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Sample records for ecuadorian cut-flower industry

  1. Employment in the Ecuadorian cut-flower industry and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlow Sioban D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the potentially adverse effects of occupational pesticide exposure on risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB is limited, particularly among female agricultural workers residing in developing countries. Methods Reproductive histories were obtained from 217 Ecuadorian mothers participating in a study focusing on occupational pesticide exposure and children's neurobehavioral development. Only women with 2+ pregnancies were included in this study (n = 153. Gravidity, parity and frequency of SAB were compared between women with and without a history of working in the cut-flower industry in the previous 6 years. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the relation between SAB and employment in the flower industry adjusting for maternal age. Results In comparison to women not working in the flower industry, women working in the flower industry were significantly younger (27 versus 32 years and of lower gravidity (3.3 versus 4.5 and reported more pregnancy losses. A 2.6 (95% CI: 1.03-6.7 fold increase in the odds of pregnancy loss among exposed women was observed after adjusting for age. Odds of reporting an SAB increased with duration of flower employment, increasing to 3.4 (95% CI: 1.3, 8.8 among women working 4 to 6 years in the flower industry compared to women who did not work in the flower industry. Conclusion This exploratory analysis suggests a potential adverse association between employment in the cut-flower industry and SAB. Study limitations include the absence of a temporal relation between exposure and SAB, no quantification of specific pesticides, and residual confounding such as physical stressors (i.e., standing. Considering that approximately half of the Ecuadorian flower laborers are women, our results emphasize the need for an evaluating the reproductive health effects of employment in the flower industry on reproductive health in this population.

  2. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

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    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  3. Governance of agro-pesticide through private environmental and social standards in the global cut flower chain from Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, B.T.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The international cut flower industry is strongly criticized because of its environmental impacts and unsafe working conditions. Increasing certification of cut flowers is used to improve the growers’ environmental and social performance. But what is the impact of this private governance instrument

  4. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  5. Labour Management on Contemporary Kenyan Cut Flower Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone; Gibbon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the labour management system applied since around 2005 on farms accounting for the bulk of the output of the Kenyan cut flower sector, and provides an analysis of the foundations of this system. Using categories drawn from convention theory, this system is characterized...... in terms of specific approaches to hiring, training and promotion; labour retention; work organization and worker deployment; payment systems and supervision, as well as to collective bargaining. In convention theory terms, the combination of approaches identified in Kenya embodies a mixture of ‘industrial...

  6. Mitigating the Water Footprint of Export Cut Flowers from the Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Becht, R.

    2012-01-01

    Kenya’s cut-flower industry has been praised as an economic success as it contributed an annual average of US$ 141 million foreign exchange (7% of Kenyan export value) over the period 1996–2005 and about US$ 352 million in 2005 alone. The industry also provides employment, income and infrastructure

  7. Governance of agro-pesticide through private environmental and social standards in the global cut flower chain from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Belay T; Mol, Arthur P J; Oosterveer, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The international cut flower industry is strongly criticized because of its environmental impacts and unsafe working conditions. Increasing certification of cut flowers is used to improve the growers' environmental and social performance. But what is the impact of this private governance instrument on regulating the use of pesticides? This paper assesses the potential of private certification on governing the environmental and social problems from pesticide use along the global cut flower supply chain. We use detailed farm-level data to analyse the environmental and social impacts of flower certification in Ethiopia by comparing different national and international certification schemes. Our analysis does not show significant differences between these different private standards for most environmental and health and safety variables. The Ethiopian cut flower industry remains far from improving its sustainability performance through private certification. However, certification schemes may enable farmers to have access to international markets and keep up their reputation.

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis...

  9. Respiration rate of gamma irradiation carnation cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Wiendl, Frederico Maximiliano; Todoriki, Setsuko; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Haysahi, Toru

    1996-01-01

    The present paper presents the CO 2 production of the carnation cut flowers gamma-irradiated with a single dose of 750 Gy. The cut flowers were soaked in preservative solutions, containing germicides or germicides plus 2% sucrose. The irradiation did not change the CO 2 production and did not cause any visible flower damage. The sucrose exogenous supply extended the vase-life of both irradiated and non-irradiated carnations. These results indicated that Nora carnation cut flower can be irradiated with 750 Gy without commercial viability loss and that it is possible to use the radiation to disinfect this fresh product. (author)

  10. Effects of electron beam irradiation on cut flowers and mites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KOCH were irradiated with electron beams (2.5MeV) to develop an alternative quarantine treatment for imported cut flowers. The tolerance of eggs increased with age (1-5-day-old). Immature stages (larva-teleiochrysalis) irradiated at 0.4-0.8kGy increased tolerance with their development. Mated mature females irradiated at 0.4kGy or higher did not produce viable eggs, although temporary recovery was observed at 0.2kGy. Adult males were sterilized at 0.4kGy because non-irradiated virgin females mated with yielded female progeny malformed and sterilized. Various effects of electron beam irradiation were observed when nine species of cut flowers were irradiated in 5MeV Dynamitron accelerator. Chrysanthemum and rose were most sensitive among cut flowers. (author)

  11. Abusive supervision - a form of workplace harassment: an exploratory study in the ecuadorian hospitality industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hoof, Hubert B. Van; Serrano, Ana-Lucia; Torres, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In light of the conspicuous absence of workplace harassment (“acoso laboral”) in the Ecuadorian Constitution and the country’s Labor and Penal Codes, this article reports on an exploratory study about abusive supervision, a form of workplace harassment, in the country’s hospitality industry. Based on a review of the literature on various forms of workplace harassment, the study investigated employee opinions about their supervisors’ behaviors and found that abusive supervision ...

  12. Effects of irradiation on freshkeeping of rose cut-flower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zengcheng; Li Chuntao; Tang Fei; Xu Hongqing; Shi Dan

    2003-01-01

    Effects of irradiation treatment on the freshkeeping of rose cut-flower were studied. The result showed that respiratory rate, Pro, MDA and colour of rose changed after irradiated with 0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy treatments, and the florescence period was prolonged with 200 and 300 Gy treatments

  13. The negotiation of fair trade standards within Ecuadorian flower plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Lyall

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fairtrade International (FLO applies requirements or “standards” for certification in agroindustries in order to channel resources to workers, improve their conditions, and “empower” them, even requiring freedom of association. Researchers have signaled a “dilution” (Jaffee, 2012 of standards in recent years. I take into account the case of the Ecuadorian cut-flower industry to show that FLO’s impacts on power relations ought to be analyzed not in terms of the standards, but rather in terms of the local negotiation of standards within territorial power relations. For this case, I point out that before FLO’s criticisms of conventional market mechanisms, standards generate better conditions, but also facilitate the re-consolidation of labor control.   

  14. Current Situation of Turkey’s Cut Flower Production and Trade, Problems and Offered Solutions

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    Nuran Tapkı

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cut flower production has become an income-generating activity branch. Global cut flower production area was 609.000 ha in 2014 which was 39% of total indoor plants production area. Primary continents in cut flower production are; Asia, Pacific and America, and primary countries are; USA, Japan, Italy, Holland, Ecuador, Colombia and Kenya. Europe has a 63% of share and American Continent has 29% of share in global cut flower export. The biggest cut flower exporters in the world are; Holland (56%, Colombia (17% and Ecuador (11%, and the biggest cut flower importers are; USA (18%, Germany (15% and Holland (14%. Due to geographical location and climate conditions, Turkey has an advantage in cut flower production. In terms of production area size, cut flowers take a 26% of share among the indoor plants area in Turkey. According to Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI data, total cut flower production area in Turkey was 1.195 ha by 2016, and it has a 68% of share in indoor plants production. Mediterranean region comes first that has a 46% of share in cut flower production area in Turkey with 5.095 da. In terms of production area, İzmir has the largest share (41.25%. Turkey’s indoor plants export volume is 81.5 million USD which is 26th in the world. Among product groups, cut flower has a 34% of share in export with 27.7 million USD, and Holland is the country that Turkey exports cut flower most (19.29%. Among the cut flowers, carnation is produced and exported most in Turkey. Cut flower sector is open for improvement, therefore taking actions towards market demands, and product diversification would be beneficial for the sector improvement.

  15. Tolerance of cut flowers to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Wiendl, F.M.; Arthur, V.

    1999-01-01

    Cut flowers were gamma-irradiated with doses of 0, 200, 400, 600, and 1000 Gy. Dianthuscaryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae), Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae), Freesia sp (Iridaceae), Limonium sinuatum Mill. (Plumbaginaceae), L. latifolium Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae), Narcissus tazetta L. (Amaryllidaceae), Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. (Compositae) and Rhodanthe manglesii Lindl (Compositae) were tolerant up to 1000 Gy, without visible negative changes after irradiation and during the vase-life. Callistephus chinensis (Compositae) and Lilium longiflorum Thunb. (Liliaceae) were moderately tolerant, but were modified by high doses. Anthurium sp (Araceae), Strelitzia sp (Musaceae), Matthiola incana R. Br. (Cruciferae), Aechmea distichanta (Bromeliaceae), Consolida ajacis Niew (Ranunculaceae), Ranunculus sp (Ranunculaceae), Dendrobium phalenopsis (Orchidaceae) and Gerbera sp (Compositae) were not tolerant to a dose of 200 Gy. The most adequate flowers to be submitted to irradiation treatment for disinfestation purpose were those of the Caryophillaceae family and those which can be used as dried flowers, such as members of the Rhodanthe, Helichrysum and Limmonium genera. (author)

  16. Large expansion of oil industry in the Ecuadorian Amazon: biodiversity vulnerability and conservation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Fajardo, Javier; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    Ecuador will experience a significant expansion of the oil industry in its Amazonian region, one of the most biodiverse areas of the world. In view of the changes that are about to come, we explore the conflicts between oil extraction interests and biodiversity protection and apply systematic conservation planning to identify priority areas that should be protected in different oil exploitation scenarios. First, we quantified the current extent of oil blocks and protected zones and their overlap with two biodiversity indicators: 25 ecosystems and 745 species (whose distributions were estimated via species distribution models). With the new scheme of oil exploitation, oil blocks cover 68% (68,196 km(2)) of the Ecuadorian Amazon; half of it occupied by new blocks open for bids in the southern Amazon. This region is especially vulnerable to biodiversity losses, because peaks of species diversity, 19 ecosystems, and a third of its protected zones coincide spatially with oil blocks. Under these circumstances, we used Marxan software to identify priority areas for conservation outside oil blocks, but their coverage was insufficient to completely represent biodiversity. Instead, priority areas that include southern oil blocks provide a higher representation of biodiversity indicators. Therefore, preserving the southern Amazon becomes essential to improve the protection of Amazonian biodiversity in Ecuador, and avoiding oil exploitation in these areas (33% of the extent of southern oil blocks) should be considered a conservation alternative. Also, it is highly recommended to improve current oil exploitation technology to reduce environmental impacts in the region, especially within five oil blocks that we identified as most valuable for the conservation of biodiversity. The application of these and other recommendations depends heavily on the Ecuadorian government, which needs to find a better balance between the use of the Amazon resources and biodiversity conservation.

  17. Processes and xylem anatomical properties involved in rehydration dynamics of cut flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Ieperen, van W.; Nijsse, J.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; As, van H.; Keijzer, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    In cut flowers, which are harvested in air and transported dry, all cut xylem vessels in the basal part of the stem contain air instead of water. These air-emboli initially block water transport at the start of vase life, but usually (partly) disappear during the first hours of vase life, resulting

  18. Post harvest controlling of orchid thrips on cut flowers by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansiddhi, K.; Siriphontangmun, S.

    1999-01-01

    Post-harvest controlling of orchid thrips, Thrips palmi Karny on cut flowers by irradiation was conducted during October 1992 to September 1997 at the Thai Irradiation Centre (TIC) and Division of Entomology and Zoology, Department of Agriculture, Thailand. The studies were carried out by conducting experiments on irradiation of cut flowers for controlling thrips with doses ranging from 0.1 to 1 kGy. The vase-life of radiated cut flowers was evaluated. Colonies of thrips were established in the laboratory in order to determine radiation sensitivity of various development stages of thrips and also to assess the occurrence of natural infestations by examining commercial market quality flowers from growers where management practices can be identified. Results from five years of research on post harvest control of thrips on orchids and cut flowers by irradiation showed that despite intensive investigation, difficulty in permanent establishment of a laboratory colony of Thrips palmi Karny for bioassays continued. The snap bean rearing method for rearing large number of thrips has bean developed, although it is less satisfactory than desirable. It has given sufficient numbers for testing in the 6th experiment. The maximum dose tolerated by Dendrobium orchid flowers at ambient temperature (25-30 deg. C) was below 0.5 kGy, but at a pre- and post irradiation temperature 15-18 deg. C, the maximum dose tolerated approached 0.75-0.8 kGy. The effective dose for control Thrips palmi Karny, however, was higher than 0.75 kGy. (author)

  19. Integrating drivers influencing the detection of plant pests carried in the international cut flower trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areal, F J; Touza, J; MacLeod, A; Dehnen-Schmutz, K; Perrings, C; Palmieri, M G; Spence, N J

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyses the cut flower market as an example of an invasion pathway along which species of non-indigenous plant pests can travel to reach new areas. The paper examines the probability of pest detection by assessing information on pest detection and detection effort associated with the import of cut flowers. We test the link between the probability of plant pest arrivals, as a precursor to potential invasion, and volume of traded flowers using count data regression models. The analysis is applied to the UK import of specific genera of cut flowers from Kenya between 1996 and 2004. There is a link between pest detection and the Genus of cut flower imported. Hence, pest detection efforts should focus on identifying and targeting those imported plants with a high risk of carrying pest species. For most of the plants studied, efforts allocated to inspection have a significant influence on the probability of pest detection. However, by better targeting inspection efforts, it is shown that plant inspection effort could be reduced without increasing the risk of pest entry. Similarly, for most of the plants analysed, an increase in volume traded will not necessarily lead to an increase in the number of pests entering the UK. For some species, such as Carthamus and Veronica, the volume of flowers traded has a significant and positive impact on the likelihood of pest detection. We conclude that analysis at the rank of plant Genus is important both to understand the effectiveness of plant pest detection efforts and consequently to manage the risk of introduction of non-indigenous species.

  20. Characteristics of pendent heliconia for use in landscape and as cut flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Loges

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Heliconia species with pendent inflorescences and colorful bracts is a good option for landscaping in tropical gardens and cut flowers market. In Brazil only a few species of Heliconia are commercially produced eg. H. rostrata, H. rauliniana and H. chartacea. Aiming to increase the use of outstanding native plants and the knowledge of these products for enthusiasts of tropical flowers, this work was carried out to characterize H. chartacea, H. collinsiana, H. magnifica, H. pendula, H. platystachys, H. pogonantha, H. rostrata, H. rauliniana and H. vellerigera for use in landscaping and as cut flower. The evaluations were performed on plants belonging to the Germplasm Collection of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC, in Ubatuba Unit of Research and Development, located in Ubatuba, São Paulo State, growing in partial shade conditions. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics related to clump and flower stem aspects were analyzed. A point scoring system was used to determine the species most suitable as landscape plant or as cut flower. The plant height range from 2.3 (H. rostrata to 7.0 m (H. pogonantha, having inflorescence with vibrant and different colors, varying between yellow, orange, red, pink, green and two color combinations. The inflorescences from most of the species were visible in the clump and remain in good conditions for two (H. platystachys to five months (H. magnifica, H. rostrata and H. pogonantha and present six (H. platystachys and H. pendula to 40 (H. pogonantha open bracts. White wax in leaves or inflorescences were observed in H. collinsiana, H. chartacea, H. pendula and H. platystachys. On the other hand, H. magnifica, H. rostrata, H. pogonantha and H. vellerigera exhibit a hairy surface, pubescent to lanuginose. The postharvest durability longer than 10 days was observed only in H. platystachys, H. rostrata, H. chartacea, and H. rauliniana. This characterization and scoring system were important to indicate and

  1. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium

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    Khaoula Toumi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists’ exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC and liquid chormatograhphy (LC analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc. and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg measured in the rose samples. It appears from the

  2. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Cut flowers disinfestation by ionizing radiation, 3: preservative solution treatment of roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Mastro, N.L. del; Wiendl, F.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results from laboratorial gamma irradiation processing of some mini-rose varieties, normally traded in Brazil. Rosebuds were irradiated in a Gammacell 220 with a single dose of 900 Gy. As the irradiation can accelerate flowers and leaves senescence and inhibit buds opening, conventional preservative solutions of aluminum or hydroxyquinoline sulfate were administered to the cut flowers. The irradiated buds did not open and the preservative solutions failed to promote opening, although the stems were soaked before and after irradiation. The preservative treated flowers maintained the vigor for a period longer than that for the controls and the irradiated ones. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  4. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment alternative for cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    1999-01-01

    Methyl bromide is a broad spectrum pesticide to control insects, nematodes, weeds, pathogens and rodents It is effective to commodity treatment designed for exportation/importation, but is also toxic for human being. Besides, it is an ozone layer depleting substance and many countries are interested in finding other less damaging alternatives. The methyl bromide shall be banned until 2015 and one promising alternative is the radiation. It can be effective for some vegetables, like fresh cut flowers. The tolerance to gamma radiation was observed in some cut flowers. Dianthus (Caryophyllaceae), Gypsophyla (Caryophyllaceae), Gomphrena (Amarantaceae), Celosia (Amarantaceae) and Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae) were tolerant to 750 Gy. Heliconia and Strelitzia (Musaceae) were not tolerant, presenting a severe browning of the colored sepals. Anthurium (Araceae) was also sensitive to 750 Gy, presenting browning of the spike, discoloration and black spots on the sepals. The radiation inhibited the bud opening of Hemerocallis (Liliaceae) and Gladiolus (Iridaceae). Gerbera (Compositae) and Callistemon (Myrtaceae) wilted before the control flowers. Helianthus (Compositae) leaves wilted before the flowers because of the radiation. (author)

  5. Genetic divergence of Etlingera elatior based on agro-morphological features for cut flowers

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    Charleston Gonçalves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide acceptability Torch Ginger (Etlingera elatior by the consumer market and its cultivation are still restrict­ed due to the high mass of inflorescences (over 1 kg, which complicates the process of harvesting, handling, packaging and transportation. The objective of this work was to characterize agromorphological and estimate the genetic divergence among Etlingera elatior ( Jack R.M. Sm. with standard cut flower. A stand of 75 genotypes resulting from crosses between genotypes at random from the collection of germplasm with variability inflorescences of commercial interest, they keep on growing in the Research and Development of Ubatuba. Seventeen descriptors were evaluated on the leaf, inflorescence and infrutescence. The inflorescence mass, length and diameter of the flowering stem, height and flower diameter were selected as the most important descriptors for selecting accessions with standard marketing as cut flower. We selected 12 promising accessions, with characteristics appropriate to the market and with good combination of shapes and coloring bracts.

  6. Possibility in application of electron beam irradiation to plant quarantine of cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    For the purpose of developing new quarantine procedure alternative to fumigation, electron beam irradiation was examined in the disinfestation of arthroped pests that infest cut flowers. Immature and adult two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, which is a typical pest in horticulture due to high fertility, parthenogenesis and chemical resistance, were irradiated at a Van de graaf electron accelerator (2.5 MeV) at 0.2 - 1.4 kGy. They decreased radiosensitivity with aging. Female was much more tolerant than male throughout their life. Irradiation controlled the fertility of both sexes, and also feeding and behavioral activities. Cut flowers irradiated with the Dynamitron accelerator (5 MeV) showed various responses according to species, cultivars and tissues of plants. Carnations, tulips and gladioluses were tolerant in disinfesting or sterilizing, but some cultivars of chrysanthemum and rose showed the symptom of injury, in which flowering was delayed at low dose, and the failure of flowering and the chlorosis of leaves occurred at high dose. Floral organs were much more sensitive to radiation than others. Sensitive plants also showed the reduced production of ethylene. (K.I.)

  7. Gamma irradiation a potential quarantine treatment against mites on cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidah Sulaiman; Mohd Shamsudin Osman; Zainon Othman; Mohd Ridzuan Ismail

    2002-01-01

    Cut flower, an important export commodity of Malaysia in international trade, is often subjected to infestation by various pests such as mites, scales and thrips. The use of low ionizing radiation has been suggested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, the current pest disinfestations treatment for cut flower but which is being phased out due to environmental concerns. The criterion for efficacy of radiation as a quarantine treatment will be inability of treated mites to reproduce at a new location rather than causing immediate mortality. A dose of 200 Gy prevented reproduction in female adult of Tetranychus piercie by inducing sterility while a much higher dose of 5 kGy is required to produce instant mortality. Based on the results obtained gamma irradiation of dose range 300-500 Gy may be applied as a quarantine treatment for Tetranycus piercie. However, this dose range is only suitable for chrysanthemum (in 4% sucrose solution) but not roses, carnations and orchids which showed phytotoxic symptoms at dose range of 100-400 Gy. (Author)

  8. Clonal evaluation of new ornamental pineapple hybrids to use as cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Silva Costa Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Embrapa Cassava and Fruits has developed ornamental pineapple hybrids for several categories of ornamental use including cut flowers, potted plants and landscaping. The objective of this study was to carry out a clonal evaluation of two ornamental hybrids using quantitative and qualitative morphological descriptors to recommend these hybrids as new ornamental pineapple cultivars. Twenty plants of each hybrid (PL01 and PL04 were evaluated regarding the response to floral induction as well as the stability and homogeneity of the clones in two production cycles. The descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed to determine the genetic distance based on the Gower algorithm. Four groups were formed, two using parental data and the other two containing the different hybrids that were evaluated in the two growing cycles. In the floral evaluation, the time from field planting to harvest of the stem as a cut flower was determined to be as long as 17 months in the first cycle and 13.5 months in the second cycle for both hybrids. They were characterized as a novelty in the flower market; they showed genetic stability and homogeneity and can be recommended as new cultivars of ornamental pineapple because they exhibit satisfactory quality and meet the market requirements.

  9. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against mite (Tetranychidae) on cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainon Othman; Mohd Ridzuan Ismail; Hamidah Sulaiman; Mohd Shamsudin Osman

    2000-01-01

    Cut flower, an important export commodity of Malaysia in international trade, is often subjected to infestation by various pests such as mites, scales and thrips. The use of low ionising radiation has been suggested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, the current pest disinfestation treatment for cut flower but which is being phased out due to environmental concerns. The criterion for efficacy of radiation as a quarantine treatment will be the inability of treated mites to reproduce at a new location rather than causing immediate mortality. Irradiating red spider mite Tetranychus piercie at a dose of 300 and 400 Gy produced sterile female adults from irradiated protonymph and deutonymph respectively. A lower dose of 200 Gy induced sterility in female adults developed from the less immature stages of irradiated egg and larva. Deteriorating effects caused by irradiation treatment were reflected in immatures by their reduced emergence rate/mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A dose of 240 Gy prevented reproduction in female adult of T piercie by inducing sterility while a much higher dose of 5 kGy is required to produce instant mortality. Based on the results obtained gamma irradiation of dose range 300-400 Gy may be applied as a quarantine treatment against Tetranychus piercie. However, this dose range is only suitable for chrysanthemum (in 4% sucrose solution) but not roses, carnations and orchids which showed phytotoxic symptoms at dose range of 100-300 Gy

  10. Effects of Nanosilver Treatments on Vase Life of Cut Flowers of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. 'White Liberty’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zarei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus is one of the most cultivated flowers around the world for producing of cut flowers. This paper assessed the efficacy of nanosilver (NS as an antibactericidal agent in extending the vase-life of cut flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.. Vase solutions were consisting of NS concentrations in 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm included sucrose 6 percent added in all treatments. Results showed that all NS treatments were combined with sugar extended the vase life of carnation flowers significantly compared with control. Observations indicated that NS treatments inhibited the growth of microorganisms in vase solution and considerably extend the vase-life of cut flowers of carnation.

  11. Use of 1-methylcyclopropene for the control of Botrytis cinerea on cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Seglie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cut flowers are marketed for their ornamental characteristics making post-harvest flower life an important determinant of crop value. Botrytis cinerea is one of the most significant post-harvest fungal pathogens causing losses in ornamental plants. Disease caused by this fungus seems to be enhanced by the presence of a ethylene hormone, that both the plant and the fungus are known to synthesize. The aim of the experiment was to determine if 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, an ethylene antagonist, could be used to reduce B. cinerea damage to cut flowers. Six cultivars of four ornamental species: Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’, Rosa × hybrida ‘White Dew’ and ‘Ritz’, Ranunculus asiaticus ‘Saigon’ and ‘Green’, and Cyclamen persicum line ‘Halios Bianco Puro Compatto’ were given three concentrations of 1-MCP (0.38 μl L-1, 1.14 μL L-1, and 3.62 μL L-1 for 24 hours. Subsequently, 10 petals per cultivar were treated with a B. cinerea conidial suspension (5×103 conidia cm-2 and stored in air-tight vases. To evaluate B. cinerea development an arbitrary damage scale (1–7 was used. A high concentration of 1-MCP significantly reduced B. cinerea damage on D. caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’ and C. persicum ‘Halios White Pure Compact’ petals. In carnation, 1-MCP treatment slowed B. cinerea infection; its threshold level was reached three days after that of the control. In cyclamen, treated petals and control petals remained aesthetically good until day 53 and day 28 respectively. At low concentrations, 1-MCP slowed grey mould on R. × hybrida ‘Ritz’ for up to three days beyond the control. On the two buttercup cultivars ‘Green’ and ‘Saigon’, 1-MCP treatments were not effective. In conclusion, 1-MCP limited pathogen development; its effect depended on the species and the 1-MCP concentration. Further investigations will be performed to improve methods to reduce B. cinerea development on the petals of cut

  12. Effectiveness of electron irradiation as a quarantine treatment of cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Nakakita, H.; Dohino, T.; Tanabe, K.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of electron beams on spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) and flour beetle (Tribolium freemani) were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. 'Soft-electrons' (low-energy electrons) at an energy of 170 keV inactivated eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of the flour beetle. Electron beams at doses up to 400 Gy killed or sterilized all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura), and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia, and gerbera were resistant to radiation, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea, and iris were sensitive. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. (author)

  13. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment of cut flowers, ginger and turmeric against mites, thrips and nematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiya, A.D.; Majumder, M.Z.R.; Hahar, G.; Shahjahan, R.M.; Khan, M.

    1999-01-01

    Effect of radiation on different developmental stages of mites, thrips, and nematodes were observed to determine their sterility doses and to develop a method for detection of irradiated and unirradiated specimens. A brief survey on cut-flower and tuber associated pests, and their biological study along with the tolerance level of host products were conducted. Mites Oligonychus biharensis (Hirst) and Tetranychus sp., as well as four species of thrips viz. Retithrips syriacus (Mayet), Haplothrips gowdeyi Franklin, Frankliniella intonsa Tribom, and Microcephalothrips abdominalis Crowford were recognized as common pests damaging plants and cut-flowers. Common species of nematodes infesting ginger and turmeric were Meloidogyne spp. and Ditylenchus spp. Results indicated that a dose 0.2 kGy and above caused complete sterility of male and female mites and insects. Various pre-adult developmental stages required less irradiation dose (0.05-0.1 kGy) for sterilization. Variation of melanization in treated and untreated life stages of mites and thrips could not be observed even at 0.2 kGy with the 2-methyl DOPA spot test. Inhibition of melanization in irradiated pupal stages of thrips were observed at doses above 0.4 kGy. Both irradiated and unirradiated thrips were identical in their protein banding pattern. Virtually no protein bands were observed in irradiated and unirradiated nematodes when samples were run on 5% PAGE in TBE. Tube rose and marigold treated with higher dose (0.3 to 0.5 kGy) caused no remarkable morphological degradation for 7-8 days after irradiation. Nematodes were resistant to radiation. Complete elimination and abnormalities of J 2 stages of Meloidogyne spp. and Ditylenchus spp. were not observed even at 4.0 kGy although significant weight loss and spoilage of tubers were recorded after 14 days of radiation exposure. (author)

  14. Effects of some preservative solutions on vase life and keeping quality of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L. cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Wasea A. Asrar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected chemical agents used as preservative solutions to improve the keeping quality of cut snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L. cv. Yellow Butterfly flowers had been studied. These preservative solutions (treatments were: 2% sucrose, 200 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS, pulsing treatment with 200 ppm 8-HQS in combination with 2% sucrose for 12 h, pulsing the spikes with 0.2 mM silver thiosulfate (STS for 1 h, pulsing with 0.2 mM STS for 1 h followed by 2% sucrose solution, or distilled water used as control. The results showed that all treatments had improved the keeping quality and vase life of the cut flowers comparing to control ones. Among all these treatments, the 8-HQS plus 2% sucrose treatment showed best water uptake, water balance, percentage of maximum increase in fresh weight of the cut flower stem and vase life which was extended up to 18 days. Moreover, this keeping solution treatment retarded the degradation of chlorophyll as well as carbohydrate of the cut flowers during their postharvest life. It has been concluded that 200 ppm 8-HQS combined with 2% sucrose solution has the potential to be used as a commercial cut flower preservative solution to delay flower senescence, enhance post-harvest quality and prolong the vase life of cut snapdragon flowers.

  15. Consumer choice of cut flowers and pot plants : a study based on consumer panel data of households in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, van A.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to relate aspects of consumer behaviour on cut flowers and pot plants to marketing variables and characteristics of households, to determine whether market segments could be found, and to determine the applicability of methods and models developed to the

  16. Governance restructuring in the cut flower trade in France and its impacts on the producers in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroza Filho, Manoel Xavier

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to examine how retailers play a powerful role in shaping the governance in cut flower trade in France. Global Value Chain analysis has been used to explain why a distribution system originally based on spot markets has been replaced by tightly integrated supply chains. It allowed an exploration of the consequences of these changes on the structure of the value chain and the inclusion and exclusion of different agents in the chain. Fieldwork were carried out betwe...

  17. Influence of vernalization and bulb size on the production of lily cut flowers and lily bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Brito de Almeida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of bulbs to cold, a physiological phenomenon called vernalization, and bulb size are important factors in the production of lily bulbs and flowers. This study aimed to verify the influence of vernalization of bulbs on flowering cut lily plants, as well as the impact of size and shape of harvest on the production and quality of flowers and bulbs. In turn, the way the stems of the plants used for cut-flower production are cropped is of higher importance for the production of new flower bulbs. In this sense, the experiment was conducted in Viçosa, MG, in a greenhouse in a randomized block design, in split splot scheme with three replications, in which the vernalization periods (25, 35 and 45 days at 4 ± 1 C constituted the plots; bulb sizes (diameters of 3.2-3.8 cm; 2.5-3.2 cm 1.9- and 2.5 cm, subplots and ways to harvest (full harvest of the stem at the required length for the commercial harvest of the flower, commercial stem harvest at the commercial length, maintaining 10cm of stem in the soil; removal of the floral buds as soon as their appearance is observed and harvest at the end of the season, the sub subplots. The bulbs were planted in beds, with 15 x 20 cm spacing. It was evaluated the number of plants that flowered and the number of flowers, the length and the diameter of the floral buds, fresh and dry weights, diameter and plant height as well as number, perimeter and amount of fresh and dry bulbs. There was a decrease in the plant height with the increase of the vernalization period and a reduction of the diameter of the planted bulbs, as well as of the number and the fresh and dry weights of the produced buds. The production of flowers and buds in number, size and weight was directly proportional to the size of the planted bulbs, while the form of harvest with removal of flower buds increased the number, the perimeter and the fresh and dry weights of the buds. Bulbs with diameter between 3.2 - 3.8 cm, stored for 25 days in

  18. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the production of cut flower roses under commercial-like conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmendia, I.; Mangas, V. J.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to study the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe, and G. intraradices (Schenck and Smith) on cut flower yield of rose (Rosa hybrida L. cv. Grand Gala) under commercial-like greenhouse conditions. Flower production was positively influenced by G. mosseae inoculation. Both inocula tested caused low levels of mycorrhizal root colonization, with higher percentages in Rosa associated with G. mosseae. Significant improvement of plant biomass, leaf nutritional status or flower quality was not detected in inoculated plants probably due to the low symbiosis establishment. However, G. mosseae reduced by one month the time needed for 80% of the plants to flower and slightly increased number of cut flowers relative to non-mycorrhizal controls on the fourth, sixth and eighth months after transplanting. It is suggested that an altered carbohydrate metabolism could contribute to this positive effect. Low colonization of rose roots supports the idea that more effort is required to ensure successful application of AMF in ornamental production systems. (Author) 40 refs.

  19. A Pilot Study Comparing Observational and Questionnaire Surrogate Measures of Pesticide Exposure Among Residents Impacted by the Ecuadorian Flower Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Alexis J; McGough-Maduena, Alison; Páez, Maritza; Skipper, Betty; Rowland, Andrew S; Fenske, Richard A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported measures of residential pesticide exposure are commonly used in epidemiological studies, especially when financial and logistical resources are limited. However, self-reporting is prone to misclassification bias. This pilot study assesses the agreement between self-report of residential pesticide exposure with direct observation measures, in an agricultural region of Ecuador, as a cross-validation method in 26 participants (16 rose workers and 10 controls), with percent agreement and kappa statistics calculated. Proximity of homes to nearby flower farms was found to have only fair agreement (kappa =.35). The use of discarded plastics (kappa =.06) and wood (kappa =.13) were found to have little agreement. Results indicate that direct observation or measurement may provide more accurate appraisals of residential exposures, such as proximity to industrial farmland and the use of discarded materials obtained from the flower farms.

  20. Effect of Various Management Methods of Apical Flower Bud on Cut Flower Quality in Three Cultivars of Greenhouse Roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mansour matloobi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In greenhouse roses, canopy management has been highly noted and emphasized during the past decades. It was recognized that improving canopy shape by implementing some techniques such as stem bending and flower bud removing can highly affect the marketable quality of cut roses. For most growers, the best method of flower bud treatment has not yet been described and determined physiologically. This experiment was designed to answer some questions related to this problem. Materials and Methods: A plastic commercial cut rose greenhouse was selected to carry out the trial. Three greenhouse rose cultivars, namely Eros, Cherry Brandy and Dancing Queen, were selected as the first factor, and three methods of flower bud treatment along with bending types were chosen as the second factor. Cuttings were taken from mother plants and rooted under mist conditions. The first shoot emerging from the cutting was treated at pea bud stage by one of the following methods: shoot bending at stem base with intact bud, immediate shoot bending at stem base after removing flower bud and shoot bending at stem base two weeks after flower bud removal. Some marketable stem properties including stem length, diameter and weight, and characteristics related to bud growth potential were measured, and then the data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that cultivars differ in their marketable features. Cherry Brandy produced longer cut flowers with higher stem diameter compared to the two other cultivars. This cultivar was also good in stem weight trait; however its difference from Eros was not significant. Dancing Queen did not perform well in producing high quality stems on the whole. Regarding number of days until bud release and growth, Cherry Brandy’s buds spent fewest days until growing. In many studies, the effect of cultivar on rose shoot growth quality has been documented and explained. For instance

  1. Effect of Various Management Methods of Apical Flower Bud on Cut Flower Quality in Three Cultivars of Greenhouse Roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mansour matloobi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In greenhouse roses, canopy management has been highly noted and emphasized during the past decades. It was recognized that improving canopy shape by implementing some techniques such as stem bending and flower bud removing can highly affect the marketable quality of cut roses. For most growers, the best method of flower bud treatment has not yet been described and determined physiologically. This experiment was designed to answer some questions related to this problem. Materials and Methods: A plastic commercial cut rose greenhouse was selected to carry out the trial. Three greenhouse rose cultivars, namely Eros, Cherry Brandy and Dancing Queen, were selected as the first factor, and three methods of flower bud treatment along with bending types were chosen as the second factor. Cuttings were taken from mother plants and rooted under mist conditions. The first shoot emerging from the cutting was treated at pea bud stage by one of the following methods: shoot bending at stem base with intact bud, immediate shoot bending at stem base after removing flower bud and shoot bending at stem base two weeks after flower bud removal. Some marketable stem properties including stem length, diameter and weight, and characteristics related to bud growth potential were measured, and then the data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that cultivars differ in their marketable features. Cherry Brandy produced longer cut flowers with higher stem diameter compared to the two other cultivars. This cultivar was also good in stem weight trait; however its difference from Eros was not significant. Dancing Queen did not perform well in producing high quality stems on the whole. Regarding number of days until bud release and growth, Cherry Brandy’s buds spent fewest days until growing. In many studies, the effect of cultivar on rose shoot growth quality has been documented and explained. For instance

  2. The third margin of film. Ecuadorian cinema and parallel circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Ramos Monteiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the filmic production carried out independently by Ecuadorians self-taught filmmakers. By the turn of the 1990s to the 2000s, using home equipment and the market of pirated DVDs, they began making films that have been successfully received by the public. Working with films such as those by Fernando Cedeño, Nixon Chalacama and Nelson Palacios, shot in general in Ecuadorian "bajas tierras", far from the capital, Quito, and at first unrelated to official devices funding and display, requires first of all a deconstruction of customary antagonisms, as those who oppose "amateurism" and "professionalism", "craft" and "industrial", "center" and "periphery".

  3. Ecuadorian antarctic act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    To develop research in this continent involves to take communion with earth where the cold pole of the planet is located, the stormiest sea of the world surround it and where the capricious continental and geographical distribution permits the pass of meteorological violent and continuous systems. The Ecuador, in execution of the acquired commitments like Full Member of the System of the Antarctic Treaty, carried out the VII Expedition to the White Continent with an extensive program of scientific investigation in the field of: Sciences of Life, Sciences of the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, so much in the environment of the Pacific Southeast, the Drake Pass, Bransfield Strait and the nearby ecosystems antarctic to Point Fort William in the Greenwich Island, site where the Ecuadorian station Pedro Vicente Maldonado is located. The scientific articles, result of the fruitful work of national investigator is consigned in this fourth edition. This publication constitutes our contribution to the world in the knowledge, understanding and handling of the marvelous White Continent from the middle of our planet, Ecuador

  4. Effect of Mentha pulegium extract and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate to extend the quality and vase life of rose (Rosa hybrid) cut flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood; Torkashvand, Ali Mohammadi; Kaviani, Behzad; Bagherzadeh, Maryam; Rezaalipour, Mohaddeseh; Zarchini, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Rose is an ornamental plant which contains one of the world's top cut flowers. Vase life of cut rose flower is short. Extracts of Mentha pulegium and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate (8-HQS) were used as two preservative solutions, aiming to extend the vase life of cut rose (Rosa hybrid L.) flowers. Rose flowers were treated with a vase solution containing the extract of M. pulegium, at concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 30%, in combination with 8-HQS at concentrations of 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg l(-1). Longevity of cut roses flowers was determined on the basis of wilting and chlorophyll retention. Cut roses flowers were kept at room temperature (20 ± 2 degrees C) under normal day light and natural ventilation. The vase life of cut flowers studied was prolonged by all 8-HQS and extract treatments. The best concentration of 8-HQS and extractwere 400 mg l(-1) and 10%, respectively. Our results indicated that the flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had longer vase life, higher rate of solution uptake and lower SPAD value (total chlorophyll) compared to the control. Also, cut flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had least bacterial colonies. The greatest longevity of vase life by 11.20 and 10.25 days was related to 400 mg I(-1) 8-HQS and 10% of extract, respectively. These treatments improved cut vase life more than the control treatment. The maximum solution uptake (1.85 ml g(-1) f.wt.) and minimum SPAD value (2.19) were calculated in 30% extract along with 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, and 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, respectively. The lowest number of bacterial colonies (55.75) was obtained in treatment of 600 mg l(-1) 8-HQS. Flower quality of specimens treated with extract and 8-HQS was better than those of the control. The experiments were repeated three times with three replicates and a completely randomized design had been used. The present study concludes that it would be possible to use preservative solutions containing extract of M. pulegium L. and 8-HQS to extend vase

  5. Effects of cut flower shape and content of sugars in flower organs on the longevity of vase life in standard type carnation [Dianthus] and relationships between the longevity and temperature and solar radiation during the growing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Ozawa, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Igarashi, D.; Inoue, T.; Uematsu, H.; Imai, K.; Matsuyama, A.; Soga, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2002-01-01

    We obtained carnation cut flowers 'Fransisco' from a greenhouse on the first Monday every month in February to June, and investigated the relationship between vase life and content of sugars in the cut flowers. Correlations between the longevity of vase life and temperatures in the greenhouse and amount of solar radiation during the growing period were also investigated. 1. Fresh weight and stem diameter of the cut flowers were highest in February and March, and decreased from April to June. Mean vase life was shortest in March (4.5 days) and longest in May (5.9 days). 2. Fructose and glucose contents in petals were highest in May (10.0 mg and 6.5 mg ¥ 100 mg -1 DW) and lowest in March (6.0 mg and 4.8 mg ¥ 100 mg -1 DW). 3. The vase life of carnation was highly correlated with day-time or night-time mean temperatures in 20 days to harvest, and it was estimated that the optimum growing temperature for long vase life of the cut flower was around 22°C in day-time and 14°C in night-time. (author)

  6. Effect of Ethanol and Essential Oils on Extending Vase-life of Carnation Cut Flower (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. �Yellow Candy�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BAYAT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol and essential oils of three medicinal plants namely Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Ajwain (Carum copticum L. on extending carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus vase-life. For this purpose three individual trials were conducted using a completely randomized block design with three replications. In the first trial, the effect of 4% ethanol (v/v as a continuous or pulse treatment was determined. The results showed that although both application methods increased vase-life and marketability of carnation, it was statistically non significant. In the second trial, the effects of selected essential oils at the concentration of 100, 150 and 200 ppm were investigated. All essential oils prolonged carnation vase-life. Summer savory essential oil (100 ppm showed the highest effect (increasing 4.4 days in comparison to the control. In the third trial, the interaction between ethanol and the essential oils was studied. Results showed there is no significant difference between application of essential oils alone and in combination with ethanol. The highest fresh weight was observed in cut flowers treated with Summer savory essential oil at 100 ppm after 6 days which was double compared to the control. According to the results of this research it is concluded that essential oils, (natural, safe and biodegradable compounds as novel alternative materials are suitable for prolongation of carnation vase-life.

