides in vine tea. Methyl 2-methylvalerate-a new volatile compound was identified and gave the vine tea rich delicate fragrance of fruits. The content of linolenic acid increased from 0.88 to 19.59 %. Biotransformation improved the taste and quality of vine tea.

  5. Nutritional analysis of Vietnamese seaweeds for food and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Diem Hong; Hoang, Thi Minh Hien

    2004-01-01

    Vietnamese edible marine macro-algae (seaweed) are of interest because of their value in nutrition and medicine. Vietnamese living in the coastal have traditionally utilized seaweeds species as food supplement and herbal medicine. They consumed seaweed as food in various forms: raw as salad and vegetable, pickle with sauce or with vinegar, relish or sweetened jellies and also cooked for vegetable soup. As herbal medicine, seaweed is usually used for traditional comestics, treatments for cough, asthma, hemorrhoid, boils, goitres, stomach ailments, urinary diseases, reduce the incidence of tumors, ulcers and headaches. Although Vietnam has an abundance of algae floral with total number of species is estimated to be nearly 1000 spp. in which there are 638 species of marine algae identified. However, there have been no intense study regarding to changes in marine algal chemistry. The fifteen species of edible seaweeds studied in this paper include green, brown and red algae. The proximate compositions as ash, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, fatty acids, vitamins, pigments, macro and micro-elements were compared among different species examined and the genetic relationships among them by analyzing the species-specific differences in nucleotide sequences of ITS-1 region of the ribosomal DNA was identified.

  6. [Medicinal cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  7. Antimicrobial outcomes in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.; Woloszko, Jean

    2015-03-01

    Plasma is referred to as the fourth state of matter and is frequently generated in the environment of a strong electric field. The result consists of highly reactive species--ions, electrons, reactive atoms and molecules, and UV radiation. Plasma Medicine unites a number of fields, including Physics, Plasma Chemistry, Cell Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine. The treatment modality utilizes Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP), which is able to sterilize and treat microbes in a nonthermal manner. These gas-based plasma systems operate at close to room temperature and atmospheric pressure, making them very practical for a range of potential treatments and are highly portable for clinical use throughout the health care system. The hypothesis is that gas based plasma kills bacteria, fungus, and viruses but spares mammalian cells. This paper will review systematic work which shows examples of systems and performance in regards to antimicrobial effects and the sparing of mammalian cells. The mechanism of action will be discussed, as well as dosing for the treatment of microbial targets, including sterilization processes, another important healthcare need. In addition, commercial systems will be overviewed and compared, along with evidence-based, patient results. The range of treatments cover wound treatment and biofilms, as well as antimicrobial treatment, with little chance for resistance and tolerance, as in drug regimens. Current clinical studies include applications in dentistry, food treatment, cancer treatment, wound treatment for bacteria and biofilms, and systems to combat health care related infections.

  8. Side-stream products of edible oil refining as feedstocks in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Bojan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a diesel fuel alternative, is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats by the transesterification reaction of triacylglycerols and lower aliphatic alcohols. Beside number advantages related to fossil fuels, the main barrier to biodiesel wider commercial use is the high price of edible oils. Recently, the special attention was given to side-stream products of edible oil refining as low-cost triacylglycerol sources for biodiesel production because of their positive economic and ecological effects. In this paper, the different procedures for biodiesel production from side-stream refining products such as soapstock, spent bleaching earth and deodorizer distillate were analyzed. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the possibilities for reusing the by-products of edible oil refinement in the biodiesel production.

  9. A novel method for qualitative analysis of edible oil oxidation using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lirong; Yu, Xiuzhu; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) was used for rapid assessment of the degree of oxidation in edible oils. Peroxide and acid values of edible oil samples were analyzed using data obtained by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) Official Method for reference. Qualitative discrimination between non-oxidized and oxidized oils was conducted using the E-nose technique developed in combination with cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results from CA, PCA and LDA indicated that the E-nose technique could be used for differentiation of non-oxidized and oxidized oils. LDA produced slightly better results than CA and PCA. The proposed approach can be used as an alternative to AOCS Official Method as an innovative tool for rapid detection of edible oil oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize pea starch-chitosan novel edible film formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Rahul; Saberi, Bahareh; Pristijono, Penta; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Golding, John B; Scarlett, Christopher J; Bowyer, Michael; Vuong, Quan V

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an optimal formulation for preparation of edible films from chitosan, pea starch and glycerol using response surface methodology. Three independent variables were assigned comprising chitosan (1-2%), pea starch (0.5-1.5%) and glycerol (0.5-1%) to design an empirical model best fit in physical, mechanical and barrier attributes. Impacts of independent variables on thickness, moisture content, solubility, tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break and water vapor permeability of films were evaluated. All the parameters were found to have significant effects on physical and mechanical properties of film. The optimal formulation for preparation of edible film from chitosan, pea starch and glycerol was 1% chitosan, 1.5% pea starch and 0.5% glycerol. Edible films with good physical and mechanical properties can be prepared with this formulation and thus this formulation can be further applied for testing on coating for fruit and vegetables.

  11. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  12. Physical and antibacterial properties of Açaí edible films formulated with thyme essential oil and apple skin polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açaí edible films incorporated with apple skin polyphenols (ASP), thyme essential oil (TEO) or their mixture were developed as antimicrobial active packaging for food preservation. Antimicrobial activity of açaí edible films against Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated. The effects of both antimicro...

  13. 76 FR 44571 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Edible Flowers of Izote, Immature...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... pathway; and The flowers, immature inflorescences, or leaves are imported as commercial consignments only... Edible Flowers of Izote, Immature Inflorescences of Pacaya, Immature Inflorescences of Chufle, and Fresh... the importation into the continental United States of fresh edible flowers of izote, immature...

