Background notes and statistics on Ecuador are provided in the document. 271,000 sq. km. of jungle are encompassed by the country, with a 1990 population of 11 million growing at the annual rate of 2.4%. The work force total 3.4 million. Ecuador claims a population comprised of 4 ethnic groups, predominantly Roman Catholic, and speaking Spanish in addition to Indian languages. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 88% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 51/1,000, while life expectancy is 66 years. 1990 GDP was $10.9 billion, and was growing at the rate of 1.5%. Per capita income was $1,043, while 1990 figures reported 50% inflation. Agriculture accounts for 17% of GNP, industry for 16%; 1990 international trade surplus totalled $0.7 billion. Additional data are provided on Ecuador's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. Structural reform brought economic improvement in 1989. Public sector spending was tightened, monetary growth slowed, and external accounts improved. While progress stalled in 1990, additional steps combined with higher oil prices were expected to reduce the deficit and moderate inflation. Further reductions in government control over the economy, movement toward free-market interest rates, privatization of selected companies, trade liberalization, labor law reform, and the promotion of domestic and foreign private investment are called for.
This article describes the vital statistics and population growth in Ecuador as of mid-1997. Mid-1997 population numbered about 12 million. Fertility was 3.6 births/woman; deaths were 6/1000 population; and births were 29/1000 population. Ecuador was primarily an agricultural country, until oil was discovered in the early 1970s. The country has worked to increase per capita income and confront environmental consequences. The capital city of Quito is situated in a valley between two mountains and has very high air pollution levels due to cars and factories. In contrast, indigenous populations live in the Andean mountains and farm small plots. Land shortages have pushed these farmers onto higher slopes and more marginal land that is becoming eroded. 22% of Ecuador's forests were cleared for farming during 1980-90. The city of Guayaquil, on the Pacific coast, has serious water pollution problems, sewage problems, and industrial pollution. Shrimp farming relies on high levels of fertilizer, which is damaging coastlines. Oil exploration in the interior of Ecuador, has resulted in disruption of indigenous population, loss of forests, and pollution of rivers. Texaco Oil is accused of spilling about 17 million gallons of crude oil, or 50 times more than the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. Texaco argues that it met government environmental standards and agreed to a cleanup, which only partially meets the standards of its critics. Oil resources have funded improvements in education and health. About 90% of Ecuador's adult population is literate. Fertility has declined, but the population is still largely young and will be entering their reproductive years by 2025.
from Machala to Piedras. A less-than-adequate road connects Piedras to Loja . The age of the automobile has not fully arrived in Ecuador and, although...virus from the arthropod and simian reservoirs is not known. 16. Plague. Plague occurs in two provinces of Ecuador : Lojas and Chim- borazo. The disease is...27-01-1960 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Health Data Concerning Ecuador 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d
The present work presents a general situation of Ecuador, its demand of Energy, programs of electrification rural, energy requirements in the hydroelectric rural sector, central sector built in Ecuador and the priorities of energy use
years occurred in Peru in the northern departments bordering Ecuador in 1992-1994. Sylvatic plague is endemic in the southern provinces of Loja and... Ecuador ) Micrurus bocourti (Pacific lowlands of western Ecuador ) Micrurus catamayensis (Catamayo Valley, Loja Province) Micrurus dumerilii spp...Disease Vector Ecology Profile Ecuador -~· ""’ -.. ~ """ Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center’ Armed Forces Pest Management
Joffre, Carrillo P; Delgado, Belgica; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen
Ecuador, the smallest of the Andean countries, is located in the northwest portion of South America. The nation's 14.5 million people have a tremendous need for high quality primary care. To describe the profound advances as well as the persistent needs in medical education in Ecuador that have occurred with globalization and with the modernization of the country. Through an extensive search of the literature; medical school data; reports from the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Education; and information from the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Innovation (SENESCYT), the medical education system in Ecuador has been thoroughly examined. The National System of Higher Education in Ecuador has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years. As of 2009 the system boasts 19 medical schools, all of which offer the required education needed to obtain the title of Physician, but only 12 of which offer postgraduate clinical training. Of these 19 universities, nine are public, five are private and self-financed, and five are private and co-financed. Post-graduate options for medical students include: (1) Clinical specialization, (2) Higher diploma, (3) Course specialization, (4) Master's degree, and (5) PhD degree. The rapid growth of Ecuador's system of medical education has led to inevitable gaps that threaten its ability to sustain itself. Chief among these is the lack of well-trained faculty to supply its medical schools. To ensure an adequate supply of faculty exists, the creation of sufficient postgraduate, sub-specialization, and PhD training positions must be created and maintained.
Following the terrible earthquake in Ecuador on April 16th, 2016, a collection was organized at CERN and sent to the INEPE Institute in Quito to help the victims. CERN has received the following two letters that we want to share with you. We wish our Ecuadorian friends a prompt recovery and keep them in our thoughts! Dear Fabiola and Alessandro, […] As the CERN contact person in Ecuador, and as the Country Representative for Ecuador in the CMS Experiment, I would like to thank you, the offices you precede and, through you, the whole CERN community, for all the concern and generosity after the terrible earthquake in the coast of Ecuador. Rather slowly, but full of hope, our people are overcoming this difficult situation. Contributions from different sources abroad, like CERN's, combined with the rapid and generous local intervention, have greatly helped the affected communities cope with the most urgent needs in order to restart their lives. Once again, I express my ...
The Ecuadorian youtubers look on the YouTube platform for a space to influence those ones who consume their audiovisual content, where the most important are the ones who make reference to daily activities. In their interest to lead this social network, they have found the reality of Ecuador, which is analyzed and presented in this research.
After the violent earthquake that caused the death of hundreds of people, and left thousands wounded and homeless in Ecuador, we appeal to your generosity. We are starting a collection today to help the victims, and the funds will be donated to the INEPE Institute in Quito. This organization, known at CERN for many years as it has been supported by the Long Term Collections of the Staff Association, will be responsible for sending the proceeds of the collection directly to the victims in the field. On behalf of the CERN Management and the CERN Staff Association Fabiola Gianotti, Director General, and Alessandro Raimondo, President of the Staff Association =========================== Bank account details for donations: Bank account holder: Staff Association CERN - 1211 GENEVA 23 Account number: 279-HU106832.1 IBAN: CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 BIC: UBSWCHZH80A Please mention: Ecuador
Severne, B.; Penaherrera, P.F.; Fiallos, V.S.
The 600-km segment of the Andean Cordillera in Ecuador includes zones that can be correlated, geologically, with uranium districts elsewhere in the Andes. It is believed that these essentially unexplored zones have the potential for economic uranium mineralization. Exploration activity to date has been limited, although it has involved both geochemical and radiometric techniques to evaluate geological concepts. Minor uranium occurrences (with chemical analyses up to 100 ppm) have been encountered, which provide further incentive to commence large-scale systematic exploration. It is recognized that a very large exploration budget and considerable technical expertise will be required to ensure exploration success. Consequently, participation by groups of proven capability from other countries will be sought for Ecuador's national exploration programme. (author)
The US Agency for International Development (AID) has discontinued its contraceptive social marketing project in Ecuador after 2 1/2 years without a sale. USAID had awarded a 3-year US$1.2 million grant to the program's contractor, the John Snow Public Health Group Inc. The project was run by Ecuador's national family planning association. This is only the 3rd time USAID has terminated a social marketing program since entering this field in 1973. Impediments to the program's operation included product price hikes and supply shortages as a result of teh inflation and currency devaluation in Ecuador in recent years. Government opposition to the sales of donated contraceptive supplies further set back the program. The name chosen for the condom distributed by the program, Liber, had to be changed since a company importing sanitary napkins was using the name Liberty and objected. The program's peculiar organizational structur is also considered to have played a role in the program's failure. Rather than having a single authority responsible for the program, a 2-headed organizational design was used. Program funds were controlled by the contractor, but the family planning organization managed day to day operations. Unified management has enabled programs in other countries to survive problems such as inflation, brand registration, and product and price approvals.
Juan J. Paz y Miño Cepeda
Full Text Available En 1979, tras una década de dictaduras militares, se inició la fase constitucional más larga en la historia del Ecuador. Ésta se levantó sobre las herencias del pasado y se caracterizó, de manera fundamental, por el tránsito desde un modelo estatal-desarrollista hacia uno de tipo empresarial, por el aparecimiento de nuevos agentes sociales, el multipartidismo político, la regionalización nacional, la presencia multicultural y la inserción del país en nuevas relaciones internacionales. Pero esos procesos trajeron como consecuencias centrales: la edificación de una economía inequitativa, una sociedad tensionada, la desestructuración institucional, la precarización del trabajo y la debilidad con la que la nación ha enfrentado el nuevo mundo unipolar. Todo ello ha configurado un cuadro de riesgos para la incipiente democracia. El Ecuador contemporáneo tiene, por tanto, una serie de desafíos económicos, sociales y políticos para escapar a la inestabilidad que ha acompañado a la construcción de su modernización democrática.___________________ABSTRACT:In 1979, after one decade of military dictatorships, the longest constitutional phase in the history of Ecuador was initiated. It was built upon the inheritance of the past and can be fundamentally characterized by the transition from a model that focused on the state as developing the economy (State-model to a model that focused on private business (enterprise-model. The appearance of new social agents, a multiparty system, national regionalization, multicultural presence and the country´s new international relationships are processes which show some important consequences: the establishment of an unequal economy, a society under tension, the breakdown of institutional structures, the vulnerability of working conditions and the weakness with which the nation faced the new polarized world. All this might put into danger this incipient democracy. And this is why Ecuador in these
La ictiofauna del occidente del Ecuador es poco conocida. Los peces del noroccidente son diferentes a los del suroccidente del Ecuador. 34 familias y 82 especies fueron colectadas que equivale al 11 % de las especies de peces continentales registradas en el Ecuador. Icteogeográficamente se sabe que la costa ecuatoriana posee dos provincias: la del Pacifico Norte y la del Guayas, se determinó que el límite de las dos provincias es el río Santiago ya que las especies del mencionado río so...
Oct 12, 2010 ... Weavers' Association easing poverty in Ecuador ... frenzy among the 54 members of Ecuador's Chordeleg Agricultural Craft Centre (CACH). ... Investing in Internet access boosts incomes, concludes Latin American study.
Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M
There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.
Jorge Benavides Solís
Full Text Available Aproximadamente hasta hace unas dos generaciones, entendíamos que la tierra de nuestros padres, era nuestra Patria. Ya no. Con la economía globalizada, sobre todo en los países no industrializados, el exilio es cada vez más frecuente, de gran magnitud y va acompañado de dolorosas circunstancias. El exilio es la expatriación legal e ilegal no voluntaria. Ser patriota, entregar la vida por la patria (rezago preindustrial ahora, carece de sentido. Tampoco sirve ser buen ciudadano (objetivo del estado industrial porque, el paradigma postmoderno es ser buen/gran consumidor. Solamente así, será posible disfrutar de la economía con libertad empresarial y de una forma de gobierno con democracia de mercado. La emigración en Europa ha sido un fenómeno natural, una experiencia de cinco siglos; en Hispanoamérica una experiencia de cinco décadas y en el Ecuador, de apenas diez años. En este corto plazo, la exportación de mano de obra no calificada, se ha convertido en la segunda fuente de divisas, después del petróleo. Son las consecuencias de la economía global que prescinde del lugar y prefiere el espacio de los flujos, cuya bonanza depende de los servicios y de las ideas antes que de las máquinas.__________________ABSTRACT:Approximately, until two generations ago, we understood that our parents’ Earth was our Mother country. Not any longer. With the economy globalized, mainly in the countries that are not industrialized, exile becomes more and more frequent, of great magnitude and it goes accompanied of painful circumstances. Exile is the involuntary legal and illegal expatriation. To be patriotic, to give the life by the Mother country (pre-industrial falling behind now, it doesn’t make sense. It is of no use to be a good citizen neither (the industrial state objective because; the post-modern paradigm is to be a good/great consumer. Only like that it is possible to enjoy the economy with enterprise freedom and of a form of
Barriga, A [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Escuela superior politecnica del Litoral, ESPOL, Guayaquil (Ecuador)
The present work presents a general situation of Ecuador, its demand of Energy, programs of electrification rural, energy requirements in the hydroelectric rural sector, central sector built in Ecuador and the priorities of energy use.