  7. Radiation levels in Ecuadorian Cattle Milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoso, Teresa; Vasquez, Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiation and natural radioactivity present in the ground from a radioactive decay of 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, and of the radioisotope 40 K can be transferred to the nutritional chain of the human being. Milk is a food considered basic within population's diet. The Ecuadorian Highlands has the greater production of cattle milk in the country, this industry needs great extensions of graze and available superficial water, which the cows consumed for crude milk production, with the consequent product industrialization. In the present research, gamma radiation levels where monitoring in 12 crude milk representative samples of the zone. The measurements where carried out using an equipment of spectrometry gamma ray system, with a detector of Hiperpuro Germanium (GeHp), which has been used in the analysis of standard and samples spectrums, with a constant geometry of the sample holder. The spectrums of the milk analysis show the presence of the radioisotopes coming from uranium radioactive decay. The majority of the values of activity concentration are below the minimum detection activity, unlike the potassium that presents a detectable but a non quantitative spectrum. So far, with the results obtained it is possible to guarantee the milk consumption and its derivatives in the Andean Region of the country. Related research will allow us implementing the radiological monitoring of this and other foods in the country, in order to protected population health. (author)

  8. Nuclear energy and Ecuadorian agriculture development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molineros Andrade, J.

    1979-09-01

    The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission has elaborated a plan for development of nuclear energy, the construction of a 1-3 MW Nuclear Reactor for Research and production of radioisotopes and of the related laboratories. Agriculture is a very important part of this plan, in the following areas: genetics, irrigation, plant and animal nutrition and metabolisms, and pest and disease control. Ecuadorian agriculture institutions have also been considered in this plan. (Author)

  9. Application of gamma irradiation on eggs, active and quiescence stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch as a quarantine treatment of cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osouli, Sh.; Ziaie, F.; Haddad Irani Nejad, K.; Moghaddam, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) is amongst the most serious pests of cut flowers and ornamentals. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on different biological stages (including quiescent stages) of this pest have been studied. Irradiation at the doses of 250, 250, 200, 250, 200, 350 and 300 Gy causes sterility of females who were able to reach to adult stage from eggs, larva, protochrysalis, protonymph, deutochrysalis, deutonymph and teliochrysalis stages, respectively. The irradiation caused a decrease in percentage of mites entering the adult stage, developed the adult mite‘s longevity, number of laid eggs per adult female emerged from irradiated immature stages, and finally a retardation of embryonic and post-embryonic development. The sex ratio of the adult mites resulted from irradiated immature stages was biased towards females through increase of dose. The adult mites developed from irradiated two-day old eggs, three-day old eggs, larva, protochrysalis and deutochrysalis at 100, 350, 300, 350 and 350 Gy, respectively, were 100% females. In general the females resulted from irradiated quiescent stages have shown a high sensitivity to characteristics like eggs hatchability percentage and the emerged adult's sex ratio. On the other hand with regard to percentage of immature mites developed to adult stages, longevity of adult males and females, number of eggs laid by females and the time needed to complete their development, teliochrysalis has been the most tolerant stage. Also a 300 Gy dose could cause sterility in females irradiated at deutonymph stage and mated with adult males irradiated before mating and prevent their eggs to be hatched. In conclusion the most tolerance stages of this mite for most of characteristics was generally the most developed ones and a dose of around 300 Gy could be a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for Tetranychus urticae Koch. - Highlights: • The effects of γ-radiation on embryonic stages of

  10. Differential effects of NAA and 2,4-D in reducing floret abscission in cestrum (Cestrum elegans) cut flowers are associated with their differential activation of Aux/IAA homologous genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebie, Bekele; Lers, Amnon; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Goren, Raphael; Riov, Joseph; Meir, Shimon

    2008-01-01

    A previous study showed that the relative effectiveness of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) compared with that of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in reducing floret bud abscission in cestrum (Cestrum elegans) cut flowers was due to its acropetal transport. The aim of the present study was to examine if the differential effect of these auxins on floret abscission is reflected in the expression of Aux/IAA genes in the floret abscission zone (AZ). cDNAs were isolated by PCR-based cloning from the floret AZ of auxin-treated cut flowers. The expression patterns of the cDNAs in various tissues and the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), applied with or without cycloheximide, on their expression in the floret AZ were examined by northern blot analysis. The regulation of transcript accumulation in the floret AZ in response to NAA or 2,4-D was measured by real-time PCR during auxin pulsing of cut flowers and vase life, concomitantly with floret abscission. Six isolated cDNAs were identified to represent Aux/IAA homologous genes, designated as Cestrum elegans (Ce)-IAA1 to Ce-IAA6. Four Ce-IAA genes were characterized as early auxin-responsive genes (ARGs), and two (Ce-IAA1 and Ce-IAA5) as late ARGs. Only Ce-IAA5 was AZ-specific in floret buds. A temporal regulation of Ce-IAA transcript levels in the floret AZ was found, with 2,4-D inducing higher expression levels than NAA in floret buds. These Ce-IAA expression levels were negatively correlated with floret abscission. The differential transport characteristics of NAA and 2,4-D in cestrum cut flowers were reflected in differential activation of the Ce-IAA genes identified in the floret AZ. Therefore, Aux/IAA genes can be used as molecular markers to measure auxin activity, which reflects free auxin level in the AZ. Two of the identified genes, Ce-IAA1 and Ce-IAA5, may also have a regulatory role in abscission.

  11. Estate as risk developer: the Ecuadorian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Cajas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article pursues to analyze the different levels of responsibility of the various social actors and especially the Ecuadorian Estate, as one of them, in the process of generating vulnerabilities in Ecuador. Additionally, and derived from this analysis this article proposes some fundamental elements for the implementation of an appropriate risk management from the Ecuadorian Estate. As far as we know these elements are: citizen participation, government ́s role as a public founds administrator, actual legal regulations, transversal impact of a disaster and due to it, the necessity to implement risk management considerations as transversal variables; the structure of the Estate from an institutional approach and information as a key social driver.

  12. Giving birth: the voices of Ecuadorian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Corbett, Cheryl; Reed, Shelly; Tomao, Cassidy; Thornton, Katie G

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to describe the perceptions of Ecuadorian childbearing women No studies published in English could be found documenting the perspectives of Ecuadorian childbearing women about their birth experiences. Thirty-two women who had recently given birth in Guayaquil, Ecuador participated in audiotaped interviews, which were analyzed as appropriate for ethnographic inquiry. "Enduring birth to obtain the gift" was the overarching theme. Supporting themes included caring for self and accessing prenatal care to have a healthy newborn; relying on God to ensure positive maternal/newborn outcomes; submission of self to healthcare providers because of fear, pain, and lack of education; and valuing motherhood. The focus was on the well-being of the child rather than the quality of the birth experience. With a growing population of women of childbearing age immigrating into the United States from Central and South America, the need for culturally competent care is increasing. Sensitivity to the cultural beliefs and practices of Hispanic and other culturally diverse childbearing women is critical. Women's reliance on God to ensure positive outcomes should be respected. The provision of education and supportive care will help ensure positive outcomes in culturally diverse women.

  13. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena K. Mittermeier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-targeted 1H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis.

  14. 15 Years Of Ecuadorian-French Research Along The Ecuadorian Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvis, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Ecuadorian segment of the Nazca/South America subduction zone is an outstanding laboratory to study the seismic cycle. Central Ecuador where the Carnegie ridge enters the subduction marks a transition between a highly coupled segment that hosted one of the largest seismic sequence during the 20thcentury and a ~1200-km long weakly coupled segment encompassing southern Ecuador and northern Peru. A shallow dipping subduction interface and a short trench-coast line distance ranging from 45 to 80 km, together with La Plata Island located only 33 km from the trench axis, allow to document subduction processes in the near field with an exceptional resolution. Since 2000, a close cooperation between the Institute of Geophysics (Quito), INOCAR (Oceanographic Institute of the Ecuadorian Navy) with French groups allowed us to conduct up to 6 marine geophysics cruises to survey the convergent margin and jointly develop dense GPS and seismological networks. This fruitful collaboration now takes place in the framework of an International Joint Laboratory "Earthquakes and Volcanoes in the Northern Andes" (LMI SVAN), which eases coordinating research projects and exchanges of Ecuadorian and French scientists and students. This long-term investigation has already provided a unique view on the structure of the margin, which exhibits a highly variable subduction channel along strike. It allowed us to evidence the contrast between creeping and coupled segments of subduction at various scale, and the existence of large continental slivers whose motion accommodates the obliquity of the Nazca/South America convergence. Finally, we could evidence the first Slow Slip Events (SSE) that oppositely to most SSE documented so far, are accompanied with intense micro-seismicity. The recent support of the French National Research Agency and the Ecuadorian Agency for Sciences and Technology (Senescyt) will enable us to integrate the already obtained results, in an attempt to develop an

  15. Natural occurring radioactivity materials (NORM) in Ecuadorian oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, R.; Enriquez, F.; Reinoso, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Many natural elements contain radioactive isotopes, and most of them are present in the soil. In the gas and oil industries the most important radio nuclides are Ra-226 from the decay series of U-238, and in lower grade Ra-228 from the decay series of Th-232. Water exit from the perforation and perforation mud in the Oil towers drowns the NORM materials. Changes in temperature and pressure, allows the presence of sulphates and carbonates in pipes and internal areas of equipment. A Ra and Ba similarity leads to the selective co-precipitation in mud and incrustations of radioisotopes. A measure made in the pipe lines show that these industries generate important doses overcoming the levels of exemption and even the limits of established doses. The research was done by finding a pipe at Shushufindi 52 B well of production near by Coca city in the Ecuadorian jungle. The 'Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica' (CEEA), supervises the pipe line and accessories that are used in PETROPRODUCION fields accomplishing the radiological characterization, identifying the useless pipes and separate them in order of take care the good ones. Meanwhile the identification of the radioactive isotopes the CEEA proceed with the isolation of the radioactive disposals. From 57.830 pipes and accessories there were 1.607 useless ones, 56.223 didn't show radioactivity. Those pipes were monitored from the PETRODUCCION'S warehouses in Coca, Lago Agrio and Guarumo from September 12 th 2005 to September 12 th 2006. The CEEA is interested in NORMS because inadvertent workers may get high levels of radioactivity exposition. The Oil industries should have a manual about the complete handling of these materials. (author)

  16. The Glaciation of the Ecuadorian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carlos

    This pleasing book fills the gap in the knowledge about Pleistocene and recent glaciation between Colombia and Peru. A significant amount of data exists already for Colombia and Venezuela and for Peru, Bolivia, and, particularly, Chile. Hastenrath has now given us a description of glaciers and glaciation underneath the equator in the Andes.The book begins with brief summaries of the physiography and the atmospheric circulation, which give the general setting of Ecuador. Then follow detailed descriptions of the glaciers and glacial morphology of all the important mountains of the Western and Eastern Cordilleras. These are well illustrated, and a particularly useful feature is the comparison of old photographs and paintings of glaciers with modern photographs, many taken by the author. All illustrate the spectacular retreat of the glaciers in the Ecuadorian Andes during the last century and correlate quite well with observations elsewhere. This retreat is snown quantitatively in Table 4, in terms of decrease in glacier-covered area since the glacial advance of moraine stage III. The area of present-day glaciers is about 10% of the area during that stage (compared with about 1.5% in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela). A series of maps show the glacial morphology of the mountains (unfortunately, some of the maps have been included within the binding, thus losing some information; they could have been reduced somewhat to fit a single page or, if too large, could have been included in the pocket, together with the map of Chimborazo-Carihuairazo).

  17. Social capital in water user organizations of the Ecuadorian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore how new water user organizations have developed in formerly state managed irrigation systems in the Ecuadorian highlands since the 1990s. The article is based on an in-depth case study of the Pillaro irrigation system and illustrations of other cases. These water user

  18. 'Dar' + gerund in Ecuadorian Highland Spanish: contact-induced grammaticalization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbertz, H.

    2008-01-01

    The benefactive construction dar + gerund is used in the North Andean region only and is unknown elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world. Based on the analysis of spontaneous data from Ecuadorian Highland Spanish, this paper provides a linguististic description of dar + gerund and of the social and

  19. Heterogeneous Data Mining for a Semi-Quantitative Risk Assessment of Oil Contamination from Multiple-Sources in The Ecuadorian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Durango , Juan; Saqalli , Mehdi; Maurice , Laurence; Lerigouleur , Emilie; Maestripieri , Nicolas; Elger , Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The North Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) is one of the most biodiverse places per surface area on Earth. However, its richness and importance is threatened by complex human activities driven by extensive agriculture development and oil exploration and extraction, directly responsible for forest clearing. Furthermore this extractive industry has long been regarded as polluting the environment and causing cancer and other diseases to the local population. Two periods of extract...

  20. Magmatic sulphides in Quaternary Ecuadorian arc magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgatou, Ariadni; Chiaradia, Massimo; Rezeau, Hervé; Wälle, Markus

    2018-01-01

    New petrographic and geochemical data on magmatic sulphide inclusions (MSIs) are presented and discussed for 15 Quaternary volcanic centers of the Ecuadorian frontal, main and back volcanic arc. MSIs occur mostly in Fe-Ti oxides (magnetite and/or magnetite-ilmenite pair) and to a lesser extent in silicate minerals (amphibole, plagioclase, and pyroxene). MSIs are present in all volcanic centers ranging in composition from basalt to dacite (SiO2 = 50-67 wt.%), indicating that sulphide saturation occurs at various stages of magmatic evolution and independently from the volcano location along the volcanic arc. MSIs also occur in dioritic, gabbroic and hornblenditic magmatic enclaves of the volcanic rocks. MSIs display variable sizes (1-30 μm) and shapes (globular, ellipsoidal, angular, irregular) and occur mostly as polymineralic inclusions composed of Fe-rich and Cu-poor (pyrrhotite) and Cu-rich (mostly chalcopyrite) phases. Aerial sulphide relative abundances range from 0.3 to 7 ppm in volcanic host rocks and from 13 to 24 ppm in magmatic enclaves. Electron microprobe analyses of MSIs indicate maximum metal contents of Cu = 65.7 wt.%, Fe = 65.2 wt.%, Ni = 10.1 wt.% for those hosted in the volcanic rocks and of Cu = 57.7 wt.%, Fe = 60.9 wt.%, Ni = 5.1 wt.%, for those hosted in magmatic enclaves. Relationships of the sulphide chemistry to the host whole rock chemistry show that with magmatic differentiation (e.g., increasing SiO2) the Cu and Ni content of sulphides decrease whereas the Fe and S contents increase. The opposite behavior is observed with the increase of Cu in the whole rock, because the latter is anti-correlated with the SiO2 whole rock content. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of MSIs returned maximum values of PGEs and noble metals of Pd = 30 ppm, Rh = 8.1 ppm, Ag = 92.8 ppm and Au = 0.6 ppm and Pd = 43 ppm, Rh = 22.6 ppm, Ag = 89 ppm and Au = 1 ppm for those hosted in volcanic rocks and magmatic enclaves, respectively. These PGE contents display a

  1. Characterization of the Small and Median Companies in the Textile Sector of the Ecuadorian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lilián Basantes–Avalos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The small and median companies perform a fundamental role in the economy of latinoamerican countries, and Ecuador is not the exception, because of its incidence in the generation of employment and economic development. Historically, Ecuador has been a textile country by excellence, and with the years has been consolidated like one of the manufactured industries most importants of the country. However, the sector has to deal with adverse condition in the last decade. For such reason, the manufacturers have the challenge of improve the production techniques to promote a better quality offer and recognition, capable of competing with foreign products of similar characteristics. In this context, this paper has the intent to characterize the small and median companies of Ecuador in general and the textile sector as a particularity, its current situation, the importance of the Ecuadorian economy, such as their problems and opportunities. 

  2. Commercialization Of Orchid Mutants For Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Zaiton Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Orchids are the main contributors to cut flower industry in Malaysia with an existing good market and a huge business potential. Orchid industry has been established in Malaysia since 1960s but only started to develop and expand since 1980s. Continuous development of new orchid varieties is essential to meet customers' demands. Orchid mutagenesis research using gamma irradiation at Malaysian Nuclear Agency has successfully generated a number of new orchid varieties with commercial potentials. Therefore, Nuclear Malaysia has collaborated with an industrial partner, Hexagon Green Sdn Bhd (HGSB), to carry out commercialization research on these mutants under a Technofund project entitled 'Pre-Commercialization of Mutant Orchids for Cut Flowers Industry' from July 2011 to July 2014. Through this collaboration, Dendrobium orchid mutant plants developed by Nuclear Malaysia were transferred to HGSB's commercial orchid nursery at Bukit Changgang Agrotechnology Park, Banting, Selangor, for mass-propagation. The activities include evaluations on plant growth performance, flower quality, post harvest and market potential of these mutants. Mutants with good field performance have been identified and filed for Plant Variety Protection (PVP) with Department of Agriculture Malaysia. This paper describes outputs from this collaboration and activities undertaken in commercializing these mutants. (author)

  3. Crustal structure and tectonic deformation of the southern Ecuadorian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahorrano, Alcinoe; Collot, Jean-Yves; Sage, Françoise; Ranero, César R.

    2010-05-01

    Multichannel seismic lines acquired during the SISTEUR cruise (2000) provide new constraints on the structure and deformation of the subduction zone at the southern Ecuadorian margin, from the deformation front to the continental shelf of the Gulf of Guayaquil. The pre-stack depth migrated images allows to characterise the main structures of the downgoing and overriding plates and to map the margin stratigraphy in order to propose a chronology of the deformation, by means of integrating commercial well data and industry seismic lines located in the gulf area. The 100-km-long seismic lines show the oceanic Nazca plate underthrusting the South American plate, as well as the subduction channel and inter-plate contact from the deformation front to about 90 km landward and ~20 km depth. Based on seismic structure we identify four upper-plate units, consisting of basement and overlaying sedimentary sequences A, B and C. The sedimentary cover varies along the margin, being few hundreds of meters thick in the lower and middle slope, and ~2-3 km thick in the upper slope. Exceptionally, a ~10-km -thick basin, here named Banco Peru basin, is located on the upper slope at the southernmost part of the gulf. This basin seems to be the first evidence of the Gulf of Guayaquil opening resulting from the NE escaping of the North Andean Block. Below the continental shelf, thick sedimentary basins of ~6 to 8 km occupy most of the gulf area. Tectonic deformation across most of the upper-plate is dominated by extensional regime, locally disturbed by diapirism. Compression evidences are restricted to the deformation front and surrounding areas. Well data calibrating the seismic profiles indicate that an important portion of the total thickness of the sedimentary coverage of the overriding plate are Miocene or older. The data indicate the extensional deformation resulting from the NE motion of the North Andean Block and the opening of the Gulf of Guayaquil, evolves progressively in age

  4. Reintegration upon return: insights from Ecuadorian returnees from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, Marion; David, Anda; Mahia, Ramón; De Arce, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Using the ECM2 survey data on Ecuadorian migrants returning from Spain, we investigate the determinants of reintegration upon return. We study how the migration experience, but also the before- and after-migration characteristics, correlate with migrants’ outcomes upon return. We adopt a broad conception of reintegration, considering jointly labour market-related outcomes that proxy for structural reintegration and subjective indicators that provide insights on sociocultural reintegration. Th...

  5. Normative calcaneal quantitative ultrasound data for the indigenous Shuar and non-Shuar Colonos of the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Blackwell, Aaron D; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon, Tara J; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2011-01-01

    Minimal data on bone mineral density changes are available from populations in developing countries. Using calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques, the current study contributes to remedying this gap in the literature by establishing a normative data set on the indigenous Shuar and non-Shuar Colonos of the Ecuadorian Amazon. The paucity of bone mineral density (BMD) data from populations in developing countries partially reflects the lack of diagnostic resources in these areas. Portable QUS techniques now enable researchers to collect bone health data in remote field-based settings and to contribute normative data from developing regions. The main objective of this study is to establish normative QUS data for two Ecuadorian Amazonian populations-the indigenous Shuar and non-Shuar Colonos. The effects of ethnic group, sex, age, and body size on QUS parameters are also considered. A study cohort consisting of 227 Shuar and 261 Colonos (15-91 years old) were recruited from several small rural Ecuadorian communities in the Upano River Valley. Calcaneal QUS parameters were collected on the right heel of each participant using a Sahara bone sonometer. Three ultrasound generated parameters were employed: broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and calculated heel BMD (hBMD). In both populations and sexes, all QUS values were progressively lower with advancing age. Shuar have significantly higher QUS values than Colonos, with most pronounced differences found between pre-menopausal Shuar and Colono females. Multiple regression analyses show that age is a key predictor of QUS while weight alone is a less consistent determinant. Both Shuar males and females display comparatively greater QUS parameters than other reference populations. These normative data for three calcaneal QUS parameters will be useful for predicting fracture risk and determining diagnostic QUS criteria of osteoporosis in non-industrialized populations in South America and

  6. Oil Extraction and Indigenous Livelihoods in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozigar, Matthew; Gray, Clark L; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2016-02-01

    Globally, the extraction of minerals and fossil fuels is increasingly penetrating into isolated regions inhabited by indigenous peoples, potentially undermining their livelihoods and well-being. To provide new insight to this issue, we draw on a unique longitudinal dataset collected in the Ecuadorian Amazon over an 11-year period from 484 indigenous households with varying degrees of exposure to oil extraction. Fixed and random effects regression models of the consequences of oil activities for livelihood outcomes reveal mixed and multidimensional effects. These results challenge common assumptions about these processes and are only partly consistent with hypotheses drawn from the Dutch disease literature.

  7. Idiopathic lung fibrosis in an adult Ecuadorian from Riobamba province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remón Ramírez, Leticia; Castro Hayes, Orlando Jesús; Uvidia Cepeda, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The case report of a 52 years patient is presented, exposed to the ashes of Tungurahua volcano in eruption, who went to the Community Family Medicine Department of the Canton Guano, Ecuadorian province of Riobamba, for presenting productive cough in the morning, mucoid of yellowish white coloration, bad general state, evening fever, appetite and weight loss. According to the radiographic and topographic results, he had suggestive signs of lung tuberculosis; direct BAAR sputa and negative cultures. The pathological findings allowed to confirm the diagnosis of idiopathic lung fibrosis. (author)

  8. Mental Health Problems and Related Factors in Ecuadorian College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Torres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the mental health problems of college students have been the subject of increasing research, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuadorian college students. The aim of this study was to determine the mental health problems and their associated factors in Ecuadorian freshmen university students. A sample of 1092 students (53.7% women; mean age = 18.3 years were recruited from the Technical Particular University of Loja (Ecuador. Socio-demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics were gathered, as well as information on the participants’ mental health through a number of mental health screens. Prevalence of positive screens was 6.2% for prevalence of major depressive episodes, 0.02% for generalized anxiety disorders, 2.2% for panic disorders, 32.0% for eating disorders, 13.1% for suicidal risk. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, area of study, self-esteem, social support, personality and histories of mental health problems. The findings offer a starting point for identifying useful factors to target prevention and intervention strategies aimed at university students.

  9. Mental Health Problems and Related Factors in Ecuadorian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Claudia; Otero, Patricia; Bustamante, Byron; Blanco, Vanessa; Díaz, Olga; Vázquez, Fernando L

    2017-05-15

    Although the mental health problems of college students have been the subject of increasing research, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuadorian college students. The aim of this study was to determine the mental health problems and their associated factors in Ecuadorian freshmen university students. A sample of 1092 students (53.7% women; mean age = 18.3 years) were recruited from the Technical Particular University of Loja (Ecuador). Socio-demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics were gathered, as well as information on the participants' mental health through a number of mental health screens. Prevalence of positive screens was 6.2% for prevalence of major depressive episodes, 0.02% for generalized anxiety disorders, 2.2% for panic disorders, 32.0% for eating disorders, 13.1% for suicidal risk. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, area of study, self-esteem, social support, personality and histories of mental health problems. The findings offer a starting point for identifying useful factors to target prevention and intervention strategies aimed at university students.

  10. Differentiation of Ecuadorian National and CCN-51 cocoa beans and their mixtures by computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Juan C; Amores, Freddy M; Solórzano, Eddyn G; Rodríguez, Gladys A; La Mantia, Alessandro; Blasi, Paolo; Loor, Rey G

    2018-05-01

    Ecuador exports two major types of cocoa beans, the highly regarded and lucrative National, known for its fine aroma, and the CCN-51 clone type, used in bulk for mass chocolate products. In order to discourage exportation of National cocoa adulterated with CCN-51, a fast and objective methodology for distinguishing between the two types of cocoa beans is needed. This study reports a methodology based on computer vision, which makes it possible to recognize these beans and determine the percentage of their mixture. The methodology was challenged with 336 samples of National cocoa and 127 of CCN-51. By excluding the samples with a low fermentation level and white beans, the model discriminated with a precision higher than 98%. The model was also able to identify and quantify adulterations in 75 export batches of National cocoa and separate out poorly fermented beans. A scientifically reliable methodology able to discriminate between Ecuadorian National and CCN-51 cocoa beans and their mixtures was successfully developed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Daily Family Routines of Italian and Ecuadorian Immigrant Mothers in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Rania

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study compares Italian mothers’ and Ecuadorian immigrant mothers’ daily family routines. Thirty mothers took part in this investigation: 15 Italians (M = 37.5 years, with ages ranging from 30 to 42 years and 15 Ecuadorians (M = 36.1 years, with ages ranging from 18 to 46 years and having lived in Italy for an average of 15 years, with children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years. The objective is to highlight the differences and similarities between the daily routines and family relations that characterize the lives of each of the two groups of participants. The instruments employed in service of these aims were in-depth interviews and diaries. The results showed similarities regarding the routines of Italian and Ecuadorian families. However, a relevant difference emerged regarding their perceptions of social support. Specifically, Italians receive more social support from their parents than do Ecuadorians, who are supported more by other relatives or by friends.

  12. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern...

  13. LBA-ECO LC-01 SRTM 90-Meter Digital Elevation Model, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-01 SRTM 90-Meter Digital Elevation Model, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, provides 90-meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data used in the...

  14. LBA-ECO LC-01 City, Community, and Road Maps, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon: 1990-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the boundaries of the four major cities in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, the locations of primary communities in the colonist settlement...

  15. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern Oriente)...

  16. LBA-ECO LC-01 City, Community, and Road Maps, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon: 1990-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the boundaries of the four major cities in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, the locations of primary communities in the colonist...

  17. New challenges to rethink the training of ecuadorian teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sol Villagómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Training ecuadorian teachers has traditionally been linked to public policy and national curricula that have defined the task of teaching, classroom work, and what basic teacher training institutions should prioritize on when it comes to training teachers. Recent years have seen major changes in the educational sector, as well as a revaluation of the teaching trade. New training challenges arise, not only from the teacher's perspective as executor of the curricula, but as a key player in the educational process. We need to rethink the training of teachers to and from a critical reflection and research point-of-view, in order to reflect on the curricula, their own experience, and their relevance in relation to the framework in wich they develop.

  18. Family Planning and Deforestation: Evidence from the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Despite an abundant body of literature exploring the relationship between population growth and forest cover change, comparatively little research has explored the forest cover impacts of family planning use, which is a key determinant of the rate of population growth in many developing country contexts. Using data from a farm-level panel survey in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, this paper addresses whether family planning use impacts forest cover change. Longitudinal model results show that after controlling for household life cycle and land use variables, family planning use did not have an independent effect on deforestation, reforestation, or net forest loss between 1990 and 2008. Forest cover change patterns appear indicative of farm life cycle effects. However, family planning use is associated with reduced subsequent fertility among households, suggesting that the relationship between population growth from births and forest cover change may be limited in this setting.

  19. Determinants of child malnutrition in rural and urban Ecuadorian highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Johana; Van Camp, John; Wijaya, Sylviana; Donoso, Silvana; Huybregts, Lieven

    2014-09-01

    To identify and compare the sociodemographic determinants of stunting, wasting and overweight among infants of urban and rural areas in the Ecuadorian highlands. Cross-sectional study. Nabon (rural) and Cuenca (urban) cantons, Azuay Province, Ecuador. A total of 703 children aged 0-24 months and their caregivers (227 rural and 476 urban) recruited during the period from June to September 2008. Stunting prevalence was significantly higher in the rural area (37·4 % v. 17·7 %; P child's age (OR = 1·04; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·07; P = 0·011), maternal education (OR = 0·95; 95 % CI 0·92, 0·99; P = 0·025) and facility-based delivery (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P Rural determinants of stunting were maternal height (OR = 0·004; 95 % CI 0·00004, 0·39; P = 0·018), diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 2·18; 95 % CI 1·13, 4·21; P = 0·02), socio-economic status (OR = 0·79; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·98; P = 0·030) and child's age (OR = 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11; P = 0·005). Urban determinants were: maternal BMI for stunting (OR = 0·91; 95 % CI 0·84, 0·99; P = 0·027), cough prevalence (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·96; P = 0·036) and facility-based delivery (OR = 0·25; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·73; P = 0·011) for overweight, and hygiene for wasting (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·89; P = 0·013). Infant malnutrition was associated with different sociodemographic determinants between urban and rural areas in the Ecuadorian highlands, a finding which contributes to prioritize the determinants to be assessed in nutritional interventions.

  20. Aquatic macrophytes in cool aseasonal and seasonal streams: a comparison between Ecuadorian highland and Danish lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Terneus, Esteban

    2001-01-01

    -forms (submerged, amphibious, semiaquatic) was, however, different as submerged plants were less diverse in the Ecuadorian streams. Further, all submerged plants found in the Ecuadorian streams belonged to cosmopolitan genera with a mainly north-temperate distribution. We suggest that the low number of submerged...

  1. Development Of New Chrysanthemum Mutants For Malaysian Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Shakinah Salleh; Nurul Hidayah Mahmud; Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Mohamed Najli Mohamed Yasin

    2014-01-01

    This five-year project was in collaboration with Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Bilateral Cooperative Research Program and was partly funded by Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry (MOA) under Agriculture R&D Fund. The main objective was to produce new chrysanthemum varieties with good horticultural traits especially for cut flower production. In this project, tissue culture samples of chrysanthemum (red and pink varieties) were sent to JAEA for ion beam irradiations. Plant regeneration and multiplication were carried out at Nuclear Malaysia whilst field screenings for morphological characteristics were done at MARDI Cameron Highlands. Through this project, a number of stable chrysanthemum mutants with various new features have been generated and of these, 8 mutants were selected based on their uniqueness and/or suitability for cut flower production. In preparation for future commercialization process, five of these mutants have been filed for plant variety protection with Department of Agriculture Malaysia and a similar process in Japan is also under consideration. In addition, molecular marker work to fingerprint these mutants has also been initiated and future research may also include development of markers for selected horticultural traits and isolation of unique mutant genes. (author)

  2. Determination of the Innovative Capacity of Ecuadorian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Loaiza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the Higher Education Institutions are immersed in a world of constant change, and it is necessary to adapt to this environment with skill and speed. This has forced universities to adopt practices that create or strengthen their capacity to innovate, based on the determination of factors that influence it positively. This study is centered on the implementation of the Innovation Model of Higher Education (MIES prepared by Villa, Escotet and Goni (2007, adapted to the university context. This model allows Higher Education Institutions to diagnose their innovative capacity. This model is developed in the field of academic innovation, which is defined as the organizational competence of institutions to respond to the environment quickly enough, to cover existing needs and to anticipate future ones. As a case study, MIES was applied to Ecuadorian universities where the perception of different university actors was obtained and the factors driving innovation in this context were determined as a reference for the application of strategies promoting innovation.

  3. Strategical integration and prior evaluation of science and innovation projects in Ecuadorians sports organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Barroso Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the design of a procedure for evaluating the strategical integration of science and innovation projects level in the physical and sport sphere, and its validation through expert criteria for application to Ecuadorian sports organizations. As a result, it was possible to demonstrate the validity of the procedure designed, so it will be possible to be used to facilitate decision-making in relation to the execution of such projects considering, as a value judgment, the level of their essential components integration for the achievement of objectives aligned to the strategic priorities of the Ecuadorians sports organizations.  

  4. The Intersecting Identity Politics of the Ecuadorian Evangelical Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Lalander

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el movimiento indígena evangélico ecuatoriano con el énfasis particular en las tensiones entre etnicidad y religión en contextos de movilización política en la provincia de Chimborazo. Chimborazo ha sido una fortaleza tradicional tanto de la Iglesia Católica como posteriormente de las Iglesias Evangélicas, lo que ha contribuido a la excepcionalidad de la provincia y asimismo ha animado la formación de diferentes movimientos políticos. El enfoque principal está en la 'Federación Ecuatoriana de Indígenas Evangélicos '(FEINE y su brazo electoral 'Amauta Jatari', así como sus complejas relaciones con el más amplio movimiento indígena. Teórica y metodológicamente, el artículo se apoya en ideas de 'Interseccionalidad '– que originalmente emergieron en estudios de género – sobre las relaciones entre identidades y categorías socio-culturales. Estas ideas se integran dentro de un marco analítico sociológico-politológico, y consecuentemente se justifica esta integración analítica no solamente por su valor para la apertura de posibilidades de problematización del tema, sino también para poder comprender más claramente la compleja mezcla identitaria que influye en las lógicas colectivas e individuales en la sociedad. ¿Hay un cierto orden jerárquico entre la identificación étnica y religiosa entre pueblos étnicamente definidos y con creencias religiosas específicas? ¿Es esta jerarquía imaginaria constante, o puede cambiar según los diferentes contextos sociales y políticos? English: This study analyses the Ecuadorian Evangelical Indigenous movement with a particular focus on the tensions between ethnicity and religion in political mobilization processes in the Chimborazo province. Chimborazo has been a traditional stronghold both of the Catholic Church and later of Evangelical churches, which makes the province exceptional and has triggered the formation of different political movements

  5. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  6. "Nervios" and "Modern Childhood": Migration and Shifting Contexts of Child Life in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribilsky, Jason

    2001-01-01

    Argues that beyond explanations predicated on psychological ideas of separation and attachment, "nervios," a depression-like disorder among children in the southern Ecuadorian Andes, reflects the limits of children's abilities to accept terms of family life increasingly defined through transnational migration and new consumption…

  7. The Use of New Technologies in Basic Education: An Approach to Profile of Indigenous Ecuadorians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefos, Efstathios; Castellano, José Manuel; Marchán, Andrés Bonilla; Biloon, Julia Raina Sevy

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to define the profile of Ecuadorian indigenous students who study at different levels of basic education in Ecuador in the context of the application and use of emerging technologies in the last five years. This approach focuses on a comparative analysis between indigenous and non-indigenous students, based on the national data…

  8. Ecuadorian Quecha Basic Course. Part II: Introduction and Pre-Class Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Clarence Eric; And Others

    The second of a two-volume series on Ecuadorian Quechua, this text contains 15 units of preclass instructional material designed for individualized study with the use of accompanying tapes. Each unit of the course has a homework section, called a module, to be completed before classwork may be started. Cartoon figures illustrate the instructional…

  9. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  10. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  11. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  12. The health risk linked to oil activities in the Ecuadorian Amazon: From alerts to decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissardon, Pauline; Becerra, Sylvia; Maurice, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the long and difficult process of demonstrating the health impact associated with environmental contamination caused by the oil exploration and production underway in the Ecuadorian Amazon for the past 40 years. Contamination in the areas affected by oil activities is both accidental and chronic. The latter is more complex to perceive and demonstrate, due to the lack of visual evidence of oil products. Currently, the health consequences to local populations of environmental exposures have neither been described with precision, nor managed by public authorities. The history of governance in the Ecuadorian Amazon helps to illuminate the pathway that weak signals of environmental contamination and their health consequences have travelled through the public space, as well as the political conditions which explain the negligible impact. We demonstrate that public policy remains limited to repairing the social and environmental impact of oil contamination and that the health risks have not yet reached the political agenda despite their recent legal recognition. (authors)

  13. Changes in population and land use over time in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Bilsborrow,Richard E.; Barbieri,Alisson F.; Pan,William

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws upon a detailed longitudinal survey of households living on agricultural plots in the northern three provinces of the Ecuadorian Amazon, the principal region of colonization by migrants in Ecuador since the 1970s. Following the discovery of petroleum in 1967 near what has subsequently come to be the provincial capital and largest Amazonian city of Lago Agrio, oil companies built roads to lay pipelines to extract and pump oil across the Andes for export. As a result, for the p...

  14. Pressure in the Territories of the Tageiri, Taromenane and other Isolated Families in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Kati Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    The territories in which the Tageiri, Taromenane and other isolated tribes in the Ecuadorian Amazon reside suffer from various pressures. As one will see later, these pressures respond to economic models implemented in the seventies by the different administrations and that have involved exploitation of natural resources, expansion of agricultural and livestock borders and the subordination of other socio-economic alternatives (even those of isolated communities) to the logics of capital. App...

  15. Analysis of the accessibility in websites of Ecuadorian universities of excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Acosta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the Ecuadorian Technical Standard NTE INEN ISO / IEC 40500 in 2014 and the Ecuadorian Technical Regulation RTE INEN 288 "The web contents accessibility" in 2016, web accessibility in Ecuador has taken great importance. In the educational field, the websites of Higher Education Institutions (HEI have become a communication channel, where universities publish the information and services they offer. In addition, HEI must satisfy the rights of all citizens to have access to education, which includes persons with disabilities. In order to ensure access to the websites of HEI to all people it is important that HEI incorporate web accessibility as an essential requirement in their websites. The objective of this research is to perform the accessibility analysis of the websites of the Ecuadorian universities of excellence belonging to categories A, B and C; identify websites accessibility errors and to present some recommendations for a better fulfillment of the WCAG 2.0 accessibility guidelines by website designers and developers.

  16. Analysis of ancestry informative markers in three main ethnic groups from Ecuador supports a trihybrid origin of Ecuadorians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Roberta; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Børsting, Claus; Torroni, Antonio; Pereira, Vania; Morling, Niels

    2017-11-01

    Ancestry inference is traditionally done using autosomal SNPs that present great allele frequency differences among populations from different geographic regions. These ancestry informative markers (AIMs) are useful for determining the most likely biogeographic ancestry or population of origin of an individual. Due to the growing interest in AIMs and their applicability in different fields, commercial companies have started to develop AIM multiplexes targeted for Massive Parallel Sequencing platforms. This project focused on the study of three main ethnic groups from Ecuador (Kichwa, Mestizo, and Afro-Ecuadorian) using the Precision ID Ancestry panel (Thermo Fisher Scientific). In total, 162 Ecuadorian individuals were investigated. The Afro-Ecuadorian and Mestizo showed higher average genetic diversities compared to the Kichwa. These results are consistent with the highly admixed nature of the first two groups. The Kichwa showed the highest proportion of Native Amerindian (NAM) ancestry relative to the other two groups. The Mestizo had an admixed ancestry of NAM and European with a larger European component, whereas the Afro-Ecuadorian were highly admixed presenting proportions of African, Native Amerindian, and European ancestries. The comparison of our results with previous studies based on uniparental markers (i.e. Y chromosome and mtDNA) highlighted the sex-biased admixture process in the Ecuadorian Mestizo. Overall, the data generated in this work represent one important step to assess the application of ancestry inference in admixed populations in a forensic context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Eroine e self made women nel racconto di vita delle donne migranti ecuadoriane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pagnotta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I want to show the forms and narrative topos that support the biographical narrative of Ecuadorian migrant women which I have collected the life histories. The life of witnesses seems to be characterized by the rebellion that already appears in adolescence and that once adult, will lead the women to escape his fate emigrating. The narrative structure is similar to the formation of novel whose protagonist is the migrant / heroine who after many difficulties and with God's help manages to triumph and achieve their goals.

  18. Environment, oil and political vulnerability in the Ecuadorian Amazon: Towards new forms of energy governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem JUTEAU-MARTINEAU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a historical analysis of oil exploitation governance in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region (rae, regarding its strong social and environmental impacts from the 1960’s until today. We identify three steps in the evolution of governance, leading up to the recent institutionalization of the regulation of impacts caused by oil-related activities, through centralized public policies. The relevance, feasibility and efficiency of these policies, as well as the role of decentralized governments regarding this regulation, are key factors in the evolution of social vulnerability to the impacts of oil-related activities.

  19. The inclusion of disabled and/or special educational need students from the ecuadorian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Roxana Cortés-Guerrero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of science and technology has created auxiliary, rehabilitation services and support devices to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. This work aims to reflect on the potential of contemporary science and technology to promote the inclusion of students with disabilities and/or special educational needs in Ecuadorian society, taking into account the training of teachers becomes a challenge that must be addressed from educational research. The analysis-synthesis methods are used to make assessments and historical and logical to know as time moved on the topics discussed.

  20. Efecto de inhibidores de etileno en la longevidad floral del clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L. como probables sustitutos del tiosulfato de plata (STS Effect of ethylene inhibitors in extending the vase life of camation iDianthus caryophyllus L. cut flowers as substitutes of silver thiosulfate (STS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos Eliberto

    2001-12-01

    Chrysal EVB presentaron resultados similares a los compuestos que contenían dicho ion y, por lo tanto, pueden ser eficientes en el reemplazo del STS, que es potencialmente un contaminante ambiental.
    In Colombia the sector of cut flower exportation has great
    economic importance. However, high production costs and low
    prices have reduced the profitability off flowers in the last years. With the objective of compared the response of traditional products in postharvest, whose main ingredient is the Ag+ ion, with other products of more degradability, a research was carried out with standard carnation variety 'Nelson'. The floral stalks were harvested in a crop under greenhouse conditions in a commercial production farm ofthe Bogotá plateau. Flowers were graded and treated with different postharvest solutions in order to pro long vase life. Later on, they were kept in simulated transport conditions during a period of ten days; then, postharvest measurements were made in the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of the National University of Colombia, Bogotá. In the laboratory stems were kept in distilled water, under photoperiod conditions of 12 h (artificial light from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. and with ventilation of 30 min in the morning hours to avoid ethylene accumulation. Environmental conditions of the laboratory were 19°C and relative humidity of 75%. The commercial preservative products used were: Silver Thiosulfate (STS elaborated in the farm, 1- Methylcyclopropene (I-MCP, Chrysal AVB, Chrysal EVB,
    Florissima 125, Florissima 135 and Florissant 100. The best
    results in florallongevity were obtained with the combination
    of l-MCP + Florissima 135 (22 days, Florissima 125 (21,7 days and STS (21,5 days. It was proven that sorne products that not contain the Ag ' ion (Florissima 135 and Chrysal EVB
    presented similar results as compared to the compounds that
    contained the Ag+ ion. Therefore, Florissima 135 and Chrysal
    EVB can be efficient in

  1. From Dearth to El Dorado: Andean Nature, Plate Tectonics, and the Ontologies of Ecuadorian Resource Wealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kneas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the Ecuadorian government has pledged to convert the nation into a “mining country” of global standing. Contemporary claims of mineral wealth, however, stand in stark contrast to previous assessments. Indeed, through much of the 20th century, geologists described Ecuador as a country of mineral dearth. Exploring the process through which Ecuador seemingly transitioned from a nation of resource scarcity to one of mineral plenty, I demonstrate how assessments of Ecuador’s resource potential relate to ideas of Andean nature. Promoters of resource abundance have emphasized Andean uniformity and equivalence—the notion that Ecuador’s mineral wealth is inevitable by virtue of the resource richness of its Andean neighbors. Geologists who have questioned Ecuador’s mineral content, on the other hand, have emphasized Andean heterogeneity. In the recent promotion of Ecuador’s resource potential, notions of Andean uniformity have been bolstered by models of subsoil copper that emerged in the in 1970s in the context of plate-tectonic theory. In highlighting the linkage between ideas of Andean nature and appraisals of Ecuadorian resource potential since the late 19th century, I outline the dialectics between nature and natural resources that underpin processes of resource becoming.

  2. Comparison of Major Immunoglobulins Intrathecal Synthesis Patterns in Ecuadorian and Cuban Patients with Angiostrongyliasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J.; Moreira, Juan M.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio-Aroca, Jenny; Alarcón, Fernando; Magraner-Tarrau, María Esther; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa

    2011-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis was first reported in Cuba in 1981, and it was recently reported in South America. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns from Cuba's and Ecuador's patients with angiostrongyliasis; 8 Ecuadorian patients from two different outbreaks and 28 Cuban patients were studied. Simultaneous blood and cerebrospinal fluid simples were taken. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, IgG, and albumin were quantified by radial immunodiffusion. Corresponding Reibergrams were applied. A three-Ig pattern was the most frequent in the two groups, but IgM was presented in all Ecuadorian young mature patients; however, in the Cuban children, only 12 of 28 patients had intrathecal IgM, but about 90% had an IgA and IgG synthesis at time of later puncture. This indicates that, with a larger amount of parasites ingested, clinical symptoms are more severe, and a higher frequency of intrathecal IgM synthesis could be observed. This is discussed as a similarity with the intrathecal IgM synthesis in African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21363978

  3. Antibody isotypes, including IgG subclasses, in Ecuadorian patients with pulmonary Paragonimiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Guevara E.

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available An ELISA test was developed to detect Paragonimus-specific antibodies, including IgG subclasses, using P. mexicanus crude water-soluble antigens. The test was standardized to detect antibodies in sera of Ecuadorian patients with pulmonary paragonimiasis and negative controls from the endemic area. The detected mean levels of IgG (0.753, SEM: 0.074 and IgM (0.303, SEM: 0.033 were significantly elevated (P<0.05. Within the IgG subclasses, IgG4 showed the highest detected mean level (0.365, SEM: 0.116 and the other three subclasses showed considerably lower mean levels (IgG1, 0.186 SEM: 0.06; IgG2, 0.046 SEM: 0.01; IgG3, 0.123 SEM: 0.047. The number of P. mexicanus eggs found in sputum of infected individuals showed a positive correlation with the level of antibodies detected for IgM, IgG and its subclasses (P<0.001. The relevance of these findings in Ecuadorian patients suffering from pulmonary paragonimiasis is discussed.

  4. Standardization of a molecular diagnostic method for Cucumber mosaic virus (cmv in Ecuadorian bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Liseth Buitrón-Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several pests and diseases affect banana crop in Ecuador and Cucumber mosaic virus (cmv is one of the most important pathogens. The aim of this research was to standardize a new molecular approach to achieve a sensitive and highly specific detection of cmv in Ecuadorian bananas. Specific primers were designed from the sequence encodingResumoA cultura da banana no Equador vê-se afetada por uma série de doenças, das quais o cucumber mosaic vírus(cmv é um dos fitopatógenos mais impor-tantes. Com este estudo procurou-se padronizar uma técnica molecular para a detecção sensível e altamente específica deste agente viral na banana equatoriana. Para este fim, realizou-se o desenho de primers específicos, a partir da sequência que se codifica para a proteína da cápside do vírus. for the virus capsid protein. PC-F1, PC-R D1 and K-F primers, obtained from cDNA replicated from R NA of infected banana, allowed accurate virus detection by Reverse transcription and Hemi-nested PCR. Virus detection was possible even in asymptomatic plants, providing a tech-nology with potential use for the Ecuadorian banana producers.

  5. Conformance contrast testing between rates of pulmonary tuberculosis in Ecuadorian border areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ortiz-Rico

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate rates of cases of respiratory symptomatic subjects and the incidence rate of pulmonary tuberculosis in two border areas of Ecuador, and contrast them with official figures. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional survey in the southeastern (SEBA, and the Andean southern Ecuadorian border areas (ASBA, which were conducted, respectively, in 1 598 and 2 419 persons aged over 15 years recruited over periods of three weeks. In identified respiratory symptomatic cases, a sputum sample was taken for smear testing. The results (odds ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals, were compared with local and national official figures using maximum likelihood contrasts. Results. The rates of respiratory symptomatic subjects (7.7% and 5.9% in the SEBA, and ASBA, respectively and of pulmonary tuberculosis (cumulative incidence rates of 125 and 140 per 100 000 inhabitants, in the same order were significantly greater than the official figures (of 0.98 and 0.99% for respiratory symptomatic subjects in the SEBA and ASBA, respectively; and of 38.23 per 100 000 inhabitants for pulmonary tuberculosis in Ecuador as a whole (p<0.001. Conclusion. It is necessary to reinforce both active case finding for respiratory symptomatic subject cases, and epidemiological surveillance of pulmonary tuberculosis in Ecuadorian border regions.

  6. Physical activity in an indigenous Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population as measured using accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Blackwell, Aaron D; Liebert, Melissa A; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2011-01-01

    Minimal information on physical activity is available for non-Western populations undergoing the transition to a market economy. This is unfortunate given the importance of these data for understanding health issues such as the global obesity epidemic. We consider the utility of using accelerometry technology to examine activity patterns and energy use regulation among indigenous Shuar, an Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population undergoing economic and lifestyle change. We investigate sex differences in Shuar activity patterns and the effects of reproductive status on activity. Finally, we discuss the potential of accelerometry use in human biology research. Physical activity levels were measured using Actical accelerometers in 49 indigenous Shuar adults (23 males, 26 females) from a rural Ecuadorian community. Female participants were in various reproductive states including pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant/nonlactating. Activity counts (AC), activity energy expenditure (AEE), and physical activity levels (PAL) were significantly higher (P Shuar activity levels are relatively low compared to other non-Western populations. Despite increasing market integration, pregnant and lactating females seem to be adopting a strategy noted in other subsistence populations where male participation in subsistence activities increases to compensate for their partners' elevated reproductive costs. Despite certain limitations, use of accelerometry in human biology research shows promise. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Ecuadorian youth, social and geographic mobility and higher education in Spain and Ecuador. Unequal educational trajectories in times of crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vega Solís

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we analyze the inequalities that emerge from and are reproduced in Ecuadorian’s higher education trajectories in the context of economic crises. We focus on the strategies that these youth and their families employ for social mobility as well as the role of public policy in these processes. We examine the trajectories of three groups: sons and daughters of the 2000 migration wave from Ecuador to Spain who study at universities in Spain, those who have returned to Ecuador for their studies, and Ecuadorians who move to Spain in order to carry out postgraduate studies, some of them funded by scholarships from the Ecuadorian government. The research project employed a qualitative methodology based on interviews, focus groups and a survey with Ecuadorians in Spain who took the entrance exam for admittance into Ecuador’s public university system. Our findings highlight the varied forms of capitals that these diverse students employ, as well as the social and economic constraints that they encounter. In a period of economic crisis in Spain, the first group of students must often downgrade their expectations in order to continue their studies. Their experience contrasts starkly with Ecuadorians undertaking postgraduate studies in Spain, whose heterogenous trajectories are upwardly and geographically mobile. The case of the return university students to Ecuador shows us that education is inserted into a broader strategy that depends on transnational networks shaped over more than a decade of Ecuador-Spain migration.

  8. Exploring the Convergence of the Liberal Arts Model and the Ecuadorian Culture in a Latin American University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Paredes, Matias

    2013-01-01

    The replication of the U.S. cultural models in business and social organizations is a common practice in Latin America. In Ecuador, a university operates under the liberal arts model, understanding it as a replication of an U.S. cultural model, in an environment where the Ecuadorian cultural beliefs and values constitute the national cultural…

  9. The Ecuadorian Artisanal Fishery for Large Pelagics: Species Composition and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Martínez-Ortiz

    Full Text Available The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt (about 15.5 million fish were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the "oceanic-artisanal" fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips. The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna

  10. The Ecuadorian Artisanal Fishery for Large Pelagics: Species Composition and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortiz, Jimmy; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre M; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E; Maunder, Mark N

    2015-01-01

    The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt) (about 15.5 million fish) were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the "oceanic-artisanal" fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza) boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras) operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips). The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C) from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna

  11. Bacteria associated with human saliva are major microbial components of Ecuadorian indigenous beers (chicha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Freire

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous beers (chicha are part of the indigenous culture in Ecuador. The fermentation process of these beers probably relies on microorganisms from fermented substrates, environment and human microbiota. We analyzed the microbiota of artisanal beers (including a type of beer produced after chewing boiled cassava using bacterial culture and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene-based tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP. Surprisingly, we found that Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans (part of the human oral microbiota were among the most abundant bacteria in chewed cassava and in non-chewed cassava beers. We also demonstrated that S. salivarius and S. mutans (isolated from these beers could proliferate in cassava mush. Lactobacillus sp. was predominantly present in most types of Ecuadorian chicha.

  12. Methodological approach to mainstreaming the research content formation Technician in Nursing in the Ecuadorian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Rosario Altamirano-Baquerizo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The work presented is from recognizing the training needs of the students of the Higher Technical career in Nursing Bolivarian Technological Institute of Technology, since it appears as regularly as research training is mainly associated with the search bibliographic information and not as a tool for solving professional problems, coupled with the project of certification. Why this paper aims to draft pedagogical nature reflections provide insight into the methodological guidelines for mainstreaming research training of Technician in Nursing in the Ecuadorian context. This result of the doctoral research carried out on this subject, with the application of empirical and theoretical methods which set the proposals that contribute to the solution of this problem.

  13. Pressure in the Territories of the Tageiri, Taromenane and other Isolated Families in the Ecuadorian Amazon

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    Kati Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The territories in which the Tageiri, Taromenane and other isolated tribes in the Ecuadorian Amazon reside suffer from various pressures. As one will see later, these pressures respond to economic models implemented in the seventies by the different administrations and that have involved exploitation of natural resources, expansion of agricultural and livestock borders and the subordination of other socio-economic alternatives (even those of isolated communities to the logics of capital. Apparently, these territorial pressures can be multiplied and diversified on an accelerated manner by actors interested in the resources of the Amazon region in general, and in the territory of the Tageiri, Taromenane and other isolated tribes, in particular.

  14. The economic financial culture in the Ecuadorian context: some ideas for its formation

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    Carlos Manuel Varela-Patiño

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that today the Ecuadorian society faces, demand the elevation of the quality in the formation of highly qualified professionals in the area of Economy and entrepreneurship, which may contribute in the finding of solutions as signals of changes and thus become the nucleus in the transformations that the country needs. This article has as main goal to reveal some ideas about the cultural financial formation of the technologist in Higher Education, which is supported in the curricular content of Financial Economy and in the determination of the formative intention in the entrepreneur context, from the perspective of the unity between school- enterprises. During this research some theoretical and empirical methods were used, which allowed to verify the insufficiencies within the process of formation of the financial economic culture in the technicians – to-be.

  15. Indigenous migration dynamics in the Ecuadorian Amazon: a longitudinal and hierarchical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jason; Sellers, Samuel; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Amazonian indigenous populations are approaching a critical stage in their history in which increasing education and market integration, rapid population growth and degradation of natural resources threaten the survival of their traditions and livelihoods. A topic that has hardly been touched upon in this context is migration and population mobility. We address this by analysing a unique longitudinal dataset from the Ecuadorian Amazon on the spatial mobility of five indigenous groups and mestizo co-residents. Analyses reveal traditional and new forms of population mobility and migrant selectivity, including gendered forms of marriage migration and rural-urban moves driven by education. These results illustrate a dynamic present and an uncertain future for indigenous populations in which rural, natural-resource-based lifeways may well be sustained but with increasing links to urban areas.

  16. A conceptual framework for healthy eating behavior in ecuadorian adolescents: a qualitative study.

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    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing eating behavior of Ecuadorian adolescents - from the perspective of parents, school staff and adolescents - to develop a conceptual framework for adolescents' eating behavior.Twenty focus groups (N=144 participants were conducted separately with adolescents aged 11-15 y (n (focus groups=12, N (participants=80, parents (n=4, N=32 and school staff (n=4, N=32 in rural and urban Ecuador. A semi-structured questioning route was developed based on the 'Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy' model and the socio-ecological model to assess the relevance of behavioral and environmental factors in low- and middle-income countries. Two researchers independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for emerging themes, using deductive thematic content analysis. Data were analyzed using NVivo 8.All groups recognized the importance of eating healthily and key individual factors in Ecuadorian adolescents' food choices were: financial autonomy, food safety perceptions, lack of self-control, habit strength, taste preferences and perceived peer norms. Environmental factors included the poor nutritional quality of food and its easy access at school. In their home and family environment, time and convenience completed the picture as barriers to eating healthily. Participants acknowledged the impact of the changing socio-cultural environment on adolescents' eating patterns. Availability of healthy food at home and financial constraints differed between settings and socio-economic groups.Our findings endorse the importance of investigating behavioral and environmental factors that influence and mediate healthy dietary behavior prior to intervention development. Several culture-specific factors emerged that were incorporated into a conceptual framework for developing health promotion interventions in Ecuador.

  17. A conceptual framework for healthy eating behavior in ecuadorian adolescents: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Van Royen, Kathleen; Ochoa-Avilés, Angélica; Penafiel, Daniela; Holdsworth, Michelle; Donoso, Silvana; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing eating behavior of Ecuadorian adolescents - from the perspective of parents, school staff and adolescents - to develop a conceptual framework for adolescents' eating behavior. Twenty focus groups (N=144 participants) were conducted separately with adolescents aged 11-15 y (n (focus groups)=12, N (participants)=80), parents (n=4, N=32) and school staff (n=4, N=32) in rural and urban Ecuador. A semi-structured questioning route was developed based on the 'Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy' model and the socio-ecological model to assess the relevance of behavioral and environmental factors in low- and middle-income countries. Two researchers independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for emerging themes, using deductive thematic content analysis. Data were analyzed using NVivo 8. All groups recognized the importance of eating healthily and key individual factors in Ecuadorian adolescents' food choices were: financial autonomy, food safety perceptions, lack of self-control, habit strength, taste preferences and perceived peer norms. Environmental factors included the poor nutritional quality of food and its easy access at school. In their home and family environment, time and convenience completed the picture as barriers to eating healthily. Participants acknowledged the impact of the changing socio-cultural environment on adolescents' eating patterns. Availability of healthy food at home and financial constraints differed between settings and socio-economic groups. Our findings endorse the importance of investigating behavioral and environmental factors that influence and mediate healthy dietary behavior prior to intervention development. Several culture-specific factors emerged that were incorporated into a conceptual framework for developing health promotion interventions in Ecuador.

  18. Across-arc versus along-arc Sr-Nd-Pb isotope variations in the Ecuadorian volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancellin, Marie-Anne; Samaniego, Pablo; Vlastélic, Ivan; Nauret, François; Gannoun, Adbelmouhcine; Hidalgo, Silvana

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies of the Ecuadorian arc (1°N-2°S) have revealed across-arc geochemical trends that are consistent with a decrease in mantle melting and slab dehydration away from the trench. The aim of this work is to evaluate how these processes vary along the arc in response to small-scale changes in the age of the subducted plate, subduction angle, and continental crustal basement. We use an extensive database of 1437 samples containing 71 new analyses, of major and trace elements as well as Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes from Ecuadorian and South Colombian volcanic centers. Large geochemical variations are found to occur along the Ecuadorian arc, in particular along the front arc, which encompasses 99% and 71% of the total variations in 206Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of Quaternary Ecuadorian volcanics, respectively. The front arc volcanoes also show two major latitudinal trends: (1) the southward increase of 207Pb/204Pb and decrease of 143Nd/144Nd reflect more extensive crustal contamination of magma in the southern part (up to 14%); and (2) the increase of 206Pb/204Pb and decrease of Ba/Th away from ˜0.5°S result from the changing nature of metasomatism in the subarc mantle wedge with the aqueous fluid/siliceous slab melt ratio decreasing away from 0.5°S. Subduction of a younger and warmer oceanic crust in the Northern part of the arc might promote slab melting. Conversely, the subduction of a colder oceanic crust south of the Grijalva Fracture Zone and higher crustal assimilation lead to the reduction of slab contribution in southern part of the arc.

  19. Spectrum of CFTR gene mutations in Ecuadorian cystic fibrosis patients: the second report of the p.H609R mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sofía C; Aguirre, Santiago J; Flores, Sofía; Maldonado, Claudio; Mejía, Juan; Salinas, Lilian

    2017-11-01

    High heterogeneity in the CFTR gene mutations disturbs the molecular diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). In order to improve the diagnosis of CF in our country, the present study aims to define a panel of common CFTR gene mutations by sequencing 27 exons of the gene in Ecuadorian Cystic Fibrosis patients. Forty-eight Ecuadorian individuals with suspected/confirmed CF diagnosis were included. Twenty-seven exons of CFTR gene were sequenced to find sequence variations. Prevalence of pathogenic variations were determined and compared with other countries' data. We found 70 sequence variations. Eight of these are CF-causing mutations: p.F508del, p.G85E, p.G330E, p.A455E, p.G970S, W1098X, R1162X, and N1303K. Also this study is the second report of p.H609R in Ecuadorian population. Mutation prevalence differences between Ecuadorian population and other Latin America countries were found. The panel of mutations suggested as an initial screening for the Ecuadorian population with cystic fibrosis should contain the mutations: p.F508del, p.G85E, p.G330E, p.A455E, p.G970S, W1098X, R1162X, and N1303K. © 2017 NETLAB Laboratorios Especializados. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Gastrointestinal Parasites of Ecuadorian Mantled Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata aequatorialis) Based on Fecal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenbrook, William D; Wade, Susan E; Shields, William M; Stehman, Stephen V; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-06-01

    An analysis of gastrointestinal parasites of Ecuadorian mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis, was conducted based on examination of fecal smears, flotations, and sedimentations. At least 1 type of parasite was detected in 97% of the 96 fecal samples screened across 19 howler monkey groups using these techniques. Samples averaged 3.6 parasite species per individual (±1.4 SD). Parasites included species representing genera of 2 apicomplexans: Cyclospora sp. (18% of individual samples) and Isospora sp. (3%); 6 other protozoa: Balantidium sp. (9%), Blastocystis sp. (60%), Chilomastix sp. (4%), Dientamoeba sp. (3%), Entamoeba species (56%), Iodamoeba sp. (5%); 4 nematodes: Enterobius sp. (3%), Capillaria sp. (78%), Strongyloides spp. (88%) which included 2 morphotypes, Trypanoxyuris sp. (12%); and the platyhelminth Controrchis sp. (15%). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between group size and each of 3 different estimators of parasite species richness adjusted for sampling effort (ICE: r(2) = 0.24, P = 0.05; Chao2: r(2) = 0.25, P = 0.05, and Jackknife: r(2) = 0.31, P = 0.03). Two significant associations between co-infecting parasites were identified. Based on the prevalence data, individuals infected with Balantidium sp. were more likely to also be infected with Isospora sp. (χ(2) = 6.02, P = 0.01), while individuals harboring Chilomastix sp. were less likely to have Capillaria sp. present (χ(2) = 4.03, P = 0.04).

  1. Thermal Assessment of Low-Cost Rural Housing—A Case Study in the Ecuadorian Andes

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    Isabel Miño-Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to assess the indoor thermal performance of rural dwellings in the Ecuadorian highlands through both experimental and numerical analysis. A three-step methodology was applied to conduct the research: (a field data collection, (b building thermal model development and calibration, and (c comparison analysis and assessment of traditional improvement strategies. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from two representative rural dwellings under typical usage conditions. The first is a traditional construction, medium-exposed thermal mass dwelling (Case A. The second is a local common, uninsulated, lightweight construction (Case B. The thermal model was calibrated by comparing hourly temperature values of the observed and the predicted indoor air temperature. A high correlation level (R2 was achieved between the observed and predicted data; 0.89 in Case A and 0.94 in Case B. The results show that the roof, floor, and the airtightness are the critical building parameters affecting the indoor thermal environment. Likewise, the indoor air temperature is increased up to 4 °C through the implementation of traditional strategies. However, despite the rise in indoor air temperature, acceptable thermal comfort ranges were only reached for 25% of the total hours.

  2. Pathogenic variability of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Ecuadorian Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm resistance

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    Diego Rodríguez-Ortega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is one of the most economically important diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivation in Ecuador. The best control alternative is the use of resistant varieties. C. lindemuthianum presents great pathogenic variability, which hinders the development of varieties with a lasting resistance, therefore, the knowledge of the presence and distribution of the physiological races of the pathogen and the identification of resistance genes are key to developing varieties with broad and lasting resistance. The objective of this research was to determine the pathogenic variability of C. lindemuthianum and to evaluate the resistance of Ecuadorian bean germplasm. The research was carried out between 2013 and 2014. Seventeen isolates of C. lindemuthianum from northern central Ecuador were characterized by the inoculation of a group of twelve standard differential bean varieties. Among the analyzed samples, thirteen races were identified; five of those races had not been previously reported in the country. The differential G2333 (Co-42, Co-52 and Co-7 presented resistance to every characterized races in Ecuador. In addition, twenty - one improved varieties and elite bean lines were evaluated with sixteen of the seventeen isolates, three genotypes were identified (TB2, TB3 and INIAP 485 Urcuquí with resistance to the mentioned isolates, which can be used as sources of resistance to Anthracnose. The identified sources of resistance in this study will allow to plan the development of bean varieties with broad and durable resistance to C. lindemuthianum.

  3. Treatment of growth failure in the absence of GH signaling: The Ecuadorian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Aguirre, Jaime; Guevara, Alexandra; Guevara, Carolina

    2018-02-01

    Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) treatment studies of growth failure in absence of growth hormone (GH) signaling (GH insensitivity -GHI, Laron syndrome -LS, GH Receptor deficiency -GHRD) have taken place in many locations around the globe. Results from these trials are comparable, and slight differences reported can be attributed to specific circumstances at different research sites. rhIGF-I treatment studies of GHI in Ecuador included various trials performed on children belonging to the largest and only homogeneous cohort of subjects with this condition in the world. All trials were performed by the same team of investigators and, during study periods, subjects received similar nutritional, physical activity and medical advice. Combination of these inherent conditions most likely creates less sources of variability during the research process. Indeed, diagnosis, selection and inclusion of research subjects; methodology used; transport, storage and delivery of study drug; data collection, monitoring and auditing; data analysis, discussion of results, conclusion inferences and reporting, etc., were submitted to the same sources of error. For the above-mentioned reasons, we are hereby mainly covering conclusions derived from rhIGF-I treatment studies of Ecuadorian children whit GHRD due to homozygosity of a splice site mutation occurring at GHR gene, whose unaffected parents were both heterozygous for the same mutation. We also describe studies of rhIGF-I administration in adolescent and adult subjects with GHRD, from the same cohort and with the same genetic anomaly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relative Importance and Knowledge Distribution of Medicinal Plants in a Kichwa Community in the Ecuadorian Amazon

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    Brian Joseph Doyle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, such as knowledge of the use of plants as medicine, influences how indigenous people manage forest resources. Gender and age-associated differences in traditional knowledge may impact forest resource management because of the traditional division of labor. We interviewed 18 men and 18 women between 9 and 74 years old in San José de Payamino, an indigenous community of the Kichwa ethnicity in the Ecuadorian Amazon, to determine if there are gender or age-associated differences in medicinal plant knowledge among the Payamino people and to identify the most important species from a sample of medicinal plants. Individuals were interviewed using a tablet that displayed images of 34 plants, which had been cited by traditional healers in the community. Quantitative analysis provided insight into the relative importance of plants in the sample as well as the distribution of medicinal plant knowledge among members of the community. The most important plants were Tradescantia zanonia and Monolena primuliflora. These plants should be considered candidates for further investigation. There was a positive correlation between age and knowledge of medicinal plants, but no significant difference between genders. Our results suggest that an interview method that relies on digital images can reveal differences in the importance of medicinal plants as well as provide insight into the distribution of traditional medical knowledge. While men and women are likely to manage forest resources similarly, younger members of the community may not have the same regard for forest resources as their elder counterparts.

  5. Implications of market integration for cardiovascular and metabolic health among an indigenous Amazonian Ecuadorian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Melissa A; Snodgrass, J Josh; Madimenos, Felicia C; Cepon, Tara J; Blackwell, Aaron D; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2013-05-01

    Market integration (MI), the suite of social and cultural changes that occur with economic development, has been associated with negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease; however, key questions remain about how this transition manifests at the local level. The present paper investigates the effects of MI on health among Shuar, an indigenous lowland Ecuadorian population, with the goal of better understanding the mechanisms responsible for this health transition. This study examines associations between measures of MI and several dimensions of cardiovascular and metabolic health (fasting glucose, lipids [LDL, HDL and total cholesterol; triglycerides] and blood pressure) among 348 adults. Overall, Shuar males and females have relatively favourable cardiovascular and metabolic health. Shuar who live closer to town have higher total (p market foods (r = 0.140; p = 0.045) and ownership of consumer products (r = 0.184; p = 0.029). This study provides evidence that MI among Shuar is not a uniformly negative process but instead produces complex cardiovascular and metabolic health outcomes.

  6. Genotyping the High Altitude Mestizo Ecuadorian Population Affected with Prostate Cancer

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    Andrés López-Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in males with 1,114,072 new cases in 2015. The MTHFR enzyme acts in the folate metabolism, which is essential in methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. MTHFR C677T alters homocysteine levels and folate assimilation associated with DNA damage. Androgens play essential roles in prostate growth. The SRD5A2 enzyme metabolizes testosterone and the V89L polymorphism reduces in vivo SRD5A2 activity. The androgen receptor gene codes for a three-domain protein that contains two polymorphic trinucleotide repeats (CAG, GGC. Therefore, it is essential to know how PC risk is associated with clinical features and polymorphisms in high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo populations. We analyzed 480 healthy and 326 affected men from our three retrospective case-control studies. We found significant association between MTHFR C/T (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2; P=0.009, MTHFR C/T+T/T (OR = 2.22; P=0.009, and PC. The SRD5A2 A49T substitution was associated with higher pTNM stage (OR = 2.88; P=0.039 and elevated Gleason grade (OR = 3.15; P=0.004. Additionally, patients with ≤21 CAG repeats have an increased risk of developing PC (OR = 2.99; P<0.001. In conclusion, genotype polymorphism studies are important to characterize genetic variations in high altitude mestizo populations.

  7. The relationship between hunger and mental health outcomes among school-going Ecuadorian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L; Abril-Ulloa, Victoria; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Mental health and food insecurity are major public health issues among adolescents in Ecuador. Our objective was to determine the relationship between hunger, symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation among school-going Ecuadorian adolescents. We conducted crude and multivariable logistic regression models using data from the 2007 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Quito, Guayaquil, and Zamora, Ecuador (N = 5524). Hunger was defined as having gone hungry in the past 30 days due to lack of food in the home. Outcomes of interest were symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation with or without planning in the past year. Overall, 41.2 % (2200/5467) of students reported experiencing hunger. In multivariable logistic regression models, hunger had an increasing exposure-response relationship with symptoms of depression [sometimes hungry odds ratio (OR) 1.80, P = 0.0001; most of the time or always hungry OR 2.01, P Hunger was associated with increased odds of symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation with planning. Strategies to improve mental health among adolescents in Ecuador should consider the potential contribution of hunger and food insecurity.

  8. Satisfaction with life and food-related life in Ecuadorian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Lapo, María Del Carmen; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Hueche, Clementina

    2017-02-01

    To distinguish typologies of seniors according to their levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and to characterize them according to the importance assigned to family, health-related aspects, eating habits, nutritional status and sociodemographic characteristics. A survey was administered to a non-probabilistic sample of 817 seniors aged 60 years and over, of both genders, resident in urban and rural zones of the province of Guayas, Ecuador. The instrument included: Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL), the Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4) and the Family Importance Scale (FIS). Eating habits, sociodemographic variables, approximate weight and height were asked about. A cluster analysis was used to distinguish three typologies that differed significantly in the scores on the SWLS, SWFL, FIS, number of days with mental health problems, self-perception of health status, body mass index, eating habits and zone of residence. Two typologies presented high levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, although the variables associated with overall well-being and in the food domain were different in each typology. The results suggest that high levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life in Ecuadorian seniors are associated with both healthful eating habits and having lunch in company, fewer mental health problems and greater importance assigned to family.

  9. Gender-specific out-migration, deforestation and urbanization in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Alisson F.; Carr, David L.

    2005-07-01

    The Ecuadorian Amazon, one of the richest reserves of biodiversity in the world, has faced one of the highest rates of deforestation of any Amazonian nation. Most of this forest elimination has been caused by agricultural colonization that followed the discovery of oil fields in 1967. Since the 1990s, an increasing process of urbanization has also engendered new patterns of population mobility within the Amazon, along with traditional ways by which rural settlers make their living. However, while very significant in its effects on deforestation, urbanization and regional development, population mobility within the Amazon has hardly been studied at all, as well as the distinct migration patterns between men and women. This paper uses a longitudinal dataset of 250 farm households in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon to understand differentials between men and women migrants to urban and rural destinations and between men and women non-migrants. First, we use hazard analysis based on the Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimator to obtain the cumulative probability that an individual living in the study area in 1990 or at time t, will out-migrated at some time, t+ n, before 1999. Results indicate that out-migration to other rural areas in the Amazon, especially pristine areas is considerably greater than out-migration to the growing, but still incipient, Amazonian urban areas. Furthermore, men are more likely to out-migrate to rural areas than women, while the reverse occurs for urban areas. Difference-of-means tests were employed to examine potential factors accounting for differentials between male and female out-migration to urban and rural areas. Among the key results, relative to men younger women are more likely to out-migrate to urban areas; more difficult access from farms to towns and roads constrains women's migration; and access to new lands in the Amazon-an important cause of further deforestation-is more associated with male out-migration. Economic factors such as

  10. Mercury concentrations in urine of amerindian populations near oil fields in the peruvian and ecuadorian amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T.; Ross, Nancy; Mergler, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mercury is a global contaminant with toxic, persistent effects on human health. Petroleum extraction is an important source of elemental mercury; little is known about human exposure levels near oil fields in the Amazon basin. Objectives: To characterize mercury levels in people living near oil production sites in the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon, controlling for fish consumption, occupation, source of water and socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: Analyze mercury levels in urine samples using cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry from 76 indigenous men and women in eight riverine communities situated near oil wells or pipelines. Subjects answered a questionnaire soliciting socio-demographic, occupational and dietary information. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression modeling. Results: The mean value of U-Hg was 2.61 μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 2.14–3.08), with 7% of the sample recording values above the global background standard suggested by The World Health Organization (5 μg/g creatinine). Women who used water from a surface source had two and a half times the amount of mercury in their urine (mean=3.70 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 2.26–5.15) compared with women who used other water sources (mean =1.39 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 0.51–2.25). Men who were involved in an oil clean-up operation had twice as much mercury in their urine (mean =3.07 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.97–4.16) as did those who worked on other tasks (mean =1.56 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.48–2.65). Mercury levels were not associated with the number of fish meals per week. Conclusions: Indigenous peoples of the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon living near oil production sites generally had urine mercury levels within the global background standard suggested by the World Health Organization. Increased levels of mercury in urine were detected for men involved in oil spill remediation and for women who relied on surface water for household needs. These

  11. Mercury concentrations in urine of amerindian populations near oil fields in the peruvian and ecuadorian amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Jena, E-mail: jena.webb@mail.mcgill.ca [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3A2K6 (Canada); Coomes, Oliver T., E-mail: oliver.coomes@mcgill.ca [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3A2K6 (Canada); Ross, Nancy, E-mail: nancy.ross@mcgill.ca [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3A2K6 (Canada); Mergler, Donna, E-mail: mergler.donna@uqam.ca [CINBIOSE,UQAM, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case postale 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada, H3C3P8 (Canada)

    2016-11-15

    Background: Mercury is a global contaminant with toxic, persistent effects on human health. Petroleum extraction is an important source of elemental mercury; little is known about human exposure levels near oil fields in the Amazon basin. Objectives: To characterize mercury levels in people living near oil production sites in the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon, controlling for fish consumption, occupation, source of water and socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: Analyze mercury levels in urine samples using cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry from 76 indigenous men and women in eight riverine communities situated near oil wells or pipelines. Subjects answered a questionnaire soliciting socio-demographic, occupational and dietary information. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression modeling. Results: The mean value of U-Hg was 2.61 μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 2.14–3.08), with 7% of the sample recording values above the global background standard suggested by The World Health Organization (5 μg/g creatinine). Women who used water from a surface source had two and a half times the amount of mercury in their urine (mean=3.70 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 2.26–5.15) compared with women who used other water sources (mean =1.39 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 0.51–2.25). Men who were involved in an oil clean-up operation had twice as much mercury in their urine (mean =3.07 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.97–4.16) as did those who worked on other tasks (mean =1.56 μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.48–2.65). Mercury levels were not associated with the number of fish meals per week. Conclusions: Indigenous peoples of the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon living near oil production sites generally had urine mercury levels within the global background standard suggested by the World Health Organization. Increased levels of mercury in urine were detected for men involved in oil spill remediation and for women who relied on surface water for household needs. These

  12. Acetylcholinesterase activity, cohabitation with floricultural workers, and blood pressure in Ecuadorian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Lopez, Jose R; Jacobs, David R; Himes, John H; Alexander, Bruce H

    2013-05-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are commonly used pesticides that can effect hemodynamic changes through increased cholinergic stimulation. Children of agricultural workers are likely to have paraoccupational exposures to pesticides, but the potential physiological impact of such exposures is unclear. We investigated whether secondary pesticide exposures were associated with blood pressure and heart rate among children living in agricultural Ecuadorian communities. This cross-sectional study included 271 children 4-9 years of age [51% cohabited with one or more flower plantation workers (mean duration, 5.2 years)]. Erythrocyte AChE activity was measured using the EQM Test-mate system. Linear regression models were used to estimate associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate with AChE activity, living with flower workers, duration of cohabitation with a flower worker, number of flower workers in the child's home, and number of practices that might increase children's exposure to pesticides. Mean (± SD) AChE activity was 3.14 ± 0.49 U/mL. A 1-U/mL decrease in AChE activity was associated with a 2.86-mmHg decrease in SBP (95% CI: -5.20, -0.53) and a 2.89-mmHg decrease in DBP (95% CI: -5.00, -0.78), after adjustment for potential confounders. Children living with flower workers had lower SBP (-1.72 mmHg; 95% CI: -3.53, 0.08) than other children, and practices that might increase exposure also were associated with lower SBP. No significant associations were found between exposures and heart rate. Our findings suggest that subclinical secondary exposures to pesticides may affect vascular reactivity in children. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings.

  13. Availability, diversification and versatility explain human selection of introduced plants in Ecuadorian traditional medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Hart

    Full Text Available Globally, a majority of people use plants as a primary source of healthcare and introduced plants are increasingly discussed as medicine. Protecting this resource for human health depends upon understanding which plants are used and how use patterns will change over time. The increasing use of introduced plants in local pharmacopoeia has been explained by their greater abundance or accessibility (availability hypothesis, their ability to cure medical conditions that are not treated by native plants (diversification hypothesis, or as a result of the introduced plants' having many different simultaneous roles (versatility hypothesis. In order to describe the role of introduced plants in Ecuador, and to test these three hypotheses, we asked if introduced plants are over-represented in the Ecuadorian pharmacopoeia, and if their use as medicine is best explained by the introduced plants' greater availability, different therapeutic applications, or greater number of use categories. Drawing on 44,585 plant-use entries, and the checklist of >17,000 species found in Ecuador, we used multi-model inference to test if more introduced plants are used as medicines in Ecuador than expected by chance, and examine the support for each of the three hypotheses above. We find nuanced support for all hypotheses. More introduced plants are utilized than would be expected by chance, which can be explained by geographic distribution, their strong association with cultivation, diversification (except with regard to introduced diseases, and therapeutic versatility, but not versatility of use categories. Introduced plants make a disproportionately high contribution to plant medicine in Ecuador. The strong association of cultivation with introduced medicinal plant use highlights the importance of the maintenance of human-mediated environments such as homegardens and agroforests for the provisioning of healthcare services.

  14. Volcanic impediments in the progressive development of pre-Columbian civilizations in the Ecuadorian Andes

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    Hall, Minard L.; Mothes, Patricia A.

    2008-10-01

    Archaeological investigations in Ecuador have proposed that there appear to be hiatus or anomalous jumps in the progressive development of pre-Columbian indigenous cultures, based upon the fact that their ceramics and tools demonstrate abrupt advances in their sophistication at several horizons in the soil profile. Because some of these horizons are clearly associated with volcanic ash layers, archaeologists have sought a causal relation with volcanism, that is, the eruptive events or their products severely interfered with the early inhabitants, resulting in their abandonment of certain areas. Geological studies of the young volcanoes in the Ecuadorian Andes carried out during the past two decades now allow us to make a more thorough evaluation of the role of volcanism during the Holocene. This contribution briefly describes the principal Holocene volcanic events and the distribution of the corresponding eruptive products found along the InterAndean Valley, from southern Colombia to central Ecuador. Only those events that were sufficiently large that they could have had a detrimental effect on the valley's early residents are discussed. Dacitic and rhyolitic ash flows, as well as numerous debris flows (lahars) have occurred frequently and their deposits cover many valleys and floodplains, where early inhabitants probably settled. The enormous Chillos Valley lahar, associated with the 4500 yBP eruption of Cotopaxi volcano, buried soils containing ceramics of the early Formative Period. However, the greatest impact upon mankind was probably not these short-lived violent events, but rather the burying of settlements and agricultural fields by ash fallout, the effect of which may have lasted hundreds of years. Ash fall layers are observed in pre-Columbian cultural horizons in the soil profile, occurring in the InterAndean Valley, the lower flanks of the Andes, and along Ecuador's Pacific coast, the oldest corresponding to the 5800 yBP eruption of Cotopaxi. This brief

  15. Declining Use of Wild Resources by Indigenous Peoples of the Ecuadorian Amazon.

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    Gray, Clark L; Bozigar, Matthew; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Wild product harvesting by forest-dwelling peoples, including hunting, fishing, forest product collection and timber harvesting, is believed to be a major threat to the biodiversity of tropical forests worldwide. Despite this threat, few studies have attempted to quantify these activities across time or across large spatial scales. We use a unique longitudinal household survey (n = 480) to describe changes in these activities over time in 32 indigenous communities from five ethnicities in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. To provide insight into the drivers of these changes, we also estimate multilevel statistical models of these activities as a function of household and community characteristics. These analyses reveal that participation in hunting, fishing, and forest product collection is high but declining across time and across ethnicities, with no evidence for a parallel decline in resource quality. However, participation in timber harvesting did not significantly decline and there is evidence of a decline in resource quality. Multilevel statistical models additionally reveal that household and community characteristics such as ethnicity, demographic characteristics, wealth, livelihood diversification, access to forest, participation in conservation programs and exposure to external markets are significant predictors of wild product harvesting. These characteristics have changed over time but cannot account for declining participation in resource harvesting. This finding suggests that participation is declining due to changes in the regional-scale social and economic context, including urbanization and the expansion of government infrastructure and services. The lesson for conservationists is that macro-scale social and economic conditions can drive reductions in wild product harvesting even in the absence of successful conservation interventions.

  16. Effect of effort-reward imbalance and burnout on infection control among Ecuadorian nurses.

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    Colindres, C V; Bryce, E; Coral-Rosero, P; Ramos-Soto, R M; Bonilla, F; Yassi, A

    2018-06-01

    Nurses are frequently exposed to transmissible infections, yet adherence to infection control measures is suboptimal. There has been inadequate research into how the psychosocial work environment affects compliance with infection control measures, especially in low- and middle-income countries. To examine the association between effort-reward imbalance, burnout and adherence to infection control measures among nurses in Ecuador. A cross-sectional study linking psychosocial work environment indicators to infection control adherence. The study was conducted among 333 nurses in four Ecuadorian hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographic variables, perceived infection risk, effort-reward imbalance, burnout and infection control adherence. Increased effort-reward imbalance was found to be a unique incremental predictor of exposure to burnout, and burnout was a negative unique incremental predictor of nurses' self-reported adherence with infection control measures. Results suggest an effort-reward imbalance-burnout continuum, which, at higher levels, contributes to reduce adherence to infection control. The Ecuadorean government has made large efforts to improve universal access to health care, yet this study suggests that workplace demands on nurses remain problematic. This study highlights the contribution of effort-reward-imbalance-burnout continuum to the chain of infection by decreased adherence to infection control of nurses. Health authorities should closely monitor the effect of new policies on psychosocial work environment, especially when expanding services and increasing public accessibility with limited resources. Additionally, organizational and psychosocial interventions targeting effort-reward imbalance and burnout in nurses should be considered part of a complete infection prevention and control strategy. Further study is warranted to identify interventions that best ameliorate effort-reward imbalance and burnout in low- and middle

  17. Predicting hunter behavior of indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon: insights from a household production model

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    Enrique de la Montaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many indigenous communities living in the Amazon rely on hunting and fishing to meet the majority of their protein needs. Despite the importance of these practices, few studies from the region have analyzed the socioeconomic drivers of hunting and fishing at the household level. We propose a household production model to assess the effect of key economic parameters on hunting and fishing in small indigenous communities located in the Ecuadorian Amazon, whose principal source of protein is derived from hunting and fishing. The model was validated using empirical data from two communities that reflect different levels of market integration and forest conservation. Demand and supply functions were generated from household data gathered over 19 months. Elasticities were derived to determine the sensitivity of the decision to engage in hunting to exogenous parameters such as off-farm wages, hunting costs, bushmeat price, penalties for the illegal sale of bushmeat, and biological characteristics of the game species. After calibrating the model, we simulated changes in the key economic parameters. The parameter that most directly affected hunting activity in both communities was off-farm wages. Simulating a 10% wage increase resulted in a 16-20% reduction in harvested biomass, while a 50% increase diminished harvested biomass by > 50%. Model simulations revealed that bushmeat price and penalties for illegal trade also had important effects on hunter behavior in terms of amount of bushmeat sold, but not in terms of total harvest. As a tool for understanding hunters' economic decision-making, the model provides a basis for developing strategies that promote sustainable hunting and wildlife conservation while protecting indigenous livelihoods.

  18. Determinantes de la temporalidad en el mercado laboral ecuatoriano || Determinants of Temporality in Ecuadorian Labor Market

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    Chávez, Yannira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las diferencias que existen dentro del mercado laboral ecuatoriano, en las diferentes ramas de actividad, evidencian los niveles de formación que los trabajadores deben tener para evitar efectos negativos. Por tal motivo, en este estudio se analiza el papel que las características personales, laborales y geográficas desempeñan en la probabilidad de obtener un contrato temporal frente a uno indefinido. El análisis es realizado por rama de actividad, para determinar qué características posibilitarán la existencia del contrato temporal en cada una de ellas. Para lograr este objetivo, se estiman modelos de regresión logística utilizando los datos de la Encuesta de Empleo, Desempleo y Subempleo desde el 2º trimestre del año 2007 al 2º trimestre del año 2010, elaborada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC. || The differences that exist inside the labor Ecuadorian market, in the different branches of activity, demonstrate the training levels that the workers must have to avoid negative effects. However, in this study, the role played by individual, jobs and residence characteristics are analyzed on the probability of having a fixed-term employment versus permanent employment. It is analyzed concretely by branch of activity, to check which are the characteristics that would make it possible the existence of the fixed-term employment in each of them. To achieve this aim, there are estimated models of logistic regression using the information of the Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment from 2nd quarter of 2007 to the 2nd quarter of 2010, elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INEC.

  19. Morbidity and mortality disparities among colonist and indigenous populations in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

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    Kuang-Yao Pan, William; Erlien, Christine; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2010-02-01

    Rural populations living in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) experience the highest health burden of any region in the country. Two independent studies of colonist and indigenous groups living in the NEA are used to compare their morbidity and mortality experiences. Colonist data are from a probability sample of land plots in 1999, while indigenous data are from a representative sample of the five largest ethnicities (Quichua, Shuar, Huaorani, Cofan, Secoya) collected in 2001. Poisson regression was used to compare morbidity. Results indicate clear differences in health between populations. Indigenous groups had 30% higher probability of mortality and 63% higher incidence rate of all-cause morbidity compared to colonists. Vector-borne, chronic, gastrointestinal, and diseases of unknown origin were particularly high among indigenous groups. Factors associated with morbidity varied: morbidity rates were similar for the two youngest age groups (0-4 and 5-9), but indigenous people aged 15-39 and 40+ had almost double the morbidity compared to colonists; larger households, later months of data collection and less pollution were associated with less morbidity in both groups; better infrastructure access (electricity and roads) was generally associated with lower morbidity in both groups; and associations of land use were different by group with more cultivation of perennials and fewer annuals associated with less morbidity for colonists, but more for indigenous groups. These results demonstrate the health disparities that exist among indigenous and non-indigenous populations even when living in the same geographic region. Land use itself exemplifies the cultural and contextual differences that are evident in health, since land use decisions are related to broader demographic and economic factors that influence overall ecological and human health. Ongoing population-environment and/or environment-health research needs to recognize the broader factors involved when

  20. Quality of Life in Ecuadorian Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-sectional Study.

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    Cruz-Castillo, Yessenia; Montero, Nadia; Salazar-Ponce, Rosa; Villacís-Tamayo, Rómulo

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and associated clinical, demographic and socioeconomic factors in a cohort of Ecuadorian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cross-sectional descriptive study evaluating (HRQoL) with the Spanish version of the Quality of Life Rheumatoid Arthritis (QoL-RA) instrument in patients diagnosed with RA according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism. In addition, the following data were obtained: age, sex, marital status, socioeconomic stratum, comorbidities, disease duration, medication, rheumatoid factor positivity, disease activity using the simplified disease activity index and physical functionality measured with the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ). A total of 163 patients were assessed, the mean score of the QoL-RA scale was 6.84±1.5 points. The highest measurements were obtained in the domains of interaction (8.04±1.9) and support (8.01±2). The factors that were associated with the overall quality of life assessment were: functionality measured with MHAQ (r=-0.70; P<.001); disease duration in years (r=-0.178; P<.05); and disease activity (mean difference of 1.5; 95%CI: 1.09 to 1.91). The patients evaluated had a good to moderate HRQoL. The domains related to support and social life were those with the highest scores and the lowest scores were related to pain and nervous tension. Functionality, duration, and disease activity were statistically associated with HRQoL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  1. Does Ecuadorians with asthma has preferences in the use of information and communication technologies? Pilot study

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    Iván Chérrez-Ojeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate communication between asthmatic patients and their physicians may interfere directly with asthma control. In the last years, the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs it has increased in Latin-America. This technology seems to be a good tool to improve communication and management of the asthmatic patient. Objective: We evaluated the frequency and preference patterns of communication and information technologies in Ecuadorian patients with bronchial asthma. Methods: We conducted a pilot cross-sectional study to identify the frequency and preferences of ICT in patients with asthma. The Spanish version of the Michigan questionnaire was used. Age and educational level were categorized into 3 groups. We used logistic regression between these groups regarding the frequency of use, interest in seeking and receiving information related to their asthma for the age and educational level of the patients. Results: A total of 222 patients participated in our study. The mean age was 45.6 years (SD 17.4, the most common sex was female with 89.25 %. Almost all patients had a cell phone (87.5 % and internet access (62.7 %. The three ICTs most likely to be used to search for or receive information about their illness were WhatsApp, Facebook and Email (p <0.05. Conclusion: Information and communication technologies improve the care of asthmatic patients. In our pilot study email and text messages are the most preferred ICT among patients however WhatsApp and Facebook may be appropriate for certain ages especially young asthmatic. Knowledge of preferences can help the development of ICT in a personalized way and improve the outcomes in patients with asthma.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of Atractus (Serpentes, Dipsadidae), with emphasis on Ecuadorian species and the description of three new taxa

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    Arteaga, Alejandro; Mebert, Konrad; Valencia, Jorge H.; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Reyes-Puig, Carolina; Vieira-Fernandes, José L.; Guayasamin, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We present a molecular phylogeny of snake genus Atractus, with an improved taxon sampling that includes 30 of the 140 species currently recognized. The phylogenetic tree supports the existence of at least three new species in the Pacific lowlands and adjacent Andean slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, which we describe here. A unique combination of molecular, meristic and color pattern characters support the validity of the new species. With the newly acquired data, we propose and define the Atractus iridescens species group, as well as redefine the Atractus roulei species group. The species Atractus iridescens is reported for the first time in Ecuador, whereas Atractus bocourti and Atractus medusa are removed from the herpetofauna of this country. We provide the first photographic vouchers of live specimens for Atractus multicinctus, Atractus paucidens and Atractus touzeti, along with photographs of 19 other Ecuadorian Atractus species. The current status of Atractus occidentalis and Atractus paucidens is maintained based on the discovery of new material referable to these species. With these changes, the species number reported in Ecuador increases to 27, a number that is likely to increase as material not examined in this work becomes available and included in systematic studies. PMID:28769604

  3. Imaging the deep structures of the convergent plates along the Ecuadorian subduction zone through receiver function analysis

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    Galve, A.; Charvis, P.; Regnier, M. M.; Font, Y.; Nocquet, J. M.; Segovia, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Ecuadorian subduction zone was affected by several large M>7.5 earthquakes. While we have low resolution on the 1942, 1958 earthquakes rupture zones extension, the 2016 Pedernales earthquake, that occurs at the same location than the 1942 earthquake, give strong constraints on the deep limit of the seismogenic zone. This downdip limit is caused by the onset of plasticity at a critical temperature (> 350-450 °C for crustal materials, or serpentinized mantle wedge, and eventually > 700 °C for dry mantle). However we still don't know exactly where is the upper plate Moho and therefore what controls the downdip limit of Ecuadorian large earthquakes seismogenic zone. For several years Géoazur and IG-EPN have maintained permanent and temporary networks (ADN and JUAN projects) along the margin to register the subduction zone seismological activity. Although Ecuador is not a good place to perform receiver function due to its position with respect to the worldwide teleseismic sources, the very long time deployment compensate this issue. We performed a frequency dependent receiver function analysis to derive (1) the thickness of the downgoing plate, (2) the interplate depth and (3) the upper plate Moho. These constraints give the frame to interpretation on the seismogenic zone of the 2016 Pedernales earthquake.

  4. Involvement of Religious Factors on the Attitude Toward Organs Donation Among the Ecuadorian Population Resident in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, A; Lopez-Navas, A; Iniesta, A; Mikla, M; Martinez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Ramirez, P; Parrilla, P

    2015-11-01

    The attitude toward cadaveric organ donation is modulated by different factors, such as religious beliefs. This study sought to analyze the attitude of nationals of Ecuador resident in Spain regarding deceased organ donation depending on their religious beliefs. A sample of Ecuadorian population resident in Spain (n = 461) stratified by age and sex was selected. We used a validated questionnaire of psychosocial aspects (PCID-DTO Rios), which is self-administered and anonymous. The χ(2) test, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze data. Of the 461 survey respondents, 86% (n = 395) were Catholic, 7% (n = 31) were believers of other faiths, and 7% (n = 35) declared themselves agnostic or atheist. A significant association between the religious beliefs and attitude toward organ donation among those tested can be objectified: 61% of Catholics (n = 241), 42% of believers in non-Catholic doctrines (n = 13), and 49% of atheists/agnostics (n = 17) were in favor of donation (P = .05). Among religious people, 77% of respondents believed their religion was favorable toward donation and 35%, although in favor of organ cadaveric donation, consider their religion contrary to donation (P organ donation among the Ecuadorian population resident in Spain is influenced by religious beliefs and considers what their religion says regarding organ donation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Normative structures, collaboration and conflict in irrigation; a case study of the Píllaro North Canal Irrigation System, Ecuadorian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes conflict and collaboration and their relation to normative structures based on a case study of the history and external interventions of the Píllaro North Canal Irrigation System in the Ecuadorian Highlands. It does so by using Ostrom’s framework for analyzing the sustainability

  6. Are Schools Promoting Social and Economic Integration of Migrant and Ethnic Minorities? The Experiences of Some Young People of Ecuadorian Background in Spain

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    Ron-Balsera, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Although school is usually considered the most promising institution for the social and economic integration of young people of migration background, the educational outcomes of young people of Ecuadorian background signal a broken promise. Their families, peers, and teachers mediate the effect of the intersections of age, gender, class and…

  7. "Más allá del fútbol": Teaching Highland Afro-Ecuadorian Culture and Engaging Race and Racism through Documentary Film

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    Ruggiero, Diana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents strategies for teaching highland Afro-Ecuadorian culture and for broaching the topic of race and racism through the documentary film "Más allá del fútbol." Produced in 2008 by the author, this film explores "afrochoteño" identity and culture as well as the issues of race and racism in Ecuador through a…

  8. Geochemical composition of river loads in the Tropical Andes: first insights from the Ecuadorian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio Poma, Gustavo; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; Bouillon, Steven; Álvarez, Lenín; Zhiminaicela, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    Processes governing the transport of total suspended material (TSM), total dissolved solids (TDS) and particulate organic carbon (POC) are currently not well known for Tropical Andean river systems. We analyzed the geochemical behavior and the budgets of the particulate and dissolved loads for several sub-catchments in the Paute River basin in the southern Ecuadorian Andes, and examined how anthropogenic activities influenced the dynamics of riverine suspended and dissolved loads. We gathered a large dataset by regularly sampling 8 rivers for their TSM, POC, and TDS. Furthermore, we determined the major elements in the dissolved load and stable isotope composition (δ13C) of both the POC, and the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The rivers that were sampled flow through a wide range of land uses including: 3 nature conservation areas (100 - 300 Km²), an intensive grassland and arable zone (142 Km²); downstream of two cities (1611 and 443 Km²), and 2 degraded basins (286 and 2492 Km²). We described the geochemical characteristics of the river loads both qualitatively and quantitatively. Important differences in TSM, POC and TDS yields were found between rivers: the concentration of these loads increases according with human activities within the basins. For all rivers, TSM, TDS and POC concentrations were dependent on discharge. Overall, a clear relation between TSM and POC (r²=0.62) was observed in all tributaries. The C:N ratios and δ13CPOC suggest that the POC in most rivers is mainly derived from soil organic matter eroded from soils dominated by C3 vegetation (δ13CPOC < -22‰). Low Ca:Si ratios (<1)and high δ13CDIC (-9 to -4) in the Yanuncay, Tomebamba1 and Machángara, rivers suggest that weathering of silica rocks is dominant in these catchments, and that the DIC is mainly derived from the soil or atmospheric CO2. In contrast, the Ca:Si ratio was high for the Burgay and Jadán rivers (1-13), and the low δ13CDIC values (-9 to -15) suggest that

  9. Ecuadorian Cancer Patients' Preference for Information and Communication Technologies: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrez Ojeda, Ivan; Vanegas, Emanuel; Torres, Michell; Calderón, Juan Carlos; Calero, Erick; Cherrez, Annia; Felix, Miguel; Mata, Valeria; Cherrez, Sofia; Simancas, Daniel

    2018-02-20

    The instantaneous spread of information, low costs, and broad availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) make them an attractive platform for managing care, patient communication, and medical interventions in cancer treatment. There is little information available in Latin America about the level of usage of ICTs for and by cancer patients. Our study attempts to fill this gap. The aim of this study was to assess the level of ICT use and patterns of preferences among cancer patients. We conducted an anonymous cross-sectional survey study in 500 Ecuadorian cancer patients. This questionnaire consisted of 22 items about demographic and clinical data, together with the preferences of people who use ICTs. Chi-square, crude, and adjusted logistic regressions were performed. Of the total, 43.2% (216/500) of participants reported that they had access to the Internet, and 25.4% (127/500) reported that they neither owned a cell phone nor did they have access to the Internet. The Internet constituted the highest usage rate as a source of information about malignant diseases (74.3%, 162/218) regardless of age (PWhatsApp (66.5%, 145/218) and short message service (SMS) text messaging (61.0%, 133/218) were widely reported as interesting communication channels. Similarly, WhatsApp (72.0%, 157/218) followed by SMS (63.8%, 139/218) were reported as the preferred ICTs through which patients would like to ask physicians about diseases. Adjusted regression analysis showed that patients aged between 40 and 64 years were more likely to be interested in receiving information through SMS (odds ratio, OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.92-13.32), as well as for asking questions to physicians through this same media (OR 9.78, CI 3.45-27.67) than the oldest group. WhatsApp, SMS, and email are effective and widely used ICTs that can promote communication between cancer patients and physicians. According to age range, new ICTs such as Facebook are still emerging. Future studies should

  10. Ecuadorian Cancer Patients’ Preference for Information and Communication Technologies: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background The instantaneous spread of information, low costs, and broad availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) make them an attractive platform for managing care, patient communication, and medical interventions in cancer treatment. There is little information available in Latin America about the level of usage of ICTs for and by cancer patients. Our study attempts to fill this gap. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the level of ICT use and patterns of preferences among cancer patients. Methods We conducted an anonymous cross-sectional survey study in 500 Ecuadorian cancer patients. This questionnaire consisted of 22 items about demographic and clinical data, together with the preferences of people who use ICTs. Chi-square, crude, and adjusted logistic regressions were performed. Results Of the total, 43.2% (216/500) of participants reported that they had access to the Internet, and 25.4% (127/500) reported that they neither owned a cell phone nor did they have access to the Internet. The Internet constituted the highest usage rate as a source of information about malignant diseases (74.3%, 162/218) regardless of age (PWhatsApp (66.5%, 145/218) and short message service (SMS) text messaging (61.0%, 133/218) were widely reported as interesting communication channels. Similarly, WhatsApp (72.0%, 157/218) followed by SMS (63.8%, 139/218) were reported as the preferred ICTs through which patients would like to ask physicians about diseases. Adjusted regression analysis showed that patients aged between 40 and 64 years were more likely to be interested in receiving information through SMS (odds ratio, OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.92-13.32), as well as for asking questions to physicians through this same media (OR 9.78, CI 3.45-27.67) than the oldest group. Conclusions WhatsApp, SMS, and email are effective and widely used ICTs that can promote communication between cancer patients and physicians. According to age range, new ICTs such as

  11. Social Representations of Gynecologic Cancer Screening Assessment a Qualitative research on Ecuadorian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Yolanda; Godoy, Clara; Reyes, Juan

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding gynecologic cancer screening on Ecuadorian women users of primary care facilities, to identify the social representations that users of health services make about these programs and their influence on the decision to undergo a screening. An exploratory and qualitative research design was held using focus groups and in-depth interviews for data collection. A narrative content analysis of the results was conducted. Women's knowledge on gynecological cancer screening was confusing. Most frequent misconceptions related to the pap smear were: the belief that it could be useful for detecting pregnancy, ovarian cysts or infections. Most of the participants stated that the pap smear procedure is a traumatic and painful experience. Regarding to mammography women said it was used for sick woman and this procedure by itself may cause cancer. El propósito de esta investigación fue explorar los conocimientos, actitudes y creencias respecto a los programas de detección del cáncer ginecológico entre usuarias de centros de atención primaria de salud para identificar las representaciones sociales que las usuarias de los servicios de salud elaboran acerca de estos programas y de los diferentes procedimientos que comprenden. El diseño de la investigación fue exploratorio y cualitativo, mediante grupos focales y entrevistas a profundidad, con el respectivo análisis narrativo e interpretativo del contenido. Se encontró conocimiento confuso acerca de los programas de tamizaje de cáncer ginecológico y dificultades asociadas a la realización de los procedimientos. Los significados más frecuentes acerca de los programas fueron: el uso de la citología cérvico-vaginal para detectar embarazo, quistes ováricos o infecciones. La mayoría de los participantes asociaba este procedimiento con una experiencia dolorosa y traumática. Respecto al autoexamen de mamas, lo calificaron como un masaje

  12. Traditional versus agricultural lifestyle among Shuar women of the Ecuadorian Amazon: effects on leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgärde, Folke; Widén, Iréne; Gebb, Miriam; Ahrén, Bo

    2004-10-01

    Leptin is a key biological marker related to energy balance and development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Its levels are increased in populations with a high degree of the metabolic syndrome. Life history of evolution has, however, largely taken place under the ecological context of hunting and gathering. In this study, we explored whether the first steps of transition to sedentary agriculture involve a change of body composition, plasma leptin concentration, and markers of the metabolic syndrome. A total of 59 healthy Shuar Amerindian women living in 5 isolated communities in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rain forest were examined. Women (n = 33) from the largest and oldest community, Yuwientsa, who are more dependent on agriculture had higher fat mass (11.7 +/- 3.3 v 14.5 +/- 4.0 kg; P = .023) but the same body mass index (24.1 +/- 2.7 v 23.1 +/- 2.8 kg/m2; not significant [NS]) and lean body mass (41.0 +/- 5.0 v 40.2 +/- 6.2 kg; NS) than women (n = 26) from the 4 traditional hunter/gather settlements. Furthermore, women from Yuwientsia had higher leptin (5.5 +/- 3.1 v 4.1 +/- 2.7 ng/mL; P = .021) and plasma insulin levels (49.8 +/- 37.4 v 35.5 +/- 12.7 pmol/L; P = .013). Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values (8.8 +/- 4.8 v 6.1 +/- 2.2; P = .004) and plasma triglyceride levels (2.3 +/- 1.0 v 1.7 +/- 0.6 mmol/L; P = .025) as markers of the metabolic syndrome were also increased in the Yuwientsa population. Mean plasma glucagon concentrations were not different between the groups. We conclude that body fat and levels of insulin and leptin are higher in the population more dependent on agriculture for living. In fact, the leptin concentrations from the 4 hunter/gather communities are the lowest mean value ever reported from a population of healthy females. As there are no genetic or biologic differences between the Shuar Indians from the 5 communities, we hypothesize that behavioral responses to a changing environment may be the key to the development of

  13. Mercury Pollution in Soils from the Yacuambi River (Ecuadorian Amazon) as a Result of Gold Placer Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Charo; Collahuazo, Luis; Torres, Sandra; Chinchay, Luis; Ayala, Diana; Benítez, Paulina

    2015-09-01

    Gold mining is known to generate important economic products but also to produce several types of contamination/pollution. We report here the first data about Hg concentrations in the soils of the Yacuambi River in the Ecuadorian Amazon. We analyzed soil samples to assess the extent of contamination caused by gold placer mining in this area. Hg concentrations in soils exceeded the local background concentrations. High concentrations of Mn, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn in some soil samples were probably derived from the geology of the site, which is rich in polysulfides and metamorphic rocks. Placer mining may accelerate the natural release of these elements to the environment by the exposure of the bedrock to the atmosphere. Accumulation of Hg in the river soils may be a potential source of toxicity for aquatic life and a risk to human health in the future.

  14. Cooperativism in the social economy and instrument of citizen participation: the need for insertion in the Ecuadorian banana production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Domínguez Junco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecuadorian cooperative legislation dates from 1937, but it was in the fifties to sixties that took real presence at the national level, with the creation of most of cooperative organizations. The research presented addressed the importance of cooperatives in the social economy, being an instrument of civic participation and an example of teamwork, focusing the study on the need to incorporate the organization in banana production, especially of small and medium producer, being an export line highlighted in the country and especially in the province of El Oro, "called the capital of bananas". A documentary investigation was conducted and the empirical method of interviewing producers was used to understand the vision regarding the effectiveness of the work collective in banana production under the principles of cooperation.

  15. Normative structures, collaboration and conflict in irrigation; a case study of the Pillaro North Canal Irrigation System, Ecuadorian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Hoogesteger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes conflict and collaboration and their relation to normative structures based on a case study of the history and external interventions of the Píllaro North Canal Irrigation System in the Ecuadorian Highlands. It does so by using Ostrom’s framework for analyzing the sustainability of socio-ecological systems together with an analysis of the normative structures that define the governance systems through which the interactions in irrigation systems are mediated. I argue that the external interventions by the state and NGOs imposed a new governance system that undermined the existing normative structures and related organizations, leading to internal conflicts. The case study suggests that a reformulation of irrigation policies and state intervention methodologies in user managed supra-community irrigation systems in the Andes could lead to higher levels of cooperation.

  16. Longitudinal zonation of macroinvertebrates in an Ecuadorian glacier-fed stream: do tropical glacial systems fit the temperate model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.; Dangles, O.; Andino, P.

    2010-01-01

    P>1. The ecology of glacier-fed streams at temperate latitudes has been intensely studied in recent years, leading to the development of a well-validated conceptual model on the longitudinal distribution of macroinvertebrate communities downstream of the glacier margin (Freshwater Biology, 2001a...... of the equator in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our goal was to study the longitudinal distribution of the fauna in relation to environmental factors and to compare this with the conceptual model based on temperate-arctic glacier-fed streams. 3. Total density of invertebrates differed considerably at the two highest...... was numerous at the highest sites but became much less important further downstream. The Orthocladiinae were important both in numbers and species at all sites, while Diamesinae were numerous only in the middle of the reach studied and were completely absent from the upper three sites. The limited importance...

  17. Start of puberty on heifers of Ecuadorian highlands by determination of progesterone hormone by radio-immuno analysis (RIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Patricio; Alarcon, Mariana; Utreras, Gina; Vazconez, L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the beginning of the puberty in Heifers of two Ecuadorian highland farms, observing the weight, age and height in which appeared levels of progesterone hormone that were significant, the samples were analyzed throughout the radioimmunoassay technique (RIA). The experiment was performed with twenty-eight Heifers Holstein Friesan half-breed of 6 to 9 months old, fourteen each farm. The blood samples were collected each eight days, additional data as weight and height were compiled each fifteen days and fecal samples were taken each thirty days. The Heifers were separate the trial when showed levels of progesterone equal or superior 0,5 ng/ml blood serum as an indicative that the ovarian physiology has begun. The age was highly significant in the groups, showing the puberty the Heifers of the farm ''A'' 5.47 months before that the farm B, for the parameters weight and height that was not significant

  18. Ecuadorian honey types described by Kichwa community in Rio Chico, Pastaza province, Ecuador using Free-Choice Profiling

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    Patricia Vit

    Full Text Available Abstract Pastaza is the largest and least populated province in Ecuador, with seven native indigenous nationalities. The Kichwas from the Rio Chico community live near to the capital city Puyo, are recognized for their knowledge on stingless honey bees. From the 400 species of Neotropical Meliponini that make honey in cerumen pots, almost 100 thrive in Southern Ecuador, and confer such biodiversity to pot-honey. In this study sensory characteristics of Ecuadorian false and genuine honeys with diverse entomological origin: Apis mellifera – light amber and amber, Geotrigona leucogastra, Melipona grandis and Scaptotrigona sp. (S. ederi np Schwarz were investigated with Kichwa assessors (four female and four male, aged 18–62 years old. The panel was asked to taste and to identify sensory attributes of honey (appearance, taste, smell, aroma, mouthfeel, other tactile sensations, and to score their intensities in 10 cm unstructured line scales anchored with the words weak and strong, using the Free-Choice Profile methodology The Generalized Procrustes Analysis was used on the data. The first and second dimensions accounted for by 61.1% of the variance. In the descriptive sensory evaluation, darker honeys (amber A. mellifera, false and Geotrigona were separated from (light amber A. mellifera, Melipona and Scaptotrigona by the first dimension; whereas thicker honeys (A. mellifera and false were discriminated from thinner honeys (Geotrigona, Melipona and Scaptotrigona by the second dimension. The assessors were able to evaluate and differentiate honey types without previous sensory training. Remarkably, two Kichwa ladies immediately spit out the false honey, in contrast to an acceptance study on 18-honeys, where the false honey was scored among the preferred ones by 58 participants of the First Congress on Apiculture and Meliponiculture in Ecuador. Therefore, results suggest that Ecuadorian native Kichwas keep a sensory legacy of ancestral knowledge

  19. Combined preharvest and postharvest treatments affect rapid leaf wilting in Bouvardia cut flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Rob E.; Dien, van Luka; Shahin, Arwa; Heimovaara, Sjoukje; Meeteren, van Uulke; Verdonk, Julian C.

    2018-01-01

    Bouvardia is an ornamental shrub, commercially cultivated as flowering stem. Occasionally, negative water balance, which leads to rapid leaf wilting, ends vase life immediately. This work studies the effect of preharvest and postharvest conditions on vase life, water uptake and transpiration.

  20. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... imported from Colombia or the Dominican Republic because of the finding of agromyzids, when such agromyzids..., Brazil, Brunei, Canary Islands, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Ecuador, Iceland, Japan, Korea... the inspector, they cannot be cleaned or treated, or if they contain soil or other prohibited...

  1. Elegant lady a pink longiflorum lily cultivar suitable for cut flower forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim Ki-Byung,; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new pink longiflorum (Lilium longiflorum x (L. longiforum x L. rubellum)) lily cultivar was obtained by integrated intersectional hybridization techniques. The F1 intersectional hybrid was obtained by crossing between L. longiflorum 'Gelria' and wild type L. rubellum. Since the F1 hybrid was

  2. Environmental governance of pesticides in Ethiopian vegetable and cut flower production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, Belay

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe to prevent or control pests, diseases, and weeds. In this process, improper pesticide registration, distribution and use has become more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental and human health risks in many parts of the

  3. Green manure affects cut flower yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ rose bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Fabiana Aparecida Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose cultivation requires many inputs for satisfactory production, making the process expensive. Nowadays, alternative practices have been used for sustainable crop production. Green manure is an agricultural practice that aims to maintain or improve soil fertility, increasing its yielding capacity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of green manure with legumes on the yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ roses. Grafted rose seedlings were cultivated in open field for 30 months. Legumes used as green manure and planted intercropped with rose bushes were forage peanut (Arachis pintoi and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan was grown in a separate area, cut, macerated, and applied in the rows between rose bushes every 3 months. Plants of control group received no green manure, only mineral fertilizer and cattle manure, as in all other treatments. The experimental design was randomized block with four treatments (three green manure species plus the control and seven replications. The highest yield and quality of flower stems in ‘Vegas’ occurred with addition of pigeon pea on the soil surface or chemically treated (control. Forage peanut and jack bean are not suitable for intercropping with ‘Vegas’ rose bushes due to possible nutrient and water competition.

  4. Challenges and opportunities of human conflict and environmental transformation in Ecuadorian highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugh, J.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article critically analyzes the relationships among resource scarcity, conflict, and the transformation of the environment, positing several conceptual tools that provide a nuanced explanation for environmental transformation through human conflict and which overcome some of the limitations of the existing literature of political conflict. After proposing the idea of nonlinear cycles of violent degradation and demonstrating empirically how this has transformed landscapes and societies in the Ecuadorian highlands, the article examines the sociopolitical processes that occur at each of the nodes of the cycle. Specifically, it argues that the political incentives for cooperative environmental management can build confidence and be instrumental in the de-escalation of violence related to natural resource conflicts. When cooperative environmental management and dispute resolution fails, it is frequently the result of a gap between the short-term political incentives for decision makers to intervene and craft institutional solutions and the long-term pay-offs of these institutional measures for their constituents. The article argues that the destructive cycle is not deterministic, and that at each of the nodes of the cycle, opportunities exist to reach a stage of constructive negotiation, either by building on technical cooperation, mobilizing external allies and pressure agents, or by equalizing the gap in political time windows through conflict escalation so that decision makers find it in their interest to engage and help manage the conflict and mitigate global change.

    Este artículo analiza críticamente las relaciones entre la escasez de recursos naturales, los conflictos, y la transformación del medio ambiente. Propone varias herramientas conceptuales que ofrecen una explicación detallada de la transformación ambiental por medio de los conflictos humanos y que superan algunas limitaciones de la literatura sobre los conflictos pol

  5. Archaeology of the Afro-Ecuadorians in La Concepción, Ancestral Territory of the Chota-Mira Valley (Carchi-Ecuador)

    OpenAIRE

    Balanzategui , Daniela Catalina

    2017-01-01

    Historical Archaeology of the African Diaspora in the Americas urges for interdisciplinary, collaborative, and intercultural approaches to shed light on how the material culture reflects conditions of enslavement and racialization, but also process of resistance and historical reparation. This investigation is organized in five articles connected around the topic of the cultural construction of the African Diaspora identities in the Afro-Ecuadorian Ancestral Territory of the Chota-Mira Valley...

  6. Integrating river incision rates over timescales in the Ecuadorian Andes: from uplift history to current erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; Tenorio, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    River profile development is studied at different timescales, from the response to uplift over millions of years over steady state erosion rates over millennia to the response to a single event, such as a major landslide. At present, few attempts have been made to compare data obtained over various timescales. Therefore we do not know to what extent data and model results are compatible: do long-term river profile development models yield erosion rates that are compatible with information obtained over shorter time spans, both in terms of absolute rates and spatial patterns or not? Such comparisons could provide crucial insights into the nature of river development and allow us to assess the confidence we may have when predicting river response at different timescales (e.g. Kirchner et al., 2001). A major issue hampering such comparison is the uncertainty involved in the calibration of long-term river profile development models. Furthermore, calibration data on different timescales are rarely available for a specific region. In this research, we set up a river profile development model similar to the one used by Roberts & White (2010) and successfully calibrated it for the northern Ecuadorian Andes using detailed uplift and sedimentological data. Subsequently we used the calibrated model to simulate river profile development in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. The calibrated model allows to reconstruct the Andean uplift history in southern Ecuador, which is characterized by a very strong uplift phase during the last 5 My. Erosion rates derived from the modeled river incision rates were then compared with 10Be derived basin-wide erosion rates for a series of basins within the study area. We found that the model-inferred erosion rates for the last millennia are broadly compatible with the cosmogenic derived denudation rates, both in terms of absolute erosion rates as well as in terms of their spatial distribution. Hence, a relatively simple river profile development

  7. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Weigel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Household food insecurity (HFI is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin. Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81% among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact.

  8. Erato polymnioides - A novel Hg hyperaccumulator plant in ecuadorian rainforest acid soils with potential of microbe-associated phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamba, Irene; Rosado, Daniel; Kalinhoff, Carolina; Thangaswamy, Selvaraj; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Gazquez, Manuel Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) accumulation capacity was assessed in three plant species (Axonopus compressus, Erato polymnioides, and Miconia zamorensis) that grow on soils polluted by artisanal small-scale gold mines in the Ecuadorian rainforest. Individuals of three species were collected at two sampling zones: i) an intensive zone (IZ, 4.8 mg Hg kg -1 of soil) where gold extraction continues to occur, and ii) a natural zone (NZ, 0.19 mg Hg kg -1 of soil). In addition, the percentage of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization was determined in plant roots and seven fungal morphotypes isolated from rhizospheric soil. Results suggest a facilitation role of native and pollution adapted AMF on Hg phytoaccumulation. E.g., E. polymnioides increased Hg accumulation when growing with greater AMF colonization. We concluded that E. polymnioides is a good candidate for the design of microbe-assisted strategies for Hg remediation at gold mining areas. The consortia between E. polymnioides and the AMF isolated in this study could be instrumental to get a deeper understanding of the AMF role in Hg phytoaccumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. THE PERSPECTIVE OF ECUADORIAN PARENTS ON THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRACT BETWEEN FAMILY AND SCHOOL IN A MIGRATORY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscoso, María Fernanda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The school subjectivities of children and young people are related to their role as students and, therefore, are crossed by verdicts that are measured by the school success. School success should be understood as the various relationships constructed among family and academic verdicts, which depend largely on the representations made by different actors around the pedagogical contract. The aim of this study is to explore the perceptions developed by a group of Ecuadorian parents around the participation of their children in the Spanish educational system. The paper considers three aspects: a brief characterization of the family migrant journey, a presentation of parents ideas about the education of children in a trans-national context and an analysis of the discourses on some key factors in the academic trajectories of children and young people such as school support, participation of parents in the institution, criteria for the election of the school and family expectations. I support the idea that the attitude of the parents towards school, instead of being shocking or incompatible confers legitimacy to school because it reaffirms the bases in which it stands. This paper is written in Spanish.

  10. Evaluation of the diversity of Scolitids (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in the forest plantations of the central zone of the Ecuadorian littoral

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    Malena Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of Scolytinae subfamily have a worldwide distribution, and are found mainly in the Neo-tropic regions. They usually dominate the communities of wood borer insects. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity among Scolytinae species associated with balsa, teak, rubber and gamhar plantations located in the humid tropical zone of the Ecuadorian littoral. In each plantation seven flight interception traps containing an ethanol / gel mixture were installed, with a collection frequency of 15 days for three months in the dry period. A total of 1437 specimens were collected, represented by Xyleborini, Cryphalini, Corthylini and Ipini tribes. In the four plantations, 18 species of Scolitids were collected, of which 16 were recorded in the balsa plantation, while in the other plantations 10 to 12 species were found. The most abundant Scolitids were Hypothenemus spp., Corthylus spp., Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborinus bicornatulus and Premnobium cavipennis. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was higher in the balsa culture (H’= 2.37 and lower in Teak (H’= 1.57. The Jaccard similarity index was higher among the teak and rubber plantations (Cj = 0.9090 while the balsa plantation obtained less similarity with respect to the other three plantations. The greatest diversity of Scolitids was recorded in the balsa plantation, which is a native species, unlike the other forest species, which are exotic, indicating that the diversity would be influenced by the host tree and the location where they are found.

  11. Comprehensive assessment of Kichwa Ecuadorian Amazon communities for the elaboration of the Strategy for Sustainable Development. II . Socioeconomic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Irene Arias Gutiérrez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A social and economical diagnosis was made in the Amazonian Kichwa region (Napo and Pastaza Provinces for the ellaboration of a sustainable development strategy. Six communities from Anzu river valley, on the eastern slopes of the central Andes in Ecuador, were studied. The quantitative methodology consisted in surveying the residents, managers of the six communities and the heads of 64 households, scattered around five rural parishes. The measured social and economic indicators were annual dependence on local forest and cultivated resources in percentage; the indicators of education, health services and housing conditions for a proposed strategy in order to enhance a sustainable local rural development in the Ecuadorian Amazonian indigenous communities under study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were appropriately used. There are high rates of illiteracy in the communities. Kichwa families depend on local resources. The difference between the satisfaction degree of mestizo and Kichwa families is related to its population weight. There are high illiteracy rates in Boayaku, Union de Llandia and 24 de Mayo. Primary education is low in the communities, and secondary education is very low in all communities. A proposed strategy for sustainable agro-ecological community development is made.

  12. Co-Evolution and Bio-Social Construction: The Kichwa Agroforestry Systems (Chakras in the Ecuadorian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Coq-Huelva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycultured agrarian systems in Ecuadorian Amazonia (also called chakras or swollen gardens are characterised by a market-oriented crop for the generation of monetary income, for example, cocoa, other agricultural products (e.g., banana and cassava, and livestock for family farm consumption. Moreover, a chakra is an outstanding example of agroforestry production, in which ecological, social and economic elements co-evolve from a set of close and strong connections. In this context, the conservation and transformation of their biological subsystems can be understood as the result of complex interactions between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors. In turn, such interactions are essential to provide food and monetary income to the indigenous community. Relevant agency capabilities exist that could cause an agroforestry system to take a different path of co-evolution, that is, towards greater or lesser sustainability associated with different levels of complexity. In conclusion, chakras have key ecological features that can mitigate the impact of human population growth in Amazonia. Additionally, chakras have their own processes of social self-regulation which enhance the possibilities of adaptation of Kichwa communities to changing environmental conditions, being essential elements in local food sovereignty, equitable gender relations and the respect of ancestral wisdom.

  13. Comparison of Three Supervised Learning Methods for Digital Soil Mapping: Application to a Complex Terrain in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hitziger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A digital soil mapping approach is applied to a complex, mountainous terrain in the Ecuadorian Andes. Relief features are derived from a digital elevation model and used as predictors for topsoil texture classes sand, silt, and clay. The performance of three statistical learning methods is compared: linear regression, random forest, and stochastic gradient boosting of regression trees. In linear regression, a stepwise backward variable selection procedure is applied and overfitting is controlled by minimizing Mallow’s Cp. For random forest and boosting, the effect of predictor selection and tuning procedures is assessed. 100-fold repetitions of a 5-fold cross-validation of the selected modelling procedures are employed for validation, uncertainty assessment, and method comparison. Absolute assessment of model performance is achieved by comparing the prediction error of the selected method and the mean. Boosting performs best, providing predictions that are reliably better than the mean. The median reduction of the root mean square error is around 5%. Elevation is the most important predictor. All models clearly distinguish ridges and slopes. The predicted texture patterns are interpreted as result of catena sequences (eluviation of fine particles on slope shoulders and landslides (mixing up mineral soil horizons on slopes.

  14. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  15. Land Use Change on Household Farms in the Ecuadorian Amazon: Design and Implementation of an Agent-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Carlos F; Walsh, Stephen J; Frizzelle, Brian G; Xiaozheng, Yao; Malanson, George P

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an Agent-Based Model (ABM) used to simulate land use change on household farms in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA). The ABM simulates decision-making processes at the household level that is examined through a longitudinal, socio-economic and demographic survey that was conducted in 1990 and 1999. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used to establish spatial relationships between farms and their environment, while classified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is used to set initial land use/land cover conditions for the spatial simulation, assess from-to land use/land cover change patterns, and describe trajectories of land use change at the farm and landscape levels. Results from prior studies in the NEA provide insights into the key social and ecological variables, describe human behavioral functions, and examine population-environment interactions that are linked to deforestation and agricultural extensification, population migration, and demographic change. Within the architecture of the model, agents are classified as active or passive. The model comprises four modules, i.e., initialization, demography, agriculture, and migration that operate individually, but are linked through key household processes. The main outputs of the model include a spatially-explicit representation of the land use/land cover on survey and non-survey farms and at the landscape level for each annual time-step, as well as simulated socio-economic and demographic characteristics of households and communities. The work describes the design and implementation of the model and how population-environment interactions can be addressed in a frontier setting. The paper contributes to land change science by examining important pattern-process relations, advocating a spatial modeling approach that is capable of synthesizing fundamental relationships at the farm level, and links people and environment in complex ways.

  16. Hydrological modeling of the Peruvian–Ecuadorian Amazon Basin using GPM-IMERG satellite-based precipitation dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zubieta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, rainfall estimates provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM have proven applicable in hydrological studies. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM mission, which provides the new generation of rainfall estimates, is now considered a global successor to TRMM. The usefulness of GPM data in hydrological applications, however, has not yet been evaluated over the Andean and Amazonian regions. This study uses GPM data provided by the Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals (IMERG (product/final run as input to a distributed hydrological model for the Amazon Basin of Peru and Ecuador for a 16-month period (from March 2014 to June 2015 when all datasets are available. TRMM products (TMPA V7 and TMPA RT datasets and a gridded precipitation dataset processed from observed rainfall are used for comparison. The results indicate that precipitation data derived from GPM-IMERG correspond more closely to TMPA V7 than TMPA RT datasets, but both GPM-IMERG and TMPA V7 precipitation data tend to overestimate, compared to observed rainfall (by 11.1 and 15.7 %, respectively. In general, GPM-IMERG, TMPA V7 and TMPA RT correlate with observed rainfall, with a similar number of rain events correctly detected ( ∼  20 %. Statistical analysis of modeled streamflows indicates that GPM-IMERG is as useful as TMPA V7 or TMPA RT datasets in southern regions (Ucayali Basin. GPM-IMERG, TMPA V7 and TMPA RT do not properly simulate streamflows in northern regions (Marañón and Napo basins, probably because of the lack of adequate rainfall estimates in northern Peru and the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  17. Morphophysiological and productive indicators of the pepper planted in the greenhouse and in the open field in the conditions of the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Demesio Alemán Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuadorian Amazon is the poorest region of Ecuador, particularly the province of Pastaza. The production of vegetables in the region is very limited and only established in the greenhouse. The pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is a horticultural product very demanded, however, there is a criterion that cannot be grown in the area. Therefore, since 2014, the Center for Research, Posgraduate and Conservation of Amazonian Biodiversity (CIPCA, belonging to Universidad Estatal Amazonica initiated a research program to evaluate the adaptation of different horticultural species plants to conditions in the region, in order to contribute to food sustainability. The study consisted of determining the behavior of the Nathalie hybrid pepper crop, planted in greenhouse and open field conditions, for which a randomized block design was used. Productions, physiological and morphological indicators of the crop were evaluated and the results obtained were made a statistical comparison of means. The results suggest that better morphophysiological indicators are obtained when it was sown in the greenhouse, with height of 136 cm and a foliar area of 0.95 m2. However, the best productive and agricultural performance indicators were obtained outside the greenhouse, with 9 fruits per plant, with an average fruit weight of 975.80 g and an average yield of 6.42 kg m-2. This indicates the convenience of establishing this crop in the Ecuadorian Amazon without sow in the greenhouse.

  18. An Exploratory Survey to Quantify the Influence of Social Networks in the Professional Routines of Ecuadorian Journalists: Reflections on the Mediamorphosis from Ecuador (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barredo Ibáñez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Web 2.0, based on the acceptance of collective intelligence, is stimulating a global revolution in the ways of information management. This is a scenario where some alterations within the journalistic profession are imposed: the reporter becomes a gatekeeper, an observer of the symbolic content that originates from readers, rather than the traditional gatekeeper, i.e. a filter that determines the content that is necessary to post. In this new mediamorphosis, the media are becoming meeting places where people come to talk to each other. However, Ecuador poses certain challenges that hinder the development of a participatory journalism, including regulatory regimes (after the adoption of the Communications Law in 2013, low connectivity to the Internet, and even some sociocultural factors, such as low participation of Ecuadorian citizens in the public space. This article presents the results of a national survey of journalists from major Ecuadorian print and electronic media, with the goal of shedding light on the influence social networks have on those journalists’ daily routines. The results indicate a low interaction between reporters and their audiences, along with a partial ignorance of the potential that citizen participation has in the transformation of journalism.

  19. Influence of socioeconomic variables in the naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam. production in the rural community of Wamani in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Torres Navarrete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam., is an economic input of vital importance for the Ecuadorian Amazon due to multiple benefits that offers, although it requires studies that provide a basis for the naranjilla cultivation management. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of socioeconomic variables on the naranjilla production from the rural community of Wamani, Napo province in the Ecuadorian Amazon. For the study, a group-type questionnaire was conducted to 40 rural producers of naranjilla in the region, which was structured based on three levels, which included data on the property, crop management and socio-economic aspects. Additionally, a factor analysis was applied to reduce the variables dimensionality. The results showed a pattern of own land distribution which is favorable to develop the family economy. It was found that naranjilla cultivation is the most important item in the community, although there are other crops that guarantee the diversification of the productive systems, which is reflected in the socioeconomic indicators. The T-test of independent samples, indicated that there are no significant differences among indicators for clean and chemical crop management (p≥0.05, which demonstrates the feasibility of use for the cultivation of clean naranjilla as a healthier product with additional benefits for rural producers. The factorial analysis have allowed the reduction of the 16 evaluated variables in three components associated with the economic, social and productive indicators, which explained 79.46% of the total accumulated variance.

  20. Biophysical structure of the Ecuadorian economy, foreign trade, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallejo, Maria Cristina [Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Pradera E7-174 y Avenida Diego de Almagro, Quito (Ecuador)

    2010-12-15

    At the core of this paper lays the notion that a systematic analysis of material flow accounts enables us to discuss the sustainability of an economic model. Ecuador is going through a socio-ecological transition from an agrarian towards an industrial regime, based on the use of nonrenewable sources of materials and energy. Direct material flow indicators are used in this article to analyze the ecological dimension of the economy of Ecuador during 1970-2007. This approach enables the concept of societal metabolism to become operative. The paper compares societal metabolic profiles showing that per capita use of materials is still at about one-fifth of the average in the high income countries of the world. Physical flows of trade indicate that there is an ecologically unequal exchange. Whereas a positive trade balance is desirable from an economic policy, its counterpart in physical units has been a persistent net outflow of material resources, the extraction of which causes environmental impacts and social conflicts. (author)

  1. Biophysical structure of the Ecuadorian economy, foreign trade, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, Maria Cristina

    2010-01-01

    At the core of this paper lays the notion that a systematic analysis of material flow accounts enables us to discuss the sustainability of an economic model. Ecuador is going through a socio-ecological transition from an agrarian towards an industrial regime, based on the use of nonrenewable sources of materials and energy. Direct material flow indicators are used in this article to analyze the ecological dimension of the economy of Ecuador during 1970-2007. This approach enables the concept of societal metabolism to become operative. The paper compares societal metabolic profiles showing that per capita use of materials is still at about one-fifth of the average in the high income countries of the world. Physical flows of trade indicate that there is an ecologically unequal exchange. Whereas a positive trade balance is desirable from an economic policy, its counterpart in physical units has been a persistent net outflow of material resources, the extraction of which causes environmental impacts and social conflicts. (author)

  2. Evaluating Safeguards in a Conservation Incentive Program: Participation, Consent, and Benefit Sharing in Indigenous Communities of the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Krause

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Critics suggest that Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ may not generate improvements in well-being for participating stakeholders, and may in fact undermine indigenous rights. To ensure positive social benefits from REDD+ projects, the United Nations REDD Programme has proposed core safeguards, including local stakeholder participation; free, prior, and informed consent; and equitable distribution of benefits. However, there is little experience to date in implementing and evaluating these safeguards. We apply these core safeguards as a framework to study how people in indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon perceive and benefit from Programa Socio Bosque, a conservation incentive program in Ecuador's national REDD+ Programme portfolio. We interviewed 101 individuals in five communities that had participated in the Programa Socio Bosque for at least 18 months. Close to 80% of respondents reported that the decision to join Socio Bosque was made democratically, that they were familiar with the conservation goals of Socio Bosque, and that they were aware which area their community had selected for conservation. However, only 17% were familiar with the overall terms of the conservation agreement, implying that they were either not fully informed of or did not fully understand what they were consenting to in joining the program. Although the terms of the program require a community investment plan to be democratically developed by community members, less than half of respondents were aware of the existence of the investment plan, and fewer than 20% had participated in its development. The majority of respondents (61% reported that they did not know the amount of incentives that their community currently receives, and only 44% stated that incentives were managed democratically in communal assemblies. Moreover, although a slight majority (53% said they had noticed benefits to the community from participating in

  3. Restoration of badlands through applying bio-engineering techniques in active gully systems: Evidence from the Ecuadorian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, P.; Vanacker, V.; Alvarado, D.; Govers, G.

    2012-04-01

    A better insight in the processes controlling sediment generation, transport and deposition in badlands is necessary to enhance restoration of degraded soils through eco-engineering techniques. In this study, we evaluate the effect of different bio-engineering measures on soil and slope stability. Five micro-catchments (of 0.2 to 5 ha) were selected within a 3 km2 area in the lower part of the Loreto catchment (Southern Ecuadorian Andes). The micro-catchments differ only by land cover and degree of implementation of soil and water conservation measures. Bio-engineering techniques were used to construct dikes made of fascines of wooden sticks and earth-filled tires in active gully beds, where they are most efficient to reduce water and sediment transport. The experimental design consists of three micro-catchments within highly degraded lands: (DI) micro-catchment with bio-engineering measures concentrated in the active gully beds, (DF) with reforestation of Eucalyptus trees, and (DT) reference situation without any conservation measures. Two micro-catchments were monitored in agricultural lands with (AI) and without (AT) bio-engineering measures in the active gully beds. All catchments were equipped with San Dimas flumes to measure water flow, and sediment traps to monitor sediment export. In the (active) gully beds, various parameters related to gully stability (soil water content, bed elevation, vegetation cover, sedimentation/erosion) were monitored at weekly intervals. First results show that bio-engineering techniques are efficient to stabilize active gully beds through a reduction of the rapid concentration of excess rainfall and the sediment production and transfer. Fascines made of wooden sticks are far more efficient than earth-filled tires. Sediment deposition behind dikes is strongly dependent on precedent rainfall events, and the slope and vegetation cover of the gully floor. The sediment deposited facilitates colonization of the gully floor by native

  4. Induction of quadrangular shapes to stems of Guadua angustifolia Kunth for the business development in the rural communities of Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carrera-Sánchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Local development at indigenous communities from Ecuadorian Amazonía, may develop their potentialities and improve families’ incomes. In sector San José, cantón Mera, province Pastaza (Ecuador, the induction of square shape in G. angustifolia stems was studied using an adjustable metallic mold during three time intervals (15, 30 and 45 days. Square shape in stems of G. angustifolia was observed once metallic mold was used in shoots proliferation stage with 50 cm of height. It was obtained a 60.93 % of perimeter of stem with plane surface and six induced nodes. Metallic molds affected in approximately 55% the elongation of induced nodes, limiting stems normal length. By means of the induction of square shape in stems of G. angustifolia, members from farmer’s communities may develop agricultural production and commercialization to generate micro-enterprising and improve their life quality

  5. Vitamin D status is associated with underweight and stunting in children aged 6-36 months residing in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Rana R; Holick, Michael F; Sempértegui, Fernando; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Estrella, Bertha; Moore, Lynn L; Fox, Matthew P; Hamer, Davidson H

    2017-11-22

    There is limited knowledge on vitamin D status of children residing in the Andes and its association with undernutrition. We evaluated the vitamin D status of children residing in a low socio-economic status (SES) setting in the Ecuadorian Andes and assessed the association between vitamin D status, stunting and underweight. We hypothesized that children who were underweight would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and lower 25(OH)D levels would be associated with a higher risk of stunting. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Vitamin A, Zinc and Pneumonia study. Children had serum 25(OH)D concentrations measured. A sensitivity analysis was undertaken to determine a vitamin D cut-off specific for our endpoints. Associations between serum 25(OH)D and underweight (defined as weight-for-age Z-score≤-1) and stunting (defined as height-for-age Z-score≤-2) were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Children residing in five low-SES peri-urban neighbourhoods near Quito, Ecuador. Children (n 516) aged 6-36 months. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 58·0 (sd 17·7) nmol/l. Sensitivity analysis revealed an undernutrition-specific 25(OH)D cut-off of DDD levels were more likely to be stunted (aOR=2·8; 95 % CI 1·6, 4·7). Low serum 25(OH)D levels were more common in underweight and stunted Ecuadorian children.

  6. Ecuadorian radiology journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This paper collects the scientific research carried out in nuclear medicine in Ecuador. The main topics are: magnetic resonance on intractable epilepsy and on perthes diseases; osseous gammagraphy on diagnostic imaging; arthritis; intracranial lesions treatment, bone scanning, etc

  7. Electron-beam irradiation as a quarantine treatment against red mite on exported cut flower of Chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Thi The; Nguyen Thi Ly; Vo Thi Kim Lang; Cao Van Chung

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. In this study, red mites (Tetranychus sp) isolated from cut Chrysanthemums were treated by electron beam irradiation at doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy. After irradiation, they were kept at room temperature to determine the effects of electron beam irradiation on red mite at different developmental stages (eggs, nymphs and adults) and the reproduction of female adults. The results showed that the pattern of tolerance to irradiation in red mite was eggs < 2nd instars < adults, in which the adults were the most tolerance stage. The number of eggs laid by the irradiated female mites and the hatching rate significantly decreased when the irradiation dose increased. The hatching rate of eggs at 300 Gy was 4.25% and no larvae F_1 survived during observation time. It could be concluded that 300 Gy is the effective quarantine dose for red mite infesting on cut chrysanthemums. (author)

  8. Integrated micro-biochemical approach for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils using Gladiolus grandiflorus L cut flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The potential of vermicompost, elemental sulphur, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Pseudomonas putida for phytoremediation is well known individually but their integrated approach has not been discovered so far. The present work highlights the consideration of so far overlooked aspects of their integrated treatment by growing the ornamental plant, Gladiolus grandiflorus L in uncontaminated and sewage-contaminated soils (sulphur-deficient alluvial Entisols, pH 7.6-7.8) for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead under pot experiment. Between vermicompost and elemental sulphur, the response of vermicompost was higher towards improvement in the biometric parameters of plants, whereas the response of elemental sulphur was higher towards enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metals under soils. The integrated treatment (T7: vermicompost 6g and elemental sulphur 0.5gkg(-1) soil and co-inoculation of the plant with T. thiooxidans and P. putida) was found superior in promoting root length, plant height and dry biomass of the plant. The treatment T7 caused enhanced accumulation of Cd up to 6.96 and 6.45mgkg(-1) and Pb up to 22.6 and 19.9mgkg(-1) in corm and shoot, respectively at the contaminated soil. T7 showed maximum remediation efficiency of 0.46% and 0.19% and bioaccumulation factor of 2.92 and 1.21 and uptake of 6.75 and 21.4mgkg(-1) dry biomass for Cd and Pb respectively in the contaminated soil. The integrated treatment T7 was found significant over the individual treatments to promote plant growth and enhance phytoremediation. Hence, authors conclude to integrate vermicompost, elemental sulphur and microbial co-inoculation for the enhanced clean-up of Cd and Pb-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecuadorian adolescents and cigarette smoking: a cross-sectional survey Los adolescentes ecuatorianos y el consumo de cigarrillos: encuesta transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Irene Padgett

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates adolescents' attitudes and behaviors toward cigarette smoking in Ecuador. Using social cognitive theory as a basis, the cross-sectional survey focuses attention on such social influences as the smoking habits of family members and peers, as well as on the role of cigarette advertisements. Data on prevalence of actual use, access to cigarettes, and knowledge and attitudes about smoking are also obtained. The survey was conducted during the summer of 1994 in both urban and rural areas. Fifty schools in 40 different communities participated, resulting in a sample of 2625 adolescents aged 9 to 15 years who completed the self-administered questionnaire. This study was conducted in collaboration with Amigos de las Américas (AMIGOS, an international health organization. Staff and volunteers who participated in projects conducted by AMIGOS in Ecuador worked with local health and education officials to implement the survey. Nearly 9% of students identified themselves as current smokers, 24.5% had experimented with smoking, and 61.1% had never smoked. The results varied significantly by age and gender, with older students and boys smoking at the highest rate. The smoking status of family members and peers also significantly predicted student smoking status. The results from this sample replicate findings from North American samples. Although Ecuadorian students smoke somewhat less than their American counterparts, cigarette smoking in Ecuador is a significant public health problem and clearly warrants a coordinated response. The present study points to several strategies for preventing smoking among youth.En el presente estudio se investigan las actitudes y conductas en torno al tabaquismo de los adolescentes en Ecuador. Basándose en teorías tomadas de la sociología cognoscitiva, la encuesta transversal enfoca la atención en influencias sociales tales como los hábitos de tabaquismo de los miembros de la familia y de los pares

  10. Determinants of Agricultural Diversification in a Hotspot Area: Evidence from Colonist and Indigenous Communities in the Sumaco Biosphere Reserve, Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolier Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With data from a household survey covering migrant settlers and indigenous (Kichwa communities in the Sumaco Biosphere Reserve (SBR, this study analyses the drivers of agricultural diversification/specialisation, focusing on the role of ethnicity and the livelihood strategies (LS they follow. Data were collected using the Poverty and Environment Network methodology of the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR-PEN. In order to establish the drivers of agricultural diversification, the number of crops and the Shannon index of crops areas were used as the dependent variables in ordinary least square (OLS models, while a multinomial logit model (MLM was used to assess a household’s degree of diversification. The results of the OLS regression provides evidence supporting the notion that households, with Livestock-based and Wage-based livelihood strategies (LS are less diversified and more specialized than households with Crop-based LS. Ethnicity has a positive and significant effect on agricultural diversification, with Kichwa farms more diversified than those of their migrant colonist counterparts. The results of the multinomial logit model (MLM show that large Kichwa households, with Crop-based and Forest-based LS are more likely to adopt a highly diversified agricultural strategy. Based on these findings, we recommend a redirection of agricultural incentives, towards the adoption of diversified agricultural systems, as a strategy to promote more sustainable production systems in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region.

  11. Discourse versus practice: are traditional practices and beliefs in pregnancy and childbirth included or excluded in the Ecuadorian health care system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Carlos Andres; Waters, William F; Kuhlmann, Anne Sebert

    2017-03-01

    Traditional beliefs, knowledge and practices are formally integrated into the Ecuadorian health system. We sought to understand whether they are integrated in practice. Qualitative data were collected in two rural parishes in the central highlands of Ecuador through four focus group discussions (30 participants), eight key informant interviews, three participatory exercises (24 participants), structured observations of health facilities and analysis of official documents. We found different levels of integration, coexistence, tolerance, and intolerance of traditional health beliefs and practices in health facilities. One parish has undergone dramatic social and cultural transformation, and the role of traditional birth attendants is limited. In the other parish, traditional indigenous norms and values persist, and traditional birth attendants are sought during pregnancy and childbirth. The degree to which traditional birth attendants, indigenous women and their families are included or excluded from public health services depends largely on decisions taken by local health professionals. Formal policies in Ecuador stipulate that health care should be intercultural, but the role of traditional birth attendants is not necessarily incorporated in practice. The integration of culturally-informed beliefs and practices is critical for providing appropriate health services to members of vulnerable populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Yield, flesh parameters, and proximate and fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of wild and cultured Vieja Colorada (Cichlasoma festae) in tropical Ecuadorian river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, M.A.; Angón, E.; Rodríguez, J.; Moya, A.; García, A.; Peña, F.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition of cultured and wild Cichlasoma festae in Ecuador. The mean slaughter yield and dress-out were similar for cultured and wild specimens and the average fillet fat content for cultured fish was significantly higher compared to the wild fish. The pH, fillet color, drip loss and coked loss were similar between populations. Significant differences were found in protein, lipid and ash content in both studied populations. This study showed that saturated fatty acid (SFA) was higher than sum of monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in both populations. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids had the maximum percentage of SFA, MUFA and PUFA respectively. In cultured and wild fish was also found to differ in the PUFA/SFA, docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid, n-3/n-6 ratios and atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Minerals included Ca, P, K, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. There were significant differences in the first six ones. The production system (cultured or wild) influences significantly most of the analyzed characteristics of carcass and flesh of C. festae. These results provide valued nutritional information of native species to produce sources of food with low-fat and high-protein, and safety food for the consumers in Ecuadorian country.

  13. Yield, flesh parameters, and proximate and fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of wild and cultured Vieja Colorada (Cichlasoma festae) in tropical Ecuadorian river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, M.A.; Angón, E.; Rodríguez, J.; Moya, A.; García, A.; Peña, F.

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition of cultured and wild Cichlasoma festae in Ecuador. The mean slaughter yield and dress-out were similar for cultured and wild specimens and the average fillet fat content for cultured fish was significantly higher compared to the wild fish. The pH, fillet color, drip loss and coked loss were similar between populations. Significant differences were found in protein, lipid and ash content in both studied populations. This study showed that saturated fatty acid (SFA) was higher than sum of monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in both populations. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids had the maximum percentage of SFA, MUFA and PUFA respectively. In cultured and wild fish was also found to differ in the PUFA/SFA, docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid, n-3/n-6 ratios and atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Minerals included Ca, P, K, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. There were significant differences in the first six ones. The production system (cultured or wild) influences significantly most of the analyzed characteristics of carcass and flesh of C. festae. These results provide valued nutritional information of native species to produce sources of food with low-fat and high-protein, and safety food for the consumers in Ecuadorian country.

  14. What Kind of Information and Communication Technologies Do Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prefer? An Ecuadorian Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Chérrez-Ojeda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency of use of information and communication technologies and patterns of preference among Ecuadorian patients with diabetes. Methods. We conducted an anonymous cross-sectional survey on type 2 diabetes mellitus. A chi-square test for association and adjusted regression analyses were performed. Results. 248 patients were enrolled, with a mean sample age of 57.7 years. SMS was the most used ICT (66.0%. The Internet was used by 45.2% of patients to obtain information about diabetes. SMS and email were rated as the most useful ICTs for receiving information (64.5% and 28.1%, resp. and asking physicians about diabetes (63.8% and 26.1%, resp.. Patients were also interested in receiving disease information (82.4% and asking physicians about diabetes (84.7% through WhatsApp. Adjusted logistic regressions revealed that individuals aged 55 years or younger, those with superior degree level, and those with long diabetes history preferred email for receiving information and asking physicians about diabetes compared to those above 55 years, those with low education level, and those with short diabetes history, respectively. Conclusion. Understanding preferences of ICTs among patients with diabetes could facilitate application development targeted towards specific requirements from patients.

  15. What Kind of Information and Communication Technologies Do Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prefer? An Ecuadorian Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Emanuel; Calero, Erick; Plaza, Karin; Cano, Jose A.; Calderon, Juan Carlos; Valdano, Jorge; Gutierrez, Jorge Oswaldo; Guevara, Jose

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency of use of information and communication technologies and patterns of preference among Ecuadorian patients with diabetes. Methods We conducted an anonymous cross-sectional survey on type 2 diabetes mellitus. A chi-square test for association and adjusted regression analyses were performed. Results 248 patients were enrolled, with a mean sample age of 57.7 years. SMS was the most used ICT (66.0%). The Internet was used by 45.2% of patients to obtain information about diabetes. SMS and email were rated as the most useful ICTs for receiving information (64.5% and 28.1%, resp.) and asking physicians about diabetes (63.8% and 26.1%, resp.). Patients were also interested in receiving disease information (82.4%) and asking physicians about diabetes (84.7%) through WhatsApp. Adjusted logistic regressions revealed that individuals aged 55 years or younger, those with superior degree level, and those with long diabetes history preferred email for receiving information and asking physicians about diabetes compared to those above 55 years, those with low education level, and those with short diabetes history, respectively. Conclusion Understanding preferences of ICTs among patients with diabetes could facilitate application development targeted towards specific requirements from patients. PMID:29666639

  16. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  17. Farmaceutische industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros JPM; van der Poel P; Etman EJ; Montfoort JA; LAE

    1995-01-01

    Dit rapport over de farmaceutische industrie is gepubliceerd binnen het Samenwerkingsproject Procesbeschrijvingen Industrie Nederland (SPIN). In het kader van dit project is informatie verzameld over industriele bedrijven of industriele processen ter ondersteuning van het overheidsbeleid op het

  18. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1983-03-01

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  19. Global Value Chains, Labor Organization and Private Social Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain a...... at production sites. However, labor organizations' ability to seriously challenge the prevailing governance structure of the cut flower value chain appears extremely limited.......This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain...... analysis and reveals how retailer-driven chains offer more room for labor organizations to exercise their agency than the traditional cut flower value chains. Labor organizations have been able to influence social standard setting and implementation, and to use standards to further labor representation...

  20. Changes in population and land use over time in the Ecuadorian Amazon Mudanças populacionais e de uso da terra na Amazônia Ecuatoriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Bilsborrow

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws upon a detailed longitudinal survey of households living on agricultural plots in the northern three provinces of the Ecuadorian Amazon, the principal region of colonization by migrants in Ecuador since the 1970s. Following the discovery of petroleum in 1967 near what has subsequently come to be the provincial capital and largest Amazonian city of Lago Agrio, oil companies built roads to lay pipelines to extract and pump oil across the Andes for export. As a result, for the past 30 years over half of both Ecuador's export earnings and government revenues have come from petroleum extracted from this region. But the roads also facilitated massive spontaneous in-migration of families from origin areas in the Ecuadorian Sierra, characterized by minifundia and rural poverty. This paper is about those migrants and their effects on the Amazonian landscape. We discuss the data collection methodology and summarize key results on settler characteristics and changes in population, land use, land ownership, technology, labor allocation, and living conditions, as well as the relationships between changes in population and changes in land use over time. The population in the study region has been growing rapidly due to both natural population growth (high fertility and in-migration. This has led to a dramatic process of subdivision and fragmentation of plots in the 1990's, which contrasts with the consolidation of plots that has occurred in most of the mature frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon. This fragmentation has led to important changes in land tenure and land use, deforestation, cattle raising, labor allocation, and settler welfare.Este artigo baseia-se em uma pesquisa longitudinal sobre assentamentos agrícolas em três províncias no norte da Amazônia equatoriana, a principal região de colonização agrícola no país desde 1970. A partir da descoberta de reservas de petróleo em áreas próximas a Lago Agrio, capital provincial

  1. Inventario taxonómico de drosophilidae (Diptera en el Parque Nacional Yasuni, Amazonia Ecuatoriana Taxonomic survey of drosophilidae (Diptera in the Yasuni National Park, Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Elizabeth Acurio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En el Parque Nacional Yasuní, reconocido como un sector de alto endemismo y biodiversidad, ubicado al noroeste de la Amazonía Ecuatoriana se realizó el inventario taxonómico de la familia Drosophilidae. Para la captura de los individuos se utilizaron trampas con atrayente de banano y solución de levadura de cerveza. La identificación taxonómica se realizó usando caracteres morfológicos y la terminalia de los machos. En total se colectaron 7425 individuos clasificados en 34 especies de los géneros: Drosophila Fallén, 1823, Scaptodrosophila Duda, 1923, Neotanygastrella Duda, 1923 y Zaprionus Coquillett, 1901. Seis de estas especies son nuevos registros para el Ecuador: D. araicas Pavan & Nacrur, 1950, D. equinoxialis Dobzhansky, 1946, D. kikkawai Burla, 1954, D. subsaltans Magalhães, 1956, D. neocordata Magalhães, 1956 y D. peninsularis Patterson & Wheeler, 1942. Estos datos incrementan el número de especies registrados para el país y para la región amazónica.In the Yasuni National Park, a place recognized as a hot spot biodiversity, located in the Northwestern Ecuadorian Amazon was made a taxonomic survey of the Drosophilidae. Individuals were collected using traps with banana and yeast as bait. Taxonomic identifications were made by morphologic characters and male genitalia analysis. We collected 7425 individuals of 34 species, from the genera: Drosophila Fallén, 1823, Scaptodrosophila Duda, 1923, Neotanygastrella Duda, 1923 y Zaprionus Coquillett, 1901. Six of them are new records for Ecuador: D. araicas Pavan & Nacrur, 1950, D. equinoxialis Dobzhansky, 1946, D. kikkawai Burla, 1954, D. subsaltans Magalhães, 1956, D. neocordata Magalhães, 1956 and D. peninsularis Patterson & Wheeler, 1942. This data increase the number of species records to Ecuador and the Amazon Region.

  2. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jaruseviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective: To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and six in Cuenca (Ecuador as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results: The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD, equality dimension (ED and behavioural dimension (BD. ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions: This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to

  3. Manganese and Mercury Levels in Water, Sediments, and Children Living Near Gold-Mining Areas of the Nangaritza River Basin, Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Merizalde, Max V; Menezes-Filho, José A; Cruz-Erazo, Claudia Teresa; Bermeo-Flores, Santos Amable; Sánchez-Castillo, María Obdulia; Hernández-Bonilla, David; Mora, Abrahan

    2016-08-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities performed in mountain areas of the Southern Ecuadorian Amazon have incorporated several heavy metals into the aquatic systems, thus increasing the risk of exposure in populations living in adjacent zones. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination levels of mercury (Hg) and manganese (Mn) in several rivers of the Nangaritza River basin and assess the exposure in school-aged children residing near the gold-mining zones. River water and sediment samples were collected from a highly contaminated (HEx) and a moderately contaminated (MEx) zones. Hair Mn (MnH) and urinary Hg (HgU) levels were determined in school-aged children living in both zones. High concentrations of dissolved Mn were found in river waters of the HEx zone (between 2660 and 3990 µg l(-1)); however, Hg levels, in general, were lower than the detection limit (DL; MnH in children of the HEx and MEx zones were 5.5 and 3.4 µg g(-1), respectively, whereas the median values of HgU concentrations in children living in the HEx and MEx zones were 4.4 and 0.62 µg g-creat(-1), respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between both biomarkers in children from the HEx and MEx zones. In addition, boys presented significantly greater MnH levels in both zones. The greater MnH values were found in children living in alluvial areas, whereas children living in the high mountain areas, where some ore-processing plants are located close to or inside houses and schools, had the greater HgU concentrations. In summary, the data reported in this paper highlights that artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities can not only produce mercurial contamination, that can also release other heavy metals (such as Mn) that may pose a risk to human health.

  4. The effects of market integration on childhood growth and nutritional status: the dual burden of under- and over-nutrition in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Kelly; Sorensen, Mark V; Lu, Flora; Alban, Dayuma; Alvarez, Kati; Hidobro, David; Doljanin, Citlali; Ona, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Market integration is an important source of cultural change exposing indigenous populations to epidemiologic and nutrition transitions. As children and adolescents are biologically sensitive to the health effects of market integration, we examine community variation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and growth among a cross-cultural sample of Kichwa, Shuar, Huaorani, and Cofán indigenous groups in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfolds of 186 children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years from seven communities. Anthropometric z-scores were calculated based on the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Comparisons were made with this US reference group, along with between community differences to contextually explore the impacts of varying degrees of market integration. We found a high prevalence of stunting in both boys (40%) and girls (34%). Adiposity increased with age and 40% of girls between 15 and 18 years old were overweight. There were large sex differences in body composition with higher BMI, arm circumference, and triceps skinfolds in adolescent girls. The Kichwa demonstrated the poorest growth outcomes and nutritional stress followed by the Huaorani and Shuar; yet distinctions in under- and over-nutrition were evident within groups. Market integration is a major factor influencing the developmental and lifestyle mismatch associated with the epidemiologic and nutrition transition in general, and the dual burden pattern of high rates of stunting yet adequate to above average short-term nutritional status indicators found among indigenous Amazonian populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; De Meyer, Sara; Decat, Peter; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Degomme, Olivier; Rojas, Mildrett; Arnold Hagens, Salazar; Auquilla, Nancy; Vega, Bernardo; Gorter, Anna C; Orozco, Miguel; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents' sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14-18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and six in Cuenca (Ecuador) as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD), equality dimension (ED) and behavioural dimension (BD). ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour. This could have important implications for future

  6. Process industry properties in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing

    2005-01-01

    In this article the writer has described the definition of process industry, expounded the fact classifying nuclear industry as process industry, compared the differences between process industry and discrete industry, analysed process industry properties in nuclear industry and their important impact, and proposed enhancing research work on regularity of process industry in nuclear industry. (authors)

  7. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  8. Industrial symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the development of industrial symbiosis through a practical model for physical, organizational, and social interactions in six different cases from around the world. The results provide a framework that can be used by industrial symbiosis practitioners to facilitate the creation...

  9. 2001 Industry Studies: Services Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cervone, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... has maintained its economic strength in traditional services industries such as transportation, tourism, public utilities, finance and insurance, accounting, engineering, architecture, medical, legal...

  10. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  11. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  12. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  13. 30 January 2012 - Ecuadorian Ambassador Gallegos Chiriboga, Permanent Representative to the United Nations Office and other International Organisations at Geneva and San Francisco de Quito University Vice Chancellor C. Montùfar visiting CMS surface facilities and underground experimental area with CMS Collaboration L. Sulak and Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi, throughout accompanied by Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michael Hoch

    2012-01-01

    30 January 2012 - Ecuadorian Ambassador Gallegos Chiriboga, Permanent Representative to the United Nations Office and other International Organisations at Geneva and San Francisco de Quito University Vice Chancellor C. Montùfar visiting CMS surface facilities and underground experimental area with CMS Collaboration L. Sulak and Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi, throughout accompanied by Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

  14. Industrial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  15. Industrial practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Torrez, Patricia Irma

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the industrial practices carried out by the author viewing the requirements fulfilled for obtention the academic degree in chemical engineering of the San Andres University - Bolivia

  16. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ginter, Michael J; Andersen, James L; Becker, John A; Belliveau, Gerald E; Eppich, Frank J; Awai, Herman T; Hanko, David J; Hughes, Bob; Jones, Douglas; Larson, Kelly J

    2007-01-01

    .... area, New York State, Silicon Valley (California), Taiwan, and China. This approach provides a wide range of perspectives from which to examine the selected industry's current condition, outlook, and challenges...

  17. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Health and Safety Executive Information Sheet on industrial radiography aims to inform directors and managers of industrial radiography companies on the safety precautions necessary to ensure that their personnel do not exceed dose guidelines for exposure to ionizing radiation. The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85) require that exposure doses for radiographers are kept as low reasonably practicable. Equipment maintenance, and the employment of proper emergency procedures will help to ensure personnel safety. (UK)

  18. Industrial ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengelle, Ch.

    1999-04-01

    After having given the definition of the term 'ceramics', the author describes the different manufacturing processes of these compounds. These materials are particularly used in the fields of 1)petroleum industry (in primary and secondary reforming units, in carbon black reactors and ethylene furnaces). 2)nuclear industry (for instance UO 2 and PuO 2 as fuels; SiC for encapsulation; boron carbides for control systems..)

  19. Classification and multivariate analysis of differences in gross primary production at different elevations using biome-bgc in the páramos, ecuadorian andean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Minaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP in climate change studies with multi- species and elevation variables are difficult to measure and simulate. Models tend to provide a representation of dynamic process through long-term analysis by using generalized parameterizations. Even, current approaches of modelling do not contemplate easily the variation of GPP at different elevations for different vegetation types in regions like páramos, mainly due to data unavailability. In these models information from cells is commonly averaged, and therefore average elevation, ecophysiology of vegetation, as well as other parameters is generalized. The vegetation model BIOME- BGC was applied to the Ecuadorian Andean region for elevations greater than 4000 masl with the presence of typical vegetation of páramo for 10 years of simulation (period 2000-2009. An estimation of the difference of GPP obtained using a generalized altitude and predominant type of vegetation could lead to a better estimation of the uncertainty in the magnitude of the errors in global climate models. This research explores GPP from 3 different altitudes and 3 vegetation types against 2 main climate drivers (Short Wave Radiation and Vapor Pressure Deficit. Since it is important to measure the possible errors or difference in the use of averaged meteorological and ecophysiological data, here we present a multivariate analysis of the dynamic difference of GPP in time, relative to an altitude and type of vegetation. A copula multivariable model allows us to identify and classify the changes in GPP per type of vegetation and altitude. The Frank copula model of joint distributions was our best fit between GPP and climate drivers and it allowed us to understand better the dependency of the variables. These results can explore extreme situations where averaged simplified approaches could mislead. The change of GPP over time is essential for future climate scenarios of the ecosystem storage and release

  20. The straight-chain lipid biomarker composition of plant species responsible for the dominant biomass production along two altitudinal transects in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Boris; Nierop, Klaas G.J.; Verstraten, Jacobus M.; Cleef, Antoine M. [Amsterdam Univ., Center for Geo-ecological Research (ICG), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hageman, Jos A. [Amsterdam Univ., Swammerdam Inst. for Life Sciences (SILS), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    For a detailed reconstruction of historic upper forest line (UFL) positions, new proxies in addition to traditional pollen and vegetation analyses are needed. If the straight-chain lipid composition in plant leaves and roots is specific enough to allow distinction, their records in soils and peat bogs might be used for this purpose. We tested for such distinctiveness by analyzing the n-alkane, n-alcohol, n-aldehyde and wax ester composition in lipid extracts from the leaves and roots of the 19 plant species responsible for the dominant biomass input into soils and peat bogs along two altitudinal transects in the Ecuadorian Andes. We found the combined n-alkane and n-alcohol composition of the leaves of the studied plants to be unique enough in theory to allow for a distinction of the various plant species. The extractable straight-chain lipid concentrations in the roots were generally much lower than in the leaves of the same species, and were in many cases less specific. The n-fatty acids, n-aldehydes and wax ester compositions in leaves as well as roots appeared to be less suited as biomarkers, due to a lower specificity of the n-fatty acids and the absence of the n-aldehydes and wax ester from a significant number of plant species. Furthermore, using cluster analysis we found the combination of n-alkanes and n-alcohols from leaves to give the most meaningful clustering from the point of view of an UFL reconstruction, with all but one paramo grassland species and all but one peat bog species clustering separately from forest species. In addition, a large C{sub 31} /C{sub 27} n-alkane ratio as well as a large C{sub 26} /C{sub 30} n-alcohol ratio were found to be indicative of paramo vegetation (grasses). Both clustering and ratios can help reconstruct past UFL positions if discerning individual species from soil or peat records proves unfeasible. The preservation of the straight-chain lipid signal was tested in soil and peat samples from the study area predating

  1. A complex systems approach to dynamic spatial simulation modeling: LandUse and LandCover change in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Joseph Paul

    The Ecuadorian Amazon, lying in the headwaters of the Napo and Aguarico River valleys, is experiencing rapid change in LandUse and LandCover (LULC) conditions and regional landscape diversity uniquely tied to spontaneous agricultural colonization and oil exploration. Beginning in the early 1970s, spontaneous colonization occurred on squattered lands located adjacent to oil company roads and in government development sectors composed of multiple 50 ha land parcels organized into "piano key" shaped family farms or fincas. Since fincas are managed at the household level as spatially discrete, temporally independent units, land conversion at the finca-level is recognized as the chief proximate cause of deforestation within the region. Focusing on the spatial and temporal dynamics of deforestation, agricultural extensification, and plant succession at the finca-level, and urbanization at the community-level, cell-based morphogenetic models of LandUse and LandCover Change (LULCC) were developed as the foundation for predictive models of regional LULCC dynamics and landscape diversity. Two cellular automata models were developed and used to integrate biophysical, geographical, and social variables to characterize temporally dynamic landscapes. The human, geographical, and biophysical dimensions of land use and land cover change were examined, specifically deforestation, anthropogenic extensification, and reforestation. Remotely-sensed data ranging temporally from the 1970s through 1999, combined with thematic map coverages of biophysical gradients and geographical accessibility, were linked to household and community survey data collected in 1990 and 1999. Image processing techniques for LULC characterization and spatial analyses of landscape structure were used to assess the rate and nature of LULCC throughout the time-series. In addition, LULC and LULCC associated with secondary plant succession and agricultural extensification were assessed and simulated for specific

  2. Industrial gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.; Jackson, D.; Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    Industrial gas companies have fought hard to boost sales and hold margins in the tough economic climate, and investments are well down from their 1989-'91 peak. But 'our industry is still very strong long term' says Alain Joly, CEO of industry leader L'Air Liquide (AL). By 1994, if a European and Japanese recovery follows through on one in the U.S., 'we could see major [investment] commitments starting again,' he says. 'Noncryogenic production technology is lowering the cost of gas-making possible new applications, oxygen is getting plenty of attention in the environmental area, and hydrogen also fits into the environmental thrust,' says Bob Lovett, executive v.p./gases and equipment with Air Products ampersand Chemicals (AP). Through the 1990's, 'Industrial gases could grow even faster than in the past decade,' he says. Virtually a new generation of new gases applications should become reality by the mid-1990s, says John Campbell, of industry consultants J.R. Campbell ampersand Associates (Lexington, MA). Big new oxygen volumes will be required for powder coal injection in blast furnaces-boosting a steel mill's requirement as much as 40% and coal gasification/combined cycle (CGCC). Increased oil refinery hydroprocessing needs promise hydrogen requirements

  3. Carbon-cycle effects of differences in soil moisture and soil extracellular enzyme activity at sites representing different land-use histories in high-elevation Ecuadorian páramo landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, J.; Harden, C. P.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ecuadorian páramo grasslands are important regional soil carbon sinks. In the páramo of the Mazar Wildlife Reserve, differences in soil carbon content among different types of land use may reflect changes in soil carbon-acquisition related microbial enzyme activity after land cover and soil moisture are altered; however, this hypothesis has not been tested explicitly for Ecuadorian páramos. This study used a fluorescence enzyme assay to assess the activities of four different extracellular enzymes representing carbon acquisition: α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, β-D-cellulobiohydrolase, and β-xylosidase in Andean páramo soils. Acquisition activities were also measured for nitrogen (N-acetyl-β-glucosidase and leucine aminopeptidase) and phosphorus (phosphatase) to assess stoichiometric differences between land-uses, which can affect soil microbial activity related to carbon acquisition. Soils were analyzed from four land uses: native forest, grass páramo, recently burned grass páramo, and non-native pine plantation. Carbon acquisition activity was highest at the pine site (678 nmol h-1 g-1) and lowest at the recently burned páramo site (252 nmol h-1 g-1), indicating the lowest and highest available soil carbon, respectively. Carbon-acquisition EE activity was significantly higher at the grass páramo site (595 nmol h-1 g-1) than at the recently burned páramo and native forest sites. At the grass páramo site, a history of burning as a management strategy and high carbon-acquisition EE activity could indicate the presence of pyrogenic soil organic matter, which is more resistant to microbial decomposition. Soils at the native forest and both grassland sites were phosphorus limited, and soil at the pine site had higher nitrogen-acquisition activity, indicative of a shift to nitrogen-limited soil stoichiometric conditions. To our knowledge these are the first data reported for soil extracellular enzyme activities for Ecuadorian páramos.

  4. Energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna; Wieszczycka, Karolina

    2018-04-01

    The potential sources of metals from energy industries are discussed. The discussion is organized based on two main metal-contains wastes from power plants: ashes, slags from combustion process and spent catalysts from selective catalytic NOx reduction process with ammonia, known as SCR. The compositions, methods of metals recovery, based mainly on leaching process, and their further application are presented. Solid coal combustion wastes are sources of various compounds such as silica, alumina, iron oxide, and calcium. In the case of the spent SCR catalysts mainly two metals are considered: vanadium and tungsten - basic components of industrial ones.

  5. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  6. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloni, A.; Magal, O.

    1992-02-01

    This publication is meant to be a manual for industrial radiography. As such the manual concentrates on the practical aspects, presenting existing radiographic system and techniques of operation to satisfy specified quality requirements. The manual also reviews the safety aspect of performing radiographic work. (author) systems

  8. Education Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    themes: No Child Left Behind Act reauthorization, international competitiveness, and recruiting and retention of quality teachers. The US education ...industry stakeholders and require difficult choices. A more centralized education system has many advantages , and the US should move in that direction...between math and science skills, innovation and creativity, and international education , as all these areas are integral to future success. Finally

  9. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet’s angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  10. Rubber industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    Following chapter presents short introductory description of rubber and rubber industry. The main problem of rubber industry is the way of the usage of spent tires. Furthermore very important group of problems arise considering the metal and nonmetal additives which are significant component of the vulcanized rubber. The key attention is dedicated to typical ways of rubber usage in utilization and recovery of metals from spent rubber materials concentrating specifically on used tires processing. The method of recovery of rare metals from rubber tires was described. The rubber debris finds widest use in the field of waste metal solutions processing. The environmental pollution caused by metals poses serious threat to humans. Several applications of the use of waste rubber debris to remove metals from environmental waters were described. Moreover, the agriculture usage of waste tire rubber debris is described, presenting systems where the rubber material can be useful as a soil replacement.

  11. Industry Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    This chapter draws on a study investigating what corporate social responsibility (CSR) means to Vietnam’s small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) owner/managers and workers, using Scott’s three-pillar (norms, regulation, cognition) institutional framework. The findings are based on factory visits...... and interviews with 40 managers/owners and 218 workers conducted in two sectors—textile/garment/footwear (TGF) and food/beverage processing (FBP)—around Ho Chi Minh City in 2011. Scott’s framework is useful in highlighting similarities and differences between these two sectors. We found more stringent state...... regulation and greater industry pressure with regard to quality and safety of products than to labour standards in both sectors. Most factories in the TGF sector assembled products for global supply chains and were under pressure by industry norms, while most companies in the FBP sector produced...

  12. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article has a twofold ambition. It offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds—a former mining site in western Denmark—and a methodological discussion of how to write such a study. Exploring this specific industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different...... natural resources appear, we show that even what is recognized as resources shifts over time according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness has been seen interchangeably to shift between the brown coal...... business, inexpensive estates for practically savvy people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscape history, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that, at sites such as Søby, both natural resources and historical...

  13. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...

  14. Industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This section discusses the US energy supply and demand situation including projections for energy use, the clean coal industry (constraints of regulation on investment in new technologies, technology trends, and current pollution control efficiency), opportunities in clean coal technology (Phase 2 requirements of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act, scrubber demand for lime and limestone, and demand for low sulfur coal), and the international market of clean coal technologies

  15. Industrial melanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, E B

    1969-01-01

    Certain species of Lepidoptera have undergone a mutation in pigment color from white to black in order to be more concealing when in soot discolored environments in polluted industrial areas in England. In less polluted areas the original white variety continues to prosper. The two forms result from alleles of a color-controlling gene. The black variety is inconspicuous to insects when it settles on trees and rocks which are covered with soot.

  16. Agribusiness Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    sheer enormity of this ultra modernized industry. Hybridized or biotech corn seeds are now nearly impervious to pesticides and herbicides. From...efficient routes of commerce of many thousands of miles - a fresh head of broccoli and lettuce lands in the chilled and computer controlled misting...cumulatively, seemingly minor and insignificant changes in food production methods (i.e. packaged precut lettuce ), society (desire for convenience foods

  17. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of industrial garnet was about 326 kt in 2006, with the U.S. producing about 11 percent of this total. U.S. consumption, imports, and exports were estimated at 74.3 kt, 52.3 kt, and 13.2 kt, respectively. The most important exporters are Australia, China, and India. Although demand is expected to rise over the next 5 years, prices are expected to remain low in the short term.

  18. The Ecuadorian Professional Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzins, Anton Robert

    2008-01-01

    Across all fields of psychology within the United States, many mental health and educational professionals involved in the assessment of school-age children are not members of a minority population. As a result, these professionals are unfamiliar with the diverse cultural and linguistic characteristics of the individuals that they serve. This…

  19. Industrial goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the third seminar on pellet-clad interaction, which held at Aix en Provence (France) from 9-11 march 2004, was to draw a comprehensive picture of current understanding of pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod under the widest possible conditions. This document provides the summaries of the five sessions: opening and industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in-pile rod behaviour, modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  20. Industrial ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, H. D.

    Industrial ventilation design methodology, using computers and using fluid dynamic models, is considered. It is noted that the design of a ventilation system must be incorporated into the plant design and layout at the earliest conceptual stage of the project. A checklist of activities concerning the methodology for the design of a ventilation system for a new facility is given. A flow diagram of the computer ventilation model shows a typical input, the initialization and iteration loop, and the output. The application of the fluid dynamic modeling techniques include external and internal flow fields, and individual sources of heat and contaminants. Major activities for a ventilation field test program are also addressed.

  1. Industrial chemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  2. Industrial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Production lines for rubber gloves would not appear to have much in common with particle physics laboratories, but they both use accelerators. Electron beam irradiation is often used in industry to improve the quality of manufactured goods or to reduce production cost. Products range from computer disks, shrink packaging, tyres, cables, and plastics to hot water pipes. Some products, such as medical goods, cosmetics and certain foodstuffs, are sterilized in this way. In electron beam irradiation, electrons penetrate materials creating showers of low energy electrons. After many collisions these electrons have the correct energy to create chemically active sites. They may either break molecular bonds or activate a site which promotes a new chemical linkage. This industrial irradiation can be exploited in three ways: breaking down a biological molecule usually renders it useless and kills the organism; breaking an organic molecule can change its toxicity or function; and crosslinking a polymer can strengthen it. In addition to traditional gamma irradiation using isotopes, industrial irradiation uses three accelerator configurations, each type defining an energy range, and consequently the electron penetration depth. For energies up to 750 kV, the accelerator consists of a DC potential applied to a simple wire anode and the electrons extracted through a slot in a coaxially mounted cylindrical cathode. In the 1-5 MeV range, the Cockcroft-Walton or Dynamitron( R ) accelerators are normally used. To achieve the high potentials in these DC accelerators, insulating SF6 gas and large dimension vessels separate the anode and cathode; proprietary techniques distinguish the various commercial models available. Above 5 MeV, the size of DC accelerators render them impractical, and more compact radiofrequency-driven linear accelerators are used. Irradiation electron beams are actually 'sprayed' over the product using a magnetic deflection system. Lower energy beams of

  3. Industrial robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakashan, A.; Mukunda, H. S.; Samuel, S. D.; Colaco, J. C.

    1992-11-01

    This paper addresses the design and development of a four degree of freedom industrial manipulator, with three liner axes in the positioning mechanism and one rotary axis in the orientation mechanism. The positioning mechanism joints are driven with dc servo motors fitted with incremental shaft encoders. The rotary joint of the orientation mechanism is driven by a stepping motor. The manipulator is controlled by an IBM 386 PC/AT. Microcomputer based interface cards have been developed for independent joint control. PID controllers for dc motors have been designed. Kinematic modeling, dynamic modeling, and path planning have been carried out to generate the control sequence to accomplish a given task with reference to source and destination state constraints. This project has been sponsored by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, and has been executed in collaboration with M/s Larsen & Toubro Ltd, Mysore, India.

  4. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Industrial radiography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method which allows components to be examined for flaws without interfering with their usefulness. It is one of a number of inspection methods which are commonly used in industry to control the quality of manufactured products and to monitor their performance in service. Because of its involvement in organizing training courses in all the common NDT methods in regional projects in Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean and in many country programmes, the Agency is aware of the importance of standardizing as far as possible the syllabi and training course notes used by the many experts who are involved in presenting the training courses. IAEA-TECDOC-628 ''Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing'' presents syllabi which were developed by an Agency executed UNDP project in Latin America and the Caribbean taking into account the developmental work done by the International Committee for Non-destructive Testing. Experience gained from using the radiography syllabi from TECDOC-628 at national and regional radiography training courses in the Agency executed UNDP project in Asia and the Pacific (RAS/86/073) showed that some guidance needed to be given to radiography experts engaged in teaching at these courses on the material which should be covered. The IAEA/UNDP Asia and Pacific Project National NDT Coordinators therefore undertook to prepare Radiography Training Course Notes which could be used by experts to prepare lectures for Level 1,2 and 3 radiography personnel. The notes have been expanded to cover most topics in a more complete manner than that possible at a Level 1, 2 or 3 training course and can now be used as source material for NDT personnel interested in expanding their knowledge of radiography. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Factores determinantes del retorno de los ecuatorianos en España; Fatores determinantes do retorno dos equatorianos à Espanha; Determinants factors of the return of the Ecuadorians in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Correa-Quezada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente estudio tiene como objetivos analizar el efecto de la crisis económica en España, e identificar los determinantes por los cuales los migrantes desean retornar a Ecuador. Para ello se realizó un estudio de campo y 96 entrevistas a la población inmigrante en Madrid que se encuentra en edad de trabajar y se utilizaron modelos econométricos de elección discreta para su verificación y comprobación de resultados. La crisis ha afectado más a los ecuatorianos que a las  ecuatorianas, estas últimas han perdido menos puestos de trabajo y sufren menos desempleo. En general se han encontrado diferencias significativas para la decisión de retorno al Ecuador, entre ellas: género, remuneración, movilidad laboral y bienes que poseen en el país de origen. Palabras clave: migración, retorno, Ecuador, España.   Resumo: O presente estudo tem como objetivo analizar o efeito da crise econômica na Espanha, e identificar as determinantes pelas quais os imigrantes desejam retornar ao Equador. Para isso se realizou um estudo de campo e 96 entrevistas com a população imigrante de Madrid que se encontra em idade de trabalho e se utilizou modelos econométricos de escolha discreta que apontou para sua verificação e comprovação de resultados. A crise afetou mais aos equatorianos que às equatorianas, estas últimas perderam menos postos de trabalho e sofrem menos desemprego. Em geral encontramos diferenças significativas para a decisão de retorno ao Equador, entre elas: gênero, remuneração; mobilidade trabalhista e bens que posuem no país de origem. Palavras-chaves: migração, retorno, Equador, Espanha.   Abstract: The following study objective is to analyze the effect of the economic crisis in Spain and to identify determining factors for migrants to wish to return to Ecuador. The sample originate on a field study and 96 interviews to working-age Ecuadorian immigrants in Madrid. The analysis consist on discrete

  6. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 https://edms.cern.ch/file/346848/LAST_RELEASED/PRP30.pdf The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address: http://cern.ch/rp-radio

  7. Training industry needs & Technology Industry needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kuula, Timo; Helin, Kaj; Wild, Fridolin

    2017-01-01

    This deliverable joins D1.1 (User Industry Needs) and D1.2 (Technology Industry Needs and Affordances) and reports on the outcomes of Tasks T1.1 (Training Industry Assessment) and T1.2 (Technology Industry Assessment). We merged the deliverables for the following reasons: For readability ease we

  8. Inhibition of water uptake after dry storage of cut flowers: Role of aspired air and wound-induced processes in Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Arévalo-Galarza, L.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relative role of aspired air and a plant-induced reaction in the vascular occlusion of dry-stored cv. Cassa chrysanthemum flowers (Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat). Measurements of hydraulic capacity showed that the air that is aspired directly after cutting (into the opened

  9. Vase-life of Gerbera jamesonii Bolus cut flowers depending upon; media, mineral nutrition, their morphological attributes and treatment with flower preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rudnicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlations among different media, mineral nutrition and morphological features of gerbera flowers in relation to their vase-life period investigated. The bast medium for longevity of cut gerbera flowers was the mixture of composted pine bark and peat moss fertilized with N – 250 mg/1 and Mg – 150 mg/1. It was found that cut gerberas lasted longer when they were the Alkemade type, i.e. with wide petals. Yellow flowers remained fresh longer than red and pink ones. It was also found that the vase-life period of gerberas directly correlated with the length of floral stalk, its ability to grow and the inflorescence diameter. The solution of flower preservative Proflovit-72 was effective 'in extending life at room temperature and improved the quality and longevity of flowers which were previously in coldstorage for 1 to 3 weeks.

  10. Interceptions of harmful organisms during import inspections of cut flowers in the Netherlands : an empirical and theoretical analysis of the 'reduced checks' system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surkov, I.; Werf, van der W.; Kooten, van O.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    As of January 1st 2005, a system of reduced checks for phytosanitary inspections of certain plants and plant products imported into the European Union (EU) is in place. Under this system, plants and plant products satisfying special criteria may be inspected with a reduced frequency. These criteria

  11. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  12. INDUSTRI KREATIF INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN ANALISIS KINERJA INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kamil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Department of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia has launched a creative economic development documents interpreted the 2025 Indonesia became the starting point and guide the development of the creative economy in Indonesia. With the existence of this document, the industry and its stakeholders or other stakeholders can readily develop the creative economy in Indonesia. Economic development in the direction of the creative industries is one manifestation of optimism aspiration to support the Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia's Economic Development in realizing the vision of Indonesia are being developed nation. The main objective of this study is the first to analyze the role of the creative industries in Indonesia for labor, value added and productivity, secondly, to analyze the performance trend of the creative industries sector, and third, to analyze the factors affecting the performance of the creative industries sector in Indonesia. Under Indonesia Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC and codes 151-372 (manufacturing industries category identified 18 industry groups belonging to the creative industries, showed that the performance of the national creative industries has been relatively high (in terms of trend analysis of the performance of the industrial creative. Furthermore, regression analysis of panel data (econometrics indicates that company size (SIZE, wages for workers (WAGE and the content of local inputs (LOCAL has a significant impact on the performance of Indonesia's creative industry. Meanwhile, the concentration ratio (CR4 no consequences but have koresi significantly positive effect on the performance of Indonesia’s creative industry.

  13. From a Music Industry to Sound Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Thor Magnusson

    2013-01-01

    Commodification has been an inherent aspect of music for many centuries. The aggregation of the diverse commodification practices could be described as an "industry," but this is an industry that has always been in a state of transition. New technologies, media formats, and practices appear regularly, requiring swift responses by the incumbent music industry. Although periods of relative stabil- ity have existed, where economic structures become established, the field has always been ch...

  14. Arañas sociales de la Amazonía ecuatoriana, con notas sobre seis especies sociales no descritas previamente Social spiders of the Ecuadorian Amazonia, with notes on six previously undescribed social species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETICIA AVILÉS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available La Amazonía ecuatoriana posee una excepcional diversidad y abundancia de arañas sociales. En esta zona están presentes tres de los cuatro tipos de sociabilidad descritos para arañas, incluyendo representantes de 10 géneros y siete familias diferentes. En este artículo revisamos brevemente la historia natural de las catorce especies con algún tipo de sociabilidad que hemos identificado en esta área, incluyendo seis especies ­Cyclosa sp., Plesiometa sp., Tapinillus sp. 2, Achaearanea cf. mundula, una especie de la familia Pholcidae y otra de la familia Sparassidae­ cuya sociabilidad no ha sido descrita previamente. En la introducción revisamos los distintos tipos de sociabilidad en arañas, anotando características únicas que les diferencian de los insectos sociales. En particular, notamos que las arañas sociales no han desarrollado castas reproductivas y que en las especies de sociabilidad más avanzada los grupos sociales son también poblaciones relativamente aisladas unas de otras. En la discusión consideramos cómo las arañas sociales de la Amazonía ecuatoriana, en particular aquellas recientemente descubiertas, contribuyen a nuestro entendimiento de la evolución del comportamiento social en arañas. Discutimos también ciertos problemas evolutivos y ecológicos que las arañas sociales pueden ayudar a esclarecer, tales como la evolución de la proporción de sexos, los niveles de selección, y los patrones de crecimiento, extinción y recolonización de poblaciones locales en una metapoblación. Apéndice (English .The Ecuadorian Amazon region is exceptionally rich in terms of the number and variety of social spiders it contains. In this area there are representatives of three of the four forms of social behavior described for spiders, comprising species in 10 genera and seven families. Here we review the natural history of the fourteen species from this area that we have identified as having some form of social behavior

  15. Petroleum industry of Korea seen from industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.P. [SK Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The domestic petroleum industry faced with outward opening and exchange crisis is put under the most difficult period so far, and costs reduction and securing international competitive power in software field are emerging as important assignments on which the life and death of national key industries depends not only as a restructuring issue of each petroleum company. Required strategy of petroleum industry to solve this effectively this year must be the thorough revamping through restructuring and reform of management standards not the survival exercise through price competition. For this, each petroleum company and distributor should open a new petroleum industry in which fair rules of the game are developed as well as costs reduction through joint efforts and value creation in overall industry. For this, government should support the domestic petroleum industry to stand up straight as a keeper of domestic energy industry by helping it to arm with international competitive power within a short period of time through overall needed system and legal scheme. It is because nobody can deny that energy industry is the key industry on which national existence is at stake.

  16. Risk factors for asthma and allergy associated with urban migration: background and methodology of a cross-sectional study in Afro-Ecuadorian school children in Northeastern Ecuador (Esmeraldas-SCAALA Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Philip J; Chico, Martha E; Vaca, Maritza G; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza M; Genser, Bernd; de Carvalho, Lain Pontes; Stein, Renato T; Cruz, Alvaro A; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2006-09-13

    Asthma and allergic diseases are becoming increasingly frequent in children in urban centres of Latin America although the prevalence of allergic disease is still low in rural areas. Understanding better why the prevalence of asthma is greater in urban migrant populations and the role of risk factors such as life style and environmental exposures, may be key to understand what is behind this trend. The Esmeraldas-SCAALA (Social Changes, Asthma and Allergy in Latin America) study consists of cross-sectional and nested case-control studies of school children in rural and urban areas of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. The cross-sectional study will investigate risk factors for atopy and allergic disease in rural and migrant urban Afro-Ecuadorian school children and the nested case-control study will examine environmental, biologic and social risk factors for asthma among asthma cases and non-asthmatic controls from the cross-sectional study. Data will be collected through standardised questionnaires, skin prick testing to relevant aeroallergen extracts, stool examinations for parasites, blood sampling (for measurement of IgE, interleukins and other immunological parameters), anthropometric measurements for assessment of nutritional status, exercise testing for assessment of exercise-induced bronchospasm and dust sampling for measurement of household endotoxin and allergen levels. The information will be used to identify the factors associated with an increased risk of asthma and allergies in migrant and urbanizing populations, to improve the understanding of the causes of the increase in asthma prevalence and to identify potentially modifiable factors to inform the design of prevention programmes to reduce the risk of allergy in urban populations in Latin America.

  17. Risk factors for asthma and allergy associated with urban migration: background and methodology of a cross-sectional study in Afro-Ecuadorian school children in Northeastern Ecuador (Esmeraldas-SCAALA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Renato T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergic diseases are becoming increasingly frequent in children in urban centres of Latin America although the prevalence of allergic disease is still low in rural areas. Understanding better why the prevalence of asthma is greater in urban migrant populations and the role of risk factors such as life style and environmental exposures, may be key to understand what is behind this trend. Methods/design The Esmeraldas-SCAALA (Social Changes, Asthma and Allergy in Latin America study consists of cross-sectional and nested case-control studies of school children in rural and urban areas of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. The cross-sectional study will investigate risk factors for atopy and allergic disease in rural and migrant urban Afro-Ecuadorian school children and the nested case-control study will examine environmental, biologic and social risk factors for asthma among asthma cases and non-asthmatic controls from the cross-sectional study. Data will be collected through standardised questionnaires, skin prick testing to relevant aeroallergen extracts, stool examinations for parasites, blood sampling (for measurement of IgE, interleukins and other immunological parameters, anthropometric measurements for assessment of nutritional status, exercise testing for assessment of exercise-induced bronchospasm and dust sampling for measurement of household endotoxin and allergen levels. Discussion The information will be used to identify the factors associated with an increased risk of asthma and allergies in migrant and urbanizing populations, to improve the understanding of the causes of the increase in asthma prevalence and to identify potentially modifiable factors to inform the design of prevention programmes to reduce the risk of allergy in urban populations in Latin America.

  18. Industrial initiatives in the wind industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edworthy, J.

    1992-01-01

    Industrial initiatives are methods of lobbying and marketing to increase the activity, revenues, profits, and commercial viability of an industry. They may be undertaken by industry individuals or firms, industry groups, government agencies, or combinations of all these. In Canada, one example of an industrial initiative is the Canadian Wind Energy Association. Other initiatives relevant to the wind power industry include Technology Inflow Programs sponsored by External Affairs Canada, used for visiting foreign firms with the view to licensing foreign technology, and Industrial Research Assistance Programs to develop or adapt new technologies in partnership with government. The Conservation/Renewable Energy Council, Small Power Producers of Alberta, and Independent Power Producers Society of Ontario are also active in supporting wind energy initiatives. In other countries, notable initiatives for wind energy include the Danish wind turbine warranty guarantee program. The Western Wind Industry Network of Canada conducts regional lobbying. It is suggested that in Canada, more such networks are needed, as well as joint ventures with utilities and governments, and more work with the regulatory agencies, to promote wind energy

  19. Industrial zones and Arab industrialization in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Michael; Schnell, Izhak; Drori, Israel

    1996-01-01

    Since the 1970s there has been increased integration of the Arab sector into the Israeli economy. This integration has been characterized by the increase in industrial entrepreneurship in the Arab settlements. Critical to the industrialization process are factors related to the availability of

  20. Dutch industry, smart(est) industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, E.J.; Steinbuch, M.; Keulen, F. van; Houten, F.J.A.M.; Horst, T.J.J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Digitalisering verandert onze samenleving. De combinatie van opkomende technologieën, zoals het Internet, micro-sensoren, 3D-printing en big data maakt volledig nieuwe producten en diensten mogelijk. In de industrie wordt niet voor niets gesproken over een vierde industriële revolutie. Het is voor

  1. The Industry That Can.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Edward

    This speech by the U.S. Commissioner of Education reviews the education industry and education-industry relations. Examples illustrate the effective partnership that can be created to fashion and achieve successful vocational and career education programs. (MML)

  2. An Industrial Physics Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Bill

    2004-03-01

    Physicists possess many skills highly valued in industrial companies. However, with the exception of a decreasing number of positions in long range research at large companies, job openings in industry rarely say "Physicist Required." One key to a successful industrial career is to know what subset of your physics skills is most highly valued by a given industry and to continue to build these skills while working. This combination of skills from both academic and industrial experience becomes your "Industrial Physics Toolkit" and is a transferable resource when you change positions or companies. This presentation will describe how one builds and sells your own "Industrial Physics Toolkit" using concrete examples from the speaker's industrial experience.

  3. Electronics Industry Study Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belt, David; Fellows, John R; Kameru, Philip; Nazaroff, Boris-Frank A; Pauroso, Anthony; Schulz, Frederick; Ballew, Bob; Bond, Thomas; Demers, Stephy; Kirkpatrick, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a national strategy for the US electronics industry. Electronics is one of the largest industries in the US and plays a critical role in almost every aspect of national security...

  4. Localisation for industrial development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhugwandin, Ashley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation focuses on localisation for industrial development, and is presented by Ashley Bhugwandin at The 6th CSIR Conference: Ideas that work for industrial development, 5-6 October 2017, CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria...

  5. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.......The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated....

  6. Industry recession to persist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the depressed U.S. oil and gas industry is not likely to recover soon, witnesses told the Texas Railroad Commission's state of the petroleum industry hearing. Major companies and independent operators agreed the U.S. petroleum industry is near a state of collapse. Many the producers are despairing about the chances of surviving the latest economic downturn

  7. FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter focuses on methane emissions from the coal and natural gas industries. The petroleum industry is not addressed because of the lack of related quality data. Emission points are identified for each industry, and a discussion of factors affecting emissions is presented. ...

  8. Benchmarking and industry performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I interrelate productivity analysis and the theory of industrial organization. A proposition proves that an industrial organization is efficient if and only if it is supportable in the entry-proofness sense. Industrial performance is decomposed in efficiency and technical change terms

  9. Robotics and Industrial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…

  10. Spring 2008 Industry Study: Financial Services Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calderon, Juan; Collins, Thomas W; Devinney, Edward; Driggers, Gene J; Dunmyer, Valrica; Flood, Paul; Gallant, Robin; Kekauoha, Stanford K; Krawietz, Anthony B; Kumashiro, Patrick T; LaDue, Paul W; LaFalce, John; Larson, Steven W; Lawrence, Steven J; Nettleton, John; Ostrowski, John A

    2008-01-01

    The extensive media coverage of the 2008 subprime crisis, both domestically and abroad, drives home the crucial role that the financial services industry plays for not only individual Americans, but for U.S. national security...

  11. INDUSTRI KREATIF INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN ANALISIS KINERJA INDUSTRI

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Kamil

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Department of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia has launched a creative economic development documents interpreted the 2025 Indonesia became the starting point and guide the development of the creative economy in Indonesia. With the existence of this document, the industry and its stakeholders or other stakeholders can readily develop the creative economy in Indonesia. Economic development in the direction of the creative industries is one manifestation of optimism aspiration...

  12. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  13. Minerals industry survey 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh Minerals Industry Survey produced by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents an invaluable time series on the minerals industry's financial performance, as well as an up to date description of the industry for the latest financial year. The survey has been conceived as a supplement to and expansion of the various Australian Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics publications which describe the exploration, mining and smelting and refining industries in Australia. The tables in this survey have been prepared by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies.

  14. Historicism and Industry Emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, David; Moeen, Mahka; Wadhwani, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Management and organization scholars have increasingly turned to historical sources to examine the emergence and evolution of industries over time. This scholarship has typically used historical evidence as observations for testing theoretically relevant processes of industry emergence....... In this chapter, an alternative approach is explored that focuses on reconstructing causes and processes that time and theory have erased. The emergence of three industries—plant biotechnology, savings banking, and the automobile—shows how time, along with prevailing functional models of industry evolution, leads...... excluded phenomena and explanations, reconstructing uncertainty and alternative paths of industry emergence, and studying the processes of information elision and exclusion in the formation of industry knowledge....

  15. Industrial statistics with Minitab

    CERN Document Server

    Cintas, Pere Grima; Llabres, Xavier Tort-Martorell

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Statistics with MINITAB demonstrates the use of MINITAB as a tool for performing statistical analysis in an industrial context. This book covers introductory industrial statistics, exploring the most commonly used techniques alongside those that serve to give an overview of more complex issues. A plethora of examples in MINITAB are featured along with case studies for each of the statistical techniques presented. Industrial Statistics with MINITAB: Provides comprehensive coverage of user-friendly practical guidance to the essential statistical methods applied in industry.Explores

  16. Advanced Industrial Materials Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stooksbury, F.

    1994-06-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDA's. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  17. Metalcasting Industry Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-01-01

    The Roadmap sets out the strategy for pursuing near-, mid-, and long-term goals set out by industry and for carrying out the cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and industry. The Roadmap outlines key goals for products and markets, materials technology, manufacturing technology, environmental technology, human resources, and industry health programs. The Roadmap sets out the strategy for pursuing near-, mid-, and long-term goals set out by industry and for carrying out the cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and industry. The Roadmap sets out the strategy for pursuing near-, mid-, and long-term goals set out by industry and for carrying out the cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and industry.

  18. PEDAGOGICAL FEELINGS IN THE PERFORMANCE OF TEACHERS OF THE EDUCATION ECUADORIAN SYSTEM / LOS SENTIMIENTOS PEDAGÓGICOS EN EL DESEMPEÑO DE LOS DOCENTES DEL SISTEMA EDUCATIVO ECUATORIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Remigio Castillo Bustos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human being´s integral formation is a decisive factor that determines the relationships and interactions of man´s social and natural world; therefore, the educational institutions take on the challenge of making this training in terms of quality and warmth, to ensure its relevance and effectiveness. This research shows us the educational errors in the teachers´ performance in the Ecuadorian context. These are own errors of traditional education, they haven´t been exceeded yet. Among them we mentioned the following: poor social relations between teachers and students, lacking knowledge of teaching subjects, insufficient group work how learning means, inadequate application of teaching method, excess severity of assessment and poor communication skill in the classroom. This situation weakens significantly the quality of the training processes of students, in function socio-cultural transformation; in consequence it contemplates the appropriation of pedagogical feelings, based on the development emotional competences according to the professional education, it arises how an alternative to correct the problematic and make sure an education in agreement with the social demands of the contemporary world. RESUMEN: La formación integral del ser humano, es un factor determinante que condiciona las relaciones e interacciones del hombre en el mundo social y natural; por tanto, las instituciones educativas asumen el reto de concretar esta formación, en términos de calidad y calidez, para garantizar su pertinencia y efectividad. La presente investigación demuestra los errores pedagógicos del desempeño docente en el contexto ecuatoriano, errores característicos de la educación tradicional, aún no superados, entre ellos, se mencionan los siguientes: deficientes relaciones sociales entre docentes y estudiantes, escaso dominio de las asignaturas que imparten, insuficiente trabajo cooperativo como medio de aprendizaje, inadecuada aplicación de la

  19. Expression of serum insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins, and the growth hormone-binding protein in heterozygote relatives of Ecuadorian growth hormone receptor deficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, P J; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Rosenbloom, A L; Carlsson, L; Hintz, R L; Rosenfeld, R G

    1992-04-01

    Recently, an isolated population of apparent GH-receptor deficient (GHRD) patients has been identified in the Loja province of southern Ecuador. These individuals presented many of the physical and biochemical phenotypes characteristic of Laron-Syndrome and are believed to have a defect in the GH-receptor gene. In this study, we have compared the biochemical phenotypes between the affected individuals and their parents, considered to be obligate heterozygotes for the disorder. Serum GH, insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) levels were measured by RIA Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. (IGFBPs) were measured by Western ligand blotting (WLB) of serum samples, following separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and relative quantitation of serum IGFBPs was performed with a scanning laser densitometer. Serum GH-binding protein (GHBP) levels were measured with a ligand-mediated immunofunctional assay using a monoclonal antibody raised against the GHBP. These values were then compared to values obtained from normal, sex-matched adult Ecuadorian controls, to determine if the above parameters were abnormal in the heterozygotes. The serum IGF-I levels of the GHRD patients were less than 13% of control values for adults and 2% for children. However, the IGF-I levels of both the mothers and fathers were not significantly different from that of the control population. The serum IGF-II levels of the GHRD patients were approximately 20% of control values for adults and 12% for the children. The IGF-II levels of the mothers were reduced, but were not significantly different from that of the control population. However, IGF-II levels of the fathers were significantly lower than those of controls (64% of control male levels). WLB analysis of serum IGFBP levels of the affected subjects demonstrated increased IGFBP-2 and decreased IGFBP-3, suggesting an inverse relationship between these IGFBPs. The GHRD patients who had the

  20. Seroprevalencia de la enfermedad de Chagas en el cantón Aguarico, Amazonía ecuatoriana Seroprevalence of Chagas disease in Aguarico canton in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Amunárriz

    2010-07-01

    positive cases found in females. These findings are similar to the 1990 comparison studies. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained confirm the existence of an indigenous focus of Chagas disease in the Ecuadorian Amazon, with a percentage higher that the average for the Amazon region. No acute clinical cases or chronic pathologies were detected. Implementation of a culturally appropriate Chagas control program for the region is urgently needed.

  1. Finnish industry's energy requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Industry uses around half of the electricity consumed in Finland. In 1999, this amounted to 42.3 TWh and 420 PJ of fuel. Despite the continual improvements that have been made in energy efficiency, energy needs look set to continue growing at nearly 2% a year. Finnish industrial output rose by some 5.5% in 1999. In energy-intensive sectors such as pulp and paper, output rose by 3.4%, in the metal industry by 4%, and in the chemical industry by 3.1%. Growth across Finnish industry is largely focused on the electrical and electronics industries, however, where growth last year was 24.3% The Finnish forest products industry used a total of 26.1 TWh of electricity last year, up 1% on 1998. This small increase was the result of the industry's lower-than-average operating rate in the early part of the year The metal industry used 7.2 TWh of electricity, an increase of 5.8% on 1998. Usage in the chemical industry rose by 2% to 5.2 TWh. Usage by the rest of industry totalled 3.8 TWh, up 2.3% on 1998. All in all, industry's use of electricity rose by 2% in 1999 to 42,3 TWh. Increased demand on industry's main markets in Europe will serve to boost industrial output and export growth this year. This increased demand will be particularly felt in energy-intensive industries in the shape of an increased demand for electricity. Overall, electricity demand is expected to grow by 3% this year, 1% more than industry's longterm projected electricity usage growth figure of 2%. The structure of industry's fuel use in Finland has changed significantly over the last 25 years. Oil, for example, now accounts for only some 10% of fuel use compared to the 40% typical around the time of the first oil crisis. Oil has been replaced by biofuels, peat, and natural gas. The pulp and paper industry is the largest industrial user of renewable energy sources in Finland, and uses wood-related fuels to cover nearly 70% of its fuel needs

  2. Landscape of Industry: Transformation of (Eco Industrial Park through history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of industry has been changing over time. Industry has transformed and many tangents have emerged from the sporadic home-based cottage industries to geographically scattered large manufacturing industries to co-located industrial parks to environment friendly eco-industrial parks. Curiosity about the catalysts that bring about the transformation of industrial landscape is the motivation of this article. Through the narrative on Industrial Park and the gradual shift towards Eco-Industrial Park, this article aims to shed light on the context and conditions that act as catalysts for industrial transformations, so as to serve as a reference for predicting future changes in industrial landscape.

  3. Industry and energy; Industrie et energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birules y Bertran, A.M. [Ministere des Sciences et de la Technologie (Spain); Folgado Blanco, J. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' Economie, a l' Energie et aux PME du Royaume d' Espagne (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This document is the provisional version of the summary of the debates of the 2433. session of the European Union Council about various topics relative to the industry and the energy. The energy-related topics that have been debated concern: the government helps in coal industry, the internal electricity and gas market, the trans-European energy networks, the bio-fuels in transportation systems, the energy charter, the pluri-annual energy program, and the green book on the security of energy supplies. (J.S.)

  4. Industry Study, Environment Industry, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    practices. For example, the cruising sector of the tourism industry has widely- acknowledged negative environmental impacts (carbon emissions and ocean...Services: An Industry Analysis ,” (2009): 4. http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file50253.pdf 18 Ibid., 5. 19 EBI, 21 20 Department for Business...Ibid., 26. 50 DataMonitor Country Analysis Report, “Korea: In-Depth PESTLE Insights,” (June 2008): 4. 51 EBI, “3000,” 1-22. 52 Ibid., 5-130, 5

  5. Industry X.0 : Reimaging industrial development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zachar, H

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Mainframe Client-server & PCs Web 1.0 ecommerce Web 2.0, cloud, mobile Big data, analytics, visualization IoT & smart machines Artificial intelligence Quantum computing 6 T o d a y 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020... NEW SET OF CORE CAPABILITIES TO SUCCEED INDUSTRY X.0 INDUSTRY 4.0 EFFICIENCIES HYPER-PERSONALIZED EXPERIENCES & NEW SOURCES OF GROWTH SOCIAL MEDIA CLOUD ANALYTICS MOBILITY WEB 1.0/E-COMMERCE PCS, SERVERS AND DEDICATED HARDWARE PCS...

  6. Industry X.0 : Reimaging industrial development.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zachar, H

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Mainframe Client-server & PCs Web 1.0 ecommerce Web 2.0, cloud, mobile Big data, analytics, visualization IoT & smart machines Artificial intelligence Quantum computing 6 T o d a y 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020... NEW SET OF CORE CAPABILITIES TO SUCCEED INDUSTRY X.0 INDUSTRY 4.0 EFFICIENCIES HYPER-PERSONALIZED EXPERIENCES & NEW SOURCES OF GROWTH SOCIAL MEDIA CLOUD ANALYTICS MOBILITY WEB 1.0/E-COMMERCE PCS, SERVERS AND DEDICATED HARDWARE PCS...

  7. Curcuma alismatifolia vase life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevenzoli Favero, Bruno; Pace Pereira Lima, Giuseppina; Dole, John

    2017-01-01

    Cut curcuma stem has a reported vase life of 7 to 21 days and this difference in vase life is probably due to a combination of different factors such as growing conditions and postharvest treatments. However, the cut flower industry needs key postharvest information for new species and cultivars ...

  8. A molecular cytogenetic study of intergenomic recombination and introgression of chromosomal segments in lilies (Lilium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadeem Khan, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lilies (Lilium L.) are one of the most important ornamental bulbous crops for cut flower industry
    grown extensively in The Netherlands for last few decades. The genus Lilium consists of seven
    different sections with about 80 species. The species within genus Lilium (2n = 2x = 24)

  9. First report of Moroccan pepper virus on Lisianthus in Iran and Worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkzadeh, N.; Peters, D.; Hassani-Mehraban, A.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) has been introduced in Iran in the horticultural cut-flower industry. This crop is currently produced in more than 800 small greenhouses on a surface of an estimated 0.8 km2 in the Pakdasht region (southeast of Teheran Province). Plants

  10. The hot, the cold and the tulip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeggangers, Hendrika A.C.F.

    2017-01-01

    The ornamental geophyte Tulipa gesneriana is the most cultivated bulbous species in the Netherlands. It is widely grown in the field for vegetative propagation purposes and in greenhouses for the production of high quality cut flowers. Over the last decade, the tulip bulb industry is

  11. Research challenges in geophyte science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; Gude, H.; Chastagner, G.A.; Okubo, H.

    2015-01-01

    Ornamental geophytes, also called "flower bulbs", play a significant role in the global flower industry and are utilized for the commercial production of cut flowers, potted plants and propagation materials, as well as in landscaping and gardening. Traditionally, the commercial production of

  12. A molecular cytogenetic analysis of chromosome behavior in Lilium hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Lily (Lilium) has become one of the top bulbous crops for the cut flower industry in the past two decades. The genus Lilium comprises of approximately 80 species, which have been classified into seven sections. Each section possesses distinctive phenotypic characters, such as

  13. Nuclear industry technology boomerang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholler, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The benefits to the medical, pharmaceutical, semiconductor, computer, video, bioscience, laser, defense, and numerous high-tech industries from nuclear technology development fallout are indeed numerous and increase every day. Now those industries have made further progress and improvements that, in return, benefit the nuclear industry. The clean-air and particle-free devices and enclosures needed for protection and decontamination are excellent examples

  14. VE of construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-10-15

    This book gives descriptions of basic of VE of construction industry including doing away with mannerism, necessity of cost reduction, management method of cost reduction, thinking of idea, target of VE, starting VE activity, technical method of VE of construction industry such as thinking of idea with brainstorming, function trade method, new brainstorming, MM method, morphology analysis and lateral thinking, cases of VE of construction industry.

  15. Modern electrochemistry and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Yong

    1985-04-01

    This book is divided into fifteen chapters on modern electrochemistry and industry. The contents of this book are electrochemistry and industry, electrochemistry for electrolyte like ionic mobility quantity of activity of electrolyte, potential balance system like cell potential, concentration cell and membrane potential, electrochemical kinetics, electrochemistry for surfactant, electrochemistry for electrolysis test such as polarography, chronopotentiometry and Cyclic voltametry, electrolysis reactor NaOH electrolysis industry, H 2 O electrolysis, molten metal electrolysis, copper electrolysis, battery and electro-organic chemistry.

  16. VE of construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic of VE of construction industry including doing away with mannerism, necessity of cost reduction, management method of cost reduction, thinking of idea, target of VE, starting VE activity, technical method of VE of construction industry such as thinking of idea with brainstorming, function trade method, new brainstorming, MM method, morphology analysis and lateral thinking, cases of VE of construction industry.

  17. Uranium industry annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Uranium industry data collected in the EIA-858 survey provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of annual activities of the industry and include some information about industry plans over the next several years. This report consists of two major sections. The first addresses uranium raw materials activities and covers the following topics: exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment. The second major section is concerned with the following uranium marketing activities: uranium purchase commitments, uranium prices, procurement arrangements, uranium imports and exports, enrichment services, inventories, secondary market activities utility market requirements and related topics

  18. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  19. Industrial Economics in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Møllgaard, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Based on diverse research methods, we trace and map industrial economics research in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the periode of 1880 to 1908. After describing this research in terms of key contributors, we argue that industrial economics developed rather unevenly in the Scandinavian countries....... Danish research was mainly theoretical and strongly oriented towards the international context, whereas Norwegian research was largely industry analysis with a strong leaning towards managerial economics. Swedish research in industrial economics is very scant until the end of the 1960s.JEL Code: B1, B2...

  20. Process and petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In comparison with many industries, the oil and gas industry is somewhat unique in that it has been operating in a global environment for many decades. The North Sea exploration and production industry is now entering a challenging era for business growth which is a mature region with smaller and smaller fields, more difficult to find and which require innovative development schemes. This presentation relates to information technology offering the exploration and production industry a unique set of business tools to improve performance and enable growth while reducing risk

  1. Process and petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    In comparison with many industries, the oil and gas industry is somewhat unique in that it has been operating in a global environment for many decades. The North Sea exploration and production industry is now entering a challenging era for business growth which is a mature region with smaller and smaller fields, more difficult to find and which require innovative development schemes. This presentation relates to information technology offering the exploration and production industry a unique set of business tools to improve performance and enable growth while reducing risk

  2. Standard Industry Fare Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Standard Industry Fare Level was establish after airline deregulation to serve as the standard against which a statutory zone of operating expense reasonableness was...

  3. Forest industries energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G. C.

    1977-10-15

    Data on energy use in the manufacturing process of the wood products industry in 1974 are tabulated. The forest industries contributed 10% of New Zealand's factory production and consumed 25% of all industrial energy (including that produced from self-generated sources such as waste heat liquors and wood wastes) in that year. An evaluation of the potential for savings in process heat systems in existing production levels is shown to be 3% in the short, medium, and long-term time periods. The industry has a high potential for fuel substitution in all sectors. The payback periods for the implementation of the conservation measures are indicated.

  4. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  5. Automotive Industry in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter; Govindaraju, V.G.R. Chandran

    2011-01-01

    ) limited participation in the global value chain. Although the Malaysian infant industry protection policy comprised many promising initiatives, the national and the overall domestic automobile industry ended up as a captive of the regionalised Japanese keiretsu system in automobile manufacturing. A new...... expanded in terms of sales, production, employment and local content, but failed in industrial upgrading and international competitiveness. The failures can be attributed to (a) lack of political promotion for high challenge-high support environment, (b) low technological and marketing capabilities and (c...... transformation is required to push the industry beyond its current performance through a more strategic productive coalition with multiple stakeholders including trade unions....

  6. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  7. Mapping of wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Віліна Пересадько; Надія Максименко; Катерина Біла

    2016-01-01

    Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very un...

  8. Spring 2007. Industry Study. Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    their success. Each company advertised the world-class capabilities of their product, not its price. By contrast, a struggling company we visited in...business disruptions lurking within the Trojan Horse we have nestled in the US industrial base. It is important to note that a catastrophic disaster from

  9. Industry Study, Weapons Industry, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Agencies Sdn. Bhd.; Malaysia Aircraft Inspection, Repair, and Overhaul Depot; Malaysia American Malaysian Chamber of Commerce; Malaysia Samsung Techwin...Ministry of Defense: Defense Science and Technology Agency; Singapore Ministry of Defense: Industrial Affairs Office; Malaysia Boustead Shipping...Singapore, Malaysia , and Korea). Recommended policy changes included in the conclusion will strengthen these conditions, given that government goals and

  10. Industry Study, Electronics Industry, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    not have the flexibility in their processes to quickly produce custom system-on-chips because they are optimized for high-end production. Dell ...building its semiconductor industry, Malaysia has moved in the same overall directions but has lagged a few years. Malaysia has succeeded in the backend

  11. Polish food industry 2008-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mroczek, Robert; Drożdż, Jadwiga; Tereszczuk, Mirosława; Urban, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the functioning of the food industry and its various sectors in 2008-2013. Meat and poultry industry. Dairy industry. Fishing industry. Milling industry. Sugar industry. Oil-mill industry. Processing of fruit, vegetables and potatoes. Bakery industry. Confectionery industry. Feed industry. Production of other food products. Production of alcoholic beverages.Tobacco industry. Food industry.

  12. Pharmacist-industry relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Keene; O'Connor, Bonnie; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document, in their own words, beliefs and attitudes that American pharmacists have towards the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacists' interactions with industry. An ethnographic-style qualitative study was conducted utilizing open-ended interviews with four hospital pharmacists, two independent pharmacists, two retail pharmacists and one administrative pharmacist in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area to elicit descriptions of and attitudes towards pharmacists' relationships with industry. Analysis of the qualitative material followed established ethnographic conventions of narrative thematic analysis. All pharmacists reported interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives. Most had received free resources or services from industry, including educational courses. Respondents uniformly believed that industry promotional efforts are primarily directed towards physicians. Although respondents felt strongly that drug prices were excessive and that 'me-too' drugs were of limited use, they generally had a neutral-to-positive view of industry-funded adherence/compliance programmes, coupons, vouchers, and copay payment programmes. Interviewees viewed direct-to-consumer advertising negatively, but had a generally positive view of industry-funded drug information. Pharmacists may represent a hitherto under-identified cohort of health professionals who are targeted for industry influence; expanding roles for pharmacists may make them even more attractive targets for future industry attention. Pharmacy schools should ensure that students learn to rely on unbiased information sources and should teach students about conflicts of interest and the risks of interacting with industry. Further research should be conducted on the extent to which pharmacists' attitudes towards their duties and towards drug assessment and recommendation are influenced by the pharmaceutical industry. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Geothermal industry assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  14. Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-02-01

    This roadmap describes the industry's R&D strategy, priorities, milestones, and performance targets for achieving its long-term goals. It accounts for changes in the industry and the global marketplace since the first roadmap was published in 1997. An updated roadmap was published November 2001. (PDF 1.1 MB).

  15. Industry and Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter; Nielsen, Birger Steen; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    1996-01-01

    A wage earner utopia on a democratic innovation of society. A hermeneutic reconstruction from an action research project with a group of workers from the danish fishing industry.......A wage earner utopia on a democratic innovation of society. A hermeneutic reconstruction from an action research project with a group of workers from the danish fishing industry....

  16. Uranium industry annual 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  17. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  18. Industrial applications and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres M, N.; Melendrez C, G.; Morales, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    From 1961 the use of nuclear energy in the industrial field in Colombia has a big advance. Today nuclear isotopes are used by private companies in this kind of application the Area of Industrial Applications and Metallurgy was the institution section that has trained and has transferred the technology needed for this purpose

  19. Manual on industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    This manual is intended as a source of educational material to personnel seeking certification as industrial radiographers, and as a guide and reference text for educational organizations that are providng courses in industrial radiography. It covers the basic principles of x-ray and gamma radiation, radiation safety, films and film processing, welding, casting and forging, aircraft structures and components, radiographic techniques, and records

  20. Innovations in Hospitality Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhandzhugazova, Elena A.; Blinova, Ekaterina A.; Orlova, Liubov N.; Romanova, Marianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the study of the role and importance of innovation, its classification, the problems of its application in the hotel industry with emphasis on the application of sensory marketing tools in the development of the innovative marketing mix within the hospitality industry. The article provides an analysis of the "seven…

  1. Uranium industry annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data collected on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ''Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,'' is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2

  2. RESTRUCTURING OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main principles for execution of current and strategic restructuring of national enterprises while using experience of countries with developed market economy. The principles contribute to higher efficiency in internal industrial relations at national industrial enterprises.

  3. Australian uranium industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, R K

    1976-04-01

    Various aspects of the Australian uranium industry are discussed including the prospecting, exploration and mining of uranium ores, world supply and demand, the price of uranium and the nuclear fuel cycle. The market for uranium and the future development of the industry are described.

  4. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  5. Nuclear industry chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    As part of a survey on Switzerland a pull-out organisation chart is presented of the nuclear industry showing Swiss government bodies and industrial concerns. Their interests, connections with each other and their associations with international and other national organizations and firms are indicated. (U.K.)

  6. The Danish Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    and governed, what role it plays in the Danish economy, and how industrial foundation-owned companies perform. The book is the result of a large collaborative research project, led by the author, on industrial foundations. Some global companies such as IKEA, Robert Bosch or the Tata Group are foundation...

  7. Insurance industry guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is an insurance industry guide for the independent power industry. The directory includes the insurance company's name, address, telephone and FAX numbers and a description of the company's area of expertise, products and services, and limitations. The directory is international in scope. Some of the companies specialize in independent power projects

  8. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case is to create awareness about a somewhat unfamiliar industry that accounts for over €3 billion in Scandinavia and £5,6 billion in the UK, the Metals recycling industry. The case features a Scandinavian Company and includes several perspectives from managerial disciplines...

  9. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattebö, Helge; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Lorentzen, Børge

    The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies.......The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies....

  10. Wanted! Industrial Hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilkind, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    Due to increased pressure (for example, from the Occupational Safety and Health Act) to create healthier/safer worker environments, the number of industrial hygienist positions has increased. Compares the need to the demand. Examines industrial hygienist salary ranges, expected educational background, job opportunities, and training program…

  11. Greening of Danish Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    2002-01-01

    The article outlines the major changes in the discourse on cleaner technology and on pollution prevention, together with policy instuments applied in the Danish industry.......The article outlines the major changes in the discourse on cleaner technology and on pollution prevention, together with policy instuments applied in the Danish industry....

  12. Nuclear industry takes off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, A.; Stevens, R.C.B.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade irradiation sterilisation of medical and pharmaceutical products proved a highly successful semi-commercial operation at Pelindaba, until it made way recently for the first full-scale radiation processing industry in SA - a classic case of science transferring technology to industry

  13. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Picture 30 : representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony

  14. Estrategia educativa de orientación familiar para la atención a las carencias afectivas en el desarrollo del escolar ecuatoriano / Educational strategy of family orientation for the attention to the affective lacks in the Ecuadorian student's development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Magdalena Lucas Vidal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To learn how to live together, besides being one of the objectives of all educational systems, is considered as one of the fundamental challenges of the education in the 21stcentury. For this reason, studing students problems and conflicts at educational institutions and developing possible solutions or preventing them has become a focus of attention of any educational community. According to this, the UNESCO (2008 has pointed out that the enormous affective lacks of children, as well as the presence of in nefective models of communication, have motivated professionals to rely on ethic education and social abilities. This article is aimed at devising and educational strategy of family counseling to face affective lacks. The research starts by constructing a framework and collecting information leading to the identification of Ecuadorian affective lacks and the procedures for family counseling. The findings is an strategy tailored to meet the counseling need of community families

  15. Uranium industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  16. Indian refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the history of the Indian refining industry and ongoing developments under the headings: the present state; refinery configuration; Indian capabilities for refinery projects; and reforms in the refining industry. Tables lists India's petroleum refineries giving location and capacity; new refinery projects together with location and capacity; and expansion projects of Indian petroleum refineries. The Indian refinery industry has undergone substantial expansion as well as technological changes over the past years. There has been progressive technology upgrading, energy efficiency, better environmental control and improved capacity utilisation. Major reform processes have been set in motion by the government of India: converting the refining industry from a centrally controlled public sector dominated industry to a delicensed regime in a competitive market economy with the introduction of a liberal exploration policy; dismantling the administered price mechanism; and a 25 year hydrocarbon vision. (UK)

  17. Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering | Classification | College of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  18. Manufacturing Industry, Industry Study, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Shuib, Lieutenant Colonel, Royal Malaysian Air Force Kevin Brennan, Commander, U.S. Navy Mr. K. Ilia Christman, Department of the Navy Robert Costa...panel to review the impact of taxation , regulatory compliance, and benefits burdens on domestic manufacturers. Review would bring focus to ways...Finally, the MISG considered the effect of these 14 characteristics on the U.S. Manufacturing Industry vis-à-vis Chinese and Malaysian

  19. Relevance of Industrial and Science Parks to Industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we reviewed the impact of Industrial and Science Parks on industrial ... and stimulate the development of small and medium size enterprises as a base for ... In order to achieve these, emphasis should be on establishing Industrial and ... transfer, industrial park, Science Park, industrial development, innovation, ...

  20. How industries change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGahan, Anita M

    2004-10-01

    It's fairly obvious: To make intelligent investments within your organization, you need to understand how your whole industry is changing. But such knowledge is not always easy to come by. Companies misread clues and arrive at false conclusions all the time. To truly understand where your industry is headed, you have to take a long-term, high-level look at the context in which you do business, says Boston University professor Anita McGahan. She studied a variety of businesses from a cross section of industries over a ten-year period, examining how industry structure affects business profitability and investor returns. Her research suggests that industries evolve along one of four distinct trajectories--radical, progressive, creative, and intermediating--that set boundaries on what will generate profits in a business. These four trajectories are defined by two types of threats. The first is when new, outside alternatives threaten to weaken or make obsolete core activities that have historically generated profits for an industry. The second is when an industry's core assets--its resources, knowledge, and brand capital--fail to generate value as they once did. Industries undergo radical change when core assets and core activities are both threatened with obsolescence; they experience progressive change when neither are jeopardized. Creative change occurs when core assets are under threat but core activities are stable, and intermediating change happens when core activities are threatened while core assets retain their capacity to create value. If your company's innovation strategy is not aligned with your industry's change trajectory, your plan for achieving returns on invested capital cannot succeed, McGahan says. But if you understand which path you're on, you can determine which strategies will succeed and which will backfire.

  1. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  2. Irradiation technology - industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyball, A.

    1995-01-01

    The most important applications of the radiation technology are the crosslinking of polymers and sterilisation. Although extensive experience about the use of this technology is available and powerful and dependable radiation facilities can be obtained, as yet the radiation technology has not found the acceptance it deserves in the industry. The main reason therefore has to do with how the question of radiation or the term radiation is presented to the industry and among the population. This paper will deal with considerations and ways in which the industrial use of the radiation technology can be expanded. (author)

  3. Uranium industry annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    In the Uranium Industry Annual 1991, data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2. A feature article entitled ''The Uranium Industry of the Commonwealth of Independent States'' is included in this report

  4. Uranium Industry. Annual 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, M.S.S.

    1985-01-01

    This report provides a statistical description of activities of the US uranium industry during 1984 and includes a statistical profile of the status of the industry at the end of 1984. It is based on the results of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) survey entitled ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (Form EIA-858). The principal findings of the survey are summarized under two headings - Uranium Raw Materials Activities and Uranium Marketing Activities. The first heading covers exploration and development, uranium resources, mine and mill production, and employment. The second heading covers uranium deliveries and delivery commitments, uranium prices, foreign trade in uranium, inventories, and other marketing activities. 32 figs., 48 tabs

  5. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  6. Industries and environment - 2014 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, Delphine

    2014-04-01

    After a general overview of the French economic context (composition of the French industry, the manufacturing industry, industry production and trade balance), this report presents industrial installations with risks: installations classified for the protection of the environment and submitted to industrial authorizations (ICPEA), basic nuclear installations, Seveso industrial facilities, IPPC industrial installations. The next part analyzes the various pressures exerted by the industry on the environment: material production and consumption, water taking, consumption of energetic products, release of pollutants in waters of industrial ICPE, releases in the air, greenhouse gas emissions, production of wastes, accidents and incidents with environmental consequences, polluted sites and soils, hazardous chemical products in the industry, industrial companies involved in nano-technologies and nano-materials. The last part proposes an overview of responses to these issues: implementation of environmental management system, corporate societal responsibility, investments and expenditures for the protection of the environment, industrial eco-activities, eco-labelled products manufactured by the industry

  7. The Aircraft Industry, 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Keith

    2006-01-01

    .... and global economic growth. The overall outlook for the industry is positive. Orders for commercial aircraft are up from a boom in air travel that is likely to continue well into the next decade...

  8. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ''Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,'' is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2

  9. Industrial implications of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressouyre, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Two major industrial implications of hydrogen are examined: problems related to the effect of hydrogen on materials properties (hydrogen embrittlement), and problems related to the use and production of hydrogen as a future energy vector [fr

  10. Nuclear techniques in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    ... and the environment in which the private sector operates. They must also assess the role of government in determining transportation policy, as federal, state, and local agencies regulate every mode of this industry. While the U.S...

  12. Uranium industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  13. Education Industry, 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    The education industry is vital to United States (U.S.) national security as it is largely responsible for generating the human capital necessary to effectively integrate the various instruments of power to promote U.S. national interests...

  14. Industrial power distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Fehr, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    In this fully updated version of Industrial Power Distribution, the author addresses key areas of electric power distribution from an end-user perspective for both electrical engineers, as well as students who are training for a career in the electrical power engineering field. Industrial Power Distribution, Second Edition, begins by describing how industrial facilities are supplied from utility sources, which is supported with background information on the components of AC power, voltage drop calculations, and the sizing of conductors and transformers. Important concepts and discussions are featured throughout the book including those for sequence networks, ladder logic, motor application, fault calculations, and transformer connections. The book concludes with an introduction to power quality, how it affects industrial power systems, and an expansion of the concept of power factor, including a distortion term made necessary by the existence of harmonic.

  15. Industry Based Monkfish Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monkfish industry leaders expressed concerns that the NEFSC bottom trawl surveys did not sample in all monkfish habitats; particularly the deeper water outside the...

  16. Industrial Activity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalik, G

    2000-01-01

    The decrease in the number of CERN staff creates the need for optimization of the non-core, infrastructure-related activities. An industrial, service-orientated approach has long been considered as an appropriate way to cope with the problem of diminishing resources. This paper presents industrial and service activity issues at CERN based on the experience of the exploitation of the power network. The most important problems linked to the application of the industrial approach to the exploitation of equipment in the CERN research environment are covered. These include the interface between accelerators and electrical exploitation services, external and internal regulations, sharing of responsibility between CERN staff and external contractors, continuous modification of clients' requirements, the balance between the cost of accelerator downtime versus the cost of infrastructure upgrade. A benchmarking through a comparison with a big industrial manufacturer is followed by recommendations for possible improveme...

  17. The Educational Film Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Vincent R.; Schillaci, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Increased dialog is needed among educational film producers, distributors, and consumers in order to be sure that what is being produced meets educators' needs and also to help solve the financial problems of the film industry. (LS)

  18. Financial Services Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arezo, Gullab; Billingslea, Willie D; Brooks, James V; Brown, Jeffery D; Cotton, Cheryl; Determan, Deborah A; Dzurenko, Monte S; Egentowich, John; Greenwald, Michael N; Keegan, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    .... The financial services industry impacts the daily lives of all Americans. They rely on it to save for their retirement and their children's education, pay their bills, insure against risks, and buy their homes and automobiles...

  19. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Showing excellence in mechanics, electronics and cryogenics, three industries are honoured for their contributions to the ATLAS experiment. Representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony. For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Close interaction with CERN was a key factor in the selection of each rewarded company, in addition to the high-quality products they delivered to the experiment. Alu Menziken Industrie AG, of Switzerland, was honoured for the production of 380,000 aluminium tubes for the Monitored Drift Tube Chambers (MDT). As Giora Mikenberg, the Muon System Project Leader stressed, the aluminium tubes were delivered on time with an extraordinary quality and precision. Between October 2000 and Jan...

  20. Shipbuilding Industry Study 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montroll, Mark; Johnson, Keith; Chandler, Brett; Wood, Robert; Hale, Timothy; Nally, Kevin; Harmand, Patrick; Danielescu, Marius; McQueen, Rick; Larese, William S

    2004-01-01

    ...-going military vessels. As capable as the U.S. shipbuilding industry is in responding to the world's most demanding National Security Strategy, the same cannot be said in the global commercial marketplace...

  1. Information Technology Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altieri, Richard; Buccheit, Nathan; Burke, Kyle; Dillard, Norvel; Dolan, Patrick; Edwards, Gregory; Elins, Daniel; Gaines, Leonard; Goodwin, Steven; Lawrence, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... This study will define the Information Technology Industry, give an overview of current domestic and international conditions, and then analyze the state of national network security and challenges faced by the U.S. government and U.S...

  2. Servitization in Industrial Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Frandsen, Thomas; Raja, Jawwad

    This booklet outlines the breadth and depth of services offered by Danish manufacturing companies, aiming to provide a better understanding of the servitization landscape in Denmark. A total of 1,103 company websites have been checked against 16 service categories. Of these, 939 companies were...... analyzed in more detail, for example with regard to the types of services offered, company size, industry representation, turnover and earnings before interest and tax (EBIT). The analysis presented in this booklet may inspire Danish firms and help them, in their servitization journeys, to position...... themselves in relation to other companies in similar or related industries. In setting out a brief overview of the overall industrial service landscape in Denmark, the following is highlighted: - The extent to which Danish industrial firms are communicating service offerings through their websites...

  3. Chromatography in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Peter

    2009-07-01

    This review focuses on the chromatography research that has been carried out within industry or in close cooperation with industry and that has been reported in the scientific literature between 2006 and mid-2008. Companies in the health care sector, such as pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, are the largest contributors. Industrial research seems to take place in an open environment in cooperation with academia, peer companies, and institutions. Industry appears ready to embrace new technologies as they emerge, but they focus strongly on making chromatography work robustly, reliably, rapidly, and automatically. “Hyphenated” systems that incorporate on-line sample-preparation techniques and mass-spectrometric detection are the rule rather than the exception. Various multidimensional separation methods are finding numerous applications. Strategies aimed at speeding up the development of new chromatographic methods remain the focus of attention. Also, there is a clear trend toward exploring chromatographic methods for parallel processing along with other strategies for high-throughput analysis.

  4. Industrial applications at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delagrange, H.

    1993-01-01

    After a first round of industrial applications using heavy ion beams, GANIL has refocused these activities along the lines defined by a strategy and market study. Heavy ion industrial applications take their roots in the physical effects of the interactions occurring between heavy ion projectiles and matter. Specific equipments operated by GANIL or CIRIL allow users to take benefit from these effects. By heavy ion irradiation, industrial companies qualify radiation hardened electronic components and sensitize plastic films to produce 'nuclear track' membranes. Research and development programs with laboratories of the public sector, focus on heavy ion lithography dedicated to large area luminescent flat screens with field emitter microtips and on tribology with radioactive implanted ions. Even sometimes facing difficulties to fill the gap between industry and research, GANIL is eager to promote heavy ion beam technologies. (author) 36 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Industry Service - Technology Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe

    2011-01-01

    The chapter describes and explains the development of an Industry Service Technology (IS-T) portal solution at Danfoss for testing of products, including booking system for standardised 'service packages' in order to reduce waiting time....

  6. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  7. Entrepreneurship in Creative Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Černevičiūtė

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Creative industries topic is closely related to the art markets in a variety of mediation forms. Traditional business entrepreneurship is risk-related activities implementing innovations in markets, and generating economic growth. The creative industry area has plenty of innovation, but its acceptance is more complex because of the cultural world’s participants’ agreements. Cultural world has its own social organization, associated with the mediation (including entrepreneurship types. The article examines the concept of entrepreneurship in the traditional business and creative industries and types of innovation and mediation (including entrepreneurship. The conclusion is that types of intermediary in creative industries depend on the cultural world’s social organization, and forms of mediation are more heterogeneous than in the traditional business. 

  8. Nuclear measurements in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this book the author provides a description of nuclear measurements in industry, covering the physical principles, methods, instruments and equipment, and industrial applications. One of the great advantages of industrial nuclear measurements is that their use ensures the optimum use of raw material. The increasing cost of raw materials makes it essential to adhere strictly to the standards and prescriptions related to the product and this is possible only by the application of continuous and accurate measurements. As a result, the importance of nuclear instruments is rapidly growing particularly in fields where the application of alternative methods is not possible. This is illustrated by several practical examples described in the book. Similarly important are nuclear measuring the process control equipment which serve to optimize the use of energy in industrial processes

  9. Uranium industry annual, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data on US uranium raw materials and marketing activities of the domestic uranium industry. It contains aggregated data reported by US companies on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (1988), Form EIA-858, and historical data from prior data collections and other pertinent sources. The report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent agency for data collection and analysis with the US Department of Energy

  10. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  11. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  12. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  13. Industrial communication technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Zurawski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Featuring contributions from major technology vendors, industry consortia, and government and private research establishments, the Industrial Communication Technology Handbook, Second Edition provides comprehensive and authoritative coverage of wire- and wireless-based specialized communication networks used in plant and factory automation, automotive applications, avionics, building automation, energy and power systems, train applications, and more.New to the Second Edition:46 brand-new chapters and 21 substantially revised chaptersInclusion of the latest, most significant developments in spe

  14. 2001 Industry Studies: Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    schools sector is the image that comes to mind when most people think of education . It includ Page 3 of 22Industry Studies 2001 many childcare facilities ...negativism in public debate and the media concerning the U.S. education industry? Secretary of Education Rod Paige notes that even though statistics ...new skills requirements and a large influx of immigrants. The National Center for Education Statistics forecasts record level enrollments. Public

  15. Handbook of industrial lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, Stanley L

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Industrial Lighting is a practical guide on the specification, design, installation, operation, and maintenance of lighting in industrial premises. Coverage of the book includes the importance of good localized lighting; the different lighting schemes; lighting for difficult visual tasks; lighting in consideration to safety; and emergency lighting. The book also includes the practical, thermal, ventilation, and energy considerations; lighting in different environments; maintenance of lighting installations; and the cost benefits of efficient lighting. Appendices include useful info

  16. Academia Meets Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Christian; Paprotka, Tobias; Heitzer, Ellen; Eccleston, Mark; Noe, Johannes; Holdenrieder, Stefan; Diehl, Frank; Thierry, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Researchers working in industrial laboratories as well as in academic laboratories discussed topics related to the use of extracellular nucleic acids in different fields. These included areas like non-invasive prenatal diagnosis, the application of different methods for the analysis and characterization of patients with benign and malignant diseases and technical aspects associated with extracellular nucleic acids. In addition, the possibilities and chances for a cooperation of researchers working in different worlds, i.e. academia and industry, were discussed.

  17. The Italian Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Barbarito Luca; Ardizzone Antonella

    2010-01-01

    The Music Industry is a complex system in which many different actors interact. In this system there are suppliers of musical instruments, music schools, authors, singers, the phonographic industry, live events organizations and also the suppliers of those electronic devices necessary to listen to the music. This paper tries to analyze the size of those segments, their changes, and which are the key nodes in this system. Also the way we listen to music has changed a lot in this last 10 years,...

  18. Transformation of industrial territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, N. I.; Kolocova, I. I.

    2017-08-01

    The problem of removing industrial enterprises from the historical center of the city and the subsequent effective use of the territories has been relevant for Western countries. Nowadays, the problem is crucial for Russia, its megacities and regional centers. The paper analyzes successful projects of transforming industrial facilities into cultural, business and residential objects in the world and in Russia. The patterns of the project development have been determined and presented in the paper.

  19. 2001 Industry Studies: Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Internet . 8 March 2001. xliii Henry Kelly, “ Information Technology and the Environment: Choices and Opportunities,” CISP.org (October 1999) pp 8...development. Despite only a small percentage of U.S. environmental businesses participating in the world market , the U.S. industry has the best technology ...businesses participating in the world market , the U.S. industry has the best technology in the world and already generates a trade surplus. With the world

  20. 2002 Industry Studies: Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Information technologies have facilitated the rapid growth of electronic market places across the energy industry for trading energy commodities, such as...and information technology industry has further increased the importance of abundant, low-cost, and reliable electric power. Recently, public...California, the country has recently slowed its efforts to make electricity markets more competitive. Recommendations. Unless some technological “silver bullet

  1. Industry's turnaround looks real

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the industry outlook for North American gas and oil industries. In a robust Canada, land sales are setting records, drilling is up, and output is rising beyond last year's 21% growth. A perception among US operators that wellhead prices will remain stable is translating to increased spending. The USA, Canada, Mexico, Cuba are evaluated separately, with brief evaluations of Greenland, Guatemala, Belize, and Costa Rico. Data are presented on drilling activities

  2. Responsability of nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadiz Deleito, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Since the beginning of nuclear industry, civil responsibility with damages to the public health and properties was a critical problem, because the special conditions of this industry (nuclear accident, damages could be very high but probability of these events is very low). Legal precepts, universally accepted, in the first 60 years for all countries interested in nuclear energy are being revised, then 20 years of experience. The civil responsibility limited is being questioned and indemnities updated. (author)

  3. Petroleum industry in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  4. Etiology of severe pneumonia in Ecuadorian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivani Jonnalagadda

    Full Text Available In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador.This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2-59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors for specific respiratory pathogens were also evaluated.Among 406 children tested, 159 (39.2% had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 71 (17.5% had human metapneumovirus (hMPV, and 62 (15.3% had adenovirus. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in 37 (9.2% samples and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in three (0.74% samples. The yearly circulation pattern of RSV (P = 0.0003 overlapped with S. pneumoniae, (P = 0.03 with most cases occurring in the rainy season. In multivariable analysis, risk factors for RSV included younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, P = 0.01 and being underweight (aOR = 1.8, P = 0.04. Maternal education (aOR = 0.82, P = 0.003, pulse oximetry (aOR = 0.93, P = 0.005, and rales (aOR = 0.25, P = 0.007 were associated with influenza A. Younger age (aOR = 3.5, P = 0.007 and elevated baseline respiratory rate were associated with HPIV-3 infection (aOR = 0.94, P = 0.03.These results indicate the importance of RSV and influenza, and potentially modifiable risk factors including undernutrition and future use of a RSV vaccine, when an effective vaccine becomes available.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00513929.

  5. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L) in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position), the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competi...

  6. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position, the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competition behaviors. Always the Antitrust Authority will analyze these behaviors in terms of welfare of both: the consumer and the market.

  7. Entwicklungslinien der estnischen Industrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Raudjärv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems related to industry are topical because there is no real industrial policy in Estonia today. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the stages of development of Estonian industry in different periods (…–1858, ……, 2010–…. Estonian industry has been predominantly concentrated to Tallinn and its immediate vicinity and to other cities and towns of North Estonia, to a lesser extent also to other larger Estonian cities and county centres and their immediate vicinity. Disposition of industry in Estonia has been predominantly related to appropriate geographical conditions and existence of local natural resources and raw materials, traditions and experience but has also depended on decisions on economic policy in different periods, both on the national and local government levels. After regaining of independence there have been no particular fundamental positive changes in regional industrial development in Estonia, we can rather even talk about regression instead for some places. These are, however, necessary in order to ensure jobs to people in all inhabited regions, above all in rural areas. It would also contribute to a balanced regional development in Estonia.

  8. Industrial services at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Bulletin looks at industrial services contracts and the real impact of the cost reductions at CERN. The level of industrial services contracts varies from one phase to another. For example, during the dismantling of LEP (photo) it rose substiantially to fall again at the end of dismantling. Industrial services contracts are an important resource for CERN. The level and nature of such contracts changes according to the phase of operation of the Laboratory. A construction phase, as for the LHC, requires a higher level of industrial services contracts compared with a period of normal running. During the operation of LEP, industrial services contracts were thus maintained at a level of 120 MCHF per year. The level rose to 156 MCHF in 2001 to include contracts awarded for dismantling LEP, and fell to about 144 MCHF in 2002 when the dismantling was complete. During the whole LHC construction period, up to 2007, industrial services spending will be stable in the range 135-140 MCHF per year. For the running pe...

  9. OCT for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guiju; Harding, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), as an interferometric method, has been studied as a distance ranger. As a technology capable of producing high-resolution, depth-resolved images of biological tissue, OCT had been widely used for the application of ophthalmology and has been commercialized in the market today. Enlightened by the emerging research interest in biomedical domain, the applications of OCT in industrial inspection were rejuvenated by a few groups to explore its potential for characterizing new materials, imaging or inspecting industrial parts as a service solution[3]. Benefiting from novel photonics components and devices, the industrial application of the older concepts in OCT can be re-visited with respect to the unique performance and availability. Commercial OCT developers such as Michelson Diagnostics (MDL; Orpington, U.K.) and Thorlabs (Newton, NJ) are actively exploring the application of OCT to industrial applications and they have outlined meaningful path toward the metrology application in emerging industry[3]. In this chapter, we will introduce the fundamental concepts of OCT and discuss its current and potential industrial applications.

  10. Industrial College of the Armed Forces Industry Studies 2002: Biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The biotechnology industry is critically important to the development of products that will improve health care, agriculture, industrial processes, environmental remediation, and biological defense...

  11. Industry Valuation Driven Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jiao (Tao); G.M.H. Mertens (Gerard); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates whether industry valuation impacts firms’ earnings management decisions. Existing accounting literature assumes that industry valuation has a constant impact on this decision. We argue that a higher industry valuation increases the perceived benefits of earnings

  12. The Politics of Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Economic transformation is driven by successfully implemented industrial policy, but industrial policy is inherently political. We cannot understand why some governments pursue and implement industrial policy better than others without understanding the politics. This article addresses...

  13. Mapping of wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віліна Пересадько

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very unevenly; - all existing maps of the industry could be classified as analytical ascertaining inventory type; - the dominant ways of cartographic representation are area method and qualitative background method, sign method and collation maps are rarely used; - basically all the Internet maps have low quality as they are scanned images with poor resolution; - the special feature of maps published lately is lack of geographical basis (except for state borders and coastline. We created wine production and consumption world map «Wine Industry» in the scale of 1:60 000 000 with simple geographical basis (state names, state borders, major rivers, coastline. It was concluded that from the methodological point of view it is incorrect not to show geographical basis on maps of wine industry. Analysis of this map allowed us to identify areas of traditional wine-making, potential wine-making areas and countries which claim to be the world leaders in the field of wine production. We found disbalans between wine production and wine consumption - increasing wine production in South America, China and the United States and increasing wine consumption (mainly due to the import products in countries where the grape is not the primary agricultural product.

  14. How isotopes benefit industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The life of bus engines and the time taken to make beer are not at first sight connected with atomic energy. Yet the first has been considerably lengthened and the second even more considerably shortened in different countries as a result of using nuclear techniques and materials. They are only two examples; there are many others which have improved efficiency in factories, oilfields, chemical plants and other industries. They indicate not only the results of ingenuity but the rewards possible from more widespread use of the new methods. At a symposium on radioisotope tracers in industry and geophysics organized by the Agency and held in Prague during November many reports showed not only what is possible but what is actually being accomplished in a number of industries as a matter of daily routine. The economic benefits were also demonstrated, and although the developments have been mainly in countries already highly industrialized, the potential for new industries in developing countries was clear. Research to improve performance of motorcar, aircraft and tractor engines has been directed at establishing the causes of friction, corrosion and wear. In brewing beer it has been possible to accelerate fermentation. Pollution both of water and air can be reduced and methods of waste disposal improved. Many economies have been effected in oil production. Better quality and lower costs have resulted from work in chemical plants and processes such as glass making, metal refining, plastics and many others. Dams and railways were also mentioned among the great variety of subjects suitable for radioisotope techniques

  15. PACS industry in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Joung

    2002-05-01

    PACS industry in Korea has been rapidly growing, since government had supported collaborative PACS project between industry and university hospital. In the beginning, PACS industry had focused on developing peripheral PACS solutions, while the Korea PACS society was being formed. A few companies had started developing and installing domestic large-scale full-PACS system for teaching hospitals. Several years later, many hospitals have installed full-PACS system with national policy of reimbursement for PACS exams in November 1999. Both experiences of full-PACS installation and national policy generated tremendous intellectual and technological expertise about PACS at all levels, clinical, hospital management, education, and industrial sectors. There are now more than 20 domestic PACS companies. They have enough experiences which are capable of installing a truly full-PACS system for large-scale teaching hospitals. As an example, a domestic company had installed more than 40 full-PACS systems within 2-3 years. Enough experiences of full-PACS installation in Korea lead PACS industry to start exporting their full-PACS solutions. However, further understanding and timely implementation of continuously evolving international standard and integrated healthcare enterprise concepts may be necessary for international leading of PACS technologies for the future.

  16. RUSSIAN INDUSTRY INVESTMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Pochukaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual deficiency of investment into Russian industry innovative development increases its technological drag from industries of countries with developed markets. Although the rate of investment into real sectors of Russian economics mid 2000 was higher compared to the previous period, annual investment amounts were much lower than in 1990. At present, highest investment amounts are directed to industry extractive branches and to the commerce. Amounts invested to various economy branches do not correspond to their contribution to the country’sGross Added Product; particularly underinvested are manufacturing industry branches. At present, foreign share in the country economy total investment makes 15–18%. Recently, most interesting for foreigners was investment to machine-building branches with overwhelming part (for example, 90% in 2007–2008 of foreign investment into the machine-building industry being directed to creation of new automobile plants. Today, first place in the list of foreign investors’ preferences in Russia is taken by the machine-tool construction sector.

  17. How isotopes benefit industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-02-15

    The life of bus engines and the time taken to make beer are not at first sight connected with atomic energy. Yet the first has been considerably lengthened and the second even more considerably shortened in different countries as a result of using nuclear techniques and materials. They are only two examples; there are many others which have improved efficiency in factories, oilfields, chemical plants and other industries. They indicate not only the results of ingenuity but the rewards possible from more widespread use of the new methods. At a symposium on radioisotope tracers in industry and geophysics organized by the Agency and held in Prague during November many reports showed not only what is possible but what is actually being accomplished in a number of industries as a matter of daily routine. The economic benefits were also demonstrated, and although the developments have been mainly in countries already highly industrialized, the potential for new industries in developing countries was clear. Research to improve performance of motorcar, aircraft and tractor engines has been directed at establishing the causes of friction, corrosion and wear. In brewing beer it has been possible to accelerate fermentation. Pollution both of water and air can be reduced and methods of waste disposal improved. Many economies have been effected in oil production. Better quality and lower costs have resulted from work in chemical plants and processes such as glass making, metal refining, plastics and many others. Dams and railways were also mentioned among the great variety of subjects suitable for radioisotope techniques

  18. The international electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, J; Rohm, T

    1998-01-01

    High-technology microelectronics has a major presence in countries such as China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia, now the third-largest manufacturer of semiconductor chips. The migration of European, Japanese, and American companies accommodates regional markets. Low wage rates and limited enforcement of environmental regulations in developing countries also serve as incentives for the dramatic global migration of this industry. The manufacture of microelectonics products is accompanied by a high incidence of occupational illnesses, which may reflect the widespread use of toxic materials. Metals, photoactive chemicals, solvents, acids, and toxic gases are used in a wide variety of combinations and workplace settings. The industry also presents problems of radiation exposure and various occupational stressors, including some unresolved ergonomic issues. The fast-paced changes of the technology underlying this industry, as well as the stringent security precautions, have added to the difficulty of instituting proper health and safety measures. Epidemiologic studies reveal an alarming increase in spontaneous abortions among cleanroom manufacturing workers; no definitive study has yet identified its cause. Other health issues, including occupational cancer, are yet to be studied. The microelectronics industry is a good example of an industry that is exported to many areas of the world before health and safety problems are properly addressed and resolved.

  19. Doctors and pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2009-09-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is seen as seducing doctors by providing expensive gifts, subsidising travel and underwriting practice expenses in return for those doctors prescribing products that otherwise they would not use. This paints doctors in a very negative light; suggests doctors are available to the highest bidder; implies doctors do not adequately act as independent agents; and that doctors are driven more by self-interest than by patient needs. Similar practices, in other industries, are accepted as normal business behaviour but it is automatically assumed to be improper if the pharmaceutical industry supports doctors. Should the pharmaceutical industry withdraw educational grants then there would be: fewer scientific meetings; reduced attendance at conferences; limited post graduate education; and a depreciated level of maintenance of professional standards. To suggest that doctors prescribe inappropriately in return for largesse maligns their integrity but where there is no scientific reason to choose between different treatments then there can be little argument against selecting the product manufactured by a company that has invested in the doctor and the question arises as to whether this represents bad medicine? This paper will examine what constitutes non-professional conduct in response to inducements by the pharmaceutical industry. It will review: conflict of interest; relationships between doctors and pharma and the consequences for patients; and the need for critical appraisal before automatically decrying this relationship while accepting that there remain those who do not practice ethical medicine.

  20. Petrochemical industry drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedriks, W.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive analyses of profit-ability and pricing over the years have shown that the trends seen in the petrochemical industry have two dominant drivers, namely, industry experience curves (reflecting continuous process improvement and cost savings) and profitability cycles. Any outlook for the future must examine both of these facets. The author's algorithm for price projections has two primary terms: a cost-related one and a supply/demand-related one. Both are strong functions of experience curves; the latter is also a prime function of cyclicality. At SRI International. To arrive at medium-term quantitative projections, SRI typically creates a consistent base-case scenario that more or less mirrors the past but also incorporates observed directional changes. In this article the author examines in detail how these scenarios are used for projection. He describes experience curves, ethylene/gross domestic product (GDP) penetration levels, industry structure, and cyclicality as they apply to ethylene prices

  1. CSR in Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Pillay, Renginee G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to review the literature on CSR in industrial clusters in developing countries, identifying the main strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in this literature, pointing to future research directions and policy implications in the area of CSR and industrial cluster development....... Design/methodology/approach – A literature review is conducted of both academic and policy-oriented writings that contain the keywords “industrial clusters” and “developing countries” in combination with one or more of the following terms: corporate social responsibility, environmental management, labor...... standards, child labor, climate change, social upgrading, and environmental upgrading. The authors examine the key themes in this literature, identify the main gaps, and point to areas where future work in this area could usefully be undertaken. Feedback has been sought from some of the leading authors...

  2. Computerized industrial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Computerized Tomographic (CT) has been used for a number of applications in the field of medicine and industry. For the last couple of years, the technique has been applied for the material characterization and detection of defects and flaws inside the industrial components of nuclear, aerospace and missile industries. A CT scanner of first generation was developed at the institute. The scanner has been used to demonstrate couple of applications of CT in the field of non destructive testing of materials. The data acquired by placing the test objects at various angles and scanning the object through a source detector assembly has been processed on a Pentium computer for image reconstruction using a filtered back projection method. The technique has been developed which can be modified and improved to study various other applications in materials science and a modern computerized tomographic facility can be established. (author)

  3. Nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This press dossier presented in Shanghai (China) in April 1999, describes first the activities of the Framatome group in the people's republic of China with a short presentation of the Daya Bay power plant and of the future Ling Ao project, and with a description of the technological cooperation with China in the nuclear domain (technology transfers, nuclear fuels) and in other industrial domains (mechanics, oil and gas, connectors, food and agriculture, paper industry etc..). The general activities of the Framatome group in the domain of energy (nuclear realizations in France, EPR project, export activities, nuclear services, nuclear fuels, nuclear equipments, industrial equipments) and of connectors engineering are presented in a second and third part with the 1998 performances. (J.S.)

  4. Industrial nuclear property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetre, M.

    1976-01-01

    The first requests for patents for the use of nuclear power filed in France in 1939. This paper reviews the regulations on industrial nuclear property in various countries. The patenting system in several socialist countries is characterized by the fact that inventions on the production and use of radioactive materials may not be patented. This equally applies in India. In the United States, this type of invention may be patented except for those involving military uses and which must be notified to the federal authorities. In France, all industrial nuclear property is grouped under the same body, Brevatome, created in 1958, which enables the allocation of rights to be negotiated between the different interested parties, the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Electricite de France (EDF) and private industry. Under the Euratom Treaty, all inventions, even those governed by secrecy in Member countries, must be communicated to the Commission of the European Communities. (NEA) [fr

  5. The international petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The petrochemical industry occupies a crucial place in economic, strategic and political terms in the twentieth century. The author explains its growth and international distribution from the 1920s tot he present, relating the particular experience of petrochemicals to the processes that have shaped the long-term evolution of industry in general. The geographical coverage of this book extends from the regional to international scale, and its historical scope embraces one hundred years from the laboratory origins of polymer science and petrochemistry to the massive operations of modern industry. It represents the result of twenty years of research, and reflects the author's privileged access to company sources in both the U.S. and Europe

  6. Industrial demonstration trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelee, M.; Fabre, C.; Villepoix, R. de; Fra, J.; Le Foulgoc, L.; Morel, Y.; Querite, P.; Roques, R.

    1975-01-01

    Prototypes of the plant components, meeting the specifications set by the process and built by industrial firms in collaboration with the supervisor and the C.E.A., are subjected to trial runs on the UF 6 test bench of the Pierrelatte testing zone. These items of equipment (diffuser, compressor, exchanger) are placed in an industrial operation context very similar to that of an enrichment plant. Their performance is measured within a broad region around the working point and their reliability observed over periods up to several tens of thousands of hours. Between 1969 and 1973 six industrial demonstration test benches have been built, marking the stages in the technical preparation of the 1973 file on the basis of which the decision of building was taken by Eurodif [fr

  7. Competing For industry Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnstad, Marit

    1998-01-01

    This presentation by Norway's Minister of Petroleum and Energy describes (1) Norway in the energy picture, (2) oil market developments, (3) the establishment of an energy policy and (4) the investment level of the Norwegian petroleum activities. Value creation from Norwegian petroleum resources is directly connected with the commercial companies' participation in the activities. Thus, it has been a main challenge for Norway to establish a balanced petroleum policy and a legal framework. Presumably Norway will remain a prospective and attractive petroleum province for a long time. Over the years, Norway has developed three very competent and competitive national oil companies and a significant national supply industry. This industry is highly competitive internationally. Many new petroleum provinces are opening up for foreign investors and energy consumption of the world is expected to increase significantly the next 20 - 30 years. This implies increased demand for the products, but also strong competition for industry resources

  8. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  9. The Asian petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwa, Christopher.

    1996-03-01

    The Asian Petrochemical Industry brings you up to date with the latest developments in this dynamic region and covers all the key issues, giving detailed analysis and comment on: the general economic outlook; demand and production trends for basic petrochemicals and specialities in individual countries; political stability and how with affects growth and investment opportunities; security of supply; the import of petrochemicals and the aim of the region to become a net exporter by 2000; capacity increases - the relative merits of new plant construction versus expanding existing plants; the financing of petrochemical projects; the use of appropriate projects; the use of appropriate technology and patent provision in the Gatt treaty; increasing environmental concerns and the 'responsible care' initiative. The Asian Petrochemical Industry presents an overview of each Asian player in the petrochemical and associated industries, comparing and contrasting the countries within the region. (Author)

  10. CEA and mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The French atomic energy commission (CEA) is involved in the mining industry in several ways: - in the front-end of the nuclear industry through its daughter companies and participations in the exploration and exploitation of uranium ores, but also of gold and alloy metals with a 26% participation in Eramet company, the world leader of manganese and nickel. This activity is the main occupation of Cogema daughter company, via the Areva holding; - in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle with the delicate problem of the management of radioactive wastes; - in parallel with the nuclear industry through an important activity in semiconductor materials (FCI and SMTElectronics); - and finally through various research works on several mineral compounds. This article focusses on the fuel cycle aspects of the CEA activities and concludes with the research works carried out today on thermonuclear fusion. (J.S.)

  11. Industrial experience with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, B.M.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Titanium is a reference material for the construction of waste containers in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. It has been in industrial service for over 30 a, often in severe corrosion environments, but it is still considered a relatively exotic material with limited operating history. This has arisen because of the aerospace applications of this material and the misconception that the high strength-to-weight ratio dominates the choice of this material. In fact, the advantage of titanium lies in its high reliability and excellent corrosion resistance. It has a proven record in seawater heat exchanger service and a demonstrated excellent reliability even in polluted water. For many reasons it is the technically correct choice of material for marine applications. In this report we review the industrial service history of titanium, particularly in hot saline environments, and demonstrate that it is a viable waste container material, based upon this industrial service history and operating experience. (author)

  12. Servitization in industry

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Presenting both a comprehensive collection of sectorial studies of servitization in manufacturing industries, on the one hand, and research investigating the necessity to adapt various processes and departments of manufacturing companies to servitized business models, on the other, ‘Servitization in Industry’ informs the scientific and managerial servitization debate with recent data regarding industrial servitization models. This book provides detailed analyses of manufacturing sectors that elucidate the options and barriers related to servitization from a sector-based perspective. This sector-based approach allows for an individual and in-depth examination of recent relationships among manufacturers and their clients by explaining leads and lags in servitization. Serving to maximize reader insight into the specific characteristics of different sectors with their barriers and potentials, the book presents frameworks for successful servitization of the core sectors in European manufacturing industries whi...

  13. Applying industrial symbiosis to chemical industry: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hua; Liu, Changhao

    2017-08-01

    Chemical industry plays an important role in promoting the development of global economy and human society. However, the negative effects caused by chemical production cannot be ignored, which often leads to serious resource consumption and environmental pollution. It is essential for chemical industry to achieve a sustainable development. Industrial symbiosis is one of the key topics in the field of industrial ecology and circular economy, which has been identified as a creative path leading to sustainability. Based on an extensively searching for literatures on linking industrial symbiosis with chemical industry, this paper aims to review the literatures which involves three aspects: (1) economic and environmental benefits achieved by chemical industry through implementing industrial symbiosis, (2) chemical eco-industrial parks, (3) and safety issues for chemical industry. An outlook is also provided. This paper concludes that: (1) chemical industry can achieve both economic and environmental benefits by implementing industrial symbiosis, (2) establishing eco-industrial parks is essential for chemical industry to implement and improve industrial symbiosis, and (3) there is a close relationship between IS and safety issues of chemical industry.

  14. The Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  15. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  16. Corrosion in power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventakeshwarlu, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    A brief account of the problem areas encountered as a result of corrosion in the electrical power industry including nuclear power industry is given and some of the measures contemplated and/or implemented to control corrosion are outlined. The corrosion problems in the steam generators and cladding tubes of the nuclear power plant have an added dimension of radioactivation which leads to contamination and radiation field. Importance of monitoring water quality and controlling water chemistry by addition of chemicals is emphasised. (M.G.B.)

  17. Industry and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birules y Bertran, A.M.; Folgado Blanco, J.

    2002-01-01

    This document is the provisional version of the summary of the debates of the 2433. session of the European Union Council about various topics relative to the industry and the energy. The energy-related topics that have been debated concern: the government helps in coal industry, the internal electricity and gas market, the trans-European energy networks, the bio-fuels in transportation systems, the energy charter, the pluri-annual energy program, and the green book on the security of energy supplies. (J.S.)

  18. Francisco Mattos (ed.), industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    An episode of the the U.S. Public Broadcasting Service documentary series P.O.V. titled ‘‘Baby, It’s You’’ (2 June, 1988) captures a glimmer of what is left of that early eighties music-art scene known as ‘‘industrial.’’ In the wake of a newscast detailing new information about the Columbine High School massacre in April, 1999 – a crime initially linked by the press to the ‘‘gothic’’ and «industrial» music consumed by the murderers – the narrator’s voice (Anne Makepeace) invited me to carry t...

  19. The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare

    2008-01-01

    per kilogram of desired product to illustrate in which processes the use of renewable resources lead to the most substantial reduction of CO2 emissions. The steps towards a renewable chemicals industry will most likely involve intimate integration of biocatalytic and conventional catalytic processes......The possibilities for establishing a renewable chemicals industry featuring renewable resources as the dominant feedstock rather than fossil resources are discussed in this Concept. Such use of biomass can potentially be interesting from both an economical and ecological perspective. Simple...

  20. Seismic changes industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the growth in the seismic industry as a result of the recent increases in the foreign market. With the decline of communism and the opening of Latin America to exploration, seismic teams have moved out into these areas in support of the oil and gas industry. The paper goes on to discuss the improved technology available for seismic resolution and the subsequent use of computers to field-proof the data while the seismic team is still on-site. It also discusses the effects of new computer technology on reducing the amount of support staff that is required to both conduct and interpret seismic information

  1. Industrial numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, S.; Elliott, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The applications of mathematics to industrial problems involves the formulation of problems which are amenable to mathematical investigation, mathematical modelling, the solution of the mathematical problem and the inter-pretation of the results. There are 12 chapters describing industrial problems where mathematics and numerical analysis can be applied. These range from the numerical assessment of the flatness of engineering surfaces and plates, the design of chain links, control problems in tidal power generation and low thrust satellite trajectory optimization to mathematical models in welding. One chapter, on the ageing of stainless steels, is indexed separately. (UK)

  2. Benchmarking Danish Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Bentzen, Eric; Aagaard Andreassen, Mette

    2003-01-01

    compatible survey. The International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) doesbring up the question of supply chain management, but unfortunately, we did not have access to thedatabase. Data from the members of the SCOR-model, in the form of benchmarked performance data,may exist, but are nonetheless...... not public. The survey is a cooperative project "Benchmarking DanishIndustries" with CIP/Aalborg University, the Danish Technological University, the DanishTechnological Institute and Copenhagen Business School as consortia partners. The project has beenfunded by the Danish Agency for Trade and Industry...

  3. Digitization in Maritime Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Shollo, Arisa; Kreiner, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Digitization in the maritime industry is expected to transform businesses. The recently introduced mobile technologies in inter-organizational processes is an example of digitization in an industry which moves very slowly towards digital transformation. We focus on the influence of mobile...... technologies on control practices in inter-organizational processes related to coping with an engine failure. We collected qualitative data from in depth interviews with representatives of the involved parties. We identify organizational and behavioural challenges hindering information sharing during problem...... technologies increase information sharing and thus the efficiency of inter-organizational processes when coping with an engine failure....

  4. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  5. Industrial applications of radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallien, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation processing refers to the use of ionizing radiation to initiate chemical or biological changes in various materials as a substitute for conventional thermal or chemical processes. The method was inroduced in the industrial field 30 years ago and is now being widely used for numerous applications, among which industrial radiography, polymer modification, sterilization or decontamination, and food preservation. Both electron beam accelerators and gamma sources can be used, depending mainly of the amount of radiation and the penetration required. Radiation processing presents an increasing economical importance; in 1986 the market volume of ionized products ranged 3 billion $ [fr

  6. Industrial coal survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-25

    UK industrial coal sales were down 400,000t to 7.1mt in 1991. This was largely due to fall in cement purchases as the construction industry was badly hit in the recession. Increased competition from petroleum coke also had an effect. A brief roundup is presented of sales to the UK's major coal buyers: Alcan, ICI, Blue Circle, Castle Cement, Rugby Cement, British Steel, UK Paper, Courtaulds, Unilever, AHS Emstar, Tate Lyle, and British Sugar. 1 tab.

  7. Industrial Engineering Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Akhtar, Shagil

    2017-01-01

    The industrial revolution can be termed as the catalyst of human growth. The establishment of various industries has been detrimental to the meteoric rise of any commodity, product or service across the world. Industries fuel the economy of countries and form the main constituent of their GDP. Industries not only generate the production of the…

  8. Design research and industrial applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    Imprinted paper (copies of overheads in English) on the nature of design research, the transformation process for industrial utilization and the challenges of ENDREA from industry.......Imprinted paper (copies of overheads in English) on the nature of design research, the transformation process for industrial utilization and the challenges of ENDREA from industry....

  9. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  10. Mineral oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.; Suess, M.J.; Grefen, K.; Reinisch, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter a general picture is presented of the air pollution aspects in the mineral oil industry. The complete field is covered, starting from drilling operations and the well head up to the delivery of the products to the consumer. A large field of activities as is given by the mineral oil

  11. RETRAINING BY PRIVATE INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOOS, IDA R.

    SEVERAL SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA COMPANIES WERE EXAMINED FOR SPECIFIC PROGRAMS FOR DISPLACED EMPLOYEES. ARMOUR AND COMPANY SOUGHT TO GUIDE DISPLACED EMPLOYEES TO CLASSES OR COURSES OF ACTION OUTSIDE ITS OWN SPHERE OF OPERATION. LOCKHEED HAS PROVIDED UNUSUALLY WELL FOR UPGRADING AND RETRAINING, MAINLY BECAUSE OF INDUSTRY FLUCTUATIONS AND RAPID…

  12. Oklahoma forest industries, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis; J. Greg Jones

    1978-01-01

    Oklahoma supplied 73 million cu ft of roundwood to forest industries in 1978, an increase of 13 percent since 1972, and 35 percent since 1975 (fig. 1). Pine made up four-fifths of the total. Sawlogs and pulpwood were the major products, accounting for 81 percent of the roundwood produced. Veneer logs accounted for 8 percent and the remainder was mostly posts.

  13. Organizational Culture and Industrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    Drawing on a revised version ofHofstede's theory ofindustrialization and cultural change contained in his explanation of individualism and collectivism, the paper proposes that countries which are in the earlier stages of industrialization have a common culture that governs organizational...

  14. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  15. Industrial separation processes : fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,

  16. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  17. Koeberg - An industry perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, C P [Industrial Machinery Supplies (Pty) Ltd. (IMS), Wendywood (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    Many local organisations participated in the Koeberg power station project. This paper seeks to present a perspective of this from South African industry. It covers the extent of local participation, lessons learned and changes which should be considered for optimising local input into a similar project in the future. (author)

  18. Spanish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In this book published to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Spanish Nuclear Society, it is included a report on the Spanish Nuclear Industry. The Spanish Companies and Organizations in nuclear world are: CIEMAT, Empresarios Agrupados, ENRESA, ENUSA, ENDESA, Grupo Iberdrola, LAINSA, INITEC AND TECNATOM. Activities, history and research programs of each of them are included

  19. Moving up in industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Charlotte

    2016-01-23

    Charlotte Covell is commercial business manager at Virbac UK, a role that gives her responsibility for the company's sales to corporate practices, some buying groups and internet pharmacies. She began her career as a veterinary nurse, but moved into industry and now has a role in senior business management. British Veterinary Association.

  20. The world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes a global vision of the petroleum industry, a precise and well argued state of the art of the petroleum markets. It defines the strategical challenges which the petroleum companies are exposed and allows to anticipate the sector evolutions. It details the key acts of the last three years, the financial performances of the companies. (A.L.B.)

  1. Koeberg - An industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    Many local organisations participated in the Koeberg power station project. This paper seeks to present a perspective of this from South African industry. It covers the extent of local participation, lessons learned and changes which should be considered for optimising local input into a similar project in the future. (author)

  2. Safety in construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Causative factors of accidents in construction industry in the context of experience of construction work of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Project are enumerated. The aspect of accident cost - direct and indirect - is discussed briefly. Setting up of a safety set-up at construction sites is emphasized and principles which should guide the accident prevention programme are spelt out. (M.G.B.)

  3. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  4. Radioisotopes in Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Philip S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Fuccillo, Jr., Domenic A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Gerrard, Martha W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lafferty, Jr., Robert H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1967-05-01

    Radioisotopes, man-made radioactive elements, are used in industry primarily for measuring, testing and processing. How and why they are useful is the subject of this booklet. The booklet discusses their origin, their properties, their uses, and how they may be used in the future.

  5. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is the February 1992 'Industry Briefs' portion of the 'Recent Developments' section. Issues mentioned are: (1) closure of San Onofre Unit 1, (2) start-up of Penly Unit 2, (3) signing of a safeguards agreement with North Korea, (4) Canadian nuclear activities in Romania, and (5) the merger of two Japanese fuel cycle companies

  6. Natural gas industry regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the reception of the EU Directive on the internal gas market, it is quite necessary to avoid the mistakes already made in the case of electricity. A possible cause is there suggested which may help rearrange the natural gas industry and market in Italy. It's four points are: general interests, national peculiarities, public policies, regulatory framework [it

  7. China in World Industrialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, Yi; van Leeuwen, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Combining the sectoral accounting method of the System of National Accounts (SNA) with new statistical materials from the United Nations, as well as historical research into various countries around the world, this paper arrives at an estimate of value added of Chinese and world industries between

  8. Industry information service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yigit, Ipek

    1993-01-01

    BNF is the UK nuclear industry's representative organisation and its membership is inclusive of the entire civil nuclear industry in the Britain. BNF members include Britain's two nuclear electricity generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear, who between them manage the seventeen nuclear power stations which provide approximately 20% of the country's generating capacity. An important role of the Forum is to act as the information centre for the industry as a whole and during 1992, the Forum has strengthened its information service with the setting up of an extensive, computer-based network. The network has been established to provide an effective way of managing UK domestic nuclear-related issues and for maximising the news value of our industry's achievements. Equally important is the service's role as an international source of information - particularly when nuclear incidents occur outside the UK. The Forum also acts as an international exchange centre, disseminating technical information, for example, and by promptly providing accurate and comprehensive information to minimise the potential damage to public confidence in nuclear power generation which may be caused by any reported nuclear incidents. Recent examples of the successful operation of the BNF information service and its communications network have been the Leningradskya incident in March 1992 and the hurricane Andrew situation which developed at the end of August 1992

  9. 2003 Industry Studies: Shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    because the industry is too expensive to sustain in peacetime. Corporate income tax on the revenue from trade shipping, income tax on mariners...Act. This legislation would accomplish at least four initiatives: (1) replace the corporate income tax on US-flagged shipping revenue with a flat

  10. Nuclear industry and territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear industry being composed of plants, laboratories, nuclear power stations, uranium mines, power lines and fluxes of materials from one facility to another is a strong shaper of the national territory. Contrary to other European countries, French nuclear industry is present all over the national territory. In 64 departments out of 101 there is at least one enterprise whose half of the revenues depends on nuclear activities. The advantage of such a geographical dispersion is when a nuclear activity is given up the social impact is less important: people tend to find a new job in the same region. French Nuclear power plants are generally set in remote places where population density is low and being the first employer by far of the area and being a major contributor to the city revenues, they are perceived as a key element the local population is proud of. In Germany, nuclear power plants are set inside dense industrial regions and appear as an industry just like any other.(A.C.)

  11. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  12. Perspectives on industry restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konow, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    An industry association perspective on restructuring in the electrical industry was offered, placing the ongoing debate about deregulation and competition in the industry in Ontario into a Canadian and a global context. It was found that the move towards deregulation was a global phenomenon, fuelled by the emergence of increasingly open and highly competitive global markets, heightened consumer expectations, and new technologies and convergence. Examples from the U.K., Norway, Australia, New Zealand and the United States were cited to indicate the spread of this trend. Canadian utilities, among them B.C. Hydro, Nova Scotia Power and the Alberta utilities being prime examples, also have restructured recently into separate generation, transmission, distribution and consumer service units to better react to changing market needs. Alliances with other utilities or competitors in the energy sector to pursue business opportunities outside traditional markets, are also not uncommon. Therefore, it was only a question of time for Ontario Hydro, the largest Canadian electric utility, to come under public pressure to follow the national and global trend. The MacDonald Committee recommendations provide the foundation for radical change for the industry. If and when implemented, they could have a major impact on how the electricity sector in Canada will operate in the years to come. Sound decisions by the Ontario government as to the appropriate regulatory model may also determine the province's ability to compete in the unfolding restructuring of electricity markets throughout North America

  13. 2012 Mask Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

    2012-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

  14. Industrialized timber structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    It was recently learned that a number of innovations in structural timber components are available to the construction industry, but that they were largely unknown to bridge designers. The purpose of this study was to develop for the Department a fea...

  15. Industrial Assembly Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Buch, Jacob Pørksen; Iversen, Thorbjørn Mosekjær

    This technical report presents 13 different industrial assembly tasks, which are composed of 70 different operations. The report is written to provide an overview and do as such not contain product specific information such as object weights, dimensions etc. The operations are classified into a set...

  16. Spain's nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish industrial participation in supply of components for nuclear power plants has grown steadily over the last fifteen years. The share of Spanish companies in work for the five second generation nuclear power plants increased to 50% of total capital investments. The necessity to maintain Spanish technology and production in the nuclear field is emphasized

  17. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  18. 2001 Industry Studies: Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    improving the quality of products and the speed of bringing products to market . However, substantial issues remain concerning information security... information technology professionals, managers, technicians, and mechanics are being lost. Competition from other industries, aging of the work force...observing the high demand and salaries for information technology professionals and the decline of long-term technologically challenging prospects for

  19. Industrial Radiography Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Harry D.

    This text was developed for use by students in an 80-hour course for industrial radiographers. Chapter headings are: (1) The Structure of Matter, (2) Radiation and Radiation Machines, (3) Nuclear Reactions and Radioisotopes, (4) Interaction of Radiation with Matter, (5) Radiation Detection and Measurement, (6) The Nature and Consequences of…

  20. Industrial Radiography Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Harry D.

    The curriculum guide was developed for teacher use in an 80-hour course for industrial radiographers. The units include: (1) The Structure of Matter and Radiation, (2) Nuclear Reactions and Radioisotopes, (3) The Nature and Consequences of Radiation Exposure, (4) Radiation Attenuation, (5) Absorption of Radiation, (6) Radiation Detection and…

  1. Restructuring the Electricity Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    We study the role of vertical structure in determining generating capacities and retail prices in the electricity industry. Allowing for uncertain demand, we compare three market configurations: (i) integrated monopoly, (ii) integrated duopoly with wholesale trade, and (iii) separated duopoly wit...

  2. Geothermal industry assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Focus is on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews and with executives of 75 companies active in the field.

  3. Communication in cartelized industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cayseele, P.J.G.; Camesasca, P.D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we first survey both the European Commission’s legal standard and economic theory on communication in industries in which a cartel is operating. We notice a strong tension between the per se illegal nature of communication on price and price fixing, considered to be proof of the

  4. Steel Industry Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  5. Industrial nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennerstedt, T.

    1986-01-01

    A great number of industrial nuclear gauges are used in Sweden. The administrative routines for testing, approval and licensing are briefly described. Safety standards, including basic ICRP criteria, are summarized and a theoretical background to the various measuring techniques is given. Numerous practical examples are given. (author)

  6. Energy prospects for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, P P; Roberts, G F.I.; Thomas, V E; Davies, D; Crow, L M

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Electricity today and tomorrow; Gas--supply prospects for the future; Petroleum based energy--the UK perspective; Future markets for coal; Flexibility--the key to Dunlop's energy strategy; Energy conservation in Alcan; Present and future energy patterns in Courtaulds PLC; New energy technology for the quarrying industry.

  7. Industrialization for sustainable construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Barrett, P; Amaratunga, D.; Haigh, R; Keraminiyage, K.; Pathirage, C

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable construction (SuCo), which genesis dates in the early 1990’s, advocates the creation and operation of a quality and healthy built environment based on resource efficiency, life cycle economics and ecological principles. (Kibert, 2003). Currently the Construction Industry does not meet

  8. The UK biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billins, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)

  9. Today's Business Simulation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    New technologies are transforming the business simulation industry. The technologies come from research in computational fields of science, and they endow simulations with new capabilities and qualities. These capabilities and qualities include computerized behavioral simulations, online feedback and coaching, advanced interfaces, learning on…

  10. Educational aspects of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.; Wamorkar, R.R.; Singh, G.

    1979-01-01

    The state of art of training and education in non-destructive testing in India, with special reference to industrial radiography is reviewed. Basic requirement of industry and potential of radioisotopes in industrial inspection are also described. Need for an organised training programme in industrial isotope radiography to exploit potentials for benefit of industry concurrent with the safety is stressed. A comprehensive training programme tailored to meet the needs of Indian industry is outlined. Benefits obtained from the course to the industry since the beginning of the training programme are briefly reviewed. (auth.)

  11. The Social Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sandvig

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Historical mass media and contemporary social media are typically seen as opposites. “The culture industry” was the term used by the Frankfurt School in the 1940s to explain the emerging commercial mass media. The culture industry was portrayed as a semi-fascist apparatus of indoctrination. It selected cultural products and made them popular based on obscure determinations of economic value. In contrast, the common view of contemporary social media is that it is more democratic. Using voting algorithms and human voting, social media can finally realize widespread participation that was denied to the passive audiences of the mass media system. Social media appear to remove the bottleneck of the mass media system, allowing everyone to aspire to celebrity, or at least popularity. However, despite these appearances, social media have also now evolved into an elaborate system that selects social products and makes them popular based on obscure determinations of economic value. Social media platforms filter, censor, control, and train—and they may do so without the user’s awareness. Advances in computation now make a social media industry possible that is based on individual difference and action rather than sameness and passivity. But in other respects, the social industry resembles the culture industry: the co-option of culture has been superseded by the co-option of sociality. The word “social” may then be the biggest challenge facing those who study social media. Our task is to rescue genuine sociality from the emerging social industry.

  12. 21 reports of future industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with 21 reports on future industry, which contain revolution of digital educations, genetic engineering, the newest medical device, environmental industry, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, bio-green revolution, energy of the future, advanced concept computer, e-commerce, digital cash, game industry, information technology for future, next DRAM, information protection industry, robot to replace manpower, medium for information display, navigation systems, a space development, design industry and, home automation.

  13. Industrial applications of refrigeration. Utilizing industries; Applications industrielles du froid. Industries utilisatrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvillet, Ch. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69 - Ecully (France); Groupement pour la Recherche sur les Echangeurs Thermiques, GRETh (France)

    2001-10-01

    Refrigeration is used in most of the industrial domains: food industry (conservation of the organoleptic properties and sanitary quality of products, control of fermentation, of juice concentration and of the dehydration of products), transformation industries (plastic industry, rubber industry, mechanical industry (fretting, hardening and surface treatment of materials, dehumidification of compressed air), liquefaction and purification of industrial gases and hydrocarbons, processing of wastes (removal of VOCs, purification of liquid effluents etc..), civil engineering (consolidation of soils, cooling of big concrete structures), leisure (skating rink, artificial snow). (J.S.)

  14. Industrial relationships and nationalisation in the South Wales coalmining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweiniger-Bargielowska, I.-M. (University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1990-01-01

    The thesis examines industrial relationships in the South Wales coal mining industry at a colliery level. Various industrial relations stereotypes in the industry and the effect of nationalization on them are examined. The study concentrates on the collieries rather than the communities, comparing four collieries. Colliery managers, underofficials and mineworkers are studied, both in themselves and in relation to each other. Insights are gained into the causes of conflict within the industry. It is concluded that the ownership of the industry is not a major determinant of the level of conflict. It is suggested that many established views on the mining work force and attitudes to nationalization, work and unions need reassessing.

  15. Productivity improvement through industrial engineering in the semiconductor industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyersdorf, Doron

    1996-09-01

    Industrial Engineering is fairly new to the semiconductor industry, though the awareness to its importance has increased in recent years. The US semiconductor industry in particular has come to the realization that in order to remain competitive in the global market it must take the lead not only in product development but also in manufacturing. Industrial engineering techniques offer one ofthe most effective strategies for achieving manufacturing excellence. Industrial engineers play an important role in the success of the manufacturing facility. This paper defines the Industrial engineers role in the IC facility, set the visions of excellence in semiconductor manufacturing and highlights 10 roadblocks on the journey towards manufacturing excellence.

  16. Industry plots nuclear revival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogee, A.

    1984-01-01

    A successful revival of the nuclear power industry will require standardization and a reduction in the number of companies managing construction, according to Atomic Industrial Forum spokesmen. In describing the concept of a few superutilities to build nuclear plants, they emphasize the need for a nuclear culture among construction management. Future plant designs emphasize small scale, with design, engineering, licensing, financing, operator training, and paperwork completed before the sale. Utilities continue to pursue economy-of-scale despite the evidence that small-scale reactors can be economical and are more appropriate for fluctuating demand growth. Financiers want more say in construction plans in the future, while utilities want to establish generating subsidiaries for wholesale power sales

  17. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  18. Marion Industrial Substation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Consumers Power, Inc. (CPI), proposes to construct a new distribution substation under the existing Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Albay-Lebanon transmission line near the city of Albany in Linn County, Oregon. BPA is proposing to grant a new Point of Delivery to CPI at this substation. The purpose of the project is to serve the developing industrial needs in the Marion Industrial Park and on the 550 acres of nearby land within CPI's service area that are zoned for residential use. CPI prepared, and the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) has approved a Borrower's Environmental Report (BER) which addresses this action along with several other proposed projects in the CPI service area. Portions of this BER are summarized in this brief EA. BPA is preparing its own EA since Department of Energy National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) guidelines require additional environmental concerns to be addressed than are required by REA's NEPA guidelines

  19. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    This report is part of the research project “The competitive challenges and strategic development possibilities for The Blue Denmark”, which was launched in 2014. The project is funded by the Danish Maritime Fund and carried out by researchers at CBS Maritime which is a Business in Society Platform...... with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... at Copenhagen Business School with a focus on value creation in the maritime industries. The project embraces various maritime segments from shipping and offshore to ports and suppliers. The research questions for the individual projects have been formulated by researchers at CBS Maritime in cooperation...

  20. Ontario electricity industry restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of Ontario's electricity industry restructuring was described as an effort to enhance Ontario's competitiveness. It is believed that restructuring can be accomplished without an increase in electricity rates. In a series of charts, the report provides the timeline of restructuring from the time of the Macdonald report in 1995 to the beginning of open competition in Ontario electricity markets. It oulines the principles underlying the financial restructuring and the financial results of restructuring, including the size of the stranded debt ($ 7.8 billion). It lists the changes that have occurred since October 1998, explains some key factors in valuing the successor companies and profiles the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation. Restructuring of the industry is expected to have a neutral to positive impact on Ontario's fiscal position. The residual stranded debt of $7.8 billion will be retired through revenues generated by the electricity sector, without recourse to the Provincial Treasury. 9 figs

  1. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Zajko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital “content” through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the internet, as well as the increasing use of algorithms to make legal distinctions. New technologies have threatened the profits of some media industries through copyright infringement, but also enabled profitable forms of mass copyright surveillance and enforcement. Rather than a system of perfect control, copyright enforcement continues to be selective and uneven, but its broad reach results in systemic harm and provides opportunities for exploitation. It is only by scrutinizing copyright surveillance practices and copyright enforcement measures that we can evaluate these consequences.

  2. Industrial technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulger, W.

    1982-06-01

    The transfer of industrial technology is an essential part of the CANDU export marketing program. Potential customers require the opportunity to become self-sufficient in the supply of nuclear plant and equipment in the long term and they require local participation to the maximum extent possible. The Organization of CANDU Industries is working closely with Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. in developing comprehensive programs for the transfer of manufacturing technology. The objectives of this program are: 1) to make available to the purchasing country all nuclear component manufacturing technology that exists in Canada; and 2) to assure that the transfer of technology takes place in an efficient and effective way. Technology transfer agreements may be in the form of joint ventures or license agreements, depending upon the requirements of the recipient

  3. Power industry and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, H.

    1988-01-01

    A task group on antritrust law has been set in by the Federal Ministry of Economics in order to again investigate the position of the utilities within the framework of the law against restraints on competition, (GWB). The task group's report states that from the power industry's perspective, there is no reason to modify the existing system created by sections 103, 103a of the GWB. The EC internal market to come, and enhanced use of coal for power generation to be continued beyond the year 1995 are topics that will keep politicians, utilities, and lawmakers in this field busy enough. In such a situation, the legislator cannot afford a discovery trip into unexplored, theoretical impacts of enhanced competition on the power industry. (orig./DG) [de

  4. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  5. Industrial Services Contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Industrial Services contracts at CERN, including the probable expenditure in 2006 and the estimated expenditure for 2007. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note of the revised amount in 2006 for Industrial Services contracts referred to in this document of 138.02 MCHF at 2006 prices compared to the previously anticipated amount of 122.67 MCHF at 2005 prices; - to take note that the estimated amount in 2007 for the contracts referred to in this document will be 112.54 MCHF at 2006 prices; - for the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is also invited to approve the requests for the contracts presented and highlighted in the Annexes.

  6. Environmental assessment: Industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadley, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian mining industry supports the concept of environmental assessment, but the current process at the time of the conference had a number of problems that the industry felt should be addressed. The author makes the following suggestions: that the process for individual projects should be separated from policy issues; that panel members should be drawn from a full-time staff; that there should be better referral criteria to determine which projects require full scale assessment including public hearings; that either the government or project opponents should participate but not both; that the financial burden on proponents should be reduced; that funding of intervenors should be controlled; that there should be a definite time frame

  7. Chemical and petrochemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2018-03-01

    The potential sources of various metals in chemical and petrochemical processes are discussed. Special emphasis is put on the catalysts used in the industry. Their main applications, compositions, especially metal contents are presented both for fresh and spent ones. The focus is on the main types of metals used in catalysts: the platinum-group metals, the rare-earth elements, and the variety of transition metals. The analysis suggested that chemical and petrochemical sectors can be considered as the secondary source of metals. Because the utilization of spent refinery catalysts for metal recovery is potentially viable, different methods were applied. The conventional approaches used in metal reclamation as hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, as well as new methods include bioleaching, were described. Some industrial solutions for metal recovery from spent solution were also presented.

  8. Ontario's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report traces the Ontario uranium mining industry from the first discovery of uranium north of Sault Ste. Marie through the uranium boom of the 1950's when Elliot Lake and Bancroft were developed, the cutbacks of the 1960s, the renewed enthusiasm in exploration and development of the 1970s to the current position when continued production for the domestic market is assured. Ontario, with developed mines and operational expertise, will be in a position to compete for export markets as they reopen. The low level of expenditures for uranium exploration and the lack of new discoveries are noted. The report also reviews and places in perspective the development of policies and regulations governing the industry and the jurisdictional relationships of the Federal and Provincial governments

  9. China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  10. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  11. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  12. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  13. US cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisbet, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the cement and concrete industry, and provides data on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. The potential impact of an energy tax on the industry is briefly assessed. Opportunities identified for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include improved energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and alternative materials. The key factor in determining CO{sub 2} emissions is the level of domestic production. The projected improvement in energy efficiency and the relatively slow growth in domestic shipments indicate that CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 should be about 5% above the 1990 target. However, due to the cyclical nature of cement demand, emissions will probably be above target levels during peak demand and below target levels during demand troughs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  15. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  16. Nuclear Industry Family Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is a copy of the U.K.A.E.A. Question and Answer brief concerning an epidemiological study entitled the Nuclear Industry Family Study, to investigate the health of children of AEA, AWE, and BNFL Workers. The study is being carried out by an independent team of medical research workers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. (UK)

  17. Industrial organization and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    GNUTZMANN, Hinnerk

    2013-01-01

    Examining Board: Professor Thomas Gehrig, University of Vienna Professor Piero Gottardi, Supervisor, European University Institute Professor Andrea Mattozzi, European University Institute Professor Domenico Menicucci, University of Florence. Defence date: 10 September 2013 First made available online on 3 February 2014. This thesis collects three papers in industrial organization and behaviour, unified in their focus on the digital economy. The first two papers study markets for s...

  18. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  19. Petroleum industry in CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillaud, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on petroleum and natural gas industry in USSR and in Eastern Europe: crude oil and gas production, petroleum and natural gas deposits, exports, fuel consumption, pipelines network (total length, compressor or pump stations), petroleum refineries. This paper describes also air pollution (carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide) and Environmental effects of coal and lignite using in fossil power plants in Eastern Europe. 17 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Recent nuclear industry briefs are presented. These briefs include: Swiss voters reject phaseout; EdF confirms order for Civaux 1; NDP surprise victor in Ontario; Czechoslovakia joins Foratom; Poland abandons Zarnowiec; Cogema's UP3 facility operationa; Wismut to clsoe mining operations; court rules in favor of US government in Yucca Mountain waste site; Italian government ratifies ENEL reactor shutdowns; and Seabrook enters commercial operation