WorldWideScience

Sample records for edible animal products

  1. Review on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for sulfonamide residues in edible animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Shuo

    2009-10-31

    The current status of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for sulfonamides in edible animal products is reviewed. The attention was focused on the design and synthesis of haptens, conjugation to carrier protein, production of antibody, application of homologous and heterologous systems, as well as the molecular modeling of the haptens and sulfonamides. Researches have shown that sulfonamides seem to be particularly resistant to attempts to produce broad specificity antibodies. By summarizing the available research on sulfonamide ELISAs, it is hoped that it can be considered as a basis for further investigation aimed at developing the most efficient approaches for detection.

  2. Invited review: Resource inputs and land, water and carbon footprints from the production of edible protein of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flachowsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze crucial factors in the output from the production of proteins in food of animal origin, such as milk, meat and eggs. We then consider inputs such as land, water, fuel, minerals and feed, as well as characterize emissions. Finally, we estimate footprints for land (land footprint, LF, water (water footprint, WF and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint, CF during the production process. The wide range of different land and water inputs per unit feed between various studies largely influences the results. Further influencing factors are species and categories of animals that produce edible protein, their yields and the feeding of animals. Coproducts with no or low humanly edible fractions and grassland as feed contribute to a lower need for arable land and lower LF, WF and CF. The most efficient land use or the lowest LF per kilogram of edible protein was estimated for higher milk and egg yields; the highest LF values were calculated for beef, followed by pork. The lowest WF and CF were calculated for edible protein of chicken meat and eggs. Edible protein from ruminants is mostly characterized by a higher CF because of the high greenhouse gas potential of methane produced in the rumen. A key prerequisite for further progress in this field is the harmonization of data collection and calculation methods. Alternatives to partial or complete replacement of protein of terrestrial animals, such as marine animals, insects, cell cultures, single-cell proteins or simulated animal products from plants, as well as changing eating patterns and reducing food losses are mentioned as further potential ways for more efficient feed production. For all those dealing with plant or animal breeding and cultivation and all those who are working along the whole food production chain, it is a major challenge to enhance the production of more food for more people with, at the same time, less, limited resources and

  3. 9 CFR 316.14 - Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products. 316.14 Section 316.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... CONTAINERS § 316.14 Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products. Each tank...

  4. Utilization of some non-edible oil for biodiesel production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the production of biodiesel from four sources of non-edible oils, namely jatropha, animal fat, waste vegetable oil and castor oil was carried out. It was done using an acid esterification process followed by alkali transesterification in the laboratory. Subsequently the physicochemical properties for four blends B100 ...

  5. Integrated Process for Ethanol, Biogas, and Edible Filamentous Fungi-Based Animal Feed Production from Dilute Phosphoric Acid-Pretreated Wheat Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kabir, Maryam M; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2018-01-01

    Integration of wheat straw for a biorefinery-based energy generation process by producing ethanol and biogas together with the production of high-protein fungal biomass (suitable for feed application) was the main focus of the present study. An edible ascomycete fungal strain Neurospora intermedia was used for the ethanol fermentation and subsequent biomass production from dilute phosphoric acid (0.7 to 1.2% w/v) pretreated wheat straw. At optimum pretreatment conditions, an ethanol yield of 84 to 90% of the theoretical maximum, based on glucan content of substrate straw, was observed from fungal fermentation post the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The biogas production from the pretreated straw slurry showed an improved methane yield potential up to 162% increase, as compared to that of the untreated straw. Additional biogas production, using the syrup, a waste stream obtained post the ethanol fermentation, resulted in a combined total energy output of 15.8 MJ/kg wheat straw. Moreover, using thin stillage (a waste stream from the first-generation wheat-based ethanol process) as a co-substrate to the biogas process resulted in an additional increase by about 14 to 27% in the total energy output as compared to using only wheat straw-based substrates. ᅟ.

  6. Land Use for Edible Protein of Animal Origin—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The growing world population has led to a higher demand for more and better quality food. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and other non-renewable resources. Proteins of animal origin are very valuable sources of essential nutrients, but their production consumes resources and causes emissions. The aim of this study was to calculate exemplarily the land use for production of edible animal protein from different animal species and categories in consideration of important influencing factors. Large differences were found with the highest amounts per kilogram of body weight produced by broiler chickens and the lowest yields in edible protein and the highest land need observed for beef cattle. Abstract The present period is characterized by a growing world population and a higher demand for more and better quality food, as well as other products for an improved standard of living. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and non-renewable resources such as fossil carbon-sources, water, and some minerals, as well as between food, feed, fuel, fiber, flowers, and fun (6 F’s). Proteins of animal origin like milk, meat, fish, eggs and, probably, insects are very valuable sources of essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins, but their production consumes some non-renewable resources including arable land and causes considerable emissions. Therefore, this study´s objective was to calculate some examples of the land use (arable land and grassland) for production of edible animal protein taking into consideration important animal species/categories, levels of plant and animal yields, the latter estimated with and without co-products from agriculture, and the food/biofuel industry in animal feeding. There are large differences between animal species/categories and their potential to produce edible protein depending on many influencing variables. The highest amounts per kilogram

  7. Side-stream products of edible oil refining as feedstocks in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Bojan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a diesel fuel alternative, is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats by the transesterification reaction of triacylglycerols and lower aliphatic alcohols. Beside number advantages related to fossil fuels, the main barrier to biodiesel wider commercial use is the high price of edible oils. Recently, the special attention was given to side-stream products of edible oil refining as low-cost triacylglycerol sources for biodiesel production because of their positive economic and ecological effects. In this paper, the different procedures for biodiesel production from side-stream refining products such as soapstock, spent bleaching earth and deodorizer distillate were analyzed. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the possibilities for reusing the by-products of edible oil refinement in the biodiesel production.

  8. Land Use for Edible Protein of Animal Origin—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Flachowsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present period is characterized by a growing world population and a higher demand for more and better quality food, as well as other products for an improved standard of living. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and non-renewable resources such as fossil carbon-sources, water, and some minerals, as well as between food, feed, fuel, fiber, flowers, and fun (6 F’s. Proteins of animal origin like milk, meat, fish, eggs and, probably, insects are very valuable sources of essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins, but their production consumes some non-renewable resources including arable land and causes considerable emissions. Therefore, this study´s objective was to calculate some examples of the land use (arable land and grassland for production of edible animal protein taking into consideration important animal species/categories, levels of plant and animal yields, the latter estimated with and without co-products from agriculture, and the food/biofuel industry in animal feeding. There are large differences between animal species/categories and their potential to produce edible protein depending on many influencing variables. The highest amounts per kilogram body weight are produced by growing broiler chicken followed by laying hens and dairy cows; the lowest yields in edible protein and the highest land need were observed for beef cattle. This review clearly indicates that the production of food of animal origin is a very complex process, and selective considerations, i.e., focusing on single factors, do not provide an assessment that reflects the complexity of the subject.

  9. Rapid Determination of Ractopamine Residues in Edible Animal Products by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: Development and Investigation of Matrix Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine ractopamine residues in animal food products (chicken muscle, pettitoes, pig muscle, and pig liver, we established a rapid direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using a polyclonal antibody generated from ractopamine-linker-BSA. The antibody showed high sensitivity and specificity in phosphate buffer, with an IC50 of 0.6 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.04 ng/mL. The matrix effect of the samples was easily eliminated by one-step extraction with PBS, without any organic solution or clean-up procedure such as SPE or liquid-liquid extraction, making it a much more simple and rapid method than previously reported ones. The detection limit in blank samples was 0.2 μg/kg. To validate this new RAC (ractopamine hydrochloride ELISA, a RAC-free pig liver sample spiked at three different concentrations was prepared and analyzed by HPLC and ELISA. The results showed a good correlation between the data of ELISA and HPLC (R2>0.95, which proves that the established ELISA is accurate enough to quantify the residue of RAC in the animal derived foods.

  10. Rapid determination of ractopamine residues in edible animal products by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: development and investigation of matrix effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fengxia; Fang, Li; Wang, Shuo; Fang, Guozhen

    2009-01-01

    To determine ractopamine residues in animal food products (chicken muscle, pettitoes, pig muscle, and pig liver), we established a rapid direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a polyclonal antibody generated from ractopamine-linker-BSA. The antibody showed high sensitivity and specificity in phosphate buffer, with an IC(50) of 0.6 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.04 ng/mL. The matrix effect of the samples was easily eliminated by one-step extraction with PBS, without any organic solution or clean-up procedure such as SPE or liquid-liquid extraction, making it a much more simple and rapid method than previously reported ones. The detection limit in blank samples was 0.2 mug/kg. To validate this new RAC (ractopamine hydrochloride) ELISA, a RAC-free pig liver sample spiked at three different concentrations was prepared and analyzed by HPLC and ELISA. The results showed a good correlation between the data of ELISA and HPLC (R(2) > 0.95), which proves that the established ELISA is accurate enough to quantify the residue of RAC in the animal derived foods.

  11. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  12. Animal Products and Handling: A Caution for Consumers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reviewed pertinent literature on edible animal products and handling with respect to contaminations and adulterations. Animal products include eggs, meat, milk, fish, skin/hide that are processed into other by products for human consumption. There is the need for awareness campaignsto consumers and ...

  13. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Product Safety Information Product Safety Information Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... to report adverse experiences with veterinary drugs. Additional Product Information Questions and Answers: Evanger’s Dog and Cat ...

  14. Consumers' Perceptions of Edible Marijuana Products for Recreational Use: Likes, Dislikes, and Reasons for Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombi, Kristen C; Kosa, Katherine M; Rains, Carrie; Cates, Sheryl C

    2018-03-21

    Edible marijuana products have become extremely popular in states that have legalized marijuana for recreational use. The goal of this research was to provide a better understanding of consumer perceptions of edible marijuana products, including why they prefer edibles relative to other forms of marijuana (e.g., smoking) and their concerns regarding the consumption of edibles. We conducted eight focus groups (four groups in Denver, Colorado, and four groups in Seattle, Washington) in February 2016 with 62 adult consumers of edibles. Focus group transcripts were coded in QSR NVivo 10.0 qualitative analysis software, and coding reports identified trends across participants. Most participants preferred edibles to smoking marijuana because there is no smell from smoke and no secondhand smoke. Other reasons participants like edibles included convenience, discreetness, longer-lasting highs, less intense highs, and edibles' ability to aid in relaxation and reduce anxiety more so than smoking marijuana. Concerns and dislikes about edibles included delayed effects, unexpected highs, the unpredictability of the high, and inconsistency of distribution of marijuana in the product. No participants in either location mentioned harmful health effects from consuming edibles as a concern. Conclusions/Importance: The present study was qualitative in nature and provides a good starting point for further research to quantify through surveys how consumers understand and use edibles. Such information will help guide policy makers and regulators as they establish regulations for edibles. Also, such research can help inform educational campaigns on proper use of edibles for recreational purposes.

  15. 9 CFR 314.7 - Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of livestock condemned on... DISPOSAL OF CONDEMNED OR OTHER INEDIBLE PRODUCTS AT OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.7 Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. Carcasses of livestock which...

  16. Production of biodiesel from melia azedarach seed oil: a non- edible feedstock for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, T.; Tariq, M.I.; Ranaa, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel (BD) is a first-generation biofuel that has emerged as a renewable alternative diesel fuel, obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animals fats, using a short-chain alcohol and a catalyst that may be an acid, a base or an enzyme. BD can be used in the existing compression-ignition engines without any further modification. Presently, most of the BD production is being carried out using edible vegetable oil which has put a strain on the food supply and, hence, has led it into a competition with the food industry. It has also resulted in a rise in the prices of such feed stocks. Hence, search for the newer and non-edible feed stocks is becoming increasingly important. The objective of the present work is to explore the utility of Melia azedarach seed oil, a non-edible feedstock, for the preparation of BD. The oil was extracted by using n-hexane as a solvent and a oil content of 32% was obtained. As a result of transesterification using sodium hydroxide and methanol, 80% conversion of the oil into BD was obtained. Fatty acid profile of the oil and the BD were found to be almost the same. Different fuel properties of the BD prepared were studied including viscosity, iodine number, acid number, cold point and cetane number, and the values obtained are 4.7, 112, 0.45 mg KOH/g, < -10 deg. C and 45, respectively. Although the oxidation stability is less than the required standard value by EN 14214, but it can be enhanced by introducing some additives into the final product. Other properties were found to be in agreement with the required specifications for BD by EN 14214, hence Melia azedarach seed oil is a suitable non-edible feedstock for the production of BD. (author)

  17. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research are reviewed. These include various techniques associated with both the qualitative localization and quantitative measurements of isotopes in animals; comparator studies in which measurement of the radioactivity in one part of a system will allow computation of the mass or volume in another part; in vivo and in vitro applications of isotope dilution studies; and the use of isotopes in dynamic systems analyses. The use of stable isotopes in mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance in animal research is also briefly reviewed. Finally some of the successful uses of radiation produced by radioactive sources or various types of generators of electromagnetic radiations in animal production and health studies are described. (U.K.)

  18. Potential alternatives to edible oils for biodiesel production - A review of current work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel production is a very modern and technological area for researchers due to the relevance that it is winning everyday because of the increase in the petroleum price and the environmental advantages. Currently, biodiesel is mainly prepared from conventionally grown edible oils such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm thus leading to alleviate food versus fuel issue. About 7% of global vegetable oil supplies were used for biodiesel production in 2007. Extensive use of edible oils may cause other significant problems such as starvation in developing countries. The use of non-edible plant oils when compared with edible oils is very significant in developing countries because of the tremendous demand for edible oils as food, and they are far too expensive to be used as fuel at present. The production of biodiesel from different non-edible oilseed crops has been extensively investigated over the last few years. (author)

  19. The Potential of Microalgae Lipids for Edible Oil Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanfei; Zhang, Dongmei; Xue, Shengzhang; Wang, Meng; Cong, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of oil-rich green algae, Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Nannochloropsis oceanica, to produce edible oil with respect to lipid and residue properties. The results showed that C. vulgaris and N. oceanica had similarly much higher lipid recovery (about 50 %) in hexane extraction than that of S. obliquus (about 25 %), and C. vulgaris had the highest content of neutral lipids among the three algae. The fatty acid compositions of neutral lipids from C. vulgaris and S. obliquus were mainly C16 and C18, resembling that of vegetable oils. ARA and EPA were the specific valuable fatty acids in lipids of N. oceanica, but the content of which was lower in neutral lipids. Phytol was identified as the major unsaponifiable component in lipids of the three algae. Combined with the evaluation of the ratios in SFA/MUFA/PUFA, (n-6):(n-3) and content of free fatty acids, lipids obtained from C. vulgaris displayed the great potential for edible oil production. Lipids of N. oceanica showed the highest antioxidant activity, and its residue contained the largest amounts of protein as well as the amino acid compositions were greatly beneficial to the health of human beings.

  20. Antibiotics in Animal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Amílcar C.

    The administration of antibiotics to animals to prevent or treat diseases led us to be concerned about the impact of these antibiotics on human health. In fact, animal products could be a potential vehicle to transfer drugs to humans. Using appropri ated mathematical and statistical models, one can predict the kinetic profile of drugs and their metabolites and, consequently, develop preventive procedures regarding drug transmission (i.e., determination of appropriate withdrawal periods). Nevertheless, in the present chapter the mathematical and statistical concepts for data interpretation are strictly given to allow understanding of some basic pharma-cokinetic principles and to illustrate the determination of withdrawal periods

  1. Seaweed Extracts as Edible Coatings for Minimally Processed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the better performance by minimizing physical and chemical changes in RTE apples, namely: minor changes of moisture, total soluble solids and firmness values. In relation to the browning index, after 20 days of storage, RTE apples coated with EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the lowest values, also the results of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase showed lower activity compared with the EC containing Fucus spirals, Bifurcaria bifurcate and Codium vermilara seaweed extracts, citric acid EC and the control. These results also allowed a pending patent application nº 107369 “Revestimento de origem marinha para aplicação em produtos minimamente processados ou de quarta gama” which is related with an edible coating with the incorporation of bioactive compounds from macroalgae for minimally processed products.

  2. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  3. Usage of Edible Mushrooms in Various Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Süfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of edible mushrooms which are generally consumed in houses in dried form is based on mainly instant soup and sauce formulations. Recently, the cultivations of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species have become widespread. Utilization of these cultivated mushrooms in recipes would bring added value to related food products. For this purpose, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species farmed in Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Mushroom House were dried and then pulverized. Firstly, a snack was prepared with Agaricus bisporus powder. Agaricus bisporus powder was substituted for wheat flour at the rates of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % and thus the potential of food product which had relatively lower carbohydrate and fat level and higher fiber content was investigated. In the second part of the study, either 5 %, 10 % of Agaricus bisporus powder or 5 %, 10 % of Pleurotus ostreatus powder were added into traditional Turkish meatball (beef mince, salt which was cooked in conventional oven, so meat flavor could be replaced by herbal flavor coming from mushroom. This property mat obey the purpose that, the created new product will be consumed fondly especially by children. Sensory and physical (colour and texture analysis were performed in both snack and meatball samples and the results were evaluated statistically.

  4. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    An outline review is presented of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research. Techniques covered are the qualitative localization of a radioisotope (static and dynamic measurements, detection procedures involving locating concentration sites of labelled toxins, parasites, abnormal blood cells, etc.), quantitative measurement of isotopes (absorption and excretion, transfer across membranes) comparator studies (determination of mass, volume or flow), isotope dilution and related studies (in vivo and in vitro applications, determination of total body red cell or plasma volume), dynamic systems (single compartmental systems such as rumen studies and the suckling lamb or calf, multiple exits from a compartment and multiple doses), stable isotopes and mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the use of internal irradiation (sterile male technique, control of insects and parasites, production of attenuated vaccines etc.). (U.K.)

  5. Transfer of antibiotics from wastewater or animal manure to soil and edible crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotics are added to agricultural fields worldwide through wastewater irrigation or manure application, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks to terrestrial environments and humans. Most studies focused on antibiotic detection in different matrices or were conducted in a hydroponic environment. Little is known about the transfer of antibiotics from antibiotic-contaminated irrigation wastewater and animal manure to agricultural soil and edible crops. In this study, we evaluated the transfer of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) to different crops under two levels of antibiotic-contaminated wastewater irrigation and animal manure fertilization. The final distribution of tetracycline (TC), norfloxacin (NOR) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in the crop tissues under these four treatments were as follows: fruit > leaf/shoot > root, while an opposite order was found for sulfamethazine (SMZ) and erythromycin (ERY): root > leaf/shoot > fruit. The growth of crops could accelerate the dissipation of antibiotics by absorption from contaminated soil. A higher accumulation of antibiotics was observed in crop tissues under the wastewater treatment than under manure treatment, which was due to the continual irrigation that increased adsorption in soil and uptake by crops. The translocation of antibiotics in crops mainly depended on their physicochemical properties (e.g. log K ow ), crop species, and the concentrations of antibiotics applied to the soil. The levels of antibiotics ingested through the consumption of edible crops under the different treatments were much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Potential of Animal By-Products in Food Systems: Production, Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Alao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of animal by-products has continued to witness tremendous growth over the last decade. This is due to its potential to combat protein malnutrition and food insecurity in many countries. Shortly after slaughter, animal by-products are separated into edible or inedible parts. The edible part accounts for 55% of the production while the remaining part is regarded as inedible by-products (IEBPs. These IEBPs can be re-processed into sustainable products for agricultural and industrial uses. The efficient utilization of animal by-products can alleviate the prevailing cost and scarcity of feed materials, which have high competition between animals and humans. This will also aid in reducing environmental pollution in the society. In this regard, proper utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta can result in cheaper feed, reduction in competition and lower cost of production. Over the years, the utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta as feed in livestock feed has been successfully carried out without any adverse effect on the animals. However, there are emerging gaps that need to be further addressed regarding the food security and sustainability of the products. Therefore, the objective of this review highlights the efficacy and effectiveness of using animal by-products as alternative sources of feed ingredients, and the constraints associated with their production to boost livestock performance in the industry at large.

  7. Marketing animal-friendly products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.; Veen, van der Gerrita

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce

  8. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  9. Innovation of Supervision System for Quality and Safety of Edible Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingxing; MEI; Zhongchao; FENG

    2014-01-01

    This paper elaborated multidimensional characteristics of quality and safety of agricultural products,introduced current situation of quality and safety supervision of edible agricultural products in China,analyzed existing problems of quality and safety supervision system and corresponding reasons,and finally came up with recommendations for innovation of supervision system for quality and safety of agricultural products.

  10. Animal Production Research Advances: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where this is not possible, authors should submit two copies of original article not yet published anywhere and accompanied with a 3.5” diskette containing the article labeled appropriately in MS Word version to: Editor–in–Chief, Animal Production Research Advances Tropical Animal Health and Production Research Lab

  11. Organic Animal Production and Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Çetinkaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic animal production; is a form of production without using any chemical inputs from production to consumption. In organic livestock production; organic breeding, feedstuff and animal nutrition conditions are stated in the Regulation on the Principles and Implementation of Organic Agriculture. Organic animal products must be prevented from recontamination. There are three different contamination hazards; biological (mold-toxins and pathogenic micro-organisms, chemical (pesticide residues, and physical (broken metal or glass, etc.. Molding and mycotoxin formation in organic feeds is one of the most important problems since they adversly affect animal health and toxines pass through the products. Since any chemical method cannot be applied to the organic feedstuffs especially in the struggle with mycotoxin in organic animal production, this should be considered in the measures to be taken and in the systems to be applied and the system should be planned to include organic agriculture. Countries that have established HACCP and ISO 22000 food safety management systems are able to avoid the problem of mycotoxin pollution in organic animal foods. The establishment of the feed safety system based on HACCP principles and its application in production have been made compulsory by Feed Hygiene Regulation issued in Turkey since 2011. In this review, the relationship between organic animal production and mycotoxin, and the precautions to be taken are discussed.

  12. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L. are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1% free FA, 84.43% triglycerides, 4.88% sterol and 1.59% others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14% free FA, approximately 5% higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85% unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80% unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97% conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil.

  13. New product trial, use of edibles, and unexpected highs among marijuana and hashish users in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Duke, Jennifer C; Nonnemaker, James M; Bradfield, Brian R; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between trial of new marijuana or hashish products and unexpected highs, and use of edible products and unexpected highs. We conducted an online survey of 634 adult, past-year marijuana users in Colorado. We used logistic regression models to examine the relationship between new product trial or edible use and unexpected highs. In the first year that recreational marijuana was legal in Colorado, 71.4% of respondents tried a new marijuana or hashish product, and 53.6% used an edible product. Trial of new products was associated with greater odds of experiencing an unexpected high after controlling for age, gender, education, mental health status, current marijuana or hashish use, and mean amount of marijuana or hashish consumed in the past month (OR=2.13, pmarijuana or hashish products, or use edible marijuana or hashish products, are at greater risk for an unexpected high. It is possible that some negative outcomes associated with marijuana use and unexpected highs may be averted through a better understanding of how to use product packaging to communicate with consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.

    1994-05-01

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  15. Radioactivity transfer to animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Information on the behaviour of strontium, caesium, ruthenium, plutonium and americium in a range of domestic animals is reviewed to form a basis for the specification of time-dependent mathematical models describing uptake, distribution and retention in various domestic animals. Transfer factors relating concentration in animal product to daily radioactivity intake are derived after 100 d continuous intake and at equilibrium. These transfer factors are compared with the available published literature and used as a basis for the derivation of feedingstuff conversion factors relating limiting concentrations in animal feedingstuffs to limiting concentrations in human foodstuffs for application to animals receiving commercial feedingstuffs after a nuclear accident. Recommended transfer factors for animal products in conditions of continuous discharge and models for application to field conditions after a nuclear accident are also presented. Transfer of caesium to animal products is more effective than that for the other elements considered here. Transfer to meat of lamb, fattening pig, and chickens is generally more effective than that for other animals and other products

  16. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irais Sánchez-Ortega

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics.

  17. Use of edible films and coatings to extend the shelf life of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftoonazad, Neda; Badii, Fojan

    2009-06-01

    The increased consumer demand for high quality, extended shelf life, ready to eat foods has initiated the development of several innovative techniques to keep their natural and fresh appearance as long as possible and at the same time render them safe. Packaging has been an important element in these preservation concepts for providing the appropriate (mechanical and functional) protection to the commodity. Since synthetic packaging materials contribute to the environmental pollution, edible coatings and packages have been proposed to replace or complement conventional packaging. Biodegradable and edible films and coatings are made from naturally occurring polymers and functional ingredients, and formed on the surface of food products. Edible films and coating have long been known to protect perishable food products from deterioration and reduce quality loss. These films should have acceptable sensory characteristics, appropriate barrier properties (CO(2), O(2), water, oil), microbial, biochemical and physicochemical stability, they should be safe, and be produced by simple technology in low cost. Also they can act as effective carrier for antioxidant, flavor, color, nutritional or anti-microbial additives. Patents on edible films and food products are also discussed in this article.

  18. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  19. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Landraces for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Tellah, Sihem; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Latati, Mourad; Badiani, Maurizio; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)· test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I2 (g oil)(-1)], high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MJ kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces.

  20. Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in edible oil seeds and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Ten papers were presented in which chemical pollution due to insecticides was examined in edible oil seeds and their products. They include hexachlorocyclohexane residues in groundnut; carbaryl in groundnut; maize and cotton seed products, and in lactating goats; propoxur in cocoa beans; and leptophos residues in cotton seed and its products and in lactating goats. Eight of these papers constitute separate INIS entries. Egypt, Ghana, India, Korea, Lebanon, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, and the Sudan participated under the coordinated research programme. The progress of the programme is reviewed, and problems and priorities for future development of the programme are identified. A number of recommendations are addressed to the Joint FAO/IAEA Secretariat

  1. Animal Production Research Advances: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal production research advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal ...

  2. Comprehensive review on application of edible film on meat and meat products: An eco-friendly approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaraw, Pramila; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2017-04-13

    The functions of packaging materials are to prevent moisture loss, drip, reduce lipid oxidation, improve some of their sensorial properties (color, taste and smell) and provide microbial stability of foods. Edible films can be made from protein, polysaccharides and lipids or by combination of any of these to form a composite film. Nanocomposites are composite films made by incorporation of nanoparticles. Edible packaging and coating of the meat and meat products enhances the self-life by the incorporation of the active compound (such as antimicrobial and antioxidant compound) in to the packaging matrix. Incorporation of the some ingredients in the matrix may also improve the nutritional as well as sensory attributes of the packed products. Edible packaging material also reduces environmental pollution by overcoming the burden degradation as edible films are biodegradable and thus eco-friendly.

  3. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included.

  6. Edible insects are the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Huis, van, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect speci...

  7. Electronic Animal Drug Product Listing Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Electronic Animal Drug Product Listing Directory is a directory of all animal drug products that have been listed electronically since June 1, 2009, to comply...

  8. Postharvest processes of edible insects in Africa: A review of processing methods, and the implications for nutrition, safety and new products development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Irungu, F G; Nduko, J; Mutua, F; Affognon, H; Nakimbugwe, D; Ekesi, S; Fiaboe, K K M

    2017-08-30

    In many African cultures, insects are part of the diet of humans and domesticated animals. Compared to conventional food and feed sources, insects have been associated with a low ecological foot print because fewer natural resources are required for their production. To this end, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recognized the role that edible insects can play in improving global food and nutrition security; processing technologies, as well as packaging and storage techniques that improve shelf-life were identified as being crucial. However, knowledge of these aspects in light of nutritional value, safety, and functionality is fragmentary and needs to be consolidated. This review attempts to contribute to this effort by evaluating the available evidence on postharvest processes for edible insects in Africa, with the aim of identifying areas that need research impetus. It further draws attention to potential postharvest technology options for overcoming hurdles associated with utilization of insects for food and feed. A greater research thrust is needed in processing and this can build on traditional knowledge. The focus should be to establish optimal techniques that improve presentation, quality and safety of products, and open possibilities to diversify use of edible insects for other benefits.

  9. Characterization of edible marijuana product exposures reported to United States poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dazhe; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Bronstein, Alvin C; Hoyte, Christopher O

    2016-11-01

    Edible marijuana products are sold as brownies, cookies, and candies, which may be indistinguishable from counterparts without marijuana and are palatable to children and adults. The consumption of an entire product containing multiple dose-units may result in overdose. To characterize edible marijuana exposures reported to US poison centers with subgroup analysis by age. We analyzed single substance, human exposure calls coded to marijuana brownies, candies, cookies, beverages, or other foods reported to the National Poison Data System from January 2013 to December 2015. Calls were analyzed by state, age, gender, exposure route, clinical effect, therapies, and level of healthcare facility utilization. Four-hundred and thirty calls were reported: Colorado (N = 166, 1.05/100,000 population/year) and Washington (96, 0.46) yielded the highest number of exposures. Three hundred and eighty-one (91%) calls occurred in states with decriminalized medical/recreational marijuana. The number of calls increased every year of the study. The most common age groups were: ≤5 years (N = 109, 0.15/100,000 population/year) and 13-19 (78, 0.09). The most frequent clinical effects were drowsiness/lethargy (N = 118, percentage = 43%), tachycardia (84, 31%), agitated/irritable (37, 14%), and confusion (37, 14%). Children ≤5 years have more drowsiness/lethargy, ataxia, and red eye/conjunctivitis. No deaths were reported. The most common therapies administered were intravenous fluids (85, 20%), dilute/irrigate/wash (48, 11 %), and benzodiazepines (47, 11%). Three patients (ages 4, 10, and 57 years) received intubation. 97 (23%), 217 (50%), and 12 (3%) calls were managed at home, treated/released, admitted to a critical care unit, respectively. Although most clinical effects are minor, ventilatory support may be necessary for children and adults. We speculate the increasing exposures may be related to a combination of delayed absorption kinetics of Δ9

  10. Non-edible Oil Cakes as a Novel Substrate for DPA Production and Augmenting Biocontrol Activity of Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kalpana; Sharma, Satyawati; Krishna, Suresh B N; Adam, Jamila K; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of waste non-edible oil cakes (Jatropha, Karanja, Neem, and Mahua) as a substrate for the growth of Paecilomyces variotii and dipicolinic acid (DPA) production. Previous researches proved the efficacy of DPA in suppressing certain pathogens that are deleterious to the plants in the rhizosphere. DPA production was statistical optimized by amending non-edible oil cakes in growing media as nitrogen and sugars (Dextrose, Glucose, and Lactose) as carbon source. Plackett-Burman design (PBD), indicated that Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose were the most significant components ( p edible oil cakes as a substrate offer an efficient and viable approach for DPA production by P. variotii .

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The news letter reports workshops and training events in the areas of animal diseases and application of ELISA and radioimmunoassay techniques. It also describes existing and future coordinated research programs in animal production and health

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Project reviews and research coordination meetings on milk production, rinderpest diagnosis, animal vaccinations, quality assurance in veterinary diagnostic laboratories and evaluation of animal feeds are the major highlights of this issue of the Newsletter

  13. Transesterification of edible, non-edible and used cooking oils for biodiesel production using calcined layered double hydroxides as reusable base catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Sivashunmugam; Antonyraj, Churchil A; Kannan, S

    2012-04-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from edible, non-edible and used cooking oils with different fatty acid contents by transesterification with methanol using calcined layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as solid base catalysts. Among the catalysts, calcined CaAl2-LDH (hydrocalumite) showed the highest activity with >90% yield of FAME using low methanol:oil molar ratio (<6:1) at 65 °C in 5 h. The activity of the catalyst was attributed to its high basicity as supported by Hammett studies and CO(2)-TPD measurements. The catalyst was successfully reused in up to four cycles. Some of the properties such as density, viscosity, neutralization number and glycerol content of the obtained biodiesel matched well with the standard DIN values. It is concluded that a scalable heterogeneously catalyzed process for production of biodiesel in high yields from a wide variety of triglyceride oils including used oils is possible using optimized conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN LIVE ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MiĠuko VLAD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of foreign trade, in Romania there were some major changes over the past 20 years. In this paper we have focused on the Romanian external trade. The products which have been taken into account were live animals and animal products. Thus, we have made an analyse on the Romanian imports and exports at the global level and at the European level. Focused on the animal products, on the global level, there were registered major differences during the first seven years in the analysed period. Breaking by branches, we have pointed out huge distinctions between imports and exports, where the balance of trade was completely negative. Meanwhile, to have a good view on the international trade there were made links, based on some indexes between imports, exports, GDP and investments.

  15. Prospects of semi-cultivating the edible weaver and Oecophylla smaragdina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: entomophagy, edible insects, Formicidae, global food security, agricultural revolution, Lao PDR

    An increased use of edible insects as human food and animal feed is a viable means to feed the growing human population and to tackle sustainability issues of the food production

  16. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This newsletter contains brief reviews of the meetings held between September and November, 1991, and a list of the nine co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division is given. A tenth CRP, focussing on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments, is currently being planned. Developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory, Seibersdorf are detailed

  17. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG...

  18. Carbon dioxide production in animal houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Joergensen, H.

    2008-01-01

    cellars are emptied regularly in a four weeks interval. Due to a high and variable carbon dioxide production in deep straw litter houses and houses with indoor storage of manure longer than four weeks, we do not recommend to calculate the ventilation flow based on the carbon dioxide concentration......This article deals with carbon dioxide production from farm animals; more specifically, it addresses the possibilities of using the measured carbon dioxide concentration in animal houses as basis for estimation of ventilation flow (as the ventilation flow is a key parameter of aerial emissions from...... animal houses). The investigations include measurements in respiration chambers and in animal houses, mainly for growing pigs and broilers. Over the last decade a fixed carbon dioxide production of 185 litres per hour per heat production unit, hpu (i.e. 1000 W of the total animal heat production at 20o...

  19. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  20. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., Finland, France, Germany, Greece, the Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg...

  1. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bátori, Veronika; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2015-01-01

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m(3) of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m(3) ethanol/year.

  2. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bátori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m3 of ethanol (22% improvement, around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year.

  3. Improving animal productivity by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Jayasuriya, M.C.N.; Perera, B.M.A.O.

    1995-01-01

    The IAEA and FAO have run a joint programme for 30 years to assist national agricultural research systems in member states to develop, test and apply nuclear and related techniques for improving the productivity of livestock. Applications of nuclear technologies for improving livestock productivity include: use of radioimmunoassay in animal nutrition researches, animal production, and evaluating feeding and management systems through reproductive performance in a field. Geographic coverage and the type of livestock studies are: grazing animals (cattle, goats and sheep) in Africa, Latin America and Asia, as well as buffalo production in Asia. 6 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Caparros Megido; Sandrine Desmedt; Christophe Blecker; François Béra; Éric Haubruge; Taofic Alabi; Frédéric Francis

    2017-01-01

    Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crick...

  5. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This second volume deals with integrated modeling...... and analyses of multi-omics datasets from theoretical and computational approaches and presents their applications in animal production and health as well as veterinary medicine to improve diagnosis, prevention and treatment of animal diseases. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal...

  6. Fate of trace pollutants during the production of methylesters based on waste-edible fats; Verbleib von Spurenschadstoffen bei der Methylesterherstellung aus Altspeisefett im Technikumsmassstab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, O.; Meyer-Pittroff, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik der Lebensmittelindustrie; Wichmann, H.; Jopke, P.; Schmidt-Naedler, C.; Matthies, B.; Bahadir, M. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2004-07-01

    Aims and Scope. In Germany, 120,000 tons per year of waste edible fats are collected from the catering and the food industry. Until recently, these fats have widely been used as a nutritional additive for poultry and other animals fodder. Due to the BSE crisis and some affairs based on dioxins in feeding stuff, waste fats are now barely used as fodder. Currently, these fats substitute fresh vegetable oils in the chemical industry and are used as raw material for the production of biodiesel. Therefore, alternative fields of application are required. In this context, the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU) is sponsoring a joint research project which deals with the production and testing of cooling lubricants based on monoesters made from waste edible fats. Methods. In a first step, characteristics and quality of waste-edible fats of different origins were chemically analysed and monitored. The investigations covered the following fat specific parameters: total contamination, sulphate ash, water content, peroxide number, iodine value, kinematical viscosity, neutralisation number (free fatty acids) and fatty acid spectra. In the next step, a process development/optimisation was carried out for the production of methylesters based on the raw material waste fat, leading to the construction of a pilot plant. To investigate the fate of trace pollutants during the production process of waste-fat methylester, samples were systematically contaminated with polcyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and the elements Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, P, Pb, Sn, and Zn. These contaminated fat samples were transesterified, in laboratory scale. The primary and by-products were analysed subsequently. Results. Valuable hints on the design of the technical process of fatty acid methylester production based on waste edible fats were gained by regarding the fat specific parameters. For example, filtration and

  7. Production and optimization of polyhydroxyalkanoates from non-edible Calophyllum inophyllum oil using Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, A; Senthamizhan, S G; Ponnusami, V; Sudalai, S

    2018-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable polymers found in the cellular masses of a wide range of bacterial species and the demand for PHA is steadily growing. In this work we have produced PHA from a low-cost substrate, Calophyllum inophyllum oil, using Cupriavidus necator. Effects of various process parameters such as Oil concentration, Nitrogen source and inoculum size on the production of PHA were studied using Response Surface Methodology. A quadratic equation was used in the model to fit the experimental data. It was found that the model could satisfactorily predict the PHA yield (R 2 =99.17%). Linear, quadratic and interaction terms used in the model were found to be statistically significant. Maximum PHA yield of 10.6gL -1 was obtained under the optimized conditions of oil concentration - 17.5%, inoculum concentration - 50mL/L and nitrogen content - 1.125gL -1 , respectively. The product obtained was characterized using FTIR and NMR to confirm that it was PHA. The results demonstrate that C. inophyllum oil, a non-edible oil, can be potentially used as a low-cost substrate for the production of PHA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Automation in Animal Housing and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive, controlled environment animal production began modestly in the mid-20th century as poultry were brought indoors. While mankind had utilized structures to provide shelter for their animals for centuries, the availability of relatively inexpensive energy and the electrification of rural are...

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This issue of the newsletter briefs on forthcoming events and on-going activities of the Joint Division. Active Co-ordinated Research Programmes, training workshops, expert meetings in the fields of animal feed supplementation, animal productivity and reproductive efficiency, and diagnostic methodologies in disease control are highlighted

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This issue of the newsletter outlines activities and coordinated research programmes in the areas of animal production and animal health for the year 1999 by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in food and agriculture and FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf

  11. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock production offers the option of establishing a niche product that can be sold at a higher price, e.g. as for milk...

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to highlights of research coordination meetings, training events and announcements of upcoming events, this issue of the Newsletter carries editorial note regarding the potential of biotechnology in animal health and production for developing countries

  13. Animal production systems in the industrialised world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, J T; Edwards, S; Noordhuizen, J; Gunnarsson, S

    2006-08-01

    The production of food from animal origin is relatively stable in the industrialised world. However, animal production systems are changing dramatically with respect to location, herd size and specialisation. Increased pressure from a critical public is moving animal-based production towards systems such as organic production and loose-housing systems which allow the animals to better express normal behaviour. The focus on food safety promotes systems with a high degree of biosecurity, often associated with an increase in herd size and self-containment. The globalisation of agricultural trade and increased competition also favours an increase in herd size and specialisation. These trends also lead to regions with livestock-dense areas, giving rise to environmental concerns. Therefore, good farming practice regulations and systems to provide a higher level of transparency, such as quality risk management programmes, are being developed.

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Newsletter presents the staffing, past and forthcoming workshops, status of the existing coordinated research programmes in the area of application of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in animal production and health.

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    In addition to highlights of research coordination meetings, training events and announcements of upcoming events, this issue of the Newsletter carries editorial note regarding the potential of biotechnology in animal health and production for developing countries.

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Newsletter presents the staffing, past and forthcoming workshops, status of the existing coordinated research programmes in the area of application of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in animal production and health

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 9 workshops, research coordination meetings, consultant meetings and training courses held between January-June 1995, the status of 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf, a presentation of 4 forthcoming events (meetings, workshops, training courses) and 3 software programs in the field

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No.21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 7 meetings, workshops and training courses held between september and december 1994, the status of the 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit at the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf and a presentation of 5 forthcoming meetings, workshops and training courses

  19. Microbiology of processed edible insect products - Results of a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Nils Th; Klein, Günter

    2017-02-21

    Little is known of the microbiology of processed insect products. The present survey analysed a total of n=38 samples of deep-fried and spiced (Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, and Omphisa fuscidentalis), cooked in soy sauce ("tsukudani"; Oxya yezoensis, Vespula flaviceps, and Bombyx mori), dried (A. domesticus, L. migatoria, Alphitobius diaperinus, Tenebrio molitor, B. mori, Hermetia illucens, and Musca domestica), powdered (H. illucens, T. molitor) and other (incl. deep-frozen B. mori and honeybee pollen) insect products microbiologically (total bacterial count [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, bacilli, and yeasts and moulds counts, salmonellae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli). Although each product type revealed a microbiological profile of its own, dried and powdered insects ("class I") displayed markedly higher counts than the deep-fried and cooked ones ("class II"). Thresholds between class I and II products were estimated at 4.0 (TBC), 1.0 (Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds), 2.5 (staphylococci), and 3.0lgcfu/g (bacilli). All samples were negative for salmonellae, L. monocytogenes, E. coli and Stapyhlococcus aureus, but dried and powdered insects, as well as pollen, contained B. cereus, coliforms, Serratia liquefaciens, Listeria ivanovii, Mucor spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cryptococcus neoformans. Comparing the results with the hygiene criteria for edible insects proposed by Belgium and the Netherlands, class I products failed to comply with many bacterial count limits despite the absence of classical food pathogens. Therefore, class I products should always be consumed after another heating step as indicated by the manufacturer, until drying techniques are able to ensure lower bacterial counts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This newsletter contains brief summaries of the final Research Co-ordination Meetings of Co-ordinated Research Programmes on ''Strengthening Animal Reproduction Research in Asia Through the Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and ''Strengthening Animal Disease Diagnosis in Asia Through Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and of the first Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Milk-Producing Animals in Tropical and Subtropical Environments Through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques''. Developments at the IAEA's Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf, are described

  1. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports of the five FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meetings held in the first half of 1991, focussing on improving animal reproduction research and animal disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques, improving the productivity of indiginous African livestock using radioimmunoassay and related techniques, improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods, and an inter-regional network for improving the productivity of camelids. The FAO/IAEA International Symposium on ''Nuclear and Related Techniques in Animal Production and Health'' is summarily described (the Symposium Proceedings should be published in October, 1991), and applications are invited for a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments

  2. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  3. The current status and perspectives of biofuel production via catalytic cracking of edible and non-edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Yee Kang; Bhatia, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    Biofuel development has gained the attention of researchers in recent years owing to the rate of depletion of fossil fuels. Several processes are currently employed in the conventional production of different biofuels: the production of biodiesel is catalytically performed either through the transesterification of triglycerides using alcohol or the deoxygenative ecofining of triglycerides in a non-alcohol environment; bio-oil is produced by the pyrolysis of biomass; bio-ethanol is produced by the fermentation of sugars obtained from starch or cellulosic based biomass, while bio-gasoline is produced from the catalytic cracking of triglycerides. Owing to the enormous dependency of transport vehicles running on gasoline engines, the development of bio-gasoline may well reduced the dependence of the fuel market on fossil fuels. The present article summarizes recent progresses and future prospects of biofuel production via catalytic cracking technology. This technology can be implemented in current petroleum refineries with minor modifications. However, reactor design and catalyst choice are important issues and have to be addressed before successful implementation of this technology in commercial ventures.

  4. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This Issue outlines recent activities of the Animal Production and Health Section outstanding among them being the support it provides to the implementation of over 40 Technical Cooperation Projects and eight Coordinated Research Projects. Future activities will focus on the theme of 'Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies (with emphasis on biotechnology) and Capacity Building.

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This Issue outlines recent activities of the Animal Production and Health Section outstanding among them being the support it provides to the implementation of over 40 Technical Cooperation Projects and eight Coordinated Research Projects. Future activities will focus on the theme of 'Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies (with emphasis on biotechnology) and Capacity Building

  7. Production of alcohol and edible yeast with extract of carob fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beundia, M; Arroyo, V; Inigo, B; Garrido, J M

    1961-01-01

    Media based on extraction from carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua) have been used successfully in laboratory production of edible yeast and of alcohol. The fruit is a pod, 25 to 40 g, with sweet meaty flesh containing 34% sugar (dry weight), half sucrose and half invert sugar. Because of butyric acid and tannin, no antimicrobial need be added to the pulp prepared by adding H/sub 2/O (3 times weight) and autoclaving 1 hour in flowing stream. Of 3 yeast spp., Candida pulcherrima, Hansenula anomala, and Rhodotorula rubra, the latter (notable for carotenoid content) produced the most dry material in 48 hours at 32/sup 0/ on a reciprocating shaker with medium containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 2.52 and extraction contributing 20 g reducing sugar/1. Alcohol fermentation, heretofore effected by natural microflora, was attempted with pure cultures of 4 yeast spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae (4 strains), S. oviformis (2 strains), S. beticus, and S. chevalieri. All were suitable except one strain of S. oviformis. The carob extraction had enough nitrogenous and growth substances so that no other medium ingredient was needed. With reducing sugar level t 23 g/100 mil, alcohol yield was close to the theoretical unitage (13.5) after 17-days growth. The range for the 7 isolates was 10.2 to 12.4. One strain of S. cereviseae reached its maximum, 11.8 in only 7 days.

  8. Monitoring residue in animals and primary products of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of control and systematic monitoring of residue is to secure, by the examination of a corresponding number of samples, the efficient monitoring of the residue level in tissues and organs of animals, as well as in primary products of animal origin. This creates possibilities for the timely taking of measures toward the securing of food hygiene of animal origin and the protection of public health. Residue can be a consequence of the inadequate use of medicines in veterinary medicine and pesticides in agriculture and veterinary medicine, as well as the polluting of the environment with toxic elements, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and others. Residue is being monitored in Serbia since 1972, and in 2004, national monitoring was brought to the level of EU countries through significant investments by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management. This is also evident in the EU directives which permit exports of all kinds of meat and primary products of animal origin, covered by the Residue Monitoring Program. The program of systematic examinations of residue has been coordinated with the requirements of the European Union, both according to the type of examined substance, as well as according to the number of samples and the applied analytical techniques. In addition to the development of methods and the including of new harmful substances into the monitoring programme, it is also necessary to coordinate the national regulations that define the maximum permitted quantities of certain medicines and contaminants with the EU regulations, in order to protect the health of consumers as efficiently as possible, and for the country to take equal part in international trade.

  9. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

  10. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter includes reports of FAO/IAEA-organized meetings held between 17 September 1990 and 23 November 1990, with emphasis on the development and application of radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques to study Foot and Mouth Disease, bluetongue vins and other diseases, and animal reproduction. The status of existing coordinated research programmes is summarized, and a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments is announced. Applications for contracts to participate in this programme are invited. The role of the Section's Animal Production Unit at Seibersdorf is reviewed, and a list of forthcoming events is given

  11. Edible moisture barriers: how to assess of their potential and limits in food products shelf-life extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlieu, C; Guillard, V; Vallès-Pamiès, B; Guilbert, S; Gontard, N

    2009-05-01

    Control of moisture transfer inside composite food products or between food and its environment remains today a major challenge in food preservation. A wide rage of film-forming compounds is now available and facilitates tailoring moisture barriers with optimized functional properties. Despite these huge potentials, a realistic assessment of the film or coating efficacy is still critical. Due to nonlinear water sorption isotherms, water-dependent diffusivities, and variations of physical state, modelling transport phenomena through edible barriers is complex. Water vapor permeability can hardly be considered as an inherent property of films and only gives a relative indication of the barrier efficacy. The formal or mechanistic models reported in literature that describe the influence of testing conditions on the barrier properties of edible films are reviewed and discussed. Most of these models have been validated on a narrow range of conditions. Conversely, few original predictive models based on Fick's Second Law have been developed to assess shelf-life extension of food products including barriers. These models, assuming complex and realistic hypothesis, have been validated in various model foods. The development of nondestructive methods of moisture content measurement should speed up model validation and allow a better comprehension of moisture transfer through edible films.

  12. Nuclear techniques in Australian animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the production of domestic animals is frequently depressed by the climatic and ecological conditions. These negative effects can be overcome to a great extent by improved methods of animal and land management. In animal research, nuclear techniques are playing an important role in the study of different aspects of nutrition, metabolism, reproduction and health of domestic animals. In response to the need expressed by Member States for more information on these techniques, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and the IAEA's Division of Technical Assistance organized a study tour to Australia, a country which has developed considerable expertise in agricultural and animal research. The purpose of the study tour was to enable veterinary and animal scientists and administrators from developing countries in Asia and the Far East to observe at first hand the ways in which animal production, particularly meat, milk and wool, can be increased in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Fourteen senior scientists and research directors from seven Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand) participated. The counterpart organizations in Australia were the Australian Development Assistance Agency (ADAA) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). The chief programmer and co-ordinator of the study tour was John E. Vercoe, officer-in-charge of CSIRO's Tropical Cattle Research Centre in Rockhampton, and a former IAEA staff member. The tour was financed by the United Nations Development Programme. The participants visited research facilities of universities, national and state laboratories and commercial cattle producers. The tour started at Sydney and proceeded north along the east coast of Australia to Townsville. On the way, major stops were made in Armidale, Grafton, Wollongbar, Brisbane and Rockhampton. In Rockhampton, a

  13. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odongo, N.E.; Garcia, M.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  14. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odongo, N E; Garcia, M; Viljoen, G J [Animal Production and Health Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  15. U.S. cannabis legalization and use of vaping and edible products among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodovsky, Jacob T; Lee, Dustin C; Crosier, Benjamin S; Gabrielli, Joy L; Sargent, James D; Budney, Alan J

    2017-08-01

    Alternative methods for consuming cannabis (e.g., vaping and edibles) have become more popular in the wake of U.S. cannabis legalization. Specific provisions of legal cannabis laws (LCL) (e.g., dispensary regulations) may impact the likelihood that youth will use alternative methods and the age at which they first try the method - potentially magnifying or mitigating the developmental harms of cannabis use. This study examined associations between LCL provisions and how youth consume cannabis. An online cannabis use survey was distributed using Facebook advertising, and data were collected from 2630 cannabis-using youth (ages 14-18). U.S. states were coded for LCL status and various LCL provisions. Regression analyses tested associations among lifetime use and age of onset of cannabis vaping and edibles and LCL provisions. Longer LCL duration (OR vaping : 2.82, 95% CI: 2.24, 3.55; OR edibles : 3.82, 95% CI: 2.96, 4.94), and higher dispensary density (OR vaping : 2.68, 95% CI: 2.12, 3.38; OR edibles : 3.31, 95% CI: 2.56, 4.26), were related to higher likelihood of trying vaping and edibles. Permitting home cultivation was related to higher likelihood (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.50, 2.48) and younger age of onset (β: -0.30, 95% CI: -0.45, -0.15) of edibles. Specific provisions of LCL appear to impact the likelihood, and age at which, youth use alternative methods to consume cannabis. These methods may carry differential risks for initiation and escalation of cannabis use. Understanding associations between LCL provisions and methods of administration can inform the design of effective cannabis regulatory strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The activities of the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division are carried out through the operation of Co-ordinated Research Programmes and Technical Co-operation projects, both of which aim to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in tropical and subtropical countries to identify and resolve problems connected with livestock development. This particular programme at the outset, it was envisaged that an inter-disciplinary approach would be adopted by each participating institute whereby studies on nutrition, reproduction and health would be integrated into a number of site specific projects. The one discussed in this newsletter covers animal production and focussing on animal reproduction and reproduction-nutrition interactions. This paper contains an outline for the program which encourages scientists from universities and research institutes to provide assistance and solutions to developing countries on the technical difficulties associated with artificial insemination

  17. Notes from the Field: Death Following Ingestion of an Edible Marijuana Product--Colorado, March 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock-Allen, Jessica B; Barker, Lisa; VanDyke, Michael; Holmes, Dawn B

    2015-07-24

    In March 2014, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) learned of the death of a man aged 19 years after consuming an edible marijuana product. CDPHE reviewed autopsy and police reports to assess factors associated with his death and to guide prevention efforts. The decedent's friend, aged 23 years, had purchased marijuana cookies and provided one to the decedent. A police report indicated that initially the decedent ate only a single piece of his cookie, as directed by the sales clerk. Approximately 30-60 minutes later, not feeling any effects, he consumed the remainder of the cookie. During the next 2 hours, he reportedly exhibited erratic speech and hostile behaviors. Approximately 3.5 hours after initial ingestion, and 2.5 hours after consuming the remainder of the cookie, he jumped off a fourth floor balcony and died from trauma. The autopsy, performed 29 hours after time of death, found marijuana intoxication as a chief contributing factor. Quantitative toxicologic analyses for drugs of abuse, synthetic cannabinoid, and cathinones ("bath salts") were performed on chest cavity blood by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The only confirmed findings were cannabinoids (7.2 ng/mL delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] and 49 ng/mL delta-9 carboxy-THC, an inactive marijuana metabolite). The legal whole blood limit of delta-9 THC for driving a vehicle in Colorado is 5.0 ng/mL. This was the first reported death in Colorado linked to marijuana consumption without evidence of polysubstance use since the state approved recreational use of marijuana in 2012.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This Newsletter contains reports on the meetings and training courses held between January and April 1992, including a detailed summary of the final FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meeting on ''Development of Feeding Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity in Areas of Fluctuating Nutrient Supply through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques'', held in Vienna from 30 March to 3 April. Status reports are presented for the existing nine coordinated research programs, and developments at the Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf are described

  19. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  20. Inflammation: friend or foe for animal production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Leon J; Kogut, Michael H

    2018-02-01

    Inflammation is an essential immune response that seeks to contain microbial infection and repair damaged tissue. Increased pro-inflammatory mediators have been associated with enhanced resistance to a range of important poultry and pig pathogens. However, inflammation may also have undesirable consequences, including potentially exacerbating tissue damage and diverting nutrients away from productive purposes. The negative effects of inflammation have led to the active pursuit of anti-inflammatory feed additives and/or strategies. These approaches may, however, impair the ability of an animal to respond appropriately and effectively to the array of pathogens that are likely to be encountered in commercial production, and specifically young animals who may be particularly reliant on innate immune responses. Thus, promoting an animal's capacity to mount a rapid, acute inflammatory response to control and contain the infection and the timely transition to anti-inflammatory, tissue repair processes, and a homeostatic state are suggested as the optimum scenario to maintain an animal's resistance to pathogens and minimize non-productive nutrient losses. Important future studies will help to unravel the trade-offs, and relevant metabolic pathways, between robust immune defense and optimum productive performance, and thus provide real insight into methods to appropriately influence this relationship. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the importance of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) in improving all aspects of human social, economic and cultural life and the role played by the IAEA's Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, in using these technologies to undertake training programmes in Africa. Coordinated research programmes, training and other events are also announced

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the importance of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) in improving all aspects of human social, economic and cultural life and the role played by the IAEA's Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, in using these technologies to undertake training programmes in Africa. Coordinated research programmes, training and other events are also announced.

  3. Consumer use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use in the states of Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Giombi, Kristen C; Rains, Caroline B; Cates, Sheryl C

    2017-05-01

    In 2014, the states of Colorado and Washington began allowing retail sales of marijuana for recreational use. The regulatory agencies in these states have implemented specific labelling requirements for edible marijuana products sold for recreational use to help address concerns such as delayed activation time, accidental ingestion, and proper dosing. We conducted 12 focus groups with 94 adult consumers and nonconsumers of edibles in Denver and Seattle to collect information on their use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use. Specifically, we asked participants about the usefulness, attractiveness, ease of comprehension, relevancy, and acceptability of the label information. Some focus group participants look for and read specific information, such as the potency profile and serving size statement, but do not read or were unfamiliar with other labelling features. The focus groups revealed that participants have some concerns about the current labelling of edibles. In particular, participants were concerned that there is too much information on the labels so consumers may not read the label, there is no obvious indication that the product contains marijuana (e.g., a Universal Symbol), and the information on consumption advice is not clear. Participants in both locations suggested that education in a variety of formats, such as web- and video-based education, would be useful in informing consumers about the possible risks of edibles. The focus group findings suggest that improvements are needed in the labelling of edibles to prevent unintentional ingestion among adult nonusers and help ensure proper dosing and safe consumption among adult users. These findings, along with lessons learned from Colorado and Washington, can help inform the labelling of edibles as additional states allow the sale of edibles for recreational use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Avocado oil extraction processes: method for cold-pressed high-quality edible oil production versus traditional production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Costagli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. is widely regarded as an important fruit for its nutritional values, as it is rich in vital human nutrients. The avocado fruit is mainly sold fresh on the market, which however trades also a relevant quantity of second-grade fruits with a relatively high oil content. Traditionally, this oil is extracted from dried fruits by means of organic solvents, but a mechanical method is also used in general in locations where drying systems and/or solvent extraction units cannot be installed. These traditional processes yield a grade of oil that needs subsequent refining and is mainly used in the cosmetic industry. In the late 1990s, in New Zeland, a processing company with the collaboration of Alfa Laval began producing cold-pressed avocado oil (CPAO to be sold as edible oil for salads and cooking. Over the last fifteen years, CPAO production has increased in many other countries and has led to an expansion of the market which is set to continue, given the growing interest in highquality and healthy food. Avocado oil like olive oil is extracted from the fruit pulp and in particular shares many principles of the extraction process with extra-vergin olive oil. We conducted a review of traditional and modern extraction methods with particular focus on extraction processes and technology for CPAO production.

  5. Effects of Crude Oil and Oil Products on Growth of Some Edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetative growth response of three local edible mushrooms: Pleurotus pulmonarius (Pp), Pleurotus tuber-regium (Pt) and Lentinus squarrosulus (Ls) on different concentrations of Crude oil (COIL), Automotive Gasoline Oil (AGO), Fresh Engine Oil (ENGOIL) and Spent Engine Oil (SENGOIL) was investigated. The result ...

  6. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustgaard, J [Institute of Physiology, Endocrinology and Bloodgrouping, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1976-07-01

    In the fight against animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have also proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminthic diseases. In this context it should be stressed that reduced productivity due to protein loss caused by intestinal parasites is a problem of paramount economic importance in developing as well as developed countries. Recently radioisotopes in the so-called radioimmunoassays have also been applied in determination of the hormonal status of farm animals and to elucidate its relation to the environment and to the physiological and nutritional condition of the animal. This rapidly developing technique may make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle and sheep more efficiently than has hitherto been the case. Production of animal protein of a high biological value for human nutrition is still a problem of great concern for the less developed countries. Without doubt the use of nuclear techniques, hand in hand with other research methods, will be of great help in overcoming this condition, always provided that the countries in question possess the necessary equipment and trained personnel.

  7. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustgaard, J.

    1976-01-01

    In the fight against animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have also proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminthic diseases. In this context it should be stressed that reduced productivity due to protein loss caused by intestinal parasites is a problem of paramount economic importance in developing as well as developed countries. Recently radioisotopes in the so-called radioimmunoassays have also been applied in determination of the hormonal status of farm animals and to elucidate its relation to the environment and to the physiological and nutritional condition of the animal. This rapidly developing technique may make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle and sheep more efficiently than has hitherto been the case. Production of animal protein of a high biological value for human nutrition is still a problem of great concern for the less developed countries. Without doubt the use of nuclear techniques, hand in hand with other research methods, will be of great help in overcoming this condition, always provided that the countries in question possess the necessary equipment and trained personnel

  8. Non-edible Oil Cakes as a Novel Substrate for DPA Production and Augmenting Biocontrol Activity of Paecilomyces variotii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the use of waste non-edible oil cakes (Jatropha, Karanja, Neem, and Mahua as a substrate for the growth of Paecilomyces variotii and dipicolinic acid (DPA production. Previous researches proved the efficacy of DPA in suppressing certain pathogens that are deleterious to the plants in the rhizosphere. DPA production was statistical optimized by amending non-edible oil cakes in growing media as nitrogen and sugars (Dextrose, Glucose, and Lactose as carbon source. Plackett-Burman design (PBD, indicated that Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose were the most significant components (p < 0.05 of the media and were further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose at the concentration of 12.5, 4.5, and 10 g/l, respectively, yielded 250 mg/l of DPA, which was 2.5 fold more than that obtained from basal medium. HPLC analysis of the optimized medium (peak at retention time of 30 min confirmed the enhanced DPA production by P. variotii. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that optimized medium impose a stress like condition (due to less C:N ratio for the fungus and generated more spores as compared to the basal medium in which carbon source is easily available for the mycelial growth. The antimicrobial activity of the fungal extract was tested and found to be effective even at 10−2 dilution after 72 h against two plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahlia. Statistical experimental design of this study and the use of non-edible oil cakes as a substrate offer an efficient and viable approach for DPA production by P. variotii.

  9. Embodied crop calories in animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K B; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2013-01-01

    Increases in animal products consumption and the associated environmental consequences have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. Consequences of such increases include rises in greenhouse gas emissions, growth of consumptive water use, and perturbation of global nutrients cycles. These consequences vary spatially depending on livestock types, their densities and their production system. In this letter, we investigate the spatial distribution of embodied crop calories in animal products. On a global scale, about 40% of the global crop calories are used as livestock feed (we refer to this ratio as crop balance for livestock) and about 4 kcal of crop products are used to generate 1 kcal of animal products (embodied crop calories of around 4). However, these values vary greatly around the world. In some regions, more than 100% of the crops produced is required to feed livestock requiring national or international trade to meet the deficit in livestock feed. Embodied crop calories vary between less than 1 for 20% of the livestock raising areas worldwide and greater than 10 for another 20% of the regions. Low values of embodied crop calories are related to production systems for ruminants based on fodder and forage, while large values are usually associated with production systems for non-ruminants fed on crop products. Additionally, we project the future feed demand considering three scenarios: (a) population growth, (b) population growth and changes in human dietary patterns and (c) changes in population, dietary patterns and feed conversion efficiency. When considering dietary changes, we project the global feed demand to be almost doubled (1.8–2.3 times) by 2050 compared to 2000, which would force us to produce almost equal or even more crops to raise our livestock than to directly nourish ourselves in the future. Feed demand is expected to increase over proportionally in Africa, South-Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, putting additional stress on

  10. Radioprotective effect of edible herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ying; Huang Meiying; Zhu Genbo; Fang Jixi; Fan Xiudi

    1992-08-01

    The radioprotective effect of the edible herbs was studied in animals. The results showed: (1) The acute death rate of animals was decreased. (2) The peripheral leukocytes were increased. (3) The valine, hydroxyproline, glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in the plasma also were increased. (4) The activity of SOD (superoxide dimutase) was risen. (5) the edible herbs have the function to protect the structure of organs of thymus and testes

  11. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from ω3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (ω-6 with relative “deficiency” of ω-3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the ω-6 / ω-3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.Keywords: animal products, polyunsaturated fatty acids, meat, milk, nutrients.

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency's programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency`s programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  14. Metagenetic analysis of the bacterial communities of edible insects from diverse production cycles at industrial rearing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweyer, D; Crauwels, S; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2017-11-16

    Despite the continuing development of new insect-derived food products, microbial research on edible insects and insect-based foods is still very limited. The goal of this study was to increase the knowledge on the microbial quality of edible insects by comparing the bacterial community composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domesticus and Gryllodes sigillatus) from several production cycles and rearing companies. Remarkable differences in the bacterial community composition were found between different mealworm rearing companies and mealworm production cycles from the same company. In comparison with mealworms, the bacterial community composition of the investigated crickets was more similar among different companies, and was highly similar between both cricket species investigated. Mealworm communities were dominated by Spiroplasma and Erwinia species, while crickets were abundantly colonised by (Para)bacteroides species. With respect to food safety, only a few operational taxonomic units could be associated with potential human pathogens such as Cronobacter or spoilage bacteria such as Pseudomonas. In summary, our results implicate that at least for cricket rearing, production cycles of constant and good quality in terms of bacterial composition can be obtained by different rearing companies. For mealworms however, more variation in terms of microbial quality occurs between companies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Premature culling of production animals; ethical questions related to killing animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Meijboom, F.L.B.; Stassen, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to analyse the importance of longevity in relation to the welfare of production animals. I hypothesize that the concept of longevity helps to support the moral intuition that premature culling of animals is a moral wrong. The analysis shows that the interpretation of the

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    A full report on the final research coordination meeting on the long running Coordinated Research Project supporting rinderpest eradication is contained in this Newsletter. It is reported that all the national rinderpest vaccination campaigns have been terminated and except for a very few isolated areas where vaccination continues, the effort is now on disease surveillance to demonstrate freedom from rinderpest. Other research coordination meetings on animal diseases and productivity as well as new projects are highlighted in this issue

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    A full report on the final research coordination meeting on the long running Coordinated Research Project supporting rinderpest eradication is contained in this Newsletter. It is reported that all the national rinderpest vaccination campaigns have been terminated and except for a very few isolated areas where vaccination continues, the effort is now on disease surveillance to demonstrate freedom from rinderpest. Other research coordination meetings on animal diseases and productivity as well as new projects are highlighted in this issue.

  18. Medication of Production Animals – Cure of Malfunctioning Animals or Production Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrièl Mariann

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Medication is used in all intensive animal productions. However, the increasing problems with resistant bacteria in all animal productions and in humans are supported by a number of reports. Special attention is given to the risk for transmitting food-borne (multi resistant zoonotic agents to humans due to failure in antibiotic treatment resulting in lower cure rates or higher case fatality rates. The use of medication in humans per se is capable of selecting for resistance in human pathogens. Nevertheless, the amount of used medication/antimicrobials in treatment of Danish production animals goes far beyond the amount used for human consumption. The increase in consumption has not been followed by a similarly increased mortality, e.g. illustrated by the number of rendered animals, increased use of injection medicine for veterinary treatments of diseased animals, or increased number of remarks on the carcasses from the slaughterhouses. Medication in animal production is facing its limits and relevant economic alternatives have to be developed. The strategy for the future must concentrate on using medication only for clinically diseased animals and not as a strategic treatment of the whole herd in order to maximise growth and camouflage of suboptimal production systems and insufficient management.

  19. Principles of optimizing animal production from rangeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbendieck, J.; Waller, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    Increasing world population is one of the dominant factors escalating demands for the world's natural resources. Range and forage resources, which are used primarily for food and fibre, could be more efficiently used if management techniques were improved. The principles of managing forage resources are directly associated with both the growth and development of plants and the actions and needs of the grazing animal. An understanding of the effects of environmental factors and herbage removal (frequency, intensity and season of defoliation) on growth and regrowth of plants is the first step towards optimizing animal productivity from rangelands. Most potential changes will fit into three categories: (1) increase the quantity of forage, (2) improve the quality of forage, and (3) improve use of forage. The principles of grazing management can be separated into four intricately related categories: (1) proper degree of grazing, (2) proper season of grazing, (3) proper kind of livestock, and (4) proper distribution of grazing. Grazing management is affected by the manner in which both improvements and manipulation of vegetation affect forage yield and quality. The adaptation and application of existing knowledge to individual locations will be one step towards optimizing animal production from rangeland. Some of the problems may be solved through better dissemination of present knowledge through existing educational programmes, while others will require expanded programmes of information dissemination. A third group of problems may also be solved with present technology, but the solutions are not currently economical. Some of the problems will be solved only through expanded research. These research efforts need to be directed towards grazing or browsing animals, plant resources and the interaction between plants and animals. Application of nuclear techniques will be an integral part of this research. (author)

  20. Production and comparative fuel properties of biodiesel from non-edible oils: Jatropha curcas, Sterculia foetida and Ceiba pentandra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, H.C.; Silitonga, A.S.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Chong, W.T.; Boosroh, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel is an effective way to overcome environmental issue by diesel fuel. • Two stage acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and base (NaOH) catalyst transesterification process ware carried out to produce methyl ester. • Properties of produced jatropha, sterculia and ceiba methyl ester are within the ASTM D6751 standard. • The methyl ester content was 96.75%, 97.50% and 97.72% for JCME, SFME and CPME respectively. - Abstract: Biodiesel production from non-edible vegetable oil is one of the effective ways to overcome the problems associated with energy crisis and environmental issues. The non-edible oils represent potential sources for future energy supply. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of crude Jatropha curcas oil (CJCO), crude Sterculia foetida oil (CSFO) and crude Ceiba pentandra oil (CCPO) and its methyl ester have been studied. The acid values of three oils were found to be 12.78 mg KOH per g, 5.11 mg KOH per g and 11.99 mg KOH per g which required acid-esterification and alkali-transesterification process. Acid value was decreased by esterification process using sulfuric acid anhydrous (H 2 SO 4 ) as a catalyst and alkaline (NaOH) catalyst transesterification was carried out for the conversion of crude oil to methyl esters. The optimal conditions of FAME yield achieved for those three biodiesel were 96.75%, 97.50% and 97.72% respectively. Furthermore, the fuel properties of J. curcas methyl ester (JCME), S. foetida methyl ester (SFME) and C. pentandra methyl ester (CPME) were determined and evaluated. As a result, those produced biodiesel matched and fulfilled ASTM 6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Based on the results, JCME, SFME and CPME are potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production

  1. Towards Drylands Biorefineries: Valorisation of Forage Opuntia for the Production of Edible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Iris Nájera-García

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Opuntia may be a well-suited feedstock for biorefineries located in drylands, where biomass is scarcer than in humid or temperate regions. This plant has numerous uses in Mexico and Central America, and its mucilage is a specialty material with many promising applications. We extracted the mucilage from a forage species, O. heliabravoana Scheinvar, and mixed it with a thermoplastic starch to produce an edible coating. The coating was applied to blackberries, which were then evaluated in terms of several physicochemical and microbiological variables. During a 10-day evaluation period, the physicochemical variables measured in the coated fruits were not significantly different from those of the control group. However, the microbiological load of the coated fruits was significantly lower than that of the uncoated fruits, which was attributed to a decreased water activity under the edible coating. Multivariate analysis of the physicochemical and microbial variables indicated that the storage time negatively affected the weight and size of the coated and uncoated blackberries. Although some sensory attributes have yet to be optimised, our results support the use of the mucilage of forage Opuntia for the formation of edible coatings, as well as their valorisation through a biorefinery approach.

  2. HPLC evaluation of the minor lipid components of by-products resulting from edible oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL-Shami, Safinaz Mohamed M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical evaluation of some by-products resulting from edible oil refining processing steps has been carried out. By-product samples were taken from four different local refineries that apply chemical refining technology. Pretreatment of the representative samples of the by-products were done prior to analysis followed by chromatographic isolation and derivatization of the minor components, namely, free and acylated sterol (FS and AS as well as free and acylated sterylglycosides (FSG and ASG. However, tocopherols were directly determined in the pretreated samples. HPLC, using different detectors, was carried out for the determination of these minor components. Several authors have focused on the analysis of sterols and sterol esters, as well as tocopherols in the refining byproducts; however sterylglycosides, as biologically important components, have not been dealt with. This study throws light on the by – products enriched with certain minor components to be possibly utilized as sources for such components. Also, the role of the conditions of the refining steps followed in removing these valuable minor components from oils was discussed. It was found that soapstock samples contained various amounts of total tocopherols ranging from 80 to 230ppm; total FS and AS ranged from 240 to 4000 mg/100g while total FSG and ASG ranged from 1120 to 6375 mg/100g. In the case of deodorization distillate samples total tocopherols ranged from 960 to 7360ppm; total FS and AS ranged from 1020 to 4160 mg/100g and total FSG, ASG ranged from 395 to 880 mg/100g.El trabajo realiza una evaluación analítica de algunos subproductos resultantes del la refinación de aceites comestibles. Las muestras procedieron de 4 plantas que aplicaban refinación química. Después de un pretratamiento de las muestras estas se sometieron a un análisis cromatográfico para el aislamiento y derivatización de los siguientes componentes minoritarios: esteroles libres y

  3. Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Albenzio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties.

  4. Not just minor wild edible forest products: consumption of pteridophytes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2014-12-22

    Gathering of wild edible plant resources by people in sub-Saharan Africa is discussed with reference to pteridophytes, which is an ancient plant group. Pteridophytes are crucial to food diversity and security in sub-Saharan Africa, although they are notably neglected as a result of inadequate research and agricultural development. Current research and agricultural development agenda still appear to focus on the popular and commonly used food crops, vegetables and fruits; ignoring minor and underutilized plant species such as pteridophytes which have shown significant potential as sources of macro and micro nutrients required to improve the diet of children and other vulnerable groups in sub-Saharan Africa. Documentation of edible pteridophytes is needed to reveal the importance of this plant group in the region and the associated indigenous knowledge about them; so that this knowledge can be preserved and utilized species used to combat dietary deficiencies as well as improve food security in the region. The aim of this study is to present an overview of food value of pteridophytes in sub-Saharan Africa using available literature and to highlight their potential in addressing dietary deficiencies in impoverished communities in the region. This study is based on review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, regional and international organizations, theses, conference papers and other grey materials obtained from libraries and electronic search of Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science and Scopus. A total of 24 taxa belonging to 14 genera and 11 families are used in sub-Saharan Africa as fodder and human food. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn is the most common edible pteridophyte in sub-Saharan Africa, used as human food in Angola, Cameroon, DRC, Gabon, Madagascar, Nigeria and South Africa, followed by Ophioglossum reticulatum L. (South Africa, Swaziland and Zanzibar), Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. (Madagascar and

  5. Identification of Organic Iodine Compounds and Their Transformation Products in Edible Iodized Salt Using Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lifen; Peng, Yue'e; Chang, Qing; Zhu, Qingxin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Yanxin

    2017-07-05

    The consumption of edible iodized salt is a key strategy to control and eliminate iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. We herein report the identification of the organic iodine compounds present in different edible iodized salt products using liquid chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 38 organic iodine compounds and their transformation products (TPs) were identified in seaweed iodine salt from China. Our experiments confirmed that the TPs were generated by the replacement of I atoms from organic iodine compounds with Cl atoms. Furthermore, the organic iodine compound contents in 4 seaweed iodine salt samples obtained from different manufacturers were measured, with significant differences in content being observed. We expect that the identification of organic iodine compounds in salt will be important for estimating the validity and safety of edible iodized salt products.

  6. Global animal production and nitrogen and phosphorus flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Jingmeng; Bai, Zhaohai; Ma, Lin; Oenema, Oene

    2017-01-01

    Animal production systems provide nutritious food for humans, income and survivability for numerous smallholder farms and transform residues to valuable products. However, animal production is implicated in human health issues (diet-related diseases, zoonosis, antimicrobial resistance) and

  7. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from 3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (-6 with relative “deficiency” of -3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the -6 / -3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the activities of the Animal Production and Health Section and the Sub-programme. Apart from the regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and the customary technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, the personnel were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2005/2006 biennial project cycle. The Section also was also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2006/2007 Work and Budget Programme

  9. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 37

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    This issue focuses on the specific biotechnological methods that have the greatest potential for livestock production and health in developing countries, and which of these require nuclear and related techniques? The consultants' meeting that we held during 2001 (http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d3/public/ gene-technologies.pdf) provided us with the answers. We have subsequently discussed these concepts further with FAO, ILRI and other partners, and have planned a series of activities over the next two years to facilitate the transition of our Sub-programme. The first is an FAO/IAEA International Symposium on 'Applications of Gene Based Technologies for Improving Animal Production and Health in Developing Countries' which will be held here in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2003. The official announcement is included in this Newsletter. This will be followed by three inter-regional training courses, to be held during 2004 and 2005, to train scientists in developing countries on the molecular techniques currently being used in the fields of animal nutrition, genetics and disease diagnosis. Subsequently, four new CRPs will be initiated during 2005-2006, dealing with (a) rumen molecular techniques for predicting and enhancing productivity; (b) manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression; (c) characterization of small ruminant genetic resources aimed at selection for parasite resistance; and (d) improvement of diagnostic tests for African Swine Fever to assist in molecular epidemiology. The announcements for the first two have already appeared in previous Newsletters and that for the third will be in the next issue. The projects that have been approved for implementation during the next biennium (2003-2004) are listed in this Newsletter.

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This issue focuses on the specific biotechnological methods that have the greatest potential for livestock production and health in developing countries, and which of these require nuclear and related techniques? The consultants' meeting that we held during 2001 (http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d3/public/ gene-technologies.pdf) provided us with the answers. We have subsequently discussed these concepts further with FAO, ILRI and other partners, and have planned a series of activities over the next two years to facilitate the transition of our Sub-programme. The first is an FAO/IAEA International Symposium on 'Applications of Gene Based Technologies for Improving Animal Production and Health in Developing Countries' which will be held here in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2003. The official announcement is included in this Newsletter. This will be followed by three inter-regional training courses, to be held during 2004 and 2005, to train scientists in developing countries on the molecular techniques currently being used in the fields of animal nutrition, genetics and disease diagnosis. Subsequently, four new CRPs will be initiated during 2005-2006, dealing with (a) rumen molecular techniques for predicting and enhancing productivity; (b) manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression; (c) characterization of small ruminant genetic resources aimed at selection for parasite resistance; and (d) improvement of diagnostic tests for African Swine Fever to assist in molecular epidemiology. The announcements for the first two have already appeared in previous Newsletters and that for the third will be in the next issue. The projects that have been approved for implementation during the next biennium (2003-2004) are listed in this Newsletter

  12. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  13. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Elimination of salmonella from animal glandular products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C W; Burck, K T; Feldman, D

    1969-03-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin-a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination.

  15. Elimination of Salmonellae from Animal Glandular Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, Conrad W.; Burck, Kenneth T.; Feldman, David

    1969-01-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin—a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination. PMID:5780395

  16. USE OF ELECTROLYZED WATER IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Jirotková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility to use the properties of electrolyzed water to disinfect breeding halls and to water animals. The aim of the research was to find out whether elektrolyzed water used for desinfication of breedings hall and watering of animals influences selected indicators of the meat quality. Electrolyzed water is produced in a patent-protected device Envirolyte that produces biocide solution using potable water with added NaCl. The technology of production guarantees the product is entirely ecological, biologically fully degradable, non-toxic that can replace traditional chemical agents. Possibilities of disinfection using this solution have been verified directly in stables at the interval of 20, 40, 60 min. after application. Staphylococci and streptococci and enterococci were inactive always after 60 minutes of effect. There was significant decrease in the number of total number of microorganisms. Further, the solution of electrolyzed water was used to water poultry; and the affect on some of the properties of poultry meat, changes in pH, colour and loss of water (dripping in particular, was observed. Testing was carried out under working conditions in two breeding halls at a time and the technology of electrolyzed water to disinfect premises and to water chickens was used in one of the halls. When the chickens were slaughter mature, the poultry was slaughtered at the standard slaughterhouse and samples (127 pieces were taken in order to measure pH, colour and loss of water (dripping. The values of pH, colour and loss of water (dripping ascertained, processed by the T-test did not confirm the hypothesis of the assumed possible differences in occurrence of critical values of these indicators in both groups observed.

  17. Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, van S.; Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Insects receive increasing attention as an alternative protein-rich food source for humans. Producing edible insects on diets composed of organic by-products could increase sustainability. In addition, insect growth rate and body composition, and hence nutritional quality, can be altered by diet.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 42

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    Apart from regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC Country Officers) of the 2005/6 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2004/5 midterm performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. 1. The characterization of locally available feed and animal genetic resources and the identification and alleviation of constraints in the management of feeding, breeding and reproduction so as to improve the efficiency of livestock production while conserving the environment. This is done through the transfer of the following technologies: Radioimmunoassays (RIA) for measuring hormones: for identifying and mitigating constraints to efficient livestock production and improving the delivery of national artificial insemination services and providing diagnostic services to farmers

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Apart from regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC Country Officers) of the 2005/6 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2004/5 midterm performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. 1. The characterization of locally available feed and animal genetic resources and the identification and alleviation of constraints in the management of feeding, breeding and reproduction so as to improve the efficiency of livestock production while conserving the environment. This is done through the transfer of the following technologies: Radioimmunoassays (RIA) for measuring hormones: for identifying and mitigating constraints to efficient livestock production and improving the delivery of national artificial insemination services and providing diagnostic services to farmers.

  20. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Leeuwen, van Stefan P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were

  1. Production and comparison of fuel properties, engine performance, and emission characteristics of biodiesel from various non-edible vegetable oils: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraful, A.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.; Imtenan, S.; Shahir, S.A.; Mobarak, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overview of current energy situation. • Overview of biology, distribution and chemistry of various non-edible oil resources. • Comparison of fuel properties of various biodiesels produced from various non-edible oils. • Comparison of engine performance and emission characteristics of reviewed biodiesels. - Abstract: Energy demand is increasing dramatically because of the fast industrial development, rising population, expanding urbanization, and economic growth in the world. To fulfill this energy demand, a large amount of fuel is widely used from different fossil resources. Burning of fossil fuels has caused serious detrimental environmental consequences. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. Edible vegetable oils are one of the potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. However, as the use of edible oils will jeopardize food supplies and biodiversity, non-edible vegetable oils, also known as second-generation feedstocks, are considered potential substitutes of edible food crops for biodiesel production. This paper introduces some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These species are Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllum (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) and Jatropha curcas (Jatropha). Various aspects of non-edible feedstocks, such as biology, distribution, and chemistry, the biodiesel’s physicochemical properties, and its effect on engine performance and emission, are reviewed based on published articles. From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably vary depending on feedstocks. Analysis of the performance results revealed that most of the biodiesel generally give higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake-specific fuel consumption. Emission results

  2. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  3. Utilization and cost of log production from animal loging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford; Robert B. Rummer; Mark Dubois

    2006-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically logged. So, small logging systems using animals may be more cost effective. In this study, work sampling was used for five animal logging operations in Alabama to measure productive and non-productive time...

  4. Whey Based Bioactive Peptides Used in Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Demet Karaman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides come out as a result of the hydrolysis of milk proteins and contain nutritional, functional and biological activities. Nowadays, the utilization of whey proteins to provide various features in the animal products such as meat and milk products and animal production has been increasing. In this compilation, after being introduced some general information about their common characteristics, bioactive peptides will be mentioned about their particularly recent usage in animal products.

  5. The green, blue and grey water footprint of animals and animal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2010-01-01

    The projected increase in the production and consumption of animal products is likely to put further pressure on the globe’s freshwater resources. The size and characteristics of the water footprint vary across animal types and production systems. The current study provides a comprehensive account

  6. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  7. Linking live animals and products: traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, A G; Bell, C M; Evers, K; Paskin, R

    2013-08-01

    It is rarely possible to successfully contain an outbreak of an infectious animal disease, or to respond effectively to a chemical residue incident, without the use of a system for identifying and tracking animals. The linking of animals at the time they are slaughtered--through the use of identification devices or marks and accompanying movement documentation--with the meat produced from their carcasses, adds further value from the perspective of consumer safety. Over the past decade, animal identification technology has become more sophisticated and affordable. The development of the Internet and mobile communication tools, complemented bythe expanded capacity of computers and associated data management applications, has added a new dimension to the ability of Competent Authorities and industry to track animals and the food they produce for disease control, food safety and commercial purposes.

  8. 9 CFR 94.19 - Restrictions on importation from BSE minimal-risk regions of meat and edible products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC... encephalopathy. (e) Meat or dressed carcasses of hunter-harvested wild sheep, goats, or other ruminants other than cervids. The meat or dressed carcass (eviscerated and the head is removed) is derived from a wild...

  9. Biotechnological production of inducible defense-related proteins in edible radish (raphanus sativus) found in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Praval; Karmacharya, Anil; Sharma, Shishir; Nepal, Ashwini K; Shrestha, Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infection in plant leads to use of many hazardous antifungal chemicals. Alternative to these chemicals, defense related antifungal proteins can be used in case of fungal diseases. An experiment was done in two varieties of edible radish (Raphanus sativus var. Pyuthane Raato and Raphanus sativus var. all season) with aims to produce defense protein within the plant, to identify and perform molecular characterization of those antifungal proteins. The next aim was to compare the antifungal property of those proteins with commercially available synthetic pesticides. Both varieties of radish were infected with fungi (Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum). Protein samples were isolated from leaves following the standard protocol as described for β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and were run along with the standard protein marker of 10-250kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to identify and molecularly characterize them. An additional band in the range of 37-50kDa was observed in the fungal infected samples, which was not seen on uninfected samples. The antifungal assay was carried out for every sample in 96 wells microtitre plate. The extracted protein samples from fungal inoculated plants showed the significant inhibition of fungal growth compared to other samples. On the basis of molecular weight and their antifungal properties, the protein samples from the fungal infected plant were found to be PR2 (Glucanase) and PR3 (Chitinase). Defense related proteins were successfully produced in two varieties of radish found in Nepal. The use of such biologically produced proteins may reduce the use of biologically harmful synthetic pesticides.

  10. Biodiesel production from non-edible Silybum marianum oil using heterogeneous solid base catalyst under ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Mohammed; Chen, Yao; Liu, Hongyang; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate modified TiO2 doped with C4H4O6HK as heterogeneous solid base catalyst for transesterification of non-edible, Silybum marianum oil to biodiesel using methanol under ultrasonication. Upon screening the catalytic performance of modified TiO2 doped with different K-compounds, 0.7 C4H4O6HK doped on TiO2 was selected. The preparation of the catalyst was done using incipient wetness impregnation method. Having doped modified TiO2 with C4H4O6HK, followed by impregnation, drying and calcination at 600 °C for 6 h, the catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, BET, TGA, UV and the Hammett indicators. The yield of the biodiesel was proportional to the catalyst basicity. The catalyst had granular and porous structures with high basicity and superior performance. Combined conditions of 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 5 wt.% catalyst amount, 60 °C reaction temperature and 30 min reaction time was enough for maximum yield of 90.1%. The catalyst maintained sustained activity after five cycles of use. The oxidative stability which was the main problem of the biodiesel was improved from 2.0 h to 3.2h after 30 days using ascorbic acid as antioxidant. The other properties including the flash point, cetane number and the cold flow ones were however, comparable to international standards. The study indicated that Ti-0.7-600-6 is an efficient, economical and environmentally, friendly catalyst under ultrasonication for producing biodiesel from S. marianum oil with a substantial yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L. A.; Brown, I. H.; Haenen, O. L.; de Jong, M. D.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  12. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); I.H. Brown (Ian); Haenen, O.L.; M.D. de Jong (Menno); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Papa (Anna); Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCompanion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society,

  13. Assessing environmental consequences of using co-products in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.; Mollenhorst, H.; Vries, de J.W.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The livestock sector has a major impact on the environment. This environmental impact may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products (e.g. beet tails) to livestock, as this transforms inedible products for humans into edible products, e.g. pork or beef. Nevertheless, co-products have different

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This issue of the newsletter highlights coordinated research programs in animal diseases including ELISA and RIA techniques in reproductive studies. Announcement of staff changes and forthcoming events are also covered

  15. Approved Animal Drug Products (Green Book)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On November 16, 1988, the President of the United States signed into law the Generic Animal Drug and Patent Restoration Act (GADPTRA). Among its major provisions,...

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In addition to announcements of forthcoming training and meeting programs, as well as status of coordinated research programs, this issue highlights application of molecular biology in diagnosis of animal diseases in developing countries.

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This issue of the newsletter highlights coordinated research programs in animal diseases including ELISA and RIA techniques in reproductive studies. Announcement of staff changes and forthcoming events are also covered.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In addition to announcements of forthcoming training and meeting programs, as well as status of coordinated research programs, this issue highlights application of molecular biology in diagnosis of animal diseases in developing countries

  19. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  20. Animal welfare in multipurpose cattle production Systems and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal welfare and its influence on beef production are major considerations in many developed countries. In the developing world, where food insecurity and poverty are prevalent, the welfare of animals receives low priority due to factors such as traditional customs and beliefs, lack of knowledge in animal handling and ...

  1. Prudent Use of Veterinary Drugs: Impact on Safe Animal Products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like any other therapeutic compounds, veterinary drugs are used to alleviate diseases in animals as either therapeutic or prophylactic compounds for specific disease entities. They can also be used as production aids in food producing animals to increase market sale of these animals whereby the producers save on the ...

  2. Biodegradable Microparticles for Simultaneous Detection of Counterfeit and Deteriorated Edible Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehor, Ivan; van Vreeswijk, Sophie; Vermonden, Tina; Hennink, Wim E.; Kegel, Willem K.; Eral, Huseyin Burak

    2017-01-01

    In an era of globalized trade relations where food and pharmaceutical products cross borders effortlessly, consumers face counterfeit and deteriorated products at elevated rates. This paper presents multifunctional, biodegradable hydrogel microparticles that can provide information on the

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights forthcoming events including regional workshops, research coordination meetings and training courses on use isotope application in the diagnosis of animal diseases. Status of existing co-ordinated and technical co-operation research projects is also summarized

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  8. Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal Manures on Soil ... Discovery and Innovation ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... into the effectiveness of locally available agricultural by-products as source of nutrient.

  9. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 49, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the upcoming International Symposium on 'Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health' from 8 to 11 June 2009 in Vienna, Austria. The Symposium will address: The early and rapid diagnosis and control methods for transboundary animal diseases including those of a zoonotic nature; Improved reproduction technologies and breeding strategies; The efficient and sustainable use of locally available resources for animal production

  10. Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 60 ... Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Journal Home > Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  11. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  12. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  13. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess and Philippines edible medicinal wild mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NRRL B-59985) (Hou and Lin, 2013). The objective of this study is to identify the chemical ...

  14. Releasing intracellular product to prepare whole cell biocatalyst for biosynthesis of Monascus pigments in water-edible oil two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Minglue; Zhang, Xuehong; Wang, Zhilong

    2016-11-01

    Selective releasing intracellular product in Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution to prepare whole cell biocatalyst is a novel strategy for biosynthesis of Monascus pigments, in which cell suspension culture exhibits some advantages comparing with the corresponding growing cell submerged culture. In the present work, the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 was successfully replaced by edible plant oils for releasing intracellular Monascus pigments. High concentration of Monascus pigments (with absorbance nearly 710 AU at 470 nm in the oil phase, normalized to the aqueous phase volume approximately 142 AU) was achieved by cell suspension culture in peanut oil-water two-phase system. Furthermore, the utilization of edible oil as extractant also fulfills the demand for application of Monascus pigments as natural food colorant.

  15. An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Greenhouse gas (GHG production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3, leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂ and average daily gain (ADG as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄ and nitrous oxide (N₂O as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.

  16. An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J W; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J A; van Huis, Arnold

    2010-12-29

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3)), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.

  17. Effect of Maillard reaction products on the physical and antimicrobial properties of edible films based on ε-polylysine and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Liu, Fuguo; Liang, Chunxuan; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2014-11-01

    Edible films based on Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of ε-polylysine and chitosan, without the use of any plasticiser, were prepared by solution casting. The effect of Maillard reaction parameters (reaction time and the ratio of polylysine/chitosan) of ε-polylysine and chitosan on the structure, moisture content, water solubility, total colour difference and mechanical properties of edible films formed by MRPs were systematically evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that edible films prepared by the MRPs of ε-polylysine and chitosan through the Maillard reaction exhibited a more compact and dense structure than those from the mixture of biopolymers without the presence of MRPs. The tensile strength and % elongation values of films from the mixture were decreased significantly with the rise of ε-polylysine (P Maillard reaction, whereas water solubility was decreased and total colour difference was increased significantly (P Maillard reaction time. In addition, antimicrobial activity of chitosan films against E. coli and S. aureus. could be achieved by incorporating ε-polylysine into chitosan. These films can ensure food quality and safety, especially for coating highly perishable foods, such as meat products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions

  19. Production of ethoxylated fatty acids derived from Jatropha non-edible oil as a nonionic fat-liquoring agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shattory, Y; Abo-Elwafa, Ghada A; Aly, Saadia M; Nashy, El-Shahat H A

    2012-01-01

    Natural fatty derivatives (oleochemicals) have been used as intermediate materials in several industries replacing the harmful and expensive petrochemicals. Fatty ethoxylates are one of these natural fatty derivatives. In the present work Jatropha fatty acids were derived from the non edible Jatropha oil and used as the fat source precursor. The ethoxylation process was carried out on the derived fatty acids using a conventional cheap catalyst (K₂CO₃) in order to obtain economically and naturally valuable non-ionic surfactants. Ethoxylation reaction was proceeded using ethylene oxide gas in the presence of 1 or 2% K₂CO₃ catalyst at 120 and 145°C for 5, 8 and 12 hours. The prepared products were evaluated for their chemical and physical properties as well as its application as non- ionic fat-liquoring agents in leather industry. The obtained results showed that the number of ethylene oxide groups introduced in the fatty acids as well as their EO% increased as the temperature and time of the reaction increased. The highest ethoxylation number was obtained at 145°C for 8 hr. Also, the prepared ethoxylated products were found to be effective fat-liquors with high HLB values giving stable oil in water emulsions. The fat-liquored leather led to an improvement in its mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break. In addition, a significant enhancement in the texture of the treated leather by the prepared fat-liquors as indicated from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images was observed.

  20. Blender production creating short animations from start to finish

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Blender has become one of the most popular 3D animation tools on the market because it is robust and absolutely free. Blender Production is the definitive resource for anyone who wants to create short animations from scratch. With this book, and Blender, you have the ideal platform to make it happen.  Blender expert and author Roland Hess walks you through the entire process of creating a short animation including: writing, storyboarding, blocking, character creation, animation, rendering, and production. The associated web site includes the full Blender software kit and a compl

  1. Forage based animal production systems and sustainability, an invited keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Forages are essential for the successful operation of animal production systems. This is more relevant to ruminants which are heavily dependant upon forages for their health and production in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. While forages are an economical source of nutrients for animal production, they also help conserve the soil integrity, water supply and air quality. Although the role of these forages for animal production could vary depending upon the regional preferences for the animal and forage species, climate and resources, their importance in the success of ruminant production is acknowledged. However with the increasing global human population and urbanisation, the sustainability of forage based animal production systems is sometimes questioned due to the interrelationship between animal production and the environment. It is therefore vital to examine the suitability of these systems for their place in the future to supply quality food which is safe for human consumption and available at a competitive price to the growing human population. Grassland and forage crops are recognised for their contribution to the environment, recreation and efficiency of meat and milk production,. To maintain sustainability, it is crucial that such farming systems remain profitable and environmentally friendly while producing nutritious foods of high economical value. Thus, it is pertinent to improve the nutritive value of grasses and other forage plants in order to enhance animal production to obtain quality food. It is also vital to develop new forages which are efficiently utilised and wasted less by involving efficient animals. A combination of forage legumes, fresh or conserved grasses, crop residues and other feeds could help develop an animal production system which is economically efficient, beneficial and viable. Also, it is crucial to use efficient animals, improved forage conservation methods, better manure handling, and minimum

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    As part of our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TCPs), the Section evaluated our activities as part of the Agency's 2004/2005 midterm performance evaluation. During this exercise we could identify areas where good performances were achieved as well as those where further improvements were needed and which we then addressed. It became apparent that more proactive measures are needed towards the detection, control and management of emerging diseases, with particular emphasis on transboundary animal diseases and the offering of relevant support to Member States. A particular case in point is the current avian influenza situation. This issue discussed the problem posed by rinderpest and the Agency's effort in eradicating this viral disease

  3. Effects of animal source food and micronutrient fortification in complementary food products on body composition, iron status, and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Touch, Bunthang; Chhoun, Chamnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional quality of complementary foods often limits growth. Animal source foods, such as milk or meat, are often unaffordable. Local affordable alternatives are needed. Objective: We evaluate the efficacy of 2 newly developed, rice-based complementary food products: WinFood (WF......) with small fish and edible spiders and WinFood-Lite (WF-L) fortified with small fish, against 2 existing fortified corn-soy blend products, CSB+ (purely plant based) and CSB++ (8% dried skimmed milk). Design: In total, 419 infants aged 6 mo were enrolled in this randomized, single-blinded study for 9 mo...... increase in knee-heel length in WF-L compared with CSB+ was not significant. Conclusions: No difference was found between the locally produced products (WF and WF-L) and the CSBs. Micronutrient fortification may be necessary, and small fish may be an affordable alternative to milk to improve complementary...

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Danish production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie Elvekjær

    into naive animal productions. Focus was consequently turned to investigate the emergence of possible new animal reservoirs in Denmark. We investigated if Danish veal and dairy herds constitute a reservoir of MRSA CC398. Both production lines was found positive for MRSA CC398 in low prevalence, however veal...... with the bacterium most often found on the paws and in the pharynx, which poses a human health hazard to farmers, who risk getting bites and scratches when handling the animals. Based on results from phylogenetic analysis of isolates from both the cattle and mink production, we suggested a spillover from the pig...

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    Detailed accounts of Research coordination Meetings on 'Support for rinderpest surveillance', 'Use of immunoassay for improved diagnosis of trypanosomiasis and monitoring of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control programmes in africa' and meetings related to milk and meat production are presented in this issue. Recent training activities and other meetings are also highlighted

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Detailed accounts of Research coordination Meetings on 'Support for rinderpest surveillance', 'Use of immunoassay for improved diagnosis of trypanosomiasis and monitoring of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control programmes in africa' and meetings related to milk and meat production are presented in this issue. Recent training activities and other meetings are also highlighted.

  7. Impacts of prenatal nutrition on animal production and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2017-01-01

    The concept of foetal programming (FP) originated from human epidemiological studies, where foetal life nutrition was linked to health and disease status later in life. Since the proposal of this phenomenon, it has been evaluated in various animal models to gain further insights into the mechanisms...... programming in animals born precocial, such as sheep. Appropriate attention to the nutrition of the late pregnant dam should therefore be a priority in animal production systems....

  8. Probiotic edible films as a new strategy for developing functional bakery products: The case of pan bread☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Yonekura, Lina; Gan, Heng-Hui; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, a novel approach for the development of probiotic baked cereal products is presented. Probiotic pan bread constructed by the application of film forming solutions based either on individual hydrogels e.g. 1% w/w sodium alginate (ALG) or binary blends of 0.5% w/w sodium alginate and 2% whey protein concentrate (ALG/WPC) containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, followed by an air drying step at 60 °C for 10 min or 180 °C for min were produced. No visual differences between the bread crust surface of control and probiotic bread were observed. Microstructural analysis of bread crust revealed the formation of thicker films in the case of ALG/WPC. The presence of WPC improved significantly the viability of L. rhamnosus GG throughout air drying and room temperature storage. During storage there was a significant reduction in L. rhamnosus GG viability during the first 24 h, viable count losses were low during the subsequent 2–3 days of storage and growth was observed upon the last days of storage (day 4–7). The use of film forming solutions based exclusive on sodium alginate improved the viability of L. rhamnosus GG under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, and there was no impact of the bread crust matrix on inactivation rates. The presence of the probiotic edible films did not modify cause major shifts in the mechanistic pathway of bread staling – as shown by physicochemical, thermal, texture and headspace analysis. Based on our calculations, an individual 30–40 g bread slice can deliver approx. 7.57–8.98 and 6.55–6.91 log cfu/portion before and after in-vitro digestion, meeting the WHO recommended required viable cell counts for probiotic bacteria to be delivered to the human host. PMID:25089068

  9. Probiotic edible films as a new strategy for developing functional bakery products: The case of pan bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Yonekura, Lina; Gan, Heng-Hui; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian

    2014-08-01

    In the present paper, a novel approach for the development of probiotic baked cereal products is presented. Probiotic pan bread constructed by the application of film forming solutions based either on individual hydrogels e.g. 1% w/w sodium alginate (ALG) or binary blends of 0.5% w/w sodium alginate and 2% whey protein concentrate (ALG/WPC) containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, followed by an air drying step at 60 °C for 10 min or 180 °C for min were produced. No visual differences between the bread crust surface of control and probiotic bread were observed. Microstructural analysis of bread crust revealed the formation of thicker films in the case of ALG/WPC. The presence of WPC improved significantly the viability of L. rhamnosus GG throughout air drying and room temperature storage. During storage there was a significant reduction in L. rhamnosus GG viability during the first 24 h, viable count losses were low during the subsequent 2-3 days of storage and growth was observed upon the last days of storage (day 4-7). The use of film forming solutions based exclusive on sodium alginate improved the viability of L. rhamnosus GG under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, and there was no impact of the bread crust matrix on inactivation rates. The presence of the probiotic edible films did not modify cause major shifts in the mechanistic pathway of bread staling - as shown by physicochemical, thermal, texture and headspace analysis. Based on our calculations, an individual 30-40 g bread slice can deliver approx. 7.57-8.98 and 6.55-6.91 log cfu/portion before and after in-vitro digestion, meeting the WHO recommended required viable cell counts for probiotic bacteria to be delivered to the human host.

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    In the June 2004 Newsletter, we focused on the topic of molecular diagnostic technologies and the way forward. It is clear from the feedback, that there is a strong desire for having reliable, definitive, sensitive, specific, cost effective and on-site diagnostic tests, in parallel with so-called herd or population surveillance tests. This will allow for the implementation of more effective disease control strategies. It is indeed exciting to consider the current technological explosion and its consequences and what potential advantages might be in store for many of our Member States. This will also help to ensure that we keep abreast of new developments and employ the most appropriate tools.The conclusions and recommendations will be placed on the web as soon as they are available and published in the next Newsletter. The second topic under discussion in this Newsletter will focus on the management of animal genetic resources. Both past and future activities are described in further detail in this issue

  11. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports of Research Coordination Meetings held between September and December 1992 and summaries of the status of other Coordinated Research Programmes (CRPs). Two new CRPs are announced, both to be based in the Africa region. One is to focus on food supplementation strategies to improve the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms, and the other will concentrate on the use of immunoassay methods to improve the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis. Applications for participation in these CRPs are included

  12. ANIMAL PRODUCTION IN A GRAIN HUNGRY WORLD - or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ted plant matter. animal products are not essen- tial in human ... the energy of plant matter is lost in converting it to animal .... to electricity or by harnessing wind and wave power. nu- ..... nomy. will also adapt to the changing cost structure by.

  13. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production - Vol 25, No 1 (1998)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. ... Growth And Some Carcass Characteristics Of Growing Pigs Fed Full-Fat Soybean-Based Diets ... On Carcass Yield And Meat Quality Of Indigenous Guineafowl (Numida mefeagris galeata Pallas).

  14. Improvement of animal production through research using radioisotopes and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    High birth rates coupled with greater longevity continue to increase the.world's population, especially in the less developed countries. The prevention of undernutrition and ultimately starvation will only be averted by increased food production and more efficient use of that food. At the same time people who have largely subsisted upon plant food diets and whose standards of living are rising, want to increase the use of animal products in order to upgrade their diets. To provide this high quality food animal scientists must find ways of increasing the supply especially in the less developed countries. Since most of the available pasture lands are presently being fully utilized or overgrazed, improved efficiency of the present herds and use of agroindustrial wastes are the only methods left to increase production significantly. The use of radioisotopes and radiation in research are making major contributions to the understanding of the processes necessary to achieve better animal production. In order to provide a forum for exchange of information in this field, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture organized an international symposium, held in Vienna, from 2?6 February, on the use of nuclear techniques in animal production. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were: Soil-plant-animal relations regarding minerals, Trace elements in animal nutrition, Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism, Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - ruminants Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - non-ruminants Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections Animal endocrinology with special emphasis on radioimmunoassays

  15. Improvement of animal production through research using radioisotopes and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    High birth rates coupled with greater longevity continue to increase the.world's population, especially in the less developed countries. The prevention of undernutrition and ultimately starvation will only be averted by increased food production and more efficient use of that food. At the same time people who have largely subsisted upon plant food diets and whose standards of living are rising, want to increase the use of animal products in order to upgrade their diets. To provide this high quality food animal scientists must find ways of increasing the supply especially in the less developed countries. Since most of the available pasture lands are presently being fully utilized or overgrazed, improved efficiency of the present herds and use of agroindustrial wastes are the only methods left to increase production significantly. The use of radioisotopes and radiation in research are making major contributions to the understanding of the processes necessary to achieve better animal production. In order to provide a forum for exchange of information in this field, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture organized an international symposium, held in Vienna, from 2?6 February, on the use of nuclear techniques in animal production. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were: Soil-plant-animal relations regarding minerals, Trace elements in animal nutrition, Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism, Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - ruminants Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - non-ruminants Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections Animal endocrinology with special emphasis on radioimmunoassays.

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The editorial of this issue of the Newsletter carries a strong message to its readers how the events of 11 September and the release of anthrax in the USA have affected all those involved in laboratory activities related to infectious agents. In future, it is may be needed to keep detailed records of all dangerous pathogens and account for their production, storage, and use in ways that will prevent, or at least, significantly reduce the risk of their use as bio-weapons. The rest of this issue briefly highlights FAO/IAEA consultants meeting, coordinated research programs and technical cooperation projects.

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The editorial of this issue of the Newsletter carries a strong message to its readers how the events of 11 September and the release of anthrax in the USA have affected all those involved in laboratory activities related to infectious agents. In future, it is may be needed to keep detailed records of all dangerous pathogens and account for their production, storage, and use in ways that will prevent, or at least, significantly reduce the risk of their use as bio-weapons. The rest of this issue briefly highlights FAO/IAEA consultants meeting, coordinated research programs and technical cooperation projects

  18. Design and production of a short 2D animated film

    OpenAIRE

    Prusnik, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Design and production of a short 2D animated film The thesis aims at analysing animation, the process of creating an ani- mated film with its technical and compositional details as well as show the process of making a short 2D animated movie with Toon Boom Studio. It is composed of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part of this thesis consists of the definition of the term "animation", a quick overview of its history and evolution, and an in-depth look into var...

  19. Study on Romanian Consumers’ Opinion Regarding the Animal Welfare Labelling of Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to investigate the influence some factors on the consumers’ opinion regarding the animal welfare labelling of animal products. The analysed question was: “When purchasing eggs, meat or milk can you easily identify from the label those products sourced from animal welfare friendly production systems?” Respondents chosen only one answer out of the five offered: yes, most of the time; yes, some of the time; no, very rarely; no, never; and don’t know. Thirty three percent of females considered they could find sometime information regarding the animal welfare on the labels, while males considered that this information could be found very rarely. Up to 55 years of age, 50% of the consumers consider that the labels do not contain the information about animal welfare, while after this age most of consumers consider they found this information on the labels. Over 50% of Orthodox and Roman Catholic responders considered that the information on animal welfare on the labels was found some of the time or very rarely. Respondents, irrespective of their living area or monthly income, considered that there is scarce information regarding animal welfare on the labels. Internet access significantly influenced the consumers regarding the availability of the information on the labels.

  20. Transfer of radionuclides to animal products following ingestion or inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Contamination of animal products forms an important pathway in the transfer of radionuclides from source to man. Simulation of radionuclide transfer via animal products requires an understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in absorption, distribution, turnover and excretion of radionuclides and related elements in animals as well as knowledge of animal grazing habits and husbandry. This paper provides a summary of the metabolism of important radionuclides in typical domestic animals and of the mathematical approaches that have been used to simulate transfer from diet to animal product. The equilibrium transfer factor approach has been used widely but suffers a number of disadvantages when releases or intakes are variable with time or when intakes are short relative to the lifetime of the animal of interest. Dynamic models, especially those of the compartmental type, have been developed and used widely. Both approaches have benefited from experiences obtained after the Chernobyl accident but a number of uncertainties still exist. Whereas there is now extensive knowledge on the behaviour of radiocaesium in both domestic and wild animals, knowledge of the behaviour of other potentially important radionuclides remains limited. Further experimental and metabolic studies will be required to reduce uncertainties associated with the transfer of radionuclides other than radiocaesium and thereby produce a sound basis for radiological assessments. (author)

  1. The use of tritiated water in evaluating animal production parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertshaw, D.

    1988-01-01

    Tritiated water (TOH) provides a means of measuring a number of parameters of importance not only to the applied animal physiologist but to those involved in assessing animal productivity. For the examination of animal-environment interactions, TOH is an invaluable tool for assessing total body water, water turnover rate and hence water requirements of different types of animals kept under a variety of climatic and other conditions. It can also be useful for measuring water losses, e.g. through evaporation, and hence is a tool for assessing thermal stress. For animal productivity studies, TOH is useful for assessing such parameters as carcass composition, the intake of forages, supplements and milk. Each of these aspects is described as are the assumptions which have to be made when using TOH for the measurements concerned. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  2. Animal DNA identification in food products and animal feed by real time polymerase chain reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Мар’янівна Іщенко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Approbation of diagnostic tests for species identification of beef, pork and chicken by real time polymerase chain reaction method was done. Meat food, including heat treated and animal feed, was used for research. The fact of inconsistencies was revealed for product composition of some meat products that is marked by manufacturer 

  3. Radiation hygiene of animal production in normal and emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajicj, J.; Petrovicj, B.; Draganovicj, B.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation hazards imposed by contemporary development and peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy have implied the introduction of radiational control in animal production, and radiation-hygienic expertize of animal products and animal foodstuffs. Various treatments in scientific research, education and uses of relevant equipment, undertaken in right time, enabled our Veterinary services to start successfully to solve problems of radiation control and protection of animal production in normal and emergency situations. An important role in this context has the Section of Radiation Hygiene Yugoslav Veterinary Association, as an initiator of many activities that are intended to affirme Radiation Hygiene in the domain of scientific research and in the field of national defence and self-protection

  4. Role of Biotechnology in Animal Production Systems in Hot Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Hansen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments in the biological sciences in the last three decades have revolutionized mankind's ability to manipulate the genetics, cell biology and physiology of biological organisms. These techniques, collectively termed biotechnology, create the opportunity for modifying domestic animals in ways that markedly increase the efficiency of production. Among the procedures being developed for animal production systems are marker-assisted selection of specific alleles of a gene that are associated with high production, production of transgenic animals , super ovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, embryo sexing and cloning, production of large amounts of previously-rare proteins through use of genetically -engineered bacteria or other cells, and identification of new biologically-active molecules as potential regulators of animal function. To date, most uses of biotechnology have concentrated on problems of general relevance to animal agriculture rather than specific problems related to livestock production in hot climates. However, it is likely that biotechnology will be used for this latter purpose also. Strategies to increase disease resistance using marker-assisted selection, production of transgenic animals expressing viral proteins, and recombinant cytokines to enhance immune function should prove useful to reducing the incidence and seventy of various tropical diseases. Additionally, there are methods to reduce effects of heat stress on oestrus detection and establishment of pregnancy. These include remote sensing of oestrus, ovulation synchronization systems and embryo transfer. More research regarding the physiological processes determining heat tolerance and of the pathways through which heat stress alters physiological function will be required before molecular biology techniques can be used to reduce the adverse effects of heat stress on animal production.

  5. Combustion of animal or vegetable based liquid waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus

    2002-04-01

    In this project experiences from combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products have been compiled. Legal aspects have also been taken into consideration and the potential for this type of fuel on the Swedish energy market has been evaluated. Today the supply of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products for energy production in Sweden is limited. The total production of animal based liquid fat is about 10,000 tonnes annually. The animal based liquid waste products origin mainly from the manufacturing of meat and bone meal. Since meat and bone meal has been banned from use in animal feeds it is possible that the amount of animal based liquid fat will decrease. The vegetable based liquid waste products that are produced in the processing of vegetable fats are today used mainly for internal energy production. This result in limited availability on the commercial market. The potential for import of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products is estimated to be relatively large since the production of this type of waste products is larger in many other countries compared to Sweden. Vegetable oils that are used as food or raw material in industries could also be imported for combustion, but this is not reasonable today since the energy prices are relatively low. Restrictions allow import of SRM exclusively from Denmark. This is today the only limit for increased imports of animal based liquid fat. The restrictions for handle and combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products are partly unclear since this is covered in several regulations that are not easy to interpret. The new directive for combustion of waste (2000/76/EG) is valid for animal based waste products but not for cadaver or vegetable based waste products from provisions industries. This study has shown that more than 27,400 tonnes of animal based liquid waste products and about 6,000 tonnes of vegetable based liquid waste products were used for combustion in Sweden

  6. Enhancement of carotenoid and chlorophyll content of an edible freshwater alga (Kai: Cladophora sp. by supplementary inorganic phosphate and investigation of its biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripen Traichaiyaporn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of the carotenoid and chlorophyll content of an edible freshwater alga (Kai:Cladophora sp. by supplementary inorganic phosphate in canteen wastewater was investigated. Themass cultivation of the alga was conducted at ambient temperature and light intensity in dilutedcanteen wastewater enhanced with dipotassium hydrogen phosphate at 5-20 mg L-1. An increase intotal carotenoid and chlorophyll was observed. However, it had no effect on biomass production. Asa result of the algal cultivation, there was a dramatic improvement in the quality of canteen wastewater.

  7. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    This year, the Animal Production and Health Section is 50 years old. The Animal Production and Health Section identifies new areas of interest based on the Member States' needs to improve efficiencies and to control threats to animal production and health. To this effect, several platforms, assays, diagnostic kits and technical procedures have been developed, adapted and transferred to Member States, supported by R&D, expert technical backstopping and guidance from our Animal Production and Health Laboratory. In addition, several nuclear based technologies (such as reproduction and disease related technologies (such as reproduction and disease related radioimmunoassay have been adapted to other types of chemistries (e.g. chemiluminescence instead of isotopes) to be used at the farm level. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, however, still play an important and niche role to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity needed by the livestock community in ensuring secure and safe food, to follow and measure feed and nutritional conversion into usable energy in the animal, to improve animal breeding traits towards more and of better quality animals, to monitor migratory animals and their associated pathogens, to generate safe and protective animal vaccines through the irradiation of pathogens and to develop and transfer early and rapid diagnostic platforms. Looking back at the activities of the past six months, we had several workshops, training courses, research co-ordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings. Activities scheduled for the next half-year include project review meetings, RCMs, inter-regional training courses and regional workshops. Both past and future activities are discussed in further detail in this newsletter and are also further accessible at our website.

  8. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This year, the Animal Production and Health Section is 50 years old. The Animal Production and Health Section identifies new areas of interest based on the Member States' needs to improve efficiencies and to control threats to animal production and health. To this effect, several platforms, assays, diagnostic kits and technical procedures have been developed, adapted and transferred to Member States, supported by R&D, expert technical backstopping and guidance from our Animal Production and Health Laboratory. In addition, several nuclear based technologies (such as reproduction and disease related technologies (such as reproduction and disease related radioimmunoassay have been adapted to other types of chemistries (e.g. chemiluminescence instead of isotopes) to be used at the farm level. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, however, still play an important and niche role to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity needed by the livestock community in ensuring secure and safe food, to follow and measure feed and nutritional conversion into usable energy in the animal, to improve animal breeding traits towards more and of better quality animals, to monitor migratory animals and their associated pathogens, to generate safe and protective animal vaccines through the irradiation of pathogens and to develop and transfer early and rapid diagnostic platforms. Looking back at the activities of the past six months, we had several workshops, training courses, research co-ordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings. Activities scheduled for the next half-year include project review meetings, RCMs, inter-regional training courses and regional workshops. Both past and future activities are discussed in further detail in this newsletter and are also further accessible at our website

  9. Chilean consumers' perception about animal welfare in dairy production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Riveros, José Luis; Köbrich, Claus

    2017-01-01

    production systems and animal welfare, and the main aspects they considered when buying dairy products. A face-to-face interview was conducted on a sample of 501 persons from the Province of Santiago, Chile. The survey was conducted in major supermarkets from 15 different municipalities of Santiago...

  10. Establishment approval in international trade of animal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rau, M.L.; Ge, L.; Valeeva, N.I.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an overview of different approaches of establishment approval as well as its implementation and organisation in international agrifood trade. The focus is on animal products as establishment approval is particularly used for exporting these products. Based on trade data, 8

  11. Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din Farag, M.D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

  12. Isolation and Selection of Microalgal Strains from Natural Water Sources in Viet Nam with Potential for Edible Oil Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Tran Yen; Linh, Dinh Thi Nhat; Si, Vo Chi; Carter, Taylor W; Hill, Russell T

    2017-06-23

    Industrial vegetable oil production in Viet Nam depends on oil seeds and crude plant oils that are currently more than 90% imported. As the first step in investigating the feasibility of using microalgae to provide Viet Nam with a domestic source of oil for food and edible oil industries, fifty lipid-producing microalgae were isolated and characterized. The microalgae were isolated from water sources ranging from freshwater to brackish and marine waters from a wide geographic distribution in Viet Nam. Initial analyses showed that 20 of the 50 strains had good growth rates, produced high biomass and had high lipid content, ranging up to 50% of dry weight biomass. 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses of the 50 strains showed a great diversity in this assemblage of microalgae, comprising at least 38 species and representatives of 25 genera : Chlamydomonas , Poterioochromonas , Scenedesmus , Desmodesmus , Chlorella , Bracteacoccus , Monoraphidium , Selenastrum , Acutodesmus , Mychonastes , Ankistrodesmus , Kirchneriella , Raphidocelis , Dictyosphaerium , Coelastrella , Schizochlamydella , Oocystidium , Nannochloris , Auxenochlorella , Chlorosarcinopsis , Stichococcus , Picochlorum , Prasinoderma , Chlorococcum , and Marvania. Some of the species are closely related to well-known lipid producers such as Chlorella sorokiniana , but some other strains are not closely related to the strains found in public sequence databases and likely represent new species. Analysis of oil quality showed that fatty acid profiles of the microalgal strains were very diverse and strain-dependent. Fatty acids in the microalgal oils comprised saturated fatty acids (SFAs), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The main SFA was palmitic acid. MUFAs and PUFAs were dominated by oleic acid, and linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively. Some strains were especially rich in the essential fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), which comprised more than 20% of the

  13. [Animal experimentation in the discovery and production of veterinary vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audonnet, J Ch; Lechenet, J; Verschuere, B

    2007-08-01

    Veterinary vaccine research, development and production facilities must aim to improve animal welfare, respond to public concerns and meet regulatory requirements, while at the same time fulfilling their objective of producing evermore effective and safer vaccines. The use of animal experimentation for the development of new veterinary vaccines is inevitable, as no in vitro model can predict a candidate vaccine's ability to induce protection in the target species. Against the backdrop of ethical and regulatory constraints, constant progress is being made in creating the best possible conditions for animal experimentation. Keeping up to date with the constant changes in the field of animal ethics requires a particular effort on the part of the pharmaceutical industry, which must make careful changes to product registration documentation in accordance with each new development.

  14. Effect of edible coating ingredients incorporated into predusting mix on moisture content, fat content and consumer acceptability of fried breaded product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongnuch Raksakulthai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of edible coatings and their concentrations on moisture and fat contents of fried breaded potato were investigated. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, methylcellulose (MC or wheat gluten (WG were incorporate into predusting mix to achieve coating material concentration of 3-12% (w/w. Blanched potatoes were first coated with predusting mix and followed sequentially by battering, breading and deep frying at 170°C for 3 min. Moisture and fat contents in the core and crust of sample and intact samples were determined. It was found that HPMC and MC could reduce moisture loss and fat absorption than WG. Predusting mix with 6% MC was the most effective to retain moisture and reduce fat absorption. This predusting mix was then applied to commercial breaded shrimps. In both prefried and fried products, treated breaded shrimps had more moisture and less fat than untreated breaded shrimps. They also were lower in product hardness and crust hardness than untreated samples. Sensory evaluation showed that treated and untreated shrimp samples had similar rating for appearance, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall. Treated breaded shrimp was acceptable to the consumers. The application of edible coatings into predusting mix can be easily introduced into the production process and is beneficial to both food industry and consumers.

  15. A metabolic derivation of tritium transfer factors in animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.; Crout, N. M. J.; Bersford, N. A.; Peterson, S. R.; Hess, M. van

    2001-01-01

    Tritium is a potentially important environmental contaminant arising from the nuclear industry. Because tritium is an isotope of hydrogen, its behaviour in the environment is controlled by the behaviour of hydrogen. Chronic releases of tritium to the atmosphere, in particular, will result in tritium-to-hydrogen (T/H) ratios in plants and animals that are more or less in equilibrium with T/H ratios in the air moisture. Tritium is thus a potentially important contaminant of plant and animal food products. The transfer of tritium from air moisture to plants is quite well understood. In contrast, although a number of regulatory agencies have published transfer coefficient values for diet tritium transfer for a limited number of animal products, a fresh evaluation of these transfers needs to be made In this paper we present an approach for the derivation of tritium transfer coefficients which is based on the metabolism of hydrogen in animals in conjunction with experimental data on tritium transfer. The derived transfer coefficients separately account for transfer to and from free (i.e. water) and organically bound tritium. The predicted transfer coefficients are compared to available data independent of model development. Agreement is good, with the exception of the transfer coefficient for transfer from tritiated water to organically bound tritium in ruminants, which may be attributable to the particular characteristics of ruminant digestion. We show that transfer coefficients will vary in response to the metabolic status of an animal (e.g. stage of lactation, digestibility of diet, etc.) and that the use of a single transfer coefficient from diet to animal product is not appropriate for tritium. It is possible to derive concentration ratio values which relate the concentration of tritiated water and organically bound tritium in an animal product to the corresponding concentrations in the animals diet. These concentration ratios are shown to be less subject to

  16. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  17. Brazilian Citizens' Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Maria C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Hötzel, Maria J

    2017-09-28

    The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their "social license to operate"; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat). Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle), 82% (poultry), 81% (laying hens), and 60% (swine). A large majority (79%) stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The preference for free

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 46, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    In response to many requests from our readers, I will continue to highlight a practical topic related to animal production and health in this section of the newsletter. Increasing the efficiency of animal reproduction is a critical component of a holistic approach to sustainably increase animal productivity in developing Member States. For example, the resources spent to formulate and obtain the ingredients for dairy rations are wasted when a significant proportion of the cows in the herd are dry due to delays in achieving pregnancy. Effective genetic selection to improve productivity is only possible if a regular supply of potential replacements is generated by the females already in the herd or flock. For this reason, improving reproductive efficiency is a key aspect of many of the APH projects

  19. Animal derived products may conflict with religious patients' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Axelina; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-12-01

    Implants and drugs with animal and human derived content are widely used in medicine and surgery, but information regarding ingredients is rarely obtainable by health practitioners. A religious perspective concerning the use of animal and human derived drug ingredients has not thoroughly been investigated. The purpose of this study was to clarify which parts of the medical and surgical treatments offered in western world-hospitals that conflicts with believers of major religions. Religious and spiritual leaders of the six largest religions worldwide (18 branches) were contacted. A standardised questionnaire was sent out regarding their position on the use of human and animal derived products in medical and surgical treatments. Of the 18 contacted religious branches, 10 replied representing the 6 largest religions worldwide. Hindus and Sikhs did not approve of the use of bovine or porcine derived products, and Muslims did not accept the use of porcine derived drugs, dressings or implants. Christians (including Jehovah's Witnesses), Jews and Buddhists accepted the use of all animal and human derived products. However, all religions accepted the use of all these products in case of an emergency and only if alternatives were not available. The views here suggest that religious codes conflict with some treatment regimens. It is crucial to obtain informed consent from patients for the use of drugs and implants with animal or human derived content. However, information on the origin of ingredients in drugs is not always available to health practitioners.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 50, July 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    The biggest event this year was undoubtedly, the successful International Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health that was held from 8 to 11 June 2009, here in Vienna. It was attended by more than 400 participants from about 100 Member States of the IAEA and FAO, including several international organizations, with oral and poster contributions. The most important aspects of the symposium were to renew old and form new acquaintances, to discuss common topics and strategies and to form networks and partnerships to address animal production and health problems. The symposium was indeed topical and designed to address issues of importance to our Member States. The new and emerging areas of interest such as One Heath, Food Security and Safety and our ability to produce more and healthier animals and animal products in an 'environmentally safe, clean and ethical' way were hotly discussed. Some of the conclusions and challenges that animal scientists face, whose primary concern have been improving livestock productivity, are more extensively reported on in this newsletter. In addition, we will publish full length papers of all the oral presentations, and some of the most imminent poster presentations, as symposium proceedings shortly. Both past and future activities are described in further detail in this newsletter

  1. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Commoditizing Nonhuman Animals and Their Consumers: Industrial Livestock Production, Animal Welfare, and Ecological Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod-Kilmurray, Heather

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing research on the effects of industrial livestock production on the environment and human health, but less on the effects this has on animal welfare and ecological justice. The concept of ecological justice as a tool for achieving sustainability is gaining traction in the legal world. Klaus Bosselman defines ecological justice as…

  3. Animal behaviour and animal nutrition science working together to support livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, S.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Within livestock production and welfare science, many of the interesting and important questions lie at the interface of traditional fields of study and benefit from an interdisciplinary approach. The effects of nutrition on the behaviour of animals have been widely studied. They range from the

  4. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This past year went particularly fast with many unexpected and emergency food security challenges and it was indeed an asking period for the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. We have some remarkable achievements but also some gaps, such as improved communication and collaboration, where we need to improve our support to Member States. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter. The Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field to optimally serve our Member States

  5. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Testing irradiation technology for potential use in trypanosome vaccine development; Strengthening animal disease diagnostic capacities in veterinary laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa; Proficiency testing for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) diagnosis by Nucleic Acid Amplification (RT-PCR). Information on Fellows is also provided.

  6. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Testing irradiation technology for potential use in trypanosome vaccine development; Strengthening animal disease diagnostic capacities in veterinary laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa; Proficiency testing for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) diagnosis by Nucleic Acid Amplification (RT-PCR). Information on Fellows is also provided

  7. Brazilian Citizens’ Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat. Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle, 82% (poultry, 81% (laying hens, and 60% (swine. A large majority (79% stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The

  8. Trends in recombinant protein use in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifre, Laia; Arís, Anna; Bach, Àlex; Garcia-Fruitós, Elena

    2017-03-04

    Recombinant technologies have made possible the production of a broad catalogue of proteins of interest, including those used for animal production. The most widely studied proteins for the animal sector are those with an important role in reproduction, feed efficiency, and health. Nowadays, mammalian cells and fungi are the preferred choice for recombinant production of hormones for reproductive purposes and fibrolytic enzymes to enhance animal performance, respectively. However, the development of low-cost products is a priority, particularly in livestock. The study of cell factories such as yeast and bacteria has notably increased in the last decades to make the new developed reproductive hormones and fibrolytic enzymes a real alternative to the marketed ones. Important efforts have also been invested to developing new recombinant strategies for prevention and therapy, including passive immunization and modulation of the immune system. This offers the possibility to reduce the use of antibiotics by controlling physiological processes and improve the efficacy of preventing infections. Thus, nowadays different recombinant fibrolytic enzymes, hormones, and therapeutic molecules with optimized properties have been successfully produced through cost-effective processes using microbial cell factories. However, despite the important achievements for reducing protein production expenses, alternative strategies to further reduce these costs are still required. In this context, it is necessary to make a giant leap towards the use of novel strategies, such as nanotechnology, that combined with recombinant technology would make recombinant molecules affordable for animal industry.

  9. Industrial halal meat production and animal welfare: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Pufpaff, K M; Amir, M

    2016-10-01

    Islam teaches zero-tolerance to all forms of animal abuse throughout the halal meat production supply chain and demands that when animals are slaughtered, they must be slaughtered in the mindful and attentive way espoused by the Prophet Muhammad. Why then are poor practices and animal welfare abuses still occurring during halal meat production, and how can they be reduced or eliminated? In this review we discuss how improvements might be achieved through: (1) training of staff regarding the religious and regulatory requirements of animal welfare from on-farm to slaughter; (2) empathy and compassion assessment of applicants prior to employment; (3) installation of CCTV cameras around lairage and slaughter sites; (4) regular employee follow-up training to minimise 'compassion fatigue'; (5) incorporating animal welfare requirements in halal certification; (6) using mosque-based sermons by Imams to increase awareness of animal welfare issues; and (7) making portable humane slaughter units available to small cottage operations and home/neighbourhood-kills through mosque-based organizations/structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Aninidita; Karmakar, Subrata; Mukherjee, Souti

    2010-10-01

    As an alternative fuel biodiesel is becoming increasingly important due to diminishing petroleum reserves and adverse environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum-fuelled engines. Biodiesel, the non-toxic fuel, is mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feedstock like vegetable oils, animal fats and residual oils. Choice of feedstocks depends on process chemistry, physical and chemical characteristics of virgin or used oils and economy of the process. Extensive research information is available on transesterification, the production technology and process optimization for various biomaterials. Consistent supply of feedstocks is being faced as a major challenge by the biodiesel production industry. This paper reviews physico-chemical properties of the plant and animal resources that are being used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Efforts have also been made to review the potential resources that can be transformed into biodiesel successfully for meeting the ever increasing demand of biodiesel production. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. an assessment of the hygiene level in animal product processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    Keywords: Hygiene, animal product processing plants, checklists ... Changing lifestyles have brought new demands on the food industry; the ... Inspection is an aspect that needs to be revamped to ensure hygienic ... processing can affect a large number of people. .... trolled and equipment well designed; basic system.

  13. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production - Vol 19, No 1 (1992)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. ... Application of a real-time linear array ultrasound system to the evaluation of live cattle · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Prediction of carcass lean content in live pigs using scanoprobe ultrasonic machine · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  14. Stability, resilience and animal production in continuously grazed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Jones-Sandland model, popularly used in southern Africa, may be criticised because it ignores firstly the long-term effects of grazing intensity on the acceptability and productivity of pasture or veld, and secondly possible discontinuities in the animal performance - stocking rate relationship. A mathematical model is ...

  15. Designing foods: animal product options in the marketplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    ... of Animal Products Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the created cannot be files XML from however, formatting, recomposed typesetti...

  16. Impressions of animal production in South Africa with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impressions of animal production in South Africa with particular reference to biological research. I.W. McDonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  17. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of

  18. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

  19. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  20. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  1. Evaluation of hazardous chemicals in edible insects and insect-based food intended for human consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Poma, Giulia; Cuykx, Matthias; Amato, Elvio; Calaprice, Chiara; Focant, Jean Francois; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Due to the rapid increase in world population, the waste of food and resources, and non-sustainable food production practices, the use of alternative food sources is currently strongly promoted. In this perspective, insects may represent a valuable alternative to main animal food sources due to their nutritional value and sustainable production. However, edible insects may be perceived as an unappealing food source and are indeed rarely consumed in developed countries. The food safe...

  2. Concepts in production ecology for analysis and design of animal and plant-animal production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de G.W.J.; Ridder, de N.; Keulen, van H.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The use of a hierarchy in growth factors (defining, limiting and reducing growth factors), as developed for plant production has shown its usefulness in the analysis and design of plant production systems. This hierarchy presents a theoretical framework for the analysis of biophysical conditions in

  3. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''5 1 Cr, 32 P and 35 S) and stable ( 15 N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  4. Sustainability of animal production systems: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, M

    1996-06-01

    The question of sustainability of agricultural production and the use of natural resources has become a popular topic. Most scientists agree that current systems are generally non-sustainable. Current rates of resource extraction will lead us to a depleted earth in the future. Sustainability is defined in many ways. For this paper sustainability should be considered the overlap of what is wanted and what is ecologically possible. Attempts have been made to place a quantitative measure on sustainability. However, it should be considered a trajectory or goal, a direction that guides constructive change, rather than a single quantitative measure. Research and extension personnel may have to take a broader look at their efforts and expand their knowledge base in order to address the issue of sustainable production systems. Both natural events and those caused by humans bring about changes in production potential that require shifts in management. Uncertainty and change should be incorporated into adaptive management strategies. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to confront these issues. Animal scientists need to formulate management systems that are environmentally compatible or face restrictive legislation that will force change. Members of the American Society of Animal Science seem to agree: efficient and sustainable use of natural resources appears in the draft of the Strategic Plan of the Society, and a poll of members revealed that environmental concerns about animal agriculture was a primary issue facing animal scientists.

  5. Method and apparatus for treatment of animal waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R R

    1977-12-15

    Animal wastes (fresh manure and urine) are converted to products useful on farmland or in animal feed by treating them with alkali metal hydroxides or carbonates and/or alkaline earth hydroxides to give slurries with pH 9.0 to 12.0, thus deactivating urease. Thus, a slurry of swine manure and urine adjusted with CaO to pH 11 has urea content 27.0 and 26.5 mg/L after 0 and 10 days, respectively, at 20/sup 0/, compared with 22.0 and 0, respectively, in the absence of base.

  6. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described.

  7. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described. (M.G.B.)

  8. Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Broekhoven, Sarah; Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-02-01

    Insects receive increasing attention as an alternative protein-rich food source for humans. Producing edible insects on diets composed of organic by-products could increase sustainability. In addition, insect growth rate and body composition, and hence nutritional quality, can be altered by diet. Three edible mealworm species Tenebrio molitor L., Zophobas atratus Fab. and Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer were grown on diets composed of organic by-products originating from beer brewing, bread/cookie baking, potato processing and bioethanol production. Experimental diets differed with respect to protein and starch content. Larval growth and survival was monitored. Moreover, effects of dietary composition on feed conversion efficiency and mealworm crude protein and fatty acid profile were assessed. Diet affected mealworm development and feed conversion efficiency such that diets high in yeast-derived protein appear favourable, compared to diets used by commercial breeders, with respect to shortening larval development time, reducing mortality and increasing weight gain. Diet also affected the chemical composition of mealworms. Larval protein content was stable on diets that differed 2-3-fold in protein content, whereas dietary fat did have an effect on larval fat content and fatty acid profile. However, larval fatty acid profile did not necessarily follow the same trend as dietary fatty acid composition. Diets that allowed for fast larval growth and low mortality in this study led to a comparable or less favourable n6/n3 fatty acid ratio compared to control diets used by commercial breeders. In conclusion, the mealworm species used in this study can be grown successfully on diets composed of organic by-products. Diet composition did not influence larval protein content, but did alter larval fat composition to a certain extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Accumulation of heavy metals in edible organs of different meat products available in the markets of lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baqar, N.; Manzoor, M.; Qadir, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the accumulation of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb and Cu) indifferent organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, stomach, kidney and flesh (muscles) of several animals commercially available in the market of Lahore, Pakistan. The concentrations found in different organs of chicken, goat and cow ranged between 0.132-2.165 mg/g for Cd, 0.768-2.335 mg/g for Cr, 0.260-1.411 mg/g for Pb and 0.092-1.195 mg/g for Cu. In the absence of national safety standards in respect to the content of heavy metals in foodstuffs, the results obtained were compared with international guidelines and found concentrations considerably higher than the prescribed safe limits. Therefore, immediate attention must be paid to prevent public health risks associated with the presence of toxic heavy metals in the commercially available meat products. (author)

  10. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  11. Estimating animal movement contacts between holdings of different production types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Tom; Sisson, Scott A; Lewerin, Susanna Stenberg; Wennergren, Uno

    2010-06-01

    Animal movement poses a great risk for disease transmission between holdings. Heterogeneous contact patterns are known to influence the dynamics of disease transmission and should be included in modeling. Using pig movement data from Sweden as an example, we present a method for quantification of between holding contact probabilities based on different production types. The data contained seven production types: Sow pool center, Sow pool satellite, Farrow-to-finish, Nucleus herd, Piglet producer, Multiplying herd and Fattening herd. The method also estimates how much different production types will determine the contact pattern of holdings that have more than one type. The method is based on Bayesian analysis and uses data from central databases of animal movement. Holdings with different production types are estimated to vary in the frequency of contacts as well as in what type of holding they have contact with, and the direction of the contacts. Movements from Multiplying herds to Sow pool centers, Nucleus herds to other Nucleus herds, Sow pool centers to Sow pool satellites, Sow pool satellites to Sow pool centers and Nucleus herds to Multiplying herds were estimated to be most common relative to the abundance of the production types. We show with a simulation study that these contact patterns may also be expected to result in substantial differences in disease transmission via animal movements, depending on the index holding. Simulating transmission for a 1 year period showed that the median number of infected holdings was 1 (i.e. only the index holding infected) if the infection started at a Fattening herd and 2161 if the infection started on a Nucleus herd. We conclude that it is valuable to include production types in models of disease transmission and the method presented in this paper may be used for such models when appropriate data is available. We also argue that keeping records of production types is of great value since it may be helpful in risk

  12. Role of Nano-Mineral as A Feed Additive to Enhance Animal Productivity and Quality of Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Kurnia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A development of nanotechnology today has penetrated almost all areas of life. Utilization in improving livestock production can be done by replacing commonly used conventional mineral by nanoparticles-mineral. Application of chromium (Cr, selenium (Se, silver (Ag and copper (Cu nanoparticles are reported to improve livestock production. However, the potential risk of the application such as mineral deposit in the body of animal itself and to people as consumers of livestock product has to be evaluated. Nanoparticle-minerals that have smaller size are easier to penetrate the cells and it is suspected that it may give more negative risk. Analysis evaluation of nanoparticle-minerals in the animal including people are still being developed.

  13. Lichen ranges, animal densities and production in Finnish reindeer management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Helle

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, mean lichen biomass ranged by the earmark districts (comprising of 2-9 adjacent herding associations between 54 kg and 380 kg DM per ha correlating negatively with animal density per lichen ranges (range 1.5 - 14.3 ind. per km2. Biomasses were far below economic carrying capacity of lichen ranges (900 kg DM per ha. The condition of lichen ranges was poorest in the southern half of the area where alternative food to reindeer lichens (Deschampsia flexuosa, arboreal lichens and supplementary feeding was available. In 1980-86, recruitment (calves per 100 females was 33% higher than in the 1970's, on an average (65 vs. 49, despite a 90% increase in animal numbers between 1970 and 1986; recruitment has not been dependent on the condition of lichen ranges. The increase in production has been some higher than expected on the basis of animal numbers. The reasons for the increasing trends in animal numbers, recruitment and production remains some unclear, but they may include favorable winter conditions, supplementary feeding, medical treatment against parasites and proper harvesting policy.

  14. Usage of Farm Animal Waste for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankina, O. V.; Chernysh, A. P.; Sankin, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    The article considers problems connecting with the development of cattle breeding in Russia, especially the utilization of animals and poultry waste products. Basing on the foreign scientists’ experience, it has been proposed different solutions to this problem in terms of the Russian Federation, conducted the study, and presented the results of the undertaken experiments. Recommendations on the use of substances, that speed up fermentation processes at certain temperatures, has been developed.

  15. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 56, July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The first six months of this year have been a busy time for all personnel in the sub-programme. Apart from our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to on-going national and regional Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC country officers) of the 2014/15 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2010/11 end of cycle programmatic performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States for the present programme cycle 2012-2013. In response to many requests from our readers, I have decided to give a brief overview of our Subprogramme as background to the upcoming 'Scientific Forum' (Food for the Future: Meeting the Challenges with Nuclear Applications) that will take place during he IAEA General Conference in September 2012. The focus of the Animal production and Health Subprogramme activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the sub-programme are animal nutrition, animal reproduction and breeding and animal health. Problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies to: - Characterize and optimally utilize locally available feed and feed resources to enhance maximum energy conversion, whilst minimizing methane and CO2 emissions; - Increase animal production through the characterization of livestock genetic make-up to drive the integration of locally adapted animal breeds with trait selected exotic breeds to satisfy the increasing demand for 'more and of better

  16. The transfer of radionuclides into domestic animals and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Susumu

    1979-01-01

    The contamination of animal products, especially milk, with radionuclides, are regarded as the important problem in the food chain, and has been one of the remarkable public concerns in Japan since the nuclear tests in 1954. The transfer of several radionuclides into domestic animals and their products is described. 131 I, 90 Sr and 137 Cs are very important as the radionuclides that transfer into domestic animals and their products. The data of the transfer of several orally administered radionuclides into milk from the references are summarized as follows: (1) 131 I transfered into milk was 5 -- 30% of dose (cow), 10 -- 40% (goat). (2) 90 Sr( 89 Sr) transfered into milk was 0.6 -- 1.9% (cow), 0.5 -- 0.6% (goat). (3) 137 Cs( 134 Cs) transfered into milk was 10 -- 13% (cow), 7.0% (goat). (4) 140 Ba- 140 La transfered into milk was 0.6% (cow), 0.1 -- 0.2% (goat). (5) 181 W transfered into milk was 0.06% (goat). (author)

  17. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 56, July 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    The first six months of this year have been a busy time for all personnel in the sub-programme. Apart from our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to on-going national and regional Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC country officers) of the 2014/15 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2010/11 end of cycle programmatic performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States for the present programme cycle 2012-2013. In response to many requests from our readers, I have decided to give a brief overview of our Subprogramme as background to the upcoming 'Scientific Forum' (Food for the Future: Meeting the Challenges with Nuclear Applications) that will take place during he IAEA General Conference in September 2012. The focus of the Animal production and Health Subprogramme activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the sub-programme are animal nutrition, animal reproduction and breeding and animal health. Problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies to: - Characterize and optimally utilize locally available feed and feed resources to enhance maximum energy conversion, whilst minimizing methane and CO2 emissions; - Increase animal production through the characterization of livestock genetic make-up to drive the integration of locally adapted animal breeds with trait selected exotic breeds to satisfy the increasing demand for 'more and of better

  18. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of food products reaching the consumer may be a serious problem following radioactive contamination deposited in the agricultural environment. A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. This paper reviews both literature sources and practice of applying agricultural countermeasures: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. In practice, the most effective countermeasures which can be used to reduce radionuclide contamination of animals in agricultural ecosystems will be obtained by a combination of both management changes and the use of chemical binders to prevent gut absorption. Social, economic, and practical considerations of the countermeasures such as availability, technical feasibility, acceptability and side-effects need to be also taken into account. (authors)

  19. Application of edible coating with essential oil in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jian; Xie, Yunfei; Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Yuliang; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2018-03-26

    Compared with other types of packaging, edible coatings are becoming more and more popular because of their more environmentally friendly properties and active ingredients carrying ability. The edible coating can reduce the influence of essential oils (EOs) on the flavor of the product and also can prolong the action time of EOs through the slow-release effect, which effectively promote the application of EOs in food. Understanding the different combinations of edible coatings and EOs as well as their antimicrobial effects on different microorganisms will be more powerful and targeted to promote the application of EOs in real food systems. The review focus on the contribution of the combination of EOs and edible coatings (EO-edible coatings) to prolong the shelf life of food products, (1) specifically addressing the main materials used in the preparation of EO-edible coatings and the application of EO-edible coatings in the product, (2) systematically summarizing the main production method of EO-edible coatings, (3) discussing the antiseptic activity of EO-edible coatings on different microorganisms in food.

  20. 75 FR 24394 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug Application; Buquinolate; Coumaphos AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations by...

  1. 75 FR 65565 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... 558 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole Hydrochloride; Nitromide and Sulfanitran AGENCY...) is amending the animal drug regulations by removing those portions that reflect approval of eight new...

  2. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Genetic relationship of domestic sheep breeds with primitive Asian wild Urial sheep; Using irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; Peste des petits ruminants (PPR); Technical visit to the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Fellows/interns/consultants

  3. The Importance of Edible Landscape in the Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Çelik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century sustainable city requires the merging of urbanism with sustainable food systems. The challenges industrial food system separates people from their food sources. The design strategies for edible landscape are about re-inviting food back into the city and re-connecting people with their local/regional food system to promote a healthier lifestyle. Edible landscapes are a movement in transition and sprouting up as a response to the slow food movement and living a greener lifestyle. These urban agricultural landscapes are fast becoming iconic media darlings and are demonstrating that they are far more than growing vegetables and fruits on abandoned lots. Edible landscaping is the use of food plants as design features in a landscape. These plants are used both for aesthetic value as well as consumption. Edible landscapes encompass a variety of garden types and scales but do not include food items produced for sale. Edible landscaping is the practical integration of food plants within an ornamental or decorative setting. Using edibles in landscape design can enhance a garden by providing a unique ornamental component with additional health, aesthetic, and economic benefits. In this study; emergence of edible landscape, edible landscape design and maintenance, samples of edible landscape, productive plants, importance of edible landscaping for urban environments have been explained.

  4. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...... from slurry separation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer production from recycling of the ash. Manure fibre has a positive calorific value and may be used as a CO2-neutral fuel for combustion. The ashes from combustion are rich in P, an essential fertilizer compound. The study is based on samples of animal...

  5. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.; Huis, van A.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and

  6. 9 CFR 592.320 - Products that may bear the inspection mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products that may bear the inspection... Marking Products § 592.320 Products that may bear the inspection mark. Products that are permitted to bear... products eligible to bear the inspection mark and may contain other edible ingredients. The official mark...

  7. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-01-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wastes by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EBF) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13% and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30 o C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran. (author)

  8. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

    1993-10-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

  9. Teen Use of Marijuana Edibles: A Focus Group Study of an Emerging Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Bettina; Slater, Michael D; Annechino, Rachelle; Battle, Robynn S

    2016-06-01

    Recent research indicates that marijuana-infused food product (i.e., edible) use is becoming nearly as common as smoking marijuana where medical marijuana is available. This study explores edible use among teens. We conducted four focus groups in the San Francisco Bay Area with youth, ages 15-17. The focus groups were divided by gender and whether they used marijuana. Some teens mentioned edible use at school. Youth reported that teens consume edibles, primarily to reduce the likelihood of getting caught. Edibles are also attractive to those who do not like to smoke or have concerns about smoking. Both male and female respondents suggested that females are more likely than males to prefer edibles over smoking, one reason for which may be to avoid smelling like marijuana smoke. For some young women, edibles may be a way to avoid publicly presenting themselves as marijuana users. Findings also suggest that youth have access to edibles through multiple sources. Youth reported that they can purchase edibles at school from other students who either make the edibles themselves or are reselling edibles obtained from dispensaries. Both users and non-users were aware of potentially negative consequences related to edible use. Some youth mentioned that they have heard of youth dying from edibles, and several reported being concerned about the high produced by edibles. Female non-users appeared to be more concerned than others about edibles and compared them to drinks that could be spiked with drugs. However, sentiment among some male marijuana users was that if you cannot handle edibles you should not be using them. These findings suggest that strategies to curb access to edibles and use among youth, such as restricting sales of edibles with strong youth appeal and educating youth on the risks of edibles, will need to be developed.

  10. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 57, January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Scientific Forum examined the challenges related to the improvement of food production, food protection and food safety through the use of nuclear applications. In the first session on 'Increasing Food Production' it was noted that the world will need to produce 70% more food between now and 2050 to satisfy the demand of a population in excess of 9 billion people. In this regard, the intensification and diversification of more and higher quality food in a climate-smart and sustainable manner whilst protecting the environment is therefore critical to smallholder farmers and is the key to poverty reduction and increased food security. The Forum noted that the increasing global population faces the challenge of substantially increasing food production under conditions of severe land degradation that has led to a significant reduction in the productive capacity of agricultural lands. Sustainable soil management, plant mutation breeding and animal nutrition and production are therefore critical to the improvement of agricultural productivity. The second session on 'Ensuring Food Protection' noted that global food insecurity is inherently linked to pests and diseases that harm or kill livestock and crops, as well as people working in rural agricultural areas. The losses caused by diseases and pests at both the pre- and post-harvest levels average 30-40% of agricultural outputs, making returns on agricultural investments in land, seeds, water, fertilizer, animal feed, labour and other inputs correspondingly inefficient. In addition, the world is currently facing an unprecedented increase of invasive animal and plant diseases and pests that threaten food security by causing serious losses in production and by necessitating costly control measures, including the escalating use of increasingly expensive pesticides. Outbreaks of secondary pests, the development of resistance of pests to pesticides and the increasing threat of zoonotic diseases to public health cause

  11. Pollution by animal production in The Netherlands: solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorburg, J H

    1991-09-01

    Provided that the application rates of manure do not exceed the crop uptake of nutrients, pollution by animal production is mainly caused by nitrogenous substances. Applying manure outside the growing season causes pollution of groundwater and surface water due to leaching and runoff. In regions with a high livestock density, the evaporation of ammonia has a serious impact on the environment. It contributes to acidification and causes a nutrient imbalance in natural vegetation. The prevention of nutrient losses from manure is unprofitable. The environmental impact is not caused by the individual farmer but is a result of the sum of activities in a region. This means that legislation is necessary to impose limits in order to arrive at production without pollution. Within this framework, the farmer should optimise the utilisation of minerals from manure by more efficient animal nutrition and better handling of the manure. One of the most difficult problems is the prevention of ammonia evaporation. A reduction of these losses generally also has a favourable effect on odour emissions. A new development is the processing of manure surpluses into a dried manure of sufficient quality to compete on the fertiliser market. As is usually the case with pollution control, these measures raise the costs of livestock production.

  12. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 62, July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    The first six months of this year have been occupied with our projects and regular activities, including our coordinated research projects and technical support to national and regional Technical Cooperation projects, as well as with the activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory. Particular focus was on the current Avian Influenza H7N9, H7N2 and H5N1 outbreaks, the ever expanding threats of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), of foot and mouth disease, of trypanosomosis and of African swine fever, all areas in which we endeavour to give our highest level of support to our counterparts

  13. Production of animal and vegetable proteins: an integrated thermal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesari, J P; Bonvehi, F; De Saint-Salvy, A; Miquel, J F

    1984-01-01

    For the optimization of our integrated farm, theoretical models using a microcomputer and experimental tests to verify these models were carried out on two research units. A test cell integrated with a greenhouse and a rock bed and a standard rock bed coupled with solar air collectors. A complete wooden house has been constructed and experimented in a remote village 200 km north of Toulouse as part of a demonstration unit. The geese and the Lemna minor (duckweed) have been selected as an animal and as a vegetable for the protein production. Some of the experimental results are reported.

  14. Growth promoting antibiotics in food animal production: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; Boland, John J; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Considerable controversy persists regarding the use of human antibiotics to promote growth in animals raised for food. The authors examined the economic effect of removing antibiotics used for growth promotion in commercial broiler chickens. The authors utilized data published by the Perdue company, the fourth largest poultry producer in the United States, in which a non-randomized controlled trial of growth-promoting antibiotic (GPA) use was conducted with seven million broiler chickens to evaluate the impact of removing GPAs on production. Positive production changes were associated with GPA use, but were insufficient to offset the cost of the antibiotics. The net effect of using GPAs was a lost value of 0.0093 dollars per chicken (about 0.45% of total cost). Based upon these data, the authors found no basis for the claim that the use of GPAs lowers the cost of production. Note that this study does not include veterinary cost changes or changes in performance variability associated with the removal of GPAs. This economic analysis is the first study to the authors' knowledge utilizing large-scale empirical data collected by U.S. industry, in which it is demonstrated that the use of GPAs in poultry production is associated with economic losses to the producers. These data are of considerable importance in the ongoing national debate concerning the continued use of antibiotics for growth promotion of food animals. Based on the industry study and the resulting economic impact, the use of GPAs in U.S. poultry production should be reconsidered.

  15. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 44, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Three animal disease issues, amongst others, dominated animal health activities in the world; the near eradication of rinderpest (RP), the continued threat of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) to national and international trade and the ever spreading avian influenza (AI). The importance of early, rapid and sensitive diagnoses of merging diseases, with special reference to AI, can not be overstated and it has prompted our subprogramme to refocus our activities and efforts. The rapid diagnosis and characterization of AI, particularly with respect to molecular tools, are important to determine whether it is H5N1 or another subtype. It is here that the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme can play a role in supporting the actions of the FAO, World organisation for animal health (OIE), WHO and Member States. The subprogramme can provide technical assistance on (1) which tests and protocols to use, (2) technical and laboratory training, (3) expert missions (nominating relevant expert(s) or to perform expert missions by members of the subprogramme), (4) the analysis of AI samples (as primary diagnosis or as confirmation) utilizing the OIE reference status of our Seibersdorf laboratory (i.e. the analysis of translation products of the virus genome) and (5) the provision of technical quality assurance guidelines and support to ensure quality data and reporting

  17. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In this newsletter, I want to discuss shortly the effects of climate variations, food security and the expansion of animal and zoonotic diseases within the sphere of what the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme can contribute. My take home message would be: • Globalization and climate change are causing an unprecedented worldwide impact on emerging and reemerging animal and zoonotic diseases. • Vector borne diseases are now spreading to previously non-endemic and cooler areas. A dramatically increased incidence in deadly infectious and zoonotic diseases in wildlife, livestock, and people may be the most immediate serious consequence of global warming, food security or food shortage. Globalization and climate change have had a worldwide impact on emerging and re-emerging animal and zoonotic diseases. Climate change is disrupting natural ecosystems by providing more suitable environments for infectious diseases allowing disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and fungi to move into new areas where they may harm wildlife and domestic species, as well as humans. Diseases that were previously limited only to tropical areas are now spreading to other previously cooler areas e.g. Rift Valley fever. Pathogens that were restricted by seasonal weather patterns can invade new areas and find new susceptible species as the climate warms and/or the winters get milder. There is evidence that the increasing occurrence of tropical infectious diseases in the mid latitudes is linked to either global warming or food security. Vector borne diseases are particularly affected by weather patterns and long-term climatic factors strongly influence the incidence of outbreaks. Most of these diseases are caused by insects and their population dynamics are dependent on the prevailing weather conditions, specifically temperature and humidity. Climate change influences local weather conditions and therefore has a significant impact on the presence of vectors and their geographical

  18. Recognizing the Capability of National and Traditional Images in Identifying the Packaging of Products for Export (Case Study: Iranian Edible Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Minaei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Identity is a complicated and significant issue in contemporary era in such a way that attention to its status forms the basis of the present study. One of the areas that can play o role in representing identity is relying on images used in packaging. Packaging is an applied art known as essential in contemporary societies and it is present everywhere. Packaging with national and traditional visual components is an important way to create and transfer identity. The necessity of this research is to reach patterns and theoretical viewpoints related to the concept of identity and to focus on recognizing its aspects through the images on the packaging of products for export. On this basis, the present study was conducted to recognize identifying elements used in the packaging of Iranian edible products for export. This basic research is descriptive-analytic in nature. Observation and combination were used for data gathering. Along the conducted study and based on the findings of the research, the results show that among all identity aspects in this research, by representation geography aspect, Persian language and writing, Iranian arts and historical aspect are respectively the most effective agents in identifying the packaging of Iranian products for export.

  19. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.......  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  20. FOOD HYPERSENSITIVITY AND PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people with food hypersensitivity, namely food intolerance and food allergies, grows every year. Food intolerance is classified into following types: enzymopathy; leaky gut syndrome; psychogenic food intolerance; detoxification insufficiency and true food intolerance. Food allergens mainly are glycoproteins, haptensor polypeptides. Most cases of food allergy are IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Recent discoveries in medicine, detailing and classification of food hypersensitivity require further researches to develop modern techniques and product recipes with specified propertiesfor consumers with food hypersensitivity. Existing technologies are based on the elimination and or reduction of the content of the allergenic substance in food. The article provides an overview of causes of food intolerance and food allergy, legislative background, a list of food allergens and methods of control, market profile of hypoallergenic produce and scientific approaches to creating hypoallergenic food products based on raw materials of animal origin.

  1. Consumer profile and acceptability of cooked beef steaks with edible and active coating containing oregano and rosemary essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Kempinski, Emilia Maria Barbosa Carvalho; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Sary, Cesar; Ramos, Tatiane Rogelio; Campo, María Del Mar; Prado, Ivanor Nunes do

    2018-09-01

    Fresh animal products are highly perishable and characterized by a short shelf-life. Edible coatings with natural antioxidants (essential oils: EOs) could improve stability, ensure quality, and increase the shelf-life of fresh products. Due to the strong flavor of EOs, their use should consider consumer preferences and sensory acceptability. This study evaluated the effects of edible coating (with oregano and rosemary essential oil) on beef in relation to consumer preferences, besides the determination of habits of consumption and buying intentions of consumers. Acceptability scores from three clusters of consumers was described. Coating with oregano was the preferred. The higher consumer acceptance and willingness to buy this product indicate a great potential and possibility of using coatings with essential oils in fresh animal products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 55, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The biggest event in 2011 was the declaration of global freedom from rinderpest by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The IAEA celebrated this momentous occasion on the 20th of September 2011, during the IAEA 55th General Conference. The commitment, dedication and hard work of past and present IAEA staff were commended by all participants as the contribution of the IAEA was a critical and essential component of the eradication success. Building on the success of the rinderpest campaign, technology transfer in the field of animal health continued to be a top priority of the Subprogramme during 2011 and this will continue for the future since our next target disease for eradication is peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Member States received support through Technical Cooperation Projects. In most of the tropics, climatic variation, rainfall patterns and droughts reduce plant growth and feed availability and quality leading to extensive livestock losses and reduced productivity. With the assistance of the IAEA, tremendous improvement has been achieved in terms of quantity and quality of the available feed resource base, particularly, in terms of nutritive value, palatability and/or cold and drought tolerance - vital benefits whose effectiveness can be monitored using nuclear technology. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter and are also accessible at our website (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/aph/index.html); I thus need not mention them in this section. Please contact us if you have any further ideas, comments, concerns or questions. As discussed in previous newsletters, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field, to optimally serve our Member States.

  3. The Edible Mushroom Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats.......A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  4. Effects of the thermal environment on animal production in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertshaw, D.

    1986-01-01

    The problems of heat stress in animal production can be solved by an interdisciplinary approach whereby the engineer, animal scientist and animal physiologist can all interact. By understanding the principles associated with heat flow between an animal and its environment it is possible to predict the potential success of an animal production system. This review analyses the nature of the thermal environment and the way in which it can affect production. Methods for alleviating heat stress are also described. (author)

  5. Curvas de crescimento na produção animal Growth curves in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram discutidas as propriedades de sete modelos não-lineares, considerando-se o ajuste de curvas de crescimento na produção animal. Os modelos utilizados: Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy e duas alternativas de Gompertz e de Logístico foram ajustados, pelo método de Gauss Newton por meio do procedimento NLIN do SAS, a dados peso-idade de oito espécies: camarão-d'água-doce, rã-pimenta, coelho, frango, ovino, caprino, suíno e bovino. Considerando-se os critérios como: convergência ou não, coeficiente de determinação e interpretabilidade biológica dos parâmetros, concluiu-se que: a o modelo Logístico y= A/(1 + e-ktm estimou o peso em todas as espécies animais, enquanto o de Von Bertalanffy apenas não foi adequado para camarão; b os dois modelos Gompertz foram adequados para camarão, rã, frango, suíno e bovino; c em cada espécie, pelo menos dois dos sete modelos mostraram-se adequados para estimar o crescimento corporal das espécies animais estudadas, pois os coeficientes de determinação foram superiores a 92,0%.The properties of seven nonlinear models were discussed concerning its applications in the fitting of growth curves in animal production. The models used: Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy and two alternatives of Gompertz and Logistic models, were fitted by Gauss Newton method to weight-age data from eight animal species: freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi, pepper frog, rabbit, poultry, sheep, goat, swine and cattle. Considering results of the fitted models such as convergence or not, coefficient of determination and biological interpretation of parameters, it was concluded that: a the Logisticmethod y = A/(1 + e-ktm estimated body weight in all species, while the Von Bertalanffy model was not adequate only for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi; b both Gompertz models were adequate for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi, pepper frog, poultry, swine and cattle; c for each specie, at least two

  6. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 51, January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As 2010 is dawning on us, I want to look forward and highlight some of the exciting new nuclear and nuclear related areas that we think will play an important role in the near future. The main constraint to livestock production in many tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America is the scarcity and fluctuations in quality and quantity of the year-around supply of feeds. Animal productivity is restricted by the low nitrogen and high fibre content of the native grasses and crop residues, which form the basis of the diets in these regions. An additional consequence of this poor diet in ruminants is the increased production of methane compared with ruminants fed on better quality forages. Studies on rumen metabolism using isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and nitrogen have revealed how the ruminal microbial flora can change depending on the type of forage ingested. In addition, certain plant metabolites reduce the microbial population thereby improving efficiency of feed utilization by up to 10 per cent. The future application of this strategy is that the modulation of fermentation can reduce methane production, hence mitigating greenhouse gas emissions

  7. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  8. Comparing environmental impacts from insects for feed and food as an alternative to animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Hansen, Hanne Helene; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2018-01-01

    This chapter systematically compares and contrasts the known environmental impacts of traditional vertebrate animal production with insect production intended for both food and animal feed. There are major physiological and biological differences between traditional livestock species and insects,...

  9. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 59, January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As 2013 draws to a close, we are completing our activities and contributions to the 2012-2013 IAEA and FAO programmes of work and budget, and finalizing our tasks and products and services for the next biennium. We hope that our programme will satisfy Member State needs maximally. I want to mention two events regarding the activities of the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. First, I have the pleasure to inform you that the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme was part of a 'One-House' IAEA team that was awarded an IAEA Superior Achievement Award for its response to Member States requests regarding the H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in several provinces of China. The aggravating factor with this new avian influenza disease was that it was asymptomatic in poultry (i.e. poultry showed no clinical disease), but symptomatic in humans (i.e. humans showed flu like symptoms) causing about 30% mortality in infected humans. This epidemiological character of the disease made it very difficult to trace and search for its origin in poultry, towards protecting human lives. The Chinese authorities, in particular the Beijing Genetics Institute, reacted appropriately to the outbreaks and characterized the virus, isolated from human patients, as an avian influenza H7N9 subtype. Knowing the panzootic potential of avian influenza viruses, the international community has immediately developed response plans on the eventual spread of the Chinese H7N9 strain and called for emergency preparedness. Upon requests of Member States from Europe and the Asia and Pacific Region, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department immediately reacted by taking advantage of the responsiveness of the TC Programme to unforeseen needs of Member States. In addition to the evaluation and validation of diagnostic and surveillance procedures and the transfer of technologies and the diagnostic support, two unplanned

  10. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 59, January 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-01-15

    As 2013 draws to a close, we are completing our activities and contributions to the 2012-2013 IAEA and FAO programmes of work and budget, and finalizing our tasks and products and services for the next biennium. We hope that our programme will satisfy Member State needs maximally. I want to mention two events regarding the activities of the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. First, I have the pleasure to inform you that the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme was part of a 'One-House' IAEA team that was awarded an IAEA Superior Achievement Award for its response to Member States requests regarding the H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in several provinces of China. The aggravating factor with this new avian influenza disease was that it was asymptomatic in poultry (i.e. poultry showed no clinical disease), but symptomatic in humans (i.e. humans showed flu like symptoms) causing about 30% mortality in infected humans. This epidemiological character of the disease made it very difficult to trace and search for its origin in poultry, towards protecting human lives. The Chinese authorities, in particular the Beijing Genetics Institute, reacted appropriately to the outbreaks and characterized the virus, isolated from human patients, as an avian influenza H7N9 subtype. Knowing the panzootic potential of avian influenza viruses, the international community has immediately developed response plans on the eventual spread of the Chinese H7N9 strain and called for emergency preparedness. Upon requests of Member States from Europe and the Asia and Pacific Region, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department immediately reacted by taking advantage of the responsiveness of the TC Programme to unforeseen needs of Member States. In addition to the evaluation and validation of diagnostic and surveillance procedures and the transfer of technologies and the diagnostic support, two unplanned

  11. Impacts of cereal ergot in food animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops such as wheat, barley and rye, favouring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements which may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety and genotype. Considerable animal to animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome.

  12. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D; Kennedy, Chris A

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai-the world's most densely populated megacity-at 6.5 W m -2 , surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m -2 ) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m -2 ). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  13. Present status and future possibilities of radioimmunoassay in animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karg, H.; Claus, R.; Hoffmann, B.; Schallenberger, E.; Schams, D.

    1976-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays and related isotope techniques have provided new possibilities in hormone analysis. Because of the new dimensions of sensitivity (nanogram and picogram range) it became possible to elucidate for many hormones their levels in peripheral blood plasma. Since some steps of the assay procedures could be automatized, and the evaluation computerized, the efficiency (for example, it is possible to run several thousand determinations weekly in one laboratory) can hardly be equalled by non-isotopic hormone analysis techniques. In animal husbandry the technique can be applied to mapping of physiological phenomena, diagnostic approaches in clinics, control of bio-techniques, residue studies of exogenous hormones, and attempts to use hormonal parameters as guide lines in connection with breeding programmes. The discovery that progesterone levels in milk reflect the corpus luteum function introduced far-reaching radioimmunoassay (RIA) application for fertility control under field conditions. With some other hormones, results of single determinations only allow limited interpretation because of different dynamics, for example releasing pattern, short-term (episodic, diurnal) and long-term (seasonal) variations and clearance properties. Furthermore, questions concerning the interactions between the actual plasma level of the hormone determined and the receptor sites in the target organ have to be solved. There are still gaps concerning the development of radioimmunoassays for important hormones. At present and in the foreseeable future of endocrinology in animal production, radioimmunoassays are indispensible. (author)

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 48, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the formulation (together with our Member State counterparts and TC Country Officers) of projects for the 2009/11 TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2007 programme of work and budget performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. The focus of our activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the subprogramme are animal nutrition, reproduction and breeding and animal health. Within these three components, problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 48, July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the formulation (together with our Member State counterparts and TC Country Officers) of projects for the 2009/11 TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2007 programme of work and budget performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. The focus of our activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the subprogramme are animal nutrition, reproduction and breeding and animal health. Within these three components, problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies.

  16. Genomics to benefit livestock production: improving animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stuart Plastow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The primary principle underlying the application of genomics is that it has the most value for difficult and expensive to measure traits. These traits will differ between species and probably also between markets. Maintenance of health will be one of the biggest challenges for efficient livestock production in the next few decades. This challenge will only increase in the face of demand for animal protein, resistance to existing drugs, and the pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in agriculture. There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility for all diseases but little has been done to make use of this variation to date. In part this is because it is very difficult as well as expensive to measure this variation. This suggests that genomics should provide one of the ways of tackling the challenge of improving animal health. This paper will discuss the concepts of resistance, variation in susceptibility, and resilience; provide examples and present some recent results in cattle and pigs; and briefly discuss the application of gene editing in relation to disease resistance.

  17. 78 FR 75570 - Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products Administered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... Guidance for Industry (GFI) 209, ``The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food... of certain antimicrobial new animal drug products who are interested in revising conditions of use... Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals,'' and to set timelines for stakeholders...

  18. GRECA Review of Chernobyl Data on Transfer to Animal Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.; Iijima, T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results of a review carried out by GRECA of Chernobyl fallout data from the OECD countries relevant to transfer to animal products. Two groups of data are considered: data applicable to a large number of different locations within a country obtained from the national monitoring programmes, and detailed data for a few locations obtained by selected organisations or research institutes for model validation purposes. Origins of the data included in this review are first summarized, and the results of a preliminary evaluation is presented for milk and various kinds of meat (mutton and lamb and others). Conclusions concerning transfer factors and uptakes are given, while an estimation of feed-to-milk transfer factor with temporally variable intake and milk concentration of a radionuclide is presented in appendix

  19. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 54, July 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    It is with great enthusiasm that I address you in a new era - the era of a rinderpest free world. The OIE and FAO have declared the world-wide eradication of Rinderpest recently - but more about this later. The first part of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were involved in the technical planning of projects for the new TC projects by Member States for the 2012/2013 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with finalizing the IAEA's 2012/2013 Work and Budget Programme. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the subprogramme

  20. Risk communication related to animal products derived from biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, D

    2005-04-01

    Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration.

  1. Lighting Energy Saving with Light Pipe in Farm Animal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans von Wachenfelt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish animal production sector has potential for saving electric lighting of €4-9 million per year using efficient daylight utilisation. To demonstrate this, two light pipe systems, Velux® (house 1 and Solatube® (house 2, are installed in two identical pig houses to determine if the required light intensity, daylight autonomy (DA, and reduced electricity use for illumination can be achieved. In each house, three light sensors continuously measure the indoor daylight relative to an outdoor sensor. If the horizontal illuminance at pig height decreases below 40 lux between 08.00 and 16.00 hours, an automatic control system activates the lights, and electricity use is measured. The daylight factor (DF and DA are determined for each house, based on annual climate data. The mean annual DA of 48% and 55% is achieved for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Light pipes in house 2 have delivered significantly more DA than those in house 1. The most common illuminance range between 0 and 160 lux is recorded in both houses, corresponding to approximately 82% and 83% of daylight time for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Further, the daylighting system for house 2 has produced a uniform DF distribution between 0.05 and 0.59. The results demonstrate that considerable electric energy savings can be achieved in the animal production sector using light pipes. Saving 50% of electric lighting would correspond to 36 GWh or 2520 t CO2 per year for Sweden, but currently the energy savings are not making the investment profitable.

  2. A global assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of animal products is likely to put further pressure on the world’s freshwater resources. This paper provides a comprehensive account of the water footprint of animal products, considering different production systems and feed composition per animal type and country.

  3. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  4. Traditional products: Base for the sustainable development of Serbian animal origin products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jasna Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research results on the diversity of traditional products of animal origin from certain areas of the Republic of Serbia, provides an opportunity to become part of the sustainable quality development, which would be based on their promotion and protection of local resources. Traditional products of animal origin are different and inseparable from the local identity, typical for nation and its food culture. Through confidence-building, and protection from oblivion, the value of domestic products, had preserved trough centuries-old tradition. Nowadays, each domestic product has its own recognisable taste, representing climate of the Republic of Serbia, from which it comes. Universally accepted model of rural institutional structure does not exist. Instead it accommodates and develops in accordance to needs, possibilities and area specific characteristics. By the efficient protection rural models becomes an investment incentives and contribute to general economic and industrial prosperity of the society.

  5. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.42 Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. All mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product inspected under this part shall be marked and...

  6. Improved Analytical Method for Determination of Cholesterol-Oxidation Products in Meat and Animal Fat by QuEChERS Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Che-Wei; Kao, Tsai-Hua; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2018-04-04

    Cholesterol is widely present in animal fats and meat products and can undergo oxidation to form cholesterol-oxidation products (COPs) during heating. The objective of this study was to develop a QuEChERS method for the determination of COPs in edible animal fats and meat products via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in which the required solvent volume and extraction time were reduced. By employing a DB-5MS capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 μm film thickness) and a temperature-programming method, seven COPs, cholesterol, and the internal standard 5α-cholestane could be separated within 19 min. The limits of detection and limits of quantitation based on the COP standards ranged from 0.16 to 180 ng/mL and from 0.32 to 400 ng/mL, respectively, and the recoveries ranged from 89.1 to 107.6% for boiled pork and from 80.5 to 105.6% for lard. The intraday variabilities for boiled pork and lard ranged from 2.27 to 6.87% and from 1.52 to 9.78%, respectively, whereas the interday variabilities ranged from 1.81 to 7.89% and from 3.57 to 9.26%, respectively. Among the various meat samples, fish showed the highest level of COPs (31.84 μg/g). For the edible fats, the COP contents in tallow (22.79-60.15 μg/g) were much higher than those in lard (0.152-2.55 μg/g) and butter (0.526-1.36 μg/g). Collectively, this method can be applied to determine COPs in cholesterol-containing foodstuffs.

  7. Risk and profitability of animal and crop production in Slovak farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tóth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on profitability and risk of crop and animal production based on an analysis of farms operating in Slovak Republic. The individual farm data used for the analysis are from the database of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic. For our analysis, data were selected according to the farm production orientation to the subset of crop farms and animal farms. The selecting criterion for production orientation was the percentage share of revenues from crop production, or revenues from animal production from the overall revenues from own products and services. We analyse profitability of farms divided into groups based on the type of production into crop and animal farms (according to the share in sales from crop or animal production. Using descriptive statistics and portfolio theory we simulate the total farm profitability and volatility of animal and crop production in Slovakia. The modified Markowitz portfolio theory approach was used to estimate the total risk of portfolios of crop and animal farms. Based on the results we conclude that in the long run crop farms are profitable and profit from crop production is used to cover the losses from animal production in mixed farms. Farms focused on animal production only are efficient and profitable, but the profitability is lower in comparison with crop farms. Animal farms results are less volatile than crop farms. Large farms tend to production with lower value added and can generate enough profit for the owner.

  8. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Van Itterbeeck, Joost; van Huis, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in...

  9. Nitrogen in global animal production and management options for improving nitrogen use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Tamminga, S.

    2005-01-01

    Animal production systems convert plant protein into animal protein. Depending on animal species, ration and management, between 5% and 45 % of the nitrogen (N) in plant protein is converted to and deposited in animal protein. The other 55%-95% is excreted via urine and feces, and can be used as

  10. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Fesenko, S.

    2009-01-01

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain

  11. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 58, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-08-01

    The first phase of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the Subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical planning of project concepts for new TC projects by Member States for the 2014/2015 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2014/2015 Work and Budget Programme, and the FAO's 2014/2015 Programme of Work and Budget. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States (MS). Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the Subprogramme. A bone of contention is the current avian influenza H7N9 situation. On 1 April 2013, a human case of infection with the avian influenza H7N9 virus was reported in China. Since then this strain has been detected in four provinces of eastern China and has infected 132 people of which 37 have died (situation as of 3 June 2013). The number of cases dropped in May as compared to April, probably because of the control measures taken by Chinese health authorities, which includes closing live bird in markets, but this can also be due to the change climatic conditions or the international contribution

  12. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-03-15

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain.

  13. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 58, July 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The first phase of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the Subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical planning of project concepts for new TC projects by Member States for the 2014/2015 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2014/2015 Work and Budget Programme, and the FAO's 2014/2015 Programme of Work and Budget. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States (MS). Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the Subprogramme. A bone of contention is the current avian influenza H7N9 situation. On 1 April 2013, a human case of infection with the avian influenza H7N9 virus was reported in China. Since then this strain has been detected in four provinces of eastern China and has infected 132 people of which 37 have died (situation as of 3 June 2013). The number of cases dropped in May as compared to April, probably because of the control measures taken by Chinese health authorities, which includes closing live bird in markets, but this can also be due to the change climatic conditions or the international contribution.

  14. Green Supplier Selection in Edible oil Production by a Hybrid Model Using Delphi Method and Green Data Envelopment Analysis (GDEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaeian Narges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An organization's environmental performance is affected by its suppliers' environmental performance, and selecting green suppliers is a strategic decision in order to be more competitive in today's global market. By developing green movement across the globe, organizations are under pressure to reduce the emissions across their supply chain. Formerly the food production systems was oriented and optimized to satisfy economic demands and the nutritional needs of a rapidly growing world population. The food production industry requires large inputs of resources and causes several negative environmental effects. In recent years, environment factors rapidly emerging as an important issue for decision makers in food industries.

  15. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  16. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals

  17. Ecological studies on the seasonal production of the edible oyster, Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston) in Cochin Backwater, Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Purushan, K.S.; Gopalan, U.K.; Rao, T.S.S.

    the intertidal ones, but as regards percentage meat weight the latter out-weighed the former. Among environmental variables, salinity seemed to be the foremost factor in influencing the production of oysters. A large majority (90-98%) of the intertidal oysters...

  18. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; van Trijp, Hans C.M.; van der Veen, Gerrita

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Modern production systems aimed at improving animal welfare are more costly than traditional systems. Animal-friendly products are therefore typically more expensive than mainstream products, which presents one of the main barriers to consumer animal-friendly product choice. To overcome this barrier, marketing strategies that associate animal welfare with different types of value, such as taste, healthiness or good feeling, may be useful. This article presents a theoretical framework with marketing strategies using various types of value, suitable for animal-friendly products to encourage consumers to buy animal-friendly instead of mainstream products. We also explain why some consumers, such as those with a rational or an intuitive thinking style, may be more sensitive to some strategies over others, giving directions to marketing managers on how to approach different types of consumers. Because the credibility of animal welfare claims is a critical issue in marketing animal-friendly products, we address this issue as well. Specifically, we propose that, to gain consumer trust, companies selling animal-friendly products need to take into account the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of marketing strategies for individual products and that they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations. Abstract This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers’ social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to

  19. Reducing water use for animal production through aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, M.C.J.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Animals fed formulated diets indirectly consume large quantities of water. Globally, about 1.2 m3 of water is needed to produce 1 kg of grain used in animal feeds. Cattle in feedlots consume about 7 kg of feed concentrate to gain 1 kg in weight. For pigs this is close to 4 kg and for poultry

  20. SOME THOUGHTS ON INTENSIVE ANIMAL PRODUCTION G.H. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the biggest industries of our country. I wonder if you all appreciate how many animals were slaughtered in ... beef cattle industry we have followed the Americans, and we are also allowing about 200 square feet per animal. On ... probtems the world over. Anirnal behaviour is assuming increasing importance under high ...

  1. Nutritive, Value of Selected' Forest/woodland' Edible "Fruits, Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, reducing sugar and'vitamin'C of edible portioh:of fruit pulp of selected forest .... neuromuscular excitability, blood coagulation,. Uluguru Mountains in ..... for wider production of fruits, nuts or seeds. . Acknowledgement.

  2. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 52, July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    -related technologies that are adapted to more user friendly non-nuclear applications for implementation at field level. Amongst these technologies are the use of 13/14 C, 125 I, 3 H, 32 P, 35 S to label protein and nucleic acid molecules for specific and sensitive detection, monitoring, and characterization of harmful pathogens that have made a critical contribution towards the development of e.g. ELISA, PCR, real-time PCR and sequencing. The subprogramme, furthermore, ensures the deployment and widespread use of applicable technologies in countries most at risk from climatically influenced infectious diseases. This technical support and guidance to countries (e.g. which test to use, when and for what purpose, equipment needs, staff training and proficiency, and quality management) played a vital role in building developing countries' capacities during recent outbreaks of avian influenza and Rift Valley Fever. The subprogramme has developed, implemented, and transferred immuno and molecular assays that are rapid, inexpensive and capable of being used to process large numbers of samples to detect infectious disease agents that adversely affect livestock productivity and prevent international trade. Four new CRPs started this year: The use of enzymes and nuclear technologies to improve the utilization of fibrous feeds and reduce greenhouse gas emission from livestock, control of foot-and-mouth disease, the use of irradiated vaccines in the control of infectious transboundary diseases of livestock and genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity. Activities of the past six months include several workshops, training courses, research coordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings

  3. A study on current risk assessments and guidelines on the use of food animal products derived from cloned animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-10-01

    The author widely surveyed and analyzed the food safety issues, ethical issues, permits, and approval of animal products from animals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer worldwide. As a result of a 2-year survey, the author found that there is no evidence that meat and milk derived from cloned animals or their progeny pose a risk to food safety in terms of genotoxicity, adverse reproductive effects, or allergic reactions. Most countries have not approved meat and milk derived from cloned animals, and their progeny are entering the food supply. To establish the guidelines, the author suggests four principles of safety assessment for meat and milk derived from cloned animals. The four main principles for safety assessment are similarities of chemical composition, adverse reproductive effects, genotoxicity, and allergic reactions under the influence of meat and milk from cloned animals and noncloned counterparts. This principle means that meat and milk derived from a cloned animal are safe if there are no differences in the four safety assessments of meat and milk between cloned animal's progeny and noncloned counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  5. Transmission of Salmonella between wildlife and meat-production animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M. N.; Madsen, J. J.; Rahbek, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the transmission of Salmonella spp. between production animals (pigs and cattle) and wildlife on production animal farms in Denmark. Methods and Results: In the winter and summer of 2001 and 2002, 3622 samples were collected from Salmonella-infected and noninfected herds...... of pigs and cattle and surrounding wildlife. Salmonella was detected in wildlife on farms carrying Salmonella-positive production animals and only during the periods when Salmonella was detected in the production animals. The presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in wild birds significantly correlated...... to their migration pattern and food preference. Conclusions: Salmonella was transmitted from infected herds of production animals (cattle and pigs) to wildlife that lived amongst or in close proximity to them. Significance and Impact of the Study: Salmonella in animal food products is associated with the occurrence...

  6. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio economics and economics of animal resources development ... Book Reviews: are accepted and should provide an overview of the work's contents ... Cite only textbooks and published article references to support your choices of tests.

  7. Biodiesel Production from Non-Edible Beauty Leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum Oil: Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad I. Jahirul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the beauty leaf plant (Calophyllum Inophyllum is being considered as a potential 2nd generation biodiesel source due to high seed oil content, high fruit production rate, simple cultivation and ability to grow in a wide range of climate conditions. However, however, due to the high free fatty acid (FFA content in this oil, the potential of this biodiesel feedstock is still unrealized, and little research has been undertaken on it. In this study, transesterification of beauty leaf oil to produce biodiesel has been investigated. A two-step biodiesel conversion method consisting of acid catalysed pre-esterification and alkali catalysed transesterification has been utilized. The three main factors that drive the biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME conversion from vegetable oil (triglycerides were studied using response surface methodology (RSM based on a Box-Behnken experimental design. The factors considered in this study were catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature. Linear and full quadratic regression models were developed to predict FFA and FAME concentration and to optimize the reaction conditions. The significance of these factors and their interaction in both stages was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The reaction conditions for the largest reduction in FFA concentration for acid catalysed pre-esterification was 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 10% (w/w sulfuric acid catalyst loading and 75 °C reaction temperature. In the alkali catalysed transesterification process 7.5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1% (w/w sodium methoxide catalyst loading and 55 °C reaction temperature were found to result in the highest FAME conversion. The good agreement between model outputs and experimental results demonstrated that this methodology may be useful for industrial process optimization for biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and possibly other industrial processes as well.

  8. Applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of peer-reviewed scientific contributions from authoritative researchers attending an international symposium convened by the Animal Production and Health Sub-programme of the Animal Production and Health (APH), Joint FAO/IAEA Programme in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of the FAO. These Proceedings contain invaluable information on the role and future potential of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health, possible applications and constraints in the use of this technology in developing countries and their specific research needs

  9. Forms and Factors of Animal Products Marketing in the early post-Meiji Years

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Seishi

    1982-01-01

    As far as the period after the Meiji era is concerned, at its begining marketing of animal products was formed in conlpliance with the properties of products as a public commodity and the amount of investment needed. The former factor depends basically on the divisibility and the preservation possibilities of the products. The latter is the capital needed for marketing and production. 1) Eggs are the most divisible and preservable of all the animal products. Also, hens can be kept with sm...

  10. Analysis of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and dimethylglyoxal in beverages and edible products by mekc using meso-stilbenediamine as derivatizing reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.; Chaudhary, M.A.; Khuhawar, M.Y.; Arain, R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The reactive alpha-diketones; glyoxal (Go), methylglyoxal (MGo) and dimethyglyoxal (DMGo) were determined from wines, beers, whisky, coffee, tea, soy sauce, juices and yoghurt by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) using meso-stilbenediamine (meso-SD) as derivatizing reagent. The separation was carried out from uncoated fused silica capillary with effective length 39 cm x 75 micro m internal diameter (id), applied voltage 20 kV and photodiode detection at 228 nm. SDS was used as micellar medium at pH 8, and sodium tetraborate (0.1M) as buffer. The amounts of Go, MGo, and DMGo in Pakistani wines and beers were found within 1.31-6.49 micro g /mL with RSD 1.2 -3.7 %. The amount of Go, MGo and DMGo in food products (Brewed Coffee, Instant Coffee, Instant Tea, Soy sauce, Orange juice , Apple juice and Yoghurt) found were within 0.043-3.42 micro g /mL or micro g /g with RSD 1.1-3.9 %. The analysis was repeatable and reproducible using MEKC. Samples of wine and apple juice were also analyzed by using standard addition method and recoveries were calculated within 96.3-98.5 % with RSD 1.8-2.6 %. (author)

  11. Influence of gamma irradiation on productivity indices of the edible Emperor moth caterpillar, Cirina forda (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, M O; Fasoranti, J O; Ande, A T; Olayemi, I K

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed at generating baseline information for sustainable genetic improvement of Cirana forda larvae for entomophagy, through the use of gamma irradiation. Eggs of C. forda were irradiated with increasing doses of gamma rays from 0 to 200 Gy and raised through larval instal stages under laboratory conditions. The Body Weight (BW) and Head Capsule Width (HCW) of the larval instar stages were monitored as indices of productivity. Successful larval emergence was recorded for all irradiation doses tested and BW of the 1st and 2nd instar larvae were not significantly (p > 0.05) different between the control and treated groups (range = 0.021 +/- 0.003 g/larva in the 200 Gy treatment to 0.028 +/- 0.003 g/larva in the control group and 0.105 +/- 0.003 g/larva in 20 Gy treatment to 0.172 +/- 0.009 g/larva in the control group, respectively). On the other hand, BW during the 3rd and 4th larval instars were significantly (p entomophagy.

  12. Evaluation of hazardous chemicals in edible insects and insect-based food intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Giulia; Cuykx, Matthias; Amato, Elvio; Calaprice, Chiara; Focant, Jean Francois; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Due to the rapid increase in world population, the waste of food and resources, and non-sustainable food production practices, the use of alternative food sources is currently strongly promoted. In this perspective, insects may represent a valuable alternative to main animal food sources due to their nutritional value and sustainable production. However, edible insects may be perceived as an unappealing food source and are indeed rarely consumed in developed countries. The food safety of edible insects can thus contribute to the process of acceptance of insects as an alternative food source, changing the perception of developed countries regarding entomophagy. In the present study, the levels of organic contaminants (i.e. flame retardants, PCBs, DDT, dioxin compounds, pesticides) and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) were investigated in composite samples of several species of edible insects (greater wax moth, migratory locust, mealworm beetle, buffalo worm) and four insect-based food items currently commercialized in Belgium. The organic chemical mass fractions were relatively low (PCBs: 27-2065 pg/g ww; OCPs: 46-368 pg/g ww; BFRs: up to 36 pg/g ww; PFRs 783-23800 pg/g ww; dioxin compounds: up to 0.25 pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) and were generally lower than those measured in common animal products. The untargeted screening analysis revealed the presence of vinyltoluene, tributylphosphate (present in 75% of the samples), and pirimiphos-methyl (identified in 50% of the samples). The levels of Cu and Zn in insects were similar to those measured in meat and fish in other studies, whereas As, Co, Cr, Pb, Sn levels were relatively low in all samples (consume these insect species with no additional hazards in comparison to the more commonly consumed animal products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.

    2006-01-01

    A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. In this mini-review, both literature sources and the practice of applying agricultural countermeasures are summarized very shortly: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. (authors)

  14. Animal Meal: Production and Determination in Feedstuffs and the Origin of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Heinz

    This contribution examines what animal meal is, how it is produced in rendering plants, and means of investigating feedstuff constituents. In addition to animal meal, numerous other products of animal origin are also on the market (e.g., blood meal, bone meal, feather meal, gelatin). Constituents of animal origin can be detected in feedstuffs by microscopy, but determining the animal species from which the constituents are derived, as required by law in Germany, requires methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction. We consider the problem of trace contamination being introduced accidentally during the production of ruminants' feedstuffs containing constituents of animal origin. The future of animal meal is discussed together with alternatives for disposing of animal carcasses and slaughtery offal, i.e., composting and incineration.

  15. Indigenous knowledge of the edible weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.; Sivongxay, N.; Praxaysombath, B.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-)cultivating and farming edible

  16. Achieving grassland production and quality that matches animal needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van den A.; Busqué, Juan; Golinski, P.; Noorkõiv, Katrin; O'Donovan, Michael; Peratoner, Giovanni; Reheul, D.

    2016-01-01

    Permanent grasslands are exploited by grazing animals or as meadows depending on different
    constraints. Grazing is the most common use in large parts of Europe, especially in the northwest of
    Europe. However, certain areas are less suitable for grazing. In the Alps e.g. meadows are the

  17. Achieving grassland production and quality that matching animal needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van den A.; Busqué, Juan; Golinski, P.; Noorkõiv, Katrin; O'Donovan, Michael; Peratoner, Giovanni; Reheul, D.

    2016-01-01

    Permanent grasslands are exploited by grazing animals or as meadows depending on different constraints. Grazing is the most common use in large parts of Europe, especially in the northwest of Europe. However, certain areas are less suitable for grazing. In the Alps e.g. meadows are the most relevant

  18. Consumer perceptions of food products from cloned animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaskell, George; Kronberger, Nicole; Fischler, Claude

    2007-01-01

    In the view of the authors of this report converging lines of theoretical and empirical research suggest that cloned meat is likely to be a controversial issue with the European public, sitting as it does at the nexus of sensitivities around food, animals and the life sciences. If, as appears...

  19. Management of Wood Products Manufacturing Using Simulation/Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; J.K. Wiedenbeck; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Managers of hardwood processing facilities need timely information on which to base important decisions such as when to add costly equipment or how to improve profitability subject to time-varying demands. The overall purpose of this paper is to introduce a method that can effectively provide such timely information. A simulation/animation modeling procedure is...

  20. [Production of human proteins in the blood of transgenic animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoud, M.; Bischoff, Rainer; Dalemans, W.; Pointu, H.; Attal, J.; Schultz, H.; Clesse, D.; Stinnakre, M.G.; Pavirani, A.; Houdebine, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    The human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene has been microinjected into rabbit embryos. A line of transgenic rabbits has thus been established. Human alpha 1-antitrypsin was found in the blood of transgenic animals at the concentration of 1 mg/ml plasma. The human protein was active and separable from its

  1. Tasty THC: Promises and Challenges of Cannabis Edibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrus, Daniel G.; Capogrossi, Kristen L.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Gourdet, Camille K.; Peiper, Nicholas C.; Novak, Scott P.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2016-01-01

    Food products containing cannabis extract (edibles) have emerged as a popular and lucrative facet of the legalized market for both recreational and medicinal cannabis. The many formulations of cannabis extracts used in edibles present a unique regulatory challenge for policy makers. Though edibles are often considered a safe, discreet, and effective means of attaining the therapeutic and/or intoxicating effects of cannabis without exposure to the potentially harmful risks of cannabis smoking, little research has evaluated how ingestion differs from other methods of cannabis administration in terms of therapeutic efficacy, subjective effects, and safety. The most prominent difference between ingestion and inhalation of cannabis extracts is the delayed onset of drug effect with ingestion. Consumers often do not understand this aspect of edible use and may consume a greater than intended amount of drug before the drug has taken effect, often resulting in profoundly adverse effects. Written for the educated layperson and for policy makers, this paper explores the current state of research regarding edibles, highlighting the promises and challenges that edibles present to both users and policy makers, and describes the approaches that four states in which recreational cannabis use is legal have taken regarding regulating edibles. PMID:28127591

  2. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An a...

  3. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production: towards an integrated life cycle sustainability assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.; Cederberg, C.; Eady, S.; Gollnow, S.; Kristensen, T.; Macleod, M.; Meul, M.; Nemecek, T.; Phong, L.T.; Thoma, G.; Werf, H.M.G.; Williams, A.G.; Zonderland-Thomassen, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG. They

  5. Animal production off grassland. | J.E. | African Journal of Range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veld rehabilitation is considered an overwhelming priority in the sweetveld. The limiting factors in the sourveld are poor veld management and lack of economic motivation. Research in the sourveld should be appointed to promote improved grazing management and animal production. Keywords: animal production; current ...

  6. Animal husbandry and food production in China and Europe: A shared moral problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijboom, F.L.B.; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    In China and Europe many millions of animals are used for food production. For both regions animal food production is considered to be important for both the internal market, but also for export. In spite of these similarities there are many differences. First, while in Europe there currently is a

  7. Edible Oil Industry Wastewater Treatment by Microfiltration with Ceramic Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Zita Šereš; Dragana Šoronja Simović; Ljubica Dokić; Lidietta Giorno; Biljana Pajin; Cecilia Hodur; Nikola Maravić

    2016-01-01

    Membrane technology is convenient for separation of suspended solids, colloids and high molecular weight materials that are present. The idea is that the waste stream from edible oil industry, after the separation of oil by using skimmers is subjected to microfiltration and the obtained permeate can be used again in the production process. The wastewater from edible oil industry was used for the microfiltration. For the microfiltration of this effluent a tubular membrane was used with a pore ...

  8. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riemsdijk, Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T M; van Trijp, Hans C M; van der Veen, Gerrita

    2017-12-14

    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers' social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to their competitors. It also explains why some consumer segments, such as those with a specific thinking style, may experience a stronger effect of some strategies, giving directions on how to approach different types of consumers. Finally, building on research asserting that animal welfare is a credence product attribute, the article proposes moderating effects of two factors that help consumers to evaluate the credibility of animal welfare claims, namely corporate social responsibility strategy and the role of stakeholders. Here it concludes that companies selling animal-friendly products need to be aware of the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of positioning strategies for individual products and that, to gain consumer trust, they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations.

  9. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka van Riemsdijk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers’ social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational to create an attractive position relative to their competitors. It also explains why some consumer segments, such as those with a specific thinking style, may experience a stronger effect of some strategies, giving directions on how to approach different types of consumers. Finally, building on research asserting that animal welfare is a credence product attribute, the article proposes moderating effects of two factors that help consumers to evaluate the credibility of animal welfare claims, namely corporate social responsibility strategy and the role of stakeholders. Here it concludes that companies selling animal-friendly products need to be aware of the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of positioning strategies for individual products and that, to gain consumer trust, they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations.

  10. Enabling Passive Immunization as an Alternative to Antibiotics for Controlling Enteric Infections in Production Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hald, Birthe; Madsen, M.

    Enteric infections cause major problems in most intensive animal production sectors, including poultry, pigs and cattle, leading to disease, reduced production and compromised welfare. In addition some of these infections are zoonotic, and they are to a large extent responsible for the continued ...... as a viable strategy for control of infectious diseases in the intensive animal production, with the potential to significantly reduce antibiotics consumption.......Enteric infections cause major problems in most intensive animal production sectors, including poultry, pigs and cattle, leading to disease, reduced production and compromised welfare. In addition some of these infections are zoonotic, and they are to a large extent responsible for the continued...... massive use of antibiotics in food animals. Thus there is a pressing need for economically feasible, efficient, non-antibiotics based means for controlling the problem. Passive immunization has been known for decades as an efficient way of endowing humans or animals with short-term (weeks) immunity...

  11. INTERCEPTION OF ANIMAL-ORIGIN PRODUCTS AT LAND BORDERS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Janice Eidt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious agents and veterinary diseases can be disseminated across borders and contribute to change the country sanitary status. The aim of this study was to identify the main animal products intercepted and seized by the agricultural surveillance units. This paper studied three Agricultural Surveillance Units located at land borders in the North region of Brazil: Assis Brasil and Epitaciolândia (Acre State and Pacaraima (Roraima State, respectively borders with Peru, Bolivia and Venezuela. The main animal products confiscated were dairy products, fish, meat, sausage, veterinary products (drugs, animal food (pet foods and apiculture products. Given the clandestine nature of animal transit and its products in these borders, the possibilities of introduction of infectious agents and diseases must be better evaluated, considering the type of products confiscated, as well as the sanitary status of the countries of origin.

  12. Agency perspectives on food safety for the products of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, H J; Jones, K M; Rudenko, L

    2012-08-01

    Animal biotechnology represents one subset of tools among a larger set of technologies for potential use to meet increasing world demands for food. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer continue to make positive contributions in food animal production. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) performed a comprehensive risk assessment to identify potential food consumption or animal health risks associated with animal cloning, an emerging ART. At that time, FDA concluded that animal cloning posed no unique risks either to animal health or to food consumption, and food from animal clones and their sexually reproduced offspring required no additional federal regulation beyond that applicable to conventionally bred animals of the species examined. At this time, no new information has arisen that would necessitate a change in FDA's conclusions on food from animal clones or their sexually reproduced offspring. Use of recombinant DNA technologies to produce genetically engineered (GE) animals represents another emerging technology with potential to impact food animal production. In its regulation of GE animals, FDA follows a cumulative, risk-based approach to address scientific questions related to the GE animals. FDA evaluates data and information on the safety, effectiveness and stability of the GE event. FDA carries out its review at several levels (e.g. molecular biology, animal safety, food safety, environmental safety and claim validation). GE animal sponsors provide data to address risk questions for each level. This manuscript discusses FDA's role in evaluation of animal cloning and GE animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. [Study on a collagenase protocol to extract DNA from remnant feathers in edible bird's nest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-Li; Chen, Nian; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Wu, Guo-Hong; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2013-08-01

    To establish a method for extracting genomic DNA from rudimental bird feather from the precious edible bird's nest (EBN) harvested from the swiftlet cave. Observed the EBN using endoscopic and studied the influence of adding collagenase on the extracting yield of DNA. PCR amplification and sequencing for the extraction was also conducted. Collagenase was used in addition to protease K which could substantively increase the DNA yield. The DNA extracted by this method could be used for PCR and other molecular biology analyses. This method can be applied to identify the species types in biological products, especially for animal tissue materials that rich in collagen.

  14. Principles and limitations of stable isotopes in differentiating organic and conventional foodstuffs: 2. Animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Caio T; Chalk, Phillip M

    2017-01-02

    In this review, we examine the variation in stable isotope signatures of the lighter elements (δ 2 H, δ 13 C, δ 15 N, δ 18 O, and δ 34 S) of tissues and excreta of domesticated animals, the factors affecting the isotopic composition of animal tissues, and whether stable isotopes may be used to differentiate organic and conventional modes of animal husbandry. The main factors affecting the δ 13 C signatures of livestock are the C3/C4 composition of the diet, the relative digestibility of the diet components, metabolic turnover, tissue and compound specificity, growth rate, and animal age. δ 15 N signatures of sheep and cattle products have been related mainly to diet signatures, which are quite variable among farms and between years. Although few data exist, a minor influence in δ 15 N signatures of animal products was attributed to N losses at the farm level, whereas stocking rate showed divergent findings. Correlations between mode of production and δ 2 H and δ 18 O have not been established, and only in one case of an animal product was δ 34 S a satisfactory marker for mode of production. While many data exist on diet-tissue isotopic discrimination values among domesticated animals, there is a paucity of data that allow a direct and statistically verifiable comparison of the differences in the isotopic signatures of organically and conventionally grown animal products. The few comparisons are confined to beef, milk, and egg yolk, with no data for swine or lamb products. δ 13 C appears to be the most promising isotopic marker to differentiate organic and conventional production systems when maize (C4) is present in the conventional animal diet. However, δ 13 C may be unsuitable under tropical conditions, where C4 grasses are abundant, and where grass-based husbandry is predominant in both conventional and organic systems. Presently, there is no universal analytical method that can be applied to differentiate organic and conventional animal products.

  15. 75 FR 11884 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS.... Proposed Uses: Edible podded beans, cane & bush berry, bulb onion, green onion, spinach subgroups. Contact... podded beans, cane & bush berry, bulb onion, green onion, spinach subgroups. Contact: Mary L. Waller...

  16. How four U.S. states are regulating recreational marijuana edibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdet, Camille; Giombi, Kristen C; Kosa, Katherine; Wiley, Jenny; Cates, Sheryl

    2017-05-01

    Sales of edible marijuana products have been strong in Colorado and Washington State since the legalization of recreational marijuana. Initially, these states did not have comprehensive labelling or packaging requirements in place. In response to increases in marijuana-related emergency room visits and poison control centre calls, additional regulations were implemented. Currently, Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington each have passed into law various labelling and packaging requirements for edibles. This article presents the primary legal research findings of relevant statutes and regulations for edibles in Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington. These laws were identified by using Boolean terms and connectors searches in these states' legal databases in LexisNexis. Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington vary greatly in how they regulate labelling and packaging. Colorado, Oregon and Washington require a Universal Symbol to be affixed to edibles, but only Oregon and Washington require that the use of pesticides be disclosed on the label. Only Colorado and Oregon require that the packaging for edibles bear a Nutrition Facts Panel on the label. Δ 9 -Tetrahydracannabinol (THC) in a single serving or single edible product as Alaska and Oregon. All four states prohibit the manufacture or packaging of edibles that appeal to youth. State laws governing recreational marijuana edibles have evolved since the first recreational edible products were available for sale. Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington now require edible product labels to disclose a variety of product information, including risk factors associated with consumption. However, there still remain concerns about the regulatory gaps that exist in each of these states, inherent difficulties in enforcing laws around the labelling, packaging, and manufacturing of edibles, and the outstanding question of whether these edible laws are actually informing consumers and keeping the public safe. Copyright

  17. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915) and semi-structured interviews (n=78) to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported co...

  18. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  19. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Odor-Reducing Commercial Products for Animal Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Shuchi S.

    1997-01-01

    Six odor-reducing commercial products were tested for their efficacy in reducing odors from dairy and swine wastes. A sensory panel method was utilized for odor evaluations, in which the panel played an important part. Comparisons between products were made for agitated and unagitated conditions and effect of storage time (three weeks in which experiments were performed). Cotton pieces tied to the mouth of the sample jars were useful in absorbing the odors. Odor-treated jars were observed and...

  1. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans - A Life Cycle Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70–80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding

  2. Edible wild plant use in the Faroe Islands and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of wild edible plants in the Faroe Islands and Iceland from the times of the first settlement of Norse people in the Viking age until today, with a special emphasis on the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Animal products have been an important source of nutrients for the islanders of northern Atlantic. Cultivation of cereals on the other hand has played a minor role, and had already been abandoned by late medieval times in Iceland and by the early 20th century on the Faroes. Crops such as potatoes, turnips and other roots were only grown in the small patches of cultivated soil. Wild plants have therefore been of some importance for the Faroese people and the Icelanders; in the last centuries especially for the rural poor and during times of recessions. The native Angelica archangelica L. was gathered in the wild and also cultivated in gardens for centuries. A few species have been part of the regular food staple. Some plants are still gathered and made into food products by small companies, especially in Iceland. In the Faroes, the economic aspect of edible wild plant taxa is mostly of historical interest, although a few products of A. archangelica are sometimes available. Two taxa have been exploited as regular food exclusively in Iceland: Cetraria islandica (L. Arch. and Elymus arenarius L. Icelanders have used C. islandica from the early settlement days and continue to do so today, E. arenarius became obsolete as a food plant a century ago.

  3. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans – A Life Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; de Boer, Imke J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70–80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein. PMID:23284661

  4. Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans - a life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; de Boer, Imke J M

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.

  5. Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans - a life cycle assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.

  6. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.

  7. Study on the Problems and Countermeasure in the Animal Products Quality and Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shishan; WANG

    2013-01-01

    As the supply chain of animal products is long,there are many factors which would influence the quality safety of animal production.Therefore,by focusing on the present and having a vision for future,Jiaozuo government promulgated Ten Polices on the Food Safety in Jiaozuo City,which pushed forward the technological development,intensified measures to monitor the quality of animal products,set up a series of mechanism,and provided reference for the food quality and safety monitoring.

  8. Potential application of thermography (IRT in animal production and for animal welfare. A case report of working dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Redaelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The authors describe the thermography technique in animal production and in veterinary medicine applications. The thermographic technique lends itself to countless applications in biology, thanks to its characteristics of versatility, lack of invasiveness and high sensitivity. Probably the major limitation to most important aspects for its application in the animal lies in the ease of use and in its extreme sensitivity. Materials and methods. This review provides an overview of the possible applications of the technique of thermo visual inspection, but it is clear that every phenomenon connected to temperature variations can be identified with this technique. Then the operator has to identify the best experimental context to obtain as much information as possible, concerning the physiopathological problems considered. Furthermore, we reported an experimental study about the thermography (IRT as a noninvasive technique to assess the state of wellbeing in working dogs. RESULTS. The first results showed the relationship between superficial temperatures and scores obtained by the animal during the behavioral test. This result suggests an interesting application of infrared thermography (IRT to measure the state of wellbeing of animals in a noninvasive way.

  9. Animal Production Research Advances - Vol 5, No 2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictive ability of boiler production models · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. UE Ogundu, OO Okpala, MU Iloeje. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/apra.v5i2.49826 ...

  10. Gut health: The new paradigm in food animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern livestock and poultry operations have undergone dramatic changes in production practices over the last 50 years. Genetic selections for high growth rates and reproductive traits as well as improved management techniques and dietary requirements have led to increased performance standards in ...

  11. Animal Production Research Advances - Vol 6, No 3 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impact and Hazards Analysis Critical Control Point (Haccp) Concept in the Production of Tsire at Zaria, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. IO Abdullahi, VJ Umoh, JB Ameh, M Galadima, 220-225 ...

  12. Animal Production Research Advances - Vol 2, No 2 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance, carcass characteristics and economy of production of broilers fed maize grit and brewers' dried grain · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Biochemical and microbial qualities of raw, boiled and fermented Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  13. The water footprint of animal products : The meat crisis: Developing more sustainable and ethical production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; D'Silva, Joyce; Webster, John

    2017-01-01

    Meat and dairy production and consumption are in crisis. Globally, 70 billion farm animals are used for food production every year. It is well accepted that livestock production is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

  14. Non-Timber Forest Products Marketing Systems and Market Players in Southwest Virginia: A Case Study of Craft, Medicinal and Herbal, Specialty Wood, and Edible Forest Products

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Sarah Marsden

    1998-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Virginia as a source of household sustenance and supplemental income. The trade in NTFPs from this region is centuries old and now helps supply growing worldwide demands. Although marketing is a vital part of optimizing the value of these products, it has been ignored in rural natural resource development. This research analyzes marketing systems for selected NTFPs in southwest Virginia by describing marketing chains, inter...

  15. Safety of Animal Fats for Biodiesel Production: A Critical Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, A; Dawson, P; Nixon, D; Atkins, J; Pearl, G [Clemson University, SC (United States)

    2007-05-15

    An in-depth review of available literature was conducted on the safety of using animal fats for biodiesel. The review indicated little or no known risk to human and animal health and to the environment relative to inherent microbial, organic or inorganic agents in animal fats destined for biodiesel production. Animal by-products are generated from the inedible tissues derived from meat, poultry and fish production. This material is thermally processed by the rendering industry to generate a number of industrial materials including use of the fat portion to produce biodiesel. As the biodiesel industry continues to develop, questions have emerged about the safety of animal versus vegetable fats for biodiesel production and utilization. The following report is the result of a detailed literature search into the potential microbial, organic, and inorganic contaminants that may be present in animal fats and the potential for human or environmental safety issues associated with each. The potential safety risks associated with prions are discussed in a separate report, 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction'. In certain instances, very little was reported about the potential contaminating moiety and its fate in biodiesel production and usage. Establishing an absolute zero risk assessment is impossible on any fat utilized for biodiesel production. Among the potential microbial contaminants, bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast, parasites, and microbial toxins were considered. In each instance, the nature of the production process and usage of biodiesel via combustion reduce the possibility that microbial contaminants would be a cause for concern to humans, animals, or the environment. Potential organic moieties contaminating the fat should meet a similar fate. Current evidence suggests that metals and metalloids within animal fats will not cause significant safety issues in the production and use of rendered fat

  16. Safety of Animal Fats for Biodiesel Production: A Critical Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, A.; Dawson, P.; Nixon, D.; Atkins, J.; Pearl, G. [Clemson University, SC (United States)

    2007-05-15

    An in-depth review of available literature was conducted on the safety of using animal fats for biodiesel. The review indicated little or no known risk to human and animal health and to the environment relative to inherent microbial, organic or inorganic agents in animal fats destined for biodiesel production. Animal by-products are generated from the inedible tissues derived from meat, poultry and fish production. This material is thermally processed by the rendering industry to generate a number of industrial materials including use of the fat portion to produce biodiesel. As the biodiesel industry continues to develop, questions have emerged about the safety of animal versus vegetable fats for biodiesel production and utilization. The following report is the result of a detailed literature search into the potential microbial, organic, and inorganic contaminants that may be present in animal fats and the potential for human or environmental safety issues associated with each. The potential safety risks associated with prions are discussed in a separate report, 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction'. In certain instances, very little was reported about the potential contaminating moiety and its fate in biodiesel production and usage. Establishing an absolute zero risk assessment is impossible on any fat utilized for biodiesel production. Among the potential microbial contaminants, bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast, parasites, and microbial toxins were considered. In each instance, the nature of the production process and usage of biodiesel via combustion reduce the possibility that microbial contaminants would be a cause for concern to humans, animals, or the environment. Potential organic moieties contaminating the fat should meet a similar fate. Current evidence suggests that metals and metalloids within animal fats will not cause significant safety issues in the production and use of rendered fat

  17. Biodrying of animal slaughterhouse residues and heat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Y. [Centre de recherche industrielle, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Animal carcasses from slaughterhouses are usually composted on farms, but the composting process is not optimized and a large volumes of carbonaceous residues are needed. This type of composting takes place over a period of 6 to 9 months in a nonaerated static pile. Quebec's industrial research centre (CRIQ) developed an organic biodrying process (BIOSECO) adapted to large-scale operations in order to optimize the treatment of slaughterhouse residues. Biodrying is a form of composting, in which the thermophilic phase is optimized, making it possible to evaporate large amounts of water. Biodrying is done inside a building and reduces the amount of carbonaceous residues considerably. The process is optimized by the sequence in which the slaughterhouse residues are added, the choice of input and the aeration flow. Slaughterhouse residues can be treated non-stop throughout the entire year. Since the odours are nearly completed limited to the building, the biodrying can be done near the slaughterhouse. A large amount of heat was produced by the process during the pilot project. It was concluded that the BIOSECO biodrying process is suitable for treating slaughterhouse residues in an effective and economic manner, and has the added advantage of producing heat that could be used for various purposes.

  18. Cats on the Couch: The Experimental Production of Animal Neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Alison

    2016-03-01

    Argument In the 1940s-50s, one of the most central questions in psychological research related to the nature of neurosis. In the final years of the Second World War and the following decade, neurosis became one of the most prominent psychiatric disorders, afflicting a high proportion of military casualties and veterans. The condition became central to the concerns of several psychological fields, from psychoanalysis to Pavlovian psychology. This paper reconstructs the efforts of Chicago psychiatrist Jules Masserman to study neurosis in the laboratory during the 1940s and 1950s. Masserman used Pavlovian techniques in a bid to subject this central psychoanalytic subject to disciplined scientific experimentation. More generally, his project was an effort to bolster the legitimacy of psychoanalysis as a human science by articulating a convergence of psychoanalytic categories across multiple species. Masserman sought to orchestrate a convergence of psychological knowledge between fields that were often taken to be irreconcilable. A central focus of this paper is the role of moving images in this project, not only as a means of recording experimental data but also as a rhetorical device. The paper argues that for Masserman film played an important role in enabling scientific observers (and then subsequent viewers) to see agency and emotion in the animals they observed.