Wilson Giovanni Jiménez Barbosa; María Luisa Granda Kuffo; Diana Margoth Ávila Guzmán; Leidy Johanna Cruz Díaz; Julián Camilo Flórez Parra; Luisa Silvana Mejía; Diana Carolina Vargas Suárez
Objective: To describe the transformations of the structure of the health system in Ecuador, taking into account the constitutional and policy context of that country, and to reflect on the historical context in which it occurred and its implications for the welfare of the people from Ecuador. Materials and methods: A bibliographic review was made, beginning with the regulations of Ecuador since the Constitution of 1979, where health is considered as a right, passing by the Organic Law of Hea...
This document deals with legal aspects for controlling ionizing radiations, radiological safety regulations and objectives, scopes and features of the national radioprotection planning in Ecuador. (The author)
Julio López Alvarado
Full Text Available Ecuador has a long tradition in aquaculture, mainly related to the cultivation of shrimp and tilapia in earthen ponds. Land-based production methods have a large environmental, economic and social impact due to the extensive use of land and its effects on the ecosystems. In order to increase the production of fish without further land use and with a lower environmental impact, a good alternative is the culture of fish in floating cages, adopting technologies used successfully in many other countries. This article analyses the current situation of offshore aquaculture (the production of fish and other aquatic organisms in the open sea in Ecuador, and the prospects for the future of this sector in the country.
Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense) is a solanaceous shrub cultivated in Ecuador for fresh fruit and juice production. A naranjilla plant exhibiting stunting and chlorotic spots was sampled near Quito, Ecuador. An infectious agent was transferred to indicator plants by mechanical inoculation, and subsequ...
This article traces the recent development of intercultural science education in Ecuador. It starts by situating this development within the context of a growing convergence between Western and indigenous sciences. It then situates it within the larger historical, political, cultural, and educational contexts of indigenous communities in Ecuador,…
María Eugenia Rodríguez Guerrero
Full Text Available In the slang language of Lojanos, it is said that Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. thesis or clich´e, which has led to write the present article to ﬁnd the theoretical empirical support and practices that support it, constituting it in research object and recommend to the future the innovations that need to be introduced in order to sustain and strengthen this place of Loja. This ﬁrst approach has as a problem What does Loja provides, that distinguish from the rest of the provinces of Ecuador in the musical ﬁeld, to be considered its capital? This ﬁrst delivery aims to build a framework of computer concepts that open up posterity to a ﬁeld of research on music and that translate into policies, plans and programs that empower it. They develop three concepts derived from the thesis: the power to construct music that refers to the generic and speciﬁc competences in different instruments and genres, the amount of music that is produced and the human talent in musical formation that is developed in Loja. Empirical evidence is collected to corroborate or reject the hypothesis: Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. Data are collected on musical skills and compared at the global level, as well as music production and music training scenarios. At the end the hypothesis is checked. The task of the Lojanos is to innovate the capital. Keywords: Music, musical competitions, musical talent in training, amount of music, musicalperformance, musical instrument, songs.
On Friday, 24 October, Dr. Rafael Correa Delgado, President of the Republic of Ecuador, visited CERN. Visiting Geneva to deliver a lecture at the UN, Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa Delgado seized the chance to have a short but intense visit of the Laboratory. The President was met at LHC Point 1 by the Director for Research and Scientific Computing Sergio Bertolucci, who gave him an introduction to CERN’s activities.He was also introduced to the Director for Accelerators and Technology, Frédérick Bordry, and Department Heads José Miguel Jiménez (TE), Livio Mapelli (PH) and Roberto Saban (EN). President Correa Delgado also met with Martijn Mulders, co-organiser of the CERN Latin America School of High-Energy Physics, which will be held in Ecuador from 4 to 17 March 2015. Shortly after that, he visited the ATLAS experimental cavern which he toured with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson David Charlton and Fernando Monticelli of t...
Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud en Ecuador y, con mayor detalle, las características del sistema ecuatoriano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, las tareas de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública, la generación de información en salud, las tareas de investigación, y la participación de los ciudadanos en la operación y evaluación del sistema. También se discuten las innovaciones más recientes que se han implantado en el sistema ecuatoriano de salud dentro de las que destaca la incorporación de un capítulo específico sobre salud a la nueva Constitución que reconoce a la protección de la salud como un derecho humano y la construcción de la Red Pública Integral de Salud.This paper describes the health conditions in Ecuador and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Ecuadorian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, and the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Public Health. It also describes the structure and content of its health information system, and the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The paper ends with a discussion of the most recent policy innovations implemented in the Ecuadorian system, including the incorporation of a chapter on health into the new Constitution which recognizes the protection of health as a human right, and the construction of the Comprehensive Public Health Network.
Mark Weisbrot; Luis Sandoval; Belén Cadena
This paper looks at the biggest economic challenges that Ecuador's new president will need to address, and examines its recent economic history, including the issues of growth, dollarization, and international trade and finance.
Wilson Giovanni Jiménez Barbosa
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the transformations of the structure of the health system in Ecuador, taking into account the constitutional and policy context of that country, and to reflect on the historical context in which it occurred and its implications for the welfare of the people from Ecuador. Materials and methods: A bibliographic review was made, beginning with the regulations of Ecuador since the Constitution of 1979, where health is considered as a right, passing by the Organic Law of Health, the Social Security Act, among others, including the last reform of the Constitution in 2008. Results: The transformation of the Health System of Ecuador is the result of the action of economic and political forces, both internal and external, that have affected this country throughout the studied period.
Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una breve descripción de los períodos de Velasco Ibarra, Assad Bucaram, Abdalá Bucaram y Lucio Gutiérrez donde la simbología del líder frente a su pueblo fue esencial dentro de la cultura política ecuatoriana. En sí el objetivo está en describir las diferencias entre populismo y neopopulismo en el Ecuador, y a la vez entender cómo ha funcionado el sistema clientelar y caudillista en cada gobierno; sin dejar de lado, el contexto social y económico por el que se atravezaba.
Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una breve descripción de los períodos de Velasco Ibarra, Assad Bucaram, Abdalá Bucaram y Lucio Gutiérrez donde la simbología del líder frente a su pueblo fue esencial dentro de la cultura política ecuatoriana. En sí el objetivo está en describir las diferencias entre populismo y neopopulismo en el Ecuador, y a la vez entender cómo ha funcionado el sistema clientelar y caudillista en cada gobierno; sin dejar de lado, el contexto social y económico por el que se atravezaba
Lucio, Ruth; Villacrés, Nilhda; Henríquez, Rodrigo
This paper describes the health conditions in Ecuador and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Ecuadorian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, and the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Public Health. It also describes the structure and content of its health information system, and the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The paper ends with a discussion of the most recent policy innovations implemented in the Ecuadorian system, including the incorporation of a chapter on health into the new Constitution which recognizes the protection of health as a human right, and the construction of the Comprehensive Public Health Network.
This paper reports that there has been considerable turbulence in Ecuador's E and P sector over the last year. For instance, Energy Minister Diego Tramariz was replaced by the country's Congress after he raised subsidized fuel prices. Ecuadoran and U.S. environmentalists, meanwhile, raised a firestorm of controversy over the on-again, off- again development of Conoco's Block 16 in Yasuni National Park. Finally, Unocal and PetroCanada this spring terminated their respective drilling operations after fruitless multiwell efforts. New Energy Minister Donald Castillo certainly has his work cut out in attempting to maintain stability in upstream activity. To that end, Castillo has stated that one of his top priorities will be to maintain a good working relationship with foreign operators. He also expected a seventh round of exploratory blocks to be offered before summer's end to shore up activity. Castillo reiterated in public statements that he stands by the administration's existing energy policies, including development of Block 16
Nelly Karina Esparza Cruz
Full Text Available Today, companies have been forced to create new media with their customers that allow them to obtain the sales volume necessary to make a profit, which is why e-commerce is an invaluable tool for the sales department of the Business. Over the years e-commerce has evolved facing major challenges, especially those related to information security and the little Ecuadorian culture of buying online. However, thanks to the fact that in the last decade the number of Internet users has increased, this has allowed online sales to start increasing their amounts annually, however, compared with the rest of South American countries to Ecuador still It lacks much way to go not only in the implementation of secure web portals for Internet purchases, but also in computer culture and security rules in Internet users.
López Gavilanez, Enrique; Guerrero Franco, Kempis; Solórzano Zambrano, Narcisa; Navarro Chávez, Manuel; López Estrella, Camilo; Vaca Burbano, Luis; Marriott Díaz, Eduardo
To assess the epidemiology of acromegaly in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, and to compare our results to those reported in the literature. An analysis was made of retrospective and prospective data from all patients with acromegaly attending endocrinology clinics at the 4 main hospitals of the public health network of Guayaquil from January 2000 to December 2014. Age at diagnosis, estimated delay in diagnosis, imaging studies of pituitary gland, basal growth hormone (GH) level, GH after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-GH), and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were recorded. Incidence and prevalence of the disease were estimated using information from the 2010 census of population and housing. Forty-eight cases were recorded in the study period in 17 males (35.4%) and 31 females (64.5%); M/F ratio=1.8:1. Mean age at diagnosis was 47.3±16.8 years (range 18-86). Delay in diagnosis was 7.3±6.3 years (range 1-30). Mean age at diagnosis was 47.9±18.2 years in males and 46.3±15.8 years in females. Delay in diagnosis was 10.2±7.9 and 5.7±3.9 years in males and females, respectively. Prevalence of acromegaly is 18.7 cases per million inhabitants, and incidence of acromegaly 1.3 cases per million people per year. Acromegaly predominates in females, and is diagnosed in the fourth decade with a delay of approximately 8 years, usually even longer in males. Incidence and prevalence are lower than reported in international series. The disease is underdiagnosed and underreported in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The main trends of the international scenario for the next third of a century are discussed below. Certain analysts, consider that fundamental changes already took place, and the coming evolution will be driven by forces already present. Main feature in the plot is the globalisation phenomenon. Economic globalisation is considered irreversible by many, like the director of the World Trade Organisation. Also the secretary of the Democratic Confederation of the French Labour Party and an official of the World Bank, hold similar views. Globalisation is a process more than a state, leading to segmentation and planetary distribution of economic activities, as a function of competitive and comparative advantages, available in different locations. The process assumes and reinforces the following conditions: Free flow of goods, services and capital, inside and across boundaries of commercial blocks, aiming to a complete elimination of national, regional and other barriers for trade; Access with decreasing costs, to planetary networks of communications, transport and other services, with practical elimination of overheads due to coordination, transactions, transport of components and so on; General use of (now) advanced technologies, for information handling and progressive automation of complex activities. Rapid incorporation of the results of Research and Development into flexible production, with the result of shorter product lives in the markets and improved turning of their demands. (EHS) 55 refs.
Saar, I.; Læssøe, Thomas
ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador.......ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador....
Combs, Gerald F
...), National Institutes of Health, who visited Ecuador from January 15th to the 21st, 1961. Dr. Gerald F. Combs, PhD, visited Ecuador to discuss the nutritional survey conducted by ICNND in the summer of 1959...