  14. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  15. 9 CFR 316.14 - Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products. 316.14 Section 316.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... CONTAINERS § 316.14 Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products. Each tank...

  16. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael; Suen, Garret

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging...... behavior of the leaf-cutters (the most derived attine lineage). Indeed, the discovery that the ants actually use leaf fragments to manure a fungus did not come until the 1800s. More recently, three additional microbial symbionts have been described, including specialized microfungal parasites of the ant......'s fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because...

  17. The origin of the attine ant-fungus mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, U G; Schultz, T R; Currie, C R; Adams, R M; Malloch, D

    2001-06-01

    Cultivation of fungus for food originated about 45-65 million years ago in the ancestor of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, tribe Attini), representing an evolutionary transition from the life of a hunter-gatherer of arthropod prey, nectar, and other plant juices, to the life of a farmer subsisting on cultivated fungi. Seven hypotheses have been suggested for the origin of attine fungiculture, each differing with respect to the substrate used by the ancestral attine ants for fungal cultivation. Phylogenetic information on the cultivated fungi, in conjunction with information on the nesting biology of extant attine ants and their presumed closest relatives, reveal that the attine ancestors probably did not encounter their cultivars-to-be in seed stores (von Ihering 1894), in rotting wood (Forel 1902), as mycorrhizae (Garling 1979), on arthropod corpses (von Ihering 1894) or ant faeces in nest middens (Wheeler 1907). Rather, the attine ant-fungus mutualism probably arose from adventitious interactions with fungi that grew on walls of nests built in leaf litter (Emery 1899), or from a system of fungal myrmecochory in which specialized fungi relied on ants for dispersal (Bailey 1920) and in which the ants fortuitously vectored these fungi from parent to offspring nests prior to a true fungicultural stage. Reliance on fungi as a dominant food source has evolved only twice in ants: first in the attine ants, and second in some ant species in the solenopsidine genus Megalomyrmex that either coexist as trophic parasites in gardens of attine hosts or aggressively usurp gardens from them. All other known ant-fungus associations are either adventitious or have nonnutritional functions (e.g., strengthening of carton-walls in ant nests). There exist no unambiguous reports of facultative mycophagy in ants, but such trophic ant-fungus interactions would most likely occur underground or in leaf litter and thus escape easy observation. Indirect evidence of fungivory can be deduced

  18. U.S. cannabis legalization and use of vaping and edible products among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodovsky, Jacob T; Lee, Dustin C; Crosier, Benjamin S; Gabrielli, Joy L; Sargent, James D; Budney, Alan J

    2017-08-01

    Alternative methods for consuming cannabis (e.g., vaping and edibles) have become more popular in the wake of U.S. cannabis legalization. Specific provisions of legal cannabis laws (LCL) (e.g., dispensary regulations) may impact the likelihood that youth will use alternative methods and the age at which they first try the method - potentially magnifying or mitigating the developmental harms of cannabis use. This study examined associations between LCL provisions and how youth consume cannabis. An online cannabis use survey was distributed using Facebook advertising, and data were collected from 2630 cannabis-using youth (ages 14-18). U.S. states were coded for LCL status and various LCL provisions. Regression analyses tested associations among lifetime use and age of onset of cannabis vaping and edibles and LCL provisions. Longer LCL duration (OR vaping : 2.82, 95% CI: 2.24, 3.55; OR edibles : 3.82, 95% CI: 2.96, 4.94), and higher dispensary density (OR vaping : 2.68, 95% CI: 2.12, 3.38; OR edibles : 3.31, 95% CI: 2.56, 4.26), were related to higher likelihood of trying vaping and edibles. Permitting home cultivation was related to higher likelihood (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.50, 2.48) and younger age of onset (β: -0.30, 95% CI: -0.45, -0.15) of edibles. Specific provisions of LCL appear to impact the likelihood, and age at which, youth use alternative methods to consume cannabis. These methods may carry differential risks for initiation and escalation of cannabis use. Understanding associations between LCL provisions and methods of administration can inform the design of effective cannabis regulatory strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PEMBUATAN DAN KAJIAN SIFAT-SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA, MEKANIKAL, DAN FUNGSIONAL EDIBLE FILM DARI KITOSAN UDANG WINDU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sofia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop bioplastic as primary packaging or edible film of chitosan biopolymer derived from tiger prawn shells (Penaeus monodon, and to perform physicochemical and mechanical characteristics. An evaluation of the physicochemical properties of plastic films made from chitosan, by modifying the order of the different treatment processes, namely: a DPMA (deproteination, demineralization, deacetylation, b DMKA (demineralization, decoloration, and deacetylation has conducted. The results of scanning FT-IR of the product shows that chitosan has identical spectrum compare of standard compound. Chitosan product from tiger prawn shells was the used as raw material for the manufacture of bioplastics. Experiments variable on the manufacture of edible film is a study of the effect of the use of different plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol and carboxylmethylcelullose (CMC additives to the physicochemical, mechanical characteristics, and edible film functional. The results showed that all the edible film produced has a clear coat with a thickness between 0.05 to 0.3 mm. Meanwhile, the film density is highest at the DPMA + chitosan edible film sorbitol + CMC with a value of 1.7300 g/cm3. The use of plasticizer sorbitol provides great tensile strength but not too elastic, compared to the glycerol, while an increase in the average CMC can increase tensile strength and %Elongation. The use of different plasticizers and additives CMC does not significantly affect its functional properties, where the value of WVTR (water vapor transmission rate is relatively the same on both types of edible films, ranging from 3.2409 to 4.8858 g /hr.m2.

  20. Medicinal Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindequist, U.; Won Kim, H.; Tiralongo, E.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants