WorldWideScience

Sample records for edge impurity transport

  1. Impurity and trace tritium transport in tokamak edge turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.

    2005-01-01

    The turbulent transport of impurity or minority species, as for example tritium, is investigated in drift-Alfven edge turbulence. The full effects of perpendicular and parallel convection are kept for the impurity species. The impurity density develops a granular structure with steep gradients...... and locally exceeds its initial values due to the compressibility of the flow. An approximate decomposition of the impurity flux into a diffusive part and an effective convective part (characterized by a pinch velocity) is performed and a net inward pinch effect is recovered. The pinch velocity is explained...

  2. Characterization of intermittency of impurity turbulent transport in tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatani, S.; Benkadda, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Kondo, K.

    2008-01-01

    The statistical properties of impurity transport of a tokamak edge plasma embedded in a dissipative drift-wave turbulence are investigated using structure function analysis. The impurities are considered as a passive scalar advected by the plasma flow. Two cases of impurity advection are studied and compared: A decaying impurities case (given by a diffusion-advection equation) and a driven case (forced by a mean scalar gradient). The use of extended self-similarity enables us to show that the relative scaling exponent of structure functions of impurity density and vorticity exhibit similar multifractal scaling in the decaying case and follows the She-Leveque model. However, this property is invalidated for the impurity driven advection case. For both cases, potential fluctuations are self-similar and exhibit a monofractal scaling in agreement with Kolmogorov-Kraichnan theory for two-dimensional turbulence. These results obtained with a passive scalar model agree also with test-particle simulations.

  3. Transport of plasma impurities and the role of the plasma edge layers for the hot plasma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawin, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    The first problem of impurity transport is removal of alpha particles from the interior outward. The second problem is the control of impurities produced in the plasma-wall interaction. Finally there is the problem of using injected impurities for assessment of transport coefficients. The influence of impurity radiation on the power balance of a DT plasma is considered. Limiters and divertors as impurity sources are mentioned and transport equations for impurities are given. As an example iron impurities transport in a hydrogen plasma is considered. The role of the edge layer is emphasized. Finally requirements for plasma diagnostics are stated. 50 refs., 10 figs. (qui)

  4. Edge and Core Impurity Transport Study with Spectroscopic Instruments in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Muto, Sadatsugu; Chowdhuri, Malay Bikas; Chunfeng, Dong; Hangyu, Zhou; Zhengying, Cui; Fujii, Keisuke; Hasuo, Masahiro; Iwamae, Atsushi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Sakurai, Ikuya; Tawara, Yuzuru; Yinxian, Jie; Baonian, Wan; Zhenwei, Wu; Koubiti, Mohammed; Yamaguchi, Naohiro

    2009-01-01

    Impurity transport was investigated at both edge and core regions in large helical device (LHD) with developed spectroscopic instruments which can measure one- and two-dimensional distributions of impurities. The edge impurity behavior was studied recently using four carbon resonant transitions in different ionization stages of CIII (977A), CIV (1548A), CV (40.3A) and CVI (33.7A). When the line-averaged electron density, n e , is increased from 1 to 6 x 10 13 cm -3 , the ratio of (CIII+CIV)/n e increases while the ratio of (CV+CVI)/n e decreases. Here, CIII+CIV (CV+CVI) expresses the sum of CIII (CV) and CIV (CVI) intensities. The CIII+CIV indicates the carbon influx and the CV+CVI indicates the emissions through the transport in the ergodic layer. The result thus gives experimental evidence on the impurity screening by the ergodic layer in LHD, which is also supported by a three-dimensional edge particle simulation. The core impurity behavior is also studied in high-density discharges (n e ≤ 1x 10 15 cm -3 ) with multi H 2 -pellets injection. It is found that the ratio of V/D (V: convection velocity, D: diffusion coefficient) decreases after pellet injection and Z eff profile shows a flat one at values of 1.1-1.2. These results confirm no impurity accumulation occurs in high-density discharges. As a result, the iron density, n Fe , is analyzed to be 6 x 10 -7 ( = n Fe /n e ) of which the amount can be negligible as radiation source even in such high-density discharges. One- and two-dimensional impurity distributions from space-resolved VUV and EUV spectrometers newly developed for further impurity transport study are also presented with their preliminary results. (magnetically confined plasma)

  5. Impurity confinement and transport in high confinement regimes without edge localized modes on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grierson, B. A., E-mail: bgriers@pppl.gov; Nazikian, R. M.; Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Garofalo, A. M.; Belli, E. A.; Staebler, G. M.; Evans, T. E.; Smith, S. P.; Chrobak, C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); McKee, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53796 (United States); Orlov, D. M. [Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Chrystal, C. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Impurity transport in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] is investigated in stationary high confinement (H-mode) regimes without edge localized modes (ELMs). In plasmas maintained by resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP), ELM-suppression, and QH-mode, the confinement time of fluorine (Z = 9) is equivalent to that in ELMing discharges with 40 Hz ELMs. For selected discharges with impurity injection, the impurity particle confinement time compared to the energy confinement time is in the range of τ{sub p}/τ{sub e}≈2−3. In QH-mode operation, the impurity confinement time is shown to be smaller for intense, coherent magnetic, and density fluctuations of the edge harmonic oscillation than weaker fluctuations. Transport coefficients are derived from the time evolution of the impurity density profile and compared to neoclassical and turbulent transport models NEO and TGLF. Neoclassical transport of fluorine is found to be small compared to the experimental values. In the ELMing and RMP ELM-suppressed plasma, the impurity transport is affected by the presence of tearing modes. For radii larger than the mode radius, the TGLF diffusion coefficient is smaller than the experimental value by a factor of 2–3, while the convective velocity is within error estimates. Low levels of diffusion are observed for radii smaller than the tearing mode radius. In the QH-mode plasma investigated, the TGLF diffusion coefficient is higher inside of ρ=0.4 and lower outside of 0.4 than the experiment, and the TGLF convective velocity is more negative by a factor of approximately 1.7.

  6. Multi-energy soft-x-ray technique for impurity transport measurements in the fusion plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D J; Tritz, K; Stutman, D; Finkenthal, M; Kumar, D; Kaye, S M; LeBlanc, B P; Paul, S; Sabbagh, S A

    2012-01-01

    A new diagnostic technique was developed to produce high-resolution impurity transport measurements of the steep-gradient edge of fusion plasmas. Perturbative impurity transport measurements were performed for the first time in the NSTX plasma edge (r/a ∼ 0.6 to the SOL) with short neon gas puffs, and the resulting line and continuum emission was measured with the new edge multi-energy soft-x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic. Neon transport is modeled with the radial impurity transport code STRAHL and the resulting x-ray emission is computed using the ADAS atomic database. The radial transport coefficient profiles D(r) and v(r), and the particle flux from the gas puff Φ(t), are the free parameters in this model and are varied to find the best fit to experimental x-ray emissivity measurements, with bolometry used to constrain the impurity source. Initial experiments were successful and results were consistent with previous measurements of core impurity transport and neoclassical transport calculations. New diagnostic tools will be implemented on NSTX-U to further improve these transport measurements. (paper)

  7. Extended numerical modeling of impurity neoclassical transport in tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, H.; Yamoto, S.; Hatayama, A.; Homma, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of impurity transport in tokamaks is an important issue in order to reduce the impurity contamination in fusion core plasmas. Recently, a new kinetic numerical scheme of impurity classical/neoclassical transport has been developed. This numerical scheme makes it possible to include classical self-diffusion (CL SD), classical inward pinch (CL IWP), and classical temperature screening effect (CL TSE) of impurity ions. However, impurity neoclassical transport has been modeled only in the case where background plasmas are in the Pfirsch-Schluter (PS) regime. The purpose of this study is to extend our previous model to wider range of collisionality regimes, i.e., not only the PS regime, but also the plateau regime. As in the previous study, a kinetic model with Binary Collision Monte-Carlo Model (BMC) has been adopted. We focus on the modeling of the neoclassical self-diffusion (NC SD) and the neoclassical inward pinch (NC IWP). In order to simulate the neoclassical transport with the BCM, velocity distribution of background plasma ions has been modeled as a deformed Maxwell distribution which includes plasma density gradient. Some test simulations have been done. As for NC SD of impurity ions, our scheme reproduces the dependence on the collisionality parameter in wide range of collisionality regime. As for NC IWP, in cases where test impurity ions and background ions are in the PS and plateau regimes, parameter dependences have been reproduced. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Extended numerical modeling of impurity neoclassical transport in tokamak edge plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H.; Yamoto, S.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan); Homma, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan); Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Understanding of impurity transport in tokamaks is an important issue in order to reduce the impurity contamination in fusion core plasmas. Recently, a new kinetic numerical scheme of impurity classical/neoclassical transport has been developed. This numerical scheme makes it possible to include classical self-diffusion (CL SD), classical inward pinch (CL IWP), and classical temperature screening effect (CL TSE) of impurity ions. However, impurity neoclassical transport has been modeled only in the case where background plasmas are in the Pfirsch-Schluter (PS) regime. The purpose of this study is to extend our previous model to wider range of collisionality regimes, i.e., not only the PS regime, but also the plateau regime. As in the previous study, a kinetic model with Binary Collision Monte-Carlo Model (BMC) has been adopted. We focus on the modeling of the neoclassical self-diffusion (NC SD) and the neoclassical inward pinch (NC IWP). In order to simulate the neoclassical transport with the BCM, velocity distribution of background plasma ions has been modeled as a deformed Maxwell distribution which includes plasma density gradient. Some test simulations have been done. As for NC SD of impurity ions, our scheme reproduces the dependence on the collisionality parameter in wide range of collisionality regime. As for NC IWP, in cases where test impurity ions and background ions are in the PS and plateau regimes, parameter dependences have been reproduced. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Effect of neutrals localized at torus inboard side on the impurity transport in edge stochastic magnetic field layer of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, S.; Oishi, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Goto, M.; Kawamura, G.; Zhang, H.M.; Hunag, X.L.; Wang, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) distribution of impurity line emissions has been measured in Large Helical Device (LHD) based on the 2-D extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy for studying the edge impurity transport in stochastic magnetic field layer with three-dimensional (3-D) structure. The impurity behavior in the vicinity of two X-points at inboard and outboard sides of torus becomes separately visible with the 2-D measurement. As a result, it is found that the carbon location changes from inboard to outboard X-points when the plasma axis is shifted from R_a_x=3.6 m to 3.75 m. A 3-D simulation with EMC3-EIRENE code agrees with the result at R_a_x=3.75 m but disagreed with the result at R_a_x=3.60 m. The discrepancy between the measurement and simulation at R_a_x=3.60 m is considerably reduced when the effect of neutral hydrogen localized at the inboard side is taken into account, which can modify the density gradient and friction force along the magnetic field. (author)

  10. Monte-Carlo Impurity transport simulations in the edge of the DIII-D tokamak using the MCI code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Sager, G.T.; West, W.P.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Meyer, W.H.; Porter, G.D.

    1995-07-01

    A Monte-Carlo Impurity (MCI) transport code is used to follow trace impurities through multiple ionization states in realistic 2-D tokamak geometries. The MCI code is used to study impurity transport along the open magnetic field lines of the Scrape-off Layer (SOL) and to understand how impurities get into the core from the SOL. An MCI study concentrating on the entrainment of carbon impurities ions by deuterium background plasma into the DIII-D divertor is discussed. MCI simulation results are compared to experimental DIII-D carbon measurements

  11. Monte-Carlo Impurity transport simulations in the edge of the DIII-D tokamak using the MCI code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Sager, G.T.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Porter, G.D.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Meyer, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    A Monte-Carlo Impurity (MCI) transport code is used to follow trace impurities through multiple ionization states in realistic 2-D tokamak geometries. The MCI code is used to study impurity transport along the open magnetic field lines of the Scrape-off Layer (SOL) and to understand how impurities get into the core from the SOL. An MCI study concentrating on the entrainment of carbon impurities ions by deuterium background plasma into the DII-D divertor is discussed. MCI simulation results are compared to experimental DII-D carbon measurements. 2 refs

  12. Two-zone model for the transport of wall released impurities in the edge plasma of a limiter tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, H.A.; Gerhauser, H.

    1987-02-01

    The transmission of a Gaussian metal impurity pulse uniformly injected from the torus wall is studied within a two-zone plasma model, which separates the plasma into scrape-off layer and plasma core and allows for discontinuous changes of the plasma parameters at the separatrix. The plasma parameters are supposed to ensure a collision dominated scrape-off plasma, in which case we may restrict the solution of the transport equations to its zero order approximation. (orig./GG)

  13. Neo-classical impurity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, T.E.

    The neo-classical theory for impurity transport in a toroidal plasma is outlined, and the results discussed. A general account is given of the impurity behaviour and its dependence on collisionality. The underlying physics is described with special attention to the role of the poloidal rotation

  14. Three-dimensional simulation of H-mode plasmas with localized divertor impurity injection on Alcator C-Mod using the edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lore, J. D.; Reinke, M. L.; Lipschultz, B.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Feng, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in Alcator C-Mod to assess the level of toroidal asymmetry in divertor conditions resulting from poloidally and toroidally localized extrinsic impurity gas seeding show a weak toroidal peaking (∼1.1) in divertor electron temperatures for high-power enhanced D-alpha H-mode plasmas. This is in contrast to similar experiments in Ohmically heated L-mode plasmas, which showed a clear toroidal modulation in the divertor electron temperature. Modeling of these experiments using the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE [Y. Feng et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 241, 930 (1997)] qualitatively reproduces these trends, and indicates that the different response in the simulations is due to the ionization location of the injected nitrogen. Low electron temperatures in the private flux region (PFR) in L-mode result in a PFR plasma that is nearly transparent to neutral nitrogen, while in H-mode the impurities are ionized in close proximity to the injection location, with this latter case yielding a largely axisymmetric radiation pattern in the scrape-off-layer. The consequences for the ITER gas injection system are discussed. Quantitative agreement with the experiment is lacking in some areas, suggesting potential areas for improving the physics model in EMC3-EIRENE

  15. Impurity flux collection at the plasma edge of the tokamak MT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Bakos, J.S.; Petravich, G.

    1989-09-01

    Fluxes of intrinsic and injected impurities and background plasma ions were collected using a bidirectional probe at the plasma edge of the tokamak MT-1. The directional and radial dependences of injected impurities and plasma ions were very similar indicating a strong coupling of the impurity transport to the dynamics of the background plasma. The measured intrinsic concentration of about 10 -4 for Mo at the plasma edge is derived. (author) 17 refs.; 5 figs

  16. Modelling of impurity transport in ergodic layer of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Ohyabu, N.; Yamada, H.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.; Kobayashi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The impurity transport properties in the ergodic layer of LHD are analyzed by the 3D edge transport code as well as 1D simple model, which is used to illustrate the essential transport terms in the analysis. It is found that as the plasma density increases the edge surface layers, very edge region of the ergodic layer, enters friction dominant regime, resulting in impurity retention. It is considered that the cause for the retention is both temperature drop and the flow acceleration in the edge surface layers. The edge surface layers can provide effective retention of impurities coming from divertor as well as the first wall, because of the geometrical advantage of the edge region of LHD. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Impurity production and transport in the boundary layer of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    The processes by which impurities are produced and enter the discharge are discussed. Emphasis is placed on sputtering at the limiter and an analytical global model is described which incorporates the self-stabilizing effects whch control the edge temperature. Predictions of the scaling of edge temperature and of total radiated power are compared with experimental data from JET and other tokamaks operating with limiters. Under many conditions the scaling of the edge conditions and of the radiated power is accurately predicted. Impurity transport in the boundary and the question of how to control the boundary layer is then discussed. The example of the Impurity Control Limiter on DITE is described. (author)

  18. Investigation of the impurity transport in the ASDEX tokamak by spectroscopical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, K.W.

    1990-12-01

    Plasma impurities: a central problem of controlled thermonuclear fusion; magnetic plasma confinement in a Tokamak; methods to the determination of plasma impurity transport coefficients - by temporally modulated gas admission; the transport equation for impurities; neoclassical and anomalous transport; harmonic analysis of time-dependent signals; solutions of the transport equation; experimental equipment and measurements; measuring results - consistency of simple transport models with radial phase measurements; linearity of the transport processes; plasma disturbance by impurity injection; determination of the diffusion coefficient by simplified transport models; comparison of transport models for impurities and background plasma; measurements of the impurity transport at the plasma edge by high modulation frequencies. (AH)

  19. Anomalous diffusion, clustering, and pinch of impurities in plasma edge turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priego, M.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.

    2005-01-01

    The turbulent transport of impurity particles in plasma edge turbulence is investigated. The impurities are modeled as a passive fluid advected by the electric and polarization drifts, while the ambient plasma turbulence is modeled using the two-dimensional Hasegawa-Wakatani paradigm for resistive...... drift-wave turbulence. The features of the turbulent transport of impurities are investigated by numerical simulations using a novel code that applies semi-Lagrangian pseudospectral schemes. The diffusive character of the turbulent transport of ideal impurities is demonstrated by relative...... orientation determined by the charge of the impurity particles. Second, a radial pinch scaling linearly with the mass-charge ratio of the impurities is discovered. Theoretical explanation for these observations is obtained by analysis of the model equations. (C) 2005 American Institute of Physics....

  20. Low Z impurity transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Suckewer, S.; Hirshman, S.P.

    1978-10-01

    Low Z impurity transport in tokamaks was simulated with a one-dimensional impurity transport model including both neoclassical and anomalous transport. The neoclassical fluxes are due to collisions between the background plasma and impurity ions as well as collisions between the various ionization states. The evaluation of the neoclassical fluxes takes into account the different collisionality regimes of the background plasma and the impurity ions. A limiter scrapeoff model is used to define the boundary conditions for the impurity ions in the plasma periphery. In order to account for the spectroscopic measurements of power radiated by the lower ionization states, fluxes due to anomalous transport are included. The sensitivity of the results to uncertainties in rate coefficients and plasma parameters in the periphery are investigated. The implications of the transport model for spectroscopic evaluation of impurity concentrations, impurity fluxes, and radiated power from line emission measurements are discussed

  1. Nonlinear neoclassical transport in toroidal edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, T.; Helander, P.

    2001-01-01

    In conventional neoclassical theory, the density and temperature gradients are not allowed to be as steep as frequently observed in the tokamak edge. In this paper the theory of neoclassical transport in a collisional, impure plasma is extended to allow for steeper profiles than normally assumed. The dynamics of highly charged impurity ions then becomes nonlinear, which affects the transport of all species. As earlier found in the banana regime, when the bulk plasma gradients are large the impurity ions undergo a poloidal redistribution, which reduces their parallel friction with the bulk ions and suppresses the neoclassical ion particle flux. The neoclassical confinement is thus improved in regions with large radial gradients. When the plasma is collisional and the gradients are large, the impurities accumulate on the inboard side of the torus

  2. The Edge supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  3. Nonlinear neoclassical transport in toroidal edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, T.

    2002-01-01

    Edge plasma processes play a critical role for the global confinement of the plasma in a tokamak. In the edge region, where impurity ions are abundant and the temperature and density gradients are large, the assumptions of standard neoclassical theory break down. This paper reviews recent extensions of neoclassical theory to treat this problem, in particular our own work, which focuses on the nonlinear aspects of transport in a plasma with heavy impurity ions. In this theory, the pressure and temperature gradients are allowed to be steeper than in conventional theory neoclassical theory, so that the friction force between the bulk ions and heavy impurities is comparable to the parallel impurity pressure gradient. The impurity ions are then found to undergo a spontaneous rearrangement on each flux surface. This reduces their parallel friction with the bulk ions and causes the neoclassical ion flux to become a non-monotonic function of the gradients for plasma parameters typical of the tokamak edge. Thus, the neoclassical confinement is improved in regions where the gradients are large, such as in the edge pedestal. (orig.)

  4. Impurity transport in internal transport barrier discharges on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dux, R.; Giroud, C.; Zastrow, K.-D.

    2004-01-01

    Impurity behaviour in JET internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges with reversed shear has been investigated. Metallic impurities accumulate in cases with too strong peaking of the main ion density profile. The accumulation is due to inwardly directed drift velocities inside the ITB radius. The strength of the impurity peaking increases with the impurity charge and is low for the low-Z elements C and Ne. Transport calculations show that the observed behaviour is consistent with dominant neoclassical impurity transport inside the ITB. In some cases, MHD events in the core flatten the radial profile of the metallic impurity. (author)

  5. Local measurement of transport parameters for laser injected trace impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannella, R; Lauro-Taroni, L [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    A procedure has been developed that determines local measurements of transport parameters`s profiles for injected impurities. The measured profiles extend from the plasma centre up to a certain radial position (usually {rho} = 0.6-0.7). In the outer region of the plasma the procedure supplies ``most suitable extensions`` up to the plasma edge of the measured transport profiles. The procedure intrinsically assures consistency and excellent agreement between the simulated and experimental data of local broad band soft X-ray emissivity and intensities of individual emission lines from different ion states of the injected impurities. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Low Z impurity transport in tokamaks. [Neoclassical transport theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Suckewer, S.; Hirshman, S.P.

    1978-10-01

    Low Z impurity transport in tokamaks was simulated with a one-dimensional impurity transport model including both neoclassical and anomalous transport. The neoclassical fluxes are due to collisions between the background plasma and impurity ions as well as collisions between the various ionization states. The evaluation of the neoclassical fluxes takes into account the different collisionality regimes of the background plasma and the impurity ions. A limiter scrapeoff model is used to define the boundary conditions for the impurity ions in the plasma periphery. In order to account for the spectroscopic measurements of power radiated by the lower ionization states, fluxes due to anomalous transport are included. The sensitivity of the results to uncertainties in rate coefficients and plasma parameters in the periphery are investigated. The implications of the transport model for spectroscopic evaluation of impurity concentrations, impurity fluxes, and radiated power from line emission measurements are discussed.

  7. Simulated impurity transport in LHD from MIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J.E. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    The impurity transport code MIST and atomic physics package LINES are used to calculate the time evolution of charge state density profiles, individual line emissivity profiles and total radiated power profiles for impurities in LHD plasmas. Three model LHD plasmas are considered; a high density, low temperature case, a low density, high temperature case and the initial LHD start-up plasma (500 kW ECH), using impurity transport coefficient profiles from Heliotron E. The elements oxygen, neon, scandium, iron, nickel and molybdenum are considered, both injected and in steady state. (author)

  8. Plasma Interactions with Mixed Materials and Impurity Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beiersdorfer, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chernov, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frolov, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Magee, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rudd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Umansky, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The project brings together three discipline areas at LLNL to develop advanced capability to predict the impact of plasma/material interactions (PMI) on metallic surfaces in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) devices. These areas are (1) modeling transport of wall impurity ions through the edge plasma to the core plasma, (2) construction of a laser blow-off (LBO) system for injecting precise amounts of metallic atoms into a tokamak plasma, and (3) material science analysis of fundamental processes that modify metallic surfaces during plasma bombardment. The focus is on tungsten (W), which is being used for the ITER divertor and in designs of future MFE devices. In area (1), we have worked with the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) on applications of the UEDGE/DUSTT coupled codes to predict the influx of impurity ions from W dust through the edge plasma, including periodic edge-plasma oscillations, and revived a parallel version of UEDGE to speed up these simulations. In addition, the impurity transport model in the 2D UEDGE code has been implemented into the 3D BOUT++ turbulence/transport code to allow fundamental analysis of the impact of strong plasma turbulence on the impurity transport. In area (2), construction and testing of the LBO injection system has been completed. The original plan to install the LBO on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at Princeton and its use to validate the impurity transport simulations is delayed owing to NSTX-U being offline for substantial magnetic coil repair period. In area (3), an analytic model has been developed to explain the growth of W tendrils (or fuzz) observed for helium-containing plasmas. Molecular dynamics calculations of W sputtering by W and deuterium (D) ions shows that a spatial blending of interatomic potentials is needed to describe the near-surface and deeper regions of the material.

  9. Plasma Interactions with Mixed Materials and Impurity Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognlien, T. D.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Chernov, A.; Frolov, T.; Magee, E.; Rudd, R.; Umansky, M.

    2016-01-01

    The project brings together three discipline areas at LLNL to develop advanced capability to predict the impact of plasma/material interactions (PMI) on metallic surfaces in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) devices. These areas are (1) modeling transport of wall impurity ions through the edge plasma to the core plasma, (2) construction of a laser blow-off (LBO) system for injecting precise amounts of metallic atoms into a tokamak plasma, and (3) material science analysis of fundamental processes that modify metallic surfaces during plasma bombardment. The focus is on tungsten (W), which is being used for the ITER divertor and in designs of future MFE devices. In area (1), we have worked with the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) on applications of the UEDGE/DUSTT coupled codes to predict the influx of impurity ions from W dust through the edge plasma, including periodic edge-plasma oscillations, and revived a parallel version of UEDGE to speed up these simulations. In addition, the impurity transport model in the 2D UEDGE code has been implemented into the 3D BOUT++ turbulence/transport code to allow fundamental analysis of the impact of strong plasma turbulence on the impurity transport. In area (2), construction and testing of the LBO injection system has been completed. The original plan to install the LBO on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at Princeton and its use to validate the impurity transport simulations is delayed owing to NSTX-U being offline for substantial magnetic coil repair period. In area (3), an analytic model has been developed to explain the growth of W tendrils (or fuzz) observed for helium-containing plasmas. Molecular dynamics calculations of W sputtering by W and deuterium (D) ions shows that a spatial blending of interatomic potentials is needed to describe the near-surface and deeper regions of the material.

  10. The impurity transport in HT-6B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Rong; Xie Jikang; Li Linzhong; He Yexi; Wang Shuya; Deng Chuanbao; Li Guoxiang; Qiu Lijian

    1992-06-01

    The quasi-stationary profiles of the impurity ionization stages in HT-6B tokamak were determined by monitoring the VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) and visible line emissions from impurities. An impurity transport code was set up. The impurity transport coefficients and other parameters of impurities in that device were simulated and determined. From the measurement of impurity emission profiles and simulation analysis, it is concluded that the impurity confinement is improved and the impurity recycling is reduced by the slow magnetic compression. Some characteristics of impurity transport in that device are also discussed

  11. On impurities transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhanskij, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Transport of impurity ions is analitically analized in the case when main plasma is in plateau or banana regimes but impurity ions - in the Pfirsch-Schlutter mode. It is shown that in the large region of parameters the impUrity transport represents a drift in a p oloidal electric field, averaged from magnetic surface with provision for disturbance of concentration on it. Therefore, transport velocity does not depend on Z value and impurity type, as well as collision frequency both in the plateau and banana regimes. A value of flows is determined by the value of poloidal rotation velocity. At the rotation velocity corresponding to the electric field directed from the centre to periphery impurities are thrown out of a discharge, in the reverse case the flow is directed inside. Refusal from the assumption that Zsub(eff) > approximately 2, does not considerably change the results of work. The approach developed in the process of work can be applied to the case when impurity ions are in the plateau or banana modes

  12. Models for impurity production and transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    Models for the edge conditions which are commonly used in tokamak transport codes have been kept simple partly because of a lack of data. A report is presented on an improved model for the particle and energy balance of e - , H 1 + , H 1 0 , H 2 + , H 2 0 , O 0 , O/sup (1 yields 8) + / in the plasma scrape-off region. Experiments should yield the needed data in the near future, and allow one to test the model. The diffusion of impurities has been studied with a neoclassical model. The role of 'anomalous spreading' of the impurity distribution has been studied for the case of Fe. A model is presented for the expulsion of low-Z (oxygen) impurities for cases where q(0) greater than 1, but in which a large shear-free region is produced in the plasma core

  13. On neoclassical impurity transport in stellarator geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Regaña, J M; Kleiber, R; Beidler, C D; Turkin, Y; Maaßberg, H; Helander, P

    2013-01-01

    The impurity dynamics in stellarators has become an issue of moderate concern due to the inherent tendency of the impurities to accumulate in the core when the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field points radially inwards (ion root regime). This accumulation can lead to collapse of the plasma due to radiative losses, and thus limit high performance plasma discharges in non-axisymmetric devices. A quantitative description of the neoclassical impurity transport is complicated by the breakdown of the assumption of small E × B drift and trapping due to the electrostatic potential variation on a flux surface Φ-tilde compared with those due to the magnetic field gradient. This work examines the impact of this potential variation on neoclassical impurity transport in the Large Helical Device heliotron. It shows that the neoclassical impurity transport can be strongly affected by Φ-tilde . The central numerical tool used is the δf particle in cell Monte Carlo code EUTERPE. The Φ-tilde used in the calculations is provided by the neoclassical code GSRAKE. The possibility of obtaining a more general Φ-tilde self-consistently with EUTERPE is also addressed and a preliminary calculation is presented. (paper)

  14. Control of edge localized modes by pedestal deposited impurity in the HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Mazon, D.; Zou, X. L.; Zhong, W. L.; Gao, J. M.; Zhang, K.; Sun, P.; Dong, C. F.; Cui, Z. Y.; Liu, Yi; Shi, Z. B.; Yu, D. L.; Cheng, J.; Jiang, M.; Xu, J. Q.; Isobe, M.; Xiao, G. L.; Chen, W.; Song, S. D.; Bai, X. Y.; Zhang, P. F.; Yuan, G. L.; Ji, X. Q.; Li, Y. G.; Zhou, Y.; Delpech, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Giruzzi, G.; Hoang, T.; Peysson, Y.; Song, X. M.; Song, X. Y.; Li, X.; Ding, X. T.; Dong, J. Q.; Yang, Q. W.; Xu, M.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Y.; the HL-2A Team

    2018-04-01

    Effect of the pedestal deposited impurity on the edge-localized mode (ELM) behaviour has been observed and intensively investigated in the HL-2A tokamak. Impurities have been externally seeded by a newly developed laser blow-off (LBO) system. Both mitigation and suppression of ELMs have been realized by LBO-seeded impurity. Measurements have shown that the LBO-seeded impurity particles are mainly deposited in the pedestal region. During the ELM mitigation phase, the pedestal density fluctuation is significantly increased, indicating that the ELM mitigation may be achieved by the enhancement of the pedestal transport. The transition from ELM mitigation to ELM suppression was triggered when the number of the LBO-seeded impurity exceeds a threshold value. During the ELM suppression phase, a harmonic coherent mode (HCM) is excited by the LBO-seeded impurity, and the pedestal density fluctuation is significantly decreased, the electron density is continuously increased, implying that HCM may reduce the pedestal turbulence, suppress ELMs, increase the pedestal pressure, thus extending the Peeling-Ballooning instability limit. It has been found that the occurance of the ELM mitigation and ELM suppression closely depends on the LBO laser spot diameter.

  15. Impurity production and transport at limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the description and evaluation of experiments on the DITE tokamak. These are designed to characterise the processes involved in the production and transport of neutral and ionised impurities near carbon limiters. The need for good diagnostics in the scrape-off layer is highlighted. Langmuir probes are used to provide input data for models of impurity production at limiters. Observations of the radial profiles of carbon and oxygen impurities are compared with the code predictions. Changeover experiments involving hydrogen and helium plasmas are used as a means for investigating the role of the atomic physics and chemistry. The impurity control limiter (ICL) experiment is described which shows how geometry plays an important role in determining the spatial distributions of the neutral and ionised carbon. New diagnostics are required to study the flux and charge state distribution of impurities in the boundary. Preliminary results from an in-situ plasma ion mass-spectrometer are presented. The role of oxygen and the importance of evaluating the wall sources of impurity are emphasised. (orig.)

  16. Impurity transport in internal transport barrier discharges on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dux, R.

    2002-01-01

    In JET plasmas with internal transport barrier (ITB) the behaviour of metallic and low-Z impurities (C, Ne) was investigated. In ITB discharges with reversed shear, the metallic impurities accumulate in cases with too strong peaking of the density profile, while the concentration of low-Z elements C and Ne is only mildly peaked. The accumulation might be so strong, that the central radiation approximately equals the central heating power followed by a radiative collapse of the transport barrier. The radial location with strong impurity gradients (convective barrier) was identified to be situated inside (not at!) the heat flux barrier. Calculations of neo-classical transport were performed for these discharges, including impurity-impurity collisions. It was found, that the observed Z-dependence of the impurity peaking and the location of the impurity 'barrier' can be explained with neo-classical transport. ITB discharges with monotonic shear show less inward convection and seem to be advantageous with respect to plasma purity. (author)

  17. Ion transport in turbulent edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.

    1996-02-01

    Edge plasmas, such as the tokamak scrape-off layer, exist as a consequence of a balance between cross-field diffusion and parallel losses. The former is usually anomalous, and is widely thought to be driven by strong electrostatic turbulence. It is shown that the anomalous diffusion affects the parallel ion transport by giving rise to a new type of thermal force between different ion species. This force is parallel to the magnetic field, but arises entirely because of perpendicular gradients, and could be important for impurity retention in the tokamak divertor. (author)

  18. Self-limitation of impurity production by radiation cooling at the edge of a fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, J.; Lackner, K.; Wunderlich, R.

    1982-04-01

    The influence of radiation cooling at the edge of a fusion plasma on the plasma-wall interaction is numerically studied for parameters typical of the ZEPHYR ignition experiment. Various transport and impurity influx models and different external heating methods are studied using the 1D tokamak transport code BALDUR developed at Princeton. The results demonstrate the self-consistent formation of a radiating boundary layer (photosphere) for a wide range of parameters, limiting the impurity concentration in the plasma to a tolerable value. While the plasma behaviour is rather insensitive to model assumptions, the sputtering rate and the corresponding wall erosion depend on various parameters. Methods for external control of the photosphere and - more important - of the wall erosion are also discussed. (orig.)

  19. Multiscaling Dynamics of Impurity Transport in Drift-Wave Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatani, S.; Benkadda, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Kondo, K.

    2008-01-01

    Intermittency effects and the associated multiscaling spectrum of exponents are investigated for impurities advection in tokamak edge plasmas. The two-dimensional Hasagawa-Wakatani model of resistive drift-wave turbulence is used as a paradigm to describe edge tokamak turbulence. Impurities are considered as a passive scalar advected by the plasma turbulent flow. The use of the extended self-similarity technique shows that the structure function relative scaling exponent of impurity density and vorticity follows the She-Leveque model. This confirms the intermittent character of the impurities advection in the turbulent plasma flow and suggests that impurities are advected by vorticity filaments

  20. Effect of impurities on kinetic transport processes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Stefanie

    2010-12-10

    Within the framework of this thesis, different problems arising in connection with impurities have been investigated. Collisional damping of zonal flows in tokamaks: Since the Coulomb collision frequency increases with increasing ion charge, heavy, highly charged impurities play an important role in this process. The effect of such impurities on the linear response of the plasma to an external potential perturbation, as caused by zonal flows, is calculated with analytical methods. In comparison with a pure plasma, the damping of the flows occurs, as expected, considerably faster; for experimentally relevant parameters, the enhancement exceeds the effective charge Z{sub eff} of the plasma. Impurity transport driven by microturbulence in tokamaks: With regard to impurities, it is especially important whether the resulting flows are directed inwards or outwards, since they are deleterious for core energy confinement on the one hand, but on the other hand help protecting plasma-facing components from too high energy fluxes in the edge region. A semi-analytical model is presented describing the resulting impurity fluxes and the stability boundary of the underlying mode. The main goal is to bridge the gap between, on the one hand, costly numerical simulations, which are applicable to a broad range of problems but yield scarcely traceable results, and, on the other hand, analytical theory, which might ease the interpretation of the results but is so far rather rudimentary. The model is based on analytical formulae whenever possible but resorts to a numerical treatment when the approximations necessary for an analytical solution would lead to a substantial distortion of the results. Both the direction of the impurity flux and the stability boundary are found to depend sensitively on the plasma parameters such as the impurity density and the temperature gradient. Pfirsch-Schlueter transport in stellarators: Due to geometry effects, collisional transport plays a much more

  1. The impurity transport in HT-6M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wei; Wan Baonian; Xie Jikang

    2003-01-01

    The space-time profile of impurities has been measured with a multichannel visible spectroscopic detect system and UV rotation-mirror system in the HT-6M tokamak. An ideal impurity transport code has been used to simulate impurities (carbon and oxygen) behaviour during the OHM discharge. The profiles of impurities diffusion and convection coefficient, impurities ion densities in different ionized state, loss power density and effective charge number have been derived. The impurity behaviour during low-hybrid current drive has also been analyzed, the results show that the confinement of particles, impurities and energy has been improved, and emission power and effective charge number have been reduced

  2. Fluid and gyrokinetic simulations of impurity transport at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordman, H; Skyman, A; Strand, P

    2011-01-01

    Impurity transport coefficients due to ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) mode and trapped-electron mode turbulence are calculated using profile data from dedicated impurity injection experiments at JET. Results obtained with a multi-fluid model are compared with quasi-linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic...... simulation results obtained with the code GENE. The sign of the impurity convective velocity (pinch) and its various contributions are discussed. The dependence of the impurity transport coefficients and impurity peaking factor −∇nZ/nZ on plasma parameters such as impurity charge number Z, ion logarithmic...

  3. Edge and coupled core/edge transport modelling in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodestro, L.L.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and modelling of tokamak edge, scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas are described. The effects of the poloidal E x B drift on inner/outer divertor-plate asymmetries within a 1D analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experimental trends; above a critical v ExB , the model predicts transitions to supersonic flow at the inboard midplane. 2D simulations show the importance of E x B flow in the private-flux region and of ∇ B-drifts. A theory of rough plasma-facing surfaces is given, predicting modifications to the SOL plasma. The parametric dependence of detached-plasma states in slab geometry has been explored; with sufficient pumping, the location of the ionization front can be controlled; otherwise only fronts near the plate or the X-point are stable. Studies with a more accurate Monte-Carlo neutrals model and a detailed non-LTE radiation-transport code indicate various effects are important for quantitative modelling. Detailed simulations of the DIII-D core and edge are presented; impurity and plasma flow are discussed and shown to be well modelled with UEDGE. (author)

  4. Edge and coupled core-edge transport modelling in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodestro, L.L.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and modelling of tokamak edge, scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas are described. The effects of the poloidal ExB drift on inner/outer divertor-plate asymmetries within a 1D analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experimental trends; above a critical v ExB, the model predicts transitions to supersonic SOL flow at the inboard midplane. 2D simulations show the importance of ExB flow in the private-flux region and of ∇ B-drifts. A theory of rough plasma-facing surfaces is given, predicting modifications to the SOL plasma. The parametric dependence of detached-plasma states in slab geometry has been explored; with sufficient pumping, the location of the ionization front can be controlled; otherwise only fronts near the plate or the X-point are stable. Studies with a more accurate Monte-Carlo neutrals model and a detailed non-LTE radiation-transport code indicate various effects are important for quantitative modelling. Detailed simulations of the DIII-D core and edge are presented; impurity and plasma flow are discussed and shown to be well modelled with UEDGE. (author)

  5. Anomalous transport in the tokamak edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayakis, G.

    1991-04-01

    The tokamak edge has been studied with arrays of Langmuir and magnetic probes on the DITE and COMPASS-C devices. Measurements of plasma parameters such as density, temperature and radial magnetic field were taken in order to elucidate the character, effect on transport and origin of edge fluctuations. The tokamak edge is a strongly-turbulent environment, with large electrostatic fluctuation levels and broad spectra. The observations, including direct correlation measurements, are consistent with a picture in which the observed magnetic field fluctuations are driven by the perturbations in electrostatic parameters. The propagation characteristics of the turbulence, investigated using digital spectral techniques, appear to be dominated by the variation of the radial electric field, both in limiter and divertor plasmas. A shear layer is formed, associated in each case with the last closed flux surface. In the shear layer, the electrostatic wavenumber spectra are significantly broader. The predictions of a drift wave model (DDGDT) and of a family of models evolving from the rippling mode (RGDT group), are compared with experimental results. RGDT, augmented by impurity radiation effects, is shown to be the most reasonable candidate to explain the nature of the edge turbulence, only failing in its estimate of the wavenumber range. (Author)

  6. Understanding of impurity poloidal distribution in the edge pedestal by modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhansky, V.; Kaveeva, E.; Molchanov, P.; Veselova, I.; Voskoboynikov, S.; Coster, D.; Fable, E.; Puetterich, T.; Viezzer, E.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Kirk, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-07-01

    Simulation of an H-mode ASDEX Upgrade shot with boron impurity was done with the B2SOLPS5.2 transport code. Simulation results were compared with the unique experimental data available for the chosen shot: radial density, electron and ion temperature profiles in the equatorial midplanes, radial electric field profile, radial profiles of the parallel velocity of impurities at the low-field side (LFS) and high-field side (HFS), radial density profiles of impurity ions at LHS and HFS. Simulation results reproduce all available experimental data simultaneously. In particular strong poloidal HFS-LFS asymmetry of B5+ ions was predicted in accordance with the experiment. The simulated HFS B5+ density inside the edge transport barrier is twice larger than that at LFS. This is consistent with the experimental observations where even larger impurity density asymmetry was observed. A similar effect was predicted in the simulation done for the MAST H-mode. Here the HFS density of He2+ is predicted to be 4 times larger than that at LHS. Such a large predicted asymmetry is connected with a larger ratio of HFS and LFS magnetic fields which is typical for spherical tokamaks. The HFS/LFS asymmetry was not measured in the experiment, however modelling qualitatively reproduces the observed change of sign of He+parallel velocity to the counter-current direction at LFS. The understanding of the asymmetry is based on neoclassical effects in plasma with strong gradients. It is demonstrated that simulation results obtained with account of sources of ionization, realistic geometry and turbulent transport are consistent with the simplified analytical approach. Difference from the standard neoclassical theory is emphasized.

  7. On the role of impurity radiation on edge turbulence in the TJ-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochando, M.A.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Balbin, R.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Hidalgo, C.

    1994-01-01

    The correlation between edge radiation and electron temperature and density fluctuations has been studied in the vicinity of the upper poloidal limiter of the TJ-I tokamak. When edge impurity radiation is strongly raked in the proximity of the limiter radius, electron temperature fluctuations are notably higher than density fluctuations. Results provide experimental evidence of edge turbulence driven by thermal instabilities

  8. Impurity transport studies on the FTU tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacella, D.; Romanelli, F.; Gregory, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the radial profile of the diffusion coefficient D and the convective velocity V in the plasma core (0 2 /s and V ∼ 100 m/s. A model for the anomalous transport induced by electrostatic turbulence is developed. With a typical fluctuation spectrum (ω = 10 5 -2x10 5 Hz), calculations can reproduce very well the experimental results. To investigate the impurity behavior in a non-stationary phase, Kr gas was injected into the plasma. It is found that the total flux of Kr gas flowing into the core is also driven by diffusion but the magnitude is much lower than the single ion fluxes derived for Mo ions. The effect of the turbulence on the single ion is very strong but it is reduced when averaged over many charge states. (author)

  9. Measurement of impurity ion densities and energies in the divertor and edge regions of Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.; Moreno, J.; Welch, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    A study to investigate impurity production and transport in the divertor and edge regions of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak through spectroscopic techniques is described. A 0.75-meter Czerny-Turner spectrometer with a 1200-g/mm grating and a 35-meter quartz optic bundle transmission line were tested. A high-resolution 2-meter spectrometer will be ordered. Data acquisition considerations are being addressed

  10. Impurity transport in the Wendelstein VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Impurity radiation losses in net-current-free neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the Wendelstein W VII-A stellarator are the combined effect of particularly strong impurity sources and improved particle confinement as compared with ohmically heated tokamak-like plasma discharges. Experiments are described and conclusions are drawn about the impurity species, their origin and their transport behaviour. The impurity transport is modelled by a 1-D impurity transport and radiation code. The evolution of the total radiation in time and space deduced from soft-X-ray and bolometer measurements can be fairly well simulated by the code. Experimentally, oxygen was found to make the main contribution to the radiation losses. In the calculations, an influx of cold oxygen desorbed from the walls of the order of 10 13 -10 14 cm -2 .s -1 and a rate of fast injected oxygen corresponding to a 1% impurity content of the neutral beams in combination with neoclassical impurity transport leads to quantitative agreement between the simulation and the observed radiation. The transport of A1 trace impurities injected by the laser blow-off technique was experimentally studied by soft-X-ray measurements using a differential method allowing extraction of the time evolution of A1 XII, XIII radial profiles. These are compared with code predictions, together with additional spectroscopic measurements. The main features of the impurity transport are consistent with neoclassical predictions, which explain particularly the central impurity accumulation. Some details, however, seem to require additional 'anomalous' transport. Such an enhancement is correlated with distortions of the magnetic configuration around resonant magnetic surfaces. (author)

  11. On the Role of Impurity Radiation on Edge Turbulence in the TJ-I Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochando, M A; Pedrosa, M A; Balbin, R; Garcia-Cortes, I; Hidalgo, C

    1994-07-01

    The correlation between edge radiation and electron temperature and density fluctuations has been studied in the vicinity of the upper poloidal limiter of the TJ-I tokamak. When edge impurity radiation is strongly peaked in the proximity of the limiter radius, electron temperature fluctuations are notably higher than density fluctuations. Results provide experimental evidence of edge turbulence driven by thermal instabilities. (Author) 16 refs.

  12. On the Role of Impurity Radiation on Edge Turbulence in the TJ-I Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochando, M. A.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Balbin, R.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Hidalgo, C.

    1994-01-01

    The correlation between edge radiation and electron temperature and density fluctuations has been studied in the vicinity of the upper poloidal limiter of the TJ-I tokamak. When edge impurity radiation is strongly peaked in the proximity of the limiter radius, electron temperature fluctuations are notably higher than density fluctuations. Results provide experimental evidence of edge turbulence driven by thermal instabilities. (Author) 16 refs

  13. Carbon impurity transport around limiters in the DITE tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, C.S.; Stangeby, P.C.; Goodall, D.H.J.; Matthews, G.F.; McCracken, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The transport of impurity ions originating at the limiter in a tokamak is critically dependent on the location of the ion in the boundary plasma. In the confined plasma, just inboard of the limiter, impurity ions will disperse freely into the discharge whilst in the scrape-off layer the pre-sheath plasma flow and the associated ambipolar electric field may tend to sweep impurities back to the limiter surface. In this paper we have studied, both by experiment and by theory, the transport of carbon impurity ions in the vicinity of the limiter. By comparing experimental measurements of the spatial distributions of impurities around the limiter with that predicted from a Monte Carlo computer code it appears that the parallel dispersal on closed field lines in the confined plasma is consistent with classical transport processes and that in the scrape-off layer the dispersal is indeed impeded by the pre-sheath plasma flow. (orig.)

  14. Fermi-edge transmission resonance in graphene driven by a single Coulomb impurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnatak, Paritosh; Goswami, Srijit; Kochat, Vidya; Pal, Atindra Nath; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-07-11

    The interaction between the Fermi sea of conduction electrons and a nonadiabatic attractive impurity potential can lead to a power-law divergence in the tunneling probability of charge through the impurity. The resulting effect, known as the Fermi edge singularity (FES), constitutes one of the most fundamental many-body phenomena in quantum solid state physics. Here we report the first observation of FES for Dirac fermions in graphene driven by isolated Coulomb impurities in the conduction channel. In high-mobility graphene devices on hexagonal boron nitride substrates, the FES manifests in abrupt changes in conductance with a large magnitude ≈e(2)/h at resonance, indicating total many-body screening of a local Coulomb impurity with fluctuating charge occupancy. Furthermore, we exploit the extreme sensitivity of graphene to individual Coulomb impurities and demonstrate a new defect-spectroscopy tool to investigate strongly correlated phases in graphene in the quantum Hall regime.

  15. Turbulent transport of impurities in a magnetized plasma; Transport turbulent d'impuretes dans un plasma magnetise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubuit, N

    2006-10-15

    This work deals with the transport of impurities in magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas. The accumulation of impurities in the core of the plasma would imply dramatic losses of energy that may lead to the extinction of the plasma. On the opposite, the injection of impurities in the plasma edge is considered as an efficient means to extract heat without damaging the first wall. The balance between these 2 contradictory constraints requires an accurate knowledge of the impurity transport inside the plasma. The effect of turbulence, the main transport mechanism for impurities is therefore a major issue. In this work, the complete formula of a turbulent flow of impurities for a given fluctuation spectrum has been inferred. The origin and features of the main accumulation processes have been identified. The main effect comes from the compressibility of the electrical shift speed in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. This compressibility appears to be linked to the curvature of the magnetic field. A less important effect is a thermal-diffusion process that is inversely proportional to the number of charges and then disappears for most type of impurities except the lightest. This effect implies an impurity flux proportional to the temperature gradient and its direction can change according to the average speed of fluctuations. A new version of the turbulence code TRB has been developed. This new version allows the constraints of the turbulence not by the gradients but by the flux which is more realistic. The importance of the processes described above has been confirmed by a comparison between calculation and experimental data from Tore-supra and the Jet tokamak. The prevailing role of the curvature of the magnetic field in the transport impurity is highlighted. (A.C.)

  16. Transport of impurities during H-mode pulses in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannella, R.; Gottardi, N.; Mompean, F.; Mori, H.; Pasini, D.; Stork, D.; Barnsley, R.; Hawkes, N.C.; Lawson, K.

    1990-01-01

    The transport of impurities during the H-mode is very different from that observed in the other regimes. This is clearly evident in the quiescent discharges where the confinement time of impurities τ I are measured in all the quiescent H-mode discharges in spite of the variety of impurity behavior observed corresponding to different plasma parameters and operating scenarios. The condition of the machine has an influence on the role played by the various impurities, but this does not seem to affect the flow patterns of these ions substantially. In particular oxygen, which was often detected as the dominant radiator, can be reduced to a negligible fraction by He conditioning of the carbon X-point tiles or limiters or by evaporating beryllium in the vacuum vessel. Nevertheless the behaviour of the residual impurities in otherwise similar discharges remains substantially unchanged. The transport patterns appear in fact to be affected by the plasma parameters and their profiles. In particular, two extreme transport regimes are presented in the following. These discharges have been modelled with the aid of a recently developed fully time-dependent impurity transport code using heuristic profiles for the impurity diffusion D and the convection velocity v. (author) 4 refs., 5 figs

  17. Role of impurity dynamics in resistivity-gradient-driven turbulence and tokamak edge plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Terry, P.W.; Garcia, L.; Carreras, B.A.

    1986-03-01

    The role of impurity dynamics in resistivity gradient driven turbulence is investigated in the context of modeling tokamak edge plasma phenomena. The effects of impurity concentration fluctuations and gradients on the linear behavior of rippling instabilities and on the nonlinear evolution and saturation of resistivity gradient driven turbulence are studied both analytically and computationally. At saturation, fluctuation levels and particle and thermal diffusivities are calculated. In particular, the mean-square turbulent radial velocity is given by 2 > = (E 0 L/sub s/B/sub z/) 2 (L/sub/eta/ -1 + L/sub z -1 ) 2 . Thus, edged peaked impurity concentrations tend to enhance the turbulence, while axially peaked concentrations tend to quench it. The theoretical predictions are in semi-quantitative agreement with experimental results from the TEXT, Caltech, and Tosca tokamaks. Finally, a theory of the density clamp observed during CO-NBI on the ISX-B tokamak is proposed

  18. Parametric dependences of impurity transport in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, Th.

    2007-09-01

    During this Ph.D. work, a full setup of tools for an experimental investigation of impurity transport has been developed on the Tore Supra tokamak. It includes a laser blow-off system for metallic impurity injections and developments for ITC (Impurity Transport Code), a transport code which allows the extraction of the experimental impurity transport coefficients (diffusion and convection velocity). This tool has been used to perform and analyse several experiments, to evidence parametric dependences of impurity transport. In a first experiment, a confinement time law for nickel in Tore Supra has been obtained as a function of collisionality ν * and normalized Larmor radius ρ * . Then the impurity charge Z role has been investigated in various conditions: ohmic regime with or without sawteeth, and sawtooth less L-mode with LH power. No Z effect is observed, consistently with theoretical predictions, whether neoclassical (NCLASS) or for turbulent transport with both non linear gyro-fluid (TRB) and quasilinear gyrokinetic (QuaLiKiz) simulations. An exception is found for LH heated plasmas where the confinement time seems to decrease for the heaviest impurities. This is not explained by any model available. The observed transport is close to neoclassical between sawtooth relaxations, in the centre (r q-1 ) of ohmic plasmas, turbulent outside. Without sawteeth, it is turbulent in the whole plasma, for ohmic or L mode discharges. The profile shape of the diffusion coefficient is here qualitatively different, with a stronger and deeper transition between the low diffusion central region and a more turbulent peripheral region for LH heated plasmas. (author)

  19. Impurity production and transport at the JET belt limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, C.S.; McCracken, G.M.; Strangeby, P.C.; Toronto Univ., ON; Summers, D.D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Under certain operating conditions in JET the impurity content of the discharge can be high, thus reducing the fusion reaction rate through the dilution of the hydrogenic fuel. The dilution in most discharges is predominantly due to carbon impurities. In order to understand how carbon impurities are produced and transported into the plasma, detailed measurements with interference filters centered on intense spectral lines of the low ionization states of carbon (C I, C II, C III) as well as the fuel species (Dα) and helium (He I). (author) 6 refs., 4 figs

  20. Modeling of impurity transport in the core plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of computer modeling of impurity transport in the core region of controlled thermonuclear fusion plasmas. The atomic processes of importance in these high temperature plasmas and the numerical formulation of the model are described. Selected modeling examples are then used to highlight some features of the physics of impurity behavior in large tokamak fusion devices, with an emphasis on demonstrating the sensitivity of such modeling to uncertainties in the rate coefficients used for the atomic processes. This leads to a discussion of current requirements and opportunities for generating the improved sets of comprehensive atomic data needed to support present and future fusion impurity modeling studies

  1. Electromagnetic effects on trace impurity transport in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, T.; Angioni, C.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of electromagnetic effects on the transport of light and heavy impurities in tokamak plasmas is investigated by means of an extensive set of linear gyrokinetic numerical calculations with the code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] and of analytical derivations with a fluid model. The impurity transport is studied by appropriately separating diffusive and convective contributions, and conditions of background microturbulence dominated by both ion temperature gradient (ITG) and trapped electron modes (TEMs) are analyzed. The dominant contribution from magnetic flutter transport turns out to be of pure convective type. However it remains small, below 10% with respect to the E ×B transport. A significant impact on the impurity transport due to an increase in the plasma normalized pressure parameter β is observed in the case of ITG modes, while for TEM the overall effect remains weak. In realistic conditions of high β plasmas in the high confinement (H-) mode with dominant ITG turbulence, the impurity diffusivity is found to decrease with increasing β in qualitative agreement with recent observations in tokamaks. In contrast, in these conditions, the ratio of the total off-diagonal convective velocity to the diagonal diffusivity is not strongly affected by an increase in β, particularly at low impurity charge, due to a compensation between the different off-diagonal contributions.

  2. Time-reversal breaking and spin transport induced by magnetic impurities in a 2D topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakhshan, V; Ketabi, S A; Moghaddam, A G

    2016-01-01

    We employed the formalism of bond currents, expressed in terms of non-equilibrium Green’s function to obtain the local currents and transport features of zigzag silicene ribbon in the presence of magnetic impurity. When only intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit interactions are present, silicene behaves as a two-dimensional topological insulator with gapless edge states. But in the presence of finite intrinsic spin–orbit interaction, the edge states start to penetrate into the bulk of the sample by increasing Rashba interaction strength. The exchange interaction induced by local impurities breaks the time-reversal symmetry of the gapless edge states and influences the topological properties strongly. Subsequently, the singularity of partial Berry curvature disappears and the silicene nanoribbon becomes a trivial insulator. On the other hand, when the concentration of the magnetic impurities is low, the edge currents are not affected significantly. In this case, when the exchange field lies in the x – y plane, the spin mixing around magnetic impurity is more profound rather than the case in which the exchange field is directed along the z -axis. Nevertheless, when the exchange field of magnetic impurities is placed in the x – y plane, a spin-polarized conductance is observed. The resulting conductance polarization can be tuned by the concentration of the impurities and even completely polarized spin transport is achievable. (paper)

  3. Investigation of oxygen impurity transport using the O4+ visible spectral line in the Aditya tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, M.B.; Ghosh, J.; Banerjee, S.; Dey, Ritu; Manchanda, R.; Kumar, Vinay; Vasu, P.; Patel, K.M.; Atrey, P.K.; Shankara Joisa, Y.; Rao, C.V.S.; Tanna, R.L.; Raju, D.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Jha, R.; Gupta, C.N.; Bhatt, S.B.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2013-01-01

    Intense visible lines from Be-like oxygen impurity are routinely observed in the Aditya tokamak. The spatial profile of brightness of a Be-like oxygen spectral line (2p3p 3 D 3 –2p3d 3 F 4 ) at 650.024 nm is used to investigate oxygen impurity transport in typical discharges of the Aditya tokamak. A 1.0 m multi-track spectrometer (Czerny–Turner) capable of simultaneous measurements from eight lines of sight is used to obtain the radial profile of brightness of O 4+ spectral emission. The emissivity profile of O 4+ spectral emission is obtained from the spatial profile of brightness using an Abel-like matrix inversion. The oxygen transport coefficients are determined by reproducing the experimentally measured emissivity profiles of O 4+ , using a one-dimensional empirical impurity transport code, STRAHL. Much higher values of the diffusion coefficient compared with the neo-classical values are observed in both the high magnetic field edge region (D inboard max ∼30 m 2 s -1 ) and the low magnetic field edge region (D outboard max ∼45 m 2 s -1 ) of typical Aditya ohmic plasmas, which seems to be due to fluctuation-induced transport. The diffusion coefficient at the limiter radius in the low-field (outboard) region is typically ∼ twice as high as that at the limiter radius in the high-field (inboard) region. (paper)

  4. Effects of Density and Impurity on Edge Localized Modes in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Plasma density and impurity concentration are believed to be two of the key elements governing the edge tokamak plasma conditions. Optimal levels of plasma density and impurity concentration in the edge region have been searched for in order to achieve the desired fusion gain and divertor heat/particle load mitigation. However, how plasma density or impurity would affect the edge pedestal stability may have not been well known. Our recent MHD theory modeling and simulations using the NIMROD code have found novel effects of density and impurity on the dynamics of edge-localized modes (ELMs) in tokamaks. First, previous MHD analyses often predict merely a weak stabilizing effect of toroidal flow on ELMs in experimentally relevant regimes. We find that the stabilizing effects on the high- n ELMs from toroidal flow can be significantly enhanced with the increased edge plasma density. Here n denotes the toroidal mode number. Second, the stabilizing effects of the enhanced edge resistivity due to lithium-conditioning on the low- n ELMs in the high confinement (H-mode) discharges in NSTX have been identified. Linear stability analysis of the experimentally constrained equilibrium suggests that the change in the equilibrium plasma density and pressure profiles alone due to lithium-conditioning may not be sufficient for a complete suppression of the low- n ELMs. The enhanced resistivity due to the increased effective electric charge number Zeff after lithium-conditioning provides additional stabilization of the low- n ELMs. These new effects revealed in our theory analyses may help further understand recent ELM experiments and suggest new control schemes for ELM suppression and mitigation in future experiments. They may also pose additional constraints on the optimal levels of plasma density and impurity concentration in the edge region for H-mode tokamak operation. Supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China Grants 2014GB124002 and 2015GB

  5. Heavy impurity collection at the plasma edge of the stellarator W VII A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schou, J.

    1981-12-01

    The presence of impurities at the plasma edge of the Wendelstein VII-A stellarator was studied by means of carbon probes that were exposed to up to 200 plasma discharges in helium. The probes were subsequently analysed with 1 MeV 4 He + Rutherford Backscattering. The average impurity deposition for Ti, Mo and wall components (Fe, Cr, Ni) was 2-4 x 10 12 atoms/cm 2 , 6 x 10 10 atoms/cm 2 and 1 x 10 11 atoms/cm 2 per discharge, respectively. With the exception of Ti this impurity deposition is more than one order of magnitude smaller than the corresponding results from comparable tokamaks. (orig.)

  6. Tangential 2-D Edge Imaging for GPI and Edge/Impurity Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqueda, Ricardo; Levinton, Fred M.

    2011-01-01

    Nova Photonics, Inc. has a collaborative effort at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This collaboration, based on fast imaging of visible phenomena, has provided key insights on edge turbulence, intermittency, and edge phenomena such as edge localized modes (ELMs) and multi-faceted axisymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE). Studies have been performed in all these areas. The edge turbulence/intermittency studies make use of the Gas Puff Imaging diagnostic developed by the Principal Investigator (Ricardo Maqueda) together with colleagues from PPPL. This effort is part of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) edge, scrape-off layer and divertor group joint activity (DSOL-15: Inter-machine comparison of blob characteristics). The edge turbulence/blob study has been extended from the current location near the midplane of the device to the lower divertor region of NSTX. The goal of this effort was to study turbulence born blobs in the vicinity of the X-point region and their circuit closure on divertor sheaths or high density regions in the divertor. In the area of ELMs and MARFEs we have studied and characterized the mode structure and evolution of the ELM types observed in NSTX, as well as the study of the observed interaction between MARFEs and ELMs. This interaction could have substantial implications for future devices where radiative divertor regions are required to maintain detachment from the divertor plasma facing components.

  7. Impurity toroidal rotation and transport in Alcator C-Mod ohmic high confinement mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, J. E.; Goetz, J. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Greenwald, M. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Marmar, E. S.; Mossessian, D.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Snipes, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Central toroidal rotation and impurity transport coefficients have been determined in Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] Ohmic high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas from observations of x-ray emission following impurity injection. Rotation velocities up to 3x10 4 m/sec in the co-current direction have been observed in the center of the best Ohmic H-mode plasmas. Purely ohmic H-mode plasmas display many characteristics similar to ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heated H-mode plasmas, including the scaling of the rotation velocity with plasma parameters and the formation of edge pedestals in the electron density and temperature profiles. Very long impurity confinement times (∼1 sec) are seen in edge localized mode-free (ELM-free) Ohmic H-modes and the inward impurity convection velocity profile has been determined to be close to the calculated neoclassical profile. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  8. Impurity transport in a collision-dominated rotating tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, G.; Liljegren, A.

    1981-04-01

    The flux of heavy impurities is an axisymmetric, toroidal plasma with all particles in the collision-dominated regime is considered. Plasma rotation and charge-exchange with neutrals are taken into account. A hydrodynamic model employing Braginskii's transport equations is used. The theorry is extended to higher collision freqencies as compared to previous treatments. It is found that the Pfirsch-Schlueter flux is significantly reduced as compared to the value given by Rutherford and that it is of the same order of magnitude, or less, than the classical flux in all regimes considered. It is also shown that the impurity flux can be influenced by charge-exchange with neutrals. (author)

  9. Monte Carlo modelling of impurity ion transport for a limiter source/sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, P.C.; Farrell, C.; Hoskins, S.; Wood, L.

    1988-01-01

    In relating the impurity influx Φ I (0) (atoms per second) into a plasma from the edge to the central impurity ion density n I (0) (ions·m -3 ), it is necessary to know the value of τ I SOL , the average dwell time of impurity ions in the scrape-off layer. It is usually assumed that τ I SOL =L c /c s , the hydrogenic dwell time, where L c is the limiter connection length and c s is the hydrogenic ion acoustic speed. Monte Carlo ion transport results are reported here which show that, for a wall (uniform) influx, τ I SOL is longer than L c /c s , while for a limiter influx it is shorter. Thus for a limiter influx n I (0) is predicted to be smaller than the reference value. Impurities released from the limiter form ever large 'clouds' of successively higher ionization stages. These are reproduced by the Monte Carlo code as are the cloud shapes for a localized impurity injection far from the limiter. (author). 23 refs, 18 figs, 6 tabs

  10. Transport of light, trace impurities in Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, W. L.; Bespamyatnov, I. O.; Liao, K. T.; Horton, W.; Fu, X. R.; Hughes, J. W.

    2012-10-01

    Light impurity profiles for boron were measured in ITB, H-mode, L-mode, and I-mode discharges in Alcator C-Mod. Within this wide range of modes, the profiles varied from peaked to hollow to flat. Specifically, hollow profiles are often observed in H-mode, while ITBs produce strong peaking, and L-mode produces moderate peaking. I-mode discharges are characterized by flat impurity profiles. For the study reported here, the profiles were measured with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The dependences of Rv/D were sought on dimensionless quantities including ion density scale length, effective charge, collisionality, and temperature scale length. We find that neoclassical transport consistently underestimates the measured transport. The excess measured transport is assumed to be turbulent. The strongest dependence of Rv/D is with temperature scale length. In addition, the measured transport was compared with the prediction of an analytical theory of drift wave turbulence that identifies transport implications for drift waves driven by ion and impurity density gradients.

  11. Electron and impurity transport studies in the TCV Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, D.

    2013-05-15

    In this thesis electron and impurity transport are studied in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) located at CRPP-EPFL in Lausanne. Understanding particle transport is primordial for future nuclear fusion power plants. Modeling of experiments in many specific plasma scenarios can help to understand the common elements of the physics at play and to interpret apparently contradictory experiments on the same machine and across different machines. The first part of this thesis deals with electron transport in TCV high confinement mode plasmas. It was observed that the electron density profile in these plasmas flatten when intense electron heating is applied, in contrast to observations on other machines where the increase of the profile peakedness was reported. It is shown with quasi-linear gyrokinetic simulations that this effect, usually interpreted as collisionality dependence, stems from the combined effect of many plasma parameters. The influence of the collisionality, electron to ion temperature ratio, the ratio of temperature gradients, and the Ware-pinch are studied with detailed parameter scans. It is shown that the complex interdependence of the various plasma parameters is greatly simplified when the simulation results are interpreted as a function of the average frequency of the main modes contributing to radial transport. In this way the model is able to explain the experimental results. It was also shown that the same basic understanding is at play in L-modes, H-modes and electron internal transport barriers. The second part of the thesis is devoted to impurity transport. A multi-purpose gas injection system is developed, commissioned and calibrated. It is shown that the system is capable of massive gas injections to provoke disruptions and delivering small puffs of gaseous impurities for perturbative transport experiments. This flexible tool is exploited in a series of impurity transport measurements with argon and neon injections. The impurities

  12. Electron and impurity transport studies in the TCV Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.

    2013-05-01

    In this thesis electron and impurity transport are studied in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) located at CRPP-EPFL in Lausanne. Understanding particle transport is primordial for future nuclear fusion power plants. Modeling of experiments in many specific plasma scenarios can help to understand the common elements of the physics at play and to interpret apparently contradictory experiments on the same machine and across different machines. The first part of this thesis deals with electron transport in TCV high confinement mode plasmas. It was observed that the electron density profile in these plasmas flatten when intense electron heating is applied, in contrast to observations on other machines where the increase of the profile peakedness was reported. It is shown with quasi-linear gyrokinetic simulations that this effect, usually interpreted as collisionality dependence, stems from the combined effect of many plasma parameters. The influence of the collisionality, electron to ion temperature ratio, the ratio of temperature gradients, and the Ware-pinch are studied with detailed parameter scans. It is shown that the complex interdependence of the various plasma parameters is greatly simplified when the simulation results are interpreted as a function of the average frequency of the main modes contributing to radial transport. In this way the model is able to explain the experimental results. It was also shown that the same basic understanding is at play in L-modes, H-modes and electron internal transport barriers. The second part of the thesis is devoted to impurity transport. A multi-purpose gas injection system is developed, commissioned and calibrated. It is shown that the system is capable of massive gas injections to provoke disruptions and delivering small puffs of gaseous impurities for perturbative transport experiments. This flexible tool is exploited in a series of impurity transport measurements with argon and neon injections. The impurities

  13. Effect of density control and impurity transport on internal transport barrier formation in tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakami, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Takaaki; Arimoto, Hideki; Yamazaki, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    In future fusion reactors, density control, such as fueling by pellet injection, is an effective method to control the formation of the internal transport barrier (ITB) in reversed magnetic shear plasma, which can improve plasma performance. On the other hand, an operation with ITB can cause accumulation of impurities inside the core ITB region. We studied the relation between pellet injection and ITB formation and the effect of impurity transport on the core of ITB for tokamak plasmas by using the toroidal transport analysis linkage. For ITB formation, we showed that the pellet has to be injected beyond the position where the safety factor q takes the minimum value. We confirmed that the accumulation of impurities causes the attenuation of ITB owing to radiation loss inside the ITB region. Moreover, in terms of the divertor heat flux reduction by impurity gas, the line radiation loss is high for high-Z noble gas impurities, such as Kr, whereas factor Q decreases slightly. (author)

  14. Source effects on impurity and heat transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.B.

    1980-12-01

    A recently developed generalization of neoclassical theory is extended here to study heat flux contributions to impurity transport, as well as the heat fluxes themselves. The theory accounts for the first four source moments, with external drags, which has been studied previously with either fewer moments or restricted to a collisional plasma. Conditions are established for which a momentum source may be used to modify the particle and heat transport. In the course of this work, the particle and heat transport is evaluated for a two species plasma with arbitrary plasma geometry, beta, and collisionality

  15. Impurity Control Test Facility (ICTF) for the study of fusion reactor plasma/edge materials interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Mattas, R.F.; Ehst, D.A.; Boley, C.D.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1984-05-01

    A test facility for investigating many of the impurity control issues associated with the interactions of materials with the plasma edge is outlined. Analysis indicates that the plasma edge conditions expected in TFCX, INTOR, etc. can be readily produced at the end cells of an rf stabilized mirror, similar in some respects to the Phaedrus device at the University of Wisconsin. A steady-state, Impurity Control Test Facility (ICTF) based on such a mirror device is expected to produce a plasma with typical parameters of n/sub e/ approx. 3 x 10 18 m -3 , T/sub e/ = 50 eV, and T/sub i/ = 100 eV at each end cell. A heat load of approx. 2 MW/m 2 over areas of approx. 1600 cm 2 could be produced at each end with 800 kW of ICRH power. These conditions would provide a unique capability for examining issues such as erosion/redeposition behavior, properties of redeposited materials, high recycling regimes, plasma edge operating limits for high-Z materials, and particle pumping efficiencies for limiter and divertor designs

  16. Quasilinear Carbon Transport In An Impurity Hole Plasma In LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, David R. [PPPL; Tanaka, K. [NIFS; Nunami, M. [NIFS; Watanabe, T-H. [Nagoya University; Sugama, H. [NIFS; Yoshinuma, M. [NIFS; Suzuki, Y. [NIFS; Goto, M. [NIFS; Morita, S. [NIFS; Wieland, B. [NIFS; Yamada, I. [NIFS; Yashura, R. [NIFS; Akiyama, T. [NIFS; Pablant, Novimir A. [PPPL

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive electrostatic gyrokinetic linear stability calculations for ion-scale microinstabilities in an LHD plasma with an ion-ITB and carbon "impurity hole" are used to make quasilinear estimates of particle flux to explore whether microturbulence can explain the observed outward carbon fluxes that flow "up" the impurity density gradient. The ion temperature is not stationary in the ion-ITB phase of the simulated discharge, during which the core carbon density decreases continuously. To fully sample these varying conditions the calculations are carried out at three radial locations and four times. The plasma parameter inputs are based on experimentally measured profiles of electron and ion temperature, as well as electron and carbon density. The spectroscopic line-average ratio of hydrogen and helium densities is used to set the density of these species. Three ion species (H,He,C) and the electrons are treated kinetically, including collisions. Electron instability drive does enhance the growth rate significantly, but the most unstable modes have characteristics of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes in all cases. As the carbon density gradient is scanned between the measured value and zero, the quasilinear carbon flux is invariably inward when the carbon density profile is hollow, so turbulent transport due to the instabilities considered here does not explain the observed outward flux of impurities in impurity hole plasmas. The stiffness of the quasilinear ion heat flux is found to be 1.7-2.3, which is lower than several estimates in tokamaks.

  17. Time-dependent 2-D modeling of edge plasma transport with high intermittency due to blobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2012-01-01

    The results on time-dependent 2-D fluid modeling of edge plasmas with non-diffusive intermittent transport across the magnetic field (termed cross-field) based on the novel macro-blob approach are presented. The capability of this approach to simulate the long temporal evolution (∼0.1 s) of the background plasma and simultaneously the fast spatiotemporal dynamics of blobs (∼10 −4 s) is demonstrated. An analysis of a periodic sequence of many macro-blobs (PSMB) is given showing that the resulting plasma attains a dynamic equilibrium. Plasma properties in the dynamic equilibrium are discussed. In PSMB modeling, the effect of macro-blob generation frequency on edge plasma parameters is studied. Comparison between PSMB modeling and experimental profile data is given. The calculations are performed for the same plasma discharge using two different models for anomalous cross-field transport: time-average convection and PSMB. Parametric analysis of edge plasma variation with transport coefficients in these models is presented. The capability of the models to accurately simulate enhanced transport due to blobs is compared. Impurity dynamics in edge plasma with macro-blobs is also studied showing strong impact of macro-blob on profiles of impurity charge states caused by enhanced outward transport of high-charge states and simultaneous inward transport of low-charge states towards the core. Macro-blobs cause enhancement of sputtering rates, increase radiation and impurity concentration in plasma, and change erosion/deposition patterns.

  18. Transport of nonintrinsic impurities injected by laser blow-off method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.S.

    1993-09-01

    The transport of nonintrinsic impurities injected by laser blow-off method is theoretically described by solving the two-dimensional (radial and toroidal) time dependent equations of diffusion in the edge plasmas of a tokamak. Explicit expressions and evaluation procedures are given for the calculation of the density profile, temperature profile and the diffusion coefficients for the atoms injected and for the ions formed from the injected atoms from the two-dimensional intensity distribution of line radiation of two sorts of atom and ions formed from the atoms measured by a (matrix) CCD camera time resolved. (orig.)

  19. Zeff measurements and low-Z impurity transport for NBI and ICRF heated plasma in JIPP T-IIU tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Amano, T.; Kawahata, K.; Kaneko, O.

    1988-12-01

    A visible bremsstrahlung detector array system for Z eff measurements and a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) system for fully ionized impurity profile measurements were installed on JIPP TII-U to study impurity transport for NBI and ICRF heated plasma. More impurities are sputtered by ICRF heating than by NBI and/or ohmic heatings. The carbon contribution to Z eff is 80-90 % for NBI heated plasmas, and 60 % for NBI + ICRF heated plasmas. With a carbon coating of vacuum vessel, the Z eff value decreases 2.4 to 1.7 and the carbon contribution to Z eff increases up to 80-90 %. We obtain the diffusion coefficient D a = 1.0 m 2 /s and the convective velocity V a (a) = 13 m/s at the plasma edge for carbon impurity from the radial profile and time evolution of fully ionized carbon after the ICRF pulse is turned on. (author)

  20. Probing neutral density at the plasma edge of Tore Supra with CX excited impurity ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, W.R.; Mattioli, M.; Guirlet, R.

    1993-01-01

    In Tokamak plasma physics renewed interest in visible spectroscopy has grown for two reasons. The use of fiber optics allows observation of local sources of both impurities and of hydrogen by observing radiation of low ionization states. Moreover, charge exchange spectroscopy (CXS) with either auxiliary or heating neutral beams is a standard technique to determine the ion temperature and impurity density profiles. After a short description of the experimental setup and the ergodic divertor of Tore Supra (TS), two discharges in which space-resolved observations of the CVI (8-7) line clearly show the presence of CX-related effects. A well isolated spectral line at 5304.6 A is discussed. Tentative identification as CIII (1s 2 2s, 7-5) is suggested. The conclusion shows the usefulness of the reported results for probing neutral density at the plasma edge by detecting CX excited impurity ions and that highly ionized C 6+ ions exist in the MARFE regions. To the best of our knowledge, only very low ionization C and O ions (such as CIII or OIV) have been previously reported in these regions

  1. Neoclassical impurity transport and observations of poloidal asymmetries in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feneberg, W.; Mast, F.K.; Martin, P.; Gottardi, N.

    1986-01-01

    Bolometrically measured asymmetries of emissivity for some characteristic JET discharges are presented and are in good agreement with theoretical results of calculations worked out in the frame of neoclassical theory. Application of theory to the case of strong toroidal rotation as induced with neutral injection shows a sensitive dependance of the impurity transport perpendicular to the magnetic surfaces from the parameter of poloidal rotation. The main result is the existence of a classical flow reversal. Without any poloidal rotation of the background ions, a large inward flow of impurities for co- and counter-injection is always predicted, while poloidal rotation in the direction of the ion diamagnetic drift motion leads to a strong outward drift. (author)

  2. Light impurity transport in JET ILW L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Giroud, C.; Angioni, C.; Manas, P.; Menmuir, S.; Contributors, JET

    2018-03-01

    A series of experimental observations of light impurity profiles was carried out in JET (Joint European Torus) ITER-like wall (ILW) L-mode plasmas in order to investigate their transport mechanisms. These discharges feature the presence of 3He, Be, C, N, Ne, whose profiles measured by active Charge Exchange diagnostics are compared with quasi-linear and non-linear gyro-kinetic simulations. The peaking of 3He density follows the electron density peaking, Be and Ne are also peaked, while the density profiles of C and N are flat in the mid plasma region. Gyro-kinetic simulations predict peaked density profiles for all the light impurities studied and at all the radial positions considered, and fail predicting the flat or hollow profiles observed for C and N at mid radius in our cases.

  3. Low-Z impurity transport in DIII-D - observations and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.R.; Houlberg, W.A.; Baylor, L.R.; West, W.P.; Baker, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Impurity transport studies on DIII-D have revealed transport phenomena that are qualitatively consistent with that expected from turbulence transport theory in some cases and neoclassical transport theory in other cases. The transport model proposed here, which assumes that the total impurity transport is a linear sum of turbulence-driven transport and neoclassical transport, is shown to reproduce many of these observed features. This transport model is then applied to burn condition calculations, revealing that profile effects associated with neoclassical transport have a large effect on the maximum allowable impurity fraction in machines based on achieving neoclassical transport levels

  4. Two-dimensional impurity transport calculations for a high recycling divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.

    1986-04-01

    Two dimensional analysis of impurity transport in a high recycling divertor shows asymmetric particle fluxes to the divertor plate, low helium pumping efficiency, and high scrapeoff zone shielding for sputtered impurities

  5. Scaling with toroidal current of impurity transport in ATC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmar, E.S.; Cohen, S.A.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1976-06-01

    An experiment measuring the scaling with changing plasma conditions of a parameter characteristic of the transport of aluminum injected into the ATC tokamak is discussed. This parameter is the time after injection at which the photon signal from Al XI reaches its maximum. It is found that the data are in agreement with the predictions of a computer code which uses neoclassical theory in the Pfirsch-Schluter regime. An approximate model describing impurity transport in ATC is also presented. This model is utilized to calculate the expected scaling with current of the aluminum transport assuming classical, neoclassical and pseudoclassical forms for the diffusion coefficient. The data are in agreement with both the neoclassical and pseudoclassical results from this model

  6. The influence of collisional and anomalous radial diffusion on parallel ion transport in edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The orderings in the kinetic equations commonly used to study the plasma core of a tokamak do not allow a balance between parallel ion streaming and radial diffusion, and are, therefore, inappropriate in the plasma edge. Different orderings are required in the edge region where radial transport across the steep gradients associated with the scrape-off layer is large enough to balance the rapid parallel flow caused by conditions close to collecting surfaces (such as the Bohm sheath condition). In the present work, we derive and solve novel kinetic equations, allowing for such a balance, and construct distinctive transport laws for impure, collisional, edge plasmas in which the perpendicular transport is (i) due to Coulomb collisions of ions with heavy impurities, or (ii) governed by anomalous diffusion driven by electrostatic turbulence. In both the collisional and anomalous radial transport cases, we find that one single diffusion coefficient determines the radial transport of particles, momentum and heat. The parallel transport laws and parallel thermal force in the scrape-off layer assume an unconventional form, in which the relative ion-impurity flow is driven by a combination of the conventional parallel gradients, and new (i) collisional or (ii) anomalous terms involving products of radial derivatives of the temperature and density with the radial shear of the parallel velocity. Thus, in the presence of anomalous radial diffusion, the parallel ion transport cannot be entirely classical, as usually assumed in numerical edge computations. The underlying physical reason is the appearance of a novel type of parallel thermal force resulting from the combined action of anomalous diffusion and radial temperature and velocity gradients. In highly sheared flows the new terms can modify impurity penetration into the core plasma

  7. Tungsten transport in the plasma edge at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzer, Michael Arthur

    2015-04-30

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) will play a crucial role in future deuterium-tritium magnetically confined fusion power plants, since they will be subject to high energy and particle loads, but at the same time have to ensure long lifetimes and a low tritium retention. These requirements will most probably necessitate the use of high-Z materials such as tungsten for the wall materials, since their erosion properties are very benign and, unlike carbon, capture only little tritium. The drawback with high-Z materials is, that they emit strong line radiation in the core plasma, which acts as a powerful energy loss mechanism. Thus, the concentration of these high-Z materials has to be controlled and kept at low levels in order to achieve a burning plasma. Understanding the transport processes in the plasma edge is essential for applying the proper impurity control mechanisms. This control can be exerted either by enhancing the outflux, e.g. by Edge Localized Modes (ELM), since they are known to expel impurities from the main plasma, or by reducing the influx, e.g. minimizing the tungsten erosion or increasing the shielding effect of the Scrape Off Layer (SOL). ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) has been successfully operating with a full tungsten wall for several years now and offers the possibility to investigate these edge transport processes for tungsten. This study focused on the disentanglement of the frequency of type-I ELMs and the main chamber gas injection rate, two parameters which are usually linked in H-mode discharges. Such a separation allowed for the first time the direct assessment of the impact of each parameter on the tungsten concentration. The control of the ELM frequency was performed by adjusting the shape of the plasma, i.e. the upper triangularity. The radial tungsten transport was investigated by implementing a modulated tungsten source. To create this modulated source, the linear dependence of the tungsten erosion rate at the Ion Cyclotron Resonance

  8. Impurity and neutral effects on the dissipative drift wave in tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1991-05-01

    Possible destabilizing mechanisms for the liner electrostatic dissipative drift waves (in tokamak edge plasmas) are investigated in slab geometry. The effects of processes such as ionization, charge exchange, radiation, and rippling are examined. In particular, the impurity condensation associated with radiation cooling is evaluated appropriately for the drift wave ordering, which is found to be an important driving mechanism in contrast to the results of earlier studies. It also shown that the role of ionization is quite complicated, and depends strongly on the manner in which the equilibrium is achieved. The linear eigenmode equation is studied both analytically and numerically. For the range of parameters relevant to TEXT tokamak, both the charge exchange of the rippling effect are found to be unimportant for instability. 25 refs., 6 figs

  9. Measurements and modeling of transport and impurity radial profiles in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-09-01

    Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4×1010cm-3 for a central electron density of 1×1013cm-3. Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20m2 s-1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ˜2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge.

  10. Measurements and modeling of transport and impurity radial profiles in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-01-01

    Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4x10 10 cm -3 for a central electron density of 1x10 13 cm -3 . Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20 m 2 s -1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ∼2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge

  11. Analysis of erosion and transport of carbon impurity in the TFTR inner bumper limiter region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, T.Q.; Brooks, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon sputtering and transport on the TFTR inner graphite bumper limiter is investigated with the impurity transport code REDEP. Analysis is carried out for a series of ohmic discharges in TFTR. Predictions for Z eff in the core plasma agree well with in-situ experimental measurements. Run-away self-sputtering of carbon is predicted at low densities and high edge plasma temperatures when the limiter surface was purged of deuterium. Surface erosion and deposition is analyzed. In general, redeposition reduces the peak erosion by about a factor of five. Analysis is also carried out for a typical neutral beam heated discharge with a noncircular plasma. Spatial surface erosion and deposition profiles are compared qualitatively with beta backscattering measurements of metal deposition found on the limiter

  12. A one-dimensional plasma and impurity transport model for reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerasingam, R.

    1991-11-01

    In this thesis a one-dimensional (1-D) plasma and impurity transport model is developed to address issues related to impurity behavior in Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) fusion plasmas. A coronal non-equilibrium model is used for impurities. The impurity model is incorporated into an existing one dimensional plasma transport model creating a multi-species plasma transport model which treats the plasma and impurity evolution self-consistently. Neutral deuterium particles are treated using a one-dimensional (slab) model of neutral transport. The resulting mode, RFPBI, is then applied to existing RFP devices such as ZT-40M and MST, and also to examine steady state behavior of ZTH based on the design parameters. A parallel algorithm for the impurity transport equations is implemented and tested to determine speedup and efficiency

  13. EMC3-eIRENE simulation of impurity transport in comparison with EUV emission measurements in the stochastic layer of LHD: effects of force balance and transport coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China); Kobayashi, M.; Morita, S.; Oishi, T.; Suzuki, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, School of Physical Sciences, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki (Japan); Kawamura, G. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Zhang, H.M.; Huang, X.L. [Department of Fusion Science, School of Physical Sciences, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki (Japan); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Wang, D.Z. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China); Collaboration: The LHD experiment group

    2016-08-15

    The transport properties and line emissions of the intrinsic carbon in the stochastic layer of the Large Helical Device have been investigated with the three-dimensional edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE. The simulations of impurity transport and emissivity have been performed to study the dedicated experiment in which the carbon emission distributions are measured by a space-resolved EUV spectrometer system. A discrepancy of the CIV impurity emission between the measurement and simulation is obtained, which is studied with the variation of the ion thermal force, friction force and the perpendicular diffusivity in the impurity transport model. An enhanced ion thermal force or a reduced friction force in the modelling can increase the CIV impurity emission at the inboard X-point region. Furthermore, the impact of the perpendicular diffusivity Dimp is studied which shows that the CIV impurity emission pattern is very sensitive to Dimp. It is found that the simulation results with the increased Dimp tend to be closer to the experimental observation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Neoclassical impurity transport in the presence of toroidal and poloidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feneberg, W.

    1988-06-01

    This paper presents an extended theory of neoclassical impurity transport, starting from the parameters of bulk plasma toroidal and poloidal rotation. Analytic expressions resulting from the influence of a compressible flow on the perpendicular momentum balance and on the neoclassical Braginskii parallel viscosity are derived. The predicted impurity transport is extensively compared with that in earlier papers. (orig.)

  15. Proposal of flexible atomic and molecular process management for Monte Carlo impurity transport code based on object oriented method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, K.; Ohno, N.; Takamura, S.

    2001-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation code on impurity transport has been developed by several groups to be utilized mainly for fusion related edge plasmas. State of impurity particle is determined by atomic and molecular processes such as ionization, charge exchange in plasma. A lot of atomic and molecular processes have been considered because the edge plasma has not only impurity atoms, but also impurity molecules mainly related to chemical erosion of carbon materials, and their cross sections have been given experimentally and theoretically. We need to reveal which process is essential in a given edge plasma condition. Monte Carlo simulation code, which takes such various atomic and molecular processes into account, is necessary to investigate the behavior of impurity particle in plasmas. Usually, the impurity transport simulation code has been intended for some specific atomic and molecular processes so that the introduction of a new process forces complicated programming work. In order to evaluate various proposed atomic and molecular processes, a flexible management of atomic and molecular reaction should be established. We have developed the impurity transport simulation code based on object-oriented method. By employing object-oriented programming, we can handle each particle as 'object', which enfolds data and procedure function itself. A user (notice, not programmer) can define property of each particle species and the related atomic and molecular processes and then each 'object' is defined by analyzing this information. According to the relation among plasma particle species, objects are connected with each other and change their state by themselves. Dynamic allocation of these objects to program memory is employed to adapt for arbitrary number of species and atomic/molecular reactions. Thus we can treat arbitrary species and process starting from, for instance, methane and acetylene. Such a software procedure would be useful also for industrial application plasmas

  16. The influence of impurities on the coefficients of transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmi, Aloine

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this Masters project was to build a water filtration plant using a Micromegas detector. (You need to explain at least how Micromegas can be used in filtration plants, and to filtrate what.) This new generation of devices have good resolution, low background, fast response with the highest efficiency and good sensitivity in the range of natural radioactivity. The central part of this work was to describe the development of a detection plane. A small Micomegas prototype, was built in CNSTN (Tunisia), and is devoted to study electron transport properties in a gas. This manuscript describes the development of a filtration plant using a Micromegas gas detector. This detector must be filled with Xenon 98 pour cent and C F 4 2 pour cent at pressure varying between 1 and 4 bar. I realized the need to have a rigorously high purity gas; I studied in depth the influence of impurities on the parameters characterizing the detector: drift velocity of electron in the gas, their longitudinal and transverse diffusion and the gas gain, the electron attachment while varying the proportions of impurities and the gas pressure. These studies have been done using a simulation program called M agboltz . Another simulation program G EANT4 w as used to better understand the interactions and radiation field. I also used two other programs, G arfield a nd M axwell , to simulate the electric field in the detector. I reached the stage of near completion of this treatment plant but the necessary equipment could not be purchased, simply because its cost was too high. To complete my masters, I started the design of a gamma camera filled by Xenon gas at high pressure and based on Micromegas - micro pattern.

  17. Study of impurity transport in HL-2A ECRH L-mode plasmas with radially different ECRH power depositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z. Y.; Zhang, K.; Morita, S.; Ji, X. Q.; Ding, X. T.; Xu, Y.; Sun, P.; Gao, J. M.; Dong, C. F.; Zheng, D. L.; Li, Y. G.; Jiang, M.; Li, D.; Zhong, W. L.; Liu, Yi; Dong, Y. B.; Song, S. D.; Yu, L. M.; Shi, Z. B.; Fu, B. Z.; Lu, P.; Huang, M.; Yuan, B. S.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2018-05-01

    In HL-2A, an inverse sawtooth oscillation is observed with a long-lasting m/n  =  1/1 mode during ECRH phase with power deposition inside sawtooth inversion radius (inner-deposited ECRH), while a normal sawtooth instead appears when the ECRH power is deposited outside sawtooth inversion radius (outer-deposited ECRH). Aluminum is then injected as a trace impurity with laser blow-off (LBO) method into the inner- and outer-deposited ECRH phases of HL-2A discharges to investigate the effect of ECRH on impurity transport. Temporal behavior of soft x-ray (SXR) array signals is analyzed with a 1D impurity transport code, and radial structures of impurity transport coefficients are obtained. The result shows that the radial transport of Al ions is strongly enhanced during the inner-deposited ECRH phase. In particular, an outward convection velocity is developed with positive values of 0  ⩽  V(ρ)  ⩽  3.8 m s-1 in ρ  ⩽  0.5, while the convection velocity is inward in ρ  ⩾  0.6. In the outer-deposited ECRH discharge, on the other hand, the convection velocity takes a big negative value in ρ  ⩽  0.4 and close to zero at ρ ~ 0.6. In ohmic discharges, an inward V(ρ) always appears in the whole plasma radii and gradually increases toward the plasma edge (-3.2 m s-1 at ρ  =  1). The simulation result also indicates that centrally-peaked Al ion density profiles presented in the outer-deposited ECRH discharge can be flattened by the inner-deposited ECRH. Modification of impurity transport is discussed in the presence of long-lasting m/n  =  1/1 MHD mode.

  18. Impurity line emission due to thermal charge exchange in JET edge plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggi, C F; Horton, L D; Koenig, R; Stamp, M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Summers, H P [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    High n-shell emission from hydrogen-like carbon (C VI, n=8-7) has been routinely observed from the plasma edge of JET. By comparing the measured spectral line intensities with the signals predicted by advanced atomic physics modelling of carbon and hydrogen radiation, integrated with modelling of the divertor and edge plasma, it is concluded that charge transfer from excited state hydrogen donors into fully stripped carbon ions can account for the observed spectral emission, but that the hydrogen distribution and to a lesser extent the carbon distribution away from the strike zone predicted by the transport model are too low. Data presented are those of three upper X-point discharges, where the target material was carbon. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrea, M; Petrisor, I; Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L; Weyssow, B

    2011-01-01

    We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.

  20. Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrea, M; Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza str. 13, Craiova (Romania); Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Thessaloniki, Association Euratom-Hellenic Republic, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Weyssow, B [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-08-15

    We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.

  1. Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrea, M.; Petrisor, I.; Isliker, H.; Vogiannou, A.; Vlahos, L.; Weyssow, B.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.

  2. Topological edge states and impurities: Manifestation in the local static and dynamical characteristics of dimerized quantum chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagin, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Based on the results of exact analytic calculations, we show that topological edge states and impurities in quantum dimerized chains manifest themselves in various local static and dynamical characteristics, which can be measured in experiments. In particular, topological edge states can be observed in the magnetic field behavior of the local magnetization or magnetic susceptibility of dimerized spin chains as jumps (for the magnetization) and features (for the static susceptibility) at zero field. In contrast, impurities reveal themselves in similar jumps and features, however, at nonzero values of the critical field. We also show that dynamical characteristics of dimerized quantum chains also manifest the features, related to the topological edge states and impurities. Those features, as a rule, can be seen more sharply than the manifestation of bulk extended states in, e.g., the dynamical local susceptibility. Such peculiarities can be observed in one-dimensional dimerized spin chains, e.g., in NMR experiments, or in various realizations of quantum dimerized chains in optical experiments.

  3. Effects of density asymmetries on heavy-impurity transport in a rotating tokamak-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, M.; Ottaviani, M.

    1997-12-01

    The transport equations of heavy trace-impurities in a Tokamak plasma with strong toroidal rotation have been studied analytically in the collisional regime. It is found that the poloidal asymmetry of the impurity-density, which occurs because of the rotation, brings about a large enhancement of the diffusivity and indeed of the pinch velocity above the conventional Pfirsh-Schlueter values. (author)

  4. Oscillations of quantum transport through double-AB rings with magnetic impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yingfang; Liang, J-Q

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the effect of impurity scattering on the quantum transport through double AB rings in the presence of spin-flipper in the middle lead in terms of one-dimensional quantum waveguide theory. The electron interacts with the impurity through the exchange interaction leading to spin-flip scattering. Transmissions in the spin-flipped and non-spin-flipped channels are calculated explicitly. It is found that the overall transmission and the conductance are distorted due to the impurity scattering. The extent of distortion not only depends on the strength of the impurity potential but also on the impurity position. Moreover, the transmission probability and the conductance are modulated by the magnetic flux, the size of the ring and the impurity potential strength as well

  5. Impurity transport calculations for the limiter shadow region of a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, H.A.; Repp, H.

    1981-01-01

    Impurity transport calculations are presented for the scrape-off layer of a tokamak with a poloidal ring limiter. The theory is based on the drift-kinetic equations for the impurity ions in their different ionization states. It is developed in the limit of low impurity concentrations under due consideration of electron impact ionization, Coulomb collisions with hydrogen ions streaming onto a neutralizing surface, a convection along the magnetic field, and a radial drift. The background plasma and the impurity sources at the walls enter the theory as input parameters. Numerical results are given for the radial profiles of density, temperature, particle flux, and energy flux of wall-released impurity ions as well as for the screening efficiency of the scrape-off layer neglecting impurity re-emission from the limiter. (author)

  6. Self-consistent gyrokinetic modeling of neoclassical and turbulent impurity transport

    OpenAIRE

    Estève , D. ,; Sarazin , Y.; Garbet , X.; Grandgirard , V.; Breton , S. ,; Donnel , P. ,; Asahi , Y. ,; Bourdelle , C.; Dif-Pradalier , G; Ehrlacher , C.; Emeriau , C.; Ghendrih , Ph; Gillot , C.; Latu , G.; Passeron , C.

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Trace impurity transport is studied with the flux-driven gyrokinetic GYSELA code [V. Grandgirard et al., Comp. Phys. Commun. 207, 35 (2016)]. A reduced and linearized multi-species collision operator has been recently implemented, so that both neoclassical and turbulent transport channels can be treated self-consistently on an equal footing. In the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime likely relevant for tungsten, the standard expression of the neoclassical impurity flux is shown t...

  7. Modification of the electronic transport in Au by prototypical impurities and interlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, Majida M.; Schuster, Cosima B.; Eckern, Ulrich; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Electronic transport calculations for metallic interfaces based on density functional theory and a scattering theory on the Landauer-Büttiker level are presented. We study the modifications of the transport through Au due to prototypical impurities and interlayers. Our results show that the influence of S and Si impurities is well described in terms of simple vacancies. Metallic impurities and interlayers, on the other hand, have even more drastic effects, in particular when the Au s-d hybrid states at the Fermi energy are perturbed. The effects of a possible interface alloy formation are discussed in detail. © 2010 EPLA.

  8. Modification of the electronic transport in Au by prototypical impurities and interlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, Majida M.

    2010-02-01

    Electronic transport calculations for metallic interfaces based on density functional theory and a scattering theory on the Landauer-Büttiker level are presented. We study the modifications of the transport through Au due to prototypical impurities and interlayers. Our results show that the influence of S and Si impurities is well described in terms of simple vacancies. Metallic impurities and interlayers, on the other hand, have even more drastic effects, in particular when the Au s-d hybrid states at the Fermi energy are perturbed. The effects of a possible interface alloy formation are discussed in detail. © 2010 EPLA.

  9. Orbit effects on impurity transport in a rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1988-01-01

    In 1985, very high ion temperature plasmas were first produced in TFTR with co-injecting neutral beams in low current, low density plasmas. This mode of operation is called the energetic ion mode in which the plasma rotates at very high speed. It was found that heavy impurities injected into these plasmas diffused out very quickly. In this paper, the authors calculate the impurity ion orbits in a rotating tokamak plasma based on the equation of motion in the frame that rotates with the plasma. It is shown that heavy particles in a rotating plasma can drift away from magnetic surfaces significantly faster. Particle orbits near the surface of a rotating tokamak are also analyzed. During impurity injection experiments, freshly ionized impurities near the plasma surface are essentially stationary in the laboratory frame and they are counter-rotating in the plasma frame with co-beam injection. The results are substantiated by numeral particle simulation. The computer code follows the impurity guiding center positions by integrating the equation of motion with the second order predictor-corrector method

  10. Monte Carlo impurity transport modeling in the DIII-D transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Finkenthal, D.F.

    1998-04-01

    A description of the carbon transport and sputtering physics contained in the Monte Carlo Impurity (MCI) transport code is given. Examples of statistically significant carbon transport pathways are examined using MCI's unique tracking visualizer and a mechanism for enhanced carbon accumulation on the high field side of the divertor chamber is discussed. Comparisons between carbon emissions calculated with MCI and those measured in the DIII-D tokamak are described. Good qualitative agreement is found between 2D carbon emission patterns calculated with MCI and experimentally measured carbon patterns. While uncertainties in the sputtering physics, atomic data, and transport models have made quantitative comparisons with experiments more difficult, recent results using a physics based model for physical and chemical sputtering has yielded simulations with about 50% of the total carbon radiation measured in the divertor. These results and plans for future improvement in the physics models and atomic data are discussed

  11. Radio frequency induced and neoclassical asymmetries and their effects on turbulent impurity transport in a tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusztai, I. [Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Landreman, M. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mollen, A.; Fueloep, T. [Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Kazakov, Ye.O. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, Association ' EURATOM-Belgian State' , TEC Partner, BE-1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-06-15

    Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can be generated by radio frequency heating in the core and by neoclassical effects in the edge of tokamak plasmas. In a pedestal case study, using global neoclassical simulations we find that finite orbit width effects can generate significant poloidal variation in the electrostatic potential, which varies on a small radial scale. Gyrokinetic modeling shows that these poloidal asymmetries can be strong enough to significantly modify turbulent impurity peaking. In the pedestal the E x B drift in the radial electric field can give a larger contribution to the poloidal motion of impurities than that of their parallel streaming. Under such circumstances we find that up-down asymmetries can also affect impurity peaking. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Pfirsch–Schlüter neoclassical heavy impurity transport in a rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, E A; Candy, J; Angioni, C

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we extend previous analytic theories for the neoclassical transport of a trace heavy impurity in a rotating plasma in the Pfirsch–Schlüter regime. The complete diffusive and convective components of the ambipolar particle flux are derived. The solution is valid for arbitrary impurity charge and impurity Mach number and for general geometry. Inclusion of finite main-ion temperature gradient effects is shown in the small ion Mach number limit. A simple interpolation formula is derived for the case of high impurity charge and circular geometry. While an enhancement of the diffusion coefficient is found for order one impurity Mach number, a reduction due to the rotation-driven poloidal asymmetry in the density occurs for very large Mach number. (paper)

  13. Transport and re-deposition of limiter-released metal impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claasen, H.A.; Repp, H.

    1983-01-01

    The transport parallel B-vector and re-deposition of limiter- (or divertor-target-)released metal impurities in a given counter-streaming scrape-off layer plasma is studied analytically by using a kinetic approach. Electron impact ionization, Coulomb collisions with the hydrogen ions, and impurity ion acceleration in a pre-sheath electric field are accounted for. The friction and electric-field forces provide the driving forces for impurity re-cycling in front of the limiter. Both hydrogen ion sputtering and self-sputtering are included (the latter for impurity emission perpendicular to the limiter surface). The analytical formulas are numerically evaluated for the example of sputtered iron impurities, assuming a simple model for a scrape-off layer plasma in contact with a stainless-steel poloidal ring limiter. (author)

  14. Measurements on injected impurity transport in TEXT [Texas Experimental Tokamak] using multiply filtered soft x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Aluminum was injected into TEXT to study trace, non-recycling impurity transport. A 92-channel, three array x-ray imaging system was constructed and installed to measure temporally-resolved density profiles of the three highest charge states. A novel krypton filter in one array discriminated between the He-like and H-like resonance lines, and a hard filter responded mostly to the fully stripped charge state. The impurity confinement time scaled approximately as τ c ∼ bar n e Z eff √m i /Z i /Ip (i denotes the background gas). Aluminum density profiles averaged over a sawtooth crashes were also measured for a few discharges. Sawteeth strongly enhanced the inward impurity flow immediately following injection, when the density was still peaked near the plasma edge. Those discharges with the longest sawtooth period obtained the most peaked aluminum density profiles; thus sawteeth were also important in ameliorating impurity accumulation on the tokamak axis. The charge state balance of the aluminum ions obtained from the measured profiles was compared to predictions of coronal equilibrium. Somewhat surprisingly the aluminum ions were close to coronal, except in those discharges with very short sawtooth periods or very large inversion radii. Preliminary evidence of up-down asymmetric density profiles was also found. Numerical simulations of aluminum transport were performed. The effect of sawtooth oscillations was taken into account with a simple flattening model. The data disagreed with a constant D anomalous model except in the plasma center; enhanced outward transport was required. The experiments did not agree with neoclassical simulations, because the theory had outward convection that was too large. 237 refs., 86 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Experimental and gyrokinetic investigation of core impurity transport in Alcator C-mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, N.; Greenwald, M.; Podpaly, Y.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J. E.; White, A. E.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Puetterich, T.

    2010-11-01

    A new multiple pulse laser blow-off system coupled with an upgraded high resolution x-ray spectrometer with spatial resolution allow for the most detailed studies of impurity transport on Alcator C-mod to date. Trace impurity injections created by the laser blow-off technique were introduced into plasmas with a wide range of parameters and time evolving profiles of He-like calcium were measured. The unique measurement of a single charge state profile and line integrated emission measurements from spectroscopic diagnostics were compared with the simulated emission from the impurity transport code STRAHL. A nonlinear least squares fitting routine was coupled with STRAHL, allowing for core impurity transport coefficients with errors to be determined. With this method, experimental data from trace calcium injections were analyzed and radially dependent, core values (< r/a ˜.6) of the diffusive and convective components of the impurity flux were obtained. The STRAHL results are compared with linear and global, nonlinear simulations from the gyrokinetic code GYRO. Results of this comparison and an investigation of the underlying physics associated with turbulent impurity transport will be presented.

  16. Edge modulation of electronics and transport properties of cliff-edge phosphorene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Caixia; Wang, Tianxing; Xia, Congxin; Liu, Yufang

    2017-12-01

    Based on the first-principles calculations, we study the electronic structures and transport properties of cliff-like edge phosphorene nanoribbons (CPNRs), considering different types of edge passivation. The band structures of bare CPNRs possess the metallic features; while hydrogen (H), fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl) and oxygen (O) atoms-passivated CPNRs are semiconductor materials, and the band gap values monotonically decrease when the ribbon width increases. Moreover, the H and F-passivated CPNRs exhibit the direct band gap characteristics, while the Cl and O-passivated cases show the features of indirect band gap. In addition, the edge passivated CPNRs are more energetically stable than bare edge case. Meanwhile, our results also show that the transport properties of the CPNRs can be obviously influenced by the different edge passivation.

  17. Electron transport in edge-disordered graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saloriutta, Karri; Hancock, Y.; Karkkainen, Asta

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio methods are used to study the spin-resolved transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) that have both chemical and structural edge disorder. Oxygen edge adsorbates on ideal and protruded ribbons are chosen as representative examples, with the protrusions forming the smallest...

  18. Divertor experiment for impurity control in DIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagami, Masayuki

    1979-04-01

    Divertor actions of controlling the impurities and the transport of impurity ions in the plasma have been investigated in the DIVA device. Following are the results: (1) The radial transport of impurity ions is not described only by neoclassical theory, but it is strongly influenced by anomalous process. Radial diffusion of impurity ions across the whole minor radius is well described by a neoclassical diffusion superposed by the anomalous diffusion for protons. Due to this anomalous process, which spreads the radial density profile of impurity ions, 80 to 90% of the impurity flux in the plasma outer edge is shielded even in a nondiverted discharge. (2) The divertor reduces the impurity flux entering the main plasma by a factor of 2 to 4. The impurity ions shielded by the scrape-off plasma are rapidly guided into the burial chamber with a poloidal excursion time roughly equal to that of the scrape-off plasma. (3) The divertor reduces the impurity ion flux onto the main vacuum chamber by guiding the impurity ions diffusing from the main plasma into the burial chamber, thereby reducing the plasma-wall interaction caused by diffusing impurity ions at the main vacuum chamber. The impurity ions produced in the burial chamber may flow back to the main plasma through the scrape-off layer. However, roughly only 0.3% of the impurity flux into the scrape-off plasma in the burial chamber penetrates into the main plasma due to the impurity backflow. (4) A slight cooling of the scrape-off plasma with light-impurity injection effectively reduces the metal impurity production at the first wall by reducing the potential difference between the plasma and the wall, thereby reducing the accumulation of the metal impurity in the discharge. Radiation cooling by low-Z impurities in the plasma outer edge, which may become an important feature in future large tokamaks both with and without divertor, is numerically evaluated for carbon, oxygen and neon. (author)

  19. Impurity transport during neutral beam injection in the ISX-B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Crume, E.C.; Arnurius, D.E.; Murray, L.E.

    1980-10-01

    In ohmically heated ISX-B discharges, both the intrinsic iron impurity ions and small amounts of argon introduced as a test gas accumulate at the center of the plasma. But during certain beam-heated discharges, it appears that this accumulation does not take place. These results may reflect the conclusion of Stacey and Sigmar that momentum transferred from the beams to the plasma can inhibit inward impurity transport

  20. Self-consistent gyrokinetic modeling of neoclassical and turbulent impurity transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estève, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Breton, S.; Donnel, P.; Asahi, Y.; Bourdelle, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ehrlacher, C.; Emeriau, C.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Gillot, C.; Latu, G.; Passeron, C.

    2018-03-01

    Trace impurity transport is studied with the flux-driven gyrokinetic GYSELA code (Grandgirard et al 2016 Comput. Phys. Commun. 207 35). A reduced and linearized multi-species collision operator has been recently implemented, so that both neoclassical and turbulent transport channels can be treated self-consistently on an equal footing. In the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime that is probably relevant for tungsten, the standard expression for the neoclassical impurity flux is shown to be recovered from gyrokinetics with the employed collision operator. Purely neoclassical simulations of deuterium plasma with trace impurities of helium, carbon and tungsten lead to impurity diffusion coefficients, inward pinch velocities due to density peaking, and thermo-diffusion terms which quantitatively agree with neoclassical predictions and NEO simulations (Belli et al 2012 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 54 015015). The thermal screening factor appears to be less than predicted analytically in the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime, which can be detrimental to fusion performance. Finally, self-consistent nonlinear simulations have revealed that the tungsten impurity flux is not the sum of turbulent and neoclassical fluxes computed separately, as is usually assumed. The synergy partly results from the turbulence-driven in-out poloidal asymmetry of tungsten density. This result suggests the need for self-consistent simulations of impurity transport, i.e. including both turbulence and neoclassical physics, in view of quantitative predictions for ITER.

  1. Divertor impurity injection using high voltage arcs for impurity transport studies on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggate, H. J.; Turner, M. M.; Lisgo, S. W.; Harrison, J. R.; Elmore, S.; Allan, S. Y.; Gaffka, R. C.; Stephen, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    The operation of next-generation fusion reactors will be significantly affected by impurity transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL). Current modelling efforts are restricted by a lack of detailed data on impurity transport in the SOL. In order to address this, a carbon injector has been designed and installed on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The injector creates short lived carbon plumes originating at the MAST divertor lasting less than 50 μs. High voltage capacitor banks are used to create a discharge across concentric carbon electrodes located in a probe mounted on the Divertor Science Facility in the MAST lower divertor. This results in a very short plume duration allowing observation of the evolution of the plume and precise localisation of the plume relative to the X-point on MAST. The emission from the carbon plume was imaged using fast visible cameras filtered in order to isolate the carbon II and carbon III emission lines centered around 514 nm and 465 nm

  2. Impurity transport and plasma rotation in the ISX-B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Murray, L.E.; Crume, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Recent calculations have shown that when external momentum sources and plasma rotation are included in the neoclassical theory, the standard results for impurity transport can be strongly altered. Under appropriate conditions, inward convection is reduced by co-injection and enhanced by counter-injection. In order to examine the theoretical predictions, several observations of impurity transport have been made in the ISX-B tokamak during neutral-beam injection for comparison with the transport seen with Ohmic heating alone. Both intrinsic contaminants and deliberately introduced test impurities display a behaviour that is in qualitative agreement with the predicted beam-driven effects. These correlations are particularly noticeable when the comparisons are made for deuterium when the impurity transport in the Ohmically heated discharges exhibits neoclassical-like characteristics, i.e. accumulation and long confinement times. Similar but smaller effects are observed in beam-heated hydrogen discharges; neoclassical-like behaviour is not seen in Ohmically heated hydrogen sequences. Emphasis has been placed on measuring toroidal plasma rotation, and semiquantitative comparisons with the theories of beam-induced impurity transport have been made. It is possible that radial electric fields other than those associated with momentum transfer and increased anomalous processes during injection could also play a role. (author)

  3. Transport in the tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental observations characterize the edge plasma or boundary layer in magnetically confined plasmas as a region of great complexity. Evidence suggests the edge physics plays a key role in plasma confinement although the mechanism remains unresolved. This study focuses on issues in two areas: observed poloidal asymmetries in the Scrape Off Layer (SOL) edge plasma and the physical nature of the plasma-neutral recycling. A computational model solves the coupled two dimensional partial differential equations governing the plasma fluid density, parallel and radial velocities, electron and ion temperatures and neutral density under assumptions of toroidal symmetry, ambipolarity, anomalous diffusive radial flux, and neutral-ion thermal equilibrium. Drift flow and plasma potential are calculated as dependent quantities. Computational results are compared to experimental data for the CCT and TEXTOR:ALT-II tokamak limiter cases. Comparisons show drift flux is a major component of the poloidal flow in the SOL along the tangency/separatrix. Plasma-neutral recycling is characterized in several tokamak divertors, including the C-MOD device using magnetic flux surface coordinates. Recycling is characterized by time constant, τ rc , on the order of tens of milliseconds. Heat flux transients from the core into the edge on shorter time scales significantly increase the plasma temperatures at the target and may increase sputtering. Recycling conditions in divertors vary considerably depending on recycled flux to the core. The high density, low temperature solution requires that the neutral mean free path be small compared to the divertor target to x-point distance. The simulations and analysis support H-mode confinement and transition models based on the recycling divertor solution bifurcation

  4. Impurity transport of high performance discharges in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauro-Taroni, L; Alper, B; Giannella, R; Marcus, F; Smeulders, P; Von Hellermann, M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Lawson, K [UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (United Kingdom); Mattioli, M [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1994-07-01

    Experimental data show that in the Pellet Enhanced Performance (PEP) H-mode discharges, the light impurities are dominant and accumulate. Furthermore, strong fuel depletion may occur in the plasma centre with n{sub D}/n{sub e} falling to about 0.3 in some cases. On the other hand, in Hot-Ion discharges hollow profiles are measured for C: it is present in lower concentrations and has little effect on fuel dilution. The different behaviour of carbon in the two cases is in agreement with neoclassical predictions for the convection in the plasma core. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Impurity transport of high performance discharges in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauro-Taroni, L.; Alper, B.; Giannella, R.; Marcus, F.; Smeulders, P.; Von Hellermann, M.; Mattioli, M.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental data show that in the Pellet Enhanced Performance (PEP) H-mode discharges, the light impurities are dominant and accumulate. Furthermore, strong fuel depletion may occur in the plasma centre with n D /n e falling to about 0.3 in some cases. On the other hand, in Hot-Ion discharges hollow profiles are measured for C: it is present in lower concentrations and has little effect on fuel dilution. The different behaviour of carbon in the two cases is in agreement with neoclassical predictions for the convection in the plasma core. 6 refs., 6 figs

  6. Impurity penetration and transport during VH-mode on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, S.I.; Evans, T.E.; Jackson, G.L.; West, W.P.

    1992-05-01

    A new modeling effort is made in order to understand the observed relatively low levels of impurity contamination during the VH-mode phase on DIII-D, as compared to those observed during the H-mode phase of selected discharges. The key element is the inclusion of the real 2-D flux surface geometry in the prediction of impurity penetration of sputtered atoms through the scrape-off layer into the core plasma. Of the elements which determine the impurity content in the plasma: sputtering yield, penetration, and core transport, the penetration through the scrape-off layer is found to be the most determinative factor. The low impurity content in VH-mode is attributed to the development of a scrape-off layer with higher density and temperature properties than those normally obtained in H-mode

  7. Transport of wall released impurities in the limiter scrape-off layer of a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, H.A.; Repp, H.

    1978-01-01

    A collisional theory for the transport of heavy wall released impurities in the plasma scrape-off layer is developed, which to zero order approximation considers electron impact ionization and Coulomb collisions with the plasma ions. Impurity ion convection parallel to the magnetic field and radial drift motion are treated as first order correction terms. The theory, which under certain restrictions to the integral coefficients of the Fokker-Planck collision operator is independent of the special form of the plasma ion distribution, is applied to the calculation of the impurity ion fluxes in the scrape-off layer. Preliminary numerical results are presented for a model plasma ion distribution of the loss ellipse type and a half-maxwellian distribution of the wall released impurity atoms. (Auth.)

  8. Unconventional quantized edge transport in the presence of inter-edge coupling in intercalated graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanchang

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that the inter-edge coupling destroys the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect along with the gap opening at the Dirac points. Using first-principles calculations, we find that the quantized edge transport persists in the presence of inter-edge coupling in Ta intercalated epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001), being a QSH insulator with the non-trivial gap of 81 meV. In this case, the band is characterized by two perfect Dirac cones with different Fermi velocities, yet only one m...

  9. Bulk and edge spin transport in topological magnon insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückriegel, Andreas; Brataas, Arne; Duine, Rembert A.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the spin transport properties of a topological magnon insulator, a magnetic insulator characterized by topologically nontrivial bulk magnon bands and protected magnon edge modes located in the bulk band gaps. Employing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, we calculate the spin current driven through a normal metal |topological magnon insulator |normal metal heterostructure by a spin accumulation imbalance between the metals, with and without random lattice defects. We show that bulk and edge transport are characterized by different length scales. This results in a characteristic system size where the magnon transport crosses over from being bulk dominated for small systems to edge dominated for larger systems. These findings are generic and relevant for topological transport in systems of nonconserved bosons.

  10. Experimental study of electron temperature gradient influence on impurity turbulent transport in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, D.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding impurity transport is a key to an optimal regime for a future fusion device. In this thesis, the theoretical and experimental influence of the electron temperature gradient R/L Te on heavy impurity transport is analyzed both in Tore Supra and ASDEX Upgrade. The electron temperature profile is modified locally by heating the plasma with little ECRH power deposited at two different radii. Experimental results have been obtained with the impurity transport code (ITC) which has been completed with a genetic algorithm allowing to determine the transport coefficient profiles with more accuracy. Transport coefficient profiles obtained by a quasilinear gyrokinetic code named QuaLiKiz are consistent with the experimental ones despite experimental uncertainties on gradients. In the core dominated by electron modes, the lower R/L Te the lower the nickel diffusion coefficient. The latter tends linearly to the neoclassical level when the instability threshold is approached. The experimental threshold is in agreement with the one computed by QuaLiKiz. Further out, where the plasma is dominated by ITG, which are independent of R/L Te , both experimental and simulated results show no modification in the diffusion coefficient profile. Furthermore, the convection velocity profile is not modified. This is attributed to a very small contribution of the thermodiffusion (1/Z dependence) in the total convection. On ASDEX, the preliminary results, very different from the Tore Supra ones, show a internal transport barrier for impurities located at the same radius as the strong ECRH power deposit. (author) [fr

  11. Simultaneous realization of high density edge transport barrier and improved L-mode on CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Takashi; Okamura, Shoichi; Suzuki, Chihiro

    2008-10-01

    An edge transport barrier (ETB) formation and an improved L-mode (IL mode) have been simultaneously realized in high density region (n-bar e - 1.2x10 20 m -3 ) on Compact Helical System (CHS). When the ETB is formed during the IL mode, the density reduction in the edge region is suppressed by the barrier formation. As a result of the continuous increasing of the temperature by the IL mode, the stored energy during the combined mode increased up to the maximum stored energy (W p - 9.4 kJ) recorded in CHS experiments. The plasma pressure in the peripheral region increases up to three times larger than that of the L-mode, and the large edge plasma pressure gradient is formed accompanying the pedestal structure. That is caused by the anomalous transport reduction that is confirmed from the sharp drop of the density fluctuation in the edge region. The neutral particle reduction in the peripheral region and the metallic impurity accumulation in the core plasma are simultaneously observed during the high density ETB formation. (author)

  12. Disorder effects on helical edge transport in graphene under a strong tilted magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunli; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2015-10-01

    In a recent experiment, Young et al. [Nature (London) 505, 528 (2014), 10.1038/nature12800] observed a metal to insulator transition as well as transport through helical edge states in monolayer graphene under a strong, tilted magnetic field. Under such conditions, the bulk is a magnetic insulator which can exhibit metallic conduction through helical edges. It was found that the two-terminal conductance of the helical channels deviates from the expected quantized value (=e2/h per edge, at zero temperature). Motivated by this observation, we study the effect of disorder on the conduction through the edge channels. We show that, unlike for helical edges of topological insulators in semiconducting quantum wells, a disorder Rashba spin-orbit coupling does not lead to backscattering, at least to leading order. Instead, we find that the lack of perfect antialignment of the electron spins in the helical channels to be the most likely cause for backscattering arising from scalar (i.e., spin-independent) impurities. The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and other time-reversal symmetry-breaking and/or sublattice parity-breaking potentials also lead to (subleading) corrections to the channel conductance.

  13. Evolution of edge pedestal transport between edge-localized modes in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, J.-P.; Stacey, W. M.; Mellard, S. C. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Evolution of measured profiles of densities, temperatures, and velocities in the edge pedestal region between successive ELM (edge-localized mode) events are analyzed and interpreted in terms of the constraints imposed by particle, momentum and energy balance in order to gain insights regarding the underlying evolution of transport processes in the edge pedestal between ELMs in a series of DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] discharges. The data from successive inter-ELM periods during an otherwise steady-state phase of the discharges were combined into a composite inter-ELM period for the purpose of increasing the number of data points in the analysis. Variation of diffusive and non-diffusive (pinch) particle, momentum, and energy transport over the inter-ELM period are interpreted using the GTEDGE code for discharges with plasma currents from 0.5 to 1.5 MA and inter-ELM periods from 50 to 220 ms. Diffusive transport is dominant for ρ < 0.925, while non-diffusive and diffusive transport are very large and nearly balancing in the sharp gradient region 0.925 < ρ < 1.0. During the inter-ELM period, diffusive transport increases slightly more than non-diffusive transport, increasing total outward transport. Both diffusive and non-diffusive transport have a strong inverse correlation with plasma current.

  14. Low-Z impurity transport studies using CXRS at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, Cecilia; McDermott, Rachael; Dux, Ralph; Angioni, Clemente; Bobkov, Volodymyr; Kappatou, Athina; Lebschy, Alexander; Puetterich, Thomas; Viezzer, Eleonora [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    Impurities in fusion plasmas arise from many sources including the erosion of material from plasma facing components and the intentional injection of impurities for control of the radiation losses. With the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostics at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) the density profiles of low-Z impurity species can be measured with high spatial and temporal resolution and can, thus, be used to investigate the transport of these impurities. Previous work on this topic at AUG has focused primarily on steady state profiles, which deliver the ratio of the diffusive and convective transport coefficients. However, from the time response of the density profiles after applying an external perturbation (e.g. a fast impurity puff) the convective and diffusive components of the transport can be separately determined. The work presented here aims to achieve this by a less conventional approach that is better suited to the limited time resolution of the CXRS diagnostics; namely, a sinusoidal modulation of the boron densities invoked by modulating the power from the ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) antennas. The work presented here aims to achieve this by an approach that is better suited to the limited time resolution of the CXRS diagnostics; namely, a sinusoidal modulation of the boron densities invoked by modulating the power from the ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) antennas. We present the first measurements of the boron density modulation as well as the machine and plasma parameter dependencies of the boron response to the ICRF power.

  15. Orbit effects on impurity transport in a rotating tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1988-05-01

    Particle orbits in a rotating tokamak plasma are calculated from the equation of motion in the frame that rotates with the plasma. It is found that heavy particles in a rotating plasma can drift away from magnetic surfaces significantly faster with a higher bounce frequency, resulting in a diffusion coefficient much larger than that for a stationary plasma. Particle orbits near the surface of a rotating tokamak are also analyzed. Orbit effects indicate that more impurities can penetrate into a plasma rotating with counter-beam injection. Particle simulation is carried out with realistic experimental parameters and the results are in qualitative agreement with some experimental observations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). 19 refs., 15 figs

  16. Electronic transport properties of Ti-impurity band in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, J; Gonzalez-Diaz, G; Pastor, D; Martil, I [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electronica), Facultad de Ciencias, Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-04-21

    In this paper we show that pulsed laser melted high dose implantation of Ti in Si, above the Mott transition, produces an impurity band (IB) in this semiconductor. Using the van der Pauw method and Hall effect measurements we find strong laminated conductivity at the implanted layer and a temperature dependent decoupling between the Ti implanted layer (TIL) and the substrate. The conduction mechanism from the TIL to the substrate shows blocking characteristics that could be well explained through IB theory. Using the ATLAS code we can estimate the energetic position of the IB at 0.36 eV from the conduction band, the density of holes in this band which is closely related to the Ti atomic density and the hole mobility in this band. Band diagrams of the structure at low and high temperatures are also simulated in the ATLAS framework. The simulation obtained is fully coherent with experimental results.

  17. Electronic transport properties of Ti-impurity band in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea, J; Gonzalez-Diaz, G; Pastor, D; Martil, I

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show that pulsed laser melted high dose implantation of Ti in Si, above the Mott transition, produces an impurity band (IB) in this semiconductor. Using the van der Pauw method and Hall effect measurements we find strong laminated conductivity at the implanted layer and a temperature dependent decoupling between the Ti implanted layer (TIL) and the substrate. The conduction mechanism from the TIL to the substrate shows blocking characteristics that could be well explained through IB theory. Using the ATLAS code we can estimate the energetic position of the IB at 0.36 eV from the conduction band, the density of holes in this band which is closely related to the Ti atomic density and the hole mobility in this band. Band diagrams of the structure at low and high temperatures are also simulated in the ATLAS framework. The simulation obtained is fully coherent with experimental results.

  18. Extended fluid transport theory in the tokamak plasma edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2017-06-01

    Fluid theory expressions for the radial particle and energy fluxes and the radial distributions of pressure and temperature in the edge plasma are derived from fundamental conservation (particle, energy, momentum) relations, taking into account kinetic corrections arising from ion orbit loss, and integrated to illustrate the dependence of the observed edge pedestal profile structure on fueling, heating, and electromagnetic and thermodynamic forces. Solution procedures for the fluid plasma and associated neutral transport equations are discussed.

  19. Poloidal density variation of impurities in a rotating tokamak plasma - flux surface coordinates and effect on transport coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, M.

    1999-09-01

    The poloidal variation of impurity densities over magnetic surfaces brings about an enhancement of neoclassical transport coefficients, as shown by Romanelli and Ottaviani for impurities in the Pfirsch Schlueter regime and by Helander for particles in the banana-plateau regime, both in a large aspect ratio tokamak. The same effect will occur in a finite aspect ratio tokamak and therefore it is considered to be relevant for inclusion in transport codes for comparison with the experimental measurements of impurity transport. Here an expression for the impurity-density poloidal-variation generated by the fast toroidal rotation of the plasma column is presented in general coordinates. (author)

  20. The effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on the impurity transport in TEXTOR-DED plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiche, Albert Josef

    2009-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion provides a new mechanism for the generation of electrical power which has the perspective to serve humanity for several millions of years. One possibility to implement fusion on earth is to magnetically confine hot deuterium tritium plasmas in so called tokamaks. The fusion reactions take place in the hot plasma core. Each of the fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium yields 17.6 MeV which can be used in the process of generating electrical power. Impurities contaminate the plasma which then is cooled down and diluted. This leads to a reduction of the fusion reactions and in consequence the energy yield. The transport behaviour of the impurities in the plasma is not fully understood up to now. Nevertheless, experiments have shown that the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) can control the impurity content in the plasma. The dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) on the tokamak Textor is able to induce static and dynamic RMPs. During the application of RMPs transient impurity transport experiments with argon have been performed and the time evolution of the impurity concentrations have been monitored. The line emission intensity of the impurities in the plasma is measured in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and in the soft X-ray (SXR) with the absolutely calibrated VUV spectrometer Hexos and SXR PIN diodes, respectively. The analysis of the transient impurity transport experiments is performed with the help of the transport code Strahl. The impurity flows in Strahl are described by a combination of a diffusive and a convective flow. In the computing process the code solves the coupled set of continuity equations of each of the ionization stages of an impurity. With this method the time evolution of the impurity ion densities and the line emission intensities of the ionization stages can be computed. The adaption to the experimental measurements is performed with the help of the diffusion coefficient and the drift velocity which

  1. Kinetic and transport theory near the tokamak edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.

    1995-12-01

    Conventional transport orderings employed in the core of a tokamak plasma allow large divergence-free flows in flux surfaces, but only weak radial flows. However, alternate orderings are required in the edge region where radial diffusion must balance the rapid loss due to free-streaming to divertor plates or limiters. Kinetic equations commonly used to study the plasma core do not allow such a balance and are, therefore, inapplicable in the plasma edge. Similarly, core transport formulae cannot be extended to the edge region without major, qualitative alteration. Here the authors address the necessary changes. By deriving and solving a novel kinetic equation, they construct distinctive collisional transport laws for the plasma edge. They find that their edge ordering naturally retains the radial diffusion and parallel flow of particles, momentum and heat to lowest order in the conservation equations. To higher order they find a surprising form for parallel transport in the scrape-off layer, in which the parallel flow of particles and heat are driven by a combination of the conventional gradients, viscosity, and new terms involving radial derivatives. The new terms are not relatively small, and could affect understanding of limiter and divertor operation

  2. 3D edge energy transport in stellarator configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTaggart, N.; Zagorski, R.; Bonnin, X.; Runov, A.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, T.; Rognlien, T.; Umansky, M.

    2005-01-01

    The finite difference discretization method is used to solve the electron energy transport equation in complex 3D edge geometries using an unstructured grid. This grid is generated by field-line tracing to separate the radial and parallel fluxes and minimize the numerical diffusion connected with the strong anisotropy of the system. The influence of ergodicity on the edge plasma transport in the W7-X stellarator is investigated in this paper. Results show that the combined effect of ergodicity and the radial plasma diffusion leads to the efficient smoothing of the temperature profiles in the finite-β case

  3. Edge turbulence and transport: Text and ATF modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Lin, H.; Rowan, W.L.; Bengtson, R.; Wootton, A.J.; Diamond, P.H.; Ware, A.S.; Thayer, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    We present experimental results on edge turbulence and transport from the tokamak TEXT and the torsatron ATF. The measured electrostatic fluctuations can explain the edge transport of particles and energy. Certain drive (radiation) and stabilizing (velocity shear) terms are suggested by the results. The experimental fluctuation levels and spectral widths can be reproduced by considering the nonlinear evolution of the reduced MHD equations, incorporating a thermal drive from line radiation. In the tokamak limit (with toroidal electric field) the model corresponds to the resistivity gradient mode, while in the currentless torsatron or stellarator limit it corresponds to a thermally driven drift wave

  4. Impurities in a non-axisymmetric plasma: Transport and effect on bootstrap current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollén, A., E-mail: albertm@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Landreman, M. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Smith, H. M.; Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Braun, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); German Aerospace Center, Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Impurities cause radiation losses and plasma dilution, and in stellarator plasmas the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field is often unfavorable for avoiding strong impurity peaking. In this work we use a new continuum drift-kinetic solver, the SFINCS code (the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver) [M. Landreman et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 042503 (2014)] which employs the full linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau operator, to calculate neoclassical impurity transport coefficients for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) magnetic configuration. We compare SFINCS calculations with theoretical asymptotes in the high collisionality limit. We observe and explain a 1/ν-scaling of the inter-species radial transport coefficient at low collisionality, arising due to the field term in the inter-species collision operator, and which is not found with simplified collision models even when momentum correction is applied. However, this type of scaling disappears if a radial electric field is present. We also use SFINCS to analyze how the impurity content affects the neoclassical impurity dynamics and the bootstrap current. We show that a change in plasma effective charge Z{sub eff} of order unity can affect the bootstrap current enough to cause a deviation in the divertor strike point locations.

  5. Quasibound states and transport characteristics of Au chains with a substitutional S impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrzyniak-Adamczewska, M; Kostyrko, T

    2013-01-01

    Electronic transport properties of short gold atom chains with a single sulfur impurity were studied using density functional theory. It is found that the role of the impurity atom in the transport properties is twofold. First, it acts as a scattering center in the dominating 6s-orbital transmission channel and generally leads to a decrease of the transmission function in a wide energy region around the Fermi level. Second, it gives rise to a quasibound state manifesting as a peak near the Fermi level both in the partial density of states as well as in the transmission function. Because of the hybridization of the sulfur 3p and gold 5d orbitals in its formation, the quasibound state moves locally upward in the gold 5d transmission channel and brings about an enhancement of the transmission function in a narrow energy region near the Fermi level. The height of the peak of the quasibound state in the transmission function depends significantly on the position of the impurity in the chain and its energy varies with the bias voltage. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics become asymmetric with a departure of the impurity from the central position in the chain and they are nonlinear for small values of the voltage (V < 0.1 V). It is proposed that a careful analysis of the I–V characteristics or the voltage dependence of the differential conductance may be used for unambiguous location of the light impurity in experiments with gold chains. (paper)

  6. Influence of magnetic impurities on charge transport in diffusive-normal-metal/superconductor junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Inoue, J.; Asano, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Charge transport in the diffusive normal metal (DN)/insulator/s- and d-wave superconductor junctions is studied in the presence of magnetic impurities in DN in the framework of the quasiclassical Usadel equations with the generalized boundary conditions. The cases of s- and d-wave superconducting

  7. Effect of magnetic islands on the impurity transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, N.V.; Khvostenko, P.P.; Chudnovskij, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Effect of magnetic islands m=2, created in plasma with the help of special quadrupole winding, on the behaviour of impurity in the T-7 tokamak is studied. The use of quadrupole winding permitted to exlude the magnetic island nonstationarity typical to spontaneous development of the Tiaring instability. The results obtained confirm the point of view that splitting of rational magnetic surface results in the change of impurity ion density gradient in its vicinity. This change occurs under the action of ambipolar electric field, that is excited due to the increase of radial electron transport in magnetic islands

  8. Theoretical issues in tokamak confinement: (i) Internal/edge transport barriers and (ii) runaway avalanche confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Helander, P.; Thyagaraja, A.; Andersson, F.; Fueloep, T.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Romanelli, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises a number of distinct, but related, pieces of work on key confinement issues for tokamaks, in particular the formation of internal and edge transport barriers, both within turbulent and neoclassical models, and radial diffusion of avalanching runaway electrons. First-principle simulations of tokamak turbulence and transport using the two-fluid, electromagnetic, global code CUTIE are described. The code has demonstrated the spontaneous formation of internal transport barriers near mode rational surfaces, in qualitative agreement with observations on JET and RTP. The theory of neoclassical transport in an impure, toroidal plasma has been extended to allow for steeper pressure and temperature gradients than are usually considered, and is then found to become nonlinear under conditions typical of the tokamak edge. For instance, the particle flux is found to be a nonmonotonic function of the gradients, thus allowing for a bifurcation in the ion particle flux. Finally, it is shown that radial diffusion caused by magnetic fluctuations can effectively suppress avalanches of runaway electrons if the fluctuation amplitude exceeds δB/B∼10 -3 . (author)

  9. Edge transport barrier formation in compact helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S; Minami, T; Oishi, T; Suzuki, C; Ida, K; Isobe, M; Yoshimura, Y; Nagaoka, K; Toi, K; Fujisawa, A; Akiyama, T; Iguchi, H; Ikeda, R; Kado, S; Matsuoka, K; Matsushita, H; Nakamura, K; Nakano, H; Nishimura, S; Nishiura, M; Ohshima, S; Shimizu, A; Takagi, S; Takahashi, C; Takeuchi, M; Yoshinuma, M

    2004-01-01

    The edge transport barrier (ETB) for particle transport is formed in the neutral beam (NB) heated hydrogen discharges in compact helical system (CHS). The transition to the ETB formation and the back transition are controlled by the heating power. The existence of the heating power threshold is confirmed and it is roughly proportional to the density. The Hα emission signal shows a clear drop at the transition (the timescale of signal decrease is ∼1 ms for the high heating power case). The ETB formation continues for the full duration of NB injection (100 ms) with a moderate level of radiation power loss. Local density profile measurement shows increase of the edge density and the movement of the density gradient region towards the edge

  10. Edge and internal transport barrier formations in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S.; Minami, T.; Akiyama, T.; Fujisawa, A.; Ida, K.; Iguchi, H.; Isobe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Matsushita, H.; Nakano, H.; Nishiura, M.; Ohshima, S.; Shimizu, A.; Suzuki, C.; Takahashi, C.; Toi, K.; Yoshimura, Y.; Yoshinuma, M.; Oishi, T.; Kado, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edge transport barrier (ETB) formation was observed in CHS. Sharp decrease of Hα emission indicates the quick transition of edge particle transport. Increase of the density gradient at the edge was measured by various profile diagnostics and the improvement of the global energy confinement was confirmed based on the stellarator confinement scaling. The heating power threshold exists. The transition and back transition is controlled by the heating power. The local density measurement by the beam emission spectroscopy shows intermittent burst of the low frequency fluctuations during the ETB formation phase. The ETB formation together with the electron temperature increase (electron ITB) in the core region were observed for the NBI discharges without ECH. (author)

  11. Bulk and edge spin transport in topological magnon insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rückriegel, A.; Brataas, A.; Duine, R.A.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the spin transport properties of a topological magnon insulator, a magnetic insulator characterized by topologically nontrivial bulk magnon bands and protected magnon edge modes located in the bulk band gaps. Employing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, we calculate the spin

  12. Impurity transport model for the normal confinement and high density H-mode discharges in Wendelstein 7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K; Burhenn, R; McCormick, K; Pasch, E; Yamada, H; Yoshinuma, M; Inagaki, S; Murakami, S; Osakabe, M; Liang, Y; Brakel, R; Ehmler, H; Giannone, L; Grigull, P; Knauer, J P; Maassberg, H; Weller, A

    2003-01-01

    An impurity transport model based on diffusivity and the radial convective velocity is proposed as a first approach to explain the differences in the time evolution of Al XII (0.776 nm), Al XI (55 nm) and Al X (33.3 nm) lines following Al-injection by laser blow-off between normal confinement discharges and high density H-mode (HDH) discharges. Both discharge types are in the collisional regime for impurities (central electron temperature is 0.4 keV and central density exceeds 10 20 m -3 ). In this model, the radial convective velocity is assumed to be determined by the radial electric field, as derived from the pressure gradient. The diffusivity coefficient is chosen to be constant in the plasma core but is significantly larger in the edge region, where it counteracts the high local values of the inward convective velocity. Under these conditions, the faster decay of aluminium in HDH discharges can be explained by the smaller negative electric field in the bulk plasma, and correspondingly smaller inward convective velocity, due to flattening of the density profiles

  13. Probe measurements for impurity transport in the scrape-off layer of JIPP T-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, M.; Satake, T.; Hashiba, H.; Yamashina, T.; Amemiya, S.

    1982-05-01

    Impurity transport processes in the scrape-off layer of the JIPP T-II device have been studied by a probe method. A cubical silicon probe was inserted and exposed to 20 identical tokamak discharges in the scrape-off region. Deposited impurities were analyzed with use of AES, RBS and PIXE equipments. The main metallic impurities were molybdenum and iron whose deposition behavior was almost the same on any side of the probe, and their fluxes were observed to be 1.2 x 10 13 /cm 2 .discharge on the electron drift side and 5.2 x 10 13 /cm 2 .discharge on the ion drift side, respectively at the distance of 18.3 cm from the center line of the plasma. The mean transport energy of the impurities striking the probe surface was estimated from the depth concentration profile applying the LSS theory for iron as 90 eV on the electron drift side and 250 eV on the ion drift side, respectively. The e-folding length of the scrape-off plasma density was measured by the radial distribution of a deposited tantalum amount to be 0.64 cm on the electron drift side and 1.73 cm on the ion drift side, respectively. (author)

  14. Effects of electrostatic trapping on neoclassical transport in an impure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Ware, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Contamination of a toroidally confined plasma by highly charged impurity ions can produce substantial variation of the electrostatic potential within a magnetic surface. The resulting electrostatic trapping and electrostatic drifts, of hydrogen ions and electrons, yields significant alterations in neoclassical transport theory. A transport theory which includes these effects is derived from the drift-kinetic equation, with an ordering scheme modeled on the parameters of recent tokamak experiments. The theory self-consistently predicts that electrostatic trapping should be fully comparable to magnetic trapping, and provides transport coefficients which, depending quadratically upon the temperature and pressure gradients, differ markedly from the standard neoclassical coefficients for a pure plasma

  15. Edge momentum transport by neutrals: an interpretive numerical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotani, J. T.; Newton, S. L.; Pusztai, I.; Viezzer, E.; Fülöp, T.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-06-01

    Due to their high cross-field mobility, neutrals can contribute to momentum transport even at the low relative densities found inside the separatrix and they can generate intrinsic rotation. We use a charge-exchange dominated solution to the neutral kinetic equation, coupled to neoclassical ions, to evaluate the momentum transport due to neutrals. Numerical solutions to the drift-kinetic equation allow us to cover the full range of collisionality, including the intermediate levels typical of the tokamak edge. In the edge there are several processes likely to contribute to momentum transport in addition to neutrals. Therefore, we present here an interpretive framework that can evaluate the momentum transport through neutrals based on radial plasma profiles. We demonstrate its application by analysing the neutral angular momentum flux for an L-mode discharge in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The magnitudes of the angular momentum fluxes we find here due to neutrals of 0.6-2 \\text{N} \\text{m} are comparable to the net torque on the plasma from neutral beam injection, indicating the importance of neutrals for rotation in the edge.

  16. Initial Studies of Core and Edge Transport of NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bush, C.E.; Bourdelle, C.; Darrow, D.; Dorland, W.; Ejiri, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Rosenberg, A.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Taylor, G.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Peebles, W.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Rapidly developing diagnostic, operational, and analysis capability is enabling the first detailed local physics studies to begin in high-beta plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These studies are motivated in part by energy confinement times in neutral-beam-heated discharges that are favorable with respect to predictions from the ITER-89P scaling expression. Analysis of heat fluxes based on profile measurements with neutral-beam injection (NBI) suggest that the ion thermal transport may be exceptionally low, and that electron thermal transport is the dominant loss channel. This analysis motivates studies of possible sources of ion heating not presently accounted for by classical collisional processes. Gyrokinetic microstability studies indicate that long wavelength turbulence with k(subscript ''theta'') rho(subscript ''i'') ∼ 0.1-1 may be suppressed in these plasmas, while modes with k(subscript ''theta'') rho(subscript ''i'') ∼ 50 may be robust. High-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) heating efficiently heats electrons on NSTX, and studies have begun using it to assess transport in the electron channel. Regarding edge transport, H-mode [high-confinement mode] transitions occur with either NBI or HHFW heating. The power required for low-confinement mode (L-mode) to H-mode transitions far exceeds that expected from empirical edge-localized-mode-free H-mode scaling laws derived from moderate aspect ratio devices. Finally, initial fluctuation measurements made with two techniques are permitting the first characterizations of edge turbulence

  17. Observations of giant recombination edges on PLT tokamak induced by particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, K.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Cowan, R.D.; Eames, D.; Hill, K.; Sauthoff, N.; Silver, E.; Stodiek, W.

    1980-03-01

    Characteristic steps in the continum spectrum of high temperature tokamak plasmas associated with recombination radiation from impurity ions were observed. During special argon-seeded discharges on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamak the x-ray spectrum exhibited large enhancements over the bremsstrahlung continuum beginning with energies of 4.1 keV. This corresponds to the radiative capture of free electrons by hydrogen-like argon into the ground state of helium-like argon. A simple particle diffusion model is proposed, with the Ar XVIII radial profiles evaluated from the size of the recombination edges. For the case of moderate density ( approx. 3 x 10 13 cm -3 ) and temperature [T/sub e/(0) approx. 1.5 keV] discharges the outward radial transport velocity is found to be approximately 10 m/sec

  18. Theory of charge transport in diffusive normal metal/conventional superconductor point contacts in the presence of magnetic impurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Inoue, J.; Asano, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Charge transport in the diffusive normal metal/insulator/s-wave superconductor junctions is studied in the presence of the magnetic impurity for various situations, where we have used the Usadel equation with Nazarov's generalized boundary condition. It is revealed that the magnetic impurity

  19. Bulk-edge correspondence in topological transport and pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Fukui, Takahiro; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2018-03-01

    The bulk-edge correspondence (BEC) refers to a one-to-one relation between the bulk and edge properties ubiquitous in topologically nontrivial systems. Depending on the setup, BEC manifests in different forms and govern the spectral and transport properties of topological insulators and semimetals. Although the topological pump is theoretically old, BEC in the pump has been established just recently [1] motivated by the state-of-the-art experiments using cold atoms [2, 3]. The center of mass (CM) of a system with boundaries shows a sequence of quantized jumps in the adiabatic limit associated with the edge states. Despite that the bulk is adiabatic, the edge is inevitably non-adiabatic in the experimental setup or in any numerical simulations. Still the pumped charge is quantized and carried by the bulk. Its quantization is guaranteed by a compensation between the bulk and edges. We show that in the presence of disorder the pumped charge continues to be quantized despite the appearance of non-quantized jumps.

  20. Transport properties and Raman spectra of impurity substituted MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of MgB 2 are reviewed, with focus on the transport properties and Raman scattering measurements for impurity substituted crystals. Carbon and Aluminium substitution change band filling, introduce intraband and interband scattering. These effects are seen in the temperature dependence of resistivity, Hall coefficients, and phonon peak of Raman spectra. Manganese substitution introduces magnetic scattering, that increases resistivity but gives little change in Raman spectra. The effect of disorder in neutron irradiated samples is also discussed

  1. Analysis of neoclassical edge plasma transport with gyroviscosity and inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.; Antonov, N.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the ambipolarity constraint which results from neoclassical transport theory with gyroviscosity and inertia sets lower limits on the edge density and/or temperature and/or Z eff gradients. Toroidal momentum co, respectively counter, -injection reduces, respectively increases these lower bounds. Generally speaking, co, respectively counter, -injection increases, respectively reduces, the rotation velocities. The theory has so far been developed for the high collisionality regime only. (orig.)

  2. Transport in the plasma edge specific connection to the wall in the Tore Supra ergodic divertor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; DeMichelis, C.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Vallet, J.C.; Capes, H.; Chatelier, M.; Geraud, A.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Guilhem, D.; Harris, G.; Hess, W.; Nguyen, F.; Poutchy, L.; Samain, A.

    1992-01-01

    The ergodic divertor experiments in TORE SUPRA can be analysed along two main lines. The first one refers to the change of the heat and particle transport in the ergodized zone. This is especially true for the electron heat transport which is enhanced in the edge layer. But other distinctive features give evidence of the importance of the parallel connexion length between the plasma edge and the wall. The field lines, which are stochastic in the major part of the perturbed layer (10-15 cm) are such that, in the outermost layer (3 cm), the connexion topology is regular. This has obvious effects on the particle and power deposition, but also on the plasma parameters, and consequently influences the particle recycling and impurity shielding processes. The TORE SUPRA ergodic divertor experiments are reviewed in this framework

  3. The effect of edge and impurities sites properties on their localized states in semi-infinite zigzag edged 2D honeycomb graphene sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Maher

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the tridiagonal method is used to distinguish between edges modes and area modes to study the edge sites properties effect on edge localized states of semi-infinite zigzag 2D honeycomb graphene sheet. The results show a realistic behavior for the dependance of edge localized states of zigzag graphene on the edge sites properties which explaining the experimental results of measured local density of states at the edge of graphene, while at the same time removing the inconsistence...

  4. Impurity transport studies by means of tracer-encapsulated solid pellet injection in neutral beam heated plasmas on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, N; Sudo, S; Khlopenkov, K V; Kato, S; Sergeev, V Yu; Muto, S; Sato, K; Funaba, H; Tanaka, K; Tokuzawa, T; Yamada, I; Narihara, K; Nakamura, Y; Kawahata, K; Ohyabu, N; Motojima, O

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative properties of impurity transport in large helical device (LHD) plasmas heated by neutral beam injection have been investigated by means of tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) injection. In the case of a titanium (Ti) tracer, the behaviour of the emission lines from the highly ionized Ti impurity, Ti Kα(E He-like ∼ 4.7 keV) and Ti XIX (λ = 16.959 nm), has been observed clearly by a soft x-ray pulse height analyzer and a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, respectively. A fairly longer decay time of the Ti Kα emission lines is obtained above the value of a line-averaged electron density, 3.0x10 19 m -3 . The dependence of the behaviour of the Ti tracer impurity on the line-averaged electron density below the value of that, 3.5x10 19 m -3 is in qualitative agreement with the characteristics obtained from the observation of the behaviour of an intrinsic metallic impurity in neutral beam heated plasmas on LHD. In order to estimate the properties of the Ti impurity transport quantitatively, the one-dimensional impurity transport code, MIST has been used. As a result of the transport analysis with the MIST code, even an small inward convection should be necessary to account for the experimental results with the value of the line-averaged electron density, 3.5x10 19 m -3 . In order to examine the experimentally obtained transport coefficients, neoclassical analysis with respect to the radial impurity flux has been performed. The inferred rise of the inward convection cannot be explained solely by neoclassical impurity transport. Therefore, in order to account for the inward convection, the effect of a radial electric field and/or some other effect must be taken into account additionally

  5. Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Pigarov, Alexander

    2011-10-15

    The FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) project of Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program was aimed at providing a high-fidelity whole-tokamak modeling for the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program and ITER through coupling separate components for each of the core region, edge region, and wall, with realistic plasma particles and power sources and turbulent transport simulation. The project also aimed at developing advanced numerical algorithms, efficient implicit coupling methods, and software tools utilizing the leadership class computing facilities under Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR). The FACETS project was conducted by a multi-discipline, multi-institutional teams, the Lead PI was J.R. Cary (Tech-X Corp.). In the FACETS project, the Applied Plasma Theory Group at the MAE Department of UCSD developed the Wall and Plasma-Surface Interaction (WALLPSI) module, performed its validation against experimental data, and integrated it into the developed framework. WALLPSI is a one-dimensional, coarse grained, reaction/advection/diffusion code applied to each material boundary cell in the common modeling domain for a tokamak. It incorporates an advanced model for plasma particle transport and retention in the solid matter of plasma facing components, simulation of plasma heat power load handling, calculation of erosion/deposition, and simulation of synergistic effects in strong plasma-wall coupling.

  6. Impurity injection into tokamak plasmas by erosion probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Bakos, J.S.; Buerger, G.; Paszti, F.; Petravich, G.

    1987-08-01

    Exposing special erosion probes into the edge plasma of MT-1 the impurities Li and Ti were released and contaminated the plasma. By the use of collector probes the torodial transport of these impurities were investigated. The results indicate a preferential impurity flow into codirection of the plasma current. However, the asymmetric component of this flow is much larger than expected from the toroidal drift correlated to the plasma current. (author)

  7. Edge energy transport barrier and turbulence in the I-mode regime on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Churchill, R. M.; Cziegler, I.; Dominguez, A.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Greenwald, M. J.; Howard, N.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E. S.; Reinke, M. L.; Rowan, W. L.; Terry, J. L.

    2011-05-01

    We report extended studies of the I-mode regime [Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)] obtained in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [Marmar et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 51(3), 3261 (2007)]. This regime, usually accessed with unfavorable ion B × ∇B drift, features an edge thermal transport barrier without a strong particle transport barrier. Steady I-modes have now been obtained with favorable B × ∇B drift, by using specific plasma shapes, as well as with unfavorable drift over a wider range of shapes and plasma parameters. With favorable drift, power thresholds are close to the standard scaling for L-H transitions, while with unfavorable drift they are ˜ 1.5-3 times higher, increasing with Ip. Global energy confinement in both drift configurations is comparable to H-mode scalings, while density profiles and impurity confinement are close to those in L-mode. Transport analysis of the edge region shows a decrease in edge χeff, by typically a factor of 3, between L- and I-mode. The decrease correlates with a drop in mid-frequency fluctuations (f ˜ 50-150 kHz) observed on both density and magnetics diagnostics. Edge fluctuations at higher frequencies often increase above L-mode levels, peaking at f ˜ 250 kHz. This weakly coherent mode is clearest and has narrowest width (Δf/f ˜ 0.45) at low q95 and high Tped, up to 1 keV. The Er well in I-mode is intermediate between L- and H-mode and is dominated by the diamagnetic contribution in the impurity radial force balance, without the Vpol shear typical of H-modes.

  8. Revisited neoclassical transport theory for steep, collisional plasma edge profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Published neoclassical results are misleading as concerns the plasma edge for they do not adequately take the peculiar local conditions into account, in particular the fact that the density and temperature variation length-scales are quite small. Coupled novel neoclassical equations obtain, not only for the evolution of the density and temperatures, but also for the radial electric field and the evolution of the parallel ion momentum: gyro-stresses and inertia indeed upset the otherwise de facto ambipolarity of particle transport and a radial electric field necessarily builds up. The increased nonlinear character of these revisited neoclassical equations widens the realm of possible plasma behaviors. (author)

  9. Plasma edge cooling during RF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Hawryluk, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    A new approach to prevent the influx of high-Z impurities into the core of a tokamak discharge by using RF power to modify the edge plasma temperature profile is presented. This concept is based on spectroscopic measurements on PLT during ohmic heating and ATC during RF heating. A one dimensional impurity transport model is used to interpret the ATC results

  10. Impurity accumulation and performance of ITER and DEMO plasmas in the presence of transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatthong, B; Promping, J; Onjun, T

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the impurity accumulations and their performance in the presence of both ITB and ETB in ITER and DEMO plasmas are investigated using a BALDUR integrated predictive modelling code. In these simulations, a combination of a neoclassical transport model NCLASS and an anomalous transport model Mixed Bohm/gyro-Bohm is used. The boundary condition is described at the top of the pedestal, which is calculated theoretically based on a combination of magnetic and flow shear stabilization pedestal width scaling and an infinite-n ballooning pressure gradient model. The toroidal flow is calculated based on the NTV (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) toroidal velocity model. The time evolution of plasma temperature and density profiles of ITER and DEMO (Korean K-DEMO and Japanese DEMO models A, B and C) plasmas are simulated in H -mode scenario with and without ITB formation. It is found that Japanese DEMO model C yields highest plasma temperature; while Korean DEMO yields the best plasma performance among those designs considered. Impurity accumulation is found to be highest in Japanese DEMO model B. (paper)

  11. Two-color Fermi-liquid theory for transport through a multilevel Kondo impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, D. B.; Mora, Christophe; von Delft, Jan; Kiselev, Mikhail N.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a quantum dot with K ≥2 orbital levels occupied by two electrons connected to two electric terminals. The generic model is given by a multilevel Anderson Hamiltonian. The weak-coupling theory at the particle-hole symmetric point is governed by a two-channel S =1 Kondo model characterized by intrinsic channels asymmetry. Based on a conformal field theory approach we derived an effective Hamiltonian at a strong-coupling fixed point. The Hamiltonian capturing the low-energy physics of a two-stage Kondo screening represents the quantum impurity by a two-color local Fermi liquid. Using nonequilibrium (Keldysh) perturbation theory around the strong-coupling fixed point we analyze the transport properties of the model at finite temperature, Zeeman magnetic field, and source-drain voltage applied across the quantum dot. We compute the Fermi-liquid transport constants and discuss different universality classes associated with emergent symmetries.

  12. Low-Z impurities in PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinnov, E.; Suckewer, S.; Bol, K.; Hawryluk, R.; Hosea, J.; Meservey, E.

    1977-11-01

    Low-Z impurities concentrations (oxygen and carbon) have been measured in different discharges in PLT. The contribution to Z/sub eff/, influx rates and radiation losses by oxygen and carbon were obtained. An inverse correlation was found between the low-Z impurity density (and also the edge ion temperature) and the high-Z impurity (tungsten) density. A one-dimensional computer transport model has been used to calculate the spatial profiles of different oxygen and carbon ionization states. This model predicts that fully stripped oxygen and carbon ions should exist near the plasma periphery

  13. Effect of Internal and Edge Transport Barriers in ITER Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianroj, Y.; Onjun, T.; Suwanna, S.; Picha, R.; Poolyarat, N.

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Predictive simulations of ITER with the presence of both an edge transport barrier (ETB) and an internal transport barrier (ITB) are carried out using the BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code. In these simulations, the boundary is taken at the top of the pedestal, where the pedestal values are described using the theory-based pedestal models. These pedestal temperature models are based on three different pedestal width scalings: magnetic and flow shear stabilization (δ α ρ ζ 2 ), flow shear stabilization (δ α Root ρ Rq), and normalized poloidal pressure (δ α R Root βθ, ped). The pedestal width scalings are combined with a pedestal pressure gradient scaling based on ballooning mode limit to predict the pedestal temperature. A version of the semi-empirical Mixed Bohm/gyro Bohm (Mixed B/gB) core transport model that includes ITB effects is used to compute the evolution of plasma profiles and plasma performance, which defined by Fusion Q factor. The results from the cases excluding and including ITB are compared. The preliminary results show the Q value resulted from ITB-excluded simulation is less than the one with ITB included

  14. Quantized charge transport in chiral Majorana edge modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Stephan; Mascot, Eric; Cocklin, Sagen; Vojta, Matthias; Morr, Dirk K.

    2017-11-01

    Majorana fermions can be realized as quasiparticles in topological superconductors, with potential applications in topological quantum computing. Recently, lattices of magnetic adatoms deposited on the surface of s -wave superconductors—Shiba lattices—have been proposed as a new platform for topological superconductivity. These systems possess the great advantage that they are accessible via scanning-probe techniques and thus enable the local manipulation and detection of Majorana modes. Using a nonequilibrium Green's function technique we demonstrate that the topological Majorana edge modes of nanoscopic Shiba islands display universal electronic and transport properties. Most remarkably, these Majorana modes possess a quantized charge conductance that is proportional to the topological Chern number, C , and carry a supercurrent whose chirality reflects the sign of C . These results establish nanoscopic Shiba islands as promising components in future topology-based devices.

  15. Spatiotemporal multiscaling analysis of impurity transport in plasma turbulence using proper orthogonal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatani, S.; Benkadda, S.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.

    2009-01-01

    The spatiotemporal multiscale dynamics of the turbulent transport of impurities is studied in the context of the collisional drift wave turbulence. Two turbulence regimes are considered: a quasihydrodynamic regime and a quasiadiabatic regime. The impurity is assumed to be a passive scalar advected by the corresponding ExB turbulent flow in the presence of diffusion. Two mixing scenarios are studied: a freely decaying case, and a forced case in which the scalar is forced by an externally imposed gradient. The results of the direct numerical simulations are analyzed using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) techniques. The multiscale analysis is based on a space-time separable POD of the impurity field. The low rank spatial POD eigenfunctions capture the large scale coherent structures and the high rank eigenfunctions capture the small scale fluctuations. The temporal evolution at each scale is dictated by the corresponding temporal POD eigenfunctions. Contrary to the decaying case in which the POD spectrum decays fast, the spectrum in the forced case is relatively flat. The most striking difference between these two mixing scenarios is in the temporal dynamics of the small scale structures. In the decaying case the POD reveals the presence of 'bursty' dynamics in which successively small (high POD rank) scales are intermittently activated during the mixing process. On the other hand, in the forced simulations the temporal dynamics exhibits stationary fluctuations. Spatial intermittency or 'patchiness' in the mixing process characterizes the distribution of the passive tracer in the decaying quasihydrodynamic regime. In particular, in this case the probability distribution function of the low rank POD spatial reconstruction error is non-Gaussian. The spatiotemporal POD scales exhibit a diffusive-type scaling in the quasiadiabatic regime. However, this scaling seems to be absent in the quasihydrodynamic regime that shows no scaling (in the decaying case) or two

  16. Study on impurity screening in stochastic magnetic boundary of the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Morita, S.; Feng, Y.

    2008-10-01

    The impurity transport characteristics in the scrape-off layer associated with a stochastic magnetic boundary of LHD are analyzed. The remnant islands with very small internal field line pitch in the stochastic region play a key role in reducing the impurity influx. The thermal force driven impurity influx is significantly suppressed when the perpendicular energy flux exceeds the parallel one inside the islands due to the small pitch. Application of the 3D edge transport code, EMC3-EIRENE, confirmed the impurity retention (screening) effect in the edge region. It is also found that the edge surface layers are the most effective region to retain (screen) impurities because of the flow acceleration and plasma cooling via short flux tubes. The carbon emission obtained in experiments is in good agreement with the modelling results, showing the impurity retention (screening) potential of the stochastic magnetic boundary. (author)

  17. Atomic and molecular data for H2O, CO and CO2 relevant to edge plasma impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, Hiro.

    1992-10-01

    The present status of atomic and molecular data under electron impact involving the most relevant plasma impurity species (H 2 O, CO and CO 2 ) has been surveyed and some data have been compiled and evaluated. The emphasis is the cross sections for ionization, dissociation, excitation, photon emission and recombination processes. (author)

  18. Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallander, J.

    1999-01-01

    Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities. (author)

  19. Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallander, J.

    1999-05-01

    Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities.

  20. An edge pedestal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacev, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    A new model for calculation of the gradient scale lengths in the edge pedestal region and of the edge transport barrier width in H-mode tokamak plasmas will be described. Model problem calculations which demonstrate the promise of this model for predicting experimental pedestal properties will be discussed. The density and Prague gradient scale lengths (L) in the edge are calculated from the particle and ion and electron energy radial transport equations, making use of (presumed) known particle and energy fluxes flowing across the edge transport barrier from the core into the SOL and of edge transport coefficients. The average values of the particle and heat fluxes in the edge transport barrier are calculated in terms of the fluxes crossing into the SOL and the atomic physics reaction rates (ionisation, charge-exchange, elastic scattering, impurity radiation) in the edge by integrating the respective transport equations from the pedestal to the separatrix. An important implication of this model is that the pedestal gradient scale lengths depend not just on local pedestal platers properties but also on particle and energy fluxes from the core plasma and on recycling neutral fluxes that penetrate into the plasma edge, both of which in turn depend on the pedestal properties. The MHD edge pressure gradient constraint α≤ α C is used to determine the pressure width of the edge transport barrier, Δ TB = Δ TB (α c ). Three different models for the MHD edge pressure gradient constraint have been investigated: (1) nominal ideal ballooning mode theory, (2) ballooning mode theory taking into account the edge geometry and shear to access He second stability region; and pedestal β-limit theory when the ballooning modes are stabilised by diamagnetic effects. A series of calculations have been made for a DIII-D model problem. The calculated gradient scale lengths and edge transport barrier widths are of the magnitude of values observed experimentally, and certain trends

  1. Radiation profile measurements for edge transport barrier discharges in Compact Helical System using AXUV photodiode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, C.; Okamura, S.; Minami, T.; Akiyama, T.; Fujisawa, A.; Ida, K.; Isobe, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Nishimura, S.; Peterson, B. J.; Shimizu, A.; Takahashi, C.; Toi, K.; Yoshimura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of edge transport barrier (ETB) has recently been found in Compact Helical System (CHS) plasmas heated by co-injected neutral beam injection (NBI) with strong gas puffing. This regime is characterized by the appearance of the steep gradient of the electron density near the edge following the abrupt drop of hydrogen Balmer alpha (H α ) line intensity. In addition to single channel pyroelectric detector as a conventional bolometer, we have employed unfiltered absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) photodiode arrays as a simple and low-cost diagnostic to investigate spatial and temporal variations of radiation emissivity in the ETB discharges. A compact mounting module for a 20 channel AXUV photodiode array including an in-vacuum preamplifier for immediate current-voltage conversion has successfully been designed and fabricated. Two identical modules installed in the upper and lower viewports provide 40 lines of sight covering the inboard and outboard sides within the horizontally elongated cross section of the CHS plasma with wide viewing angle. Although spectral uniformity of the detector sensitivity of the AXUV photodiode is unsatisfied for photon energies lower than 200 eV, it has been confirmed that the signals of AXUV photodiode and pyroelectric detector in the ETB discharges show roughly the same behavior except for the very beginning and end of the discharges. The results of the measurements in typical ETB discharges show that the signals of all the channels of the AXUV photodiode arrays begin to increase more rapidly at the moment of the transition than before. The rate of the increase is larger for the edge viewing chords than for the center viewing ones, which indicates the flattening of the radiation profile following the change in the electron density profile after the formation of the ETB. However, the signals for the edge chords tend to saturate after several tens of milliseconds, while they still continue to increase for the central chords

  2. Routine average effective charge calculation using visible Bremsstrahlung emission and comparison with the impurity transport code of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guirlet, R.; Mattioli, M.; DeMichelis, C.; Hess, W.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Effective charge measurements and calculations are presented for the Tore Supra, using visible Bremsstrahlung diagnostics. The measurements, are presented together with a reliability test of the results are discussed, by means of an impurity transport code simulating all available experimental data (XUV line spectroscopy, soft X-ray emission and Bremsstrahlung). (author) 5 refs.; 10 figs

  3. Metal impurity transport control in JET H-mode plasmas with central ion cyclotron radiofrequency power injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valisa, M.; Carraro, L.; Predebon, I.

    2011-01-01

    The scan of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) power has been used to systematically study the pump out effect of central electron heating on impurities such as Ni and Mo in H-mode low collisionality discharges in JET. The transport parameters of Ni and Mo have been measured by introducing...

  4. Some effects of MHD activity on impurity transport in the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Fonck, R.J.; Hulse, R.A.; LeBlanc, B.

    1985-10-01

    The effects of MHD activity on intrinsic impurity transport are studied in ohmic discharges of the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) by measuring of the Z/sub eff/ profile from visible bremsstrahlung radiation and the spectral line intensities from ultraviolet spectroscopy. A diffusive/convective transport model, including an internal disruption model, is used to simulate the data. The Z/sub eff/ profile with no MHD activity is fitted with a strong inward convection, characterized by a peaking parameter c/sub v/ (= -a 2 v/2rD) = 11 (3.5, +4.5). At the onset of MHD activity (a large m = 1 n = 1 oscillation followed by sawteeth), this strongly peaked profile is flattened and subsequently reaches a new quasi-equilibrium shape. This profile is characterized by reduced convection [c/sub v/ = 3.6 (-1.1, +1.6), D = 1.4 (-0.7, +5.6) x 10 4 cm 2 /s], in addition to the particle redistribution which accompanies the sawtooth internal disruptions. 10 figs

  5. Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D; Shende, Sameer S; Huck, Kevin A; Mr. Alan Morris, and Mr. Wyatt Spear

    2012-03-14

    The goal of the FACETS project (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) was to provide a multiphysics, parallel framework application (FACETS) that will enable whole-device modeling for the U.S. fusion program, to provide the modeling infrastructure needed for ITER, the next step fusion confinement device. Through use of modern computational methods, including component technology and object oriented design, FACETS is able to switch from one model to another for a given aspect of the physics in a flexible manner. This enables use of simplified models for rapid turnaround or high-fidelity models that can take advantage of the largest supercomputer hardware. FACETS does so in a heterogeneous parallel context, where different parts of the application execute in parallel by utilizing task farming, domain decomposition, and/or pipelining as needed and applicable. ParaTools, Inc. was tasked with supporting the performance analysis and tuning of the FACETS components and framework in order to achieve the parallel scaling goals of the project. The TAU Performance System® was used for instrumentation, measurement, archiving, and profile / tracing analysis. ParaTools, Inc. also assisted in FACETS performance engineering efforts. Through the use of the TAU Performance System, ParaTools provided instrumentation, measurement, analysis and archival support for the FACETS project. Performance optimization of key components has yielded significant performance speedups. TAU was integrated into the FACETS build for both the full coupled application and the UEDGE component. The performance database provided archival storage of the performance regression testing data generated by the project, and helped to track improvements in the software development.

  6. Parallel transport studies of high-Z impurities in the core of Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, M. L.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Rice, J. E.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Terry, J. L.; Wolfe, S. M. [MIT-Plasma Science and Fusion Center Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Measurements of poloidal variation, ñ{sub z}/, in high-Z impurity density have been made using photodiode arrays sensitive to vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray emission in Alcator C-Mod plasmas. In/out asymmetries in the range of −0.2<0.3 are observed for r/a<0.8, and accumulation on both the high-field side, n{sub z,cos}<0, and low-field side, n{sub z,cos}>0, of a flux surface is found to be well described by a combination of centrifugal, poloidal electric field, and ion-impurity friction effects. Up/down asymmetries, −0.05<0.10, are observed over 0.50 corresponding to accumulation opposite the ion ∇B drift direction. Measurements of the up/down asymmetry of molybdenum are found to disagree with predictions from recent neoclassical theory in the trace limit, n{sub z}Z{sup 2}/n{sub i}≪1. Non-trace levels of impurities are expected to modify the main-ion poloidal flow and thus change friction-driven impurity density asymmetries and impurity poloidal rotation, v{sub θ,z}. Artificially modifying main-ion flow in parallel transport simulations is shown to impact both ñ{sub z}/ and v{sub θ,z}, but simultaneous agreement between measured and predicted up/down and in/out asymmetry as well as impurity poloidal rotation is not possible for these C-Mod data. This link between poloidal flow and poloidal impurity density variation outlines a more stringent test for parallel neoclassical transport theory than has previously been performed. Measurement and computational techniques specific to the study of poloidal impurity asymmetry physics are discussed as well.

  7. Deposition probe measurements of impurities injected into a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Grote, H.; Herrmann, A.

    1985-01-01

    Impurity confinement behaviour has been studied by using a deposition probe in conjunction with pellet injection. Generally, an exponential decay of the impurity efflux and nearly symmetric ion/electron side toroidal flows have been observed. During phases of strong plasma disturbances, asymmetric flow is seen, indicative of edge transport and prompt recycling from local sources. The application of ECRH may cause such disturbances. (author)

  8. Recent experimental studies of edge and internal transport barriers in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohil, P; Baylor, L R; Burrell, K H; Casper, T A; Doyle, E J; Greenfield, C M; Jernigan, T C; Kinsey, J E; Lasnier, C J; Moyer, R A; Murakami, M; Rhodes, T L; Rudakov, D L; Staebler, G M; Wang, G; Watkins, J G; West, W P; Zeng, L

    2003-01-01

    Results from recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have revealed many important details on transport barriers at the plasma edge and in the plasma core. These experiments include: (a) the formation of the H-mode edge barrier directly by pellet injection; (b) the formation of a quiescent H-mode edge barrier (QH-mode) which is free from edge localized modes, but which still exhibits good density and radiative power control; (c) the formation of multiple transport barriers, such as the quiescent double barrier (QDB) which combines an internal transport barrier with the quiescent H-mode edge barrier. Results from the pellet-induced H-mode experiments indicate that: (a) the edge temperature (electron or ion) does not need to attain a critical value for the formation of the H-mode barrier, (b) pellet injection leads to an increased gradient in the radial electric field, E r , at the plasma edge; (c) the experimentally determined edge parameters at barrier transition are well below the predictions of several theories on the formation of the H-mode barrier, (d) pellet injection can lower the threshold power required to form the H-mode barrier. The quiescent H-mode barrier exhibits good density control as the result of continuous magnetohydrodynamic activity at the plasma edge called the edge harmonic oscillation (EHO). The EHO enhances the edge particle transport whilst maintaining a good energy transport barrier. The ability to produce multiple barriers in the QDB regime has led to long duration, high-performance plasmas with β N H 89 values of 7 for up to 10 times the confinement time. Density profile control in the plasma core of QDB plasmas has been demonstrated using on-axis electron cyclotron heating

  9. Theoretical description of heavy impurity transport and its application to the modelling of tungsten in JET and ASDEX upgrade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casson, F.J.; Angioni, C.; Belli, E.A.; Bilato, R.; Mantica, P.; Odstrčil, T.; Pütterich, T.; Valisa, M.; Garzotti, L.; Giroud, C.; Hobirk, J.; Maggi, C.F.; Mlynář, Jan; Reinke, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2015), č. článku 014031. ISSN 0741-3335 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * impurity * transport * neoclassical * validation * modelling * tungsten Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.404, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/57/1/014031/meta

  10. Study on the impurity transport in the experiments on macroparticle injection into the FT-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhilinskij, A.P.; Kuteev, B.V.; Larionov, M.M.; Lebedev, A.D.; Mikhajkin, S.S.; Nikiforov, V.A.; Rozhanskij, V.A.; Tsendin, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Studied is decomposition of the impurity disturbance (Li, C, O, Si, Ti, stainless steel, Cu, Mo, W) injected by a macroparticle into the central plasma region. It is shown that the impurity are carried out from the discharge at a tau characteristic time weakly depending on their sort. The tau values are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions accounting for the poloidal plasma rotation

  11. Characterization and scaling of the tokamak edge transport barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Philip Adrian

    2012-04-24

    The high confinement regime (H-mode) in a tokamak plasma displays a remarkable edge region. On a small spatial scale of 1-2 cm the properties of the plasma change significantly. Certain parameters vary 1-2 orders of magnitude in this region, called the pedestal. Currently, there is no complete understanding of how the pedestal forms or how it is sustained. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the theoretical understanding of the pedestal and provide scalings towards larger machines, like ITER and DEMO. A pedestal database was built with data from different tokamaks: ASDEX Upgrade, DIIID and JET. The pedestal was characterized with the same method for all three machines. This gives the maximum value, gradient and width of the pedestal in n{sub e}, T{sub e} and T{sub i}. These quantities were analysed along with quantities derived from them, such as the pressure or the confinement time. For this purpose two parameter sets were used: normalized parameters (pressure {beta}, time {nu}{sub *}, length {rho}{sub *}, shape f{sub q}) and machine parameters (size a, magnetic field B{sub t}, plasma current I{sub p}, heating P). All results are dependent on the choice of the coordinate system: normalized poloidal flux {Psi}{sub N} and real space r/a. The most significant result, which was obtained with both parameter sets, shows a different scaling of the pedestal width for the electron temperature and the electron density. The presented scalings predict that in ITER and DEMO the temperature pedestal will be appreciably wider than the density pedestal. The pedestal top scaling for the pressure reveals differences between the electron and the ion pressure. In extrapolations this results in values for T{sub e,ped} of 4 keV (ITER) and 10 keV (DEMO), but significantly lower values for the ion temperature. A two-term method was applied to use the pedestal pressure to determine the pedestal contribution to the global confinement time {tau}{sub E}. The dependencies in the

  12. Characterization and scaling of the tokamak edge transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Philip Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The high confinement regime (H-mode) in a tokamak plasma displays a remarkable edge region. On a small spatial scale of 1-2 cm the properties of the plasma change significantly. Certain parameters vary 1-2 orders of magnitude in this region, called the pedestal. Currently, there is no complete understanding of how the pedestal forms or how it is sustained. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the theoretical understanding of the pedestal and provide scalings towards larger machines, like ITER and DEMO. A pedestal database was built with data from different tokamaks: ASDEX Upgrade, DIIID and JET. The pedestal was characterized with the same method for all three machines. This gives the maximum value, gradient and width of the pedestal in n e , T e and T i . These quantities were analysed along with quantities derived from them, such as the pressure or the confinement time. For this purpose two parameter sets were used: normalized parameters (pressure β, time ν * , length ρ * , shape f q ) and machine parameters (size a, magnetic field B t , plasma current I p , heating P). All results are dependent on the choice of the coordinate system: normalized poloidal flux Ψ N and real space r/a. The most significant result, which was obtained with both parameter sets, shows a different scaling of the pedestal width for the electron temperature and the electron density. The presented scalings predict that in ITER and DEMO the temperature pedestal will be appreciably wider than the density pedestal. The pedestal top scaling for the pressure reveals differences between the electron and the ion pressure. In extrapolations this results in values for T e,ped of 4 keV (ITER) and 10 keV (DEMO), but significantly lower values for the ion temperature. A two-term method was applied to use the pedestal pressure to determine the pedestal contribution to the global confinement time τ E . The dependencies in the scaling for τ E,ped are nearly identical to the IPB98 global

  13. Investigations of impurity control in JET using fuelling, and interpretation of experiments using the LIM impurity code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, A.; Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Inhibition of contamination of the plasma core in JET by edge impurities during high power heating of deuterium plasmas in limiter configuration using fuelling is demonstrated. By injecting deuterium gas during heating, in the presence of a much larger recycling deuterium flux, a reduction of more than a factor of 2 was effected in n z (0)/Φ z , the ratio of central impurity density to impurity influx at the plasma edge. The reduction in n z (0) was obtained without much effect on peak electron temperature and density. Reduction of plasma contamination by gas fuelling was observed also when hot spots formed on the limiter, a condition that without simultaneous gas fuelling culminated in runaway plasma contamination. Detailed analysis of the experiments is undertaken with the purpose of identifying the processes by which plasma contamination was inhibited, employing standard limiter plasma contamination modelling. Processes which might produce the observed impurity inhibiting effects of gas injection include: (a) reduction in impurity production at the limiter; (b) increase in impurity screening in the scrape-off layer; (c) increase in radial impurity transport at the plasma edge; (d) increase in average deuteron flow velocity to the limiter along the scrape-off layer. These are examined in detail using the Monte Carlo limiter impurity transport code LIM. Bearing in mind that uncertainties exist both in the choice of appropriate modelling assumptions to be used and in the measurement of required edge plasma parameters, changes in n z (0)/Φ z by a factor of 2 are at the limit of the present modelling capability. However, comparison between LIM code simulations and measurements of plasma impurity content indicate that the standard limiter plasma contamination model may not be adequate and that other processes need to be added in order to be able to describe the experiments in JET. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  14. Edge transport and fluctuation induced turbulence characteristics in early SST-1 plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakati, B., E-mail: bharat.kakati@ipr.res.in; Pradhan, S., E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Dhongde, J.; Semwal, P.; Yohan, K.; Banaudha, M.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Anomalous particle transport during the high MHD activity at SST-1. • Electrostatic turbulence is modulated by MHD activity at SST-1 tokamak. • Edge floating potential fluctuations shows poloidal long-range cross correlation. - Abstract: Plasma edge transport characteristics are known to be heavily influenced by the edge fluctuation induced turbulences. These characteristics play a critical role towards the confinement of plasma column in a Tokamak. The edge magnetic fluctuations and its subsequent effect on electrostatic fluctuations have been experimentally investigated for the first time at the edge of the SST-1 plasma column. This paper reports the correlations that exist and is experimentally been observed between the edge densities and floating potential fluctuations with the magnetic fluctuations. The edge density and floating potential fluctuations have been measured with the help of poloidally separated Langmuir probes, whereas the magnetic fluctuations have been measured with poloidally spaced Mirnov coils. Increase in magnetic fluctuations associated with enhanced MHD activities has been found to increase the floating potential and ion saturation current. These observations indicate electrostatic turbulence getting influenced with the MHD activities and reveal the edge anomalous particle transport during SST-1 tokamak discharge. Large-scale coherent structures have been observed in the floating potential fluctuations, indicating long-distance cross correlation in the poloidal directions. From bispectral analysis, a strong nonlinear coupling among the floating potential fluctuations is observed in the low-frequency range about 0–15 kHz.

  15. Impurity band effects on transport and thermoelectric properties of Fe2 -xNixVAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, I.; Budinska, B.; Milosavljevic, D.; Heinrich, P.; Khmelevskyi, S.; Moser, R.; Podloucky, R.; Prenninger, P.; Bauer, E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Heusler alloys of the series Fe2 -xNixVAl ,0 ≤x ≤0.2 , were prepared and characterized, and their physical properties, relevant to the thermoelectric performance of such materials, were studied in a wide temperature range. The starting material Fe2VAl is characterized by a pseudogap of the electronic density of states near the Fermi energy, with a gap width of the order of 1 eV. Density functional theory calculations were performed by application of two approaches. In the framework of the local-spin-density approximation and coherent potential approximation, the electronic densities of states of substitutional alloys were calculated, revealing that with increasing Ni content the Fermi energy moves toward the conduction band, and consequently, the nature of electronic transport changes from p type to n type. It appears that Ni, due to its extra electrons, provides a narrow impurity band near the Fermi level. These states can be made responsible for the experimentally observed evolution of transport properties. Furthermore, the Vienna ab initio Simulation package (vasp) was utilized for deriving electronic, structural, and vibrational properties of ordered Fe2VAl and Fe1.75Ni0.25VAl . In particular, it is found that due to Ni substitution there is a general shift to lower phonon frequencies by about 2 THz as compared to the undoped case. Associated to these modifications, the electrical resistivity, ρ (T ) , changes from a semiconducting-like behavior to a nonsimple metallic behavior, while the Seebeck coefficient reaches values of the order of -80 μ V /K around room temperature for the sample x =0.2 . The increase of the Ni content, in addition, goes along with a substantial reduction of the lattice part of the thermal conductivity. This change is analyzed in detail in terms of a disorder parameter Γ , characterizing the derangement of the crystalline lattice due to the substitution of Fe by Ni. Ab initio calculations of the phonon dynamics carried out

  16. A constricted quantum Hall system as a beam-splitter: understanding ballistic transport on the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Siddhartha

    2007-09-01

    We study transport in a model of a quantum Hall edge system with a gate-voltage controlled constriction. A finite backscattered current at finite edge-bias is explained from a Landauer- Buttiker analysis as arising from the splitting of edge current caused by the difference in the filling fractions of the bulk (ν 1 ) and constriction(ν 2 ) quantum Hall fluid regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model. The constriction region splits the incident long-wavelength chiral edge density-wave excitations among the transmitting and reflecting edge states encircling it. These findings provide satisfactory explanations for several puzzling recent experimental results. These results are confirmed by computing various correlators and chiral linear conductances of the system. In this way, our results find excellent agreement with some of the recent puzzling experimental results for the cases of ν 1 = 1/3, 1. (author)

  17. Observation of impurity accumulation and concurrent impurity influx in PBX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesnic, S.S.; Fonck, R.J.; Ida, K.; Couture, P.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Powell, E.T.; Reusch, M.; Takahashi, H.; Gammel, G.; Morris, W.

    1987-01-01

    Impurity studies in L- and H-mode discharges in PBX have shown that both types of discharges can evolve into either an impurity accumulative or nonaccumulative case. In a typical accumulative discharge, Z eff peaks in the center to values of about 5. The central metallic densities can be high, n met /n e ≅ 0.01, resulting in central radiated power densities in excess of 1 W/cm 3 , consistent with bolometric estimates. The radial profiles of metals obtained independently from the line radiation in the soft X-ray and the VUV regions are very peaked. Concurrent with the peaking, an increase in the impurity influx coming from the edge of the plasma is observed. At the beginning of the accumulation phase the inward particle flux for titanium has values of 6x10 10 and 10x10 10 particles/cm 2 s at minor radii of 6 and 17 cm. At the end of the accumulation phase, this particle flux is strongly increased to values of 3x10 12 and 1x10 12 particles/cm 2 s. This increased flux is mainly due to influx from the edge of the plasma and to a lesser extent due to increased convective transport. Using the measured particle flux, an estimate of the diffusion coefficient D and the convective velocity v is obtained. (orig.)

  18. Properties of the tokamak edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, H.

    1988-01-01

    A short review of some features of the edge plasma in limiter tokamaks is given. The limits of the simple one-dimensional scrape-off layer (SOL) model and the relation between the core plasma are discussed. Multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) phenomena and detached plasma are closely connected with the particle and energy balance of the SOL. Their occurrence is based on the relation of plasma parameters of the edge plasma to those of the core. Important problems of plasma wall interactions are the detection of the impurity sources and sinks and the study of the impurity transport and shielding. The non-uniform character of plasma wall interactions and their dependence on the discharge performance still renders difficult any theoretical forecast of impurity distribution and transport and calls for better diagnostics. (author)

  19. Introducing FACETS, the Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, John R.; Candy, Jeff; Cohen, Ronald H.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; McCune, Douglas C.; Estep, Donald J.; Larson, Jay W.; Malony, Allen; Worley, Patrick H.; Carlsson, Johann Anders; Hakim, A.H.; Hamill, P.; Kruger, Scott E.; Muzsala, S.; Pletzer, Alexander; Shasharina, Svetlana; Wade-Stein, D.; Wang, N.; McInnes, Lois C.; Wildey, T.; Casper, T.A.; Diachin, Lori A.; Epperly, Thomas; Rognlien, T.D.; Fahey, Mark R.; Kuehn, Jeffery A.; Morris, A.; Shende, Sameer; Feibush, E.; Hammett, Gregory W.; Indireshkumar, K.; Ludescher, C.; Randerson, L.; Stotler, D.; Pigarov, A.; Bonoli, P.; Chang, C.S.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Colella, Philip; Keyes, David E.; Bramley, R.

    2007-01-01

    The FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) project began in January 2007 with the goal of providing core to wall transport modeling of a tokamak fusion reactor. This involves coupling previously separate computations for the core, edge, and wall regions. Such a coupling is primarily through connection regions of lower dimensionality. The project has started developing a component-based coupling framework to bring together models for each of these regions. In the first year, the core model will be a 1 dimensional model (1D transport across flux surfaces coupled to a 2D equilibrium) with fixed equilibrium. The initial edge model will be the fluid model, UEDGE, but inclusion of kinetic models is planned for the out years. The project also has an embedded Scientific Application Partnership that is examining embedding a full-scale turbulence model for obtaining the crosssurface fluxes into a core transport code.

  20. Comparison of Edge and Internal Transport Barriers in Drift Wave Predictive Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiland, J.; Crombe, K.; Mantica, P.

    2011-01-01

    We have simulated the formation of an internal transport barrier on JET including a self-consistent treatment of ion and electron temperatures and poloidal and toroidal momentum. Similar simulations of edge transport barriers, including the L-H transition have also been made. However, here only p...... for the internal barrier. For the edge barrier the edge density was varied and it turned out that a lower edge density gave a stronger barrier. Electromagnetic and nonlocal effects were important for both types of barriers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]......We have simulated the formation of an internal transport barrier on JET including a self-consistent treatment of ion and electron temperatures and poloidal and toroidal momentum. Similar simulations of edge transport barriers, including the L-H transition have also been made. However, here only...... polodal momentum and the temperatures were simulated. The internal barrier included an anomalous spinup of poloidal momentum similar to that in the experiment. Also the edge barrier was accompanied by a spinup of poloidal momentum. The experimental density (with no barrier) was used and kept fixed...

  1. Influence of neutral-beam injection on impurity transport in the ISX-B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Murray, L.E.; Kasai, S.; Arnurius, D.E.; Bates, S.C.; Crume, E.C.; Dunlap, J.L.; Edmonds, P.H.; Lazarus, E.A.; Murakami, M.; Pare, V.K.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Swain, D.W.; Thomas, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of radiation from iron and from argon used as a test gas indicate that co-injection inhibits impurity accumulation in the interior of ISX-B discharges, but counter-injection enhances accumulation. These results agree qualitatively with recent theoretical calculations

  2. Out of equilibrium transport through an Anderson impurity: probing scaling laws within the equation of motion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro, C A; Usaj, G; Sánchez, M J

    2010-10-27

    We study non-equilibrium electron transport through a quantum impurity coupled to metallic leads using the equation of motion technique at finite temperature T. Assuming that the interactions are taking place solely in the impurity and focusing on the infinite Hubbard limit, we compute the out of equilibrium density of states and the differential conductance G(2)(T, V) in order to test several scaling laws. We find that G(2)(T, V)/G(2)(T, 0) is a universal function of both eV/T(K) and T/T(K), T(K) being the Kondo temperature. The effect of an in-plane magnetic field on the splitting of the zero bias anomaly in the differential conductance is also analyzed. For a Zeeman splitting Δ, the computed differential conductance peak splitting depends only on Δ/T(K), and for large fields approaches the value of 2Δ. Besides studying the traditional two leads setup, we also consider other configurations that mimic recent experiments, namely, an impurity embedded in a mesoscopic wire and the presence of a third weakly coupled lead. In these cases, a double peak structure of the Kondo resonance is clearly obtained in the differential conductance while the amplitude of the highest peak is shown to decrease as ln(eV/T(K)). Several features of these results are in qualitative agreement with recent experimental observations reported on quantum dots.

  3. Relaxation oscillations and transport barrier dynamics in tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkadda, Sadruddin; Beyer, Peter; Fuhr-Chaudier, Guillaume; Garbet, Xavier; Ghendrih, Philippe; Sarazin, Yanick

    2004-01-01

    Oscillations of turbulent transport of particles and energy in magnetically confined plasmas can be easily observed in simulations of a variety of turbulence models. These oscillations typically involve a mechanism of energy exchange between fluctuations and a poloidal shear flow. This kind of ''predator-prey'' mechanism is found to be not relevant for transport barrier relaxations. In RBM simulations of resistive ballooning turbulence with transport barrier, relaxation oscillations of the latter are observed even in the case of frozen poloidal shear flow. These relaxations are due to a transitory growth of a mode localized at the barrier center. A one-dimensional model for the evolution of such a mode in the presence of a shear flow describes a transitory growth of an initial perturbation. Oscillations in the case of a finite steady-state shear flow are possible due to the coupling of the mode to the dynamics of the pressure profile. (author)

  4. Effects of bulk charged impurities on the bulk and surface transport in three-dimensional topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, B.; Chen, T.; Shklovskii, B. I., E-mail: shklovsk@physics.spa.umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Fine Theoretical Physics Institute (United States)

    2013-09-15

    In the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), the physics of doped semiconductors exists literally side-by-side with the physics of ultrarelativistic Dirac fermions. This unusual pairing creates a novel playground for studying the interplay between disorder and electronic transport. In this mini-review, we focus on the disorder caused by the three-dimensionally distributed charged impurities that are ubiquitous in TIs, and we outline the effects it has on both the bulk and surface transport in TIs. We present self-consistent theories for Coulomb screening both in the bulk and at the surface, discuss the magnitude of the disorder potential in each case, and present results for the conductivity. In the bulk, where the band gap leads to thermally activated transport, we show how disorder leads to a smaller-than-expected activation energy that gives way to variable-range hopping at low temperatures. We confirm this enhanced conductivity with numerical simulations that also allow us to explore different degrees of impurity compensation. For the surface, where the TI has gapless Dirac modes, we present a theory of disorder and screening of deep impurities, and we calculate the corresponding zero-temperature conductivity. We also comment on the growth of the disorder potential in passing from the surface of the TI into the bulk. Finally, we discuss how the presence of a gap at the Dirac point, introduced by some source of time-reversal symmetry breaking, affects the disorder potential at the surface and the mid-gap density of states.

  5. Effects of bulk charged impurities on the bulk and surface transport in three-dimensional topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, B.; Chen, T.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2013-01-01

    In the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), the physics of doped semiconductors exists literally side-by-side with the physics of ultrarelativistic Dirac fermions. This unusual pairing creates a novel playground for studying the interplay between disorder and electronic transport. In this mini-review, we focus on the disorder caused by the three-dimensionally distributed charged impurities that are ubiquitous in TIs, and we outline the effects it has on both the bulk and surface transport in TIs. We present self-consistent theories for Coulomb screening both in the bulk and at the surface, discuss the magnitude of the disorder potential in each case, and present results for the conductivity. In the bulk, where the band gap leads to thermally activated transport, we show how disorder leads to a smaller-than-expected activation energy that gives way to variable-range hopping at low temperatures. We confirm this enhanced conductivity with numerical simulations that also allow us to explore different degrees of impurity compensation. For the surface, where the TI has gapless Dirac modes, we present a theory of disorder and screening of deep impurities, and we calculate the corresponding zero-temperature conductivity. We also comment on the growth of the disorder potential in passing from the surface of the TI into the bulk. Finally, we discuss how the presence of a gap at the Dirac point, introduced by some source of time-reversal symmetry breaking, affects the disorder potential at the surface and the mid-gap density of states

  6. Modelling of impurity production and transport in the scrape-off layer of a high density limiter tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, R.; Romanelli, F.

    1996-01-01

    A simple analytical model is presented that describes impurity ion production and transport in the tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL). The equations of the model are solved analytically in the test particle approximation. The solution, as a function of different plasma parameters and target materials, is discussed in the case in which the background plasma is described by the simple SOL model and a comparison between the model and the numerical results of a 2-D multifluid code is presented. (author). 18 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Resonant scattering on impurities in the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvitz, A.

    1994-06-01

    We developed a new approach to carrier transport between the edge states via resonant scattering on impurities, which is applicable both for short and long range impurities. A detailed analysis of resonant scattering on a single impurity is performed. The results used for study of the inter-edge transport by multiple resonant hopping via different impurities' site. We found the total conductance can be obtained from an effective Schroedinger equation with constant diagonal matrix elements in the Hamiltonian, where the complex non-diagonal matrix elements are the amplitudes of a carrier hopping between different impurities. It is explicitly shown how the complex phase leads to Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the total conductance. Neglecting the contribution of self-crossing resonant-percolation trajectories, we found that the inter-edge carrier transport is similar to propagation in one-dimensional system with off-diagonal disorder. Then we demonstrated that each Landau band has an extended state Ε Ν , while all other states are localized, and the localization length behaves as L - 1 Ν (Ε) ∼ (Ε - Ε Ν ) 2 . (author)

  8. On impurity handling in high performance stellarator/heliotron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhenn, R.; Feng, Y.; Ida, K.

    2008-10-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) and Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X, under construction) are experiments specially designed to demonstrate long pulse (quasi steady-state) operation, which is an intrinsic property of Stellarators and Heliotrons. Significant progress was made in establishment of high performance plasmas. A crucial point is the increasing impurity confinement towards high density as observed at several machines (TJ-II, W7-AS, LHD) which can lead to impurity accumulation and early pulse termination by radiation collapse at high density. In addition, theoretical predictions for non-axisymmetric configurations prognosticate the absence of impurity screening by ion temperature gradients in standard ion root plasmas. Nevertheless, scenarios were found where impurity accumulation was successfully avoided in LHD and/or W7-AS by the onset of drag forces in the high density and low temperature scrape-off-layer, the generation of magnetic islands at the plasma boundary and to a certain degree also by ELMs, flushing out impurities and reducing the net-impurity influx into the core. Additionally, a reduction of impurity core confinement was observed in the W7-AS High Density H-mode (HDH) regime and by application of sufficient ECRH heating power. The exploration of such purification mechanisms is a demanding task for successful steady-state operation. The impurity transport at the plasma edge/SOL was identified to play a major role for the global impurity behaviour in addition to the core confinement. (author)

  9. A comparative study of core and edge transport barrier dynamics of DIII-D and TFTR tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Beer, M.; Bell, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Confinement bifurcations and subsequent plasma dynamics in the TFTR core and the DIII-D core and edge are compared in order to identify a common physics basis. Observations suggest a framework in which ExB shear plays a dominant role in the barrier dynamics. In TFTR, bifurcations from the reverse shear (RS) into the enhanced reverse shear (ERS) regime with high power balanced neutral beam heating (above 25 MW at 4.8 T) resemble edge H mode transitions observed on DIII-D. In both, radial electric field (E r ) excursions precede confinement changes and are manifest as localized changes in the impurity poloidal rotation. Reduced transport follows the excursions, and in both cases strong E r shear is reinforced by the plasma pressure. These characteristics are contrasted with DIII-D negative central shear (NCS) barrier evolution with unidirectional beam injection. There, the improved confinement region can develop slowly, depending on the neutral beam input power and torque. Rapid expansion and deepening of this region follows an increase in the neutral beam heating power. The initial formation phase is modulated by confinement steps and interruptions. An analog for these steps is found in TFTR RS plasmas. Although these do not dominate the TFTR plasma evolution during low power (7 MW) heating, they can represent significant transport reductions when additional heating is applied. In both devices, no strong excursion in E r precedes these latter confinement bifurcations. The triggering event of these steps may be related to current profile relaxation, but it is not always connected with simple integral or half-integer values of the minimum in the q profile. Finally, variations of E r and the ExB shear through the application of unidirectional injection on TFTR yielded plasmas with confinement characteristics and barrier dynamics similar to those of DIII-D NCS plasmas. The data underscore that the physics responsible for the enhanced confinement states is fundamentally

  10. A comparative study of core and edge transport barrier dynamics of DIII-D and TFTR tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Beer, M.A.; Bell, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Confinement bifurcations and subsequent plasma dynamics in the TFTR core and the DIII-D core and edge are compared in order to identify a common physics basis. Observations suggest a framework in which ExB shear plays a dominant role in the barrier dynamics. In TFTR, bifurcations from the reverse shear (RS) into the enhanced reverse shear (ERS) regime with high power balanced neutral beam heating (above 25 MW at 4.8 T) resemble edge H mode transitions observed on DIII-D. In both, radial electric field (E r ) excursions precede confinement changes and are manifest as localized changes in the impurity poloidal rotation. Reduced transport follows the excursions, and in both cases strong E r shear is reinforced by the plasma pressure. These characteristics are contrasted with DIII-D negative central shear (NCS) barrier evolution with unidirectional beam injection. There, the improved confinement region can develop slowly, depending on the neutral beam input power and torque. Rapid expansion and deepening of this region follows an increase in the neutral beam heating power. The initial formation phase is modulated by confinement steps and interruptions. An analog for these steps is found in TFTR RS plasmas. Although these do not dominate the TFTR plasma evolution during low power (7 MW) heating, they can represent significant transport reductions when additional heating is applied. In both devices, no strong excursion in E r precedes these latter confinement bifurcations. The triggering event of these steps may be related to current profile relaxation, but it is not always connected with simple integral or half-integer values of the minimum in the q profile. Finally, variations of E r and the ExB shear through the application of unidirectional injection on TFTR yielded plasmas with confinement characteristics and barrier dynamics similar to those of DIII-D NCS plasmas. The data underscore that the physics responsible for the enhanced confinement states is fundamentally

  11. Parity effect of bipolar quantum Hall edge transport around graphene antidots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Sadashige; Nakaharai, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Moriyama, Takahiro; Ono, Teruo; Kobayashi, Kensuke

    2015-06-30

    Parity effect, which means that even-odd property of an integer physical parameter results in an essential difference, ubiquitously appears and enables us to grasp its physical essence as the microscopic mechanism is less significant in coarse graining. Here we report a new parity effect of quantum Hall edge transport in graphene antidot devices with pn junctions (PNJs). We found and experimentally verified that the bipolar quantum Hall edge transport is drastically affected by the parity of the number of PNJs. This parity effect is universal in bipolar quantum Hall edge transport of not only graphene but also massless Dirac electron systems. These results offer a promising way to design electron interferometers in graphene.

  12. Stochastic models of edge turbulent transport in the thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchenkov, Dima

    2005-01-01

    Two-dimensional stochastic model of turbulent transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of thermonuclear reactors is considered. Convective instability arisen in the system with respect to perturbations reveals itself in the strong outward bursts of particle density propagating ballistically across the SOL. The criterion of stability for the fluctuations of particle density is formulated. A possibility to stabilize the system depends upon the certain type of plasma waves interactions and the certain scenario of turbulence. A bias of limiter surface would provide a fairly good insulation of chamber walls excepting for the resonant cases. Pdf of the particle flux for the large magnitudes of flux events is modeled with a simple discrete time toy model of I-dimensional random walks concluding at the boundary. The spectra of wandering times feature the pdf of particle flux in the model and qualitatively reproduce the experimental statistics of transport events

  13. Twin lead ballistic conductor based on nanoribbon edge transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konôpka, Martin; Dieška, Peter

    2018-03-01

    If a device like a graphene nanoribbon (GNR) has all its four corners attached to electric current leads, the device becomes a quantum junction through which two electrical circuits can interact. We study such system theoretically for stationary currents. The 4-point energy-dependent conductance matrix of the nanostructure and the classical resistors in the circuits are parameters of the model. The two bias voltages in the circuits are the control variables of the studied system while the electrochemical potentials at the device's terminals are non-trivially dependent on the voltages. For the special case of the linear-response regime analytical formulae for the operation of the coupled quantum-classical device are derived and applied. For higher bias voltages numerical solutions are obtained. The effects of non-equilibrium Fermi levels are captured using a recursive algorithm in which self-consistency between the electrochemical potentials and the currents is reached within few iterations. The developed approach allows to study scenarios ranging from independent circuits to strongly coupled ones. For the chosen model of the GNR with highly conductive zigzag edges we determine the regime in which the single device carries two almost independent currents.

  14. Numerical simulation of impurity transport in Lake Baikal during the summer period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsydenov, Bair O.

    2017-11-01

    The distributions of impurities obtained as a result of numerical modeling on the Srednyaya arm (Selenga River mouth)- Cape Golyi cross-section of Lake Baikal, Siberia, Russia, are presented. The data on the air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, humidity, and cloudiness from the Babushkin meteorological station from 01.06.2016 to 30.06.2016 are used as the weather condition in the mathematical model. The results of simulation have shown that the impurities dissolved in water reach the bottom of the Selenga shallow basin of Lake Baikal. As the heat accumulation increases and the river waters warm up, the maximum concentrations of suspended substances tend to remain in the upper layers of the lake.

  15. Impurity scattering effect on charge transport in high-Tc cuprate junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Asano, Y.; Kashiwaya, S.

    2004-01-01

    It is known that the zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) is expected in tunneling spectra of normal-metal/high-Tc cuprate junctions because of the formation of the midgap Andreev resonant states (MARS) at junction interfaces. In the present review, we report the recent theoretical study of impurity scattering effects on the tunneling spectroscopy. In the former part of the present paper, we discuss impurity effects in normal metal. We calculate tunneling conductance for diffusive normal metal (DN)/high Tc cuprate junctions based on the Keldysh Green's function technique. Besides the ZBCP due to the MARS, we can expect ZBCP caused by the different origin, i.e., the coherent Andreev reflection (CAR) assisted by the proximity effect in DN. Their relative importance depends on the angle a between the interface normal and the crystal axis of high-Tc superconductors. At α = 0, we find the ZBCP by the CAR for low transparent junctions with small Thouless energies in DN; this is similar to the case of diffusive normal metal/insulator/s-wave superconductor junctions. Under increase of α from zero to π/4, the contribution of MARS to ZBCP becomes more prominent and the effect of the CAR is gradually suppressed. Such complex spectral features would be observable in conductance spectra of high-Tc junctions at very low temperatures. In the latter part of our paper, we study impurity effects in superconductors. We consider impurities near the junction interface on the superconductor side. The conductance is calculated from the Andreev and the normal reflection coefficients which are estimated by using the single-site approximation in an analytic calculation and by the recursive Green function method in a numerical simulation. We find splitting of the ZBCP in the presence of the time reversal symmetry. Thus the zero-field splitting of ZBCP in the experiment does not perfectly prove an existence of broken time reversal symmetry state

  16. Rotation and impurity studies in the presence of MHD activity and internal transport barriers on TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federspiel, L. I.

    2014-07-01

    This thesis focuses on measurements of toroidal rotation and impurity profiles in improved plasma scenarios and in the presence of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity. Experiments were performed on TCV, the Tokamak a Configuration Variable in Lausanne. In TCV, plasma rotation is measured by the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic (CXRS). The CXRS is associated with a low power diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNBI) that provides CX emission from the hot plasma core, without perturbing the plasma with additional torque. The beam is observed transversally by the CXRS diagnostic so that local ion temperature, density and intrinsic velocity measurements are obtained. The three systems composing the present day CXRS2013 diagnostic cover the entire TCV radial midplane with up to 80 measurement locations separated by around 7 mm with a time resolution ranging from 2-30 ms. The main upgrades concerned the installation of new sensitive cameras, the overhaul of the toroidal system, the extended-chord configuration and the automation of the acquisition and analysis processes. These new Cars capabilities permitted the investigation of more complex scenarios featuring low intensity and/or fast events, like the low density electron internal transport barriers (eITBs) and the sawtooth (ST) instability. A comparison between rotation profiles measured over several sawtooth events and across a 'canonical' sawtooth cycle has been undertaken in limited L-mode plasmas. The averaged rotation profiles obtained with the upgraded CXRS diagnostic show that ST restrict the maximum attainable and that the rotation profiles are flattened and almost always display a small co-current contribution. It is this effect that results in the 1/I{sub p} scaling observed in TCV limited L-mode plasmas. The co-current core contribution is related to the ST crash, whilst, during the quiescent ramp of the sawtooth period, a plasma recoil outside the mixing radius is observed. A

  17. Rotation and impurity studies in the presence of MHD activity and internal transport barriers on TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federspiel, L. I.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on measurements of toroidal rotation and impurity profiles in improved plasma scenarios and in the presence of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity. Experiments were performed on TCV, the Tokamak a Configuration Variable in Lausanne. In TCV, plasma rotation is measured by the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic (CXRS). The CXRS is associated with a low power diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNBI) that provides CX emission from the hot plasma core, without perturbing the plasma with additional torque. The beam is observed transversally by the CXRS diagnostic so that local ion temperature, density and intrinsic velocity measurements are obtained. The three systems composing the present day CXRS2013 diagnostic cover the entire TCV radial midplane with up to 80 measurement locations separated by around 7 mm with a time resolution ranging from 2-30 ms. The main upgrades concerned the installation of new sensitive cameras, the overhaul of the toroidal system, the extended-chord configuration and the automation of the acquisition and analysis processes. These new Cars capabilities permitted the investigation of more complex scenarios featuring low intensity and/or fast events, like the low density electron internal transport barriers (eITBs) and the sawtooth (ST) instability. A comparison between rotation profiles measured over several sawtooth events and across a 'canonical' sawtooth cycle has been undertaken in limited L-mode plasmas. The averaged rotation profiles obtained with the upgraded CXRS diagnostic show that ST restrict the maximum attainable and that the rotation profiles are flattened and almost always display a small co-current contribution. It is this effect that results in the 1/I p scaling observed in TCV limited L-mode plasmas. The co-current core contribution is related to the ST crash, whilst, during the quiescent ramp of the sawtooth period, a plasma recoil outside the mixing radius is observed. A high

  18. Neutral particle transport modeling with a reflective source in the plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    A reflective source term is incorporated into the Boltzmann neutral particle transport equation to account for boundary reflection. This reflective neutral model is integrated over a uniform axis and subsequently discretized. The discrete two-dimensional equations are solved iteratively with a computer code. The results of the reflective neutral model computer code are benchmarked with the neutral particle transport code ONEDANT. The benchmark process demonstrates the validity of the reflective neutral model. The reflective neutral model is coupled to the Braams plasma particle and energy transport code. The coupled system generates self-consistent plasma edge transport solutions. These solutions, which utilize the transport equation are similar to solutions which utilize simple plasma edge neutral models when high recycle divertors are modeled. In the high recycle mode, the high electron density at the divertor plate reduces the mean free path of plate neutrals. Hence, the similarity in results. It is concluded that simple neutral models are sufficient for the analysis of high recycle power reactor edge plasmas. Low recycle edge plasmas were not examined

  19. Dynamics of the pedestal structure in the edge transport barrier in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, S.; Oishi, T.; Tanaka, S.

    2006-10-01

    The dynamic behavior of the edge pedestal in the edge transport barrier (ETB) formation discharge (H-mode) in the compact helical system (CHS) is investigated. Edge Harmonic Oscillations (EHOs) having a fundamental frequency of 2-4.5 kHz, depending on the magnetic configuration, and their second harmonic are observed when the density gradient of the pedestal reaches a certain threshold. There are two groups of so-called EHOs in the CHS. One is located in the edge region where the ι=1 surface exists, and the other is in the core region (although we also call it EHO in this paper) around the half radius where the ι=0.5 surface exists. The magnetic probe signal is revealed to reflect the latter mode, showing the poloidal mode number of 2, while that for the edge BES channel is 1. The density build-up saturates simultaneously with the increase of EHOs in the edge BES channel, which suggests that to a considerable extend the mode increases the particle transport. (author)

  20. X transport and its effect on H-mode and edge pedestal in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.; Darrow, D.; White, R.; Lin, Z.; Lee, W.; Ku, S.H.; Weitzner, H.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Grassie, J.S. de

    2001-01-01

    A new classical non-ambipolar transport mechanism has been identified which can be a dominant source of strong Er and edge pedestal layer formation immediately inside the separatrix in a diverted tokamak. Due to vanishingly small poloidal B-field and grad-B drift toward x-point, plasma ions with small ν parallel in the X-region do not have confined single particle orbits. This leads to a non-ambipolar convective transport in the X-region (X-transport), either collisional or collisionless, inducing a strong negative Er-shear layer. The X-transport can provide basic understanding of many of the experimental observations. (author)

  1. Modulation of electronic transport properties in armchair phosphorene nanoribbons by doping and edge passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Caixia; Wang, Tianxing; Xia, Congxin; Liu, Yufang

    2017-10-09

    The electronic structures and transport properties of group IV atoms (C, Si, Ge)-doped armchair phosphorene nanoribbons (APNRs) are investigated using first-principles calculations, considering different edge passivation. The results show that the C, Si, Ge dopants can induce the transition occur from semiconductor to metal in the APNRs. The negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior in the doped APNR system is robust with respect to the doping concentration and edge passivation type. However, their current peak positions and peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) values are correlated with doping concentration and edge passivation type. In particular, for the C, Si-doped APNRs, the low bias NDR behavior with the PVR (10 5 -10 8 ) can be observed when doping concentration is low in the APNRs with the F and H edge passivation. These results may play an important role for the fabrication of future low power consumption nano-electronic devices.

  2. Density limit and cross-field edge transport scaling in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBombard, B.; Greenwald, M.; Hughes, J.W.; Lipschultz, B.; Mossessian, D.; Terry, J.L.; Boivin, R.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Pitcher, C.S.; Zweben, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent experiments in Alcator C-Mod have uncovered a direct link between the character and scaling of cross-field particle transport in the edge plasma and the density limit, n G . As n-bar e /n G is increased from low values to values approaching ∼1, an ordered progression in the cross-field edge transport physics occurs: first benign cross-field heat convection, then cross-field heat convection impacting the scrape-off layer (SOL) power loss channels and reducing the separatrix electron temperature, and finally 'bursty' transport (normally associated with the far SOL) invading into closed flux surface regions and carrying a convective power loss that impacts the power balance of the discharge. These observations suggest that SOL transport and its scaling with plasma conditions plays a key role in setting the empirically observed density limit scaling law. (author)

  3. Edge transport studies in the edge and scrape-off layer of the National Spherical Torus Experiment with Langmuir probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedo, J. A., E-mail: jboedo@ucsd.edu; Rudakov, D. L. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Myra, J. R.; D' Ippolito, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corp, 2400 Central Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Zweben, S.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R. J.; Bell, R.; Kugel, H.; Leblanc, B.; Roquemore, L. A. [Princeton University, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Ahn, J. W.; Canik, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Crocker, N. [University of California Los Angeles, PO Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Transport and turbulence profiles were directly evaluated using probes for the first time in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of NSTX [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] in low (L) and high (H) confinement, low power (P{sub in}∼ 1.3 MW), beam-heated, lower single-null discharges. Radial turbulent particle fluxes peak near the last closed flux surface (LCFS) at ≈4×10{sup 21} s{sup −1} in L-mode and are suppressed to ≈0.2×10{sup 21} s{sup −1} in H mode (80%–90% lower) mostly due to a reduction in density fluctuation amplitude and of the phase between density and radial velocity fluctuations. The radial particle fluxes are consistent with particle inventory based on SOLPS fluid modeling. A strong intermittent component is identified. Hot, dense plasma filaments 4–10 cm in diameter, appear first ∼2 cm inside the LCFS at a rate of ∼1×10{sup 21} s{sup −1} and leave that region with radial speeds of ∼3–5 km/s, decaying as they travel through the SOL, while voids travel inward toward the core. Profiles of normalized fluctuations feature levels of 10% inside LCFS to ∼150% at the LCFS and SOL. Once properly normalized, the intermittency in NSTX falls in similar electrostatic instability regimes as seen in other devices. The L-H transition causes a drop in the intermittent filaments velocity, amplitude and number in the SOL, resulting in reduced outward transport away from the edge and a less dense SOL.

  4. Turbulent transport reduction by E x B velocity shear during edge plasma biasing in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oost, G. [Dept. of Applied Physics, Ghent Univ., Ghent (Belgium); Adamek, J.; Antoni, V.; Balan, P.; Boedo, J.A.; Devynck, P.; Duran, I.; Eliseev, L.; Gunn, J.P.; Hron, M.; Ionita, C.; Jachmich, S.; Kirnev, G.S.; Martines, E.; Melnikov, A.; Peleman, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Silva, C.; Stoeckel, J.; Tendler, M.; Varandas, C.; Van Schoor, M.; Vershkov, V.; Weynants, R.R.

    2004-07-01

    Experiments in the tokamaks TEXTOR, CASTOR, T-10 and ISTTOK have provided new and complementary evidence on the physics of the universal mechanism of E x B velocity shear stabilization of turbulence, concomitant transport barrier formation and radial conductivity by using various edge biasing techniques. (orig.)

  5. Role of transport band edge variation on delocalized charge transport in high-mobility crystalline organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadashchuk, Andrey; Tong, Fei; Janneck, Robby; Fishchuk, Ivan I.; Mityashin, Alexander; Pavlica, Egon; Köhler, Anna; Heremans, Paul; Rolin, Cedric; Bratina, Gvido; Genoe, Jan

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate that the degree of charge delocalization has a strong impact on polarization energy and thereby on the position of the transport band edge in organic semiconductors. This gives rise to long-range potential fluctuations, which govern the electronic transport through delocalized states in organic crystalline layers. This concept is employed to formulate an analytic model that explains a negative field dependence coupled with a positive temperature dependence of the charge mobility observed by a lateral time-of-flight technique in a high-mobility crystalline organic layer. This has important implications for the further understanding of the charge transport via delocalized states in organic semiconductors.

  6. New approach in two-dimensional fluid modeling of edge plasma transport with high intermittency due to blobs and edge localized modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to simulate intermittent, non-diffusive plasma transport (via blobs and filaments of edge localized modes (ELMs)) observed in the tokamak edge region within the framework of two-dimensional transport codes. This approach combines the inherently three-dimensional filamentary structures associated with an ensemble of blobs into a macro-blob in the two-dimensional poloidal cross-section and advects the macro-blob ballistically across the magnetic field, B. Intermittent transport is represented as a sequence of macro-blobs appropriately seeded in the edge plasma according to experimental statistics. In this case, the code is capable of reproducing both the long-scale temporal evolution of the background plasma and the fast spatiotemporal dynamics of blobs. We report the results from a two-dimensional edge plasma code modeling of a single macro-blob dynamics, and its interaction with initially stationary background plasma as well as with material surfaces. The mechanisms of edge plasma particle and energy losses from macro-blobs are analyzed. The effects of macro-blob sizes and advection velocity on edge plasma profiles are studied. The macro-blob impact on power loading and sputtering rates on the chamber wall and on inner and outer divertor plates is discussed. Temporal evolution of particle inventory of the edge plasma perturbed by macro-blobs is analyzed. Application of macro-blobs to ELM modeling is highlighted.

  7. Effects of nuclear spins on the transport properties of the edge of two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    The electrons in the edge channels of two-dimensional topological insulators can be described as a helical Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. They couple to nuclear spins embedded in the host materials through the hyperfine interaction, and are therefore subject to elastic spin-flip backscattering on the nuclear spins. We investigate the nuclear-spin-induced edge resistance due to such backscattering by performing a renormalization-group analysis. Remarkably, the effect of this backscattering mechanism is stronger in a helical edge than in nonhelical channels, which are believed to be present in the trivial regime of InAs/GaSb quantum wells. In a system with sufficiently long edges, the disordered nuclear spins lead to an edge resistance which grows exponentially upon lowering the temperature. On the other hand, electrons from the edge states mediate an anisotropic Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida nuclear spin-spin interaction, which induces a spiral nuclear spin order below the transition temperature. We discuss the features of the spiral order, as well as its experimental signatures. In the ordered phase, we identify two backscattering mechanisms, due to charge impurities and magnons. The backscattering on charge impurities is allowed by the internally generated magnetic field, and leads to an Anderson-type localization of the edge states. The magnon-mediated backscattering results in a power-law resistance, which is suppressed at zero temperature. Overall, we find that in a sufficiently long edge the nuclear spins, whether ordered or not, suppress the edge conductance to zero as the temperature approaches zero.

  8. Improved core-edge tokamak transport simulations with the CORSICA 2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarditi, A.; Cohen, R.H.; Crotinger, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The CORSICA 2 code models the nonlinear transport between the core and the edge of a tokamak plasma. The code couples a 2D axisymmetric edge/SOL model (UEDGE) to a 1D model for the radial core transport in toroidal flux coordinates (the transport module from the CORSICA 1 code). The core density and temperature profiles are joined to the flux-surface average profiles from the 2D code sufficiently inside the magnetic separatrix, at a flux surface on which the edge profiles are approximately constant. In the present version of the code, the deuterium density and electron and ion temperatures are coupled. The electron density is determined by imposing quasi-neutrality, both in the core and in the edge. The model allows the core-edge coupling of multiple ion densities while retaining a single temperature (corresponding to the equilibration value) for the all ion species. Applications of CORSICA 2 to modeling the DIII-D tokamak are discussed. This work will focus on the simulation of the L-H transition, coupling a single ion species (deuterium) and the two (electron and ion) temperatures. These simulations will employ a new self-consistent model for the L-H transition that is being implemented in the UEDGE code. Applications to the modeling of ITER ignition scenarios are also discussed. This will involve coupling a second density species (the thermal alphas), bringing the total number of coupled variables up to four. Finally, the progress in evolving the magnetic geometry is discussed. Currently, this geometry is calculated by CORSICA's MHD equilibrium module (TEQ) at the beginning of the run and fixed thereafter. However, CORSICA 1 can evolve this geometry quasistatically, and this quasistatic treatment is being extended to include the edge/SOL geometry. Recent improvements for code speed-up are also presented

  9. Integrated ELM simulation with edge MHD stability and transport of SOL-divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Takizuka, Tomonori; Aiba, Nobuyuki; Ozeki, Takahisa; Oyama, Naoyuki

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the pressure profile on the energy loss caused by edge localized modes (ELMs) has been investigated by using an integrated simulation code TOPICS-IB based on a core transport code with a stability code for the peeling-ballooning modes and a transport model for scrape-off-layer and divertor plasmas. The steep pressure gradient inside the pedestal top is found to broaden the region of the ELM enhanced transport through the broadening of eigenfunctions and enhance the ELM energy loss. The ELM energy loss in the simulation becomes larger than 15% of the pedestal energy, as is shown in the database of multi-machine experiments. (author)

  10. Salient issues of edge physics pertaining to loss of confinement: A resistive MHD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The progress that has been made during this fiscal year is significant in the area of tokamak edge plasma transport. The drift-rippling mode model of edge turbulent transport was extended. In particular, the research areas on which were concentrated include the following topics: (1) The theoretical investigation of the radiatively enhanced transport due to the effects of impurity driven radiation instabilities has been expanded to include a situation with multiple impurities (such as carbon, C 4+ , and oxygen, O 6+ ); (2) In order to validate the use of the impurity radiation input from the tokamak bolometer experiments in the theoretical edge turbulent transport calculations, the analysis that is utilized to transform impurity brightness data to radiated power profiles has been checked for state population and Abel inversion correctness; (3) The drift-rippling model of edge turbulent transport has been extended to include ionization particle sources in addition to the impurity driven thermal instability drive; and (4) The detailed limiter and realistic edge geometric effects on the edge turbulent transport has been included in the drift-rippling model

  11. Edge transport barrier formation and ELM phenomenology in the W7-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, P.; Hirsch, M.; Baldzuhn, J.; Ehmler, H.; Gadelmeier, F.; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H.-J.; Hildebrandt, D.; Jaenicke, R.; Kisslinger, J.; Koenig, R.; McCormick, K.; Wagner, F.; Weller, A.; Wendland, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    In NBI discharges with density ramps in W7-AS, the quiescent H-mode is restricted to the same ranges of the edge rotational transform as in ECRH discharges and occurs above threshold densities ≥10 20 m -3 which increase with heating power. Higher power needs higher density for stabilization. The approach to the quiescent H-mode often occurs, with increasing density and decreasing power flow through the edge, from grassy through dithering states to bursts of ELMs and, in a few cases, quasi-periodic ELMs. This goes parallel with increasing radial gradients of the plasma pressure and E-field at the edge. Higher heating power reduces in particular the T i gradients and hence the E-field gradients, which effect can be compensated by higher density. The correlations found are fairly consistent when an ExB flow shear decorrelation of the turbulent transport is assumed

  12. Semiconducting states and transport in metallic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiongwen; Wang Haiyan; Wan Haiqing; Zhou Guanghui; Song Kehui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function method within the tight-binding approximation scheme, through a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) model, we study the low-energy electronic states and transport properties of carbon chains in armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs). We show that semiconducting AGNRs possess only semiconducting chains, while metallic ones possess not only metallic chains but also unconventional semiconducting chains located at the 3jth (j≠0) column from the edge (the first chain) due to the vanishing of the metallic component in the electron wavefunction. The two types of states for carbon chains in a metallic AGNR system are demonstrated by different density of states and STM tunneling currents. Moreover, a similar phenomenon is predicted in the edge region of very wide AGNRs. However, there is remarkable difference in the tunneling current between narrow and wide ribbons.

  13. Edge transport and its interconnection with main chamber recycling in ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallenbach, A.; Dux, R.; Gafert, J.

    2003-01-01

    Edge profiles of electron temperature and density are measured in ASDEX Upgrade with high spatial resolution of 2-3 mm with Thomson scattering. In the region of the edge transport barrier in ELMy H-mode, the gradient lengths of T e and n e are found closely coupled, with the temperature profile twice as steep as the density profile corresponding to η e ∼ 2. The edge density in the region of the barrier foot is closely coupled to the main chamber recycling, with no strong dependence on other parameters. In contrast the density rise from the outer barrier foot to the pedestal exhibits pronounced dependence on plasma current and shaping, indicating quite different mechanisms determining the absolute density and its gradient. (author)

  14. Nonlinear neoclassical theory for toroidal edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, T.; Helander, P.

    2001-01-01

    Edge plasma processes play a critical role for the global confinement of the plasma. In the edge region, where impurity ions are abundant and the temperature and density gradients are large, the assumptions of the standard neoclassical theory break down. We have extended the theory of neoclassical transport in an impure plasma with arbitrary cross section and aspect ratio to allow for steeper pressure and temperature gradients than are usually considered in the conventional theory. The gradients are allowed to be so large that the friction force between the bulk ions and heavy impurities is comparable to the parallel impurity pressure gradient. In this case the impurity ions are found to undergo a spontaneous rearrangement on each flux surface. This reduces their parallel friction with the bulk ions and causes the neoclassical ion flux to become a non-monotonic function of the gradients for plasma parameters typical of the tokamak edge. Thus, the neoclassical confinement is improved in regions where the gradients are large, such as in the edge pedestal. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data from several tokamaks. (orig.)

  15. Effects of classical and neo-classical cross-field transport of tungsten impurity in realistic tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamoto, S.; Inoue, H.; Sawada, Y.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); Homma, Y.; Hoshino, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Bonnin, X. [ITER Organization, St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Coster, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Schneider, R. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The initial simulation study of the neoclassical perpendicular self-diffusion transport in the SOL/Divertor regions for a realistic tokamak geometry with the IMPGYRO code has been performed in this paper. One of the most unique features of the IMPGYRO code is calculating exact Larmor orbit of the test particle instead of assuming guiding center approximation. Therefore, effects of the magnetic drifts in realistic tokamaks are naturally taken into account in the IMPGYRO code. This feature makes it possible to calculate neoclassical transport processes, which possibly become large in the SOL/divertor plasma. Indeed, neoclassical self-diffusion process, the resultant effect of the combination of magnetic drift and Coulomb collisions with background ions, has already been included in the IMPGYRO model. In the present paper, prior to implementing the detailed model of neoclassical transport process into IMPGYRO, we have investigated the effect of neoclassical selfdiffusion in a realistic tokamak geometry with lower single null X-point. We also use a model with guiding center approximation in order to compare with the IMPGYRO full orbit model. The preliminary calculation results of each model have shown differences in the perpendicular average velocity of impurity ions at the top region of the SOL. The mechanism which leads to the difference has been discussed. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Edge-core interaction revealed with dynamic transport experiment in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.

    2010-11-01

    Large scale coherent structures in electron heat transport of both core and edge plasmas are clearly found in plasma with a nonlocal transport phenomenon (NTP, a core electron temperature rise in response to an edge cooling) on Large Helical Device (LHD). At the onset of the NTP, a first order transition of the electron heat transport, which is characterized by a discontinuity of electron temperature gradient, is found to take place over a wide region (at least 6 cm wide) in the periphery of the plasma. At about the same time, over a wide region (about 10 cm wide) of the plasma core, a second order transition of the electron heat transport, which is characterized by a discontinuity of the time derivative of the electron temperature gradient, appears. The both large scale coherent structures are of a scale larger than a typical micro-turbulent eddy size (a few mm in this case). In order to assess dynamic characteristics of the electron heat transport state in the core region during the NTP, a transit time distribution analysis is applied to the temporal behaviors of the electron temperature gradient. The analysis results more clearly show the existence of the large coherent structures in electron heat transport. Thus the NTP observed in LHD is considered to be invoked by the interaction of those structures. (author)

  17. Density limit and cross-field edge transport scaling in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBombard, B.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments in Alcator C-Mod have uncovered a direct link between the character and scaling of edge transport and the empirical Greenwald density limit (n G ). In low to moderate density discharges, the scrape-off layer (SOL) exhibits a two-layer structure: a near SOL (∼5 mm zone) with steep density and temperature gradients and a far SOL with flatter profiles. In the far SOL, the transport fluxes exhibit large transport events ('bursts' which carry particles to main-chamber structures. In the near SOL, transport fluxes appear to be less 'bursty' particle diffusivities in this region is found to increase strongly with local plasma collisionality. As n/n G (or collisionality) is raised, cross-field heat convection begins to compete with parallel conduction to the divertor. At N/n G ∼0.5, T E at the separatrix is reduced. As n/n G approaches ∼1, regions inside the separatrix exhibit flatter profiles with 'bursty' transport behavior; cross-field heat convection to main-chamber structures becomes comparable to the radiated power. Thus as n/n G is increased, cross-field edge transport physics progressively changes, ultimately impacting the power balance of the discharge near N/n G ∼1. (author)

  18. Behaviors of impurity in ITER and DEMOs using BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onjun, Thawatchai; Buangam, Wannapa; Wisitsorasak, Apiwat

    2015-01-01

    The behaviors of impurity are investigated using self-consistent modeling of 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code, in which theory-based models are used for both core and edge region. In these simulations, a combination of NCLASS neoclassical transport and Multi-mode (MMM95) anomalous transport model is used to compute a core transport. The boundary is taken to be at the top of the pedestal, where the pedestal values are described using a theory-based pedestal model. This pedestal temperature model is based on a combination of magnetic and flow shear stabilization pedestal width scaling and an infinite-n ballooning pressure gradient model. The time evolution of plasma current, temperature and density profiles is carried out for ITER and DEMOs plasmas. As a result, the impurity behaviors such as impurity accumulation and impurity transport can be investigated. (author)

  19. Experimental investigation of turbulent transport at the edge of a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorczak, N.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript is devoted to the experimental investigation of particle transport in the edge region of the tokamak Tore Supra. The first part introduces the motivations linked to energy production, the principle of a magnetic confinement and the elements of physics essential to describe the dynamic of the plasma at the edge region. From data collected by a set of Langmuir probes and a fast visible imaging camera, we demonstrate that the particle transport is dominated by the convection of plasma filaments, structures elongated along magnetic field lines. They present a finite wave number, responsible for the high enhancement of the particle flux at the low field side of the tokamak. This leads to the generation of strong parallel flows, and the strong constraint of filament geometry by the magnetic shear. (author)

  20. Edge transport and mode structure of a QCM-like fluctuation driven by the Shoelace antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfinopoulos, T.; LaBombard, B.; Brunner, D.; Terry, J. L.; Baek, S. G.; Ennever, P.; Edlund, E.; Han, W.; Burke, W. M.; Wolfe, S. M.; Irby, J. H.; Hughes, J. W.; Fitzgerald, E. W.; Granetz, R. S.; Greenwald, M. J.; Leccacorvi, R.; Marmar, E. S.; Pierson, S. Z.; Porkolab, M.; Vieira, R. F.; Wukitch, S. J.; The Alcator C-Mod Team

    2018-05-01

    The Shoelace antenna was built to drive edge fluctuations in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, matching the wavenumber (k\\perp≈1.5 cm‑1) and frequency (30≲ f ≲ 200 kHz) of the quasi-coherent mode (QCM), which is responsible for regulating transport across the plasma boundary in the steady-state, ELM-free Enhanced D α (EDA) H-mode. Initial experiments in 2012 demonstrated that the antenna drove a resonant response in the edge plasma in steady-state EDA and transient, non-ELMy H-modes, but transport measurements were unavailable. In 2016, the Shoelace antenna was relocated to enable direct measurements of driven transport by a reciprocating Mirror Langmuir Probe, while also making available gas puff imaging and reflectometer data to provide additional radial localization of the driven fluctuation. This new data suggests a  ∼4 mm-wide mode layer centered on or just outside the separatrix. Fluctuations coherent with the antenna produced a radial electron flux with {Γ_e}/{n_e}∼4 m s‑1 in EDA H-mode, smaller than but comparable to the QCM level. But in transient ELM-free H-mode, {Γ_e}/{n_e} was an order of magnitude smaller, and driven fluctuations reduced by a factor of ≳ 3. The driven mode is quantitatively similar to the intrinsic QCM across measured spectral quantities, except that it is more coherent and weaker. This work informs the prospect of achieving control of edge transport by direct coupling to edge modes, as well as the use of such active coupling for diagnostic purposes.

  1. Final Report for the "Fusion Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS)"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, John R; Kruger, Scott

    2014-10-02

    The FACETS project over its lifetime developed the first self-consistent core-edge coupled capabilities, a new transport solver for modeling core transport in tokamak cores, developed a new code for modeling wall physics over long time scales, and significantly improved the capabilities and performance of legacy components, UEDGE, NUBEAM, GLF23, GYRO, and BOUT++. These improved capabilities leveraged the team’s expertise in applied mathematics (solvers and algorithms) and computer science (performance improvements and language interoperability). The project pioneered new methods for tackling the complexity of simulating the concomitant complexity of tokamak experiments.

  2. Numerical simulation of the anomalous transport at the plasma-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohn, E.

    2001-03-01

    In addition to the classical transport which is caused by Coloumb-collisions two further transport mechanisms take place in an inhomogeneous magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion-plasma, the neoclassical and the anomalous transport. The anomalous transport is caused by collective motion of the plasma-particles respectively turbulence and essentially affects the energy-confinement-time of the plasma. The energy-confinement-time in turn constitutes an important criterion with respect to the feasibility of using nuclear fusion for energy production. The anomalous transport is theoretically not yet well understood. By means of numerical simulations of the anomalous transport in the plasma edge, it is the intention of this work to contribute to the understanding of this transport mechanism. The Vlasov-Poisson-system constitutes the starting point for all performed simulations. This system consists of kinetic equations, which model for each particle-species the motion of the particles composing the plasma in six-dimensional phase-space. A coupling of these kinetic equations occurs due to the Poisson-equation, resulting in a nonlinear system of differential equations. The time evolution of this system was calculated numerically. On the one hand, simulations were performed where the whole velocity-space was retained. This fully-kinetic model was applied for the spatially one- as well as two-dimensional case. In the one-dimensional case only the radial direction of the plasma-edge was modeled, i.e. the direction along which the plasma joins to the vacuum. When performing the spatially two-dimensional simulations, in addition the poloidal direction has been regarded. A second set of simulations was performed using a gyro-kinetic model. In this model only the velocity-component parallel to the magnetic field vector is retained. The components perpendicular to the magnetic field vector, which are responsible for the gyration of particles, are omitted from phase-space but

  3. Electron transport in the plasma edge with rotating resonant magnetic perturbations at the TEXTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoschus, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Small three-dimensional (3D) magnetic perturbations can be used as a tool to control the edge plasma parameters in magnetically confined plasmas in high confinement mode (''H-mode'') to suppress edge instabilities inherent to this regime, the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs). In this work, the impact of rotating 3D resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields on the edge plasma structure characterized by electron density and temperature fields is investigated. We study a low confinement (L-mode) edge plasma (r/a>0.9) with high resistivity (edge electron collisionality ν * e >4) at the TEXTOR tokamak. The plasma structure in the plasma edge is measured by a set of high resolution diagnostics: a fast CCD camera (Δt=20 μs) is set up in order to visualize the plasma structure in terms of electron density variations. A supersonic helium beam diagnostic is established as standard diagnostic at TEXTOR to measure electron density n e and temperature T e with high spatial (Δr=2 mm) and temporal resolution (Δt=20 μs). The measured plasma structure is compared to modeling results from the fluid plasma and kinetic neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE. A sequence of five new observations is discussed: (1) Imaging of electron density variations in the plasma edge shows that a fast rotating RMP field imposes an edge plasma structure, which rotates with the external RMP rotation frequency of vertical stroke ν RMP vertical stroke =1 kHz. (2) Measurements of the electron density and temperature provide strong experimental evidence that in the far edge a rotating 3D scrape-off layer (SOL) exists with helical exhaust channels to the plasma wall components. (3) Radially inward, the plasma structure at the next rational flux surface is found to depend on the relative rotation between external RMP field and intrinsic plasma rotation. For low relative rotation the plasma structure is dominated by a particle and energy loss along open magnetic field lines to the wall components. For high

  4. Electron transport in the plasma edge with rotating resonant magnetic perturbations at the TEXTOR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoschus, Henning

    2011-10-13

    Small three-dimensional (3D) magnetic perturbations can be used as a tool to control the edge plasma parameters in magnetically confined plasmas in high confinement mode (''H-mode'') to suppress edge instabilities inherent to this regime, the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs). In this work, the impact of rotating 3D resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields on the edge plasma structure characterized by electron density and temperature fields is investigated. We study a low confinement (L-mode) edge plasma (r/a>0.9) with high resistivity (edge electron collisionality {nu}{sup *}{sub e}>4) at the TEXTOR tokamak. The plasma structure in the plasma edge is measured by a set of high resolution diagnostics: a fast CCD camera ({delta}t=20 {mu}s) is set up in order to visualize the plasma structure in terms of electron density variations. A supersonic helium beam diagnostic is established as standard diagnostic at TEXTOR to measure electron density n{sub e} and temperature T{sub e} with high spatial ({delta}r=2 mm) and temporal resolution ({delta}t=20 {mu}s). The measured plasma structure is compared to modeling results from the fluid plasma and kinetic neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE. A sequence of five new observations is discussed: (1) Imaging of electron density variations in the plasma edge shows that a fast rotating RMP field imposes an edge plasma structure, which rotates with the external RMP rotation frequency of vertical stroke {nu}{sub RMP} vertical stroke =1 kHz. (2) Measurements of the electron density and temperature provide strong experimental evidence that in the far edge a rotating 3D scrape-off layer (SOL) exists with helical exhaust channels to the plasma wall components. (3) Radially inward, the plasma structure at the next rational flux surface is found to depend on the relative rotation between external RMP field and intrinsic plasma rotation. For low relative rotation the plasma structure is dominated by a particle and energy loss

  5. Three new extreme ultraviolet spectrometers on NSTX-U for impurity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, M. E., E-mail: weller4@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Magee, E. W.; Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Three extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometers have been mounted on the National Spherical Torus Experiment–Upgrade (NSTX-U). All three are flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometers and are dubbed X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (XEUS, 8–70 Å), Long-Wavelength Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (LoWEUS, 190–440 Å), and Metal Monitor and Lithium Spectrometer Assembly (MonaLisa, 50–220 Å). XEUS and LoWEUS were previously implemented on NSTX to monitor impurities from low- to high-Z sources and to study impurity transport while MonaLisa is new and provides the system increased spectral coverage. The spectrometers will also be a critical diagnostic on the planned laser blow-off system for NSTX-U, which will be used for impurity edge and core ion transport studies, edge-transport code development, and benchmarking atomic physics codes.

  6. Spin transport properties of partially edge-hydrogenated MoS2 nanoribbon heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Li; Yao, Kailun; Zhu, Sicong; Ni, Yun; Zu, Fengxia; Wang, Shuling; Guo, Bin; Tian, Yong

    2014-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations of electronic transport properties of heterostructure based on MoS 2 nanoribbons. The heterostructure consists of edge hydrogen-passivated and non-passivated zigzag MoS 2 nanoribbons (ZMoS 2 NR-H/ZMoS 2 NR). Our calculations show that the heterostructure has half-metallic behavior which is independent of the nanoribbon width. The opening of spin channels of the heterostructure depends on the matching of particular electronic orbitals in the Mo-dominated edges of ZMoS 2 NR-H and ZMoS 2 NR. Perfect spin filter effect appears at small bias voltages, and large negative differential resistance and rectifying effects are also observed in the heterostructure.

  7. Transport phenomena in the edge of Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.L.; Basse, N.P.; Cziegler, I.; Greenwald, M.; LaBombard, B.; Edlund, E.M.; Hughes, J.W.; Lin, L.; Lin, Y.; Porkolab, M.; Veto, B.; Wukitch, S.J.; Grulke, O.; Zweben, S.J.; Sampsell, M.

    2005-01-01

    Two aspects of edge turbulence and transport in Alcator C-Mod are explored. The quasi-coherent mode, an edge fluctuation present in Enhanced Da H-mode plasmas, is examined with regard to its role in the enhanced particle transport found in these plasmas, its in/out asymmetry, its poloidal wave number, and its radial width and location. It is shown to play a dominant role in the perpendicular particle transport. The QCM is not observed at the inboard midplane, indicating that its amplitude there is significantly smaller than on the outboard side. The peak amplitude of the QCM is found just inside the separatrix, with a radial width ≥5 mm, leading to a non-zero amplitude outside the separatrix and qualitatively consistent with its transport enhancement. Also examined are the characteristics of the intermittent convective transport, associated with 'blobs' and typically occurring in the scrape-off-layer. The blobs are qualitatively similar in L- and H-mode. When their sizes, occurrence frequencies, and magnitudes are compared, it is found that the blob size may be somewhat smaller in ELMfree H-Mode, and blob frequency is similar. A clear difference is seen in the blob magnitude in the far SOL, with ELMfree H-mode showing a smaller perturbation there than L-mode. As the Greenwald density limit is approached (n/n GW ≥0.7), blobs are seen inside the separatrix, consistent with the observation that the high cross-field transport region, normally found in the far scrape-off, penetrates the closed flux surfaces at high n/n GW . (author)

  8. Edge-Localized mode control and transport generated by externally applied magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, I.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the subject of edge localized mode (ELM) control using externally applied magnetic perturbations and proposes theoretical mechanisms that may be responsible for the induced transport changes. The first question that must be addressed is: what is the structure of magnetic field within the plasma? Although initial hypotheses focused on the possibility of the creation of a region of stochastic field lines at the tokamak edge, drift magnetohydrodynamics theory predicts that magnetic reconnection is strongly suppressed over the region of the pedestal with steep gradients and fast perpendicular rotation. Reconnection can only occur near the location where the perpendicular electron velocity vanishes, and hence the electron impedance nearly vanishes, or near the foot of the pedestal, where the plasma is sufficiently cold and resistive. The next question that must be addressed is: which processes are responsible for the observed transport changes, nonlinearity, turbulence, or stochasticity? Over the pedestal region where ions and electrons rotate in opposite directions relative to the perturbation, the quasilinear Lorentz force decelerates the electron fluid and accelerates the ion fluid. The quasilinear magnetic flutter flux is proportional to the force and produces an outward convective transport that can be significant. Over the pedestal region where the E x B flow and the electrons rotate in opposite directions relative to the perturbation, magnetic islands with a width on the order of the ion gyroradius can directly radiate drift waves. In addition, the combination of quasilinear electron transport and ion viscous transport can lead to a large net particle flux. Since there are many transport mechanisms that may be active simultaneously, it is important to determine which physical mechanisms are responsible for ELM control and to predict the scaling to future devices (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Internal transport barrier discharges in JET and their sensitivity to edge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sips, A.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments in JET have concentrated on steady state discharges with internal transport barriers (ITBs). The ITBs are formed during the current rise phase of the discharge with low magnetic shear (=r/q(dq/dr)) in the centre and with high additional heating power. In order to achieve stability against disruptions at high pressure peaking, which is typical for ITB discharges, the pressure profile can be broadened with an H mode transport barrier at the edge of the plasma. However, the strong increase in edge pressure during an ELM free H mode weakens the ITB owing to a reduction of the rotational shear and pressure gradient at the ITB location. In addition, type I ELM activity during the H mode phase leads to a collapse of the ITB with the input powers available in JET (up to 28 MW). The best ITB discharges are obtained with input power control to reduce the core pressure, and with the edge pressure of the plasma controlled by argon gas dosing. These discharges achieve steady conditions for several energy confinement times (τ E ) with H97 confinement enhancement factors (τ E /τ E,ITER97scaling ) of 1.2-1.6 at line averaged densities of around 30-40% of the Greenwald density. Increasing the density by using additional deuterium gas dosing or shallow pellet fuelling leads to a weakening of the ITB. In order to sustain ITBs at higher densities, type III ELMs should be maintained at the plasma edge, giving scope for future experiments in JET. (author)

  10. Characteristic features of edge transport barrier formed in helical divertor configuration of the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Ohdachi, S.; Watanabe, F.

    2006-10-01

    In a helical divertor configuration of the Large Helical Device (LHD), transport barrier was formed through low to high confinement (L-H) transition in the plasma edge region including ergodic field layer of which region is in the magnetic hill. The plasma stored energy or the averaged bulk plasma beta dia > (derived from diamagnetic measurement) starts to increase just after the transition. In the case that both dia > and line-averaged electron density e > at the transition are relatively high as dia >≥1.5% and e >≥2x10 19 m -3 , the increase is hampered by rapid growth of edge MHD modes and/or small ELM like activities just after the transition. On the other hand, the transition at lower e > (≤1.5x10 19 m -3 ) and dia > (<2%) leads to a continuous increase in the stored energy with a time scale longer than the global energy confinement time, without suffering from these MHD activities near the edge. The ETB typically formed in electron density profile extends into ergodic field layer defined in the vacuum field. The width of ETB is almost independent of the toroidal field strength from 0.5T to 1.5T and is much larger than the poloidal ion gyro-radius. When resonant helical field perturbations are applied to expand a magnetic island size at the rational surface of the rotational transform ι/2π=1 near the edge, the L-H transition is triggered at lower electron density compared with the case without the field perturbations. The application of large helical field perturbations also suppresses edge MHD modes and ELM like activities. (author)

  11. Modeling hydrology and reactive transport in roads: The effect of cracks, the edge, and contaminant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apul, Defne S.; Gardner, Kevin H.; Eighmy, T. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research was to provide a tool for regulators to evaluate the groundwater contamination from the use of virgin and secondary materials in road construction. A finite element model, HYDRUS2D, was used to evaluate generic scenarios for secondary material use in base layers. Use of generic model results for particular applications was demonstrated through a steel slag example. The hydrology and reactive transport of contaminants were modeled in a two-dimensional cross section of a road. Model simulations showed that in an intact pavement, lateral velocities from the edge towards the centerline may transport contaminants in the base layer. The dominant transport mechanisms are advection closer to the edge and diffusion closer to the centerline. A shoulder joint in the pavement allows 0.03 to 0.45 m 3 /day of infiltration per meter of joint length as a function of the base and subgrade hydrology and the rain intensity. Scenario simulations showed that salts in the base layer of pavements are depleted by 99% in the first 20 years, whereas the metals may not reach the groundwater in 20 years at any significant concentrations if the pavement is built on adsorbing soils

  12. The fusion code XGC: Enabling kinetic study of multi-scale edge turbulent transport in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, Eduardo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abbott, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Koskela, Tuomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Worley, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ku, Seung-Hoe [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Yoon, Eisung [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Shephard, Mark [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Hager, Robert [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Lang, Jianying [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Choi, Jong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Podhorszki, Norbert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Klasky, Scott [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parashar, Manish [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Chang, Choong-Seock [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The XGC fusion gyrokinetic code combines state-of-the-art, portable computational and algorithmic technologies to enable complicated multiscale simulations of turbulence and transport dynamics in ITER edge plasma on the largest US open-science computer, the CRAY XK7 Titan, at its maximal heterogeneous capability, which have not been possible before due to a factor of over 10 shortage in the time-to-solution for less than 5 days of wall-clock time for one physics case. Frontier techniques such as nested OpenMP parallelism, adaptive parallel I/O, staging I/O and data reduction using dynamic and asynchronous applications interactions, dynamic repartitioning.

  13. Radiation, impurity effects, instability characteristics and transport in Ohmically heated plasmas in the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Arunasalam, V.; Bitter, M.

    1979-01-01

    Titanium-gettered deuterium plasmas, with graphite or steel limiters to define the plasma minor radius, have Zsub(eff) approximately 1 for 3x10 13 14 cm -3 . In ungettered discharges the density limit set by disruptions is about half the value in gettered discharges. The bolometrically measured energy flux from the whole plasma volume is 80-100% of the Ohmic input power for ungettered discharges and 50-70% for gettered ones. The strucutre of MHD modes continues to be intensively studied by means of soft X-ray detector arrays; however, the connection with the disruptive instability remains unclear. Microinstabilities, studied by means of a 2-mm homodyne scattering system, appear to be of sufficient magnitude to influence energy and particle transport. Ion energy confinement times in the central region of the plasma have been estimated to be 50-100ms. Gross electron energy confinement time increases linearly with density at constant temperature. The longest electron energy confinement times observed are approximately >40ms in dense gettered discharges, giving total energy confinement times approximately 80ms. (author)

  14. Impurity ion transport studies on the PLT tokamak during neutral-beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Cavallo, A.; Cohen, S.

    1984-01-01

    Radial transport of medium- and high-Z ions during co- and counter-neutral-beam heating in the PLT tokamak is studied, using molybdenum and scandium ions as tracer elements. The time evolution of the radial profiles of several ionization stages of both elements, injected by laser blowoff during the neutral-beam heating, is measured under three significantly different beam-plasma combinations. No noticeable differences in the radial profiles attributable to the beam direction are observed. However, a given injected amount resulted in considerably larger interior concentrations of the tracer element in the counter-beam heating cases, suggesting larger penetration of the plasma periphery. Computer simulation with the MIST code suggests a net inward drift of the order 10 3 cm.s -1 superposed to a diffusion coefficient of the order 10 4 cm 2 .s -1 for both scandium and molybdenum ions. Injection of larger amounts of the tracer element, sufficient to cause measurable central electron temperature changes, resulted in dramatic changes in ion-state distributions, making some appear peaked in the centre while others disappeared. This effect could be produced with both co- and counter-beam heating, but with lesser amounts in the latter case. It is interpreted as rearrangement of the ionization balance, rather than any preferential accumulation of the injected element. (author)

  15. Edge gradient and safety factor effects on electrostatic turbulent transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Ing Hwie.

    1992-05-01

    Electrostatic turbulence and transport measurements are performed on the Tokapole-II tokamak at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, as the safety-factor and the edge equilibrium gradients and varied substantially. Tokapole-II is a poloidal divertor tokamak capable of operating at a wide range of safety factors due to its unique magnetic limiter configuration. It also has retractable material limiters in a large scrape-off region, which permits the study of edge boundary conditions like density and temperature gradients. The turbulence is independent of safety factor, but strongly sensitive to the local density gradient, which itself depends upon the limiter configuration. When a material limiter is inserted in a high discharge, the density gradient is increased locally together with a local increase of the turbulence. On the other hand, limiter insertion in low discharges did not increase the density gradient as much and the turbulence properties are unchanged with respect to the magnetic limiter case. It is conducted then, that electrostatic turbulence is caused by the density gradient. Although the electrostatic fluctuation driven transport is enhanced in the large density gradient case, it is in all cases to small to explain the observed energy confinement times. To explore instabilities with small wavelengths, a 0.5 mm diameter shperical Langmuir probe was constructed, and its power compared with the power measured by larger cylindrical probes

  16. Turbulent transport modeling in the edge plasma of tokamaks: verification, validation, simulation and synthetic diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin-Bellot, Clothilde

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to produce power by using magnetically confined fusion is a scientific and technological challenge. The perspective of ITER conveys strong signals to intensify modeling effort on magnetized fusion plasmas. The success of the fusion operation is conditioned by the quality of plasma confinement in the core of the reactor and by the control of plasma exhaust on the wall. Both phenomena are related to turbulent cross-field transport that is at the heart of the notion of magnetic confinement studies, particle and heat losses. The study of edge phenomena is therefore complicated by a particularly complex magnetic geometry.This calls for an improvement of our capacity to develop numerical tools able to reproduce turbulent transport properties reliable to predict particle and energy fluxes on the plasma facing components. This thesis introduces the TOKAM3X fluid model to simulate edge plasma turbulence. A special focus is made on the code Verification and the Validation. It is a necessary step before using a code as a predictive tool. Then new insights on physical properties of the edge plasma turbulence are explored. In particular, the poloidal asymmetries induced by turbulence and observed experimentally in the Low-Field-Side of the devices are investigated in details. Great care is dedicated to the reproduction of the MISTRAL base case which consists in changing the magnetic configuration and observing the impact on parallel flows in the poloidal plane. The simulations recover experimental measurements and provide new insights on the effect of the plasma-wall contact position location on the turbulent features, which were not accessible in experiments. (author) [fr

  17. Measurements and 2-D Modeling of Recycling and Edge Transport in Discharges with Lithium-coated PFCs in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canik, John; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Bell, R.E.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Osborne, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    The application of lithium coatings on plasma facing components has been shown to profoundly affect plasma performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, improving energy confinement and eliminating edge-localized modes. The edge particle balance during these ELM-free discharges has been studied through 2-D plasma-neutrals modeling, constrained by measurements of the upstream plasma density and temperature profiles and the divertor heat flux and D-alpha emission. The calculations indicate that the reduction in divertor D-alpha emission with lithium coatings applied is consistent with a drop in recycling coefficient from R similar to 0.98 to R similar to 0.9. The change in recycling is not sufficient to account for the change in edge density profiles: interpretive modeling indicates similar transport coefficients within the edge transport barrier (D/chi(e) similar to 0.2/1.0 m(2)/s), but a widening of the barrier with lithium.

  18. Measurements and 2-D modeling of recycling and edge transport in discharges with lithium-coated PFCs in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canik, J.M., E-mail: canikjm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, R.E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The application of lithium coatings on plasma facing components has been shown to profoundly affect plasma performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, improving energy confinement and eliminating edge-localized modes. The edge particle balance during these ELM-free discharges has been studied through 2-D plasma-neutrals modeling, constrained by measurements of the upstream plasma density and temperature profiles and the divertor heat flux and D{sub {alpha}} emission. The calculations indicate that the reduction in divertor D{sub {alpha}} emission with lithium coatings applied is consistent with a drop in recycling coefficient from R {approx} 0.98 to R {approx} 0.9. The change in recycling is not sufficient to account for the change in edge density profiles: interpretive modeling indicates similar transport coefficients within the edge transport barrier (D/{chi}{sub e} {approx} 0.2/1.0 m{sup 2}/s), but a widening of the barrier with lithium.

  19. Thermal stability of the tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The general linear, fluid, thermal instability theory for the plasma edge has been extended. An analysis of a two-dimensional fluid model of the plasma edge has identified the importance of many previously unappreciated phenomena associated with parallel and gyroviscous forces in the presence of large radial gradients, with large radial or parallel flows, with the temperature dependence of transport coefficients, and with the coupling of temperature, flow and density perturbations. The radiative condensation effect is generalized to include a further destabilizing condensation effect associated with radial heat conduction. Representative plasma edge neutral and impurity densities are found to be capable of driving thermal instabilities in the edge transport barrier and radiative mantle, respectively. (author)

  20. Plasma response on impurity injection in W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Brakel, R.; Elsner, A.; Grigull, P.; Hacker, H.; Burhenn, R.; Fiedler, S.; Giannone, L.; Goerner, C.; Hartfuss, H.J.; Herre, G.; Herrmann, A.; Hofmann, J.V.; Kuehner, G.; Naujoks, D.; Sardei, F.; Weller, A.; Wolf, R.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study impurity transport and radiation behavior nitrogen has been injected into the scrape-off plasma of limiter-dominated discharges by gas puffing or into natural magnetic islands at the plasma edge of separatrix-dominated discharges by a reciprocating erosion probe. Strong radiative plasma edge cooling with a reduction of the power flux to the limiter could be obtained. The accompanied degradation of the energy confinement and the observed decrease of the central electron temperature can partly be explained by the reduction of the effective heating power. At high plasma densities and sufficiently strong impurity injection phenomena well known from tokamaks, like plasma shrinking, plasma detachment from the limiters and MARFE's were transiently observed. (orig.)

  1. Plasma response on impurity injection in W7-AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, D [Euratom Assoc., Berlin (Germany). Max-Planck-Inst. of Plasma Phys.; Brakel, R; Elsner, A; Grigull, P; Hacker, H; Burhenn, R; Fiedler, S; Giannone, L.; Goerner, C; Hartfuss, H J; Herre, G; Herrmann, A; Hofmann, J V; Kuehner, G; Naujoks, D; Sardei, F; Weller, A; Wolf, R

    1997-02-01

    In order to study impurity transport and radiation behavior nitrogen has been injected into the scrape-off plasma of limiter-dominated discharges by gas puffing or into natural magnetic islands at the plasma edge of separatrix-dominated discharges by a reciprocating erosion probe. Strong radiative plasma edge cooling with a reduction of the power flux to the limiter could be obtained. The accompanied degradation of the energy confinement and the observed decrease of the central electron temperature can partly be explained by the reduction of the effective heating power. At high plasma densities and sufficiently strong impurity injection phenomena well known from tokamaks, like plasma shrinking, plasma detachment from the limiters and MARFE`s were transiently observed. (orig.).

  2. Predictive modelling of edge transport phenomena in ELMy H-mode tokamak fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, J.-S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses a range of work dealing with edge plasma transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas by means of predictive transport modelling, a technique in which qualitative predictions and explanations are sought by running transport codes equipped with models for plasma transport and other relevant phenomena. The focus is on high confinement mode (H-mode) tokamak plasmas, which feature improved performance thanks to the formation of an edge transport barrier. H-mode plasmas are generally characterized by the occurrence of edge localized modes (ELMs), periodic eruptions of particles and energy, which limit confinement and may turn out to be seriously damaging in future tokamaks. The thesis introduces schemes and models for qualitative study of the ELM phenomenon in predictive transport modelling. It aims to shed new light on the dynamics of ELMs using these models. It tries to explain various experimental observations related to the performance and ELM-behaviour of H-mode plasmas. Finally, it also tries to establish more generally the potential effects of ripple-induced thermal ion losses on H-mode plasma performance and ELMs. It is demonstrated that the proposed ELM modelling schemes can qualitatively reproduce the experimental dynamics of a number of ELM regimes. Using a theory-motivated ELM model based on a linear instability model, the dynamics of combined ballooning-peeling mode ELMs is studied. It is shown that the ELMs are most often triggered by a ballooning mode instability, which renders the plasma peeling mode unstable, causing the ELM to continue in a peeling mode phase. Understanding the dynamics of ELMs will be a key issue when it comes to controlling and mitigating the ELMs in future large tokamaks. By means of integrated modelling, it is shown that an experimentally observed increase in the ELM frequency and deterioration of plasma confinement triggered by external neutral gas puffing might be due to a transition from the second to

  3. Transport analysis of the edge zone of H-mode plasmas by computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Murmann, H.

    1988-01-01

    Local transport and ideal ballooning stability in the L-phase and ELM-free H-phase in ASDEX are analysed by computer modelling. It is found that the diffusivities χ e and D at the edge are reduced by a factor of six a few milliseconds after the H-transition. Local transport in the inner plasma improves at an early stage by a typical factor of two. A change in the collisionality regime of electrons and ions does not take place. During the L-phase and the quiescent H-phase ideal ballooning modes are found to be stable. Computer experiments further show that a significant reduction in the particle flux at the separatrix takes place which is closely connected with the H-transition process. This explains the observed buildup of a density shoulder on a millisecond time-scale and the drop of the particle flow into the divertor. A strong decrease of the electron heat conduction flux at the separatrix is, however, ruled out in ELM-free periods. On the assumption of electrostatic turbulence induced transport, these results are consistent with measured density fluctuation levels near the separatrix. (author). 20 refs, 9 figs

  4. Study of an edge transport barrier by Langmuir probes in the compact helical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, M [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Toi, K [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nagaoka, K [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Suzuki, C [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Minami, T [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Akiyama, T [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Isobe, M [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Yoshimura, Y [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nishimura, S [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Shimizu, A [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Takahashi, C [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Matsuoka, K [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Okamura, S [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    The edge transport barrier (ETB) produced by the L-H transition was measured by a triple Langmuir probe (LP) at two toroidal sections of the compact helical system (CHS), of which diagnostic method has good time and spatial resolutions. The radial profiles of electron density (n{sub e}), electron temperature (T{sub e}) and space potential (V{sub s}) in the ETB region have different shapes at two different toroidal sections. These profiles are deformed inside the ETB region at one location and are formed with rather smooth variations at the other. These deformations gradually disappear in the deep H-phase (after {approx}15 ms from the transition) and the profiles inside the ETB become similar at both sections. The deformation seems linked to the presence of a non-rotating magnetic island at the rational surface of the rotational transform {iota}/2{pi} = 1.

  5. Intermittent transport in edge plasma with a 3-D magnetic geometry in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Masuzaki, S.; Ohno, N.; Morisaki, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Blobby plasma transport is a universally observed phenomenon in magnetic confinement devices, and it is considered to be closely related to edge plasma physics. We have investigated such an intermittent event observed inside the divertor region of the Large Helical Device by using a fast-scanning Langmuir probe with two electrodes. Ion saturation current fluctuations showed negative spikes in the divertor leg and positive spikes in the private region. Further, the time delay between the two fluctuations followed a unique trajectory in the positive-skewness region. We found common as well as different fluctuation characteristics between the LHD and tokamaks. We discuss the analysis results in relation to the blob-generation and propagation behaviors in the three-dimensional magnetic geometry around the divertor leg. In addition, we quantitatively estimated the blob propagation velocity and size based on a theoretical assumption

  6. Charge and spin transport in edge channels of a ν=0 quantum Hall system on the surface of topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Furusaki, Akira; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2015-04-10

    Three-dimensional topological insulators of finite thickness can show the quantum Hall effect (QHE) at the filling factor ν=0 under an external magnetic field if there is a finite potential difference between the top and bottom surfaces. We calculate energy spectra of surface Weyl fermions in the ν=0 QHE and find that gapped edge states with helical spin structure are formed from Weyl fermions on the side surfaces under certain conditions. These edge channels account for the nonlocal charge transport in the ν=0 QHE which is observed in a recent experiment on (Bi_{1-x}Sb_{x})_{2}Te_{3} films. The edge channels also support spin transport due to the spin-momentum locking. We propose an experimental setup to observe various spintronics functions such as spin transport and spin conversion.

  7. Formation of edge transport barrier in the ergodic field layer of helical divertor configuration on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K; Ohdachi, S; Watanabe, F; Narihara, K; Morisaki, T; Sakakibara, S; Morita, S; Goto, M; Ida, K; Masuzaki, S; Miyazawa, K; Tanaka, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K W; Yoshinuma, M

    2006-01-01

    On the Large Helical Device (LHD), low to high confinement (L-H) transition and edge transport barrier (ETB) formation were observed in the low beta regime ((β dia ) dia ): volume-averaged beta derived from diamagnetic measurement) as well as in relatively high beta regime (>1.5%). In most of ETB plasmas electron density preferentially increases in the edge region without a substantial rise of the edge electron temperature. The ETB zone develops inside the ergodic field layer calculated in the vacuum field. The ETB formation strongly destabilizes edge coherent modes such as m/n = 2/3 or 1/2 (m, n: poloidal and toroidal mode numbers), because the plasma edge region is in the magnetic hill. The ETB is partially destroyed by the combination of these edge MHD modes and ELM-like activities. For a particular experimental condition, the forced generation of a sizable m/n = 1/1 magnetic island near the edge by application of external field perturbations facilitates the L-H transition at a lower electron density and suppresses edge MHD modes and ELM-like activities to lower levels

  8. Relevance, Realization and stability of a cold layer at the plasma edge for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The workshop was dedicated to the realization and stability of a cold layer at the plasma edge for fusion reactors. The subjects of the communications presented were: impurity transport, and control, plasma boundary layers, power balance, radiation control and modifications, limiter discharges, tokamak density limit, Asdex divertor discharges, thermal stability of a radiating diverted plasma, plasma stability, auxiliary heating in Textor, detached plasma in Tore Supra, poloidal divertor tokamak, radiation cooling, neutral-particle transport, plasma scrape-off layer, edge turbulence

  9. ICRF edge modeling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehrman, I.S. (Grumman Corp. Research Center, Princeton, NJ (USA)); Colestock, P.L. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-04-01

    Theoretical models have been developed, and are currently being refined, to explain the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during ICRF heating. The periodic structure of a Faraday shielded antenna is found to result in strong ponderomotive force in the vicinity of the antenna. A fluid model, which incorporates the ponderomotive force, shows an increase in transport to the Faraday shield. A kinetic model shows that the strong antenna near fields act to increase the energy of deuterons which strike the shield, thereby increasing the sputtering of shield material. Estimates of edge impurity harmonic heating show no significant heating for either in or out-of-phase antenna operation. Additionally, a particle model for electrons near the shield shows that heating results from the parallel electric field associated with the fast wave. A quasilinear model for edge electron heating is presented and compared to the particle calculations. The models' predictions are shown to be consistent with measurements of enhanced transport. (orig.).

  10. Development of plasma diagnostics technologies - Measurement of transport= parameters in tokamak edge plasma by using electric transport probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyu Sun; Chang, Do Hee; Sim, Yeon Gun; Kim, Jin Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    Electric transport probe system is developed for the measurement of electron temperature, floating potential, plasma density and flow velocity of= edge plasmas in the KT-2 medium size tokamak. Experiments have been performed in KT-1 small size tokamak. Electric transport probe is composed of a single probe(SP) and a Mach probe (MP). SP is used for the measurements of electron density, floating potential, and plasma density and measured values are {approx} 3*10{sup 11}/cm{sup -3}, -20 volts, 15 {approx} 25 eV. For the most discharges, respectively. MP is for the measurements of toroidal(M{sub T}) and poloidal(M{sub P}) flow velocities, and density, which are M{sub T} {approx_equal} .0.85, M{sub P} {approx_equal}. 0.17, n. {approx_equal} 2.1*10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}, respectively. A triple probe is also developed for the direct reading of T{sub e} and n{sub e}, and is used for DC, RF, and RF+DC plasma in APL of Hanyang university. 38 refs., 36 figs. (author)

  11. Impurity control in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchi, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    The control of impurities in TFTR will be a particularly difficult problem due to the large energy and particle fluxes expected in the device. As part of the TFTR Flexibility Modification (TEM) project, a program has been implemented to address this problem. Transport code simulations are used to infer an impurity limit criterion as a function of the impurity atomic number. The configurational designs of the limiters and associated protective plates are discussed along with the consideration of thermal and mechanical loads due to normal plasma operation, neutral beams, and plasma disruptions. A summary is given of the materials-related research, which has been a collaborative effort involving groups at Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia Laboratories, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Conceptual designs are shown for getterng systems capable of regenerating absorbed tritium. Research on this topic by groups at the previously mentioned laboratories and SAES Research Laboratory is reviewed

  12. A simple highly accurate field-line mapping technique for three-dimensional Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Kisslinger, J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new simple and accurate numerical field-line mapping technique providing a high-quality representation of field lines as required by a Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport in the complex magnetic boundaries of three-dimensional (3D) toroidal fusion devices. Using a toroidal sequence of precomputed 3D finite flux-tube meshes, the method advances field lines through a simple bilinear, forward/backward symmetric interpolation at the interfaces between two adjacent flux tubes. It is a reversible field-line mapping (RFLM) algorithm ensuring a continuous and unique reconstruction of field lines at any point of the 3D boundary. The reversibility property has a strong impact on the efficiency of modeling the highly anisotropic plasma edge transport in general closed or open configurations of arbitrary ergodicity as it avoids artificial cross-field diffusion of the fast parallel transport. For stellarator-symmetric magnetic configurations, which are the standard case for stellarators, the reversibility additionally provides an average cancellation of the radial interpolation errors of field lines circulating around closed magnetic flux surfaces. The RFLM technique has been implemented in the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE and is used routinely for plasma transport modeling in the boundaries of several low-shear and high-shear stellarators as well as in the boundary of a tokamak with 3D magnetic edge perturbations

  13. Turbulent edge transport in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modified high confinement mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, G. R.; Schmitz, L.; Blush, L.; Boedo, J. A.; Conn, R. W.; Doerner, R.; Lehmer, R.; Moyer, R.; Kugel, H.; Bell, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Sesnic, S.; Sun, Y.

    1994-10-01

    The first probe measurements of edge turbulence and transport in a neutral beam induced high confinement mode (H-mode) are reported. A strong negative radial electric field is directly observed in H-mode. A transient suppression of normalized ion saturation and floating potential fluctuation levels occurs at the low confinement mode to high confinement mode (L-H) transition, followed by a recovery to near low mode (L-mode) levels. The average poloidal wave number and the poloidal wave-number spectral width are decreased, and the correlation between fluctuating density and potential is reduced. A large-amplitude coherent oscillation, localized to the strong radial electric field region, is observed in H-mode but does not cause transport. In H-mode the effective turbulent diffusion coefficient is reduced by an order of magnitude inside the last closed flux surface and in the scrape-off layer. The results are compared with a heuristic model of turbulence suppression by velocity-shear stabilization.

  14. Density fluctuation measurement at edge and internal transport barriers in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, N; Bruskin, L G; Takenaga, H; Shinohara, K; Isayama, A; Ide, S; Sakamoto, Y; Suzuki, T; Fujita, T; Kamada, Y; Miura, Y

    2004-01-01

    A new analytical method using a combination of the O-mode reflectometer and a time-dependent two-dimensional full-wave simulation code has been developed for the quantitative evaluation of density fluctuations in JT-60U. Two statistical parameters of the reflectometer signals, fluctuation index (F) and elongation factor (χ), are introduced as measures of the fluctuation amplitude (γ) and the width of the poloidal wave number spectrum (k θ0 ). This method is applied to the edge transport barrier (ETB) and internal transport barrier (ITB). At the transition to the ELM free H-mode phase, analysis suggests that the density fluctuation level reduced from 1.9-3.2% to 0.29-0.44%, while the value of k θ0 changed from 1.6-2.0 to 0.77-0.81 cm -1 in the ETB region. On the other hand, the amplitude of the density fluctuation was evaluated as 1.0-2.0% at the ITB region, even after the formation of the box type ITB. Instead, when a pellet was injected into the plasma with a box type ITB as an external perturbation, a remarkable change in the frequency spectrum was observed. Analysis suggests a reduction in the density fluctuation level to 0.4-0.6% after the pellet injection

  15. An axially averaged-radial transport model of tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinja, A.K.; Conn, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    A two-zone axially averaged-radial transport model for edge plasmas is described that incorporates parallel electron and ion conduction, localized recycling, parallel electron pressure gradient effects and sheath losses. Results for high recycling show that the radial electron temperature profile is determined by parallel electron conduction over short radial distances (proportional 3 cm). At larger radius where Tsub(e) has fallen appreciably, convective transport becomes equally important. The downstream density and ion temperature profiles are very flat over the region where electron conduction dominates. This is seen to result from a sharply decaying velocity profile that follows the radial electron temperature. A one-dimensional analytical recycling model shows that at high neutral pumping rates, the plasma density at the plate, nsub(ia), scales linearly with the unperturbed background density, nsub(io). When ionization dominates nsub(ia)/nsub(io) proportional exp(nsub(io)) while in the intermediate regime nsub(ia)/nsub(io) proportional exp(proportional nsub(io)). Such behavior is qualitatively in accord with experimental observations. (orig.)

  16. Estimation of edge electron temperature profiles via forward modelling of the electron cyclotron radiation transport at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathgeber, S K; Barrera, L; Eich, T; Fischer, R; Suttrop, W; Wolfrum, E; Nold, B; Willensdorfer, M

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to obtain reliable edge profiles of the electron temperature by forward modelling of the electron cyclotron radiation transport. While for the core of ASDEX Upgrade plasmas, straightforward analysis of electron cyclotron intensity measurements based on the optically thick plasma approximation is usually justified, reasonable analysis of the steep and optically thin plasma edge needs to consider broadened emission and absorption profiles and radiation transport processes. This is carried out in the framework of integrated data analysis which applies Bayesian probability theory for joint analysis of the electron density and temperature with data of different interdependent and complementary diagnostics. By this means, electron cyclotron radiation intensity delivers highly spatially resolved electron temperature data for the plasma edge. In H-mode, the edge gradient of the electron temperature can be several times higher than the one of the radiation temperature. Furthermore, we are able to reproduce the ‘shine-through’ peak—the observation of increased radiation temperatures at frequencies resonant in the optically thin scrape-off layer. This phenomenon is caused by strongly down-shifted radiation of Maxwellian tail electrons located in the H-mode edge region and, therefore, contains valuable information about the electron temperature edge gradient. (paper)

  17. Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U.

    2004-01-01

    The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the 'nonshear' discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in 'sandpile' transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E r and thus of E r xB flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the E r xB velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions

  18. ELECTRON TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS AND CROSS-FIELD HEAT TRANSPORT IN THE EDGE OF DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RUDAKOV, DL; BOEDO, JA; MOYER, RA; KRASENINNIKOV, S; MAHDAVI, MA; McKEE, GR; PORTER, GD; STANGEBY, PC; WATKINS, JG; WEST, WP; WHYTE, DG.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The fluctuating E x B velocity due to electrostatic turbulence is widely accepted as a major contributor to the anomalous cross-field transport of particles and heat in the tokamak edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) plasmas. This has been confirmed by direct measurements of the turbulent E x B transport in a number of experiments. Correlated fluctuations of the plasma radial velocity v r , density n, and temperature T e result in time-average fluxes of particles and heat given by (for electrons): Equation 1--Λ r ES = r > = 1/B varφ θ ; Equation 2--Q r ES = e (tilde v) r > ∼ 3/2 kT e Λ r ES + 3 n e /2 B varφ e (tilde E) θ > Q conv + Q cond . The first term in Equation 2 is referred to as convective and the second term as conductive heat flux. Experimental determination of fluxes given by Equations 1 and 2 requires simultaneous measurements of the density, temperature and poloidal electric field fluctuations with high spatial and temporal resolution. Langmuir probes provide most readily available (if not the only) tool for such measurements. However, fast measurements of electron temperature using probes are non-trivial and are not always performed. Thus, the contribution of the T e fluctuations to the turbulent fluxes is usually neglected. Here they report results of the studies of T e fluctuations and their effect on the cross-field transport in the SOL of DIII-D

  19. Tokamak impurity-control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is given of the impurity-control functions in tokamaks, their relative merits and disadvantages and some prominent edge-interaction-control techniques, and there is a discussion of a new proposal, the particle scraper, and its potential advantages. (author)

  20. Transport and pairing properties of helical edges with proximity induced superconductivity and ferromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keidel, Felix; Burset, Pablo; Trauzettel, Bjoern [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Crepin, Francois [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, UPMC, Sorbonne Universites, 75252 Paris (France)

    2016-07-01

    The scientific interest in Quantum Spin Hall systems is far from declining. While these certainly are fascinating by themselves, there is plenty of new and exciting physics to arise when superconductivity and ferromagnetism are brought into the game. The strong constraint of helicity in the edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator is responsible for an intimate relation between the allowed scattering processes in a hybrid junction and the parameters of the system, namely the superconducting order parameter and the magnetic field. In our work, we study a helical liquid in proximity to a conventional s-wave superconductor and ferromagnetic insulators by means of a Green's function analysis. The ferromagnet gives rise to sub-gap Andreev/Majorana bound states and non-local crossed Andreev reflection (CAR), both of which decisively affect the pairing and transport properties of the junction. As a result, the simple s-wave symmetry of the superconductor is enriched and unconventional odd-frequency triplet superconductivity emerges. Strikingly, we have identified a setup that favors CAR over electron co-tunneling and may allow for the indirect measurement of the symmetries of the superconducting order parameter.

  1. Energy Trapping, Release, and Transport in Three-Dimensional Energetic Solids and Molecular Crystals: Theory of Defects and Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-31

    and 3. T. Waber, Concerning the Trapping of Positrons in Ionic Solids, in Positron Annihilation , P. G. Coleman, S. C. Sharma and L. M. Diana, Eds., 682...1982). *144. A. B. Kunz and 3. T. Waber, A Theoretical Study of the Binding of Positrons to Gaseous Molecules, in Positron Annihilation . P. G. Coleman, S...variety of other cases which include systems in unusual charge states such as Fe + in SrTiOz or Fe in MgO . Impurity systems in their excited states are

  2. Lindblad-driven discretized leads for nonequilibrium steady-state transport in quantum impurity models: Recovering the continuum limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, F.; Goldstein, M.; Dorda, A.; Arrigoni, E.; Weichselbaum, A.; von Delft, J.

    2016-10-01

    The description of interacting quantum impurity models in steady-state nonequilibrium is an open challenge for computational many-particle methods: the numerical requirement of using a finite number of lead levels and the physical requirement of describing a truly open quantum system are seemingly incompatible. One possibility to bridge this gap is the use of Lindblad-driven discretized leads (LDDL): one couples auxiliary continuous reservoirs to the discretized lead levels and represents these additional reservoirs by Lindblad terms in the Liouville equation. For quadratic models governed by Lindbladian dynamics, we present an elementary approach for obtaining correlation functions analytically. In a second part, we use this approach to explicitly discuss the conditions under which the continuum limit of the LDDL approach recovers the correct representation of thermal reservoirs. As an analytically solvable example, the nonequilibrium resonant level model is studied in greater detail. Lastly, we present ideas towards a numerical evaluation of the suggested Lindblad equation for interacting impurities based on matrix product states. In particular, we present a reformulation of the Lindblad equation, which has the useful property that the leads can be mapped onto a chain where both the Hamiltonian dynamics and the Lindblad driving are local at the same time. Moreover, we discuss the possibility to combine the Lindblad approach with a logarithmic discretization needed for the exploration of exponentially small energy scales.

  3. A study on tokamak fusion reactor - Numerical analyses of MHD equilibrium= and edge plasma transport in tokamak fusion reactor with divertor configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Hee; Lim, Ki Hang; Kang, Kyung Doo; Ryu, Ji Myung; Kim, Duk Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Soo Won [Kyungki Unviersity, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    In the present project for developing the numerical codes of 2-DMHD equilibrium, edge plasma transport and neutral particle transport for the tokamak plasmas, we compute the plasma equilibrium of double null type and calculate the external coil currents and the plasma parameters used for operation and control data. Also the numerical algorithm is developed to analyse the behavior of edge plasmas in poloidal and radial directions and the programming and debugging of a 2-D transport code are completed. Furthermore, a neutral particle transport code for the edge region is developed and then used for the analysis of the neutral transport phenomena giving the sources in the fluid equations, and expected to supply the input parameters for the edge plasma transport code. 34 refs., 5 tabs., 28 figs. (author)

  4. A study on the fusion reactor - Numerical analyses of MHD equilibrium and= edge plasma transport in tokamak fusion reactor with divertor configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Hee; Kang, Kyung Doo; Ryu, Ji Myung; Kim, Deok Kyu; Chung, TaeKyun; Chung, Mo Se [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Su Won [Kyungki University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    In the present project for developing the numerical codes of 2-D MHD equilibrium, edge plasma transport and neutral particle transport for the tokamak plasmas, we computed the MHD equilibria of single and double null configurations and determined the external coil currents and the plasma parameters used for operation and control data. Also we numerically acquired the distributions of edge plasma parameters in poloidal and radial directions= and the design-related values according to the various operating conditions using the developed plasma transport code. Furthermore, a neutral particle transport code for the edge region is developed and them used for the analysis of the neutral particle behavior yielding the source terms in the fluid transport equations, and expected to supply the input parameters for the edge plasma transport code. 53 refs., 12 tabs., 44 figs. (author)

  5. Dynamics of impurities in the scrape-off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, P.C.; Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon

    1988-01-01

    Impurity modelling of the Scrape-Off Layer, SOL, is reviewed. Simple analytic models are sometimes adequate for relating central impurity levels to edge plasma conditions and for explaining the patterns of net erosion/deposition found on limiters. More sophisticated approaches, which are also necessary, are categorized and reviewed. A plea is made for the acquisition of a more comprehensive data base of edge plasma properties since reliable impurity modelling appears to be dependent on more extensive use of experimental input. (author)

  6. Power and Particle Balance Calculations with Impurities in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C. G.; Maingi, R.; Owen, L. W.; Kaye, S. M.

    1998-11-01

    We reported the development C. Holland, et. al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 42 (1997) 1927. and application R. Maingi et al., Proc. 3rd International Workshop on Spherical Tori, Sept. 3-5, 1997, St. Petersburg, Russia. of a Graphical User Interface to assess the important terms for edge and divertor plasma calculations for NSTX with the b2.5 edge plasma transport code B. Braams, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 36 (1996) 276.. The goals of those calculations were to estimate the worst case peak heat flux for plasma-facing component design, and the radiation requirements to reduce the peak heat flux. In this study we present the first simulations with intrinsic carbon impurity radiation. We find in general that the intrinsic carbon radiation should be sufficient to provide a wide operation window for the NSTX device. Details of the relative importance of heat flux transport mechanisms as determined with the GUI will be presented.

  7. Thermally driven convective cells and tokamak edge turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.R.; Diamond, P.H.

    1987-07-01

    A unified theory for the dynamics of thermally driven convective cell turbulence is presented. The cells are excited by the combined effects of radiative cooling and resistivity gradient drive. The model also includes impurity dynamics. Parallel thermal and impurity flows enhanced by turbulent radial duffusion regulate and saturate overlapping cells, even in regimes dominated by thermal instability. Transport coefficients and fluctuation levels characteristic of the saturated turbulence are calculated. It is found that the impurity radiation increases transport coefficients for high density plasmas, while the parallel conduction damping, elevated by radial diffusion, in turn quenches the thermal instability. The enhancement due to radiative cooling provides a resolution to the dilemma of explaining the experimental observation that potential fluctuations exceed density fluctuations in the edge plasma (e PHI/T/sub e/ > n/n 0 )

  8. Final Report for Project "Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS)"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estep, Donald [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2014-01-17

    This is the final report for the Colorado State University Component of the FACETS Project. FACETS was focused on the development of a multiphysics, parallel framework application that could provide the capability to enable whole-device fusion reactor modeling and, in the process, the development of the modeling infrastructure and computational understanding needed for ITER. It was intended that FACETS be highly flexible, through the use of modern computational methods, including component technology and object oriented design, to facilitate switching from one model to another for a given aspect of the physics, and making it possible to use simplified models for rapid turnaround or high-fidelity models that will take advantage of the largest supercomputer hardware. FACETS was designed in a heterogeneous parallel context, where different parts of the application can take advantage through parallelism based on task farming, domain decomposition, and/or pipelining as needed and applicable. As with all fusion simulations, an integral part of the FACETS project was treatment of the coupling of different physical processes at different scales interacting closely. A primary example for the FACETS project is the coupling of existing core and edge simulations, with the transport and wall interactions described by reduced models. However, core and edge simulations themselves involve significant coupling of different processes with large scale differences. Numerical treatment of coupling is impacted by a number of factors including, scale differences, form of information transferred between processes, implementation of solvers for different codes, and high performance computing concerns. Operator decomposition involving the computation of the individual processes individually using appropriate simulation codes and then linking/synchronizing the component simulations at regular points in space and time, is the defacto approach to high performance simulation of multiphysics

  9. A PROBE-BASED METHOD FOR MEASURING THE TRANSPORT COEFFICIENT IN THE TOKAMAK EDGE REGION

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brotánková, Jana; Martines, E.; Adámek, Jiří; Popa, G.; Costin, C.; Schrittwieser, R.; Ionita, C.; Stöckel, Jan; Van Oost, G.; van de Peppel, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 12 (2006), s. 1321-1327 ISSN 0011-4626. [Workshop on the Electric Field, Structures, and Relaxation in Edge Plasma/9th./. Řím, 26.6.2006-27.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB100430601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : probe measurements * plasma edge * diffusion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  10. Temperature and impurity transport studies of heated tokamak plasmas by means of a collisional-radiative model of x-ray emission from Mo30+ to Mo39+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacella, D.; Fournier, K. B.; Zerbini, M.; Finkenthal, M.; Mattioli, M.; May, M. J.; Goldstein, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents and interprets, by means of detailed atomic calculations, observations of L-shell (n=3→n=2) transitions in highly ionized molybdenum, the main intrinsic heavy impurity in the Frascati tokamak upgrade plasmas. These hot plasmas were obtained by additional electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), at the frequency of 140 Ghz, during the current ramp-up phase of the discharge. Injecting 400 kW on axis and 800 kW slightly off axis, the peak central electron temperature reached 8.0 and 7.0 keV, respectively, for a time much longer than the ionization equilibrium time of the molybdenum ions. X-ray emissions from rarely observed high charge states, Mo 30+ to Mo 39+ , have been studied with moderate spectral resolution (λ/Δλ∼150) and a time resolution of 5 ms. A sophisticated collisional-radiative model for the study of molybdenum ions in plasmas with electron temperature in the range 4-20 keV is presented. The sensitivity of the x-ray emission to the temperature and to impurity transport processes is discussed. This model has been then used to investigate two different plasma scenarios. In the first regime the ECRH heating occurs on axis during the current ramp up phase, when the magnetic shear is evolving from negative to zero up to the half radius. The spectrum is well reproduced with the molybdenum ions in coronal equilibrium and with a central impurity peaking. In the second regime, at the beginning of the current flat top when magnetic shear is monotonic and sawtoothing activity is appearing, the lowest charge states (Mo 33+ to Mo 30+ ), populated off axis, are affected by anomalous transport and the total molybdenum profile is found to be flat up to the half radius. We conclude with the presentation of ''synthetic spectra'' computed for even higher temperature plasmas that are expected in future experiments with higher ECRH power input. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. US SciDAC Program on Integrated Simulation of Edge Transport in Fusion Plasmas, and its Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    The multi-institutional collaborative center for plasma edge simulation (CPES) has been launched in the USA under the SciDAC (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing) Fusion Simulation Program. This is a multi-disciplinary effort among physicists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists from 15 national laboratories and universities. Its goal is to perform first principles simulations on plasma transport in the edge region from the top of the pedestal to the scrape off/divertor regions bounded by a material wall, and to predict L-H transition, pedestal buildup, ELM crashes, scrape-off transport and divertor heat load. As a major part of the effort, a PIC gyrokinetic edge code XGC is constructed. The gyrokinetic edge code XGC is coupled to a nonlinear edge MHD/2fluid code (M3D and NIMROD) to predict the cycle of pedestal buildup and ELM crash. The magnetic geometry includes the realistic separatrix, X-point, open field lines and material wall. In the first phase of this effort, the electrostatic version of the PIC gyrokinetic code XGC-1 has been built, to be extended into an electromagnetic version soon in the next phase. XGC-1 includes the gyrokinetic ions, electrons, and Monte Carlo neutrals with wall recycling. Since the ions have non-Maxwellian distribution function in the edge, as demonstrated in XGC, a full-f ion technique is used. Electrons are, though, handled with a mixed-f technique: the full-f technique for neoclassical and adiabatic or delta-f split-weight techniques for turbulence physics. The mixed-f electron approach used in XGC is new, successfully integrating the neoclassical and turbulence physics. Recent progress and results on neoclassical and electrostatic turbulence transports will be reported, which includes the pedestal buildup by neutral ionization, density pedestal width scaling, electrostatic potential and plasma flow distributions in the pedestal and scrape-off, and other important physical effects in the pedestal

  12. Observations of long impurity confinement times in the ISX tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, K H; Wong, S K; Muller, III, C H; Hacker, M P [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA); Ketterer, H E; Isler, R C; Lazarus, E A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1981-08-01

    The transport of small amounts of silicon and aluminium injected into plasmas in the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX) tokamak is studied. By monitoring the time behaviour of ultra-violet spectral lines emitted by various charge states of those impurities and comparing this behaviour to the predictions of a multi-species impurity transport code, it is found that both impurity penetration times and impurity containment times are consistent with neoclassical predictions. The observed impurity containment times, which are greater than three times the energy containment time, are consistent with the inward convection predicted by neoclassical theory.

  13. The role of zonal flows and predator-prey oscillations in triggering the formation of edge and core transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, L.; Zeng, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Peebles, W. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Burrell, K. H.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Tynan, G. R.; Diamond, P. H.; Boedo, J. A.; Doyle, E. J.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.; Austin, M. E.; Solomon, W. M.; Wang, G.

    2014-07-01

    We present direct evidence of low frequency, radially sheared, turbulence-driven flows (zonal flows (ZFs)) triggering edge transport barrier formation preceding the L- to H-mode transition via periodic turbulence suppression in limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs), consistent with predator-prey dynamics. The final transition to edge-localized mode-free H-mode occurs after the equilibrium E × B flow shear increases due to ion pressure profile evolution. ZFs are also observed to initiate formation of an electron internal transport barrier (ITB) at the q = 2 rational surface via local suppression of electron-scale turbulence. Multi-channel Doppler backscattering (DBS) has revealed the radial structure of the ZF-induced shear layer and the E × B shearing rate, ωE×B, in both barrier types. During edge barrier formation, the shearing rate lags the turbulence envelope during the LCO by 90°, transitioning to anti-correlation (180°) when the equilibrium shear dominates the turbulence-driven flow shear due to the increasing edge pressure gradient. The time-dependent flow shear and the turbulence envelope are anti-correlated (180° out of phase) in the electron ITB. LCOs with time-reversed evolution dynamics (transitioning from an equilibrium-flow dominated to a ZF-dominated state) have also been observed during the H-L back-transition and are potentially of interest for controlled ramp-down of the plasma stored energy and pressure (normalized to the poloidal magnetic field) \\beta_{\\theta} =2\\mu_{0} n{( {T_{e} +T_{i}})}/{B_{\\theta}^{2}} in ITER.

  14. Topology and transport in the edge region of RFX-mod helical regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarin, P.; Vianello, N.; Agostini, M.; Spizzo, G.; Spolaore, M.; Zuin, M.; Cappello, S.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; De Masi, G.; Martines, E.; Moresco, M.; Munaretto, S.; Puiatti, M. E.; Valisa, M.

    2011-01-01

    New edge diagnostics and detailed analysis of magnetic topology have significantly improved the comprehension of the processes developing at the boundary of a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma in RFX-mod (a = 0.46 m, R = 2 m). An upper critical density n C ∼ 0.4 n G (n G Greenwald density) is found to limit the operational space for the improved quasi-single helical (QSH) regime: magnetic topology reconstructions and diagnostic observations suggest that this limit is due to a helical plasma-wall interaction which determines toroidally and poloidally localized edge density accumulation and cooling. The experimental evidence is provided by a variety of diagnostics: the magnetic boundary as reconstructed from equilibrium codes reveals a helical deformation, which is well correlated with the modulation of edge pressure profile as reconstructed from the thermal helium beam diagnostic. Correlations with the helical deformation are also observed on the space- and time-resolved patterns of the floating potential measured at the wall, and with the edge plasma flow, obtained from different diagnostics. The relevance of these findings is that understanding the mechanisms that limit the operational space of QSH is decisive in achieving the goal of high-density stationary helical RFP equilibrium.

  15. A survey of problems in divertor and edge plasma theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.; Braams, B.; Weitzner, H.; Hazeltine, R.; Houlberg, W.; Oktay, E.; Sadowski, W.; Wootton, A.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical physics problems related to divertor design are presented, organized by the region in which they occur. Some of the open questions in edge physics are presented from a theoretician's point of view. After a cursory sketch of the fluid models of the edge plasma and their numerical realization, the following topics are taken up: time-dependent problems, non-axisymmetric effects, anomalous transport in the scrape-off layer, edge kinetic theory, sheath effects and boundary conditions in divertors, electric field effects, atomic and molecular data issues, impurity transport in the divertor region, poloidally localized power dissipation (MARFEs and dense gas targets), helium ash removal, and neutral transport. The report ends with a summary of selected problems of particular significance and a brief bibliography of survey articles and related conference proceedings

  16. Tungsten impurity transport experiments in Alcator C-Mod to address high priority research and development for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loarte, A.; Polevoi, A. R.; Hosokawa, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Reinke, M. L. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Chilenski, M.; Howard, N.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Walk, J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Köchl, F. [Technische Universität Wien, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Pütterich, T.; Dux, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmanstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zhogolev, V. E. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute,” Kurchatov Square 1, 123098 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Experiments in Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasmas in the Enhanced D-alpha H-mode regime with ITER-like mid-radius plasma density peaking and Ion Cyclotron Resonant heating, in which tungsten is introduced by the laser blow-off technique, have demonstrated that accumulation of tungsten in the central region of the plasma does not take place in these conditions. The measurements obtained are consistent with anomalous transport dominating tungsten transport except in the central region of the plasma where tungsten transport is neoclassical, as previously observed in other devices with dominant neutral beam injection heating, such as JET and ASDEX Upgrade. In contrast to such results, however, the measured scale lengths for plasma temperature and density in the central region of these Alcator C-Mod plasmas, with density profiles relatively flat in the core region due to the lack of core fuelling, are favourable to prevent inter and intra sawtooth tungsten accumulation in this region under dominance of neoclassical transport. Simulations of ITER H-mode plasmas, including both anomalous (modelled by the Gyro-Landau-Fluid code GLF23) and neoclassical transport for main ions and tungsten and with density profiles of similar peaking to those obtained in Alcator C-Mod show that accumulation of tungsten in the central plasma region is also unlikely to occur in stationary ITER H-mode plasmas due to the low fuelling source by the neutral beam injection (injection energy ∼ 1 MeV), which is in good agreement with findings in the Alcator C-Mod experiments.

  17. Simulation of impurity transport in the peripheral plasma due to the emission of dust in long pulse discharges on the Large Helical Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shoji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two different plasma termination processes by dust emission were observed in long pulse discharges in the Large Helical Device. One is a plasma termination caused by large amounts of carbon dust released from a lower divertor region. The other is termination caused by stainless steel (iron dust emission from the surface of a helical coil can. The effect of the dust emission on the sustainment of the long pulse discharges are investigated using a three-dimensional edge plasma transport code (EMC3-EIRENE coupled with a dust transport code (DUSTT. The simulation shows that the plasma is more influenced by the iron dust emission from the helical coil can than by the carbon dust emission from the divertor region. The simulation revealed that the plasma flow in divertor legs is quite effective for preventing dust from terminating the long pulse discharges.

  18. Three-dimensional plasma transport in open chaotic magnetic fields. A computational assessment for tokamak edge layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frerichs, Heinke Gerd

    2010-04-01

    The development of nuclear fusion as an alternative energy source requires the research on magnetically confined, high temperature plasmas. In particular, the quantification of plasma flows in the domain near exposed material surfaces of the plasma container by computer simulations is of key importance, both for guiding interpretation of present fusion experiments and for aiding the ongoing design activities for large future devices such as ITER, W7-X or the DEMO reactor. There is a large number of computational issues related to the physics of hot, fully ionized and magnetized plasmas near surfaces of the vacuum chamber. This thesis is dedicated to one particular such challenge, namely the numerical quantification of self-consistent kinetic neutral gas and plasma fluid flows in very complex 3D (partially chaotic) magnetic fields, in the absence of any common symmetries for plasma and neutral gas dynamics. Such magnetic field configurations are e.g. generated by externally applied magnetic perturbations at the plasma edge, and are of great interest for the control of particle and energy exhausts. In the present thesis the 3D edge plasma and neutral particle transport code EMC3-EIRENE is applied to two distinct configurations of open chaotic magnetic system: at the TEXTOR and DIII-D tokamaks. Improvements of the edge transport model and extensions of the transport code are presented, which have allowed such simulations for the first time for 3D scenarios at DIII-D with ITER similar plasmas. A strong 3D effect of the chaotic magnetic field on the DIII-D edge plasma is found and analyzed in detail. It is found that a pronounced striation pattern of target particle and heat fluxes at DIII-D can only be obtained up to a certain upper limiting level of anomalous cross-field transport. Hence, in comparison to experimental data, these findings allow to narrow down the range of this model parameter. One particular interest at TEXTOR is the achievement of a regime with

  19. Impurity effects in the electrothermal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimura, A.; Azevedo, M.T. de

    1982-01-01

    A 'impure' plasma model is proposed based on the homogeneous hydrogen plasma used in the theory formulated by Tomimura and Haines to explain the electrothermal instable mode growth with the wave vector perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. The impurities are introduced implicitly in the transport coefficients of the two-fluid model through a effective charge number Z sub(eff). (Author) [pt

  20. Edge Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Angus, Justin [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lee, Wonjae [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The goal of the Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) multi-institutional project is to advance scientific understanding of the edge plasma region of magnetic fusion devices via a coordinated effort utilizing modern computing resources, advanced algorithms, and ongoing theoretical development. The UCSD team was involved in the development of the COGENT code for kinetic studies across a magnetic separatrix. This work included a kinetic treatment of electrons and multiple ion species (impurities) and accurate collision operators.

  1. Edge parameters from an energy analyzer and particle transport on TEXT-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, D.B.; Phillips, P.E.; Craven, W.A.; Rowan, W.L.; Wootton, A.J.; Wan, A.S.; Yang, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    The energy distributions of ions and electrons in the scrape-off layer of TEXT are measured with a bi-directional Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA). The probe provides simultaneous measurements parallel and anti-parallel to the plasma current. Large asymmetries in this direction in the flux and temperature that were found with the RFA appear largely due to differences in the connection lengths L c . The measurements from the analyzer are compared with the results of a simple edge model to infer the edge particle diffusion coefficient. While the measurements are consistent with the model for longer connection lengths (∼ 10 meters in TEXT-U), the agreement deteriorates for L c less than two meters

  2. Impact of the plasma response in three-dimensional edge plasma transport modelling for RMP ELM control scenarios at ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver

    2014-10-01

    The constrains used in magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modeling of the plasma response to external resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields have a profound impact on the three-dimensional (3-D) shape of the plasma boundary induced by RMP fields. In this contribution, the consequences of the plasma response on the actual 3D boundary structure and transport during RMP application at ITER are investigated. The 3D fluid plasma and kinetic neutral transport code EMC3-Eirene is used for edge transport modeling. Plasma response modeling is conducted with the M3D-C1 code using a single fluid, non-linear and a two fluid, linear MHD constrain. These approaches are compared to results with an ideal MHD like plasma response. A 3D plasma boundary is formed for all cases consisting of magnetic finger structures at the X-point intersecting the divertor surface in a helical footprint pattern. The width of the helical footprint pattern is largely reduced compared to vacuum magnetic fields when using the ideal MHD like screening model. This yields increasing peak heat fluxes in contrast to a beneficial heat flux spreading seen with vacuum fields. The particle pump out as well as loss of thermal energy is reduced by a factor of two compared to vacuum fields. In contrast, the impact of the plasma response obtained from both MHD constrains in M3D-C1 is nearly negligible at the plasma boundary and only a small modification of the magnetic footprint topology is detected. Accordingly, heat and particle fluxes on the target plates as well as the edge transport characteristics are comparable to the vacuum solution. This span of modeling results with different plasma response models highlights the importance of thoroughly validating both, plasma response and 3D edge transport models for a robust extrapolation towards ITER. Supported by ITER Grant IO/CT/11/4300000497 and F4E Grant GRT-055 (PMS-PE) and by Start-Up Funds of the University of Wisconsin - Madison.

  3. Density effects on tokamak edge turbulence and transport with magnetic X-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Nevins, W.M.; Rognlien, T.D.; Ryutov, D.D.; Umansky, M.V.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Bulmer, R.H.; Russell, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Greenwald, M.; Snyder, P.B.; Mahdavi, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented from the 3D electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT, the 2D transport code UEDGE, and theoretical analysis of boundary turbulence and transport in a real divertor-plasma geometry and its relationship to the density limit. Key results include: (1) a transition of the boundary turbulence from resistive X-point to resistive-ballooning as a critical plasma density is exceeded; (2) formation of an X-point MARFE in 2D UEDGE transport simulations for increasing outboard radial transport as found by BOUT for increasing density; (3) identification of convective transport by localized plasma 'blobs' in the SOL at high density during neutral fueling, and decorrelation of turbulence between the midplane and the divertor leg due to strong X-point magnetic shear; (4) a new divertor-leg instability driven at high plasma beta by a radial tilt of the divertor plate. (author)

  4. Comparisons of physical and chemical sputtering in high density divertor plasmas with the Monte Carlo Impurity (MCI) transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Loh, Y.S.; West, W.P.; Finkenthal, D.F.

    1997-11-01

    The MCI transport model was used to compare chemical and physical sputtering for a DIII-D divertor plasma near detachment. With physical sputtering alone the integrated carbon influx was 8.4 x 10 19 neutral/s while physical plus chemical sputtering produced an integrated carbon influx of 1.7 x 10 21 neutrals/s. The average carbon concentration in the computational volume increased from 0.012% with only physical sputtering to 0.182% with both chemical and physical sputtering. This increase in the carbon inventory produced more radiated power which is in better agreement with experimental measurements

  5. The possible role of Reynolds stress in the creation of a transport barrier in tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergote, M.; Van Schoor, M.; Xu, Y.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.; Hron, M.; Stoeckel, J.

    2005-01-01

    To obtain a good confinement, mandatory in a fusion reactor, the understanding of the formation of transport barriers in the edge plasma of a tokamak is essential. Turbulence, the major candidate to explain anomalous transport, can be quenched by sheared flows in the edge which rip the convective cells apart, thus forming a barrier. Experimental evidence from the Chinese HT-6M tokamak [Y.H. Xu et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 3867], points to the fact that momentum transfer from the turbulence can create these sheared flows via the Reynolds stresses. A new 1-d fluid model for the generation of the poloidal flow, has been developed taking into account the driving force of the Reynolds stress and the friction forces due to neutrals and parallel viscosity. Special attention has been dedicated to the computation of the flux-surface-averaging for the various terms. This model has been confronted with the experimental results obtained in the HT-6M tokamak, where Reynolds stresses were generated by application of a turbulent heating pulse. If the model is applied in cylindrical geometry, the calculated Reynolds stress-induced flow agrees well with the measured poloidal velocity in the plasma edge. However, when the full toroidal geometry is taken into account, it seems that the Reynolds stresses are too small to explain the observed rotation. This indicates that the role of the Reynolds stresses in inducing macroscopic flow in the torus is weakened. A combined system of probes allowing to measure the Reynolds stress and the rotation velocity simultaneously, has been developed and installed on the CASTOR tokamak. We report here on the first results obtained. (author)

  6. Magnetic fluctuation induced transport and edge dynamo measurements in the MST reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokin, S.; Fiksel, G.; Ji, H.

    1994-09-01

    Probe measurements in MST indicate that RFP particle and energy loss is governed by magnetic fluctuations inside r/a = 0.8, with energy carried out convectively by superthermal electrons. The radial loss rate is lower than the Rechester-Rosenbluth level, presumably due to the establishment of a restraining ambipolar potential. Several aspects of these measurements contradict the Kinetic Dynamo Theory, while the MHD dynamo EMF is measured to be large enough to drive the edge current carried by these superthermal electrons

  7. Measurement of quasiparticle transport in aluminum films using tungsten transition-edge sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, J. J.; Shank, B.; Cabrera, B.; Moffatt, R.; Redl, P.; Young, B. A.; Tortorici, E. C.; Brink, P. L.; Cherry, M.; Tomada, A.; Kreikebaum, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on experimental studies of phonon sensors which utilize quasiparticle diffusion in thin aluminum films connected to tungsten transition-edge-sensors (TESs) operated at 35 mK. We show that basic TES physics and a simple physical model of the overlap region between the W and Al films in our devices enables us to accurately reproduce the experimentally observed pulse shapes from x-rays absorbed in the Al films. We further estimate quasiparticle loss in Al films using a simple diffusion equation approach. These studies allow the design of phonon sensors with improved performance.

  8. Concepual design of Langmuir probes for the diagnosis of plasma edge of Aditya-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachhvani, Lavkesh T.; Pandya, Shwetang N.; Iyer, Ramakrishnan B.; Barot, Akash; Patel, Kaushal M.; Jadeja, Kumarpalsinh; Gautam, Pramila; Joshi, Nishita H.; Ghosh, Joydeep; Raj, Harshita

    2017-01-01

    The role of the Tokamak edge plasma in influencing the fusion energy yield of Tokamaks is now widely recognized and is reflected in the increasing efforts devoted to the experimental and theoretical study of scrape-off layer (SOL) physics. Of particular concern are aspects of the plasma-surface interaction leading to impurity production and the subsequent impurity transport and contamination of the core plasma. The impurity transport depends strongly on the background properties of the SOL plasma, such as the plasma density, potential, electron and ion temperature, ion flows, flow velocity and their fluctuations and transport coefficients. The poster discusses the design considerations and technical details for variety of probes installed on Aditya-U

  9. Predictions of the near edge transport shortfall in DIII-D L-mode plasmas using the trapped gyro-Landau-fluid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, J. E. [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, California 92014 (United States); Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Petty, C. C.; Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Rhodes, T. L. [Physics Department and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Previous studies of DIII-D L-mode plasmas have shown that a transport shortfall exists in that our current models of turbulent transport can significantly underestimate the energy transport in the near edge region. In this paper, the Trapped Gyro-Landau-Fluid (TGLF) drift wave transport model is used to simulate the near edge transport in a DIII-D L-mode experiment designed to explore the impact of varying the safety factor on the shortfall. We find that the shortfall systematically increases with increasing safety factor and is more pronounced for the electrons than for the ions. Within the shortfall dataset, a single high current case has been found where no transport shortfall is predicted. Reduced neutral beam injection power has been identified as the key parameter separating this discharge from other discharges exhibiting a shortfall. Further analysis shows that the energy transport in the L-mode near edge region is not stiff according to TGLF. Unlike the H-mode core region, the predicted temperature profiles are relatively more responsive to changes in auxiliary heating power. In testing the fidelity of TGLF for the near edge region, we find that a recalibration of the collision model is warranted. A recalibration improves agreement between TGLF and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations performed using the GYRO code with electron-ion collisions. The recalibration only slightly impacts the predicted shortfall.

  10. Transport Mechanisms Governing initial Leading-Edge Vortex Development on a Pitching Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabick, Kevin; Berdon, Randall; Buchholz, James; Johnson, Kyle; Thurow, Brian

    2017-11-01

    The formation and evolution of Leading Edge Vortices (LEVs) are ubiquitous in natural fliers and maneuvering wings, and have a profound impact on aerodynamic loads. The formation of an LEV is experimentally investigated on a pitching flat-plate wing of aspect-ratio 2, and dimensionless pitch rates of k = Ωc / 2 U of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5, at a Reynolds number of 104. The sources and sinks of vorticity that contribute to the growth and evolution of the LEV are investigated at spanwise regions of interest, and their relative balance is compared to other wing kinematics, and the case of a two-dimensional pitching wing. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant Number FA9550-16-1-0107, Dr. Douglas Smith, program manager).

  11. Improved profile fitting and quantification of uncertainty in experimental measurements of impurity transport coefficients using Gaussian process regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilenski, M.A.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N.T.; White, A.E.; Rice, J.E.; Walk, J.R.; Marzouk, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The need to fit smooth temperature and density profiles to discrete observations is ubiquitous in plasma physics, but the prevailing techniques for this have many shortcomings that cast doubt on the statistical validity of the results. This issue is amplified in the context of validation of gyrokinetic transport models (Holland et al 2009 Phys. Plasmas 16 052301), where the strong sensitivity of the code outputs to input gradients means that inadequacies in the profile fitting technique can easily lead to an incorrect assessment of the degree of agreement with experimental measurements. In order to rectify the shortcomings of standard approaches to profile fitting, we have applied Gaussian process regression (GPR), a powerful non-parametric regression technique, to analyse an Alcator C-Mod L-mode discharge used for past gyrokinetic validation work (Howard et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 063002). We show that the GPR techniques can reproduce the previous results while delivering more statistically rigorous fits and uncertainty estimates for both the value and the gradient of plasma profiles with an improved level of automation. We also discuss how the use of GPR can allow for dramatic increases in the rate of convergence of uncertainty propagation for any code that takes experimental profiles as inputs. The new GPR techniques for profile fitting and uncertainty propagation are quite useful and general, and we describe the steps to implementation in detail in this paper. These techniques have the potential to substantially improve the quality of uncertainty estimates on profile fits and the rate of convergence of uncertainty propagation, making them of great interest for wider use in fusion experiments and modelling efforts. (paper)

  12. Dynamics of the edge transport barrier at plasma biasing on the CASTOR tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stöckel, Jan; Spolaore, M.; Peleman, P.; Brotánková, Jana; Horáček, Jan; Dejarnac, Renaud; Devynck, P.; Ďuran, Ivan; Gunn, J. P.; Hron, Martin; Kocan, M.; Martines, E.; Pánek, Radomír; Sharma, A.; Van Oost, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2006), s. 19-23 ISSN 1562-6016. [International Conference on Plasma Physics and Technology/11th./. Alushta, 11.9.2006-16.9.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * plasma * transport barrier * relaxations Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http:// vant .kipt.kharkov.ua/TABFRAME.html

  13. Impurity bound states in mesoscopic topological superconducting loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan-Yan; Zha, Guo-Qiao; Zhou, Shi-Ping

    2018-06-01

    We study numerically the effect induced by magnetic impurities in topological s-wave superconducting loops with spin-orbit interaction based on spin-generalized Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. In the case of a single magnetic impurity, it is found that the midgap bound states can cross the Fermi level at an appropriate impurity strength and the circulating spin current jumps at the crossing point. The evolution of the zero-energy mode can be effectively tuned by the located site of a single magnetic impurity. For the effect of many magnetic impurities, two independent midway or edge impurities cannot lead to the overlap of zero modes. The multiple zero-energy modes can be effectively realized by embedding a single Josephson junction with impurity scattering into the system, and the spin current displays oscillatory feature with increasing the layer thickness.

  14. IMPROVING THE AERODYNAMICS OF A TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT WING USING A DELTA PLANFORM WINGTIP LEADING EDGE EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gueraiche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the possibility of improving the aerodynamic properties of a supercritical-airfoil wing, typical for a modern passenger aircraft, using delta planform passive devices of large relative areas, installed along the leading edge at the wing tip. Delta extensions of various configurations were considered to be used as wingtip devices, potentially improving or completely replacing classical R. Whitcomb winglets. As a result of two- and three-dimensional CFD simulations performed on DLR-F4 wing-body prototype, the potential advantage of these devices was confirmed, particularly when they are installed in a combination with an elliptical planform, largely swept, raked winglet in terms of reducing the induced drag and increasing the aerodynamic lift-to-drag ratio at flight angles of attack. The growth in lift-to-drag ratio applying these devices owes it solely to the drop in drag, without increasing the lift force acting on the wing. In comparison to the classical winglets that lead to a general increase in lifting and lateral forces acting on the wing structure, resulting in a weight penalty, the Wingtip Ledge Edge Triangular Extension (WLETE yields the same L/D ratio increase, but with a much smaller increase in the wing loading. A study has been made of the characteristics of the local (modified airfoil in the WLETE zone in a two-dimensional flow context, and a quantitative analysis has been conducted of the influence of WLETE on both the profile and induced drag components, as well as its influence on the overall lift coefficient of the wing. The resulted synthesis of the WLETE influence on the wing L/D ratio will consist of its influence on each of these components. A comparison of the efficiency of using delta extensions against classical winglets was carried out in a multidisciplinary way, where in addition to the changes in aerodynamic coefficients of lift and drag, the increments of magnitude and distribution of the loads

  15. Role of rational surfaces on fluctuations and transport in the plasma edge of the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, M.A.; Hidalgo, C.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that transport barriers in toroidal magnetically confined plasmas tend to be linked to regions of unique magnetic topology such as the location of a minimum in the safety factor, rational surfaces or the boundary between closed and open flux surfaces. In the absence of E x B sheared flows, fluctuations are expected to show maximum amplitude near rational surfaces, and plasma confinement might tend to deteriorate. On the other hand, if the generation of E x B sheared flows were linked to low order rational surfaces, these would be beneficial to confinement. Experimental evidence of E x B sheared flows linked to rational surfaces has been obtained in the plasma edge region of the TJ-II stellarator. (author)

  16. Effect of progressively increasing lithium conditioning on edge transport and stability in high triangularity NSTX H-modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R., E-mail: rmaingi@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, 100 Stellarator Road, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, R.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, 100 Stellarator Road, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Boyle, D.P. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Diallo, A.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, 100 Stellarator Road, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Sabbagh, S.A. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    A sequence of H-mode discharges with increasing levels of pre-discharge lithium evaporation (‘dose’) was conducted in high triangularity and elongation boundary shape in NSTX. Energy confinement increased, and recycling decreased with increasing lithium dose, similar to a previous lithium dose scan in medium triangularity and elongation plasmas. Data-constrained SOLPS interpretive modeling quantified the edge transport change: the electron particle diffusivity decreased by 10–30x. The electron thermal diffusivity decreased by 4x just inside the top of the pedestal, but increased by up to 5x very near the separatrix. These results provide a baseline expectation for lithium benefits in NSTX-U, which is optimized for a boundary shape similar to the one in this experiment.

  17. Hydrogenic impurity in double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.F.

    2007-01-01

    The ground state binding energy and the average interparticle distances for a hydrogenic impurity in double quantum dots with Gaussian confinement potential are studied by the variational method. The probability density of the electron is calculated, too. The dependence of the binding energy on the impurity position is investigated for GaAs quantum dots. The result shows that the binding energy has a minimum as a function of the distance between the two quantum dots when the impurity is located at the center of one quantum dot or at the center of the edge of one quantum dot. When the impurity is located at the center of the two dots, the binding energy decreases monotonically

  18. Plasma transport in stochastic magnetic field caused by vacuum resonant magnetic perturbations at diverted tokamak edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, G.; Chang, C. S.; Joseph, I.; Moyer, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    A kinetic transport simulation for the first 4 ms of the vacuum resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) application has been performed for the first time in realistic diverted DIII-D tokamak geometry [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], with the self-consistent evaluation of the radial electric field and the plasma rotation. It is found that, due to the kinetic effects, the stochastic parallel thermal transport is significantly reduced when compared to the standard analytic model [A. B. Rechester and M. N. Rosenbluth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 38 (1978)] and the nonaxisymmetric perpendicular radial particle transport is significantly enhanced from the axisymmetric level. These trends agree with recent experimental result trends [T. E. Evans, R. A. Moyer, K. H. Burrell et al., Nat. Phys. 2, 419 (2006)]. It is also found, as a side product, that an artificial local reduction of the vacuum RMP fields in the vicinity of the magnetic separatrix can bring the kinetic simulation results to a more detailed agreement with experimental plasma profiles.

  19. Simulations of phenomena related to edge transport in tokamak fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzett, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates turbulence in a tokamak fusion plasma using numerical simulations. The fluid turbulence code ATTEMPT, which computes the drift dynamics of ions and electrons in electromagnetic fields, is applied to investigate three physical effects which are motivated by recent experimental findings. The first part shows that the statistics of drift fluid turbulence are largely unaffected by the presence of rational magnetic surfaces for typical edge parameter regimes. The second part contains an analysis of the dependence of correlation lengths on various physical parameters. A systematic approach reveals the impact of plasma parameters - which change in the transition from L to H-mode - on parallel, radial and perpendicular correlation lengths. In the last part of the thesis a new flux surface geometry is implemented in the ATTEMPT code. The modified geometry models the onset of the change in magnetic topology near a magnetic X-point. Computations show that turbulent fluctuations are reduced in an X-point distorted flux surface geometry, and the spectral structure of turbulence is altered substantially. (author) [de

  20. Effects of V-shaped edge defect and H-saturation on spin-dependent electronic transport of zigzag MoS2 nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xin-Mei; Long, Meng-Qiu; Cui, Li-Ling; Xiao, Jin; Zhang, Xiao-Jiao; Zhang, Dan; Xu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Based on nonequilibrium Green's function in combination with density functional theory calculations, the spin-dependent electronic transport properties of one-dimensional zigzag molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) nanoribbons with V-shaped defect and H-saturation on the edges have been studied. Our results show that the spin-polarized transport properties can be found in all the considered zigzag MoS 2 nanoribbons systems. The edge defects, especially the V-shaped defect on the Mo edge, and H-saturation on the edges can suppress the electronic transport of the systems. Also, the spin-filtering and negative differential resistance behaviors can be observed obviously. The mechanisms are proposed for these phenomena. - Highlights: • The spin-dependent electronic transport of zigzag MoS 2 nanoribbons. • The effects of V-shaped edge defect and H-saturation. • The effects of spin-filter and negative differential resistance can be observed

  1. Linking the plasma code EDGE2D to the neutral code NIMBUS for a self consistent transport model of the boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Matteis, A.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the fully automatic linkage between the finite difference, two-dimensional code EDGE2D, based on the classical Braginskii partial differential equations of ion transport, and the Monte Carlo code NIMBUS, which solves the integral form of the stationary, linear Boltzmann equation for neutral transport in a plasma. The coupling has been performed for the real poloidal geometry of JET with two belt-limiters and real magnetic configurations with or without a single-null point. The new integrated system starts from the magnetic geometry computed by predictive or interpretative equilibrium codes and yields the plasma and neutrals characteristics in the edge

  2. Impurity control in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This summary report on the Technical Committee Meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Naka-Gun, Japan, 13-15 February 1989, provides an overview of the results presented. Of the twenty-three papers presented, sixteen were devoted to tokamak experiments. These presented data of plasma behavior in the scrape-off layer and divertor regions, as well as effects of impurities on the core plasma; these are summarized here. Other papers summarized deal with plasma-wall interactions, including wall material behavior. Still others deal with theoretical work on physics modelling in the edge region. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Progress report for FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations): C.S. SAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, T W

    2008-10-01

    The mission of the Computer Science Scientific Application Partnership (C.S. SAP) at LLNL is to develop and apply leading-edge scientific component technology to FACETS software. Contributions from LLNL's fusion energy program staff towards the underlying physics modules are described in a separate report. FACETS uses component technology to combine selectively multiple physics and solver software modules written in different languages by different institutions together in an tightly-integrated, parallel computing framework for Tokamak reactor modeling. In the past fiscal year, the C.S. SAP has focused on two primary tasks: applying Babel to connect UEDGE into the FACETS framework through UEDGE's existing Python interface and developing a next generation componentization strategy for UEDGE which avoids the use of Python. The FACETS project uses Babel to solve its language interoperability challenges. Specific accomplishments for the year include: (1) Refined SIDL interfaces for UEDGE to meet satisfy the standard interfaces required by FACETS for all physics modules. This required consensus building between framework and UEDGE developers. (2) Wrote prototype C++ driver for UEDGE to demonstrate how UEDGE can be called from C++ using Babel. (3) Supported the FACETS project by adding new features to Babel such as release number tagging, porting to new machines, and adding new configuration options. Babel modifications were delivered to FACETS by testing and publishing development snapshots in the projects software repository. (4) Assisted Tech-X Corporation in testing and debugging of a high level build system for the complete FACETS tool chain--the complete list of third-party software libraries that FACETS depends on directly or indirectly (e.g., MPI, HDF5, PACT, etc.). (5) Designed and implemented a new approach to wrapping UEDGE as a FACETS component without requiring Python. To get simulation results as soon as possible, our initial connection from the

  4. Progress report for FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations): C.S. SAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the Computer Science Scientific Application Partnership (C.S. SAP) at LLNL is to develop and apply leading-edge scientific component technology to FACETS software. Contributions from LLNL's fusion energy program staff towards the underlying physics modules are described in a separate report. FACETS uses component technology to combine selectively multiple physics and solver software modules written in different languages by different institutions together in an tightly-integrated, parallel computing framework for Tokamak reactor modeling. In the past fiscal year, the C.S. SAP has focused on two primary tasks: applying Babel to connect UEDGE into the FACETS framework through UEDGE's existing Python interface and developing a next generation componentization strategy for UEDGE which avoids the use of Python. The FACETS project uses Babel to solve its language interoperability challenges. Specific accomplishments for the year include: (1) Refined SIDL interfaces for UEDGE to meet satisfy the standard interfaces required by FACETS for all physics modules. This required consensus building between framework and UEDGE developers. (2) Wrote prototype C++ driver for UEDGE to demonstrate how UEDGE can be called from C++ using Babel. (3) Supported the FACETS project by adding new features to Babel such as release number tagging, porting to new machines, and adding new configuration options. Babel modifications were delivered to FACETS by testing and publishing development snapshots in the projects software repository. (4) Assisted Tech-X Corporation in testing and debugging of a high level build system for the complete FACETS tool chain--the complete list of third-party software libraries that FACETS depends on directly or indirectly (e.g., MPI, HDF5, PACT, etc.). (5) Designed and implemented a new approach to wrapping UEDGE as a FACETS component without requiring Python. To get simulation results as soon as possible, our initial connection from the FACETS

  5. Symmetry-Dependent Spin Transport Properties and Spin-Filter Effects in Zigzag-Edged Germanene Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed the first-principles calculations to investigate the spin-dependent electronic transport properties of zigzag-edged germanium nanoribbons (ZGeNRs. We choose of ZGeNRs with odd and even widths of 5 and 6, and the symmetry-dependent transport properties have been found, although the σ mirror plane is absent in ZGeNRs. Furthermore, even-N and odd-N ZGeNRs have very different current-voltage relationships. We find that the even 6-ZGeNR shows a dual spin-filter effect in antiparallel (AP magnetism configuration, but the odd 5-ZGeNR behaves as conventional conductors with linear current-voltage dependence. It is found that when the two electrodes are in parallel configuration, the 6-ZGeNR system is in a low resistance state, while it can switch to a much higher resistance state when the electrodes are in AP configuration, and the magnetoresistance of 270% can be observed.

  6. Process and system for removing impurities from a gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

    2014-04-15

    A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

  7. Edge-plasma analysis for liquid-wall MFE concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Rensink, M.E.; Rognlien, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    A thick flowing layer of liquid (e.g., flibe - a molten salt, or Sn 80 Li 20 - a liquid metal) protects the structural walls of the magnetic fusion configuration so that they can last the life of the plant even with intense 14 MeV neutron bombardment from the D-T fusion reaction. The surface temperature of the liquid rises as it passes from the inlet nozzles to the exit nozzles due to absorption of line and bremsstrahlung radiation, and neutrons. The surface temperature can be reduced by enhanced turbulent convection of hot surface liquid into the cooler interior. This surface temperature is affected by the temperature of liquid from a heat transport and energy recovery system. The evaporative flux from the wall driven by the surface temperature must also result in an acceptable impurity level in the core plasma. The shielding of the core by the edge plasma is modeled with a 2D-transport code for the DT and impurity ions; these impurity ions are either swept out to the divertor, or diffuse to the hot plasma core. An auxiliary plasma between the edge plasma and the liquid wall may further attenuate evaporating flux of atoms and molecules by ionization near the wall. (author)

  8. An empirical method for determination of elemental components of radiated powers and impurity concentrations from VUV and XUV spectral features in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, K.; Peacock, N.; Gianella, R.

    1998-12-01

    pulses having two significant impurity elements. The data for the low Z element, C, suggest the need for an edge transport barrier. The modelling of the higher Z element, Ni, allows the bulk transport parameters to be determined. The balance of the plasma particle inventory leads to a linear relationship between the outer diffusion coefficient and the edge transport barrier. In contrast to the results reported previously by Giannella et al. (1994), no significant convection term is required inside this edge barrier. (author)

  9. Impurity study experiment proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    ISX is a modest tokamak which emphasizes the production of a predictable test plasma, experimental flexibility, ease of assembly and disassembly, and good diagnostic access. Its plasma models the outer cooler layers in EPR like plasmas. In addition, provisions will be made for long discharge times which may be necessary to observe some impurity effects. These machine characteristics will enable one to study the collisional transport of impurities in the plasma, perform systematic studies of wall and limiter materials and geometries, study methods of cleaning the walls, and develop and test new diagnostic techniques. ISX will employ water-cooled copper coils to produce a maximum toroidal magnetic field of 20 kG at the plasma axis, which is 77 cm from the major axis. The plasma minor radius will be about 15 cm, and the maximum plasma current will be 100 kA which will be induced by an iron core transformer with a capability of up to 0.9 volt-sec for long discharges. An aspect ratio of five and the modest magnetic field permit a design with ample space for thick wall structures such as honeycomb walls. The ''picture frame'' toroidal field coil provides additional space, while removable coil top sections allow easy replacement of the vacuum chamber. The 72-turn toroidal field coil is grouped into 24 sections for increased access. Absence of a conducting shell and placement of the vertical field and transformer primary coils away from the plasma allow easy viewing of the plasma and good diagnostic access. (U.S.)

  10. Impurity seeding in ASDEX upgrade tokamak modeled by COREDIV code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galazka, K.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Czarnecka, A.; Zagoerski, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Bernert, M.; Kallenbach, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-08-15

    The self-consistent COREDIV code is used to simulate discharges in a tokamak plasma, especially the influence of impurities during nitrogen and argon seeding on the key plasma parameters. The calculations are performed with and without taking into account the W prompt redeposition in the divertor area and are compared to the experimental results acquired on ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (shots 29254 and 29257). For both impurities the modeling shows a better agreement with the experiment in the case without prompt redeposition. It is attributed to higher average tungsten concentration, which on the other hand seriously exceeds the experimental value. By turning the prompt redeposition process on, the W concentration is lowered, what, in turn, results in underestimation of the radiative power losses. By analyzing the influence of the transport coefficients on the radiative power loss and average W concentration it is concluded that the way to compromise the opposing tendencies is to include the edge-localized mode flushing mechanism into the code, which dominates the experimental particle and energy balance. Also performing the calculations with both anomalous and neoclassical diffusion transport mechanisms included is suggested. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  11. UCLA program in theory and modeling of edge physics and plasma material interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Najmabadi, F.; Grossman, A.; Merriman, B.; Day, M.

    1992-01-01

    Our research activity in edge plasma modeling is directed towards understanding edge plasma behavior and towards innovative solutions for controlling the edge plasma as well as the design and operation of impurity control, particle exhaust. and plasma facing components. During the last nine months, substantial progress was made in many areas. The highlights are: (A) Development of a second-generation edge-plasma simulation code (Section II); (B) Development of models for gas-target divertors, including a 1 1/2-D fluid model for plasma and Monte Carlo neutral-transport simulations (Section III); and (C) Utilization of the RF ponderomotive force and electrostatic biasing to distribute the heat load on a larger area of the divertor plate, and the development of analytical and numerical transport models that include both ponderomotive and electrostatic potentials

  12. Achieving improved ohmic confinement via impurity injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M.; Soeldner, F.X.

    1991-01-01

    Improved Ohmic Confinement (IOC) was obtained in ASDEX after a modification of the divertors that allowed a larger (deuterium and impurity) backflow from the divertor chamber. The quality of IOC depended crucially on the wall conditions, i.e. IOC was best for uncovered stainless steels walls and vanished with boronization. Furthermore, IOC was found only in deuterium discharges. These circumstances led to the idea that IOC correlates with the content of light impurities in the plasma. To substantiate this working hypothesis, we present observations in deuterium discharges with boronized wall conditions into which various impurities have been injected with the aim to induce IOC conditions. Firstly, the plasma behaviour in typical IOC discharges is characterized. Secondly, injection experiments with the low-Z impurities nitrogen and neon as well as with the high-Z impurities argon and krypton are discussed. Then, we concentrate on optimized neon puffing that yields the best confinement results which are similar to IOC conditions. Finally, these results are compared with eperiments in other tokamaks and some conclusions are drawn about the effects of the impurity puffing on both, the central and the edge plasma behaviour. (orig.)

  13. Atomic spectroscopy on fusion relevant ions and studies of light impurities in the JET tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunklev, M.

    1999-03-01

    The spectrum and energy levels of C IV and the 3l-4l system of the Mg-like ions in the iron group elements have been investigated. This has led to several hundred identified transitions, many of them previously unknown. Using the Charge Exchange Diagnostic system at JET, ion temperatures, rotation velocities and densities have been derived from visible spectroscopic measurements on fully ionised light impurities, such as He, C, N and Ne. The existence of plume contribution from beam produced hydrogen-like ions has been proven beyond any doubt to affect the deduction of the active charge exchange signal of He II. In the case of C VI the plume signal was estimated to be at least a factor of five lower than the active charge exchange signal. Line integrated passive charge exchange emission between neutral background atoms and fully stripped impurity ions has been investigated and modelled. When the synthetic spectrum is fitted into the experimentally detected spectra the neutral background density can be deduced. The importance of including background atoms (H, D and T) as charge exchange donors, not only in state 2s, but also in state 1s, has shown to be crucial in high temperature shots. Transport of light impurities has been studied with gas puff injections into steady state H-mode plasmas. The results suggest that light impurities are transported as described by the neo-classical Pfirsch-Schlueter regime at the edge, whilst in the centre, sawtoothing, preferably to Banana transport, is mixing the plasma and increases the measured values on the diffusion. For the peaking of impurities in a steady state plasma an anomalous treatment was more in agreement with the experimental data. Certain confinement information, previously predicted theoretically as a part of the peaking equation, has been experimentally verified

  14. The effect of dephasing on edge state transport through p-n junctions in HgTe/CdTe quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Tao; Song, Juntao; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2014-02-26

    Using the Landauer-Büttiker formula, we study the effect of dephasing on the transport properties of the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction. It is found that in the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction the topologically protected gapless helical edge states manifest a quantized 2e²/h plateau robust against dephasing, in sharp contrast to the case for the normal HgTe/CdTe quantum well. This robustness of the transport properties of the edge states against dephasing should be attributed to the special construction of the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction, which limits the gapless helical edge states to a very narrow region and thus weakens the influence of the dephasing on the gapless edge states to a large extent. Our results demonstrate that the p-n junction could be a substitute device for use in experimentally observing the robust edge states and quantized plateau. Finally, we present a feasible scheme based on current experimental methods.

  15. Integrable quantum impurity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckle, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    By modifying some of the local L operators of the algebraic form of the Bethe Ansatz inhomogeneous one dimensional quantum lattice models can be constructed. This fact has recently attracted new attention, the inhomogeneities being interpreted as local impurities. The Hamiltonians of the so constructed one-dimensional quantum models have a nearest neighbour structure except in the vicinity of the local impurities which involve three-site interactions. The pertinent feature of these models is the absence of backscattering at the impurities: the impurities are transparent. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  16. Effect of limiter recycling on measured poloidal impurity emission profiles in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.; DeMichelis, C.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Becoulet, M.; Bush, C.; Ghendrih, P.; Guirlet, R.; Hess, W.; Mattioli, M.; Vallet, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Poloidal impurity emission profiles measured with the Tore Supra grazing incidence duochromator exhibit a complex spatial structure during ergodic divertor operation with an outboard poloidal guard limiter. As previous measurements with inboard-wall limited plasmas have shown that these profiles give important information about the ergodic field structure, so the contribution of local neon recycling from the limiter-induced plume has been modeled. This permits a discrimination of edge and core transport effects. The BBQ 3D scrape-off layer code calculates the asymmetric contribution to the emission and MIST 1D simulation gives the symmetric part. A systematic increase is observed in the decay rate of neon emission after injection as the ergodic divertor strength is increased. The calculations permit identification of the limiter plume contribution to the profile structure, and, with this identification, the effect of the divertor to enhance impurity efflux can be seen from the decay data

  17. Toroidal asymmetries in divertor impurity influxes in NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Scotti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Toroidal asymmetries in divertor carbon and lithium influxes were observed in NSTX, due to toroidal differences in surface composition, tile leading edges, externally-applied three-dimensional (3D fields and toroidally-localized edge plasma modifications due to radio frequency heating. Understanding toroidal asymmetries in impurity influxes is critical for the evaluation of total impurity sources, often inferred from measurements with a limited toroidal coverage. The toroidally-asymmetric lithium deposition induced asymmetries in divertor lithium influxes. Enhanced impurity influxes at the leading edge of divertor tiles were the main cause of carbon toroidal asymmetries and were enhanced during edge localized modes. Externally-applied 3D fields led to strike point splitting and helical lobes observed in divertor impurity emission, but marginal changes to the toroidally-averaged impurity influxes. Power coupled to the scrape-off layer SOL plasma during radio frequency (RF heating of H-mode discharges enhanced impurity influxes along the non-axisymmetric divertor footprint of flux tubes connecting to plasma in front of the RF antenna.

  18. Numerical studies of impurities in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1982-09-01

    The coupled partial differential equations used to describe the behavior of impurity ions in magnetically confined controlled fusion plasmas require numerical solution for cases of practical interest. Computer codes developed for impurity modeling at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory are used as examples of the types of codes employed for this purpose. These codes solve for the impurity ionization state densities and associated radiation rates using atomic physics appropriate for these low-density, high-temperature plasmas. The simpler codes solve local equations in zero spatial dimensions while more complex cases require codes which explicitly include transport of the impurity ions simultaneously with the atomic processes of ionization and recombination. Typical applications are discussed and computational results are presented for selected cases of interest

  19. Trace impurity analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described

  20. Salient issues of edge physics pertaining to loss of confinement: A resistive MHD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    In general we have made significant contributions towards the ultimate goal of creating a complete theory of edge turbulence and transport in magnetic fusion devices. Our main focus has been to utilize a resistive MHD model. This analysis includes: (1) ''rippling'' type models in which the current fluctuations are decoupled and the resistivity fluctuations are fundamental, and (2) ''drift'' type models in which the ambient current can be small (no resistivity fluctuations needed) and the current fluctuations are fundamental. In these turbulence frameworks, the important atomic physics based edge sources have been included (impurity radiation, ionization, and charge exchange effects)

  1. Distribution of impurity states and charge transport in Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 0.75}Ni{sub 1+x}Sn{sub 1−y}Sb{sub y} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanfeng; Makongo, Julien P.A. [Laboratory for Emerging Energy and Electronic Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Page, Alexander [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Sahoo, Pranati [Laboratory for Emerging Energy and Electronic Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Uher, Ctirad [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stokes, Kevin [The Advanced Materials Research Institute, Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Poudeu, Pierre F.P., E-mail: ppoudeup@umich.edu [Laboratory for Emerging Energy and Electronic Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Energy filtering of charge carriers in a semiconducting matrix using atomically coherent nanostructures can lead to a significant improvement of the thermoelectric figure of merit of the resulting composite. In this work, several half-Heusler/full-Heusler (HH/FH) nanocomposites with general compositions Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 0.75}Ni{sub 1+x}Sn{sub 1−y}Sb{sub y} (0≤x≤0.15 and y=0.005, 0.01 and 0.025) were synthesized in order to investigate the behavior of extrinsic carriers at the HH/FH interfaces. Electronic transport data showed that energy filtering of carriers at the HH/FH interfaces in Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 0.75}Ni{sub 1+x}Sn{sub 1−y}Sb{sub y} samples strongly depends on the doping level (y value) as well as the energy levels occupied by impurity states in the samples. For example, it was found that carrier filtering at HH/FH interfaces is negligible in Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 0.75}Ni{sub 1+x}Sn{sub 1−y}Sb{sub y} (y=0.01 and 0.025) composites where donor states originating from Sb dopant dominate electronic conduction. However, we observed a drastic decrease in the effective carrier density upon introduction of HH/FH interfaces for the mechanically alloyed Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 0.75}Ni{sub 1+x}Sn{sub 0.995}Sb{sub 0.005} samples where donor states from unintentional Fe impurities contribute the largest fraction of conduction electrons. This work demonstrates the ability to synergistically integrate the concepts of doping and energy filtering through nanostructuring for the optimization of electronic transport in semiconductors. - Graphical abstract: Electronic transport in semiconducting half-Heusler (HH) matrices containing full-Heusler (FH) nanoinclusions strongly depends on the energy distribution of impurity states within the HH matrix with respect to the magnitude of the potential energy barrier at the HH/FH interfaces. - Highlights: • Coherent nanostructures enhanced thermoelectric behavior of half-Heusler alloys. • Nanostructures act as energy filter of

  2. Effect of suprathermal electrons on the impurity ionization state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochando, M A; Medina, F; Zurro, B; McCarthy, K J; Pedrosa, M A; Baciero, A; Rapisarda, D; Carmona, J M; Jimenez, D

    2006-01-01

    The effect of electron cyclotron resonance heating induced suprathermal electron tails on the ionization of iron impurities in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated. The behaviour of plasma emissivity immediately after injection provides evidence of a spatially localized 'shift' towards higher charge states of the impurity. Bearing in mind that the non-inductive plasma heating methods generate long lasting non-Maxwellian distribution functions, possible implications on the deduced impurity transport coefficients, when fast electrons are present, are discussed

  3. INTOR impurity control and first wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1983-04-01

    The highlights of the recent INTOR effort on examining the key issues of the impurity control/first wall system are summarized. The emphasis of the work was an integrated study of the edge-region physics, plasma-wall interaction, materials, engineering and magnetic considerations associated with the poloidal divertor and pump limiter. The development of limiter and divertor collector plate designs with an acceptable lifetime was a major part of the work

  4. EUV impurity study of the Alcator tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.L.; Chen, K.I.; Moos, H.W.; Marmar, E.S.

    1977-06-01

    The intensity of resonance line radiation from oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and molybdenum impurities has been measured in the high field (80 kG), high density (6 x 10 14 cm -3 ) discharges of the Alcator tokamak, using a 0.4 m normal incidence monochromator (300 to 1300 A) with its line of sight fixed along a major radius. The total light impurity concentrations were 2 x 10 -3 , 7 x 10 -4 , and 3 x 10 -3 at central electron densities of 4.5 x 10 13 cm -3 (burnout), 4.0 x 10 13 (low density plateau) and 6.0 x 10 14 (high density plateau). Both a simple model and a computer code which included Pfirsch-Schluter impurity diffusion were used to estimate oxygen influxes of 1.6 x 10 13 cm -2 sec -1 and 1.5 x 10 14 cm -2 sec -1 at the plasma edge in the low and high density emission plateaus. The resulting values of Z/sub eff/, including the contributions due to both the light impurities and molybdenum, were close to one. The power lost through the impurity line radiation accounted for approximately equal to 7 percent of the total ohmic input power at high densities

  5. Boron, nitrogen, and nickel impurities in GeC nanoribbons: A first-principles investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhuo; Li, Yangping, E-mail: liyp@nwpu.edu.cn; Liu, Zhengtang

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The impurities preferentially substitutes the Ge atom at the ribbon edge. • The impurities could result in a reduction of the band gap of 7-AGeCNR. • The impurities turns the metallic behavior of 4-ZGeCNR into semiconductor. • The impurities could change the magnetic moment of 4-ZGeCNR. • The impurities could introduce magnetic moments into the non-magnetic 7-AGeCNR. - Abstract: Using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory we investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of substitutional boron, nitrogen, and nickel impurities in germanium carbide (GeC) nanoribbons. Hydrogen terminated GeC ribbons with armchair and zigzag edges are considered here. We observed that all three impurities preferentially substitutes the Ge atom at the ribbon edge. In addition, the electronic band structures of the doped systems indicate that (i) the impurities could introduce impurity bands in the band gap and resulting in a reduction of the band gap of 7-AGeCNR, (ii) the metallic behavior of 4-ZGeCNR turns into semiconductor because of the incorporation of the impurities, (iii) the impurities could change the magnetic moment of 4-ZGeCNR and even introduce magnetic moment into the non-magnetic 7-AGeCNR.

  6. Plasma edge and plasma-wall interaction modelling: Lessons learned from metallic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wiesen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Robust power exhaust schemes employing impurity seeding are needed for target operational scenarios in present day tokamak devices with metallic plasma-facing components (PFCs. For an electricity-producing fusion power plant at power density Psep/R>15MW/m divertor detachment is a requirement for heat load mitigation. 2D plasma edge transport codes like the SOLPS code as well as plasma-wall interaction (PWI codes are key to disentangle relevant physical processes in power and particle exhaust. With increased quantitative credibility in such codes more realistic and physically sound estimates of the life-time expectations and performance of metallic PFCs can be accomplished for divertor conditions relevant for ITER and DEMO. An overview is given on the recent progress of plasma edge and PWI modelling activities for (carbon-free metallic devices, that include results from JET with the ITER-like wall, ASDEX Upgrade and Alcator C-mod. It is observed that metallic devices offer an opportunity to progress the understanding of underlying plasma physics processes in the edge. The validation of models can be substantially improved by eliminating carbon from the experiment as well as from the numerical system with reduced degrees of freedom as no chemical sputtering from amorphous carbon layers and no carbon or hydro-carbon transport are present. With the absence of carbon as the primary plasma impurity and given the fact that the physics of the PWI at metallic walls is less complex it is possible to isolate the crucial plasma physics processes relevant for particle and power exhaust. For a reliable 2D dissipative plasma exhaust model these are: cross-field drifts, complete kinetic neutral physics, geometry effects (including main-chamber, divertor and sub-divertor structures, SOL transport reflecting also the non-diffusive nature of anomalous transport, as well as transport within the pedestal region in case of significant edge impurity radiation

  7. Engineering and material aspects of impurity control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The design of impurity control devices for fusion energy devices is discussed from the engineering and materials viewpoint. First, examples of impurity control devices are presented, and the plasma edge environment for which they are designed is briefly described. Materials concerns related to the design of the components are discussed and some currently proposed designs presented. Engineering tools available to the designer are listed, and some commonly encountered engineering analysis problems described

  8. Strong quantum scarring by local impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukko, Perttu J. J.; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J.; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-11-01

    We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications.

  9. Refinements in the use of equivalent latitude for assimilating sporadic inhomogeneous stratospheric tracer observations, 1: Detecting transport of Pinatubo aerosol across a strong vortex edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Good

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of PV equivalent latitude for assimilating stratospheric tracer observations is discussed - with particular regard to the errors in the equivalent latitude coordinate, and to the assimilation of sparse data. Some example measurements are assimilated: they sample the stratosphere sporadically and inhomogeneously. The aim was to obtain precise information about the isentropic tracer distribution and evolution as a function of equivalent latitude. Precision is important, if transport across barriers like the vortex edge are to be detected directly. The main challenges addressed are the errors in modelled equivalent latitude, and the non-ideal observational sampling. The methods presented allow first some assessment of equivalent latitude errors and a picture of how good or poor the observational coverage is. This information determines choices in the approach for estimating as precisely as possible the true equivalent latitude distribution of the tracer, in periods of good and poor observational coverage. This is in practice an optimisation process, since better understanding of the equivalent latitude distribution of the tracer feeds back into a clearer picture of the errors in the modelled equivalent latitude coordinate. Error estimates constrain the reliability of using equivalent latitude to make statements like 'this observation samples air poleward of the vortex edge' or that of more general model-measurement comparisons. The approach is demonstrated for ground-based lidar soundings of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol cloud, focusing on the 1991-92 arctic vortex edge between 475-520K. Equivalent latitude is estimated at the observation times and locations from Eulerian model tracers initialised with PV and forced by UK Meteorological Office analyses. With the model formulation chosen, it is shown that tracer transport of a few days resulted in an error distribution that was much closer to Gaussian form, although the mean error was not

  10. Variational method for magnetic impurities in metals: impurity pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oles, A M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.); Chao, K A [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics and Measurement Technology

    1980-01-01

    Applying a variational method to the generalized Wolff model, we have investigated the effect of impurity-impurity interaction on the formation of local moments in the ground state. The direct coupling between the impurities is found to be more important than the interaction between the impurities and the host conduction electrons, as far as the formation of local moments is concerned. Under certain conditions we also observe different valences on different impurities.

  11. Scaling laws for trace impurity confinement: a variational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyagaraja, A.; Haas, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    A variational approach is outlined for the deduction of impurity confinement scaling laws. Given the forms of the diffusive and convective components to the impurity particle flux, we present a variational principle for the impurity confinement time in terms of the diffusion time scale and the convection parameter, which is a non-dimensional measure of the size of the convective flux relative to the diffusive flux. These results are very general and apply irrespective of whether the transport fluxes are of theoretical or empirical origin. The impurity confinement time scales exponentially with the convection parameter in cases of practical interest. (orig.)

  12. Interpretation of changes in diffusive and non-diffusive transport in the edge plasma during pedestal buildup following a low-high transition in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W. M.; Sayer, M.-H.; Floyd, J.-P. [Georgia Tech, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The evolution of diffusive and non-diffusive transport during pedestal buildup following a low-high (L-H) transition has been interpreted from a particle-momentum-energy balance analysis of the measured density, temperature, and rotation velocity profiles in the plasma edge (0.82<{rho}<1.0) of a DIII-D [Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] discharge. In the discharge examined, there was an edge-localized-mode-free period of more than 600 ms following the L-H transition, and the majority of edge pedestal development occurred within the first 100 ms following the L-H transition. There appears to be a spatio-temporal correlation among the measured toroidal and poloidal rotation, the formation of a negative well in the measured radial electric field, the creation of a large inward particle pinch, the calculated intrinsic rotation due to ion orbit loss, and the measured formation of steep gradients in density and temperature in the outer region ({rho}>0.95) of the edge pedestal.

  13. Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigarov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report for the Research Grant DE-FG02-08ER54989 'Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts'. The UCSD group including: A.Yu. Pigarov (PI), S.I. Krasheninnikov and R.D. Smirnov, was working on modeling of the impact of lithium coatings on edge plasma parameters in NSTX with the multi-species multi-fluid code UEDGE. The work was conducted in the following main areas: (i) improvements of UEDGE model for plasma-lithium interactions, (ii) understanding the physics of low-recycling divertor regime in NSTX caused by lithium pumping, (iii) study of synergistic effects with lithium coatings and non-diffusive ballooning-like cross-field transport, (iv) simulation of experimental multi-diagnostic data on edge plasma with lithium pumping in NSTX via self-consistent modeling of D-Li-C plasma with UEDGE, and (v) working-gas balance analysis. The accomplishments in these areas are given in the corresponding subsections in Section 2. Publications and presentations made under the Grant are listed in Section 3.

  14. The structure of the solution obtained with Reynolds-stress-transport models at the free-stream edges of turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalbou, J.-B.; Chassaing, P.

    2002-02-01

    The behavior of Reynolds-stress-transport models at the free-stream edges of turbulent flows is investigated. Current turbulent-diffusion models are found to produce propagative (possibly weak) solutions of the same type as those reported earlier by Cazalbou, Spalart, and Bradshaw [Phys. Fluids 6, 1797 (1994)] for two-equation models. As in the latter study, an analysis is presented that provides qualitative information on the flow structure predicted near the edge if a condition on the values of the diffusion constants is satisfied. In this case, the solution appears to be fairly insensitive to the residual free-stream turbulence levels needed with conventional numerical methods. The main specific result is that, depending on the diffusion model, the propagative solution can force turbulence toward definite and rather extreme anisotropy states at the edge (one- or two-component limit). This is not the case with the model of Daly and Harlow [Phys. Fluids 13, 2634 (1970)]; it may be one of the reasons why this "old" scheme is still the most widely used, even in recent Reynolds-stress-transport models. In addition, the analysis helps us to interpret some difficulties encountered in computing even very simple flows with Lumley's pressure-diffusion model [Adv. Appl. Mech. 18, 123 (1978)]. A new realizability condition, according to which the diffusion model should not globally become "anti-diffusive," is introduced, and a recalibration of Lumley's model satisfying this condition is performed using information drawn from the analysis.

  15. Transport properties of field-effect transistor with Langmuir-Blodgett films of C60 dendrimer and estimation of impurity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Naoko; Nagano, Takayuki; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Sako, Yuuki; Morimoto, Yu; Takaguchi, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Chu, Chih-Chien; Imae, Toyoko

    2007-12-01

    Field-effect transistor (FET) device has been fabricated with Langmuir-Blodgett films of C60 dendrimer. The device showed n-channel normally off characteristics with the field-effect mobility of 2.7×10-3cm2V-1s-1 at 300K, whose value is twice as high as that (1.4×10-3cm2V-1s-1) for the FET with spin-coated films of C60 dendrimer. This originates from the formation of ordered π-conduction network of C60 moieties. From the temperature dependence of field-effect mobility, a structural phase transition has been observed at around 300K. Furthermore, the density of states for impurity levels was estimated in the Langmuir-Blodgett films.

  16. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C. for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal.

  17. Impurity-induced tuning of quantum-well States in spin-dependent resonant tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitsov, Alan; Coho, A; Kioussis, Nicholas; Vedyayev, Anatoly; Chshiev, M; Granovsky, A

    2004-07-23

    We report exact model calculations of the spin-dependent tunneling in double magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of impurities in the well. We show that the impurity can tune selectively the spin channels giving rise to a wide variety of interesting and novel transport phenomena. The tunneling magnetoresistance, the spin polarization, and the local current can be dramatically enhanced or suppressed by impurities. The underlying mechanism is the impurity-induced shift of the quantum well states (QWSs), which depends on the impurity potential, impurity position, and the symmetry of the QWS. Copyright 2004 The American Physical Society

  18. On the theory of improved confinement due to stationary multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE's) are toroidally symmetric and poloidally asymmetric radiation bands that occur in tokamaks as a result of a thermal instability, originated by radiation losses. It was observed in TFTR and TEXTOR that they formed as density was increased, and impurities concentrated on the edge. Under certain circumstances, they could evolve into weakly poloidal symmetric structures that cooled the edge of the plasma to a few tens of eV, thus leading to detachment from the limiter. Although non-stationary MARFE's are often precursors of disruptions, the use of a stochastic divertor in TORE-SUPRA, and of feedback controlled gas-puff in HT-7 have proved the existence of stationary MARFE's. Their appearance has been found to depend strongly on the impurity content of the plasma. They trigger internal transport barriers, observed in the electron temperature profiles. The purpose of this work is: to take into account the edge control in order to understand the sustainment of stationary MARFE's, and to propose non-local mechanisms that can explain the formation of internal transport barriers. (author)

  19. Numerical investigation on lithium transport in the edge plasma of EAST real-time- Li-injection experiments in the frame of BOUT++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the transport of Li species in the plasma with real-time Li aerosol injection on EAST, a model has been developed by reducing Braginskii's equations, and implemented in the frame of BOUT++. The simulation results show that Li atoms propagate inwards since the Li injection, and their penetration depth depends on both the local plasma conditions along their path and initial injection velocity. It is also found that Li ions accumulate rapidly in the edge, and only a small fraction of Li species can transport cross the separatrix into the core. In the poloidal direction, Li ions drift swiftly downwards along the field lines, and transport much faster at the high field side than at the low field side. The interaction between background plasma and Li species plays a critical role in determining the edge plasma profile. It is found that real-time Li injection raises the plasma density in the pedestal region and reduces the plasma temperature, just as has been observed experimentally.

  20. Edge plasma physical investigations of tokamak plasmas in CRIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.; Ignacz, P.; Koltai, L.; Paszti, F.; Petravich, G.; Szigeti, J.; Zoletnik, S.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the measurements performed in the field of thermonuclear high temperature plasma physics in CRIP (Hungary) are summarized. In the field of the edge plasma physics solid probes were used to test the external zone of plasma edges, and atom beams and balls were used to investigate both the external and internal zones. The plasma density distribution was measured by laser blow-off technics, using Na atoms, which are evaporated by laser pulses. The excitation of Na atom ball by tokamak plasma gives information on the status of the plasma edge. The toroidal asymmetry of particle transport in tokamak plasma was measured by erosion probes. The evaporated and transported impurities were collected on an other part of the plasma edge and were analyzed by SIMS and Rutherford backscattering. The interactions in plasma near the limiter were investigated by a special limiter with implemented probes. Recycling and charge exchange processes were measured. Disruption phenomena of tokamak plasma were analyzed and a special kind of disruptions, 'soft disruptions' and the related preliminary perturbations were discovered. (D.Gy.) 10 figs

  1. Classical impurity ion confinement in a toroidal magnetized fusion plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S T A; Den Hartog, D J; Caspary, K J; Magee, R M; Mirnov, V V; Chapman, B E; Craig, D; Fiksel, G; Sarff, J S

    2012-03-23

    High-resolution measurements of impurity ion dynamics provide first-time evidence of classical ion confinement in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma. The density profile evolution of fully stripped carbon is measured in MST reversed-field pinch plasmas with reduced magnetic turbulence to assess Coulomb-collisional transport without the neoclassical enhancement from particle drift effects. The impurity density profile evolves to a hollow shape, consistent with the temperature screening mechanism of classical transport. Corroborating methane pellet injection experiments expose the sensitivity of the impurity particle confinement time to the residual magnetic fluctuation amplitude.

  2. Three-dimensional modeling of plasma edge transport and divertor fluxes during application of resonant magnetic perturbations on ITER

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmitz, O.; Becoulet, M.; Cahyna, Pavel; Evans, T.E.; Feng, Y.; Frerichs, H.; Loarte, A.; Pitts, R.A.; Reiser, D.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Harting, D.; Kirschner, A.; Kukushkin, A.; Lunt, T.; Saibene, G.; Reiter, D.; Samm, U.; Wiesen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2016), č. článku 066008. ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : resonant magnetic perturbations * plasma edge physics * 3D modeling * neutral particle physics * ITER * divertor heat and particle loads * ELM control Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/56/6/066008/meta

  3. Impurity effect in the quantum Nernst effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Ryoen; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hatano, Naomichi

    2005-11-01

    We theoretically study the Nernst effect and the Seebeck effect in a two-dimensional electron ga in a strong magnetic field and a temperature gradient under adiabatic condition. We recently predicted for a pure system in the quantum Hall regime that the Nernst coefficients strongly suppressed and the thermal conductance is quantized due to quantum ballistic transport. Taking account of impurities, we here compute the Nernst coefficient and the Seebeck coefficient when the chemical potential coincides with a Landau level. We adopt the self-consistent Born approximation and consider the linear transport equations of the thermal electric transport induced by the temperature gradient. The thermal conductance and the Nernst coefficient are slightly modified from the pure case and the Seebeck coefficient newly appears because of the impurity scattering of electrons in the bulk states. (author)

  4. Dynamical impurity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class

  5. Dynamical impurity problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Kivelson, S.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class.

  6. Local transport in Joint European Tokamak edge-localized, high-confinement mode plasmas with H, D, DT, and T isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R. V.; Ernst, D. R.; Hahm, T. S.; McCune, D. C.; Christiansen, J. P.; Cordey, J. G.; Gowers, C. G.; Guenther, K.; Hawkes, N.; Jarvis, O. N.

    2000-01-01

    The edge-localized, high-confinement mode regime is of interest for future Tokamak reactors since high performance has been sustained for long durations. Experiments in the Joint European Tokamak [M. Keilhacker , Nuclear Fusion 39, 209 (1999)] have studied this regime using scans with the toroidal field and plasma current varied together in H, D, DT, and T isotopes. The local energy transport in more than fifty of these plasmas is analyzed, and empirical scaling relations are derived for energy transport coefficients during quasi-steady state conditions using dimensionless parameters. Neither the Bohm nor gyro-Bohm expressions give the shapes of the profiles. The scalings with β and ν * are in qualitative agreement with Ion Temperature Gradient theory

  7. Impurity-generated non-Abelions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, G.; Kazakov, A.; Rokhinson, L. P.; Wojtowicz, T.; Lyanda-Geller, Y. B.

    2018-06-01

    Two classes of topological superconductors and Majorana modes in condensed matter systems are known to date: one in which disorder induced by impurities strongly suppresses topological superconducting gap and is detrimental to Majorana modes, and another where Majorana fermions are protected by a disorder-robust topological superconductor gap. Observation and control of Majorana fermions and other non-Abelions often requires a symmetry of an underlying system leading to a gap in the single-particle or quasiparticle spectra. In semiconductor structures, impurities that provide charge carriers introduce states into the gap and enable conductance and proximity-induced superconductivity via the in-gap states. Thus a third class of topological superconductivity and Majorana modes emerges, in which topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions appear exclusively when impurities generate in-gap states. We show that impurity-enabled topological superconductivity is realized in a quantum Hall ferromagnet, when a helical domain wall is coupled to an s -wave superconductor. As an example of emergence of topological superconductivity in quantum Hall ferromagnets, we consider the integer quantum Hall effect in Mn-doped CdTe quantum wells. Recent experiments on transport through the quantum Hall ferromagnet domain wall in this system indicated a vital role of impurities in the conductance, but left unresolved the question whether impurities preclude generation of Majorana fermions and other non-Abelions in such systems in general. Here, solving a general quantum-mechanical problem of impurity bound states in a system of spin-orbit coupled Landau levels, we demonstrate that impurity-induced Majorana modes emerge at boundaries between topological and conventional superconducting states generated in a domain wall due to proximity to an s superconductor. We consider both short-range disorder and a smooth random potential. The phase diagram of the system is defined by

  8. Plasma transport in the stochastic fields at the tokamak edge. Final report, February 15, 1993--February 14, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to calculate the contribution of field line diffusion to particle diffusion in the stochastic magnetic field at the tokamak edge. The author uses the approach of quasi magnetic surfaces. If the magnetic field line makes sufficiently large number of toroidal transits before suffering large radial excursion, then the method of quasi magnetic surface is valid for this problem. This method has three components: determination of particle drift trajectories, a model for magnetic field configuration, and determination of field line diffusion

  9. Impurity solitons with quadratic nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Torres, Juan P-; Torner, Lluis

    1998-01-01

    We fmd families of solitary waves mediated by parametric mixing in quadratic nonlinear media that are localized at point-defect impurities. Solitons localized at attractive impurities are found to be dynamically stable. It is shown that localization at the impurity modifies strongly the soliton...

  10. Coupled Vortex-Lattice Flight Dynamic Model with Aeroelastic Finite-Element Model of Flexible Wing Transport Aircraft with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.

  11. Edge transport barrier modification in the L-2M stellarator depending on the heating power and plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, G S; Voronova, E V; Akulina, D K; Gladkov, G A

    2006-01-01

    Boronization of the vacuum chamber of the L-2M stellarator has resulted in modification of the electron temperature profile. In particular, a well-defined jump in the electron temperature to T e ∼ 100 eV in a narrow region Δr/r ∼ 0.05 is observed in the temperature profile at the plasma edge. In the present paper, the value and shape of the jump in T e are studied at different values of plasma parameters and ECR heating power. A jump in T e is absent at a power of P ∼ 100 kW, whereas at P ∼ 200 kW the electron temperature drops from 150 eV to zero within Δr ∼ 0.5 cm. The value of threshold power for the formation of a jump in T e at n e ∼ 1.7 x 10 19 m -3 lies within the range P ∼ 100-160 kW. In terms of power per particle this power threshold is P/V/N e ∼ 0.2-0.3 Mw/m 3 /10 19 m -3 , the value of which coincides with threshold power for ETB formation found recently in the CHS stellarator. When the helical-field strength is 25% or 50% below its standard value, a jump in T e at the plasma edge in L-2M is absent

  12. Balance of the stored energies sustained by the internal and edge transport barriers and effects of ELMs and L-H transitions in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Koide, Y.; Oyama, N.; Urano, H.; Kamiya, K.; Suzuki, T.; Isayama, A.

    2009-01-01

    To understand key physics processes determining radial profiles of the kinetic plasma parameters in the advanced tokamak operation scenarios, correlations between the edge transport barrier (ETB) and the internal transport barrier (ITB) have been studied in the JT-60U tokamak device. It has been found that the edge pedestal poloidal beta, β p -ped, increases almost linearly with the total poloidal beta, β p -tot, over a wide range of the plasma current for type I ELMing H-mode plasmas, and this dependence becomes stronger with increasing triangularity. This dependence is not due to the profile stiffness, since the dependence is the same regardless of the existence of ITB. As the stored energy inside the ITB-foot radius (W ITB ) increases, the total thermal stored energy (W th ) increases and then the pedestal stored energy (W ped ) increases. On the other hand, as W ped increases, the ELM penetration expands more inwards and finally reaches the ITB-foot radius. At this situation, the ITB-foot radius cannot move outwards because of the erosion by ELMs. Then the fractions of W ITB /W th and W ped /W th become almost constant. It has also been found that the type I ELM expels/decreases the edge toroidal momentum larger than the edge ion thermal energy. The ELM penetration for the toroidal rotation tends to be deeper than that for the ion temperature and can exceed the ITB-foot radius. The ELM penetration is deeper for CO-rotating plasmas than CTR rotating plasmas. In both cases, the ELM penetration is deeper in the order of the toroidal rotation (V t ), the ion temperature (T i ) and then the electron temperature (T e ). The L-H transition also changes the V t profile more significantly than the T i profile. At the L-H transition, the pedestal V t shifts into the CTR-direction deeply and suddenly without a change in T i , and then the pedestal V t grows further together with a growth of the pedestal T i in a slower timescale. Such changes in V t by ELMs and L

  13. Invariance of the mobility edge in anodic titanium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, N.; Halley, J.W.; Shore, H.B.

    1992-05-01

    We present a theoretical investigation to explain the electronic and optical properties of anodic rutile TiO 2 thin films of different thicknesses (ranging from 5nm to 20nm). There is experimental evidence that the observed gap state at 0.7eV below the edge of conduction-band is due to an oxygen vacancy. For this reason, oxygen vacancies are used as defects in our model. A comparison of the calculated bulk-photoconductivity to photospectroscopy experiment reveals that the films have bulk-like transport properties with a bandgap E g =3.0eV. On the other hand, a fit of the surface density of states to the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiment on the (001) surfaces has suggested a surface defect density of 5% of oxygen vacancies. To resolve this discrepancy, we calculated the dc-conductivity where localization effects are included. Our results show an impurity band formation at about p c =9% of oxygen vacancies. We concluded that the studied films have defect densities below the threshold of impurity band formation. As a consequence the gap states seen in STM are localized (i.e. the oxygen vacancies are playing the role of trapping centers, deep levels) and the mobility edge is invariant. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs

  14. Kinetic neoclassical calculations of impurity radiation profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Stotler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of the drift-kinetic transport code XGC0 to include the transport, ionization, and recombination of individual charge states, as well as the associated radiation, are described. The code is first applied to a simulation of an NSTX H-mode discharge with carbon impurity to demonstrate the approach to coronal equilibrium. The effects of neoclassical phenomena on the radiated power profile are examined sequentially through the activation of individual physics modules in the code. Orbit squeezing and the neoclassical inward pinch result in increased radiation for temperatures above a few hundred eV and changes to the ratios of charge state emissions at a given electron temperature. Analogous simulations with a neon impurity yield qualitatively similar results.

  15. Spectrographic determination of impurities in ammonium bifluoride. IV.Study of the processes of vaporization, transport and excitation of the elements Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduan, F.A.; Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1981-01-01

    The influences of the processes of vaporization, transport and excitation on the shape of the volatilization-excitation curves and on the values of the spectra-line intensities have been investigated in a method for the spectrographic determination of Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Si in ammonium bifluoride samples by direct current arc Ga 2 O 3 , GeO 2 , MgO and ZnO. The reaction products in the electrode cavity have been identified by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and the porcentages of vaporized and diffused element evaluated through analysis by total-burning spectrographic methods. In addition, the values of both the number of particles entering the discharge column and the transport efficiencies have been calculated. Thus, the origin of most observed differences has been explained. (author)

  16. Spectrographic determination of impurities in ammonium bifluoride. III. Study of the processes of vaporization, transport and excitation of the elements Al, B, Cu and Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduan, F. A.; Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.

    1979-01-01

    The influences of the processes of vaporization, transport and excitation on the shape of the volatilization-excitation curves and on the values of the spectral-line intensities have been investigated in a method for the spectrographic determination of Al, B, Cu and Cr In ammonium bifluoride samples by direct current are excitation in Scribner type electrodes, with addition of different matrices (graphite, 63203, GeO 2 , MgO and Zn0). The reaction products in the electrode cavity have been identified by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and the percentages of vaporized and diffused element evaluated through analysis by total-burning spectrographic methods. In addition, the values of both the number of particles entering the discharge column and the transport efficiencies have been calculated. Thus, the origin of most observed differences has been explained. (Author) 11 refs

  17. ICRF [Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies] edge modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehrman, I.S.; Colestock, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical models have been developed, and are currently being refined, to explain the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during ICRF heating. The periodic structure of a Faraday shielded antenna is found to result in strong ponderomotive force in the vicinity of the antenna. A fluid model, which incorporates the ponderomotive force, shows an increase in transport to the Faraday shield. A kinetic model shows that the strong antenna near fields act to increase the energy of deuterons which strike the shield, thereby increasing the sputtering of shield material. Estimates of edge impurity harmonic heating no significant heating for either in or out-of-phase antenna operation. Additionally, a particle model for electrons near the shield shows that heating results from the parallel electric field associated with the fast wave. A quasilinear model for edge electron heating is presented and compared to the particle calculations. The models' predictions are shown to be consistent with measurements of enhanced transport. 19 refs., 9 figs

  18. Coefficients of viscosity for heavy impurity element in tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharif, R N; Bekhit, A M [Plasma Physics dept., NRC, Atomic energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The transport of heavy impurity element in to tokamak was studied theoretically. The viscosity coefficients of chromium impurities has been calculated in 13 and 21 moment approximation, in the limit of strong fields where is the gyrofrequency of species it was found that the off diagonal coefficient approximately tends to zero. This means that the friction force in the off-diagonal direction is very small, for the perpendicular viscosity coefficient the two approximation coincide to each other. 3 figs.

  19. Steady-State Gyrokinetics Transport Code (SSGKT), A Scientific Application Partnership with the Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahey, Mark R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Candy, Jeff [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-11-07

    This project initiated the development of TGYRO - a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale GYRO turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of conventional tokamaks as well as future reactors. Using a lightweight master transport code, multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations are coordinated. The capability to evolve profiles using the TGLF model was also added to TGYRO and represents a more typical use-case for TGYRO. The goal of the project was to develop a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of a burning plasma core ? the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in particular. This multi-scale simulation capability will be used to predict the performance (the fusion energy gain, Q) given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. At present, projections of this type rely on transport models like GLF23, which are based on rather approximate fits to the results of linear and nonlinear simulations. Our goal is to make these performance projections with precise nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The method of approach is to use a lightweight master transport code to coordinate multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code. This project targets the practical multi-scale simulation of a reactor core plasma in order to predict the core temperature and density profiles given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. A master transport code will provide feedback to O(16) independent gyrokinetic simulations (each massively parallel). A successful feedback scheme offers a novel approach to predictive modeling of an important national and international problem. Success in this area of fusion simulations will allow US scientists to direct the research path of ITER over the next two

  20. Edge localized mode physics and operational aspects in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, M; Huysmans, G; Sarazin, Y; Garbet, X; Ghendrih, Ph; Rimini, F; Joffrin, E; Litaudon, X; Monier-Garbet, P; Ane, J-M; Thomas, P; Grosman, A; Parail, V; Wilson, H; Lomas, P; Vries, P de; Zastrow, K-D; Matthews, G F; Lonnroth, J; Gerasimov, S; Sharapov, S; Gryaznevich, M; Counsell, G; Kirk, A; Valovic, M; Buttery, R; Loarte, A; Saibene, G; Sartori, R; Leonard, A; Snyder, P; Lao, L L; Gohil, P; Evans, T E; Moyer, R A; Kamada, Y; Chankin, A; Oyama, N; Hatae, T; Asakura, N; Tudisco, O; Giovannozzi, E; Crisanti, F; Perez, C P; Koslowski, H R; Eich, T; Sips, A; Horton, L; Hermann, A; Lang, P; Stober, J; Suttrop, W; Beyer, P; Saarelma, S

    2003-01-01

    Recent progress in experimental and theoretical studies of edge localized mode (ELM) physics is reviewed for the reactor relevant plasma regimes, namely the high confinement regimes, that is, H-modes and advanced scenarios. Theoretical approaches to ELM physics, from a linear ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis to non-linear transport models with ELMs are discussed with respect to experimental observations, in particular the fast collapse of pedestal pressure profiles, magnetic measurements and scrape-off layer transport during ELMs. High confinement regimes with different types of ELMs are addressed in this paper in the context of development of operational scenarios for ITER. The key parameters that have been identified at present to reduce the energy losses in Type I ELMs are operation at high density, high edge magnetic shear and high triangularity. However, according to the present experimental scaling for the energy losses in Type I ELMs, the extrapolation of such regimes for ITER leads to unacceptably large heat loads on the divertor target plates exceeding the material limits. High confinement H-mode scenarios at high triangularity and high density with small ELMs (Type II), mixed regimes (Type II and Type I) and combined advanced regimes at high beta p are discussed for present-day tokamaks. The optimum combination of high confinement and small MHD activity at the edge in Type II ELM scenarios is of interest to ITER. However, to date, these regimes have been achieved in a rather narrow operational window and far from ITER parameters in terms of collisionality, edge safety factor and beta p . The compatibility of the alternative internal transport barrier (ITB) scenario with edge pedestal formation and ELMs is also addressed. Edge physics issues related to the possible combination of small benign ELMs (Type III, Type II ELMs, quiescent double barrier) and high performance ITBs are discussed for present-day experiments (JET, JT-60U, DIII-D) in

  1. Edge localized mode physics and operational aspects in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becoulet, M [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Huysmans, G [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sarazin, Y [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ghendrih, Ph [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Rimini, F [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Joffrin, E [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Litaudon, X [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Monier-Garbet, P [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ane, J-M [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Thomas, P [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Grosman, A [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Parail, V [Euratom/UKAEA Association, Fusion Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Wilson, H [Euratom/UKAEA Association, Fusion Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Lomas, P [Euratom/UKAEA Association, Fusion Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Vries, P de[Euratom/UKAEA Association, Fusion Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Zastrow, K-D [Euratom/UKAEA Association, Fusion Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Matthews, G F [Euratom/UKAEA Association, Fusion Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Lonnroth, J [Euratom/UKAEA Association, Fusion Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Gerasimov, S [Euratom/UKAEA Association, Fusion Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2003-12-01

    Recent progress in experimental and theoretical studies of edge localized mode (ELM) physics is reviewed for the reactor relevant plasma regimes, namely the high confinement regimes, that is, H-modes and advanced scenarios. Theoretical approaches to ELM physics, from a linear ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis to non-linear transport models with ELMs are discussed with respect to experimental observations, in particular the fast collapse of pedestal pressure profiles, magnetic measurements and scrape-off layer transport during ELMs. High confinement regimes with different types of ELMs are addressed in this paper in the context of development of operational scenarios for ITER. The key parameters that have been identified at present to reduce the energy losses in Type I ELMs are operation at high density, high edge magnetic shear and high triangularity. However, according to the present experimental scaling for the energy losses in Type I ELMs, the extrapolation of such regimes for ITER leads to unacceptably large heat loads on the divertor target plates exceeding the material limits. High confinement H-mode scenarios at high triangularity and high density with small ELMs (Type II), mixed regimes (Type II and Type I) and combined advanced regimes at high beta{sub p} are discussed for present-day tokamaks. The optimum combination of high confinement and small MHD activity at the edge in Type II ELM scenarios is of interest to ITER. However, to date, these regimes have been achieved in a rather narrow operational window and far from ITER parameters in terms of collisionality, edge safety factor and beta{sub p}. The compatibility of the alternative internal transport barrier (ITB) scenario with edge pedestal formation and ELMs is also addressed. Edge physics issues related to the possible combination of small benign ELMs (Type III, Type II ELMs, quiescent double barrier) and high performance ITBs are discussed for present-day experiments (JET, JT-60U

  2. Impurity dynamics in stellarator W7-AS plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igitkhanov, Yuri; Beidler, Craig D.; Burhenn, Reiner; Polunovsky, Eduard; Yamazaki, Kozo

    2006-01-01

    Numerical efforts to understand the neoclassical transport of impurities in stellarator plasmas have been undertaken. The new code solves the radial continuity equations for each ionization stage of the impurity ions for given background plasma profiles and magnetic configuration. An analytic description of the neoclassical transport coefficients based on numerical results from the DKES (Drift Kinetic Equation Solver) code and monoenergetic Monte-Carlo calculation (C.D. Beidler et al., EPS 1994), is here applied for impurity transport coefficients. The transition between the different charge states due to the ionization and recombination in balance equation is described by using the ADAS (Atomic Data and Analysis Structure) database. The impurity behavior in some typical discharges from W7-AS with moderate (NC) and improved energy confinement (HDH) has been considered. It is shown that the spatial distribution results from the competition between the radial electric field and the thermal force (which together produce a convective flux), and the diffusive term, which flattens the radial impurity distribution. The impurity ions are localized at the radial position where the convective flux goes through zero. It is also shown that for typical stellarator discharges there is no pronounced temperature screening effect as in tokamak plasmas. (author)

  3. Spectroscopic studies of carbon impurities in PISCES-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ra, Y.; Hirooka, Y.; Leung, W.K.; Conn, R.W.; Pospieszczyk, A.

    1989-08-01

    The graphite used for the limiter of the tokamak reactor produces carbon-containing molecular impurities as a result of the interactions with the edge plasma. The behavior of these molecular impurities has been studied using emission spectroscopy. The present study includes: finding molecular bands and atomic lines in the visible spectral range which can be used for the study of the molecular impurities, studying the breakup processes of the molecular impurities on their way from the source into the plasma, developing a spectroscopic diagnostic method for the absolute measurement of the molecular impurity flux resulting from graphite erosion. For these studies, carbon-containing molecules such as CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , and CO 2 were injected into the tokamak-boundary,like plasma generated by PISCES-A. The spectrograms of these gases were taken. Many useful bands and lines were determined from the spectrograms. The breakup processes of these gases were studied by observing the spatial profiles of the emission of the molecules and their radicals for different plasma conditions. For the absolute measurement of the eroded molecular impurity flux, the photon efficiency of the lines and bands were found by measuring the absolute number of the emitted photons and injected gas molecules. The chemical sputtering yield of graphite by hydrogen plasma was spectroscopically measured using the previously obtained photon efficiencies. It showed good agreement with results obtained by weight loss measurements. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. Impact of screening of resonant magnetic perturbations in three dimensional edge plasma transport simulations for DIII-D

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frerichs, H.; Reiter, D.; Schmitz, O.; Cahyna, Pavel; Evans, T.; Feng, Y.; Nardon, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2012), 052507-052507 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * TEXTOR * divertors * plasma boundary layers * plasma density * plasma magnetohydrodynamics * plasma simulation * plasma temperature * plasma toroidal confinement * plasma transport processes * Tokamak devices Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.376, year: 2012 http://pop.aip.org/resource/1/phpaen/v19/i5/p052507_s1

  5. Impurities in uranium process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boydell, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Several uranium purification circuits are presented in tabular form together with the average major impurity levels associated with each. The more common unit operations in these circuits, namely strong- and weak-base ion-exchange, solvent extraction and the precipitation of impurities are then discussed individually. Particular attention is paid to the effect and removal of impurities in each of these four unit operations. (author)

  6. A case of transatlantic aerosol transport detected at the Schneefernerhaus Observatory (2650 m) on the northern edge of the Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birmili, Wolfram; Goebel, Tina; Sonntag, Andree [Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (IfT), Leipzig (Germany); Ries, Ludwig; Sohmer, Ralf [German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA), GAW Station Schneefernerhaus, Zugspitze (Germany); Gilge, Stefan [German Meteorological Service (DWD), Meteorological Observatory, Hohenspeissenberg (Germany); Levin, Ingeborg [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik; Stohl, Andreas [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller (Norway)

    2010-12-15

    An unusual peak in atmospheric aerosol particle number and mass concentration occurred on September 20 and 21, 2006 at the Schneefernerhaus (SFH) Observatory, Germany. A source-receptor analysis using the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART suggested that polluted air from source regions in the Western and Central U.S. travelled within 4-8 days over the Atlantic to the European Alpine region. A warm conveyor belt over the northern Great Plains was identified as the essential process lifting the boundary layer air to the high altitudes required for a rapid transatlantic transit. The layer arriving at SFH had an aerosol mass concentration of about 30 {mu}g m{sup -3}, and a particle number size distribution showing an aged accumulation mode aerosol with mode diameter around 0.3 ?m. A combination of in-situ humidity, 214Po and carbon monoxide measurements as well as upper air observations (radiosoundings) suggested that the layer had no previous contact with the local/European boundary layer. A screening of three years of FLEXPART simulations (2005-2007) yielded this case study as the only event of transatlantic anthropogenic aerosol to SFH where mixing with the boundary layer could safely be excluded. The event therefore represents rare surface-based evidence of transatlantic transport of fine and ultrafine aerosols. (orig.)

  7. Dressed topological insulators. Rashba impurity, Kondo effect, magnetic impurities, proximity-induced superconductivity, hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posske, Thore Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.

  8. Dressed topological insulators. Rashba impurity, Kondo effect, magnetic impurities, proximity-induced superconductivity, hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posske, Thore Hagen

    2016-02-26

    Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.

  9. Impurity sources in TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospieszczyk, A; Bay, H L; Bogen, P; Hartwig, H; Hintz, E; Koenen, L; Ross, G G; Rusbueldt, D; Samm, U; Schweer, B

    1987-02-01

    The deuterium, oxygen and carbon fluxes from the main limiter and the deuterium fluxes from the wall are measured in TEXTOR for an 'all carbon' surrounding as a function of central density n/sub e/, of applied ICRH-power and of different wall conditions (carbonization). For this purpose, emission spectroscopy both with filter systems and spectrometers has been used. It is found that a major release mechanism for light impurities is via the formation of molecules. Oxygen seems to enter the discharge from the liner via O-D containing molecules, whereas the limiter acts as the main carbon source by the release of hydro-carbons as indicated by the observed CD-band spectra. Both oxygen and carbon fluxes are reduced by about a factor of two after a fresh carbonization. Above a certain critical density the plasma detaches from the limiter and forms a stable discharge with a radiation cooled boundary layer and with a major fraction of particles now reaching the wall instead of the limiter. The critical density rises with decreasing impurity fluxes or with increasing heating powers.

  10. Impurity sources in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospieszczyk, A.; Bay, H.L.; Bogen, P.; Hartwig, H.; Hintz, E.; Koenen, L.; Ross, G.G.; Rusbueldt, D.; Samm, U.; Schweer, B.

    1987-01-01

    The deuterium, oxygen and carbon fluxes from the main limiter and the deuterium fluxes from the wall are measured in TEXTOR for an 'all carbon' surrounding as a function of central density n e , of applied ICRH-power and of different wall conditions (carbonization). For this purpose, emission spectroscopy both with filter systems and spectrometers has been used. It is found that a major release mechanism for light impurities is via the formation of molecules. Oxygen seems to enter the discharge from the liner via O-D containing molecules, whereas the limiter acts as the main carbon source by the release of hydro-carbons as indicated by the observed CD-band spectra. Both oxygen and carbon fluxes are reduced by about a factor of two after a fresh carbonization. Above a certain critical density the plasma detaches from the limiter and forms a stable discharge with a radiation cooled boundary layer and with a major fraction of particles now reaching the wall instead of the limiter. The critical density rises with decreasing impurity fluxes or with increasing heating powers. (orig.)

  11. H-mode edge rotation in W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, M.; Baldzuhn, J.; Ehmler, H.; Grigull, P.; Maassberg, H.; McCormick, K.; Wagner, F.; Wobig, H.

    2005-01-01

    In W7-AS three regimes of improved confinement exist which base on negative radial electric fields at the plasma edge resulting there from ion-root conditions of the ambipolar radial fluxes. Experimental control besides the magnetic configuration is given via the edge density profile i.e. the recycling and fuelling conditions. However, the ordering element seems to be the radial electric field profile (respectively its shear) and its interplay with the gradients of ion temperature and density. At low to medium densities the so called optimum confinement regime occurs with maximum density gradients located well inside the plasma boundary and large negative values of E r extending deep in the bulk plasma. For a large inner fraction of the bulk the ion temperature can be sufficiently high that ion transport conditions already can be explained by neoclassics. This regime delivers maximum values of T i , τ e and n τ e T i . Density gradients located right inside the plasma boundary result in the classical H-mode phenomena reminiscent to other toroidal devices with the capability of an edge layer with nearly complete suppression of turbulence either quasi stationary (in a quiescent H-mode) or intermittently (in between ELMs). At even higher densities and highly collisional plasmas with the maximum of ∇n shifted to or even out of the plasma boundary the High Density H-mode (HDH) opens access to steady state conditions with no measurable impurity accumulation. These improved confinement regimes are accessed and left via significant transitions of the transport properties albeit these transitions occur on rather different timescales. A comprehensive picture of improved edge confinement regimes in W7-AS is drawn based on the assumption that a weak edge bounded transport barrier resulting from the ion root conditions (thus E r <0) is the ground state of the (turbulent) edge plasma and already behaves as a barrier for anomalous transport. On top of that the classical H

  12. Electrostatic fluctuation and fluctuation-induced particle flux during formation of the edge transport barrier in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, T.; Hamada, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.; Miura, Y.; Hoshino, K.; Ogawa, H.; Shinohara, K.; Kamiya, K.; Kusama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The electrostatic fluctuation with Geodesic-Acoustic-Mode (GAM) frequency is observed in L-mode plasmas. The fluctuation has the poloidal wave number (k θ ) of (-2 ± 24) x 10 -3 (cm -1 ), that corresponds to the poloidal mode number of 1.5 or less, and the radial wave number (k r ) of 0.94 ± 0.05 (cm -1 ), that is corresponds to k r ρ i = 0.26 < 1. The amplitude of the fluctuation changes in the radial direction; it is small near the separatrix and it has maximum at 3 cm inside the separatrix. The relation between the amplitude of potential fluctuation and that of density fluctuation is the same as that of the predicted GAM. The fluctuation is probably GAM. The envelope of ambient density fluctuation and the potential fluctuation have a significant coherence at the GAM frequency. Thus, it is clearly verified that the fluctuation with the GAM frequency correlates with the ambient density fluctuation. The fluctuation with the GAM frequency affects the particle transport through the modulation of the ambient fluctuation. But the effect is not large, and it is not a sufficient condition to form the edge transport barrier and to drive the intermittent particle flux. (author)

  13. Electrostatic fluctuation and fluctuation-induced particle flux during formation of the edge transport barrier in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, T.; Miura, K.; Hoshino, K.

    2005-01-01

    The electrostatic fluctuation with Geodesic-Acoustic-Mode (GAM) frequency is observed in L-mode plasmas. The fluctuation has the poloidal wave number (k θ ) of (-2 ± 24) x 10 -3 (cm -1 ), that corresponds to the poloidal mode number of 1.5 or less, and the radial wave number (k γ ) of 0.94±0.05 (cm -1 ), that is corresponds to k γ ρ i =0.26 < 1. The amplitude of the fluctuation changes in the radial direction; it is small near the separatrix and it has maximum at 3 cm inside the separatrix. The relation between the amplitude of potential fluctuation and that of density fluctuation is the same as that of the predicted GAM. The fluctuation is probably GAM. The envelope of ambient density fluctuation and the potential fluctuation have a significant coherence at the GAM frequency. Thus, it is clearly verified that the fluctuation with the GAM frequency correlates with the ambient density fluctuation. The fluctuation with the GAM frequency affects the particle transport through the modulation of the ambient fluctuation. But the effect is not large, and it is not a sufficient condition to form the edge transport barrier and to drive the intermittent particle flux. (author)

  14. Edge Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2013-01-01

    of this container is to separate inside from outside and to protect and provide privacy, psychological as well as physical (Venturi, 1966). But, if dwelling phenomenon takes place both inside and outside the private house – why is the urban house an enclosed box? What is the differentiation between inside...... and outside the contemporary urban house? And what is the interplay between them? The research argues for re-thinking the edge zone between inside and outside the urban house. Therefore, although, residential buildings in the city are the objects of study, the focal point here is the edge zone along...... the building. The research explores and develops the architectural characteristics of correlations between the resident, the singular unit, the building and the given location at the edge zone. It approaches the edge zone of the urban house as a platform for dynamic interactions between these behaviours...

  15. Full-f XGC1 gyrokinetic study of improved ion energy confinement from impurity stabilization of ITG turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuho; Kwon, Jae-Min; Chang, C. S.; Seo, Janghoon; Ku, S.; Choe, W.

    2017-06-01

    Flux-driven full-f gyrokinetic simulations are performed to study carbon impurity effects on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence and ion thermal transport in a toroidal geometry. Employing the full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1, both main ions and impurities are evolved self-consistently including turbulence and neoclassical physics. It is found that the carbon impurity profile self-organizes to form an inwardly peaked density profile, which weakens the ITG instabilities and reduces the overall fluctuations and ion thermal transport. A stronger reduction appears in the low frequency components of the fluctuations. The global structure of E × B flow also changes, resulting in the reduction of global avalanche like transport events in the impure plasma. Detailed properties of impurity transport are also studied, and it is revealed that both the inward neoclassical pinch and the outward turbulent transport are equally important in the formation of the steady state impurity profile.

  16. Progress in qualifying the edge physics of the H-mode regime in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, R.J.; Baker, D.R.; Boedo, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Edge conditions in DIII-D are being quantified in order to provide insight into the physics of the H-mode regime. Electron temperature is not the key parameter that controls the L-H transition. Gradients of edge temperature and pressure are much more promising candidates for such parameters. The quality of H-mode confinement is strongly correlated with the height of the H-mode pedestal for the pressure. The gradient of the pressure appears to be controlled by MHD modes, in particular by kink-ballooning modes with finite mode number n. For a wide variety of discharges, the width of the barrier is well described with a relationship that is proportional to (β p ped ) 1/2 . An attractive regime of confinement has been discovered which provides steady-state operation with no ELMs, low impurity content and normal H-mode confinement. A coherent edge MHD-mode evidently provides adequate particle transport to control the plasma density and impurity content while permitting the pressure pedestal to remain almost identical to that observed in ELMing discharges. (author)

  17. On the theory of improved confinement due to stationary multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.J.E.; Martinell, J.J.; Morozov, D.Kh.

    2003-01-01

    Multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE's) are toroidally symmetric and poloidally asymmetric radiation bands that occur in tokamaks as a result of a thermal instability, originated by radiation losses. It was observed in TFfR and TEXTOR that they formed as density was increased, and impurities concentrated on the edge. Under certain circumstances, they could evolve into weakly poloidal symmetric structures that cooled the edge of the plasma to a few tens of eV, thus leading to detachment from the limiter. Although non-stationary MARFE's are often precursors of disruptions, the use of a stochastic divertor in TORESUPRA, and of feedback controlled gas-puff in HT- 7 have proved the existence of stationary MARFE' s. Their appearance has been found to depend strongly on the impurity content of the plasma. They trigger internal transport barriers, observed in the electron temperature profiles. The purpose of this work is to review the evidence of the existence of stationary MARFEs, and whether they can actually lead to improved confinement regimes, through non-local mechanisms. (author)

  18. Behavior of oxygen impurities in tokamak. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharif, R N; Beket, A H [Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Aurhority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Impurity transport in tokamak plasma is a subject of great importance in present day tokamak experiments. The transport of oxygen as an impurity element in small tokamak was studied theoretically. The viscosity coefficient of oxygen has been calculated in different approximation 13 and 21 moment approximation, taking into consideration {chi}>>1,{chi}{omega}{sub c} {tau}. It was found that in 21 moment approximation additional terms added to the perturbation from equilibrium leads to increase in viscosity coefficients than in 13 moments approximation. 9 figs.

  19. Expanded-boundary approach to impurity control in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.

    1981-01-01

    It is proposed to expand the outermost flux surfaces in tokamaks to divert the heat flux emerging from the plasma core. The expanded flux surfaces provide a large volume for radiative cooling. The radiative power at the boundary is enhanced by the effects of plasma flow as well as by a volumetric factor, and the resultant edge cooling and reduced heat load on the limiter may significantly retard impurity generation. Furthermore, it seems to be compatible with reactor engineering requirements. (author)

  20. Demixing of impurities and hydrogen as deduced from Zeff profiles in the boronized ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuer, K.H.; Roehr, H.; Engelhardt, W.; Fussmann, G.; Kallenbach, A.; Kurzan, B.; Murmann, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Substantial progress towards fusion has been made in the confinement, stability and heating of tokamak plasmas. The transport behaviour of magnetically confined plasmas, however, is still an unsolved problem. The transport mechanisms of hydrogen and of impurities are known to be different, leading to phenomena such as impurity accumulation on axis, especially in good confinement regimes, and more generally to demixing of the various species. Besides energy losses from impurity radiation, one has to be concerned about dilution of the fuel-ion density, and about effects that impurities may have on the main ion and electron transport. To understand the transport behaviour of the different plasma species, one needs their spatial density profiles. It is convenient to represent the various impurities by a characteristic impurity ion with a density n z and a fictive charge Z (Z = Σn i Z i 2 / Σn i Z i ; i ≥ 2). A typical value for Z is 7, indicating that light impurities are dominating. Comparing the different profiles, we find characteristic differences in the electron, proton and impurity transport behaviour. (orig./AH)

  1. Spectroscopic Measurements of Impurity Spectra on the EAST Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jia; Li Yingying; Shi Yuejiang; Wang Fudi; Zhang Wei; Lv Bo; Huang Juan; Wan Baonian; Zhou Qian

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) and visible impurity spectra (200∼750 nm) are commonly used to study plasma and wall interactions in magnetic fusion plasmas. Two optical multi-channel analysis (OMA) systems have been installed for the UV-visible spectrum measurement on EAST. These two OMA systems are both equipped with the Czerny-Turner (C-T) type spectrometer. The upper vacuum vessel and inner divertor baffle can be viewed simultaneously through two optical lenses. The OMA1 system is mainly used for multi-impurity lines radiation measurement. A 280 nm wavelength range can be covered by a 300 mm focal length spectrometer equipped with a 300 grooves/mm grating. The Dα/Hα line shapes can be resolved by the OMA2 system. The focal length is 750 mm. The spectral resolution can be up to 0.01 nm using a 1800 grooves/mm grating. The impurity behaviour and hydrogen ratio evolution after boroniztion, lithium coating, and siliconization are compared. Lithium coating has shown beneficial effects on the reduction of edge recycling and low Z impurity (C, O) influx. The impurity expelling effect of the divertor configuration is also briefly discussed through multi-channels observation of OMA1 system. (magnetically confined plasma)

  2. Experimental study of the plasma structure and characterization of the transport behaviour in the laminar zone of a stochastized plasma edge; Experimentelle Untersuchung der Plasmastruktur und Charakterisierung des Transportverhaltens in der laminaren Zone einer stochastisierten Plasmarandschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, O.

    2006-07-15

    For a detailed study of the plasma structure and the transport characteristics of a stochastized plasma edge at the tokamak TEXTOR the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) was constructed, by which differently shaped external disturbing fields are statically and dynamically generated. Aim of this thgesis is to study experimentally the radial and poloidal structure of the plasma edge stochastized by the DED disturbing field and to analyze its transport characteristics. For this spatially highly resolved radial profiles of the electron density and temperature were measured by means of radiation-emission spectroscopy on thermal helium at the high- and low-field side of TEXTOR. These experimental results yield a good stating base for the validation and further development of three-dimensional transport codes.

  3. Mobile impurities in ferromagnetic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantian, Adrian; Schollwoeck, Ulrich; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    Recent work has shown that mobile impurities in one dimensional interacting systems may exhibit behaviour that differs strongly from that predicted by standard Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory, with the appearance of power-law divergences in the spectral function signifying sublinear diffusion of the impurity. Using time-dependent matrix product states, we investigate a range of cases of mobile impurities in systems beyond the analytically accessible examples to assess the existence of a new universality class of low-energy physics in one-dimensional systems. Correspondence: Adrian.Kantian@unige.ch This work was supported in part by the Swiss SNF under MaNEP and division II.

  4. Core-edge coupling and the effect of the edge on overall plasma performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtmueller, M.; Corrigan, G.; Lauro-Taroni, L.

    1999-01-01

    Several attempts to model the entire plasma cross section have been reported in the last few years. Two possibilities are to either couple a core code to a scrape-off layer (SOL) code at a specified interface or to extend the computational region of an SOL-code all the way to the plasma centre. The most advanced global code is the code COCONUT which is based on the former principle and comprises the Monte-Carlo code NIMBUS, the 2D scrape-off layer code EDGE2D, the core transport code JETTO and the core impurity transport code SANCO. A main feature of COCONUT is its modular structure which ensures a high degree of flexibility and the capability to cover a large range of time-scales. The influence of the SOL on the core is illustrated with a range of global simulations carried out with COCONUT. The simulations show that the primary effect of the SOL is the control of the particle sources and sinks with a secondary effect on plasma dilution, radiation and perhaps pedestal temperatures. (author)

  5. Behavior of impurity ion velocities during the pulsed poloidal current drive in the Madison symmetric torus reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakita, Hajime; Craig, Darren; Anderson, Jay K.; Chapman, Brett E.; Den-Hartog, Daniel J.; Prager, Stewart C.; Biewer, Ted M.; Terry, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    We report on passive measurements of impurity ion velocities during the pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch. During PPCD, the electron temperature increased and a sudden reduction of magnetic fluctuations was observed. For this change, we have studied whether plasma velocity is affected. Plasma rotation is observed to decrease during PPCD. From measurements of line intensities for several impurities at 10 poloidal chords, it is found that the impurity line emission shifts outward. The ion temperature of impurities is reasonably connected to that measured by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy from core to edge. (author)

  6. A conceptual and calculational model for gas formation from impure calcined plutonium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, John L.; Eller, P. Gary

    2000-01-01

    Safe transport and storage of pure and impure plutonium oxides requires an understanding of processes that may generate or consume gases in a confined storage vessel. We have formulated conceptual and calculational models for gas formation from calcined materials. The conceptual model for impure calcined plutonium oxides is based on the data collected to date

  7. The influence of a nuclear prehistory on transport rate of impurity ''hot'' atoms 111In, 114mIn and 115mIn in the irradiated metal cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, I.E.; Lazarev, V.V.; Orlov, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    In our previous publications it was shown, that the velocity of migration of radioactive microimpurities (formed as a result of a nuclear change) in irradiated in metals is instituted by a nuclear prehistory. In the present work this problem was explored in detail. The selected system '' cadmium - impurity atoms of indium '' is unique for such experiments: it is possible to gain the same impurity ''hot'' atoms ( 111 In, 114m In and 115m In) via different ''nuclear channels'' and to explore their behavior depending on a nuclear prehistory. (orig.)

  8. Impurity and Defect Interactions in GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-30

    motivated :* 1. The actual transport of Cr occurs interstitially. The * diffusion and drift of the substitutional and complexed Cr are negligible. This is...of impurity 3 for the growth I case listed in Table 1, after 1, 5, and 10 minutes. Ps4 C 2- U I3 Nmil I Figur ~0i . . , 0 O20 30 4 5 O 60 080 90

  9. The optimisation of limiter geometry to reduce impurity influx in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, G.F.; McCracken, G.M.; Sewell, P.; Goodall, D.H.J.; Stangeby, P.C.; Pitcher, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional limiters are designed to withstand large power loadings and hence are constructed with surfaces at grazing angles to the toroidal magnetic field. As a result any impurities released from the limiter surface are projected towards the centre of the plasma and are poorly screened from it. The impurity control limiter (ICL), an alternative concept which has an inverted geometry is discussed. The ICL shape is designed to direct the impurities towards the wall. Results are presented from a two-dimensional neutral particle code which maps the ionisation of carbon physically sputtered by deuterons from a carbon limiter. This ionisation source is coupled to a one-dimensional impurity transport code which calculates the implied central impurity density. The results demonstrate that the ICL achieves impurity control in two ways. Firstly, many of the sputtered impurities directed towards the wall are not ionised and return to the wall as neutrals. Secondly, much of the ionisation which does occur is located in the scrape-off layer. Here there is a strong ion sink which may also be enhanced by the flow of hydrogenic ions entraining impurity ions created close to the limiter surface. We conclude that a reduction in central impurity density of a factor of 10 is possible in a Tokamak such as DITE provided that the limiter is the main source of impurities. (author)

  10. Effects of ECRH power and safety factor on laser blow-off injected impurity confinement in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scavino, E; Bakos, J; Weisen, H

    2004-01-01

    Evidence from injection into the TCV device of laser ablated, non-recycling silicon impurities shows that the transport of impurities confinement can be remarkably different from that of energy. The ratio of impurity to energy confinement times ranges from near unity in Ohmic discharges to 5 in the presence of high power ECCD. In Ohmic discharges in deuterium, above a threshold of density and of safety factor near q 95 = 4.5, the impurity confinement time increases abruptly by a factor of 2 and is sometimes accompanied by indefinite retention of non-recycling impurities within the sawtooth mixing radius

  11. Interactions of structural defects with metallic impurities in multicrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugo, S.A.; Thompson, A.C.; Hieslmair, H.

    1997-01-01

    Multicrystalline silicon is one of the most promising materials for terrestrial solar cells. It is critical to getter impurities from the material as well as inhibit contamination during growth and processing. Standard processing steps such as, phosphorus in-diffusion for p-n junction formation and aluminum sintering for backside ohmic contact fabrication, intrinsically possess gettering capabilities. These processes have been shown to improve L n values in regions of multicrystalline silicon with low structural defect densities but not in highly dislocated regions. Recent Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) results indirectly reveal higher concentrations of iron in highly dislocated regions while further work suggests that the release of impurities from structural defects, such as dislocations, is the rate limiting step for gettering in multicrystalline silicon. The work presented here directly demonstrates the relationship between metal impurities, structural defects and solar cell performance in multicrystalline silicon. Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG) multicrystalline silicon in the as-grown state and after full solar cell processing was used in this study. Standard solar cell processing steps were carried out at ASE Americas Inc. Metal impurity concentrations and distributions were determined by use of the x-ray fluorescence microprobe (beamline 10.3.1) at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The sample was at atmosphere so only elements with Z greater than silicon could be detected, which includes all metal impurities of interest. Structural defect densities were determined by preferential etching and surface analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in secondary electron mode. Mapped areas were exactly relocated between the XRF and SEM to allow for direct comparison of impurity and structural defect distributions

  12. Edge Detection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    PROJECT. T ASK0 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA It WORK UNIT NUMBERS V 545 Technology Square ( Cambridge, HA 02139 I I* CONTOOL1LIN@4OFFICE NAME...ARD-A1t62 62 EDGE DETECTION(U) NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 1/1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB E C HILDRETH SEP 85 AI-M-8 N99SI4-8S-C-6595...used to carry out this analysis. cce~iO a N) ’.~" D LI’BL. P p ------------ Sj. t i MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY i ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  13. Report on the combined meeting of the core confinement and internal transport barrier expert group, confinement database and modeling expert group and edge pedestal expert group, 12-16 April 1999, Garching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeschitz, G.; Connor, J.W.; Cordey, G.; Kardaun, O.; Mukhovatov, V.; Stambaugh, R.; Ryter, F.; Wakatani, M.

    1999-01-01

    This contribution to the ITER EDA Newsletter reports on the combined meeting of the core confinement and internal transport barrier expert group, confinement database and modeling expert group and edge pedestal expert group in Garching, Germany. This is the first workshop of its kind after the re-organisation of the expert groups. The new scheme of the meetings, namely to permit more interaction between groups by arranging them at the same time and location turned out to be very successful. The main issues discussed were for the Confinement Database: merging of edge pedestal and confinement data, improvement of the density- and magnetic shape parameters, addition of new dedicated threshold data, the effect of different divertors in JET; for the H-Mode Power Threshold Database: assembly of a new version of the database with about 650 time points from 10 tokamaks; for the 1-D Modelling Workshop: management of the database after the re-organisation of the Joint Central Team an ongoing efforts in plasma transport modelling; for the newly formed pedestal group: issues of the H-mode shear layer at the plasma edge. There was also an executive summary given of a recent USA workshop on internal transport barriers and regimes with weak or negative magnetic shear

  14. Impurity bubbles in a BEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Eddy; Blinova, Alina; Boshier, Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    Polarons (particles that interact with the self-consistent deformation of the host medium that contains them) self-localize when strongly coupled. Dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) doped with neutral distinguishable atoms (impurities) and armed with a Feshbach-tuned impurity-boson interaction provide a unique laboratory to study self-localized polarons. In nature, self-localized polarons come in two flavors that exhibit qualitatively different behavior: In lattice systems, the deformation is slight and the particle is accompanied by a cloud of collective excitations as in the case of the Landau-Pekar polarons of electrons in a dielectric lattice. In natural fluids and gases, the strongly coupled particle radically alters the medium, e.g. by expelling the host medium as in the case of the electron bubbles in superfluid helium. We show that BEC-impurities can self-localize in a bubble, as well as in a Landau-Pekar polaron state. The BEC-impurity system is fully characterized by only two dimensionless coupling constants. In the corresponding phase diagram the bubble and Landau-Pekar polaron limits correspond to large islands separated by a cross-over region. The same BEC-impurity species can be adiabatically Feshbach steered from the Landau-Pekar to the bubble regime. This work was funded by the Los Alamos LDRD program.

  15. Radiative edge layers in limiter tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monier-Garbet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of the highly radiative edge layers produced in the limiter configuration and with an open ergodic divertor are reviewed, with emphasis on the results obtained in TEXTOR and Tore Supra. In these two experiments an impurity injection technique is used to obtain highly radiating homogeneous peripheral layers. This requires that the peripheral radiation capability be maximized, while at the same time avoiding plasma core contamination; it is also necessary to insure the stability of the radiating layer. These physics issues, governing the success of the highly radiative edge scenario, are discussed. (orig.)

  16. A theoretical study of impurity production at limiters in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, C.S.; Matthews, G.F.; Goodall, D.H.J.; McCracken, G.M.; Stangeby, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    The spatial distribution of neutral impurity emissions around graphite limiters in the DITE tokamak is investigated using a Monte Carlo neutral transport code based on physical sputtering. The Monte Carlo code results are compared with experiments for the CI distributions observed toroidally around the probe limiter and radially around the fixed limiter. The comparison between code and experiment demonstrates the ability of camera observations and Langmuir probe measurements to provide detailed information on the production of impurities at limiters. From the Monte Carlo simulation it is shown that the toroidal distribution of impurity emission is determined mainly by the geometry of the limiter and the radial variation of the sputtering yield, while the radial distribution is sensitive mainly to the sputtered atom velocity distribution and the rate coefficients for ionization and excitation

  17. Living edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2014-01-01

    was originally introduced to enhance indoor qualities including light and view. Throughout the paper, it is argued that these ecological motives have grown to architectural and urban dimensions. The paper analyzes the characteristics and potentials of these dimensions and their interconnections. The paper...... on the ground level, but there is a lack of recognition in the significance of communicative characters as well at the higher part of the edge. The city’s planning approach is “Consider urban life before urban space. Consider urban space before buildings” This urban strategy neglects the possible architectural...... contribution to the street atmosphere and its effect on urban life. Bay balcony has been a common architectural element in Copenhagen’s residential buildings, since the end of the twenties. It is a domestic border with an architectural thickness combining window, door, windowsill and balcony. The bay balcony...

  18. Interplay of light and heavy impurities in a fusion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaja, Mustafa [IPP, Garching (Germany); Tokar, Mikhail [IEK4, Juelich FZ, Juelich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Radiation from impurities eroded from the walls can lead to a broad spectrum of spectacular phenomena in fusion devices An example of such events are breathing oscillations observed in the large helical device (LHD), in long pulse discharges with a stainless steel divertor. They were characterized with oscillations of a period of a second in various plasma parameters. By optimizing magnetic geometry this operation mode, leading to a deteriorate plasma performance, can be avoided. Nonetheless it is of interest and practical importance to understand and firmly predict conditions for breathing phenomenon, in particular, in view of similar impurity environment in W-7 X stellarator. A qualitative explanation for breathing oscillations proposed earlier presumes that they arise due to non-linear synergetic interplay of diverse physical processes. A one-dimensional non-stationary model, describing the generation and transport of main, impurity particles and heat by including the radiation of high-Z (Fe) and low-Z (C and O) impurities is elaborated here. The calculations predict the appearance of oscillations in the relevant range of plasma parameters, reproduce well experimentally observed amplitudes and period of oscillations. It demonstrates that the smaller the fraction of the plasma interaction with a stainless steel surface, the higher the light impurity concentration needed to excite the breathing oscillations. This shows a way to avoid oscillations in future experiments.

  19. Chemical impurity production under boronized wall conditions in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipps, V.; Vietzke, E.; Erdweg, M.

    1992-01-01

    The TEXTOR SNIFFER probe has been used to analyse the chemical impurity production under various plasma and boronized wall conditions. Methane formation has been observed to 0.6-1 x 10 -2 CH 4 /H at room temperature, increasing slightly with increasing density in the SOL. The hydrocarbon formation yields increase from R.T. to the maximum at about 500 o C by a factor of 1.5-2.5. Increasing the impact energy by biasing the graphite plate leads to a decrease of the hydrocarbon yield at room temperature but to an increase at 500 o C. Chemical CO formation due interaction of oxygen impurities with the graphite reaches ratios between 0.5 and 3 x 10 -2 CO/H,D increasing with increasing distance to the limiter edge. (author) 10 refs., 6 figs

  20. Effect of impurities in the electrothermic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, M.T. de.

    1982-04-01

    It is proposed a model for a ''impure'' plasma based on the homogenous hydrogen plasma used in the theory formulated by Tomimura and Haines to explain the increasing of instable electrothermal modes with wave vector perpendicular to the applyed magnetic field. The impurities are implicity introduced in the transport coeficients of the model of two fluids through the effective charge number Z eff as suggested by Duechs et al., Furth etc... The results obtained are: (i) the greatest increasing ratio for the absolute mode (non-convective) decreases with the increasing of Z eff going to zero for a given value of these parameter which is denominated Z crit ; (ii) the wavelenght associated with that greatest ratio of increasing decreases with the increasing of Z eff ; (iii) Z crit x T eo /T io curves, where T eo and T io are the electronic and ionic temperatures of equilibri um show that, for each value of T eo (used as a parameter) there is a limiting value Z crit from which the plasma is stable, independently of the temperature ratio. The correlation of these results with that of a difuse pinch model, which shows the tendency in assume in the stationary state a filamental current structure is inconclusive with respect to the Z eff dependence. (M.W.O.) [pt

  1. Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmar, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Impurity (Li and C) pellet injection experiments on TFTR have produced a number of new and significant results. (1) We observe reproducible improvements of TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection ('lithiumization'). (2) We have made accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using two novel techniques. The first measures the internal field pitch from the polarization angles of Li + line emission from the pellet ablation cloud, while the second measures the pitch angle profiles by observing the tilt of the cigar-shaped Li + emission region of the ablation cloud. (3) Extensive measurements of impurity pellet penetration into plasmas with central temperatures ranging from ∼0.3 to ∼7 keV have been made and compared with available theoretical models. Other aspects of pellet cloud physics have been investigated. (4) Using pellets as a well defined perturbation has allowed study of transport phenomena. In the case of small pellet perturbations, the characteristics of the background plasmas are probed, while with large pellets, pellet induced effects are clearly observed. These main results are discussed in more detail in this paper

  2. Impurity doping processes in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1981-01-01

    This book introduces to non-experts several important processes of impurity doping in silicon and goes on to discuss the methods of determination of the concentration of dopants in silicon. The conventional method used is the discussion process, but, since it has been sufficiently covered in many texts, this work describes the double-diffusion method.

  3. Nonmagnetic impurities in magnetic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetization and magnetic field arising around the nonmagnetic impurity in magnetic superconductor with triplet pairing are found. The relationship of these results with the data of recent (gm)sR experiments in heavy fermionic superconductor U 1 - x Th x Be 13 is presented

  4. Complexity of Quantum Impurity Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Gosset, David

    2017-12-01

    We give a quasi-polynomial time classical algorithm for estimating the ground state energy and for computing low energy states of quantum impurity models. Such models describe a bath of free fermions coupled to a small interacting subsystem called an impurity. The full system consists of n fermionic modes and has a Hamiltonian {H=H_0+H_{imp}}, where H 0 is quadratic in creation-annihilation operators and H imp is an arbitrary Hamiltonian acting on a subset of O(1) modes. We show that the ground energy of H can be approximated with an additive error {2^{-b}} in time {n^3 \\exp{[O(b^3)]}}. Our algorithm also finds a low energy state that achieves this approximation. The low energy state is represented as a superposition of {\\exp{[O(b^3)]}} fermionic Gaussian states. To arrive at this result we prove several theorems concerning exact ground states of impurity models. In particular, we show that eigenvalues of the ground state covariance matrix decay exponentially with the exponent depending very mildly on the spectral gap of H 0. A key ingredient of our proof is Zolotarev's rational approximation to the {√{x}} function. We anticipate that our algorithms may be used in hybrid quantum-classical simulations of strongly correlated materials based on dynamical mean field theory. We implemented a simplified practical version of our algorithm and benchmarked it using the single impurity Anderson model.

  5. Numerical simulation of edge plasma in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yiping; Qiu Lijian

    1996-02-01

    The transport process and transport property of plasma in edge layer of Tokamak are simulated by solving numerically two-dimensional and multi-fluid plasma transport equations using suitable simulation code. The simulation results can show plasma parameter distribution characteristics in the area of edge layer, especially the characteristics near the first wall and divertor target plate. The simulation results play an important role in the design of divertor and first wall of Tokamak. (2 figs)

  6. Breatherlike impurity modes in discrete nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennig, D.; Rasmussen, Kim; Tsironis, G. P.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a disordered generalized discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, containing both diagonal and nondiagonal nonlinear terms. The equation models a Linear host lattice doped with nonlinear impurities. We find different types of impurity states that form itinerant...

  7. Light impurity production in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipps, V.; Vietzke, E.; Erdweg, M.

    1989-01-01

    A review is given of the different erosion processes of carbon materials with special emphasis on conditions relevant to plasma surface interactions. New results on the chemical erosion and radiation enhanced sublimation of boron-carbon layers are presented. The chemical hydrocarbon formation produced by the interaction of the TEXTOR scrape-off plasma with a carbon target has been investigated up to temperatures of 1500K using a Sniffer probe. The chemical interaction of the plasma with the carbon walls in TEXTOR is also analysed by measuring the hydrocarbon and CO and CO 2 partial pressures built up on the surrounding walls during the discharges. The recycling of oxygen impurities in an all carbon surrounding occurs predominantly in the form of CO and Co 2 molecules and the analysis of both neutral pressures during the discharges has been used as an additional diagnostic for the oxygen impurity situation in TEXTOR. These data are discussed in view of spectroscopic measurements on the influx of carbon and oxygen atoms from the walls and impurity line radiation. CD-band spectroscopy in addition is employed to identify the hydrocarbon chemical carbon erosion. Our present understanding of the oxygen impurity recycling and the oxygen sources are described. Particle induced release of CO molecules from the entire first wall is believed to be the dominant influx process of oxygen in the SOL of plasmas with carbon facing materials. The influence of coating the TEXTOR first wall with a boron-carbon film (B/C ≅1) on the light impurity behaviour is shown. (author)

  8. A fluid model for the edge pressure pedestal height and width in tokamaks based on the transport constraint of particle, energy, and momentum balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W. M., E-mail: weston.stacey@nre.gatech.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A fluid model for the tokamak edge pressure profile required by the conservation of particles, momentum and energy in the presence of specified heating and fueling sources and electromagnetic and geometric parameters has been developed. Kinetics effects of ion orbit loss are incorporated into the model. The use of this model as a “transport” constraint together with a “Peeling-Ballooning (P-B)” instability constraint to achieve a prediction of edge pressure pedestal heights and widths in future tokamaks is discussed.

  9. Impurity energy level in the Haldane gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Lu Yu

    1995-11-01

    An impurity bond J' in a periodic 1D antiferromagnetic spin 1 chain with exchange J is considered. Using the numerical density matrix renormalization group method, we find an impurity energy level in the Haldane gap, corresponding to a bound state near the impurity bond. When J' J. The impurity level appears only when the deviation dev = (J'- J)/J' is greater than B c , which is close to 0.3 in our calculation. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  10. The role of edge physics and confinement issues in the fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.; Schneider, R.

    1993-01-01

    The compatibility of the power exhaust to the walls and target plates with an adequate survival time of these structures and a sufficiently low impurity concentration in the bulk plasma, on the one hand, and the scaling of the energy confinement time with the tokamak parameters, on the other, are presently seen as two of the most critical issues determining the viability and minimum size of a fusion reactor. Statistical analysis of the world-wide data base of divertor tokamaks and experimental progress in superposing different forms of confinement improvements instil confidence that tokamak devices with the dimensions of ITER can meet the energy confinement requirements for ignition when operating in the H-regime. The critical problem consists, however, in simultaneously satisfying both the impurity and energy confinement related requirements. Regimes of improved confinement also tend to show a reduced rate of outward flow of impurities, thus increasing (for a given production rate at the walls or - in the case of helium - in the interior) their expected concentration. The confinement improvement in the H-regime also extends beyond the separatrix, leading to a thinner scrape-off layer with enhanced power concentration at the target plate and an enhanced penetration of impurities into the bulk plasma. These issues have therefore become the focal point of divertor and H-regime studies. Experiments on ASDEX, DIII-D and JET have successfully demonstrated that the impurity concentration in the H-regime can be effectively limited by the spontaneous cyclic destruction of the transport barrier at the edge (through the so-called ELMs) with only partial sacrifice of the energy confinement improvement. Expectations of handling the power load issues hinge on the capability of the divertor solution to decouple plasma properties in the edge of the bulk plasma from those near the target plates and the possibility of converting the energy flux arriving in the divertor into

  11. Plasma edge physics in an actively cooled tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.P.; Adamek, A.; Boucher, C.

    2005-01-01

    Tore Supra is a large tokamak with a plasma of circular cross section (major radius 2.4 m and minor radius 0.72 m) lying on a toroidal limiter. Tore Supra's main mission is the development of technology to inject up to 25 MW of microwave heating power and extract it continuously for up to 1000 s in steady state without uncontrolled overheating of, or outgassing from, plasma-facing components. The entire first wall of the tokamak is actively cooled by a high pressure water loop and special carbon fiber composite materials have been designed to handle power fluxes up to 10 MW/m 2 . The edge plasma on open magnetic flux surfaces that intersect solid objects plays an important role in the overall behaviour of the plasma. The transport of sputtered impurity ions and the fueling of the core plasma are largely governed by edge plasma density, temperature, and flow profiles. Measurements of these quantities are becoming more reliable and frequent in many tokamaks, and it has become clear that we do not understand them very well. Classical two-dimensional fluid modelling fails to reproduce many aspects of the experimental observations such as the significant thickness of the edge plasma, and the near-sonic flows that occur where none should be expected. It is suspected that plasma turbulence is responsible for these anomalies. In the Tore Supra tokamak, various kinds of Langmuir probes are used to characterize the edge plasma. We will present original measurements that demonstrate the universality of many phenomena that have been observed in X-point divertor tokamaks, especially concerning the ion flows. As in the JET tokamak, surprisingly large values of parallel Mach number are measured midway between the two strike zones, where one would expect to find nearly stagnant plasma if the particle source were poloidally uniform. We will present results of a novel experiment that provides evidence for a poloidally localized particle and energy source on the outboard midplane of

  12. Classical confinement and outward convection of impurity ions in the MST RFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. T. A.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Mirnov, V. V.; Eilerman, S.; Nornberg, M.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Caspary, K. J.; Chapman, B. E.; Parke, E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Magee, R. M. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Craig, D. [Physics Department, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187 (United States); Fiksel, G. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Impurity ion dynamics measured with simultaneously high spatial and temporal resolution reveal classical ion transport in the reversed-field pinch. The boron, carbon, oxygen, and aluminum impurity ion density profiles are obtained in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] using a fast, active charge-exchange-recombination-spectroscopy diagnostic. Measurements are made during improved-confinement plasmas obtained using inductive control of tearing instability to mitigate stochastic transport. At the onset of the transition to improved confinement, the impurity ion density profile becomes hollow, with a slow decay in the core region concurrent with an increase in the outer region, implying an outward convection of impurities. Impurity transport from Coulomb collisions in the reversed-field pinch is classical for all collisionality regimes, and analysis shows that the observed hollow profile and outward convection can be explained by the classical temperature screening mechanism. The profile agrees well with classical expectations. Experiments performed with impurity pellet injection provide further evidence for classical impurity ion confinement.

  13. Investigation of energy levels of Er-impurity centers in Si by the method of ballistic electron emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, D. O.; Zimovets, I. A.; Isakov, M. A.; Kuznetsov, V. P.; Kornaukhov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The method of ballistic electron emission spectroscopy is used for the first time to study the energy spectrum of Er-impurity complexes in Si. The features are observed in the ballistic electron spectra of mesa diodes based on p + -n + Si structures with a thin (∼30 nm) p + -Si:Er surface layer in the region of ballistic-electron energies eV t lower than the conduction-band-edge energy E c in this layer. They are associated with the tunnel injection of ballistic electrons from the probe of the scanning tunnel microscope to the deep donor levels of the Er-impurity complexes in the p + -Si:Er layer with subsequent thermal excitation into the conduction band and the diffusion to the p + -n + junction and the direct tunneling in it. To verify this assumption, the ballistic-electron transport was simulated in the system of the Pt probe, native-oxide layer SiO 2 -p + -Si:Er-n + , and Si substrate. By approximating the experimental ballistic-electron spectra with the modeling spectra, the ground-state energy of the Er complex in Si was determined: E d ≈ E c − 0.27 eV. The indicated value is consistent with the data published previously and obtained from the measurements of the temperature dependence of the free-carrier concentration in Si:Er layers.

  14. Edge diagnostics for tandem mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    The edge plasma in a tandem mirror machine shields the plasma core from cold neutral gas and impurities. A variety of diagnostics are used to measure the fueling, shielding, and confinement of the edge plasma in both the end plug and central cell regions. Fast ion gauges and residual gas analyzers measure the gas pressure and composition outside of the plasma. An array of Langmuir probes is used to measure the electron density and temperature. Extreme ultraviolet (euv) and visible spectroscopy are used to measure both the impurity and deuterium densities and to estimate the shielding factor for the core plasma. The linear geometry of a tandem mirror also allows direct measurements of the edge plasma by sampling the ions and electrons lost but the ends of the machine. Representative data obtained by these diagnostics during operation of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) and Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) experiments are presented. Diagnostics that are currently being developed to diagnose the edge plasma are also discussed

  15. STM tunneling through a quantum wire with a side-attached impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapinski, T.; Krawiec, M.; Jalochowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    The STM tunneling through a quantum wire (QW) with a side-attached impurity (atom, island) is investigated using a tight-binding model and the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green function method. The impurity can be coupled to one or more QW atoms. The presence of the impurity strongly modifies the local density of states of the wire atoms, thus influences the STM tunneling through all the wire atoms. The transport properties of the impurity itself are also investigated mainly as a function of the wire length and the way it is coupled to the wire. It is shown that the properties of the impurity itself and the way it is coupled to the wire strongly influence the STM tunneling, the density of states and differential conductance

  16. Radial electric field studies in the plasma edge of ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viezzer, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    In magnetically confined fusion plasmas, edge transport barriers (ETBs) are formed during the transition from a highly turbulent state (low confinement regime, L-mode) to a high energy confinement regime (H-mode) with reduced turbulence and transport. The performance of an H-mode fusion plasma is highly dependent on the strength of the ETB which extends typically over the outermost 5% of the confined plasma. The formation of the ETB is strongly connected to the existence of a sheared plasma flow perpendicular to the magnetic field caused by a local radial electric field E r . The gradients in E r and the accompanying E x B velocity shear play a fundamental role in edge turbulence suppression, transport barrier formation and the transition to H-mode. Thus, the interplay between macroscopic flows and transport at the plasma edge is of crucial importance to understanding plasma confinement and stability. The work presented in this thesis is based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements performed at the plasma edge of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak. During this thesis new high-resolution CXRS diagnostics were installed at the outboard and inboard miplane of AUG, which provide measurements of the temperature, density and flows of the observed species. From these measurements the radial electric field can be directly determined via the radial force balance equation. The new CXRS measurements, combined with the other edge diagnostics available at AUG, allow for an unprecedented, high-accuracy localization (2-3 mm) of the E r profile. The radial electric field has been derived from charge exchange spectra measured on different impurity species including He 2+ , B 5+ , C 6+ and Ne 10+ . The resulting E r profiles are found to be identical within the uncertainties regardless of the impurity species used, thus demonstrating the validity of the diagnostic technique. Inside the ETB the E r profile forms a deep, negative (i.e. directed towards the

  17. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  18. Phonon scattering by isotopic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacol, D.K.

    1974-06-01

    The effects upon vibrations of a perfect crystal lattice due to the replacement of some of its atoms by isotopes of these atoms are studied. The approach consists in considering the isotopic impurities as scattering centres for the quanta of the elastic waves the objective is to obtain the scattering amplitudes. These amplitudes are obtained through a canonical transformation method which was introduced by Chevalier and Rideau in the study of the Wentzel's model in quantum field theory

  19. Impurity diffusion in transition-metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.

    1982-06-01

    Intrinsic tracer impurity diffusion measurements in ceramic oxides have been primarily confined to CoO, NiO, and Fe 3 O 4 . Tracer impurity diffusion in these materials and TiO 2 , together with measurements of the effect of impurities on tracer diffusion (Co in NiO and Cr in CoO), are reviewed and discussed in terms of impurity-defect interactions and mechanisms of diffusion. Divalent impurities in divalent solvents seem to have a weak interaction with vacancies whereas trivalent impurities in divalent solvents strongly influence the vacancy concentrations and significantly reduce solvent jump frequencies near a trivalent impurity. Impurities with small ionic radii diffuse more slowly with a larger activation energy than impurities with larger ionic radii for all systems considered in this review. Cobalt ions (a moderate size impurity) diffuse rapidly along the open channels parallel to the c-axis in TiO 2 whereas chromium ions (a smaller-sized impurity) do not. 60 references, 11 figures

  20. BWR water chemistry impurity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungberg, L.G.; Korhonen, S.; Renstroem, K.; Hofling, C.G.; Rebensdorff, B.

    1990-03-01

    Laboratory studies were made on the effect of water impurities on environmental cracking in simulated BWR water of stainless steel, low alloy steel and nickel-base alloys. Constant elongation rate tensile (CERT) tests were run in simulated normal water chemistry (NWC), hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), or start-up environment. Sulfate, chloride and copper with chloride added to the water at levels of a fraction of a ppM were found to be extremely deleterious to all kinds of materials except Type 316 NG. Other detrimental impurities were fluoride, silica and some organic acids, although acetic acid was beneficial. Nitrate and carbon dioxide were fairly inoccuous. Corrosion fatigue and constant load tests on compact tension specimens were run in simulated normal BWR water chemistry (NWC) or hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), without impurities or with added sulfate or carbon dioxide. For sensitized Type 304 SS in NWC, 0.1 ppM sulfate increased crack propagation rates in constant load tests by up to a factor of 100, and in fatigue tests up to a factor of 10. Also, cracking in Type 316 nuclear grade SS and Alloy 600 was enhanced, but to a smaller degree. Carbon dioxide was less detrimental than sulfate. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Self-consistent modeling of plasma response to impurity spreading from intense localized source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltunov, Mikhail

    2012-07-01

    Non-hydrogen impurities unavoidably exist in hot plasmas of present fusion devices. They enter it intrinsically, due to plasma interaction with the wall of vacuum vessel, as well as are seeded for various purposes deliberately. Normally, the spots where injected particles enter the plasma are much smaller than its total surface. Under such conditions one has to expect a significant modification of local plasma parameters through various physical mechanisms, which, in turn, affect the impurity spreading. Self-consistent modeling of interaction between impurity and plasma is, therefore, not possible with linear approaches. A model based on the fluid description of electrons, main and impurity ions, and taking into account the plasma quasi-neutrality, Coulomb collisions of background and impurity charged particles, radiation losses, particle transport to bounding surfaces, is elaborated in this work. To describe the impurity spreading and the plasma response self-consistently, fluid equations for the particle, momentum and energy balances of various plasma components are solved by reducing them to ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of several parameters characterizing the solution in principal details: the magnitudes of plasma density and plasma temperatures in the regions of impurity localization and the spatial scales of these regions. The results of calculations for plasma conditions typical in tokamak experiments with impurity injection are presented. A new mechanism for the condensation phenomenon and formation of cold dense plasma structures is proposed.

  2. Transport barrier formation by LHCD on TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, K.; Iyomasa, A.; Zushi, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Nakamura, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Sato, K.N.; Idei, H.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Sasaki, K.; Hoshika, H.

    2004-01-01

    Internal transport barrier (ITB) has been obtained in full lower hybrid current driven (LHCD) plasmas on a superconducting tokamak, TRIMA-1M (R 0.84 m, a x b = 0.12 m x 0.18 m, B T L/R . ITB is terminated by the reduction of current drive efficiency caused by metal impurities accumulation. In some condition, self organized slow sawtooth oscillations (SSSO) of plasma current, density, temperature, and so on with the period comparable to the current diffusion time have been also observed during ITB discharge. The oscillation has the capability of particle exhaust, as the result, it may play an role in the avoidance of the impurity accumulation and the dilution in the future steady state fusion plasma with ITB, as the edge-localized mode in H-mode. (authors)

  3. Local Thermometry of Neutral Modes on the Quantum Hall Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sean; Venkatachalam, Vivek; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Yacoby, Amir

    2012-02-01

    A system of electrons in two dimensions and strong magnetic fields can be tuned to create a gapped 2D system with one dimensional channels along the edge. Interactions among these edge modes can lead to independent transport of charge and heat, even in opposite directions. Measuring the chirality and transport properties of these charge and heat modes can reveal otherwise hidden structure in the edge. Here, we heat the outer edge of such a quantum Hall system using a quantum point contact. By placing quantum dots upstream and downstream along the edge of the heater, we can measure both the chemical potential and temperature of that edge to study charge and heat transport, respectively. We find that charge is transported exclusively downstream, but heat can be transported upstream when the edge has additional structure related to fractional quantum Hall physics.

  4. Interstitial impurity interactions and dislocation microdynamics in Mo crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, D.N.

    1975-05-01

    The effects of interstitial impurities on the mechanical properties of molybdenum are explored by comparing results obtained for crystals of various interstitial contents controlled by ultra-high vacuum outgassing. Results show a modulus reduction for as-grown samples and for outgassed specimens at low applied stresses. As a function of plastic microstrain, the values of modulus defect for both as-grown and outgassed specimens saturate at the same value. Interstitial impurities act as pinning agents to dislocation bowing, but when all the easy dislocation loops have broken away from local interstitial pins, the modulus defect reaches a constant saturation value. Etch pitting techniques were used to correlate microstrain observations with dislocation generation and motion. It has been found that edge dislocation generation and movement are active in the microstrain region while screw dislocations are relatively inactive until the macrostrain region is reached. Dislocation velocities range from 10 -6 to 10 -3 cm/s and the average distance between interstitial impurity pinning points is found to be approximately 8 x 10 -4 cm. (U.S.)

  5. Behaviour of impurities during the H-mode in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianella, R.; Behringer, K.; Denne, B.; Gottardi, N.; Hellermann, M. von; Morgan, P.D.; Pasini, D.; Stamp, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    In additionally-heated tokamak discharges, the H-mode phases are reported to display, together with a better energy confinement, a longer global containment time for particles. In particular, steep gradients of electron density and temperature are sustained in the outer region of the plasma column. This enhanced performance is observed especially in discharges in which the activity of edge localized modes (ELMs) is low or absent. High confinement and accumulation of metallic impurities, which quickly give raise to terminal disruptions have been described under similar conditions. In JET H-modes very long impurity confinement times are also observed. However the experimental condition is somewhat more favourable since quiescent H-modes are obtained lasting much longer than the energy confinement times and the radiation from metals is generally negligible. The dominant impurities are normally carbon and oxygen, the latter generally accounting for half or more of the power radiated from the bulk plasma. During the X-point operation the effective influx of carbon into the discharge, which is normally in close correlation with that of deuterium, is substantially reduced while the influx of oxygen, whose production mechanisms is believed to be of a chemical nature, does not show significant variations. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  6. Power exhaust by impurity seeding in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernert, Matthias; Kallenbach, Arne; Dux, Ralph; Wischmeier, Marco [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Reimold, Felix [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, IEK, Juelich (Germany); Lipschultz, Bruce [University of York, York Plasma Institute, Heslington, York (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2016-07-01

    Power exhaust is one of the big challenges for future fusion reactors. The power load at the divertor targets, the primary plasma-wall interaction zone, would exceed material limits and, thus, must be reduced. Therefore, 90% of the exhaust power needs to be dissipated and the divertor is anticipated to be in the detached regime, where the interaction of the plasma with the wall is significantly reduced. Radiation is the dominant dissipation process and is increased by impurity seeding. The radiation distribution can be tailored by using different seed impurities (N for radiation outside, Ne and Ar for radiation at the edge of and Kr for radiation inside the confined region). The tailoring of the radiation profile is required in order to maximize the radiated power and at the same time minimize the impact on the energy confinement. Recent experiments with intense impurity seeding at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak demonstrate operation at highest heat fluxes and detached divertor targets at radiated power fractions of up to 90%. In these scenarios the radiation originates predominantly from the confined region and leads to an unexpectedly small confinement reduction.

  7. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Gonsell, G.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P.; Burell, H.; Moyer, R.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J.; Rapp, J.; Perez, C.; Lang, P.; Chankin, A.; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W.; Saarelma, S.; Cowley, S.; Lonnroth, J.; Kamiya, K.; Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A.; Federici, G

    2004-07-01

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focusing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM (energy localized mode) energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. The theoretical description of the most studied Type-I ELMs is progressing from linear MHD stability analysis for peeling and ballooning modes to the non-linear explosive models and transport codes. Present theories cannot predict the ELM size self-consistently, however they pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q{sub 95} and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area. The experimental data also suggest that the conductive energy losses in Type-I ELM can be controlled by working in specific plasma conditions. In particular, the existence of purely convective small Type-I ELMs regimes at high q{sub 95} (>4.5) with {delta}W{sub ELM}/W{sub ped}<5% was demonstrated in high triangularity ({delta} {approx} 0.5) plasmas in JET. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type-II, grassy, QH, Type-III in impurity seeded discharges at high {delta} and their relevance for ITER parameters are reviewed briefly. The absence of already developed ITER relevant high confinement scenarios with acceptable ELMs has motivated recent intensive experimental and theoretical studies of active control of ELMs. The possibility of suppression of Type-I ELMs in H-mode scenarios at constant confinement was demonstrated in DIII-D experiments with a stochastic boundary created by external coils. It has been demonstrated in AUG that small pellets can trigger Type-I ELMs with a frequency imposed by the pellet injector. Pellet induced ELMs are similar to the intrinsic Type-I ELMs with the same frequency. At the same time the confinement degradation due to the fuelling can be minimized with pellets small as compared to the gas injection. Recent plasma current ramp experiments (JET, COMPASS-D) and

  8. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Gonsell, G.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P.; Burell, H.; Moyer, R.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J.; Rapp, J.; Perez, C.; Lang, P.; Chankin, A.; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W.; Saarelma, S.; Cowley, S.; Lonnroth, J.; Kamiya, K.; Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A.; Federici, G.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focusing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM (energy localized mode) energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. The theoretical description of the most studied Type-I ELMs is progressing from linear MHD stability analysis for peeling and ballooning modes to the non-linear explosive models and transport codes. Present theories cannot predict the ELM size self-consistently, however they pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q 95 and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area. The experimental data also suggest that the conductive energy losses in Type-I ELM can be controlled by working in specific plasma conditions. In particular, the existence of purely convective small Type-I ELMs regimes at high q 95 (>4.5) with ΔW ELM /W ped <5% was demonstrated in high triangularity (δ ∼ 0.5) plasmas in JET. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type-II, grassy, QH, Type-III in impurity seeded discharges at high δ and their relevance for ITER parameters are reviewed briefly. The absence of already developed ITER relevant high confinement scenarios with acceptable ELMs has motivated recent intensive experimental and theoretical studies of active control of ELMs. The possibility of suppression of Type-I ELMs in H-mode scenarios at constant confinement was demonstrated in DIII-D experiments with a stochastic boundary created by external coils. It has been demonstrated in AUG that small pellets can trigger Type-I ELMs with a frequency imposed by the pellet injector. Pellet induced ELMs are similar to the intrinsic Type-I ELMs with the same frequency. At the same time the confinement degradation due to the fuelling can be minimized with pellets small as compared to the gas injection. Recent plasma current ramp experiments (JET, COMPASS-D) and modelling (JETTO) demonstrated that the edge

  9. Spectroscopic investigation of heavy impurity behaviour during ICRH with the JET ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnecka, A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Association EURATOM-IPPLM, Hery 23 Str., 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Bobkov, V.; Maggi, C.; Pütterich, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Coffey, I. H. [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jacquet, P.; Lawson, K. D. [Euratom/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lerche, E.; Van Eester, D. [Association EURATOM - Belgian State, ERM-KMS, TEC Partner (Belgium); Mayoral, M.-L. [Euratom/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, UK and EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    Magnetically confined plasmas, such as those produced in the tokamak JET, contain measurable amounts of impurity ions produced during plasma-wall interactions (PWI) from the plasma-facing components and recessed wall areas. The impurities, including high- and mid-Z elements such as tungsten (W) from first wall tiles and nickel (Ni) from Inconel structure material, need to be controlled within tolerable limits, to ensure they do not significantly affect the performance of the plasma. This contribution focuses on documenting W and Ni impurity behavior during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) operation with the new ITER-Like Wall (ILW). Ni- and W-concentration were derived from VUV spectroscopy and the impact of applied power level, relative phasing of the antenna straps, plasma separatrix - antenna strap distance, IC resonance position, edge density and different plasma configuration, on the impurity release during ICRH are presented. For the same ICRH power the Ni and W concentration was lower with dipole phasing than in the case of −π/2 phasing. The Ni concentration was found to increase with ICRH power and for the same NBI power level, ICRH-heated plasmas were characterized by two times higher Ni impurity content. Both W and Ni concentrations increased strongly with decreasing edge density which is equivalent to higher edge electron temperatures and more energetic ions responsible for the sputtering. In either case higher levels were found in ICRH than in NBI heated discharges. When the central plasma temperature was similar, ICRH on-axis heating resulted in higher core Ni impurity concentration in comparison to off-axis ICRH in L-mode. It was also found that the main core radiation during ICRH came from W.

  10. The disparate impact of the ion temperature gradient and the density gradient on edge transport and the low-high transition in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleva, Robert G.; Guzdar, Parvez N.

    2009-01-01

    Steepening of the ion temperature gradient in nonlinear fluid simulations of the edge region of a tokamak plasma causes a rapid degradation in confinement. As the density gradient steepens, there is a continuous improvement in confinement analogous to the low (L) to high (H) transition observed in tokamaks. In contrast, as the ion temperature gradient steepens, there is a rapid increase in the particle and energy fluxes and no L-H transition. For a given pressure gradient, confinement always improves when more of the pressure gradient arises from the density gradient, and less of the pressure gradient arises from the ion temperature gradient.

  11. Impurity in a granular gas under nonlinear Couette flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Reyes, Francisco; Garzó, Vicente; Santos, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    We study in this work the transport properties of an impurity immersed in a granular gas under stationary nonlinear Couette flow. The starting point is a kinetic model for low-density granular mixtures recently proposed by the authors (Vega Reyes et al 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 061306). Two routes have been considered. First, a hydrodynamic or normal solution is found by exploiting a formal mapping between the kinetic equations for the gas particles and for the impurity. We show that the transport properties of the impurity are characterized by the ratio between the temperatures of the impurity and gas particles and by five generalized transport coefficients: three related to the momentum flux (a nonlinear shear viscosity and two normal stress differences) and two related to the heat flux (a nonlinear thermal conductivity and a cross-coefficient measuring a component of the heat flux orthogonal to the thermal gradient). Second, by means of a Monte Carlo simulation method we numerically solve the kinetic equations and show that our hydrodynamic solution is valid in the bulk of the fluid when realistic boundary conditions are used. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic solution applies to arbitrarily (inside the continuum regime) large values of the shear rate, of the inelasticity, and of the rest of the parameters of the system. Preliminary simulation results of the true Boltzmann description show the reliability of the nonlinear hydrodynamic solution of the kinetic model. This shows again the validity of a hydrodynamic description for granular flows, even under extreme conditions, beyond the Navier–Stokes domain

  12. Rotation characteristics of main ions and impurity ions in H-mode tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Kim, Y.; St. John, H.E.; Seraydarian, R.P.; Wade, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Poloidal and toroidal rotation of the main ions (He 2+ ) and the impurity ions (C 6+ and B 5+ ) in H-mode helium plasmas have been measured via charge exchange recombination spectroscopy in the DIII-D tokamak. It was discovered that the main ion poloidal rotation is in the ion diamagnetic drift direction while the impurity ion rotation is in the electron diamagnetic drift direction, in qualitative agreement with the neoclassical theory. The deduced radial electric field in the edge is of the same negative-well shape regardless of which ion species is used, validating the fundamental nature of the electric field in L-H transition phenomenology

  13. Core and edge aspects of quiescent double barrier operation on DIII-D, with relevance to critical ITB physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Casper, T.A.; Burrell, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results from DIII-D address critical internal transport barrier (ITB) research issues relating to sustainability, impurity accumulation and ITB control, and have also demonstrated successful application of general profile control tools. In addition, substantial progress has been made in understanding the physics of the Quiescent Double Barrier (QDB) regime, increasing the demonstrated operating space for the regime and improving performance. Highlights include: (1) A clear demonstration of q-profile modification using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD); (2) Successful use of localized profile control using electron cyclotron heating (ECH) or ECCD to reduce central high-Z impurity accumulation associated with density peaking; (3) Theory based modeling codes are now being used to design experiments; (4) The operating space for Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) has been substantially broadened, in particular higher density operation has been achieved; (5) Both absolute (β≤ 3.8%, neutron rate S n ≤ 5.5x10 15 s -1 ) and relative (β N H 89 = 7 for 10τ E ) performance has been increased; (6) With regard to sustainment, QDB plasmas have been run for 3.8 s or 26 τ E . These results emphasize that it is possible to produce sustained high quality H-mode performance with an edge localized mode (ELM)-free edge, directly addressing a major issue in fusion research, of how to ameliorate or eliminate ELM induced pulsed divertor particle and heat loads. (author)

  14. Investigation of impurity confinement in lower hybrid wave heated plasma on EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Wu, Z. W.; Zhang, L.; Gao, W.; Ye, Y.; Chen, K. Y.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, W.; Yang, X. D.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhang, P. F.; Huang, J.; Wu, C. R.; Morita, S.; Oishi, T.; Zhang, J. Z.; Duan, Y. M.; Zang, Q.; Ding, S. Y.; Liu, H. Q.; Chen, J. L.; Hu, L. Q.; Xu, G. S.; Guo, H. Y.; the EAST Team

    2018-01-01

    The transient perturbation method with metallic impurities such as iron (Fe, Z  =  26) and copper (Cu, Z  =  29) induced in plasma-material interaction (PMI) procedure is used to investigate the impurity confinement characters in lower hybrid wave (LHW) heated EAST sawtooth-free plasma. The dependence of metallic impurities confinement time on plasma parameters (e.g. plasma current, toroidal magnetic field, electron density and heating power) are investigated in ohmic and LHW heated plasma. It is shown that LHW heating plays an important role in the reduction of the impurity confinement time in L-mode discharges on EAST. The impurity confinement time scaling is given as 42IP0.32Bt0.2\\overline{n}e0.43Ptotal-0.4~ on EAST, which is close to the observed scaling on Tore Supra and JET. Furthermore, the LHW heated high-enhanced-recycling (HER) H-mode discharges with ~25 kHz edge coherent modes (ECM), which have lower impurity confinement time and higher energy confinement time, provide promising candidates for high performance and steady state operation on EAST.

  15. Void growth suppression by dislocation impurity atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weertman, J.; Green, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed calculation is given of the effect of an impurity atmosphere on void growth under irradiation damage conditions. Norris has proposed that such an atmosphere can suppress void growth. The hydrostatic stress field of a dislocation that is surrounded by an impurity atmosphere was found and used to calculate the change in the effective radius of a dislocation line as a sink for interstitials and vacancies. The calculation of the impurity concentration in a Cottrell cloud takes into account the change in hydrostatic pressure produced by the presence of the cloud itself. It is found that void growth is eliminated whenever dislocations are surrounded by a condensed atmosphere of either oversized substitutional impurity atoms or interstitial impurity atoms. A condensed atmosphere will form whenever the average impurity concentration is larger than a critical concentration

  16. Impurity-induced moments in underdoped cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliullin, G.; Kilian, R.; Krivenko, S.; Fulde, P.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the effect of a nonmagnetic impurity in a two-dimensional spin liquid in the spin-gap phase, employing a drone-fermion representation of spin-1/2 operators. The properties of the local moment induced in the vicinity of the impurity are investigated and an expression for the nuclear-magnetic-resonance Knight shift is derived, which we compare with experimental results. Introducing a second impurity into the spin liquid an antiferromagnetic interaction between the moments is found when the two impurities are located on different sublattices. The presence of many impurities leads to a screening of this interaction as is shown by means of a coherent-potential approximation. Further, the Kondo screening of an impurity-induced local spin by charge carriers is discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Graphene plasmons: Impurities and nonlocal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Giovanni; Wenger, Tobias; Kinaret, Jari; Fogelström, Mikael

    2018-02-01

    This work analyzes how impurities and vacancies on the surface of a graphene sample affect its optical conductivity and plasmon excitations. The disorder is analyzed in the self-consistent Green's function formulation and nonlocal effects are fully taken into account. It is shown that impurities modify the linear spectrum and give rise to an impurity band whose position and width depend on the two parameters of our model, the density and the strength of impurities. The presence of the impurity band strongly influences the electromagnetic response and the plasmon losses. Furthermore, we discuss how the impurity-band position can be obtained experimentally from the plasmon dispersion relation and discuss this in the context of sensing.

  18. Moessbauer Studies of Implanted Impurities in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Moessbauer studies were performed on implanted radioactive impurities in semiconductors and metals. Radioactive isotopes (from the ISOLDE facility) decaying to a Moessbauer isotope were utilized to investigate electronic and vibrational properties of impurities and impurity-defect structures. This information is inferred from the measured impurity hyperfine interactions and Debye-Waller factor. In semiconductors isoelectronic, shallow and deep level impurities have been implanted. Complex impurity defects have been produced by the implantation process (correlated damage) or by recoil effects from the nuclear decay in both semiconductors and metals. Annealing mechanisms of the defects have been studied. \\\\ \\\\ In silicon amorphised implanted layers have been recrystallized epitaxially by rapid-thermal-annealing techniques yielding highly supersaturated, electrically-active donor concentrations. Their dissolution and migration mechanisms have been investigated in detail. The electronic configuration of Sb donors...

  19. Impurity study of TMX using ultraviolet spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Strand, O.T.; Moos, H.W.; Fortner, R.J.; Nash, T.J.; Dietrich, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet (EUV) study of the emissions from intrinsic and injected impurities in TMX is presented. Two survey spectrographs were used to determine that the major impurities present were oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and titanium. Three absolutely-calibrated monochromators were used to measure the time histories and radial profiles of these impurity emissions in the central cell and each plug. Two of these instruments were capable of obtaining radial profiles as a function of time in a single shot

  20. Long-time impurity confinement as a precursor to disruptions in ohmically heated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Rowan, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    It has been observed in several tokamaks that the confinement of test impurities increases dramatically when operating near density limits. The characteristics of the working gas transport coefficients also change character under these conditions. These changes appear to be caused by a suppression of the anomalous transport mechanisms. This series of vugraphs investigates the role of these changes in initiating disruptions

  1. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  2. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  3. Measuring and controlling method for organic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Igarashi, Hiroo

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns measurement and control for organic impurities contained in ultrapurified water for use in a nuclear power plant. A specimen containing organic impurities leached out of anionic exchange resins and cationic exchange resins is introduced to an organic material decomposing section to decompose organic impurities into organic carbon and other decomposed products. Sulfate ions, nitrate ions, nitrite ions and carbon dioxide are produced by the decomposition of the organic impurities. As a next step, carbon dioxide in the decomposed products is separated by deaerating with a nitrogen gas or an argon gas and then a TOC concentration is measured by a non-dispersion-type infrared spectrometer. Further, a specimen from which carbon dioxide was separated is introduced to a column filled with ion exchange resins and, after concentrating inorganic ion impurities, the inorganic ion impurities are identified by using a measuring theory of an ion chromatographic method of eluting and separating inorganic ion impurities and detecting them based on the change of electroconductivity depending on the kinds of the inorganic ion impurities. Organic impurities can be measured and controlled, to improve the reliability of water quality control. (N.H.)

  4. Simulation of tungsten erosion and transport near the divertor plate during ELMs by a kinetic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhenyue; Sang, Chaofeng; Hu, Wanpeng; Du, Hailong; Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A kinetic method is used to simulate tungsten erosion and transport during ELMs. • The erosion of tungsten plate by different species (deuterium and carbon ions) is shown. • The charge states of sputtered tungsten particles are given statistically. - Abstract: Tungsten (W) is fore seen as one of the most important candidates of the plasma-facing materials (PFM) for future fusion devices, due to its beneficial properties. However, the high-Z characteristic makes it a potential contamination to the core plasma. Divertor is the main component that directly contacts the plasma, therefore, it is very important to understand the erosion of W divertor plate and the corresponding transport of the eroded wall impurity, especially during edge localized modes (ELMs). In this work, a one-dimension-in-space and three-dimensions-in-velocity particle-in-cell code (EPPIC1D) is used to simulate the erosion of W divertor plate, and the transport of eroded W impurity near the divertor plate is studied by a Monte Carlo code. Benefiting from the kinetic simulation, energy/particle flux to the target could be calculated accurately, and the erosion of W plate by different species is simulated during ELMs. The trajectories and distributions of eroded W impurity particles are demonstrated, which shows us a basic idea of how these impurity particles are generated and transported. It is found that C{sup 3+} plays a dominated role on the erosion of W divertor plate during ELMs even when its concentration is low. Both W atoms and ions distribute mainly near the divertor plate, indicating only a very small fraction of W impurity particles could escape from divertor region and penetrate into the core plasma.

  5. Edge stability and performance of the ELM-free quiescent H-mode and the quiescent double barrier mode on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, W.P.; Burrell, K.H.; Snyder, P.B.; Gohil, P.; Lao, L.L.; Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H.; Thomas, D.M.; Casper, T.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Doyle, E.J.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.; Nave, M.F.F.

    2005-01-01

    The quiescent H (QH) mode, an edge localized mode (ELM)-free, high-confinement mode, combines well with an internal transport barrier to form quiescent double barrier (QDB) stationary state, high performance plasmas. The QH-mode edge pedestal pressure is similar to that seen in ELMing phases of the same discharge, with similar global energy confinement. The pedestal density in early ELMing phases of strongly pumped counter injection discharges drops and a transition to QH-mode occurs, leading to lower calculated edge bootstrap current. Plasmas current ramp experiment and ELITE code modeling of edge stability suggest that QHmodes lie near an edge current stabilty boundary. At high triangularity, QH-mode discharges operate at higher pedestal density and pressure, and have achieved ITER level values of β PED and ν*. The QDB achieves performance of β N H 89 ∼ 7 in quasi-stationary conditions for a duration of 10 τ E , limited by hardware. Recently we demonstrated stationary state QDB discharges with little change in kinetic and q profiles (q 0 > 1) for 2 s, comparable to ELMing 'hybrid scenarios', yet without the debilitating effects of ELMs. Plasma profile control tools, including electron cyclotron heating and current drive and neutral beam heating, have been demonstrated to control simultaneously the q profile development, the density peaking, impurity accumulation and plasma beta. (author)

  6. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  7. Depolarization of diffusing spins by paramagnetic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, M.E.; Hutson, R.L.; Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; Dodds, S.A.; Estle, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    We study the depolarization of diffusing spins (muons) interacting with dilute paramagnetic impurities in a solid using a simple computational model which properly treats the muon motion and preserves correct muon-impurity distances. Long-range (dipolar) and nearest-neighbor (contact) interactions are treated together. Diffusion parameters are deduced and model comparisons made for AuGd (300 ppm). (orig.)

  8. Elimination device for metal impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable reuse of adsorbing materials by eliminating Fe 3 O 4 films reduced with adsorbing performance by way of electrolytic polishing and then forming fresh membranes using high temperature steams. Constitution: An elimination device is provided to a coolant clean-up system of a reactor for eliminating impurities such as cobalt. The elimination device comprises adsorbing materials made of stainless steel tips or the likes having Fe 3 O 4 films. The adsorbing materials are regenerated by applying an electric current between grid-like cathode plates and anode plates to leach out the Fe 3 O 4 films, washing out the electrolytic solution by cleaning water and then applying steams at high temperature onto the adsorbing materials to thereby form fresh Fe 3 O 4 films again thereon. The regeneration of the adsorbing materials enables to eliminate Co 60 and the like in the primary coolant efficiently. (Moriyama, K.)

  9. Density profiles and particle fluxes of heavy impurities in the limiter shadow region of a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, H.A.; Repp, H.

    1980-01-01

    For the case of low impurity concentration, transport calculations have been performed for heavy impurities, in the scrape-off layer plasma of a tokamak with a poloidal ring limiter. The theory is based on the drift-kinetic equations for the various ionization states of the impurity ions taking due consideration of the convection and collision processes. The background plasma and the impurity sources from the torus wall and the limiter surface enter the theory as input parameters. The theory is developed for the first two orders of the drift approximation. Numerical results are given to zero order drift approximation for the radial profiles of density and particle fluxes parallel to the magnetic field. (orig.)

  10. EUV impurity study of the Alcator tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.L.; Chen, K.I.; Moos, H.W.; Marmar, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity of resonance line radiation from oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and molybdenum impurities has been measured in the high-field (80kG), high-density (6x10 14 cm -3 ) discharges of the Alcator Tokamak, using a 0.4-m normal-incidence monochromator (300-1300A) with its line of sight fixed along a major radius. Total light-impurity concentrations of a few tenths of a percent have been estimated by using both a simple model and a computer code which included Pfirsch-Schlueter impurity diffusion. The resulting values of Zsub(eff), including the contributions due to both the light impurities and molybdenum, were close to one. The power lost through the impurity line radiation from the lower ionization states accounted for approximately 10% of the total Ohmic input power at high densities. (author)

  11. Device for removing impurities from liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Kesahiro; Yokota, Norikatsu; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Kazuo; Ishida, Tomio.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To attain highly reliable and efficient impurity removal by forming temperature distribution the impurity removing device thereby providing the function of corrosion product trap, nuclear fission product trap and cold trap under the conditions suitable to the impurity removing materials. Constitution: The impurity removing device comprises a container containing impurity removing fillers. The fillers comprise material for removing corrosion products, material for removing nuclear fission products and material for removing depositions from liquid sodium. The positions for the respective materials are determined such that the materials are placed under the temperature conditions easy to attain their function depending on the temperature distribution formed in the removing device, whereby appropriate temperature condition is set to each of the materials. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  13. Theoretical model of the plasma edge. Part II: Transport along the open field lines of a magnetic island belt associated with the ionization instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.L.M.; Hasselberg, G.

    1993-01-01

    To the ionization instability described in Part I correspond odd Φ, even b r eigenfunctions leading, as for the tearing mode, to a magnetic island belt centred about the rational magnetic surface q=m a (q is the safety factor; m is the mode number). Plasma dumping on the target plates, along the island magnetic field lines, releases the neutrals, the ionization of which drives the instability. This self-consistent model of the plasma edge yields the electron temperature on the last closed equilibrium magnetic surface and the particle confinement time, which are compared with the values measured in TEXTOR and other tokamaks; interestingly, the value obtained for τ p is very reminiscent of the heuristic energy confinement time expression proposed by Kaye and Goldston. Theory also predicts an equilibrium bifurcation at high power, corresponding to a reduction, and then a collapse, of the island width. The hypothesis that the (L mode) island belt be hooked up to the machine's structure is briefly discussed. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs

  14. Uranium analysis. Impurities determination by spark mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Determination of impurities in uranium, suitable for atomic content greater than 10 -8 , particularly adapted for a low content. The method is quantitative for metallic impurities and qualitative for non metallic impurities [fr

  15. Stability of edge states and edge magnetism in graphene nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Kunstmann, Jens; Özdoğan, Cem; Quandt, Alexander; Fehske, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We critically discuss the stability of edge states and edge magnetism in zigzag edge graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs). We point out that magnetic edge states might not exist in real systems, and show that there are at least three very natural mechanisms - edge reconstruction, edge passivation, and edge closure - which dramatically reduce the effect of edge states in ZGNRs or even totally eliminate them. Even if systems with magnetic edge states could be made, the intrinsic magnetism would not be ...

  16. ICRF/edge physics research on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oost, G. van; Nieuwenhove, R. van; Koch, R.; Messiaen, A.M.; Vandenplas, P.E.; Weynants, R.R.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Lie, Y.T.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Samm, U.; Schweer, B.; Conn, R.W.; Corbett, W.J.; Goebel, D.M.; Moyer, R.A.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1990-01-01

    Extensive investigations of ICRF-induced effects on the edge plasma and on plasma-wall interaction were conducted on TEXTOR under different wall- and limiter as well as plasma- and heating conditions. Several strong effects of ICRF on the edge parameters were observed on TEXTOR, such as density rise, instantaneous electron heating, modification of SOL profiles, influx of ligth and/or heavy impurities, increased heat flux to the limiters, and production of energetic ions in the SOL. The fast response time of some of the changes and the observation of a maximum in the SOL profile of electron temperature, heat flux and metal sputtering clearly demonstrated that RF power is directly absorbed in the SOL. Estimates of this power amount to several percent of the total RF power launched into the plasma. Plasma-wall interaction during ICRF was substantially reduced by an appropriate choice of the wall conditioning procedures (wall carbonization with liner at 400degC or, above all, boronization). As a result record low values of the radiated power fraction were achieved during ICRF and long pulse, high power, low impurity operation was possible. Further improvement was obtained by ICRF antenna phasing. When ICRF power is coupled to the plasma, several effects on the core and edge plasma influence the operation of the toroidal pump limiter ALT-II. Experimental and theoretical studies were performed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the ICRF-induced effects, including the propagation of plasma waves in the edge plasma and nonlinear phenomena such as parametric decay, important changes in the DC current between the antenna structure and the liner due to the sheath effect at the antennas, and the generation of waves at harmonics of the RF generator frequency. Radial profiles of the DC radial and poloidal electric fields as well as a localized RF electric field structure were measured in the SOL using a fast scanning probe. (orig.)

  17. Effects of impurities and magnetic divertors on high-temperature tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, D.M.; Furth, H.P.; Rutherford, P.H.; Seidl, F.G.P.; Duechs, D.F.

    1974-10-01

    A one-dimensional tokamak plasma transport code has been adapted to include impurity influx, stripping, radiation, and diffusion, as well as the usual processes of hydrogen plasma and heat transport, recycling at the boundary, and multigeneration charge-exchange. Neutral-beam heating, adiabatic compression, and divertor boundary conditions are included as optional features. Illustrative computations are given for present-day and next-generation tokamaks. The problems of impurity control are discussed, and two technical approaches are examined in greater detail: the transient cold-plasma shield, and the poloidal divertor. (auth)

  18. Optical-absorption spectra associated with shallow donor impurities in GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Valencia, J.

    1995-08-01

    The binding energy of a hydrogenic donor impurity and the optical-absorption spectra associated with transitions between the n=1 valence level and the donor-impurity band were calculated for infinite barrier-well spherical GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-dots of different radii, using the effective mass approximation within a variational scheme. An absorption peak associated with transitions involving impurities at the center of the well and a peak related with impurities at the edge of the dot were the main features observed for the different radii of the dots considered in the calculations. Also as a result of the higher electronic confinement in a quantum- dot, we found a much wider energy range of the absorption spectra when compared to infinite GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-wells and quantum-well wires of width and diameter comparable to the diameter of the quantum dot. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs

  19. Nanoindentation near the edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Jakes; C.R. Frihart; J.F. Beecher; R.J. Moon; P.J. Resto; Z.H. Melgarejo; O.M. Saurez; H. Baumgart; A.A. Elmustafa; D.S. Stone

    2009-01-01

    Whenever a nanoindent is placed near an edge, such as the free edge of the specimen or heterophase interface intersecting the surface, the elastic discontinuity associated with the edge produces artifacts in the load-depth data. Unless properly handled in the data analysis, the artifacts can produce spurious results that obscure any real trends in properties as...

  20. Progress Towards Increased Understanding and Control of Internal Transport Barriers on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, E. J. [University of California, Los Angeles; Greenfield, C. M. [General Atomics; Austin, M. E. [University of Texas, Austin; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics; Casper, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); DeBoo, J. C. [General Atomics; Ernst, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Fenzi, C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Gohil, P. [General Atomics; Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics; Heidbrink, W. W. [University of California, Irvine; Jackson, G. L. [General Atomics; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Kinsey, J. E. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Lao, L. L. [General Atomics; Makowski, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Mckee, G. R. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Peebles, W. A. [University of California, Los Angeles; Prater, R. [General Atomics; Rettig, C. L. [University of California, Los Angeles; Rhodes, T. L. [University of California, Los Angeles; Rost, J. C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Staebler, G. M. [General Atomics; Stallard, B. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Strait, E. J. [General Atomics; Synakowski, E. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Thomas, D. M. [General Atomics; Wade, Mickey R [ORNL; Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics; Zeng, L. [University of California, Los Angeles

    2001-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made towards both understanding and control of internal transport barriers (ITBs) on DIII-D, resulting in the discovery of a new sustained high performance operating mode termed the Quiescent Double-Barrier (QDB) regime. The QDB regime combines core transport barriers with a quiescent, ELM-free H-mode edge (termed QH-mode), giving rise to separate (double) core and edge transport barriers. The core and edge barriers are mutually compatible and do not merge, resulting in broad core profiles with an edge pedestal. The QH-mode edge is characterized by ELM-free behavior with continuous multiharmonic MHD activity in the pedestal region, and has provided density and impurity control for 3.5 s (>20 τE) with divertor pumping. QDB plasmas are long-pulse high-performance candidates, having maintained a βNH89 product of 7 for 5 energy confinement times (Ti ≤ 16 keV, βN ≤ 2.9, H89 ≤ 2.4, τE ≤ 150 ms, DD neutron rate Sn ≤ 4x1015 s-1). The QDB regime has only been obtained in counter-NBI discharges (injection anti-parallel to plasma current) with divertor pumping. Other results include successful expansion of the ITB radius using (separately) both impurity injection and counter-NBI, and the formation of ITBs in the electron thermal channel using both ECH and strong negative central shear (NCS) at high power. These results are interpreted within a theoretical framework in which turbulence suppression is the key to ITB formation and control, and a decrease in core turbulence is observed in all cases of ITB formation.

  1. Progress towards increased understanding and control of internal transport barriers (ITBs) on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Greenfield, C.M.; Austin, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made towards both understanding and control of internal transport barriers (ITBs) on DIII-D, resulting in the discovery of a new sustained high performance operating mode termed the Quiescent Double-Barrier (QDB) regime. The QDB regime combines core transport barriers with a quiescent, ELM-free H-mode edge (termed QH-mode), giving rise to separate (double) core and edge transport barriers. The core and edge barriers are mutually compatible and do not merge, resulting in broad core profiles with an edge pedestal. The QH-mode edge is characterized by ELM-free behavior with continuous multiharmonic MHD activity in the pedestal region, and has provided density and impurity control for 3.5 s (>20 τ E ) with divertor pumping. QDB plasmas are long-pulse high-performance candidates, having maintained a β N H 89 product of 7 for 5 energy confinement times (T i ≤16 keV, β N ≤2.9, H 89 ≤2.4, τ E ≤150 ms, DD neutron rate S n ≤4x10 15 s -1 ). The QDB regime has only been obtained in counter-NBI discharges (injection anti-parallel to plasma current) with divertor pumping. Other results include successful expansion of the ITB radius using (separately) both impurity injection and counter-NBI, and the formation of ITBs in the electron thermal channel using both ECH and strong negative central shear (NCS) at high power. These results are interpreted within a theoretical framework in which turbulence suppression is the key to ITB formation and control, and a decrease in core turbulence is observed in all cases of ITB formation. (author)

  2. Influence of the plasma edge on tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, H.R.; Connor, J.W.; Field, A.R.; Fielding, S.J.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.; Miller, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    A number of edge plasma physics phenomena are considered to determine tokamak performance: transport barrier, edge MHD instabilities and plasma flow. These phenomena are thought to be causally related: a spontaneous increase in the plasma flow (actually, its radial variation) suppresses heat and particle fluxes at the plasma edge to form a transport barrier; the edge pressure gradient steepens until limited by MHD instabilities, resulting in a temperature pedestal at the top of the steep gradient region; a number of core transport models predict enhanced confinement for higher values of the temperature pedestal. The article examines these phenomena and their interaction. (author)

  3. Influence of the plasma edge on tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, H.R.; Connor, J.W.; Field, A.R.; Fielding, S.J.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.; Miller, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    A number of edge plasma physics phenomena are considered to determine tokamak performance: transport barrier, edge magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities, plasma flow. These phenomena are thought to be causally related: a spontaneous increase in the plasma flow (actually, its radial variation) suppresses heat and particle fluxes at the plasma edge, to form a transport barrier; the edge pressure gradient steepens until limited by MHD instabilities, resulting in a temperature pedestal at the top of the steep gradient region; a number of core transport models predict enhanced confinement for higher values of the temperature pedestal. This paper examines these phenomena and their interaction. (author)

  4. Influence of the plasma edge on tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, H.R.; Connor, J.W.; Field, A.R.; Fielding, S.J.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.; Miller, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    A number of edge plasma physics phenomena are considered to determine tokamak performance: transport barrier, edge magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities, plasma flow. These phenomena are thought to be causally related: a spontaneous increase in the plasma flow (actually, its radial variation) suppresses heat and particle fluxes at the plasma edge, to form a transport barrier; the edge pressure gradient steepens until limited by MHD instabilities, resulting in a temperature pedestal at the top of the steep gradient region; a number of core transport models predict enhanced confinement for higher values of the temperature pedestal. This paper examines these phenomena and their interaction. (author)

  5. Gyrokinetic simulation of particle and heat transport in the presence of Wide orbits and strong profile variations in the Edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, J.A.; Henriksson, S.; Janhunen, S.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Ogando, F.

    2006-01-01

    A full f nonlinear 5D gyrokinetic electrostatic particle-in-cell code ELMFIRE using an implicit direct solution method for ion polarization drift and electron parallel velocity response to electric field and its validation are described. The developed code is applied for transport analysis in a tokamak plasma at steep pressure gradient. The role of turbulence and neoclassical equilibrium in determining the flux surface averaged radial electric field component are investigated, as well as the role of the latter in affecting the saturation level of the turbulence. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Entanglement entropy of a three-spin-interacting spin chain with a time-reversal-breaking impurity at one boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Tanay; Rajak, Atanu

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the effect of a time-reversal-breaking impurity term (of strength λd) on both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium critical properties of entanglement entropy (EE) in a three-spin-interacting transverse Ising model, which can be mapped to a p -wave superconducting chain with next-nearest-neighbor hopping and interaction. Importantly, we find that the logarithmic scaling of the EE with block size remains unaffected by the application of the impurity term, although, the coefficient (i.e., central charge) varies logarithmically with the impurity strength for a lower range of λd and eventually saturates with an exponential damping factor [˜exp(-λd) ] for the phase boundaries shared with the phase containing two Majorana edge modes. On the other hand, it receives a linear correction in term of λd for an another phase boundary. Finally, we focus to study the effect of the impurity in the time evolution of the EE for the critical quenching case where the impurity term is applied only to the final Hamiltonian. Interestingly, it has been shown that for all the phase boundaries, contrary to the equilibrium case, the saturation value of the EE increases logarithmically with the strength of impurity in a certain regime of λd and finally, for higher values of λd, it increases very slowly dictated by an exponential damping factor. The impurity-induced behavior of EE might bear some deep underlying connection to thermalization.

  7. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  8. Influence of iron impurities on defected graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena [Centro NanoMat, Cryssmat-Lab, DETEMA, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Cno. Saravia s/n, CP 91000 Pando (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M. [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Mombrú, Alvaro W., E-mail: amombru@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Cryssmat-Lab, DETEMA, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Cno. Saravia s/n, CP 91000 Pando (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • The interaction among a multivacancy graphene system and iron impurities is studied. • The studied iron impurities were single atom and tetrahedral and octahedral clusters. • DFT calculations using the VASP code were performed. • The embedding of Fe affects the structure and electronic behavior in the graphene. • Half metal or semimetal behavior can be obtained, depending on the Fe impurities. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the interaction of selected iron cluster impurities and a multivacancy graphene system, in terms of the structural distortion that the impurities cause as well as their magnetic response. While originally, the interaction has been limited to vacancies and isolated metallic atoms, in this case, we consider small iron clusters. This study was undertaken using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of the iron impurities in the electronic structure of the vacant graphene system is discussed. The main conclusion of this work is that the presence of iron impurities acts lowering the magnetic signal due to the occurrence of spin pairing between carbon and iron, instead of enhancing the possible intrinsic carbon magnetism.

  9. Impurity Induced Phase Competition and Supersolidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Madhuparna; Ganesh, R.

    2017-12-01

    Several material families show competition between superconductivity and other orders. When such competition is driven by doping, it invariably involves spatial inhomogeneities which can seed competing orders. We study impurity-induced charge order in the attractive Hubbard model, a prototypical model for competition between superconductivity and charge density wave order. We show that a single impurity induces a charge-ordered texture over a length scale set by the energy cost of the competing phase. Our results are consistent with a strong-coupling field theory proposed earlier in which superconducting and charge order parameters form components of an SO(3) vector field. To discuss the effects of multiple impurities, we focus on two cases: correlated and random distributions. In the correlated case, the CDW puddles around each impurity overlap coherently leading to a "supersolid" phase with coexisting pairing and charge order. In contrast, a random distribution of impurities does not lead to coherent CDW formation. We argue that the energy lowering from coherent ordering can have a feedback effect, driving correlations between impurities. This can be understood as arising from an RKKY-like interaction, mediated by impurity textures. We discuss implications for charge order in the cuprates and doped CDW materials such as NbSe2.

  10. Influence of iron impurities on defected graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M.; Mombrú, Alvaro W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction among a multivacancy graphene system and iron impurities is studied. • The studied iron impurities were single atom and tetrahedral and octahedral clusters. • DFT calculations using the VASP code were performed. • The embedding of Fe affects the structure and electronic behavior in the graphene. • Half metal or semimetal behavior can be obtained, depending on the Fe impurities. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the interaction of selected iron cluster impurities and a multivacancy graphene system, in terms of the structural distortion that the impurities cause as well as their magnetic response. While originally, the interaction has been limited to vacancies and isolated metallic atoms, in this case, we consider small iron clusters. This study was undertaken using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of the iron impurities in the electronic structure of the vacant graphene system is discussed. The main conclusion of this work is that the presence of iron impurities acts lowering the magnetic signal due to the occurrence of spin pairing between carbon and iron, instead of enhancing the possible intrinsic carbon magnetism

  11. Dissipative-drift wave instability in the presence of impurity radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharuthram, R.; Shukla, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that electrostatic fluctuations in edge plasmas are usually triggered by micro and macroscopic plasma instabilities. The latter involve dissipative-drift waves as well as tearing and rippling modes in nonuniform plasmas. However, if the plasma edge contains impurity radiation, then the radiative condensation instability could be the cause of nonthermal fluctuations. The radiative condensation instabilities have been extensively investigated in a homogeneous plasma by many authors. The effect of equilibrium density and electron temperature inhomogeneities in the study of radiative condensation instabilities has been examined by Shukla and Yu. They found new drift-like modes driven by the combined effect of impurity radiation loss and the equilibrium density and temperature gradients. The analyses of Shukla and Yu is, however, limited to low-frequency, long wavelength collisionless drift waves. Since the edge plasma of toroidal devices is highly collisional, the results of collisionless theories cannot be directly applied to explain the origin of nonthermal fluctuations. In this paper, we study the influence of impurity radiation on the dissipative-drift wave instability in a collision-dominated nonuniform plasma embedded in a homogeneous magnetic field. (author) 6 refs

  12. Impurities in radioactive solutions for gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, J.U.

    1990-01-01

    The absolute and relative methods for radioactive sources calibration, like 4 Πβ-γ and 4Πγ ionization chamber respectively, allows to reach 0,1% of exactiness in activity measurement, but cannot distinguish radioactive impurities that interfere in the activity. Then, one of the problems associated to a quality control of calibrated sources furnished to users is the identification and quantification of the impurities. In this work, a routine technical procedure, using the facilities of gamma spectrometry method that allows to identify and to determine the impurities relative contribution to the source main radionuclide activity, is described. (author) [pt

  13. Impurities of oxygen in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, V.M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The electronic structure of oxygen complex defects in silicon, using molecular cluster model with saturation by watson sphere into the formalism of Xα multiple scattering method is studied. A systematic study of the simulation of perfect silicon crystal and an analysis of the increasing of atom number in the clusters are done to choose the suitable cluster for the calculations. The divacancy in three charge states (Si:V 2 + , Si:V 2 0 , Si:V 2 - ), of the oxygen pair (Si:O 2 ) and the oxygen-vacancy pair (Si:O.V) neighbours in the silicon lattice, is studied. Distortions for the symmetry were included in the Si:V 2 + and Si:O 2 systems. The behavior of defect levels related to the cluster size of Si:V 2 0 and Si:O 2 systems, the insulated oxygen impurity of silicon in interstitial position (Si:O i ), and the complexes involving four oxygen atoms are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Study of impurity effects on CFETR steady-state scenario by self-consistent integrated modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Nan; Chan, Vincent S.; Jian, Xiang; Li, Guoqiang; Chen, Jiale; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Shengyu; Kong, Defeng; Liu, Xiaoju; Mao, Shifeng; Xu, Guoliang

    2017-12-01

    Impurity effects on fusion performance of China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) due to extrinsic seeding are investigated. An integrated 1.5D modeling workflow evolves plasma equilibrium and all transport channels to steady state. The one modeling framework for integrated tasks framework is used to couple the transport solver, MHD equilibrium solver, and source and sink calculations. A self-consistent impurity profile constructed using a steady-state background plasma, which satisfies quasi-neutrality and true steady state, is presented for the first time. Studies are performed based on an optimized fully non-inductive scenario with varying concentrations of Argon (Ar) seeding. It is found that fusion performance improves before dropping off with increasing {{Z}\\text{eff}} , while the confinement remains at high level. Further analysis of transport for these plasmas shows that low-k ion temperature gradient modes dominate the turbulence. The decrease in linear growth rate and resultant fluxes of all channels with increasing {{Z}\\text{eff}} can be traced to impurity profile change by transport. The improvement in confinement levels off at higher {{Z}\\text{eff}} . Over the regime of study there is a competition between the suppressed transport and increasing radiation that leads to a peak in the fusion performance at {{Z}\\text{eff}} (~2.78 for CFETR). Extrinsic impurity seeding to control divertor heat load will need to be optimized around this value for best fusion performance.

  15. Variable range of the RKKY interaction in edged graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, J M; Gorman, P D; Power, S R

    2014-01-01

    The indirect exchange interaction is one of the key factors in determining the overall alignment of magnetic impurities embedded in metallic host materials. In this work we examine the range of this interaction in magnetically doped graphene systems in the presence of armchair edges using...... calculations, and the result for semi-infinite graphene can be interpreted as an intermediate case between ribbon and bulk systems....

  16. The origin of metal impurities in DIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohasa, Kazumi; Sengoku, Seio; Maeda, Hikosuke; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Yamamoto, Shin

    1978-10-01

    The origin of metal impurities in DIVA (JFT-2a Tokamak) has been studied experimentally. Three processes of metal impurity release from the first wall were identified; i.e. ion sputtering, evaporation, and arcing. Among of these, ion sputtering is the predominant process in the quiet phase of the discharge, which is characterized by no spikes in the loop voltage and no localized heat flux concentrations on the first wall. ''Cones'' formation due to the sputtering is observed on the gold protection plate (guard limiter) exposed to about 10,000 discharges by scanning electron micrograph. In the SEM photographs, the spacial distribution of cones on the shell surface due to the ion sputtering coincides with the spacial distribution of intensity of Au-I line radiation. Gold is the dominant metal impurity in DIVA. The honeycomb structure can decrease release of the metal impurity. (author)

  17. Models for impurity effects in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.T.

    1980-03-01

    Models for impurity effects in tokamaks are described with an emphasis on the relationship between attainment of high β and impurity problems. We briefly describe the status of attempts to employ neutral beam heating to achieve high β in tokamaks and propose a qualitative model for the mechanism by which heavy metal impurities may be produced in the startup phase of the discharge. We then describe paradoxes in impurity diffusion theory and discuss possible resolutions in terms of the effects of large-scale islands and sawtooth oscillations. Finally, we examine the prospects for the Zakharov-Shafranov catastrophe (long time scale disintegration of FCT equilibria) in the context of present and near-term experimental capability

  18. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pickenheim, B. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); BIBLER, N. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    This document has been revised to add analytical data for fresh, 1 year old, and 4 year old glycolic acid as recommended in Revision 2 of this document. This was needed to understand the concentration of formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid, impurities present in the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments. Based on this information, the concentration of these impurities did not change during storage. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in the first two versions of this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends.

  19. Impurity induced resistivity upturns in underdoped cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nabyendu, E-mail: nabyendudas@gmail.com; Singh, Navinder

    2016-01-28

    Impurity induced low temperature upturns in both the ab-plane and the c-axis dc-resistivities of cuprates in the pseudogap state have been observed in experiments. We provide an explanation of this phenomenon by incorporating impurity scattering of the charge carriers within a phenomenological model proposed by Yang, Rice and Zhang. The scattering between charge carriers and the impurity atom is considered within the lowest order Born approximation. Resistivity is calculated within Kubo formula using the impurity renormalized spectral functions. Using physical parameters for cuprates, we describe qualitative features of the upturn phenomena and its doping evolution that coincides with the experimental findings. We stress that this effect is largely due to the strong electronic correlations.

  20. Impurity induced resistivity upturns in underdoped cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Nabyendu; Singh, Navinder

    2016-01-01

    Impurity induced low temperature upturns in both the ab-plane and the c-axis dc-resistivities of cuprates in the pseudogap state have been observed in experiments. We provide an explanation of this phenomenon by incorporating impurity scattering of the charge carriers within a phenomenological model proposed by Yang, Rice and Zhang. The scattering between charge carriers and the impurity atom is considered within the lowest order Born approximation. Resistivity is calculated within Kubo formula using the impurity renormalized spectral functions. Using physical parameters for cuprates, we describe qualitative features of the upturn phenomena and its doping evolution that coincides with the experimental findings. We stress that this effect is largely due to the strong electronic correlations.