Full Text Available La importancia de la responsabilidad social empresarial (RSE radica en el involucramiento y el compromiso de la empresa hacia los diferentes grupos de interés que interactúan. Algunos grupos son afectados a causa de las actividades operacionales de las organizaciones, generando impactos en dimensiones sociales, económicas y ambientales. El enfoque central de la investigación es la determinación de la incidencia de la RSE en los patrones de vida de los grupos que intervienen en la cadena de valor ecuatoriana. En adelante estos son llamados stakeholders. Se precisa como antesala, los hechos y precedentes que marcaron la evolución y participación del modelo de negocio en los diferentes países de Latinoamérica. Sobre esta base, se realiza una revisión conceptual de la responsabilidad social en las empresas, la ISO 26000 y la posición de los stakeholders. El estudio se fundamenta en un análisis comparativo de países como: Chile, Colombia y Ecuador; identificando similitudes de su entorno, particularidades, fortalezas y debilidades en materia de RSE.
Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja ), Ecuador : A Strategic Black Spot? by Colonel John A. Conway United States Army...REPORT TYPE STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja ), Ecuador : A...Agrio (Nueva Loja ), Ecuador : A Strategic Black Spot? by Colonel John A. Conway United States Army Colonel Juan C
.... APHIS-2008-0050] RIN 0579-AC95 Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant... Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Colombia and Ecuador include requirements for field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping...
A new protocol recently signed in Quito opens the way to stronger links between the Ecuadorian scientific community and CERN. The operational framework provided by the protocol will enable scientists from Ecuador to take part in CERN’s projects, supported by the Ecuadorian authorities. Picture taken during the signing ceremony at SENESCYT (Quito, Ecuador) on 12 July 2011. From left to right: Guillermo Solórzano, Minister for Coordination of Knowledge and Human Talent, Rene Ramirez Gallegos, National Secretary for Higher Education, Science and Technology - SENECYT, Felicitas Pauss and Jose Salicio from CERN. Ecuador’s involvement with CERN dates back to 1999 when a first International Co-operation Agreement was signed. However, despite these early beginnings, only a few scientists from Ecuador, affiliated to non-Ecuadorian institutes, have since been directly involved in CERN’s projects, in particular the CMS experiment a...
Sparks, A M; Betson, M; Oviedo, G; Sandoval, C; Cooper, P J; Stothard, J R
To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar.
Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R.; Garcia-Perez, M.; Cortez, L.A.B.; Oscullo, J.; Olmedo, G.
This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol
Chávez-Larrea, M. A.; Dorny, P.; Møller, L. N.
A survey on porcine trichinellosis was organised in Ecuador between 2000 and 2003. Blood samples were taken in slaughterhouses (study 1, n = 2000; study 2, n = 331) and in a remote village where pigs are free roaming (study 3, n = 646) and examined by ELISA using excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens...... that Trichinella is present in Ecuador; however, prevalence and parasite burdens are likely to be very low. The likelihood of detecting trichinellosis are higher in traditional settings than in pigs raised on improved farms...
Læssøe, Thomas; Boertmann, David
The first known species of Hygrocybe with a smooth hymenophore is described based on material from the eastern slopes of Andean Ecuador. It is considered as incertae sedis in the genus due to a lack of conclusive morphological characters and in the absence of sequence data.......The first known species of Hygrocybe with a smooth hymenophore is described based on material from the eastern slopes of Andean Ecuador. It is considered as incertae sedis in the genus due to a lack of conclusive morphological characters and in the absence of sequence data....
Full Text Available En Latacunga - Ecuador es entrevistada Lucelly Villa, de la comunidad Hijas de San Pablo, "Hermanas Paulinas", ella es directora de la Radio y presidenta de la CORAPE (Coordinadora de Radios Populares y Educativas de Ecuador. En la entrevista comenta la experiencia de las emisoras en las zonas campesinas de la provincia cuya población indígena campesina esta geográficamente dispersa en la provincia de Cotopaxi. Habla de las dificultades y logros en once años de labor, informa de cómo funcionan las cabinas y la programación.
Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cárdenas, Washington B.
Objective: Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. Methods: This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. Results: In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (pEcuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the implementation of reverse genetics to generate recombinant virus coding for the prevailing glycoprotein gene. PMID:26493436
Full Text Available En Quito (Ecuador, entre el 12 y 14 de septiembre de 1994 se realizó el Seminario Taller Regional sobre Mujer y Medios de Comunicación organizado por la UNESCO. A continuación se reseñan las principales resoluciones.
Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cardenas, Washington Bolivar
Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (pEcuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the implementation of reverse genetics to generate recombinant virus coding for the prevailing glycoprotein gene.
... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless the...
Cockroaches are an understudied group and the total number of described taxa increases every year. The last checklist of Ecuador species was published in 1926. The main aim of this study was to complete a new checklist of cockroach species recorded in Ecuador supplemented with a research history of cockroaches (Blattaria) on the territory of continental Ecuador. In addition, the checklist contains comments on Ecuadorian faunistic records, including the Galápagos Islands. A total of 114 species (105 in continental Ecuador and 18 in Galápagos Islands) belonging to 6 families and 44 genera are listed. Forty species (38.1 %) occur solely in continental Ecuador and five (27.8 %) are endemic on Galápagos Islands. The results indicate that further research on the cockroach fauna of Ecuador as well as determination of museum collections from this territory is needed.
This paper reports that oil companies operating in Ecuador plan to quicken the pace of oil development this year. After delays in 1991, companies plan a series of projects to develop reserves discovered the past 3 years estimated at more than 600 million bbl. Oil and Gas Journal estimated Ecuador's proved crude reserves at 1.55 billion bbl as of Jan. 1, 1992. The development push is part of a larger effort needed to ensure Ecuador's status as an oil exporter into the next century. Ecuador is the smallest crude oil producer and exporter in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Agustín De la Herrán Gascón
Full Text Available The article analyzes the educational system in Ecuador. The Ecuadorian education system arouses international interest, especially in Latin America. In this essay we will try to answer these questions: What might be the relevant keys from the public education in Ecuador? Why has it reached its present level of development, particularly in inclusive education? What fundaments and policies are behind the results of the goals from Education for All (EFA 2000-2015 From the Dakar framework for Action? (World Education Forum, 2000. In light of these issues, the goal is to understand key factors and reasons that have contributed to the development of the Ecuadorian public education. In terms of methodology, the approach is qualitative, dialectical, documentary and descriptive (Mc Millan and Schumacher, 2005. The research is proposed as a case study, where the choice of the case is justified by its novelty, its degree of development and its emphasis on inclusion and equity in all educational levels. With this aim, it is made a descriptive analysis of the rules underlying the changes in the educational system in Ecuador in the last three decades and it is carried out, particularly since 2008, following the last Constitution (Constituent Assembly, 2008. Tables as an analytical contribution of the authors are offered. Also data endorsed by authors and agencies of maximum national and international prestige are detailed and they realize the effectiveness of policies and such changes.
This paper reports that Ecuador's oil and gas sector has reached a pivotal point in its history. After several years of fairly brisk activity, foreign operators recently began scaling back exploration in Ecuador. They cited results that haven't met expectations and persistent delays in obtaining approval by state owned Petroecuador for development of reserves that have been discovered. Foreign oil companies had anticipated the pace of development would accelerate in Ecuador in early 1992, but major projects generally remained in limbo for most of this year. At presstime, however, there were signs of an encouraging follow-through in promised reforms in the permitting process. Petroecuador in April-May approved two of those projects and a third in June. Of the 13 oil companies or groups that had signed exploration contracts with the state oil company since 1985, several companies have terminated their operations in the country, and only one company, Oryx Energy Co., Dallas, is producing a small volume of oil. Two other companies have been negotiating exploration rights for about 2 years, with contracts yet to be signed
Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres
Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions…
Pearson, W. N
...), National Institutes of Health, who visited Ecuador from January 15th to the 21st, 1961. W. N. Pearson, PhD, visited Ecuador from January 15th to the 21st, 1961, to discuss the nutritional survey conducted by ICNND in the summer of 1959...
Galileo, Maria Helena M; McClarin, Jim; Santos-Silva, Antonio
Tyrinthia frontalis (Guérin-Méneville, 1855) is redescribed, formally recorded from Ecuador, and its type locality is questioned. Tyrinthia napoensis sp. nov. is described from Ecuador. Tyrinthia paraba Martins & Galileo, 1991, and T. turuna Martins & Galileo, 1993 are new country records for Ecuador. A key to species of Tyrinthia from Ecuador is provided.
...-893, A-549-822, A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's... certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and... Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (Ecuador Final...
A new species of to the genus Eritrachys Ruckes, E. brailovskyi, collected in Ecuador, is described and illustrated. The male of E. bituberculata Ruckes is described and illustrated, with new records from Panama and Ecuador. A key to the species of the genus is provided....
van Asdall, W
Dalbergaria tessmanii, a shrub of the Gesneriaceae locally abundant in the tropical forests of Ecuador, is variously ethnomedicinally employed. For example, none of several Shuar (Jívaro) herbal healers know or use it, but the one Shuar Shaman consulted extols its importance in reducing vaginal bleeding. Although Mestizo native consultants from the provincial capital of Morona-Santiago report its use in alleviating heart problems, those from Pastaza Province employ it to reduce menstrual flow. The Lowland Quechua apparently use it for this purpose as well. This plant has apparently not yet been chemically examined. Its reported use in several different cultural context suggest that it should be phytochemically investigated.
Hall, Minard L; Mothes, Patricia A [Instituto Geofisico, Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Quito (Ecuador)], E-mail: email@example.com
The Chacana caldera, located immediately east of Quito, capital of Ecuador, forms the most-northern edifice of Ecuadoros rhyolite province. It is a 50X30 km Pleistocene structure that has remained active into historic times. Vitrophyres, welded tuffs, and ignimbrites of rhyolitic and dacitic composition constitute the outer flanks, meantime syngenetic breccias and tuffs, capped later by extensive dacite lava flows and basin sediments, filled the calderaos depression. A notable resurgence occurred that lifted quiet-water sediments to over 4000 m in elevation. The area has numerous hot springs, and little seismic activity.
Hall, Minard L; Mothes, Patricia A
The Chacana caldera, located immediately east of Quito, capital of Ecuador, forms the most-northern edifice of Ecuadoros rhyolite province. It is a 50X30 km Pleistocene structure that has remained active into historic times. Vitrophyres, welded tuffs, and ignimbrites of rhyolitic and dacitic composition constitute the outer flanks, meantime syngenetic breccias and tuffs, capped later by extensive dacite lava flows and basin sediments, filled the calderaos depression. A notable resurgence occurred that lifted quiet-water sediments to over 4000 m in elevation. The area has numerous hot springs, and little seismic activity.
Roberto Aguas Pután
Full Text Available The present article presents the results of the research work related to the social and economic impact of the exploitation of oil in Ecuador, presents the reader with the methodologies that allowed obtaining the results and the most viable solution to the economic problems facing the country . The purpose of the investigative work is to propose a practical solution to the economic and social situation in the country, especially in the last years when the business started with the international oil companies which did not respect the agreement made by both parties that produced Negative consequences for the land, such as damages, contamination of the rivers, damage of the ﬂora and fauna of the surroundings, it is considered that there were and there are economic ﬂuctuations that have varied the economy and development of the fulﬁllment of the state budget and the breach of the same Towards social promises to the people of Ecuador, for not having the necessary provisions in the fall of the price of oil and this has its effect on the national budget.
Andrade A., Pablo
Se explora el reciente cambio de gobierno en Ecuador a la luz de las siguientes hipótesis: 1) la inestabilidad política que caracteriza al Ecuador desde hace nueve años; 2) esta fase como resultado de las contradicciones creadas por el intento de reconciliar una economía organizada en torno al libre mercado con los procedimientos de una democracia representativa; 3) el proceso que ha llevado en los últimos trece años a la desarticulación de las instituciones democráticas en Ecuador. Se desarr...
Ecuador, in its first full year outside the fold of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, stands poised for a significant expansion of production in the 1990s. While preparing for Ecuador's eventual withdrawal from OPEC last fall, the government since early summer 1992 has moved quickly to approve a number of key development projects. It was, perhaps, no coincidence that the most important conference on Ecuadorian petroleum prospects in recent years was timed to coincide with the government's public confirmation of the pullout. All foreign companies operating in Ecuador attended, with details disclosed of projects planned or under way. This article summarizes these projects and other key issues raised at the conference
Beckman, Adam L; Wilson, Magdalena M; Prabhu, Vishaal; Soekoe, Nicola; Mata, Humberto; Grau, Lauretta E
In 2013 approximately 37,000 people were living with HIV in Ecuador (prevalence 0.4%), representing a generalized epidemic where most new infections arise from sexual interactions in the general population. Studies that examine attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLWH), individual risk perception of acquiring HIV amongst Ecuadorians, and the ways in which levels of risk perception may affect risk behaviors are lacking. This qualitative study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by investigating these issues in the rural, coastal community of Manglaralto, Ecuador, which has among the highest incidence of HIV in Ecuador. We conducted interviews with 15 patients at Manglaralto Hospital. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed widespread negative attitudes towards PLWH, prevalent risk behaviors such as multiple sex partners and lack of condom use, and low individual risk-perception of contracting HIV. These findings underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent further growth of the HIV epidemic in Ecuador.
Adam L. Beckman
Full Text Available In 2013 approximately 37,000 people were living with HIV in Ecuador (prevalence 0.4%, representing a generalized epidemic where most new infections arise from sexual interactions in the general population. Studies that examine attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLWH, individual risk perception of acquiring HIV amongst Ecuadorians, and the ways in which levels of risk perception may affect risk behaviors are lacking. This qualitative study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by investigating these issues in the rural, coastal community of Manglaralto, Ecuador, which has among the highest incidence of HIV in Ecuador. We conducted interviews with 15 patients at Manglaralto Hospital. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed widespread negative attitudes towards PLWH, prevalent risk behaviors such as multiple sex partners and lack of condom use, and low individual risk-perception of contracting HIV. These findings underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent further growth of the HIV epidemic in Ecuador.
Pablo Andrade A.
Full Text Available The essay describes the securitization of Ecuador's policy regarding the Colombian conflict. The author argues that since 1999, distinct governments have adopted a policy that treats the Colombian conflict as a threat to the existential survival of Ecuador. In the first part of the essay, the author discusses the assumptions underlying this policy in light of the available empirical evidence on the effects of the armed conflict over the past five years. The second part deals with the process of securitization itself, illustrating the effects of perceptions of threat on the part of Ecuador's decision-makers, in particular the Armed Forces. The last two sections examine the links existing between Ecuador's policy and the regional interests of the United States, and the effects of the securitization process and its likely continuation in the future.
great soil quality ready to be converted to banana plantations, the climate was ideal, plant disease in the area was minimal, and the area was...14, 2016, http://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/index.php?db=FM. Figure 14 graphs the inflation rates of Ecuador, Colombia , Peru, and Bolivia...from 1992–2014. Although Peru and Colombia both had high inflation through the 1990s, prior to 2001 Ecuador clearly had the highest rates. All four
Blanca Ríos-Touma; Ralph W. Holzenthal; Jolanda Huisman; Robin Thomson; Ernesto Rázuri-Gonzales
Background Aquatic insects and other freshwater animals are some of the most threatened forms of life on Earth. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are highly biodiverse in the Neotropics and occupy a wide variety of freshwater habitats. In Andean countries, including Ecuador, knowledge of the aquatic biota is limited, and there is a great need for baseline data on the species found in these countries. Here we present the first list of Trichoptera known from Ecuador, a country that harbors two global b...
Fernandez, Mario Andres; Bucaram, Santiago J.; Renteria, Willington
Vulnerability assessments have become necessary to increase the understanding of climate-sensitive systems and inform resource allocation in developing countries. Challenges arise when poor economic and social development combines with heterogeneous climatic conditions. Thus, finding and harmonizing good-quality data at local scale may be a significant hurdle for vulnerability research. In this paper we assess vulnerability to climate change at a local level in Ecuador. We take Ecuador as a c...
Carrillo, Paul A.
Fiscal policy is particularly relevant in dollarized economies. For the case of Ecuador, we analyze the effects of taxes and public spending on the overall performance of the economy for the period 1993-2009. To do this, we use a structural autoregressive vector model (SVAR) incorporating the stylized facts of Ecuador estimated on Gachet et al. (2010). The main results are: i) the taxes have only temporary effects on the ecuadorian economy, ii) the increase in indirect taxes affect negatively...
Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco
Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...
Ecuador continues to grapple with efforts to privatize its petroleum sector a year after disclosing its plans to withdraw from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. One of OPEC's smallest members, Ecuador last year said it would leave the group in March 1993, citing high membership costs and minimal benefits. Industry observers also noted at the time Ecuador's plans to sharply boost production this century might run afoul of its OPEC quota. Political controversy is stalling efforts to implement a new reform oriented hydrocarbon law in Ecuador that would open the country's petroleum sector to greater participation by foreign companies and privatize state petroleum companies, including Petroleos del Ecuador (Petroecuador). That comes even as foreign contractors' participation in Ecuador's upstream sector are making a significant contribution to boosting the country's oil production, which had remained flat for a number of years. The paper discusses the status of the new law, the controversy surrounding reforms, the master plan, environmental concerns, reserves and production, Petroecuador activity, planned pipeline work, service contracts, start-up of Oxy, details of Oxy development, and Elf's start-up
Serrano, Sh.; Vasquez, N.; Jacome, P.; Basile, L.
Self-organized criticality (SOC) is characterized by a power law behavior over complex systems like earthquakes and avalanches. We study rainfall using data of one day, 3 hours and 10 min temporal resolution from INAMHI (Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Hidrologia) station at Izobamba, DMQ (Metropolitan District of Quito), satellite data over Ecuador from Tropical Rainfall Measure Mission (TRMM,) and REMMAQ (Red Metropolitana de Monitoreo Atmosferico de Quito) meteorological stations over, respectively. Our results show a power law behavior of the number of rain events versus mm of rainfall measured for the high resolution case (10 min), and as the resolution decreases this behavior gets lost. This statistical property is the fingerprint of a self-organized critical process (Peter and Christensen, 2002) and may serve as a benchmark for models of precipitation based in phase transitions between water vapor and precipitation (Peter and Neeling, 2006).
Marcel Fortuna Biato
Full Text Available Abstract The 1998 Brasilia Peace Agreement ended a territorial dispute between Ecuador and Peru that, due to the size and location of the contested area, had remained a source of regional instability and continental tensions for decades. This paper examines the circumstances that finally allowed negotiations, beginning in 1995, to overcome an almost two-centuries-old conflict, long after almost all territorial disputes in South America had been laid to rest. It will focus in particular on the diplomatic endeavours by the guarantor countries of the 1942 Rio de Janeiro Protocol, which involved a unique set of negotiations, and the setting up of the first effective multilateral peace operation in South America. It also suggests that the peace agreement benefited from the dynamics of economic integration underway since the 1980s. Finally, it considers the implications for regional security arrangements, as well as Brazil’s leadership credentials in South America.
Full Text Available Este artículo aborda un tema clave respecto de la efectiva participación política de los pueblos indígenas: el derecho a la Consulta Previa. En el Ecuador, la Constitución establece que el Estado tiene que consultar a las comunidades antes de poner en marcha iniciativas de desarrollo que podrían afectarlas directamente. No obstante, esa obligación ha sido sistemáticamente eludida por diversos gobiernos y los pueblos indígenas se han visto obligados a acudir a las instancias internacionales de protección de los derechos humanos para hacer respetar sus derechos. Tal es el caso del pueblo kichwa de Sarayaku. El autor ofrece un panorama de esa lucha histórica.
Tashyrev, O B; Pidgorskyi, V S; Toro, Miguel Naranjo; Gualoto, Miguel; Gladka, G V; Tashyreva, H O; Rokitko, P V; Romanovskaya, V A
34 strains of aerobic chemoorganotrophic microorganisms were isolated from 23 soil and plant samples selected from highland biotopes of Ecuador-Andes massif (Papallacta, 4020 m), ash at the foot of the volcano Tungurahua, mountainous jungle (La Favorita, 1600 m), as well as in humid tropic botanical garden (state Puyo, 950 m). In mountain jungle samples the high number of bacteria--10(5)-10(7) CFU/g of sample were represented by 2-5 morphotypes. In highland (4020 m) samples the bacterial counts made from 10(2) to 10(7) CFU/g of sample. The current study describes resistance of isolated strains to high salinity, UV radiation and toxic metal ions. The majority of isolated strains were halotolerant. Isolates from volcanic ash showed high resistance level to UV radiation--LD99,99 made 1000-1440 J/m2; resistance level for isolates from the soil of Puyo Botanical Garden and isolates from rock lichen (Papallacta) LD99,99 made 1160 and 800 J/m2 respectively. Strains isolated from mountain jungle (La Favorita) showed lower UV-resistance. In highland biotopes of Ecuador occurred bacteria resistant to toxic metal ions. The highest resistance to Hg2+ was shown by isolate of lichen from mountain jungle, the maximal growth concentration was 0.025 g/L; to Cr(VI)--by isolate from lichen rock massif--3,0 g/L. Correlation between metal-resistance, halotolerace and UV resistance for studied strains was not detected, probably because of different microbial cell damage/repair mechanisms under the action of these factors.
María Isabel Punín Larrea
Full Text Available El avance de la tecnología, en especial, en el ámbito de la comunicación, obliga a los medios a evolucionar constantemente para no morir en un escenario marcado por una serie de transformaciones y cambios mediáticos que han afectado al periodismo como profesión y a los medios de comunicación, proceso que ha generado estudios de todo orden. Este trabajo analiza el panorama mediático digital en Ecuador, las características de cultura periodística y el consumo de contenidos en la Red. Describe las tendencias de los principales medios digitales en el país, seleccionados para realizar un estudio de caso. El artículo toma como referencia central el estudio de las diez tendencias digitales en medios de comunicación de Cerezo-Gilarranz, especialista en estrategias digitales. Posteriormente se identifican las deficiencias que tienen los medios en Ecuador; principalmente por la falta de domino de los entornos tecnológicos y la escasa vinculación del proyecto empresarial y periodístico con soportes tecnológicos e innovadores, como el uso de redes sociales... El resultado final es una guía detallada de las debilidades y las fortalezas de cada medio digital en estudio. Asimismo, este trabajo propone tendencias fiables para que los medios estudiados puedan encaminarse firmes en entornos digitales, asumiendo a las herramientas tecnológicas como oportunidad de negocio y de servicio.
... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis... injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of... China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec...
... Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the...
... of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam..., Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.\\1\\ Currently, the... From the People's Republic of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist...
Full Text Available Background Aquatic insects and other freshwater animals are some of the most threatened forms of life on Earth. Caddisflies (Trichoptera are highly biodiverse in the Neotropics and occupy a wide variety of freshwater habitats. In Andean countries, including Ecuador, knowledge of the aquatic biota is limited, and there is a great need for baseline data on the species found in these countries. Here we present the first list of Trichoptera known from Ecuador, a country that harbors two global biodiversity “hotspots.” Methods We conducted a literature review of species previously reported from Ecuador and supplemented these data with material we collected during five recent field inventories from about 40 localities spanning both hotspots. Using species presence data for each Ecuadorian province, we calculated the CHAO 2 species estimator to obtain the minimum species richness for the country. Results We recorded 310 species, including 48 new records from our own field inventories for the country. CHAO 2 calculations showed that only 54% of the species have been found. Hydroptilidae and Hydropsychidae were the most species rich families. We report the family Xiphocentronidae for the first time from Ecuador as well as several new records of genera from different families. Discussion As in the neighboring Andean countries of Colombia and Peru, it is common to find undescribed species of caddisflies. There are vast areas of Ecuador and the northern Andes that are completely unexplored, and we expect that hundreds of new species are yet to be discovered.
Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo
This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) team of experts today completed a nuclear security advisory mission in Ecuador. The mission was carried out at the request of the Government of Ecuador. The scope of the two-week International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) mission included the legislative and regulatory framework for the security of radioactive material, regulatory licensing, inspection and enforcement as well as coordination among authorities and other stakeholders involved in nuclear security. In September 2017, Ecuador ratified the 2005 Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) and its incorporation into the nuclear security regime was also included in the scope of the mission. The IPPAS team carried out a number of visits, including to a steel company that uses gamma radiography, two hospitals, the National Polytechnic University and a company that transports radioactive material. In addition, the team visited a temporary storage facility for disused radioactive sources in Alóag, a town about 50 km south of the capital, Quito. The team observed that Ecuador is making efforts towards enhancing its national nuclear security regime. The team provided recommendations and suggestions to support Ecuador in enhancing and sustaining nuclear security. Good practices were identified that can serve as examples to other IAEA Member States to help strengthen their nuclear security activities.
Carr, John L; Almendariz, Ana; Simmons, John E; Nielsen, Mark T
We describe the subsistence exploitation of an entire turtle fauna in Esmerald's Province, Ecuador. We collected first hand accounts and witnessed a number of capture techniques used by rural afroecuadorian and chachi inhabitants of the Cayapas Santiago River basin. The diversity of techniques indicated a practical knowledge of the ecology of the species. Chelydra acutirostris, Kinosternon leucostomum, Rhinoclemmys annulata, Melanosterna, and R. nasuta were captured and eaten. Poziando involved cleaning pools in a stream bed during the relatively dry season by removing live plants, organic detritus, and then seining with baskets; we observed R. melanosterna and K. leucostomum captured in this way. Pitfall traps baited with fruit were used to catch R. melanosterna during forays on land. Basket traps (Canasto tortuguero) with a wooden slat funnel across the opening are floated with balsa lashed to the sides. Banana or Xanthosoma leaf bait in the basket traps caught R. melanosterna, R. nasuta, and K. leucostomum. Marshy areas were probed for R. melanosterna and K. leucostomum. Direct capture by hand was also common. Turtles were relished as food items; all turtles captured were consumed, usually in soup or stew. Use of turtles for food in the region was pervasive, perhaps because fish and game populations were depleted.
Nadia Romero Salgado
Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of the shrimp industry development in the mangrove ecosystem, the socio-environmental conflicts generated and its relationship with neoliberalism and the financial crisis of 1999 in Ecuador. After a review of the importance of the mangrove ecosystem, the stages of the shrimp expansion, its promoters, the mangrove deforestation and the socio-environmental effects caused, I will analyze the shrimp crisis, its parallels with the financial crisis of 1999 and its subsequent recovery. I will show that the shrimp industry expanded in mangrove areas in order to reduce costs, even breaking the law and creating environmental degradation, vulnerability of the costs and loss of natural resources, based on the exploitation and privatization of a public good. This created unemployment, migration and impoverishment to local populations and costs that the State will have to assume. Therefore, it is a process of “accumulation by dispossession” characteristic of neoliberalism.
Gallegos Espinosa, Sylvia; Nicolalde Cifuentes, Marcelo; Santana Porbén, Sergio
Hospital malnutrition is a global health problem affecting 30-50% of hospitalized patients. There are no estimates of the size of this problem in Ecuadorian hospitals. Hospital malnutrition might influence the quality of medical assistance provided to hospitalized populations. To estimate the current frequency of malnutrition among patients admitted to Ecuadorian public hospitals. The Ecuadorian Hospital Malnutrition Study was conducted between November 2011 and June 2012 with 5,355 patients (Women: 37.5%; Ages ≥ 60 years: 35.1%; Length of stay ≤ 15 days: 91.2%) admitted to 36 public hospitals located in the prominent cities of 22 out of the 24 provinces of the country. Malnutrition frequency was estimated by means of the Subjective Global Assessment survey. Malnutrition affected 37.1% of the surveyed patients. Malnutrition was dependent upon patient's age and education level; as well as the presence of cancer, sepsis, and chronic organic failure. Hospital areas showed different frequencies of hospital malnutrition. Health condition leading to hospital admission influenced negatively upon nutritional status. Malnutrition frequency increased as length of stay prolonged. Malnutrition currently affects an important proportion of patients hospitalized in public health institutions of Ecuador. Policies and actions are urgently required in order to successfully deal with this health problem and thus to ameliorate its negative impact upon quality of medical care. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Camino-Villacorta, M.; Egido-Aguilera, M.A. [Ciudad Univ., Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Energia Solar - UPM; Gamez, J.; Arranz-Piera, P. [Trama Tecnoambiental (TTA), Barcelona (Spain)
The Instituto de Energia Solar has been dealing with quality control issues for rural electrification for many years. In the framework of project DOSBE (Development of Electricity Service Operators for Poverty Alleviation in Ecuador and Peru), a technical toolkit has been developed to implement adapted integral quality control procedures for photovoltaic systems (covering all components and equipment, installation and servicing), applicable at a local and regional scale, with the overall aim of increasing the confidence in photovoltaic systems. This toolkit was applied in the evaluation of an existing microgrid in Ecuador, which is described in this paper. The toolkit and the detailed results of its application are presented in a published document which is being widely distributed among the stakeholders of rural electrification in Ecuador and Peru. It can be downloaded from the web page of the DOSBE project: www.dosbe.org (orig.)
This paper reports that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which has agreed to maintain its present combined production of 24.2 million b/d of oil in the fourth quarter, will soon see the first pullout of a member. The 13 member group will shrink to 12, probably in November, when Ecuador withdraws. Ecuador President Sixto Duran Ballen issued notice of the pullout Sept. 17, a little more than 1 month after he took office. Ecuador, strapped for cash, wants to save OPEC membership dues reported to be $2-3 million/year. It plans to remain an associate member, although it wasn't immediately clear what that means. No other countries are regarded as associate members
Vargas Villacres, Borman Renán
El Ecuador, como país intercultural y plurinacional recoge en su memoria social todas las costumbres, mitos, leyendas y tradiciones que transforman en direccionamientos para el desarrollo del país en todas sus áreas, ya que compila en el Derecho Consuetudinario de los pueblos originarios del Ecuador su forma de actuar, ya hoy en día gracias a la revolución ciudadana, lo podemos socializar y aplicar, mismos que deben ser cumplidos en forma coercitiva porque ese es su modo de vida, que con toda...
J. Bruce Alexander
Full Text Available The plebotomine sand fly fauna of Ecuador was surveyed in two 3-month collecting trips made in 1988 and 1990. A total of 12 provinces were visited, including three (Bolivar, Loja and Morona Santiago from wich no previous records to phlebotomines existed. Forty-six species were collected, 13 of wich, together with 1 subspecies and 1 genus (Warileya represented new records for the country. This survey increases the known number of species in Ecuador to 60. The distribuition of Ecuadorian sand flies is discussed in the light of these new findings.
Castillo Morocho, Silvia
En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de Ecuador y con mayor detalle, las características del sistema ecuatoriano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, programas de salud, fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, las tareas de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública. La República de Ecuador no escapó de los efectos de las sucesivas crisis económicas, y su sistema de salud estuvo marcado por más de 15 ...
Aldulaimi, Sommer; Mora, Francisco E
Ecuador is a country with few resources to spend on health care. Historically, Ecuador has struggled to find a model for health care that is efficient, effective, and available to all people in the country, even those in underserved and rural communities. In 2000, the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health implemented a new system of health care that used primary care as its platform. Since then, Ecuador has been able to increase its health care efficiency, increasing its ranking from 111 of 211 countries worldwide in 2000, to 20 of 211 countries in 2014. This article briefly reviews the new components of the system implemented in Ecuador and examines the tools used to accomplish this. The discussion also compares and contrasts the Ecuador and US systems, and identifies concepts and policies from Ecuador that could improve the US system. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Sierra, Jaime Cevallos
Road transport is one of the sectors with highest energy consumptions in the planet, with large dependence of fossil fuels, and contribution for global greenhouse gas emissions. Although, Latin America is not a high-energy consumer, its share in global consumption is expected to grow, especially in the transportation sector. This make essential for developing countries the adoption of better policies to identify the vehicle groups with largest fuel demands. The present study describes the VKT technique to disaggregate road transport energy consumption by vehicle type, applied to the road transportation system of Ecuador. It also describes the procedures performed to estimate the variables required to run the model, and some of the practical applications that be used to create public policies. Results show as the biggest fuel consumers the heavy-duty freight cargo, followed by light duty vehicles. The estimation of greenhouse gas emissions evidence that road transport released 14.3 million tons of CO_2 in 2012. When fuel consumption is compared by it costs, it can be confirmed that Ecuadorean Government covered, through subsidies, for 68% of the annual fuel costs of national road transport, demonstrating the importance of restructuring these expenditures in order to achieve an efficient road transport system. - Highlights: •The vehicle-kilometers traveled has been estimated from local info. •The fuel economy has been calculated from national and international data. •The groups with higher fuel consumption has been located. •The fuel-type dependency has been estimated for each vehicle group. •Greenhouse gas emission, and fuel costs, has been estimated for local road transport.
Elbers, C.T.M.; Lanjouw, P.F.
In this paper we study intersectoral transfer and its impact on the distribution of income in Ecuador. We find that income shares between farm and nonfarm activities are roughly equal, on average, although the rich in rural areas typically receive a greater share of income from nonfarm sources. Thus
Mosselman, E.; Barrera Crespo, P.; Becker, A; Ottevanger, W.; Nabi, M.; Giardino, A; de Keizer, O; Arias Hidalgo, M.E.; Sanchez, D.; Pazmiño Nelson, N.
The Equatorian Daule and Babahoyo rivers combine into the tidal Guayas River with the largest estuary on the Pacific coast of South America. The city of Guayaquil, located along the Guayas, is the main port of Ecuador but at the same time the planet’s fourth most vulnerable city for future flooding
Barrera Crespo, P.; Becker, A; Ottevanger, W.; Nabi, M.; Giardino, A; de Keizer, O; Arias, M; Sanchez, D.; Pazmiño Nelson, N.; Mosselman, E.
The Equatorian Daule and Babahoyo rivers combine into the tidal Guayas River with the largest estuary on the Pacific coast of South America. The city of Guayaquil, located along the Guayas, is the main port of Ecuador but at the same time the planet’s fourth most vulnerable city for future flooding
Hidalgo, D.; Oosterbeek, H.
In 2007 the government of Ecuador launched a micro-credit program for enterprises run by poor households. The program was targeted to households at the bottom two quintiles in the wealth distribution. This paper uses data collected prior to the start of the program to examine whether the
Fernandez, Mario Andres; Bucaram, Santiago J; Renteria, Willington
Vulnerability assessments have become necessary to increase the understanding of climate-sensitive systems and inform resource allocation in developing countries. Challenges arise when poor economic and social development combines with heterogeneous climatic conditions. Thus, finding and harmonizing good-quality data at local scale may be a significant hurdle for vulnerability research. In this paper we assess vulnerability to climate change at a local level in Ecuador. We take Ecuador as a case study as socioeconomic data are readily available. To incorporate the spatial and temporal pattern of the climatic variables we use reanalysis datasets and empirical orthogonal functions. Our assessment strategy relies on the statistical behavior of climatic and socioeconomic indicators for the weighting and aggregation mechanism into a composite vulnerability indicator. Rather than assuming equal contribution to the formation of the composite indicator, we assume that the weights of the indicators vary inversely as the variance over the cantons (administrative division of Ecuador). This approach captures the multi-dimensionality of vulnerability in a comprehensive form. We find that the least vulnerable cantons concentrate around Ecuador's largest cities (e.g. Quito and Guayaquil); however, approximately 20 % of the national population lives in other cantons that are categorized as highly and very highly vulnerable to climate change. Results also show that the main determinants of high vulnerability are the lack of land tenure in agricultural areas and the nonexistence of government-funded programs directed to environmental and climate change management.
de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.
In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human
de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.
In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential
This thesis aims to fill the gap of information on the potato landrace diversity present in farmer fields of Ecuador. Passport data from previous collections (1970’s and 1980’s) were used to identify Carchi, Chimborazo and Loja as representative areas of potato diversity. The status of on-farm
ILO pub-WEP pub-PREALC pub. Working paper on development policy, basic needs and poverty in Ecuador - discusses economic policy, and access to public expenditure; argues that income redistribution does not necessarily result from rural area infrastructure, health service, housing and educational expenditure. References, statistical tables.
This paper explores how multiple types of knowledge – epistemic, technical, and anecdotal – are combined and used discursively within the claim-making process of a long-running socio-environmental conflict concerning copper extraction and its threat to biodiversity conservation in Ecuador's Intag
Ramirez-Anormaliza, Richard; Llinàs-Audet, Xavier; Sabaté, Ferran
This article examines educational policies in Ecuador. It outlines the main features of the education and training systems, and analyses the impact on productivity and national development. The efforts made by various national authorities to strengthen and encourage education at all levels is evident, as well as efforts to boost productivity by…
Smith, Robert L.; Valarezo, Maria Alexandra
Counseling is at an early stage of development in the Republic of Ecuador. A turbulent history, poverty, and unemployment have affected the growth of mental health services and counselor preparation programs. Yet, this country experiences problems of addictions, domestic violence, depression, suicide, gender inequity, and drug trafficking. The…
This dissertation is a study of diverse linguistic resources and contentious identity politics among indigenous Amazonian Kichwas in the city of Tena, Ecuador. Tena is a rapidly developing Amazonian provincial capital city with a long history of interethnic and interlinguistic contact. In recent decades, the course of indigenous Kichwa identity…
Chavez, Andres Alberto
The purpose of this study is to review literature about citizenship education in order to develop a framework for transformative citizenship education and compare that framework to the intended and implemented citizenship education curriculum in Ecuador. This study presents qualitative research carried out in eight schools in four provinces of…
Jiménez, Patricia; Calvopiña, Karina; Herrera, Diana; Rojas, Carlos; Pérez-Lago, Laura; Grijalva, Marcelo; Guna, Remedios; García-de Viedma, Darío
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage isolates are considered to be especially virulent, transmissible and prone to acquire resistances. Beijing strains have been reported worldwide, but studies in Latin America are still scarce. The only multinational study performed in the region indicated a heterogeneous distribution for this lineage, which was absent in Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, although further studies found the lineage in Chile and Colombia. To search for the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador, the only country in the region where it remains unreported. We obtained a convenience sample (2006-2012) from two hospitals covering different populations. The isolates were genotyped using 24-MIRU-VNTR. Lineages were assigned by comparing their patterns to those in the MIRU-VNTRplus platform. Isolates belonging to the Beijing lineage were confirmed by allele-specific PCR. We identified the first Beijing isolate in Ecuador in an unexpected epidemiological scenario: A patient was infected in the Andean region, in a population with low mobility and far from the borders of the neighboring countries where Beijing strains had been previously reported. This is the first report of the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador in an unusual epidemiological context that deserves special attention.
Fajardo-Dack, Tammy M.
A profound and systemic education change requires taking into consideration the several factors that intervene, particularly, and most importantly, the role of the teacher. Ecuador, since 2009 has been immersed in constant changes to achieve an educational transformation; however, nothing has been invested in the professional development of…
Ponce, Juan; Ramos-Martin, Jesus
To differentiate the effects of food vouchers and training in health and nutrition on consumption and dietary diversity in Ecuador by using an experimental design. Interventions involved enrolling three groups of approximately 200 randomly selected households per group in three provinces in Ecuador. Power estimates and sample size were computed using the Optimal Design software, with a power of 80 %, at 5 % of significance and with a minimum detectable effect of 0·25 (sd). The first group was assigned to receive a monthly food voucher of $US 40. The second group was assigned to receive the same $US 40 voucher, plus training on health and nutrition issues. The third group served as the control. Weekly household values of food consumption were converted into energy intake per person per day. A simple proxy indicator was constructed for dietary diversity, based on the Food Consumption Score. Finally, an econometric model with three specifications was used for analysing the differential effect of the interventions. Three provinces in Ecuador, two from the Sierra region (Carchi and Chimborazo) and one from the Coastal region (Santa Elena). Members of 773 households randomly selected (n 4343). No significant impact on consumption for any of the interventions was found. However, there was evidence that voucher systems had a positive impact on dietary diversity. No differentiated effects were found for the training intervention. The most cost-effective intervention to improve dietary diversity in Ecuador is the use of vouchers to support family choice in food options.
Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael
Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
IPS), URL: <htttp://web.maxwell.syr.edu.nativew...aphy/latinam/ ecuador /borderl6.html>, accessed 10 November 1996, pp. 1-2. 蔵 "Evacuees in Loja Number...OBSERVER MISSION ECUADOR -PERU (MOMEP) DOING A LOT WITH A LITTLE BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL KEVIN M. HIGGINS United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...MISSION ECUADOR -PERU (MOMEP) Doing A Lot With a Little by Lieutenant Colonel Kevin M. Higgins United States Army Naval Postgraduate School Special
Boada, C. E.
Full Text Available In Ecuador, Thyroptera tricolor is distributed on the northern coastal region, in Amazonia, and in the foothillsof the Andes between 50 to 1,800 m of altitude. We reported a capture of a non-breeding female at El Descanso, Los RíosProvince, in the central coastal region of Ecuador. With this record, we have extended the geographical distribution of T.tricolor in Ecuador 55 km further south. Using the available data for Ecuador, a predictive distribution model was generatedusing a Maximum Entropy approach.
Játiva, Edgar; Velasco-Benítez, Carlos A; Koppen, Ilan J N; Játiva-Cabezas, Zahira; Saps, Miguel
The prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in children in Ecuador is unknown. We describe a survey study in 2 schools in Quito, Ecuador, using a Spanish translation of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII). A total of 417 children (51% boys) with a mean age of 12.0 years were included. FGIDs were present in 95 children (22.8%) and occurred in 25% of girls and in 20.7% of boys (P = 0.296). Functional defecation disorders were found in 12.0% of children, 9.4% had an abdominal pain-related FGID and 3.8% was diagnosed with a vomiting or aerophagia FGID.
Full Text Available The lack of information about the media landscape in Ecuador has prompted the Department of Communication Sciences at the Private Technical University of Loja to map the country's media, production companies, and advertising and public relations agencies. The need for a database on communication issues is still latent in Ecuador. Some public and private agencies have made some contributions to the construction of physical or virtual repositories, but the data provided have been limited to basic, often outdated, contact information. Based on a sample of over one thousand media companies, this study describes their structure, legal and corporate organisation, geographical location, contents, reach, and provided services. This study is an approximation to the country’s media reality and is part of a wider research project entitled “Mapa de la Comunicación de Ecuador” (“Ecuador’s Media Map”.
This study was carried out since 1990 to 1997. The goal was to figure out different species of fruit fly that inhabit in Ecuador. For the identification we put special emphasis in the female genitalia. We recommend to do more research into this subject, because of the few studies done in our country and the importance of fruit cultivation. We mention 32 genus in the family Tephritidae in Ecuador, including the introduced genus Ceratitis. Into Toxotrypaninae are pointing out the presence of one specie of the Toxotrypana genus and 31 species of the Anastrepha genus, detailing brilly the 27 species most common. General notions about taxonomic bases are mentioned in order to identify species of the Anastrepha Schiner, pointing out certain fenotipic characteristics that prove variability among the ecuadorian's population, mainly A. fraterculus, A. distincta, A. obliqua, A. striata, and others. (The author)
Chiaradia, M.; Fontbote, L
The Ecuadorian crust is a mosaic of NNE-SSW-trending terranes representing different geotectonic domains. These terranes, composed by oceanic and continental crust, were formed during the Triassic separation of the North and South American continents and were accreted to the Amazon craton during subduction of the Farallon/Nazca plate, from Early Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Litherland et al., 1994). In the southwestern part of Ecuador, EW-striking crustal-scale faults, related to the Huancabamba deflection, mark the transition between the Central and Northern Andes. In this study we discuss more than 200 lead isotope compositions of ores as well as magmatic and metamorphic rocks of Ecuador. The interest of carrying out a large-scale isotope survey in the Northern Andes derives from a geotectonic evolution characterized by multi-accretionary episodes which is not recognized in the Central Andes (au)
Debets-Ossenkopp, Yvette J; Reyes, Germán; Mulder, Janet; aan de Stegge, Birgit M; Peters, José T A M; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Tanca, J; Peña, Amado S; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E
In Ecuador, Helicobacter pylori infections are highly prevalent. A total of 42 H. pylori clinical isolates from 86 patients attending the outpatient clinic of the gastroenterology department of the university hospital of Guayaquil in Ecuador were characterized. Their susceptibility, and cagA and vacA status were determined. Resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin was found in 80.9% and 9.5% of strains, respectively. Neither amoxicillin- nor tetracycline-resistant strains were found. The most prevalent genotype was the cagA(+), vacA s1b,m1 type. This genotype was associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Typing by random amplified polymorphic DNA showed no genetic relationship among the strains.
María Mercedes Eguiguren
The article presents a review of the studies on migration in Ecuador during the period 1960-2016. It addresses the main debates that have marked these studies, the contexts of academic production, and the way in which migrations and their social and economic conditions have influenced the constitution and orientations of the field. Three stages go through the academic production: a first one where the internal migrations are approached from a spatial phenomena analysis; a second that deals wi...
The paper analyses how the theoretical framework of social enterprise proposed in the academic debate could be operationalised in the specific socioeconomic context of Ecuador. Recently, this country designed a new economic paradigm based on the solidarity economy model to reconcile an ambitious developmental state platform with the vision of a participatory strategy that pursues democracy, human rights and poverty reduction. This paradigm was enshrined in the constitution and elaborated thro...
Albuja V., Luis; Gardner, Alfred L.
We describe Lonchophylla orcesi, sp. nov., from the Choco, a region of high biotic diversity, endemism, and rainfall along the western Andean slopes and Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. One of the largest known Lonchophylla, it occurs sympatrically with at least two other species of Lonchophylla including the similar, but somewhat smaller L. robusta. We also recognize L. concava as a Middle American Province species distinct from L. mordax of Brazil and Bolivia on the basis of cranial and dental features.
This research aims to present the statistics on international trade between the major towns on the border Ecuador - Peru. This work seeks to show business opportunities framed in the Strategic Plan of the Productive Transformation matrix which seeks to increase domestic production through import substitution. Based on Huaquillas city, the research results show that the main imports are textiles and footwear, which represent over 50% of total imports and $ 107 million a year.
María Belén Albornoz Barriga
Full Text Available This paper examines three distinct periods of policy change and land redistribution in Ecuador through the agrarian reform laws of 1964, 1973 and 2010. A comparative case study of each moment of the law reforms was based on the instruments and policy network approach. In order to explain public policy process design, the high incidence of collective domains led by agribusiness on government management, and the incidence of indigenous organizations and farmers over the state action.
manipulating promotions among senior admirals of the Ecuadorean Navy. Minister of Defense Wellington Sandoval stated to El Comercio on March 30 that...in Aruba and El Salvador. The Municipality of Quito spon- sored the event. Funding support apparently came from the Venezuelan government. Press...not enlisted the support of Ecuador.14 According to Bogotá’s El Tiempo, Colombia’s intelligence service, the Department of Administrative Security
Guevara, E.; Santander, T.; Guevara, J. E.; Gualotuña, R.; Ortiz, V.
Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay National Park (SNP). One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, including noteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846) (White-bearded Hermit), Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan), P...
Penaherrera S, P.; Echeverria T, F.; Buitron S, S.; Yela de Chacon, L.
The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission elaborated a Radiation Protection Regulation for Ecuador. In order to implement it, a national survey of radiodiagnostic services was implemented with the following objectives: a) Statistics of Radiodiagnostic services related to geography and population ulation density, b) To establish general patterns for X-Ray control and calibration, c) Evaluation of the professional and technical work in this field. (Author)
Guerrero Burgos, Rafael
Se propone una definición teórica de la comunidad territorial sustentada en el concepto de identificación y la teoría del desarrollo rural territorial con el objeto de analizar las principales cadenas productivas que surcan la costa centro sur del Ecuador. Además se estudia a los principales movimientos agrarios que caracterizan un territorio que es sobre todo agrario y rural.
Cass, Helene; Landers, John; Benitez, Paul
There is a lack of published information on the causes of blindness in Ecuador and the Latin American region in general. This study is designed to enumerate the proportions of ocular conditions contributing to blindness in an outpatient population of an ophthalmology hospital in the coastal region of Ecuador. All cases presenting to an ophthalmology outpatient clinic over a 3-week period during September 2004 were reviewed (n = 802). Visual acuity was measured using a Snellen acuity chart and those who met the criteria for blindness were included in the study (n = 118). Blindness was defined under the World Health Organization protocol as visual acuity of glaucoma (15%). Among those considered to have bilateral blindness (n = 30), refraction was the most common cause (37%), followed by cataract (23%) and glaucoma (17%). The major causes of blindness found in this study reflected those in estimated data for the region. More studies are needed to improve the quality and quantity of epidemiological data on blindness in Ecuador and Latin America. Many obstacles to successful implementation of prevention of blindness programmes in South America still need to be overcome.
Marín-Armijos, Diego; Quezada-Ríos, Noelia; Soto-Armijos, Carolina; Mengual, Ximo
Abstract Syrphidae is one of the most speciose families of true flies, with more than 6,100 described species and worldwide distribution. They are important for humans acting as crucial pollinators, biological control agents, decomposers, and bioindicators. One third of its diversity is found in the Neotropical Region, but the taxonomic knowledge for this region is incomplete. Thus, taxonomic revisions and species checklists of Syrphidae in the Neotropics are the highest priority for biodiversity studies. Therefore, we present the first checklist of Syrphidae for Ecuador based on literature records, and provide as well the original reference for the first time species citations for the country. A total of 201 species were recorded for Ecuador, with more than 600 records from 24 provinces and 237 localities. Tungurahua, Pastaza, and Galápagos were the best sampled provinces. Although the reported Ecuadorian syrphid fauna only comprises 11.2 % of the described Neotropical species, Ecuador has the third highest flower fly diversity density after Costa Rica and Suriname. These data indicate the high species diversity for this country in such small geographic area. PMID:29200924
Full Text Available Syrphidae is one of the most speciose families of true flies, with more than 6,100 described species and worldwide distribution. They are important for humans acting as crucial pollinators, biological control agents, decomposers, and bioindicators. One third of its diversity is found in the Neotropical Region, but the taxonomic knowledge for this region is incomplete. Thus, taxonomic revisions and species checklists of Syrphidae in the Neotropics are the highest priority for biodiversity studies. Therefore, we present the first checklist of Syrphidae for Ecuador based on literature records, and provide as well the original reference for the first time species citations for the country. A total of 201 species were recorded for Ecuador, with more than 600 records from 24 provinces and 237 localities. Tungurahua, Pastaza, and Galápagos were the best sampled provinces. Although the reported Ecuadorian syrphid fauna only comprises 11.2 % of the described Neotropical species, Ecuador has the third highest flower fly diversity density after Costa Rica and Suriname. These data indicate the high species diversity for this country in such small geographic area.
Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.
Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Cevallos, William; Grijalva, Mario J; Silva-Ayçaguer, Luis C; Tamayo, Susana; Jacobson, Jerry O; Costales, Jaime A; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Serruya, Suzanne; Riera, Celia
Prenatal care is a pillar of public health, enabling access to interventions including prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital syphilis. This paper describes social factors related to use of prenatal care in Ecuador. In 2011 and 2012, participant clinical history and interview information was analyzed from a national probability sample of 5 998 women presenting for delivery or miscarriage services in 15 healthcare facilities in Ecuador, to estimate prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and Chagas disease, and prenatal care coverage. The study found that 94.1% of women had attended at least one prenatal visit, but that attendance at no less than four visits was 73.1%. Furthermore, lower educational level, greater number of pregnancies, occupation in the agriculture or livestock sector, and membership in ethnic indigenous, Afro-Ecuadorian, or other minority groups were factors associated with lack of use (no prenatal visits) or insufficient use of prenatal care (fewer than four visits or first visit at >20 weeks gestation) in Ecuador. These results point to persistence of marked inequalities in access to and use of prenatal health services attributable to socioeconomic factors and to the need to strengthen strategies to address them, to reach the goal of universal prenatal care coverage.
Yánez-Muñoz, Mario; Toral-Contreras, Eduardo; Meza-Ramos, Paúl; Reyes-Puig, Juan; Bejarano-Muñoz, E.; Mueses-Cisneros, Jonh; Paucar, Diego
Five new species of frogs from the genus Pristimantis are reported for Ecuador, thus extending the distribution range for these species, previously described only for the southern Andes of Colombia and the northern Andes of Peru. The diversity of Pristimantis in Ecuador increases to 148 species, adding five additional species to the total of 508 anurans already described for Ecuador.
... Excise Taxes; Review of Finding of Reciprocity (Ecuador), 26 U.S.C. 4221 AGENCY: International Trade... existing exemption for aircraft registered in Ecuador from certain internal revenue taxes on the purchase... Government of Ecuador has discontinued allowing substantially reciprocal tax exemptions to aircraft of U.S...
Quito, Ecuador; Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital General de las Fuerzas Armadas, Quito, Ecuador; Policlínico Militar San Jorge, Sangolqui...593-2-226-9234, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Juan Freire Espín, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital General de las Fuerzas Armadas, Queseras
voluntad política del Ecuador para profundizar los lazos con Iran”, www.elciudadano.gov.ec 74 Ibid 75 CRS Report for Congress, “Venezuela: Political...www.elciudadano.gov.ec, January 9, 2009. El Ciudadano. “Presidente Correa destacó la voluntad política del Ecuador para profundizar los lazos con
Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...
Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion
While key conceptions and the status of environmental education (EE) have been reported at various international, regional, national and local levels, those in play in the schools of Quito (Ecuador) are still relatively unknown. Of particular interest to this study are private schools: they are considerable in number in Ecuador and elsewhere, yet…
Chiaradia, M.; Fontbote, L
Whereas an abundant literature has been produced on the Tertiary magmatism of the Central Andes, no comparable studies exist for the Tertiary continental magmatism of the Northern Andes in general and of Ecuador in particular. In this contribution we present the first extensive data on lead and strontium isotopes of Paleocene to Pliocene magmatic rocks of Ecuador together with their major, trace and rare earth element geochemistry. The main interest of carrying out a geochemical and isotopic investigation on the magmatism of Ecuador is that, different from the Central Andes, Ecuador consists of several accreted terranes both of continental and oceanic affinity. The fragmented nature of the recently assembled crust of Ecuador, composed of lithologies such as Paleozoic schists, Triassic anatexites, and Jurassic metabasalts, could have variably affected the chemistry of the Ecuadorian magmas (au)
Andrés Martínez Moscoso
Full Text Available In 2017, the government of Ecuador established the minimum quantity of water required to be provided for free by drinking water utilities. Ecuador recognized the access to water as a fundamental human right because it guarantees the good living, known as “Sumak kawsay”, an indigenous Andean concept, in the Ecuadorian Constitution. This represents a novel approach to water rights in the world, as it is the first attempt to establish a minimum quantity of water under a constitutional guarantee by legislation, rather than regulation or judicial decision. However, this novel legislative approach raises the question of how this minimum amount of free water will impact the most vulnerable members of the Ecuadorian community. This paper provides the results of the first comprehensive research of the minimum required water provision in Ecuador. In order to measure the impact on the income of households, we built a methodology integrating: doctrinaire analyses, normative studies, and economic analyses. According to the Ecuadorian legislation, over-consumption of raw water generates additional costs that must be paid by water companies to the central government. In that regard, there is an inevitable relationship between the efficiency of the service and those additional costs. Efficiency, on this case, is the capacity of water companies (public or private to provide water services at an adequate price, observing the following parameters: quantity, quality and sufficiency. Our research found that with this legislation in three Ecuadorian local governments (Cuenca, Gualaceo and Suscal, the most vulnerable households (i.e., low-income and/or indigenous households will be affected the most. This means that and those families will spend the most part of their income on water services otherwise they would have to reduce their water consumption.
Vicente-Serrano, S. M.
In this study, we analyzed the influence of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the spatio-temporal variability of droughts in Ecuador for a 48-year period (1965–2012). Droughts were quantified from 22 high-quality and homogenized time series of precipitation and air temperature by means of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. In addition, the propagation of two different ENSO indices (El Niño 3.4 and El Niño 1 + 2 indices) and other atmospheric circulation processes (e.g., vertical velocity) on different time-scales of drought severity were investigated. The results showed a very complex influence of ENSO on drought behavior across Ecuador, with two regional patterns in the evolution of droughts: (1) the Andean chain with no changes in drought severity, and (2) the Western plains with less severe and frequent droughts. We also detected that drought variability in the Andes mountains is explained by the El Niño 3.4 index [sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central Pacific], whereas the Western plains are much more driven by El Niño 1 + 2 index (SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific). Moreover, it was also observed that El Niño and La Niña phases enhance droughts in the Andes and Western plains regions, respectively. The results of this work could be crucial for predicting and monitoring drought variability and intensity in Ecuador. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Ramírez Zhindón, Marina del Rocío
Uno de los grupos de mayor riesgo para desarrollar síndrome de burnout es el constituido por el personal sanitario. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la prevalencia del burnout y de sus dimensiones, así como los factores asociados en profesionales de enfermería y de medicina de las instituciones de salud de las 24 provincias de Ecuador. Se seleccionó una muestra de 2404 profesionales de salud (68.4% mujeres, media de edad = 40.0 años). Se emplearon distintos instrumentos para re...
Full Text Available A total of 108 individuals from the Ecuadorian population from rural and urban places were analyzed for two CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms. The frequency of the val allele at codon 462 was 0.50, while the frequency of the Msp I restriction site, m2 allele at the T6235C position was 0.70. These polymorphisms in Ecuador have higher frequencies if we compare with others around the world, with the exception of some South American population in Brazil and Chile.
Coello, D.; Herrera, M.
A partir de información colectada de cuatro cruceros de investigación a bordo del B/l Tohalli, se analiza la diversidad de peces óseos y elasmobranquios presentes en la plataforma continental del Ecuador. Los valores medios de diversidad estimados indican que tanto las poblaciones de peces óseos y condrictios demersales hasta los 120 m de profundidad presenten heterogeneidad, con un grado significativo de organización. Las fluctuaciones en el índice de diversidad en las diferentes subáreas y ...
Full Text Available We studied the behavior of campaign hashtags on Twitter in the second round of Ecuador 2017 presidential elections. The study analyzed 10 trending hashtags attacking opponents. The data was captured and analyzed with NodeXL, an application used to analyze social network. The analysis verifies the central role of automated accounts or botnets in the creation of hashtags. The campaign against the opposing binomial, which combined real accounts of government party activists with botnets, was more effective versus the less coordinated opposition campaign against candidate Lenin Moreno. It also verifies the use of localized botnets, mainly in Argentina and Venezuela.