  19. [Economic management of health crises affecting production animals in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, S; Humblet, M F; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Gosset, C; Albert, A; Vernaillen, F; Saegerman, C

    2011-12-01

    The importance of animal health crises has considerably increased over the last few years. When a crisis occurs, farmers can receive financial support through various public, private and mixed compensation schemes. Economic losses resulting from diseases may be direct and indirect. If a disease is covered by European Union regulations then countries have a legal obligation to partly compensate farmers for direct losses, either directly through the national budget, or through a specific fund. The European Veterinary Fund also co-finances these losses. Only a few countries provide compensation for indirect losses. The private insurance sector also provides protection against some direct and indirect losses but the risks covered are variable. To encourage farmers to subscribe to this kind of insurance, some public authorities provide subsidies to help pay the premium. Insurance companies do not generally cover the risks linked to contagious diseases, but some companies do extend cover to include this type of risk. Several alternatives, such as mutual funds, are available to improve risk coverage. There is a lack of harmonisation among the various compensation schemes of different countries. Public authorities cannot provide full compensation, but mutual funds and private insurance companies are alternatives that should be further investigated and their use should be extended to other countries. A classification of diseases would harmonise the situation at the European level.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 47, December 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    As part of the Agency's 2006/7 Programme of Work and Budget, we evaluated our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Co-operation projects (TCPs) and focussed our activities for the Agency's 2008/9 cycle. During this exercise we could identify areas where good performance was achieved as well as those where further improvements were needed ? and which we then addressed. We also had time to reflect on our past performance in order to serve the best interests of our Member States. It became apparent that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has to be more proactive towards the detection, control and management of emerging diseases, with particular emphasis on transboundary animal diseases and the offering of relevant and effective support to MS. Attention was given to increasing our collaboration with other International Organisations (such as OIE, WHO and CGIAR Centres) as well as our Joint FAO/IAEA divisional activities. The clear advantage that we as a Joint FAO/IAEA programme have is a very proficient laboratory (and expertise) that focuses on our direct support to MS. To this effect this Issue want to highlight our activities related to small ruminant reproduction and breeding in this section of the newsletter

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 47, December 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    As part of the Agency's 2006/7 Programme of Work and Budget, we evaluated our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Co-operation projects (TCPs) and focussed our activities for the Agency's 2008/9 cycle. During this exercise we could identify areas where good performance was achieved as well as those where further improvements were needed ? and which we then addressed. We also had time to reflect on our past performance in order to serve the best interests of our Member States. It became apparent that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has to be more proactive towards the detection, control and management of emerging diseases, with particular emphasis on transboundary animal diseases and the offering of relevant and effective support to MS. Attention was given to increasing our collaboration with other International Organisations (such as OIE, WHO and CGIAR Centres) as well as our Joint FAO/IAEA divisional activities. The clear advantage that we as a Joint FAO/IAEA programme have is a very proficient laboratory (and expertise) that focuses on our direct support to MS. To this effect this Issue want to highlight our activities related to small ruminant reproduction and breeding in this section of the newsletter.

  2. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 53, January 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-01-15

    In this newsletter I want to highlight the biggest event on the animal calendar - Rinderpest is no longer a threat to livestock farmers' world wide. It is expected that FAO and OIE will jointly declare the world to be free from Rinderpest in 2011. In commemoration of this, I want to pay tribute to the members that made this possible such as regional organizations (EC, AU/IBAR CG-Centres etc), international organizations (FAO, OIE, IAEA etc), individual countries (France, Japan, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States of America, Italy etc) and the Member States that suffered from this disease and worked towards its eradication. Together with all the role players, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department's contribution to the development, evaluation and validation of nuclear and nuclear related immunological and molecular diagnostic technologies was a niche and critical area. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has two mechanisms of technical support to Member States - the development, evaluation and validation of nuclear and nuclear related technologies through the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) mechanism, and the transfer and sustainable implementation of the CRP developed technologies through the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) mechanism. The development of nuclear and nuclear related immunological and molecular diagnostic technologies were jointly developed between CRPs of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and TCPs of the Technical Cooperation Department

  3. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 53, January 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this newsletter I want to highlight the biggest event on the animal calendar - Rinderpest is no longer a threat to livestock farmers' world wide. It is expected that FAO and OIE will jointly declare the world to be free from Rinderpest in 2011. In commemoration of this, I want to pay tribute to the members that made this possible such as regional organizations (EC, AU/IBAR CG-Centres etc), international organizations (FAO, OIE, IAEA etc), individual countries (France, Japan, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States of America, Italy etc) and the Member States that suffered from this disease and worked towards its eradication. Together with all the role players, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department's contribution to the development, evaluation and validation of nuclear and nuclear related immunological and molecular diagnostic technologies was a niche and critical area. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has two mechanisms of technical support to Member States - the development, evaluation and validation of nuclear and nuclear related technologies through the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) mechanism, and the transfer and sustainable implementation of the CRP developed technologies through the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) mechanism. The development of nuclear and nuclear related immunological and molecular diagnostic technologies were jointly developed between CRPs of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and TCPs of the Technical Cooperation Department

  4. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  5. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.

  6. Consumer decision-making for animal-friendly products: synthesis and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Immink, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how consumers’ concerns affect the consumer decision-making process is important for developing a market for animal-friendly products. This paper presents a synthesis of research on the role of animal welfare in consumer decision-making. Drawing on basic models and concepts from

  7. Evaluation of biochemical factors from mixed animal wastes feedstock in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane ...

  8. Effect of biochemical factors from mixed animal wastes feedstock in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane...

  9. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, W.R.; Berg, K.J. van den; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data

  10. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBDG

    Associates of the Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of ... nutrition), the role of animal source foods as part of a healthy diet requires continuous investment ... Keywords: Animal source foods, livestock products, nutrition, health ..... sensation of fullness that persists after eating until hunger returns (Benelam, ...

  11. The development of mixer machine for organic animal feed production: Proposed study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Wahab, R. Abdul; Zakaria, Supaat; Feriyanto, Dafit; Nor, M. I. F. Che Mohd; Muzarpar, Syafiq

    2017-09-01

    Mixer machine plays a major role in producing homogenous composition of animal feed. Long time production, inhomogeneous and minor agglomeration has been observed by existing mixer. Therefore, this paper proposed continuous mixer to enhance mixing efficiency with shorter time of mixing process in order to abbreviate the whole process in animal feed production. Through calculation of torque, torsion, bending, power and energy consumption will perform in mixer machine process. Proposed mixer machine is designed by two layer buckets with purpose for continuity of mixing process. Mixing process was performed by 4 blades which consists of various arm length such as 50, 100,150 and 225 mm in 60 rpm velocity clockwise rotation. Therefore by using this machine will produce the homogenous composition of animal feed through nutrition analysis and short operation time of mixing process approximately of 5 minutes. Therefore, the production of animal feed will suitable for various animals including poultry and aquatic fish. This mixer will available for various organic material in animal feed production. Therefore, this paper will highlights some areas such as continues animal feed supply chain and bio-based animal feed.

  12. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 59, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. ... Haematological, Carcass Characteristics And Meat Quality Of Intensively Managed West ... activities of the African Baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit-pulp extract in commercial broilers ...

  13. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and health. ... the widest array of complex scientific, economic, environmental and political issues. ... investment in research and extrapolation of information towards appropriate ...

  14. Environmental Sustainability Analysis and Nutritional Strategies of Animal Production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2017-02-08

    Animal production in China has achieved considerable progress and contributes to 46% of the total agriculture output value of the country. However, this fast expansion of animal production has led to environmental pollution. In this article, we review the status of soil, water, and air pollution associated with animal production in China and analyze the main sources of the pollutants. The government has promulgated regulations and standards, and effective models and technologies have been developed to control pollution during the last 10 years. Because nutrition and feed strategies represent the most effective method of controlling environmental pollution at the source, this review focuses on nutritional technologies, including accurate feed formulation, rational use of additives, and proper processing of feeds. The advances of modern biotechnology and big data systems also provide more modern approaches to decreasing wastage release. These nutritional strategies are expected to promote sustainable development of animal production.

  15. Biologically active substances of edible insects and their use in agriculture, veterinary and human medicine a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Mlcek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of edible insect use in Western countries is now increasingly debated issue. Insects in Asian, African, American and South Central American cultures are mainly nutritional components. In Europe and other developed countries, however, insect is used in different ways, and this issue is viewed from a different angle. Insects are mainly used as feed for animals, in the organic waste recycling systems, in human and veterinary medicine, material production (such as silk etc. This review summarizes up-to-date knowledge about using edible insects in human, veterinary medicine and agriculture, especially from the viewpoint of the biological and chemical content of active substances and the possibilities of further use in these areas.

  16. For the sake of production. How agricultural colleges shape students' view on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter; Anneberg, Inger

    2016-01-01

    that there are only minor differences between the groups in the way good animal welfare is justified as both groups mainly view good animal welfare as a means of obtaining profitable production. In contrast, views which justify good animal welfare on the basis of the animals’ wellbeing or their right to have......The aim of this paper is to document and discuss the way future farmers’ views on animal welfare are formed and shaped during their studies at agricultural colleges. The paper is based on qualitative interviews with first year students and more advanced students in Denmark. It is shown...

  17. Nutritional evaluation of irradiated animal protein by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hakeim, N.F.; Hilali, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Blood, fish and meat-bone meals were irradiated at dose levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical composition of meals. Available lysine in irradiated fish meals was reduced by 8,04%. Losses occurred in some amino acids especially the essential ones of the irradiated protein by-products. Isoleucine, phenylalanine and valine were the limiting amino acids in the irradiated blood, fish and meat-bone meal, respectively. At dose levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy essential amino acids index (EAAI) was 48,24%, 42,89%, 48,38%, 53% and 55,95% for blood meal 37,91%, 39,71%, 41,18% and 37,90% for fish meal and 37,07%, 36,01%, 27,61%, 38,21% and 38,45% for meat-bone meal, respectively. (orig.) [de

  18. Edible films and coatings: Sources, properties and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend product shelf life while preserving the quality scientific attention focused to biopolymers research that are base for edible films and coatings production. Another major advantage of this kind of food packaging is their eco-friendly status because biopolymers do not cause environmental problems as packaging materials derived from non-renewable energy sources do. Objective of this work was to review recently studied edible films and coatings - their sources, properties and possible application. As sources for edible biopolymers were highlighted polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. The most characteristic subgroups from each large group of compounds were selected and described regarding possible physical and mechanical protection; migration, permeation, and barrier functions. The most important biopolymers characteristic is possibility to act as active substance carriers and to provide controlled release. In order to achieve active packaging functions emulsifiers, antioxidants and antimicrobial agents can also be incorporated into film-forming solutions in order to protect food products from oxidation and microbial spoilage, resulting in quality improvement and enhanced safety. The specific application where edible films and coatings have potential to replace some traditional polymer packaging are explained. It can be concluded that edible films and coatings must be chosen for food packaging purpose according to specific applications, the types of food products, and the major mechanisms of quality deterioration.

  19. Closer to Nature: the Ethics of ‘Green’ Representations in Animal Product Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune; Kondrup, Sara Vincentzen; Gjerris, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    – thus attempting to display a green, eco-, climate-, and animal friendly production. The tension between marketing and the idea of ethical consumerism is apparent as the need for independent information to make value-based choices is challenged by the liberal rules of the market and more specifically......Empirical cases from the Danish food market are examined in order to critically discuss the respective modes of communication in light of the premises of socially responsible consumer marketing. This analysis suggests that specific marketing instruments are used to sell animal products by blurring...... by the lack of a restrictive food labelling policy. The relationship between the ways in which animal welfare is communicated and emphasized through food marketing, and commonly held perceptions of acceptable standards for animal welfare, is discussed and the need for transparency in the area of animal...

  20. FAO/IAEA international symposium on sustainable improvement of animal production and health. Synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The on-going 'Livestock Revolution', a demand-driven increase in livestock production, especially in developing countries, presents both opportunities and risks. The shift in the human diet from plant-based protein sources to animal-based protein sources, consumer demand for safe and quality animal products, and expanding markets for livestock products have raised several challenges such as; cost-effective production of safe and quality animal products, control of emerging and zoonotic diseases, and efficient management of impact of livestock on the environment. However, these changes have also provided many opportunities to benefit the local economy and producers, and reduce poverty. New challenges and opportunities demand innovative ideas and approaches, and mechanisms to take this knowledge to potential users. Many of the approaches will be multidisciplinary in nature and require collaboration with specialists in areas other than animal scientists. Livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of animals, poor nutrition, poor husbandry and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify critical points in these areas that can be targeted for cost-effective improvements and interventions. Thus the challenge is to use such technologies to enhance food security and alleviate poverty by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries through strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. Topics addressed at the symposium: - Interactions among nutrition, reproduction and genotype; - Livestock-environment interaction / productivity/ climate (water/ land/ plants/heat/ altitude); - Detection and control of transboundary animal diseases, including zoonoses; - Animal product safety and food quality. Each of the papers published in this book of synopses has been indexed separately

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 45, December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Once again the year is at end and a new exciting year lies ahead of us. The past year has been a busy time for all staff in the subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2007/2008 biennial project cycle. We have also prepared the IAEA's 2008/2009 Work and Budget Programme. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. As with previous newsletters, I want to introduce a topic to hopefully stimulate discussion and debate and encourage interactions between all. It has been well discussed in previous newsletters that the trend towards intensification of livestock production in developing countries presents both opportunities and risks. The potential opportunities are the flow-on benefits to the local economy and producers and the potential risks are the flow-on costs to the environment, livestock health and welfare and human health, through increased chemical and nutrient pollution, disease transmission and centralization of feed resources. Understanding nutrition is one of the keys to taking advantage of the opportunities and minimizing the risks

  2. Alternatives to antibiotics: a symposium on the challenges and solutions for animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Bruce S; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Donovan, David M; Gay, Cyril G

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotics are one of the most important medical discoveries of the 20th century and will remain an essential tool for treating animal and human diseases in the 21st century. However, antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens and concerns over their extensive use in food animals has garnered global interest in limiting antibiotic use in animal agriculture. Yet, limiting the availability of medical interventions to prevent and control animal diseases on the farm will directly impact global food security and safety as well as animal and human health. Insufficient attention has been given to the scientific breakthroughs and novel technologies that provide alternatives to antibiotics. The objectives of the symposium 'Alternatives to Antibiotics' were to highlight promising research results and novel technologies that could potentially lead to alternatives to conventional antibiotics, and assess challenges associated with their commercialization, and provide actionable strategies to support development of alternative antimicrobials. The symposium focused on the latest scientific breakthroughs and technologies that could provide new options and alternative strategies for preventing and treating diseases of animals. Some of these new technologies have direct applications as medical interventions for human health, but the focus of the symposium was animal production, animal health and food safety during food-animal production. Five subject areas were explored in detail through scientific presentations and expert panel discussions, including: (1) alternatives to antibiotics, lessons from nature; (2) immune modulation approaches to enhance disease resistance and to treat animal diseases; (3) gut microbiome and immune development, health and diseases; (4) alternatives to antibiotics for animal production; and (5) regulatory pathways to enable the licensure of alternatives to antibiotics.

  3. The Impact of Animal Rights on the Use of Animals for Biomedical Research, Product Testing and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    Clarifies the issues of animal rights as they effect animal use in research and education through an examination of the current use of animals, a historical look at animal use, and a consideration of the philosophical underpinnings of the animal rights and pro-use viewpoints. (PR)

  4. Coupling movement and landscape ecology for animal conservation in production landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tim S; Driscoll, Don A

    2018-01-10

    Habitat conversion in production landscapes is among the greatest threats to biodiversity, not least because it can disrupt animal movement. Using the movement ecology framework, we review animal movement in production landscapes, including areas managed for agriculture and forestry. We consider internal and external drivers of altered animal movement and how this affects navigation and motion capacities and population dynamics. Conventional management approaches in fragmented landscapes focus on promoting connectivity using structural changes in the landscape. However, a movement ecology perspective emphasizes that manipulating the internal motivations or navigation capacity of animals represents untapped opportunities to improve movement and the effectiveness of structural connectivity investments. Integrating movement and landscape ecology opens new opportunities for conservation management in production landscapes. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. Allergic risks of consuming edible insects: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José Carlos; Cunha, Luís Miguel; Sousa-Pinto, Bernardo; Fonseca, João

    2018-01-01

    The expected future demand for food and animal-derived protein will require environment-friendly novel food sources with high nutritional value. Insects may be one of such novel food sources. However, there needs to be an assessment of the risks associated with their consumption, including allergic risks. Therefore, we performed a systematic review aiming to analyse current data available regarding the allergic risks of consuming insects. We reviewed all reported cases of food allergy to insects, and studied the possibility of cross-reactivity and co-sensitisation between edible insects, crustaceans and house dust mites. We analysed a total of 25 articles - eight assessing the cross-reactivity/co-sensitisation between edible insects, crustaceans and house dust mites; three characterizing allergens in edible insects and 14 case reports, describing case series or prevalence studies of food allergy caused by insects. Cross-reactivity/co-sensitisation between edible insects and crustaceans seems to be clinically relevant, while it is still unknown if co-sensitisation between house dust mites and edible insects can lead to a food allergy. Additionally, more information is also needed about the molecular mechanisms underlying food allergy to insects, although current data suggest that an important role is played by arthropod pan-allergens such as tropomyosin or arginine kinase. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, C P A; de Haas, Y; Hogeveen, H; van Krimpen, M M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Middelaar, C E; Rodenburg, T B

    2017-10-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance of current livestock production systems may help to formulate strategies for future systems. Our study provides a systematic overview of differences between conventional and organic livestock production systems on a broad range of sustainability aspects and animal species available in peer-reviewed literature. Systems were compared on economy, productivity, environmental impact, animal welfare and public health. The review was limited to dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broilers and laying hens, and to Europe, North America and New Zealand. Results per indicators are presented as in the articles without performing additional calculations. Out of 4171 initial search hits, 179 articles were analysed. Studies varied widely in indicators, research design, sample size and location and context. Quite some studies used small samples. No study analysed all aspects of sustainability simultaneously. Conventional systems had lower labour requirements per unit product, lower income risk per animal, higher production per animal per time unit, higher reproduction numbers, lower feed conversion ratio, lower land use, generally lower acidification and eutrophication potential per unit product, equal or better udder health for cows and equal or lower microbiological contamination. Organic systems had higher income per animal or full time employee, lower impact on biodiversity, lower eutrophication and acidification potential per unit land, equal or lower likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and higher beneficial fatty acid levels in cow milk. For most sustainability aspects, sometimes conventional and sometimes organic systems performed better, except for productivity, which was

  7. I-124 production using nanomaterials and its biodistribution in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braghirolli, Ana Maria Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Iodine-124 is a positron emitter with physical half-life of 4.2 days. Its decay occurs by positron emission (23.3%) and electron capture (76.7%). Their physical and chemical characteristics make it an attractive isotope for medical applications. The development of new imaging techniques, improvements in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the development of new detectors and computational methods of signal processing, open new perspectives for its application. The increasing use of PET technology in medical oncology, pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, make the radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 124 I a tool of great interest and usefulness. The use of 124 I - labeled molecules stands out particularly due to the convenient half-life of 124 I. This feature enables diagnostic imaging in PET centers far away from the radionuclides producing center. Within this context, this work presents a method for the production and separation of 124 I. This method is innovative and pioneering in the country. It is based on the development and use of nanostructured targets of nat TeO 2 . These targets are irradiated in a charged particles accelerator, with variable energy, the IEN's CV-28 cyclotron. The irradiations are performed with 24 MeV, initial energy, proton beams. In the preparation of nanoparticulated targets the highlight was the simplicity of the method that uses the sol-gel technique for obtaining nanoparticles, TeCl 4 as precursor and water as solvent. The produced 124 I was separated from the target material by dry distillation and trapped in a NaOH solution (0.02 M), in an automated system. The thick target yield was 6.81 MBq/μAh, and the synthesis yield was 90%. The 124 I obtained was then used in preliminary biodistribution studies. These studies were performed on a micro PET, model Lab PET 4 of the CDTN, in Swiss type mice. The results of the application of Na 124 I showed high quality PET imaging of the thyroid, with the maximum uptake at 6 h after

  8. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  9. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. Methods We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions’ U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Results Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences

  10. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Dina Fine; Smith, Tyler J S; Nachman, Keeve E

    2013-10-16

    The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions' U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences. A majority of leading U.S. trade

  11. Analysis of integrated animal-fish production system under subtropical hill agro ecosystem in India: growth performance of animals, total biomass production and monetary benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Pathak, K A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Vinod, K

    2009-03-01

    The present study assessed the benefits of integration of animals with fish production in optimizing the bio mass production from unit land in subtropical hill agro ecosystem. Hampshire pigs and Khaki Campbell ducks were integrated with composite fish culture. The pig and duck excreta were directly allowed into the pond and no supplementary feed was given to fish during the period of study. The average levels of N, P and K in dried pig and duck manure were 0.9, 0.7 and 0.6 per cent and 1.3, 0.6 and 0.5 per cent, respectively. The average body weight of pig and duck at 11 months age was 90 and 1.74 kg with an average daily weight gain of 333.33 and 6.44 g, respectively. The fish production in pig-fish and duck-fish systems were 2209 and 2964 kg/ha, respectively while the fish productivity in control pond was only 820 kg/ha. The total biomass (animal and fish) production was higher (pfeeding system compared to the traditional system, however the input/output ratio was 1:1.2 and 1:1.55 for commercial and traditional systems, respectively. It was inferred that the total biomass production per unit land was high (pfish were integrated together.

  12. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans ? A Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; de Boer, Imke J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified...

  13. Animal use in the chemical and product manufacturing sectors - can the downtrend continue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Rodger

    2009-12-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, a number of manufacturing companies in the cosmetic, personal care and household product industries were able to substantially reduce their use of animals for testing (or to not use animals in the first place). These reductions were almost always the result of significant financial contributions to either direct, in-house alternatives research, or to support personnel whose duties were to understand and apply the current state-of-the-art for in vitro testing. They occurred almost exclusively in non-regulatory areas, and primarily involved acute topical toxicities. Over the last few years, the reduction in animal use has been much less dramatic, because some companies are still reluctant to change from the traditional animal studies, because systemic, repeat-dose toxicity is more difficult to model in vitro, and because many products still require animal testing for regulatory approval. Encouragingly, we are now observing an increased acceptance of non-animal methods by regulatory agencies. This is due to mounting scientific evidence from larger databases, agreement by companies to share data and testing strategies with regulatory agencies, and a focus on smaller domains of applicability. These changes, along with new emphasis and financial support for addressing systemic toxicities, promise to provide additional possibilities for industry to replace animals with in vitro methods, alone or in combination with in silico methods. However, the largest advance will not occur until more companies commit to using the non-animal test strategies that are currently available. 2009 FRAME.

  14. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Desmedt, Sandrine; Blecker, Christophe; Béra, François; Haubruge, Éric; Alabi, Taofic; Francis, Frédéric

    2017-01-13

    Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g). Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step) before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  15. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Caparros Megido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g. Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  16. Recent Advances in Edible Polymer Based Hydrogels as a Sustainable Alternative to Conventional Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akbar; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2018-06-26

    The over increasing demand of eco-friendly materials to counter various problems, such as environmental issues, economics, sustainability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility, open up new fields of research highly focusing on nature-based products. Edible polymer based materials mainly consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids could be a prospective contender to handle such problems. Hydrogels based on edible polymer offer many valuable properties compared to their synthetic counterparts. Edible polymers can contribute to the reduction of environmental contamination, advance recyclability, provide sustainability, and thereby increase its applicability along with providing environmentally benign products. This review is highly emphasizing on toward the development of hydrogels from edible polymer, their classification, properties, chemical modification, and their potential applications. The application of edible polymer hydrogels covers many areas including the food industry, agricultural applications, drug delivery to tissue engineering in the biomedical field and provide more safe and attractive products in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and environmental fields, etc.

  17. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  18. 77 FR 71750 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    .... FDA-2012-F-1100] DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food... (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2273) has been filed by DSM...

  19. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    .... FDA-2013-F-1539] DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food... (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a petition proposing that the food additive... U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2276) has been filed by DSM...

  20. Sustainable Disposal of Edible Food Byproducts at University Research Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Sherill; Chung, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research at agricultural universities often generates food crops that are edible by-products of the research process. The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that affect decision-making around the disposal of these crops. Understanding decision-making suggests how universities might include food crop production into campus…

  1. A MEAT PRODUCTION STRATEGYFOR SOUTHERN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the task of formulating a rneat prclduction strategy fclr. Southern Africa .... Ch ickcn. '55. '5? '59. '61. 6l. '65. '61. '69. '71. '7-f is. "47. Fig. I Edible protein deived from various animal products ...... of the effort and finance expended on the original.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  3. Prospects from agroecology and industrial ecology for animal production in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, B; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Jouven, M; Thomas, M; Tichit, M

    2013-06-01

    Agroecology and industrial ecology can be viewed as complementary means for reducing the environmental footprint of animal farming systems: agroecology mainly by stimulating natural processes to reduce inputs, and industrial ecology by closing system loops, thereby reducing demand for raw materials, lowering pollution and saving on waste treatment. Surprisingly, animal farming systems have so far been ignored in most agroecological thinking. On the basis of a study by Altieri, who identified the key ecological processes to be optimized, we propose five principles for the design of sustainable animal production systems: (i) adopting management practices aiming to improve animal health, (ii) decreasing the inputs needed for production, (iii) decreasing pollution by optimizing the metabolic functioning of farming systems, (iv) enhancing diversity within animal production systems to strengthen their resilience and (v) preserving biological diversity in agroecosystems by adapting management practices. We then discuss how these different principles combine to generate environmental, social and economic performance in six animal production systems (ruminants, pigs, rabbits and aquaculture) covering a long gradient of intensification. The two principles concerning economy of inputs and reduction of pollution emerged in nearly all the case studies, a finding that can be explained by the economic and regulatory constraints affecting animal production. Integrated management of animal health was seldom mobilized, as alternatives to chemical drugs have only recently been investigated, and the results are not yet transferable to farming practices. A number of ecological functions and ecosystem services (recycling of nutrients, forage yield, pollination, resistance to weed invasion, etc.) are closely linked to biodiversity, and their persistence depends largely on maintaining biological diversity in agroecosystems. We conclude that the development of such ecology

  4. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  5. Metals in edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Napoleone, G; Luis-González, G; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hardisson, A; Revert, C

    2017-04-01

    The concentration levels of 20 metals were analyzed by ICP-OES in edible seaweed (Chondrus, Eisenia, Gelidium, Himanthalia, Laminaria, Palmaria, Porphyra, Undaria), from two origins (Asia vs EU) according to their cultivation practices (conventional vs organic). Red seaweed showed higher concentrations of trace and toxic elements. Porphyra may be used as a potential bioindicator for metals. Significant differences were found between the Asian vs European mean contents. The mean Cd level from the conventional cultivation (0.28 mg/kg) was two points higher than the organic cultivation (0.13 mg/kg). A daily consumption of seaweed (4 g/day) contributes to the dietary intake of metals, mainly Mg and Cr. The average intakes of Al, Cd and Pb were 0.064, 0.001 and 0.0003 mg/day, respectively. Based on obtained results, this study suggests that exposure to the toxic metals analyzed (Al, Cd and Pb) through seaweed consumption does not raise serious health concerns, but other toxic metals should be monitored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Salmonella contamination: a significant challenge to the global marketing of animal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Plym, Forshell; Wierup, M

    2006-08-01

    Salmonellosis is the most common food-borne bacterial disease in the world. Salmonella is a significant pathogen for food-producing animals and these animals are the primary source of salmonellosis. It is estimated that herd prevalence varies between 0% and 90%, depending on the animal species and region. The pathogen is spread by trade in animals and non-heated animal food products. The emergence of strains that are resistant to antimicrobials, often as a result of antimicrobial usage in animals, is a public health hazard of great concern. It is increasingly accepted that the prevalence of Salmonella in animal production must be decreased and, in the European Union, plans to achieve this are currently being implemented. In this paper, the authors propose various risk mitigation strategies. Successful control must focus on a range of preventive actions because there is no simple 'silver bullet' solution to reduce Salmonella contamination. The authors conclude that the key to controlling Salmonella is to follow the general rules that have been successfully applied to other infectious diseases.

  7. ECONOMIC UNITY OF PRODUCTION AND TRADE OF SLAUGHTER ANIMALS AND MEAT (PATHS OF INITIATION OF LONG TERM SOLUTIONS IN CROATIAN ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsto Benčević

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available For starting a long term programmes in Croatian animal production, formation of "economic unities" is necessary. Presentation and explanation of production and trade unity for animal production and marketing with subjects and phases is given here. It is pointed out that production of slaughter animals and meat is key interest of market and economic policy as well as of development of agricultural country. It seems that production and trade of meat in Croatia is not organized enough in overall market competition and in meat processing. Creating the economic unity of production and trade of slaughter animals can help in relative fast and efficient solving of problems accumulated in agriculture, especialy in meat production (PIK Vrbovec, Danica, Bejle etc. For initiating and getting in function the phases of production and trade of slaughter animals and meat, proper legislation should be introduced. This legislation should comprehencively define the idea of agricultural economy as a subject of legislative and normisation acts for overall, process and market oriented functioning of multidisciplinary agricultural systems. Additionaly, law on trade of slaughter animals, meat and agricultural products should be introduced in order to form a market and determine the share and obligations of certain participants in structure of such market.

  8. Gelidium elegans, an edible red seaweed, and hesperidin inhibit lipid accumulation and production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2014-11-01

    Gelidium elegans is an edible red alga native to the intertidal area of northeastern Asia. We investigated the effect of G. elegans extract and its main flavonoids, rutin and hesperidin, on lipid accumulation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells. Our data show that G. elegans extract decreased lipid accumulation and ROS/RNS production in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also inhibited the mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, while enhancing the protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases 1 and 2, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase compared with controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production was significantly reduced in G. elegans extract-treated RAW264.7 cells. In analysis of the effects of G. elegans flavonoids on lipid accumulation and ROS/RNS production, only hesperidin showed an inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and ROS production; rutin did not affect adipogenesis and ROS status. The antiadipogenic effect of hesperidin was evidenced by the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, and fatty acid binding protein 4 gene expression. Collectively, our data suggest that G. elegans is a potential food source containing antiobesity and antioxidant constituents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink......Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed...... Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors...

  10. Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja; Broesboel-Jensen, B.

    2012-01-01

    By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried...... distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary...... products such as peels, pulpettes, molasses, whey, mask, oil cakes, etc. Contamination of by-products and possible impacts are presented....

  11. Advances in edible coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, R K

    2013-01-01

    Edible coatings are an environmentally friendly technology that is applied on many products to control moisture transfer, gas exchange or oxidation processes. Edible coatings can provide an additional protective coating to produce and can also give the same effect as modified atmosphere storage in modifying internal gas composition. One major advantage of using edible films and coatings is that several active ingredients can be incorporated into the polymer matrix and consumed with the food, thus enhancing safety or even nutritional and sensory attributes. But, in some cases, edible coatings were not successful. The success of edible coatings for fresh products totally depends on the control of internal gas composition. Quality criteria for fruits and vegetables coated with edible films must be determined carefully and the quality parameters must be monitored throughout the storage period. Color change, firmness loss, ethanol fermentation, decay ratio and weight loss of edible film coated fruits need to be monitored. This review discusses the use of different edible coatings (polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and composite) as carriers of functional ingredients on fresh fruits and vegetables to maximize their quality and shelf life. This also includes the recent advances in the incorporation of antimicrobials, texture enhancers and nutraceuticals to improve quality and functionality of fresh-cut fruits. Sensory implications, regulatory status and future trends are also reviewed.

  12. Animals and their products utilized as medicines by the inhabitants surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroli DP

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present ethnozoological study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the inhabitants of villages surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park of India (Bawaria, Mogya, Meena, which is well known for its very rich biodiversity. The field survey was conducted from May to July 2005 by performing interviews through structured questionnaires with 24 informants (16 men and 8 women, who provided information regarding therapeutic uses of animals. A total of 15 animals and animal products were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including tuberculosis, asthma, paralysis, jaundice, earache, constipation, weakness, snake poisoning. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the collared dove (Streptopelia sp., hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as important medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources in the investigated area.

  13. Co-ordinated Interdisciplinary Efforts on Research in Animal Production and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS, the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL, the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL. CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision

  14. 77 FR 22327 - Draft Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... resistance in human and animal bacterial pathogens when medically important antimicrobial drugs are used in... Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals'' and to set timelines... Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals'' (GFI 209) and (2) the...

  15. Ethnobotanical study of traditional edible plants used by the Naxi people during droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Chai, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yu; Geng, Yanfei; Wang, Yuahua

    2016-09-12

    Since 2009, millions of people have been forced to live under food shortage by the continuous drought in Southwestern China. The market was the primary source of aid grains, and fears that the market will be unable to provide sufficient food make safeguarding food security in the face of climate change crucial. Traditional adaptive strategies of pre-market indigenous people are a potential source of innovation. We studied three questions among the Naxi people: 1) What edible plants did they consume during droughts? 2) How did they produce enough food? 3) How did they consume these plants? This study investigates and documents traditional Naxi food knowledge to safeguard food security during drought and facilitate Chinese policy decisions. Ethnobotanical investigation was conducted through literature review, semi-structured interviews, collaborative fieldwork and group discussions in three Naxi villages. 89 informants (including 35 key informants) were surveyed from 2012 to 2013. Significant Index (SI) was adopted to evaluate each edible plant's food supply significance. Voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. 1) In total, 141 edible plants (38 cultivated and 103 wild) were consumed-primarily landrace crops, supplementary edible plants and famine plants. 2) Naxi people produced sufficient food through widespread food production systems, strong landrace crop resilience, and diversity in wild edible plants. 3) Through a diverse diet and consuming almost all edible parts of the plant, the Naxi used edible plants fully to meet food and nutrition needs during drought. Edible plant diversity is a cornerstone of drought food security. Cultivated crops (especially landrace plants) and wild edible plants were both important. Naxi people protect edible plant diversity through ecological morality and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). National inventories of edible plant diversity and studies of the TEK of other Chinese indigenous peoples should be

  16. Films and edible coatings containing antioxidants - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliana Sitonio Eça

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of natural antioxidants into films and edible coatings can modify their structure, improving their functionality and applicability in foods, such as in fresh-cut fruits. This paper reviews the more recent literature on the incorporation of antioxidants from several sources into films and edible coatings, for application in fruits and vegetables. The use of synthetic antioxidants in foods has been avoided due to their possible toxic effects. Instead, a wide range of natural antioxidants (such as essential oils and plant extracts, as well as pure compounds, like ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol have been incorporated into edible films and coatings to improve their bioactive properties. Films and coatings containing added antioxidants help to preserve or enhance the sensory properties of foods and add value to the food products by increasing their shelf life.

  17. MANAGEMENT OF QUALITY AND SAFETY OF FOOD PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryana Yonkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria is famous not only in Europe but throughout the world, except for its rich natural and cultural heritage, but also traditional dairy products (yogurt and cheese - cow, sheep, buffalo and goats; yellow cheese, honey and bee products, rose oil. To be competitive on national and international markets, food production must meet the requirements for quality assurance and food safety. The article presents the key economic indicators and threats related to quality management and safety of food products of animal origin in relation to the conservation of components of the environment and human health.

  18. 7 CFR 981.7 - Edible kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Edible kernel. 981.7 Section 981.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.7 Edible kernel. Edible kernel means a kernel, piece, or particle of almond kernel that is not inedible. [41 FR 26852, June 30, 1976] ...

  19. Energetic conversion (biogas) of used edible oils by means of co-digestion together with various waste materials from the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrez, Y.; Fruteau de Laclos, H.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this project was the valorisation of used edible oils by co-digestion together with agricultural or food waste, without any risk for human and animal health. It included the technical economical aspects. In the bibliographic part a state-of-the-art on fat digestion in Switzerland and Europe was done. The possible co-substrates were examined, under a biological aspect as well as economical and strategic aspects. Food waste from restaurants and canteens, that are used up to now for pig feeding, were retained. The co-digestion gives a new perspective for the valorisation of this kind of waste, whose traditional way of valorisation is compromised by the new EU directives. The experimental part aimed to define the possibilities and limits for the co-digestion of used edible oil with food waste as co-substrate. The study was done in a 690 litres bio-reactor. The results showed that co-digestion of edible oil with food waste is feasible with interesting performances, if oil doesn't account for more than 15% of the mixture (on dry matter). Biogas production amounted to 400-450 litres per kg input COD (chemical oxygen demand), with 60-65% CH 4 . Based on the observed results a tender document was done, in order to consult manufacturers of co-digestion plants. An economical simulation was realised on the basis of the most complete offer. This simulation revealed that a benefit of CHF 3500 per year can be obtained for a plant processing 200 t/y edible oil and 9000 t/y food waste. Co-digestion allows for valorisation of edible oil, together with a co-substrate whose traditional utilisation will not be possible in the future. It leads to the production of renewable energy, with a positive economical balance. (author)

  20. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with food animals: a United States perspective of livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Alan G; Cissell, Robin; Liamthong, S

    2007-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial compounds in food animal production provides demonstrated benefits, including improved animal health, higher production and, in some cases, reduction in foodborne pathogens. However, use of antibiotics for agricultural purposes, particularly for growth enhancement, has come under much scrutiny, as it has been shown to contribute to the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria of human significance. The transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and selection for resistant bacteria can occur through a variety of mechanisms, which may not always be linked to specific antibiotic use. Prevalence data may provide some perspective on occurrence and changes in resistance over time; however, the reasons are diverse and complex. Much consideration has been given this issue on both domestic and international fronts, and various countries have enacted or are considering tighter restrictions or bans on some types of antibiotic use in food animal production. In some cases, banning the use of growth-promoting antibiotics appears to have resulted in decreases in prevalence of some drug resistant bacteria; however, subsequent increases in animal morbidity and mortality, particularly in young animals, have sometimes resulted in higher use of therapeutic antibiotics, which often come from drug families of greater relevance to human medicine. While it is clear that use of antibiotics can over time result in significant pools of resistance genes among bacteria, including human pathogens, the risk posed to humans by resistant organisms from farms and livestock has not been clearly defined. As livestock producers, animal health experts, the medical community, and government agencies consider effective strategies for control, it is critical that science-based information provide the basis for such considerations, and that the risks, benefits, and feasibility of such strategies are fully considered, so that human and animal health can be maintained while

  1. The impact of information on consumer preferences for different animal food production methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal food production and to study how preferences are influenced by information. To do this, we carried out a choice experiment. In the analysis, we focus on chickens reared indoors and outdoors and chicken labelled...

  2. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them...

  3. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 66, No 1 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 66, No 1 (2018) ... Performance and haematological parameters of growing rabbits fed different levels of ... Association of smallholder dairy farmers management and milking practices with ...

  4. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other

  5. Characterization of co-products of the pilot digesters to animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work consists in evaluating the Co-products of the biomethanisation applied to the animal biomass on the level of various types of digesters (experimental I, II, III and IV, rural and industrial). This work made it possible to arise certain number of observations: The energy performances are more interesting in the case of ...

  6. Study on the Implications of Asynchronous GMO Approvals for EU Imports of Animal Feed Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowicki, P.L.; Aramyan, L.H.; Baltussen, W.H.M.; Dvortsin, L.; Jongeneel, R.A.; Perez Dominguez, I.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Kaufman, J.; Miller, D.; Franke, L.; Meerbeek, B.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the implications of asynchronous approvals for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that are imported to the European Union for use within animal feed products, specifically with regard to the EU livestock sector, as well as upon the upstream and downstream

  7. GCSE Students' Attitudes to Dissection and Using Animals in Research and Product Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Questionnaires from students passing the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) that explored attitudes to dissection and using animals in product testing administered to (n=469) students ages 14-15 showed a high level of support for peers who object to dissection, although objectors are likely to be met with derogatory comments,…

  8. Edible oils from microalgae: insights in TAG accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, A.J.; Lamers, P.P.; Martens, D.E.; Draaisma, R.B.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising future source for sustainable edible oils. To make microalgal oil a cost-effective alternative for common vegetable oils, increasing TAG productivity and TAG content are of high importance. Fulfilling these targets requires proper understanding of lipid metabolism in

  9. Techno-economic feasibility of animal feed production from empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad Lebai Juri; Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Yusri Atan; Tamikazu Kume; Shinpei Matsuhashi

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown in our laboratory that EFB has the potential to be converted into animal feeds through the process of fermentation; and also use as media for mushroom growing (1). Irradiation of EFB at doses above 10 kGy followed by fermentation can reduce crude fibre (CF) content to almost 20-30% and crude protein (CP) content elevated to 10-15% from 50% and 2% respectively (2)(3). The end-product of fermentation displayed all the characteristics of animal feed, and at these levels of CF and CP can be utilised for feeding ruminants. Further reduction of CF and raising of CP can result in the products suitable for feeding non-ruminants such as poultry and pigs. Following the successful conversion of raw EFB into foodstuff for ruminant in the laboratory, there is an urgent need to evaluate whether such products could be mass-produced economically at larger scale for further feeding-trials. Pilot plant has to be set up to simulate the actual commercial production process before any technology transfer can be undertaken. The main objective of this paper is to report firstly, the economic and financial feasibility of the production process at pilot level. Secondly, preliminary evaluation on the cost of production of animal feed from EFB

  10. The influence of animal fat replacement with vegetable oils on sensorial perception of meat emulsified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian TUDOSE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of the present study, in an emulsified meat product the pork backfat was replaced with a vegetable oil pre-emulsion and its effect on quality attributes were investigated. In order to do so, a classic and a new meat products were manufactured. Extra virgin olive oil and palm oil pre-emulsion were added instead of animal fat in the new product. Texture and physiochemical properties were analyzed by instrumental measurements. It was observed that during storage moisture and pH decreased. Using vegetable oils determined substantial increase of TBA values. Texture was influenced mainly by storage time for both products, while replacement of pork backfat with vegetable oil pre-emulsion had no influence on sample firmness. The sensory properties of meat products were evaluated by a group of trained panelists using an analitycal sensory evaluation technique. Overall the new product presented good acceptability which recommends it like a new healthier meat product.

  11. Animal Production Performance and Herd Management in Suckling Farms on Réunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Choisis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In Réunion, because of the insularity and the small size of farms, improving cattle farm productivity involves increas­ing technical management aspects. To analyze relationships between herd management practices and animal perform­ances, a survey was conducted in ten suckling farms, located in the Highlands, from 1999 to 2002. Three sets of 4, 8 and 3 variables, respectively, were thus extracted from the moni­toring database: animal performances (calving interval, fertil­ity rate, body weight at standard age, live meat production, farmers’ practices (grazing time per hectare and paddock, time interval between two passages, paddock size, stocking rate, feed complementation of weaned animals and lactating cows, culling rate, and environment (rainfall, herbage production, body condition score of cows. An analysis of co-inertia was carried out on the first two tables to analyze relationships between animal production performances and practices. A significant correlation was observed between the two tables. The results of the co-inertia analysis were interpreted for each farm. Beyond specific constraints, they revealed proximities between farms and herd management based on various strat­egies, which were relevant with the observed performances. A STATICO analysis was performed to assess relationships between performance parameters and environment parameters for the four studied years. It revealed that there was a stable costructure between the environment and performance tables. This suggests that practices had a highly structuring effect on animal production and that some system adjustments miti­gated the climate effects.

  12. Utilization of tropical crop residues and agroindustrial by-products in animal nutrition. Constraints and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, T.R.; Parra, R.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of by-products and crop residues as animal feeds is increasing steadily. This is a consequence of the increasing demand for cereal grains as both human and animal (chiefly poultry) food, and the increasing demand for energy coupled with decreasing availability of fossil fuels. The effects of these two trends are that primary use of land for livestock production (usually grazing systems) will steadily diminish; at the same time, sources of biomass will increase in importance as renewable energy sources, and greater emphasis will be placed on draught animal power. Most by-products and crop residues are fibrous and therefore of only low to moderate nutritive value, or have special physical and chemical characteristics making them difficult to incorporate in conventional ''balanced'' rations. Such feed raw materials may need special processing and/or special forms of supplementation if they are to be used efficiently. It is hypothesized that industrial by-products and crop residues will be more efficiently utilized if they are incorporated in diversified and integrated production systems, i.e. (a) livestock production is integrated with production of cash crops both for food and fuel; (b) different livestock species are utilized in the same enterprise in a complementary way; (c) livestock feeding is based on crop residues (energy) supplemented with protein-rich forages and aquatic plants; and (d) animal wastes are recycled and used for food, fertilizer and fuel. This strategy is particularly suitable for the conditions in (i) tropical countries, whose climate favours high crop/biomass yields per unit area and ease of fermentation of organic wastes, and (ii) family farms, for which diversification means greater opportunity for self-sufficiency and increased possibilities for use of family resources. (author)

  13. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE PROBLEM OF A NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to approach the topic of a new strategy for the sustainable and competitive development of Romanian agriculture and especially for animal husbandry. In this purpose, a large variety of studies was investigated and the opinions of well-known personalities were used to present in a critical manner the history of sustainable development concept, principles, causes, reasons, moments, events, institutions involved at international, European and national level, achievements. The study is focused on Romania, starting from the actual situation of animal husbandry and learning from the country own and others experience. During the last centuries, the scientific studies noticed that the growth trends of the world population and resources utilization which could determine complications for survival of human society. The first Report of The Club of Rome (1972 concluded mathematically that " if the present growth trends in world population, industrialization, pollution, food production, and resources depletion continue to remain unchanged, the limits to growth on this planet will be reached sometime in the next hundred years",..that is in the 21 century. As a reply, the international and national bodies adopted recommendations for a sustainable development. This study analyzed the problems of sustainable development of animal production in Romania, taking into consideration that the conversion rate of energy provided by plants to animal products is about 20%, and this decrease of the number of population is supported by agricultural food production. Two production systems are proposed: (1. Intensive production systems, with high forage conversion, in favorable agricultural country area; (2. extensive (free-ranging, transhumance, pendulation, sustainable, biological production in not or less favorable agricultural area (mountain area, etc.

  14. Juvenile Animal Testing: Assessing Need and Use in the Drug Product Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile animal testing has become an established part of drug development to support safe clinical use in the human pediatric population and for eventual drug product label use. A review of European Paediatric Investigation Plan decisions showed that from 2007 to mid-2017, 229 drugs had juvenile animal work requested, almost exclusively incorporating general toxicology study designs, in rat (57.5%), dog (8%), mouse (4.5%), monkey (4%), pig (2%), sheep (1%), rabbit (1%), hamster (0.5%), and species not specified (21.5%). A range of therapeutic areas were found, but the most common areas were infectious diseases (15%), endocrinology (13.5%), oncology (13%), neurology (11%), and cardiovascular diseases (10%). Examination of major clinical indications within these therapeutic areas showed some level of consistency in the species of choice for testing and the pediatric age that required support. Examination of juvenile animal study findings presented in product labels raises questions around how useful the data are to allow prescribing the drug to a child. It is hopeful that the new ICH S11 guideline "Nonclinical Safety Testing in Support of Development of Pediatric Medicines" currently in preparation will aid drug developers in clarifying the need for juvenile animal studies as well as in promoting a move away from toxicology studies with a conventional design. This would permit more focused testing to examine identified areas of toxicity or safety concerns and clarify the presentation/interpretation of juvenile animal study findings for proper risk assessment by a drug prescriber.

  15. Influence of spatial variation on countermeasures with special regards to animal food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Kiefer, P.

    2000-07-01

    In the context of SAVE, soil and animal based countermeasures have been considered as well as human based ones: In this technical deliverable we have considered the following countermeasures: - Soil-plant transfer: The effectiveness of Ca, K, fertilisers and substances with a high cation exchange capacity on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plant for different soil types within Europe have been considered. In addition, the fertility status of soils will give an indication of the potential effectiveness of fertilisation. In this report the effect of K application in a specified area and a given contamination scenario is evaluated and demonstrated. - Plant-animal transfer: A wide range of countermeasures is available to directly reduce transfer of radionuclides to animals, and thereby animal products. The preferred option will always be the most cost effective and practically acceptable one, for both producers and consumers. In this report collection of animal based countermeasures for Cs, Sr and I with special respect to their acceptability, effectiveness and spatial variation is presented. The contribution and importance of countries in import and export of feedstuff used for animals is estimated based on trading information. (orig.)

  16. The effect of animated images on persuasion: The mediator role of hedonic responses and the moderator role of product category

    OpenAIRE

    Hussant-Zebian, Rola

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the mediator role of hedonic responses in the relation between animated images and attitudinal responses. It has another objective which is to show off the moderator role of product category. To this purpose, we have manipulated two categories of advertising opposing computer animated to non-computer animated images. We have also seetwo product categories : a high involvement product and a low involvement one.

  17. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production with Ralstonia eutropha from low quality waste animal fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Jahns, Stefan; Koenig, Steven; Bock, Martina C E; Brigham, Christopher J; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-11-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters considered as alternatives to petroleum-based plastics. Ralstonia eutropha is a model organism for PHA production. Utilizing industrially rendered waste animal fats as inexpensive carbon feedstocks for PHA production is demonstrated here. An emulsification strategy, without any mechanical or chemical pre-treatment, was developed to increase the bioavailability of solid, poorly-consumable fats. Wild type R. eutropha strain H16 produced 79-82% (w/w) polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) per cell dry weight (CDW) when cultivated on various fats. A productivity of 0.3g PHB/(L × h) with a total PHB production of 24 g/L was achieved using tallow as carbon source. Using a recombinant strain of R. eutropha that produces poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(HB-co-HHx)], 49-72% (w/w) of PHA per CDW with a HHx content of 16-27 mol% were produced in shaking flask experiments. The recombinant strain was grown on waste animal fat of the lowest quality available at lab fermenter scale, resulting in 45 g/L CDW with 60% (w/w) PHA per CDW and a productivity of 0.4 g PHA/(L × h). The final HHx content of the polymer was 19 mol%. The use of low quality waste animal fats as an inexpensive carbon feedstock exhibits a high potential to accelerate the commercialization of PHAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Actual problems of protecting highly productive animals farms in the Lipetsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ushkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to more efficient use of feed, many farms, ensuring high productivity, has reached the profitability of milk production 40 % or more. No wonder milk has recently been called "white gold" because it provides the highest profitability among livestock products. However, higher producing cows have higher requirements for balanced feeding. Such cows are more intense metabolism: compared to cows of average productivity, the gas exchange is increased in 1,5-2 times, also increases blood pressure, pulse rate and respiration. This means that the wear and tear of the body is faster. And the consequences of inadequate feeding due to unbalanced diets on nutritional and biological active substances lead to profound metabolic disorders, which leads to disruption of the function of reproduction, diseases, shortening productive use of animals to one or two lactations. Without a system of introduction of achievements of zoo technical and veterinary Sciences, the proper organization of feeding, housing and care, application of progressive forms of work organization - cannot be opened, laid in the animals genetic potential. The main direction in the development of dairy cattle breeding is its intensification. The effectiveness of intensification is the implementation of the following development paths: full implementation and improvement of the genetic potential of dairy cattle; rich, biologically full feeding of animals; preparation of sufficient high-quality feed; implementation of efficient technologies.

  19. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915 and semi-structured interviews (n=78 to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported consumed-predominantly by successful, high-income, high-status males of all ages and educational levels-and is used as a medium to communicate prestige and obtain social leverage. As Vietnam′s economy grows and its population ages, demand for wildmeat and medicinal products is likely to rise. Given the difficulties of acting on personal rather than collective interests and the symbolic role of wildmeat in an extremely status-conscious society, reducing demand is challenging. Influencing consumer behaviour over the long term requires social marketing expertise and has to be informed by an in-depth understanding, achieved using appropriate methods, of the social drivers of consumer demand for wild animal products. In the meantime, strengthened enforcement is needed to prevent the demand being met from consumers prepared to pay the rising costs of finding the last individuals of a species.

  20. Passive immunisation, an old idea revisited: Basic principles and application to modern animal production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2016-01-01

    immunisation (vaccination) in which an immunological memory is established by controlled exposure of the host to the pathogen in question. With multi-factorial infectious diseases in production animals, especially those that have proven hard to control by vaccination, the potential of passive immunisation...... remains big. This review highlights a number of examples on the use of passive immunisation for the control of infectious disease in the modern production of a range of animals, including pigs, cattle, sheep, goat, poultry and fish. Special emphasis is given on the enablement of passive immunisation...... strategies in these production systems through low cost and ease of use as well as on the sources, composition and purity of immunoglobulin preparations used and their benefits as compared to current measures, including vaccination (also comprising maternal vaccination), antibiotics and feed additives...

  1. Animal-derived natural products of Sowa Rigpa medicine: Their pharmacopoeial description, current utilization and zoological identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshi, Karma; Morisco, Paolo; Wangchuk, Phurpa

    2017-07-31

    The Bhutanese Sowa Rigpa medicine (BSM) uses animal parts in the preparation of numerous polyingredient traditional remedies. Our study reports the taxonomical identification of medicinal animals and the description of traditional uses in English medical terminologies. To taxonomically identify the medicinal animals and their derived natural products used as a zootherapeutic agents in BSM. First, the traditional textbooks were reviewed to generate a list of animal products described as ingredients. Second, animal parts that are currently used in Bhutan were identified. Third, the ethnopharmacological uses of each animal ingredients were translated into English medical terminologies by consulting Traditional Physicians, clinical assistants, pharmacognosists, and pharmacists in Bhutan. Fourth, the animal parts were taxonomically identified and their Latin names were confirmed by crosschecking them with online animal databases and relevant scientific literature. The study found 73 natural products belonging to 29 categories derived from 45 medicinal animals (36 vertebrates and 9 invertebrates), comprising of 9 taxonomic categories and 30 zoological families. Out of 116 formulations currently produced, 87 of them contain one or more extracts and products obtained from 13 medicinal animals to treat more than 124 traditionally classified illnesses. Only five animal ingredients were found available in Bhutan and rest of the animal parts are being imported from India. Out of 73 natural products described in the traditional textbooks, only 13 of them (some omitted and few substituted by plants) are currently included in 87 formulations of BSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tylosin depletion from edible pig tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-12-01

    The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment.

  3. Epigenetics and developmental programming of welfare and production traits in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K D; Rutherford, K M D; Wallace, J M; Brameld, J M; Stöger, R; Alberio, R; Sweetman, D; Gardner, D S; Perry, V E A; Adam, C L; Ashworth, C J; Robinson, J E; Dwyer, C M

    2016-07-21

    The concept that postnatal health and development can be influenced by events that occur in utero originated from epidemiological studies in humans supported by numerous mechanistic (including epigenetic) studies in a variety of model species. Referred to as the 'developmental origins of health and disease' or 'DOHaD' hypothesis, the primary focus of large-animal studies until quite recently had been biomedical. Attention has since turned towards traits of commercial importance in farm animals. Herein we review the evidence that prenatal risk factors, including suboptimal parental nutrition, gestational stress, exposure to environmental chemicals and advanced breeding technologies, can determine traits such as postnatal growth, feed efficiency, milk yield, carcass composition, animal welfare and reproductive potential. We consider the role of epigenetic and cytoplasmic mechanisms of inheritance, and discuss implications for livestock production and future research endeavours. We conclude that although the concept is proven for several traits, issues relating to effect size, and hence commercial importance, remain. Studies have also invariably been conducted under controlled experimental conditions, frequently assessing single risk factors, thereby limiting their translational value for livestock production. We propose concerted international research efforts that consider multiple, concurrent stressors to better represent effects of contemporary animal production systems.

  4. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1. Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. INTRODUCTION. Vaccination involves the stimulation of the immune system to prepare it for the event of an invasion from a particular ...

  5. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  6. Edible insects and research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    The recent research interest is illustrated by the many refereed articles that appeared during the last years. Only in 2016, there were 47 articles listed in Web of Science (consulted 15 February 2017) when using ‘edible insects’ compared to only 25 during the entire five-year period 2006-2010. At

  7. Review on Sources and Handling Method of Pesticide Residues in Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies and literature search showed that some pesticide residues either organochlorines (OC or organophosphates (OP were detected in animal products (meat and milk . Pesticide residues in meat collected from West Java were detected at the level of 0 .8 ppb lindane and 62 ppb diazinon . While in meat from Lampung was detected at the level of 7 ppb lindane . 2 .7 heptachlor, 0 .8 endosulfan and 0 .5 ppb aldrin . Furthermore, pesticide residues were also detected in the milk collected from West, Central and East Java . The levels of lindane were 2,3 ; 15,9 ; 0,2 ppb ; heptachlor 8 ; 0 .4 and 0,05 ppb; diazinon 8 ; 0 and 1,8 ppb; CPM 0,4 ; 0,8 and 0 ppb ; endosulfan 0,1 ; 0,04 and 0,05 ppb for West, Central and East Java, respectively . The source of pesticide contamination in animal products is generally originated from feed materials, fodders . contaminated soils and water around the farm areas . Minimalization approach of pesticide residues in animal products could be conducted integratedly, such as through chemical process, biodegradation using microorganisms . Organic farming system is recognised as an alternative that may be applied to minimise contamination on agricultural land, eventually reducing pesticide residues in the agricultural products . Feeding with organic agricultural by-products with low pesticide residues appears to reduce pesticide residues in animal products . In order to eliminate pesticide contamination in soil, it has to be conducted progressively by implementing sustainable organic farming .

  8. Calcium in edible insects and its use in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is one of the most problematic substances in human nutrition. Nutrition in the present population is not optimal, because of insufficient consumption of milk and dairy products. Due to the expanding interest of specialists and the general public about entomophagy, as well as increase of the EU interest in this type of food, there is a need to consider the use of edible insects as an alternative source of nutrition. From the perspective of edible insects as a source of calcium, edible insects could be considered as a possible source of calcium for enriching the diet and also as a substitute for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to other categories of foods rich in calcium. Of the six analysed species of edible insect, Bombyx mori had the highest calcium content, almost comparable to semi-skimmed cow's milk. Gryllus assimillis can also be a rich source of calcium as well as other analysed species. The lowest content of calcium was detected in Zophobas morio. Common meat (chicken, beef, pork has lower calcium content comparing with all analysed species of edible insect (Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Gryllus assimillis, Locusta migratoria, Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio. Therefore, the selected species of edible insect could serve as an alternative source of calcium for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to soy. Phosphorus level in human body is closely related to calcium in the calcium-phosphate metabolism, therefore phosphorus level was detected in these samples too. Bombyx mori had the highest phosphorus content and the lowest content of phosphorus was measured in Zophobas morio samples.

  9. Feeding strategies for improving milk production from milch animals owned by small farmers in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last decade the National Dairy Development Board of India has researched and developed feeding strategies for lactating cattle and buffaloes fed on basal forage diets. Depending on the season and climate, these diets are largely mature forage from tropical pastures or crop residues, which are generally low in protein and of relatively low digestibility. Supplementation of the rumen microbial ecosystem with essential nutrients by providing each animal with a urea/molasses block stimulates production by improving feed digestibility, intake and the balance of nutrients available from the feed. Supplementation with a bypass protein to supply the animal directly with additional amino acids stimulates the efficiency of feed utilization by reducing the heat increment of feeding. In hot environments this reduces heat stress and allows feed intake to be maintained. These feeding strategies are now being applied to a large number of milch animals in the herds of small farmers in India. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  10. The future trends for research on quality and safety of animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel D. Scollan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality must now be considered as a convergence between consumers' wishes and needs and the intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of food products. The increasing number of quality attributes which must be considered, increasing globalisation and the heterogeneity in consumption habits between countries are making this convergence progressively more difficult. In parallel, science is rapidly evolving (with the advent of genomics for instance, and a growing number of applications is thus expected for the improvement of food safety and quality. Among the meat and fish quality attributes, colour is very important because it determines, at least in part, consumer choice. The key targets to ensure a satisfactory colour are animal nutrition and management for fish, processing and product conditioning for meat. Tenderness and flavour continue to be important issues for the consumer because eating remains a pleasure. They both determine quality experience which itself influences repetitive purchase. Meat tenderness is a very complex problem which can be solved only by a holistic approach involving all the factors from conception, animal breeding and production, muscle biology and slaughter practice to carcass processing and meat preparation at the consumer end. Today, safety and healthiness are among the most important issues. Unfortunately, animal products can potentially be a source of biological and chemical contamination for consumers. The introduction of both control strategies along the food chain and the development of a food safety management system, from primary production to the domestic environment, are key issues that must be achieved. Despite a high dietary supply of saturated fats by dairy and meat products, it is imperative that professionals involved in animal research and in the associated industry convey the positive nutritional contributions of animal products to both consumers and health professionals. The latter include protein

  11. Effect of animal products and extracts on wound healing promotion in topical applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napavichayanun, Supamas; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2017-06-01

    Wound healing is a natural process of body reaction to repair itself after injury. Nonetheless, many internal and external factors such as aging, comorbidity, stress, smoking, alcohol drinking, infections, malnutrition, or wound environment significantly affect the quality and speed of wound healing. The unsuitable conditions may delay wound healing process and cause chronic wound or scar formation. Therefore, many researches have attempted to search for agents that can accelerate wound healing with safety and biocompatibility to human body. Widely studied wound healing agents are those derived from either natural sources including plants and animals or chemical synthesis. The natural products seem to be safer and more biocompatible to human tissue. This review paper demonstrated various kinds of the animal-derived products including chitosan, collagen, honey, anabolic steroids, silk sericin, peptides, and proteoglycan in term of mechanisms of action, advantages, and disadvantages when applied as wound healing accelerator. The benefits of these animal-derived products are wound healing promotion, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activity, moisturizing effect, biocompatibility, and safety. However, the drawbacks such as allergy, low stability, batch-to-batch variability, and high extraction and purification costs could not be avoided in some products.

  12. CO2 production in animals: analysis of potential errors in the doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.A.

    1979-03-01

    Laboratory validation studies indicate that doubly labeled water ( 3 HH 18 O and 2 HH 18 O) measurements of CO 2 production are accurate to within +-9% in nine species of mammals and reptiles, a bird, and an insect. However, in field studies, errors can be much larger under certain circumstances. Isotopic fraction of labeled water can cause large errors in animals whose evaporative water loss comprises a major proportion of total water efflux. Input of CO 2 across lungs and skin caused errors exceeding +80% in kangaroo rats exposed to air containing 3.4% unlabeled CO 2 . Analytical errors of +-1% in isotope concentrations can cause calculated rates of CO 2 production to contain errors exceeding +-70% in some circumstances. These occur: 1) when little decline in isotope concentractions has occured during the measurement period; 2) when final isotope concentrations closely approach background levels; and 3) when the rate of water flux in an animal is high relative to its rate of CO 2 production. The following sources of error are probably negligible in most situations: 1) use of an inappropriate equation for calculating CO 2 production, 2) variations in rates of water or CO 2 flux through time, 3) use of H 2 O-18 dilution space as a measure of body water volume, 4) exchange of 0-18 between water and nonaqueous compounds in animals (including excrement), 5) incomplete mixing of isotopes in the animal, and 6) input of unlabeled water via lungs and skin. Errors in field measurements of CO 2 production can be reduced to acceptable levels (< 10%) by appropriate selection of study subjects and recapture intervals

  13. Animal cell cultures: recent achievements and perspectives in the production of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael

    2005-08-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the number and demand for approved biopharmaceuticals produced from animal cell culture processes over the last few years. In part, this has been due to the efficacy of several humanized monoclonal antibodies that are required at large doses for therapeutic use. There have also been several identifiable advances in animal cell technology that has enabled efficient biomanufacture of these products. Gene vector systems allow high specific protein expression and some minimize the undesirable process of gene silencing that may occur in prolonged culture. Characterization of cellular metabolism and physiology has enabled the design of fed-batch and perfusion bioreactor processes that has allowed a significant improvement in product yield, some of which are now approaching 5 g/L. Many of these processes are now being designed in serum-free and animal-component-free media to ensure that products are not contaminated with the adventitious agents found in bovine serum. There are several areas that can be identified that could lead to further improvement in cell culture systems. This includes the down-regulation of apoptosis to enable prolonged cell survival under potentially adverse conditions. The characterization of the critical parameters of glycosylation should enable process control to reduce the heterogeneity of glycoforms so that production processes are consistent. Further improvement may also be made by the identification of glycoforms with enhanced biological activity to enhance clinical efficacy. The ability to produce the ever-increasing number of biopharmaceuticals by animal cell culture is dependent on sufficient bioreactor capacity in the industry. A recent shortfall in available worldwide culture capacity has encouraged commercial activity in contract manufacturing operations. However, some analysts indicate that this still may not be enough and that future manufacturing demand may exceed production capacity as the number

  14. MYCOTOXINS CONTAMINATION IN EDIBLE LAND SNAIL AT GRAZING PADDOCK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ime Ebenso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins contamination of animal products is under reported. Juvenile edible land snails (Archachatina marginata were exposed as sentinels in bottomless metal drums for 1 week at abandoned, new and reference sites respectively at grazing paddock environment, to assess the presence of foodborne microbiological mycotoxins contamination during the dry season. Mycological analysis of A. marginata samples revealed high (p<0.05 contamination at all paddocks ranged from 1.2-1.3 x 105 cfu-g. Results revealed values that were found to be unacceptable by FAO/WHO standards. The presence of Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillum expansum were noted as potential toxicogenic mycoflora. Snails were tolerant to all levels of contamination with no clinical signs of infection or mortality. This finding could serve as basis for assessing pre-slaughter microbial contamination of livestock farm/field environment in order to establish data with comparative epidemiological value, which could highlight early warning signals of food safety risk and cross-contamination of mycotoxins in the food chain.

  15. Environmental and Public Health Issues of Animal Food Products Delivery System in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from 2001 to 2004 were used to investigate the environmental and public health issues of animal food products delivery system in state. Majority of trade animals supplied to the state originated from the northern states of the country and were brought in with trucks by road. Only two veterinary control posts served the whole state thus resulting in non-inspection and taxing of a large proportion of trade animals. Official record of trade animals supplied to the state from 2001 to 2004 ranged from 45000 – 144000 for cattle, 23000 – 96000 for goats and 11000 – 72000 for sheep per annum, with supplies increasing steadily across the years. Official slaughter points in the state were principally low-grade quality slaughter premises consisting of a thin concrete slab. Meat handling was very unhygienic with carcasses dressed beside refuse heaps of over 2 years standing. Carcasses were dragged on the ground and transported in taxi boots and open trucks. Meat inspection at these points was not thorough because of stiff resistance of butchers to carcass condemnation. Official meat inspection records for the state from 2001 to 2004 revealed that overall totals of 159,000 cattle, 101,000 goats and 67,000 sheep were slaughtered. This accounted for about 56, 57 and 57% shortfall of cattle, goat and sheep respectively supplied to the state and represents the volume of un-inspected animals during the study period. Fascioliasis and tuberculosis were the most common

  16. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Challenges of Sanitary Compliance Related to Trade in Products of Animal Origin in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Songabe, Tembile; Dziva, Francis

    2015-06-30

    Irrespective of the existence of potentially pathogenic organisms carried by animals, foods of animal origin remain the prime nutrition of humans world-wide. As such, food safety continues to be a global concern primarily to safeguard public health and to promote international trade. Application of integrated risk-based quality assurance procedures on-farm and at slaughterhouses plays a crucial role in controlling hazards associated with foods of animal origin. In the present paper we examine safety assurance systems and associated value chains for foods of animal origin based on historical audit results of some Southern African countries with thriving export trade in animal products, mainly to identify areas for improvement. Among the key deficiencies identified were: i) failure to keep pace with scientific advances related to the ever-changing food supply chain; ii) lack of effective national and regional intervention strategies to curtail pathogen transmission and evolution, notably the zoonotic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli ; and iii) a lack of effective methods to reduce contamination of foods of wildlife origin. The introduction of foods of wildlife origin for domestic consumption and export markets seriously compounds already existing conflicts in legislation governing food supply and safety. This analysis identifies gaps required to improve the safety of foods of wildlife origin.

  18. Challenges of sanitary compliance related to trade in products of animal origin in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudakwashe Magwedere

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the existence of potentially pathogenic organisms carried by animals, foods of animal origin remain the prime nutrition of humans world-wide. As such, food safety continues to be a global concern primarily to safeguard public health and to promote international trade. Application of integrated risk-based quality assurance procedures on-farm and at slaughterhouses plays a crucial role in controlling hazards associated with foods of animal origin. In the present paper we examine safety assurance systems and associated value chains for foods of animal origin based on historical audit results of some Southern African countries with thriving export trade in animal products, mainly to identify areas for improvement. Among the key deficiencies identified were: i failure to keep pace with scientific advances related to the ever-changing food supply chain; ii lack of effective national and regional intervention strategies to curtail pathogen transmission and evolution, notably the zoonotic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; and iii a lack of effective methods to reduce contamination of foods of wildlife origin. The introduction of foods of wildlife origin for domestic consumption and export markets seriously compounds already existing conflicts in legislation governing food supply and safety. This analysis identifies gaps required to improve the safety of foods of wildlife origin.

  19. Detecting animal by-product intake using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, D A F; Biscola, N P; Dos Santos, L D; Sartori, M M P; Denadai, J C; da Silva, E T; Ducatti, C; Bicudo, S D; Barraviera, B; Ferreira, R S

    2016-11-01

    Sheep are used in many countries as food and for manufacturing bioproducts. However, when these animals consume animal by-products (ABP), which is widely prohibited, there is a risk of transmitting scrapie - a fatal prion disease in human beings. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive methods to detect previous ABP intake to select safe animals for producing biopharmaceuticals. We used stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for 13 C and 15 N to trace animal proteins in the serum of three groups of sheep: 1 - received only vegetable protein (VP) for 89 days; 2 - received animal and vegetable protein (AVP); and 3 - received animal and vegetable protein with animal protein subsequently removed (AVPR). Groups 2 and 3 received diets with 30% bovine meat and bone meal (MBM) added to a vegetable diet (from days 16-89 in the AVP group and until day 49 in the AVPR group, when MBM was removed). The AVPR group showed 15 N equilibrium 5 days after MBM removal (54th day). Conversely, 15 N equilibrium in the AVP group occurred 22 days later (76th day). The half-life differed between these groups by 3.55 days. In the AVPR group, 15 N elimination required 53 days, which was similar to this isotope's incorporation time. Turnover was determined based on natural 15 N signatures. IRMS followed by turnover calculations was used to evaluate the time period for the incorporation and elimination of animal protein in sheep serum. The δ 13 C and δ 15 N values were used to track animal protein in the diet. This method is biologically and economically relevant for the veterinary field because it can track protein over time or make a point assessment of animal feed with high sensitivity and resolution, providing a low-cost analysis coupled with fast detection. Isotopic profiles could be measured throughout the experimental period, demonstrating the potential to use the method for traceability and certification assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid production of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies from a variety of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurosawa Nobuyuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a variety of animals have been used to produce polyclonal antibodies against antigens, the production of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies from animals remains challenging. Results We propose a simple and rapid strategy to produce monoclonal antibodies from a variety of animals. By staining lymph node cells with an antibody against immunoglobulin and a fluorescent dye specific for the endoplasmic reticulum, plasma/plasmablast cells were identified without using a series of antibodies against lineage markers. By using a fluorescently labeled antigen as a tag for a complementary cell surface immunoglobulin, antigen-specific plasma/plasmablast cells were sorted from the rest of the cell population by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Amplification of cognate pairs of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes followed by DNA transfection into 293FT cells resulted in the highly efficient production of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies from a variety of immunized animals. Conclusions Our technology eliminates the need for both cell propagation and screening processes, offering a significant advantage over hybridoma and display strategies.