Carlos Espinosa Fernández de Córdoba
Full Text Available This study seeks to understand conservative political language in Ecuador during the last third of the 19th century as an expression of political modernity and as a discourse involving dialogue with liberal concepts. The conservative ideas of "Catholic freedom", "Catholic civilization" and "perfect society" are explored, and the reciprocal manner in which these concepts were defined relative to liberal notions is investigated. Using conceptual history, polysemantic political categories are analyzed in a context of struggle and in relation to the rise of modernity.
Osorio, A.M.; Hadler, J.C.; Bigazzi, G.; Norelli, P.; Coltelli, M.; Salazar, E.
Fission track dating was applied in order to study obsidian samples originated from Mullumica and Callejones flows, Oyacachi, Ecuador. Preliminary data show that the ratio between the mean diameter os spontaneous and induced tracks is about 0.9, an indication that the analysed samples were submitted to small fading during their geological histories. Ages were obtained around 0.2 x 10 6 a, in agreement with Miller and Wagners's results. Ages ranging from 0.17 x 10 6 a up to 0.23 x 10 6 a were obtained correcting the apparent ages by means of the plateau method. (author)
Se registran importantes avances legales y constitucionales en el reconocimiento del derecho de las mujeres. Sin embargo, persisten situaciones de inequidad en los temas pobreza, violencia contra la mujer y acceso a la justicia. En el Ecuador, uno de cada cinco hogares pobres está jefaturado por una mujer, alcanzando el 20% de los mismos el nivel de indigencia. Un 41% de las mujeres encuestadas declara haber sido víctima de violencia psicológica, un 31% afirma haber sufrido violencia física...
Almeida Haro, Lucía María
En el Ecuador en el ejercicio 1999 se aplicó las NEC, y para el ejercicio económico 2006, se publicó las normas internacionales de información finnaciera, las mismas que no representaban ninguna obligación de asumirlas por no existir la disposición gubernamental reglamentaria, Dentro de este contexto podemos decir que las NIIF están siendo aplicadas por las compañías transnacionales que rigen sus procesos contables con lineamientos de la empresa matriz que regularmente se encuentra en el e...
During the past 15 years, Ecuador has become the Western Hemisphere's leading producer and exporter of shrimp. Growth has come about largely through mariculture development. About 8,000 metric tons (MT) of shrimp have been captured off the Ecuadorian coast each year since the late 1970s. Meanwhile, pond output has increased several-fold, from less than 5,000 MT in 1979 to over 100,000 MT 12 years later (Table 1). Mariculture has expanded largely at the expense of renewable natural resources. ...
Urios, Vicente; Muñiz López, Ruth; Vidal-Mateo, Javier
The movement ecology of Harpy Eagles (Harpia harpyja) is poorly known due to the difficulty observing this species. We studied the movements of two juvenile Harpy Eagles before and during dispersal using GPS satellite telemetry in the Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno, Ecuador. Both eagles were tagged at their respective nest tree. For each eagle, we calculated the daily distance moved and the distance from each recorded position to the nest. One eagle started dispersal during its 28t...
Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is a chronic and contagious disease that affects domestic animals, wildlife, and humans. Caused by Mycobacterium bovis, BTB causes major economic losses and poses a serious constraint to international livestock trade. Moreover, in developing countries where BTB controls are lacking, M. bovis is a public health concern. In most developing countries, the prevalence of BTB in livestock is unknown because the information is either not reported or not available. In Ecuador, there is no national BTB control program. This article reviews the BTB situation in Ecuador by examining exhaustive data from tuberculin testing surveys and slaughterhouse surveillance studies conducted in 1972-2008 in a variety of the country's geographic areas. In Ecuador, several factors, including the dairy industry's expansion (preempted by the high demand for milk and its by-products, intensified efforts to increase the cattle population, the presence of M. bovis, and a lack of BTB controls, have caused a rise in BTB prevalence, and consequently, a growing push for the implementation of a national BTB control program.La tuberculosis bovina es una enfermedad contagiosa crónica que afecta a los animales domésticos, los animales salvajes y los seres humanos. Es producida por Mycobacterium bovis; causa grandes pérdidas económicas y plantea una grave limitación para el comercio ganadero internacional. Por otro lado, en los países en desarrollo donde no hay controles de la tuberculosis bovina, la infección por M. bovis representa un problema de salud pública. En la mayoría de los países en desarrollo, la prevalencia de tuberculosis en el ganado se desconoce porque la información no se comunica o no se consigue. En el Ecuador no hay un programa nacional de control de la tuberculosis bovina. En este artículo se revisa la situación de la tuberculosis bovina en el Ecuador, sobre la base de un análisis de los datos exhaustivos obtenidos de
Full Text Available Telephony is a global service and thus telephone networks have been a coveted target for criminals. Now that voice can be transported over IP and that multiple services are integrated in a convergent model through Internet, there are more incentives to attack and more attackers. Moreover, the development of open source telephone applications has encouraged the massive use of IP telephony, but not an increased awareness about embedded security risks. Due to the current and intensive adoption of IP telephony systems in Ecuador, we conducted an exploration based on public information to obtain statistics about telephone systems connected to Internet in Ecuador. Additionally, using a deliberately vulnerable IP telephony system, we collected more data to do a preliminary analysis of threats to such systems. We found that hundreds of telephone systems were publicly available on the Internet and using outdated versions of Asterisk-based applications. We also found thousands of malicious interactions on the IP telephony system we deployed on the Internet.
Bravo-ureta, B E; Quiroga, R E; Brea, J A
This article briefly reviews the literature on migration in Latin America and examines migration decision making in Ecuador. Aggregate data are obtained from the 1974 census of agriculture and population for cantones. Individual level data are obtained from the 1982 census of population. Migration refers to all census persons who recorded differences in their present and previous place of residence during 1974-82. Migration is modeled as dependent upon gender, age, education, marital status, income at origin and at destination, and population pressure or agrarian reform. Logistic model findings indicate that migration decisions are influenced by individual characteristics of migrants and contextual variables. Migration varied by gender. The results confirm Todaro's hypothesis that the probability of migrating is related to income differences between place of destination and origin, but only for males. Findings suggest that females migrate for primary reasons other than economic ones. The probability of migration was greater with increased levels of education. The decision to migrate was affected by quality of life differences, such as literacy rates and levels of urbanization. The probability of migration was reduced by the effects of land reform. Population pressure had a significant effect in increasing migration. The effects of land reform differ from findings in Mexico by William E. Cole and Richard D. Sanders. Land reforms were initiated in 1964 in Ecuador, but by 1974 there was still considerable inequality in land distribution and increased population pressure. Traditional haciendas were modernized, and peasants increased their dependency on non-farm income.
Full Text Available Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179 is presented for the first time in 60 years.
Full Text Available The forest fragments or relict forests on the Western slopes of the Andes in northwest Peru and in south-west Ecuador are fragile ecosystems, which were largely continuous at some stage in the past. The importance and uniqueness of these forests as «refuges» and stable habitats roots partly in their complex diversity and their high levels of endemicity. These in turn are the outcome of a complex topography and ecology. In this introductory chapter 12 studies are analysed, which were presented at the Taller sobre Bosques Relictos de la Vertiente Occidental Andina del Norte del Perú y Sur del Ecuador in May 2004 at the X CONABOT, Trujillo-Perú. This helps to consolidate and update our knowledge on these over 20 forests fragments in northern Peru and two previously unknown fragments are presented for the first time: Bosque La Oscurana (Cajamarca and Kañaris (Lambayeque. Some ideas are exposed on the the relationships between the relict forests, how to analyse their dynamics, how to characterize their structure and how their conservation may be achieved. It is proposed that crucial elements in a conservation of these forests are a urgently inventorizing them to demonstrate their high diversity b emphasizing their economic potential with respect to the abundance of phytogenetic ressources c evaluating their role as catchment areas for the rivers which are the primary source of water for agriculture and urban life on the coast.
Full Text Available One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed to the initiative. Such is the case in Ecuador, where indigenous opposition to REDD+ represents a considerable obstacle in the creation of a national strategy since more than 60% of the country’s remaining forest cover is on indigenous land or under indigenous occupation. Thus one of the most critical challenges remaining for Ecuador will be the construction of a strong legal, financial, and institutional framework—one that the greater indigenous community might be willing to accept. Closer examination of this topic however, reveals just how difficult this may become. Lack of information, a recent political split between national authorities and the indigenous sector, and the dissimilar organizational capacity levels of indigenous communities make the feasibility of carrying out REDD+ projects on these lands extremely complex. However, the biggest obstacle may be ideological. Many indigenous groups view REDD+, with its possible emphasis on international markets and neoliberal mechanisms, as a continuation of the type of policies that have impeded their quest for sovereignty and self determination. As such, indigenous people are only willing to consider such projects if they clearly see preconditions in place that would safeguard their cultures, territories, and autonomy.
Espinosa, Verónica; de la Torre, Daniel; Acuña, Cecilia; Cadena, Cristina
Describe strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to strengthen human resources for health leadership and respond to the new model of care, as a part of the reform process in the period 2012-2015. A documentary review was carried out of primary and secondary sources on development of human resources for health before and after the reform. In the study period, Ecuador developed a new institutional and regulatory framework for developing human resources for health to respond to the requirements of a model of care based on primary health care. The MPH consolidated its steering role by forging strategic partnerships, implementing human resources planning methods, and making an unprecedented investment in health worker training, hiring, and wage increases. These elements constitute the initial core for development of human resources for health policy and a health-services study program consistent with the reform's objectives. Within the framework of the reform carried out from 2012 to 2015, intersectoral work by the MPH has led to considerable achievements in development of human resources for health. Notable achievements include strengthening of the steering role, development and implementation of standards and regulatory instruments, creation of new professional profiles, and hiring of professionals to implement the comprehensive health care model, which helped to solve problems carried over from the years prior to the reform.
Cristian Paúl Naranjo Navas
Full Text Available On July 9th, 1925, a coup d’état overthrew the Ecuadorian government of the president Gonzalo S. Córdova. The Military Junta chose the new president, Dr. Isidro Ayora, who founded the Central Bank of Ecuador in 1927. The majority of historians emphasize the patriotic spirit of the military forces in order to eliminate the influence of private banks. Nonetheless, there is a less popular view of the Julian Revolution, which understands the coup d’état, and the foundation of the Central Bank of Ecuador, as the result of struggles between bankers due to controversies around currency emissions. The arguments behind the Julian Revolution were based on some economic facts. Even though real GDP did not decrease in any year from 1913 to 1927, there was a generalized perception of a critical economy due to the constant fluctuation in prices, the increasing of fiscal deficit, and the reduction of revenues from the trade balance. The economic crisis was a common factor in the urban areas, which represented less than half percent of the total population.
After a brief introduction on the economic and political situation in Ecuador, the state of the country's oil and gas sector is reviewed. Before 1967, all oil came from wells along the Pacific coast, but with discoveries in the Amazon Basin, the opening of the trans-Ecuador pipeline, and creation of the state oil company CEPE (renamed Petroecuador in 1990) by the early 1970s, a boom in the industry occurred. Current proven reserves stand at 1.2-1.5 billion bbl of oil and 140 billion ft 3 of natural gas. Current production is generally around 300,000 bbl/d, mostly from the Petroecuador-Texaco consortium block in the Amazon Basin. Petroecuador now operates the main oil export pipeline and has subsidiaries responsible for exploration and production, refining, and the marketing of petroleum and its derivatives. In recent years Petroecuador has imported about $60 million worth of goods annually, offering a market opportunity for foreign companies supplying goods and services to the oil and gas industry. Market opportunities of interest to Canadian companies are outlined, local procedures for doing business are presented, and lists of Canadian and Ecuadorian contacts are provided. 3 figs., 5 tabs
Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas
This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost.Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20).
Lesley P. Potter
Full Text Available Ecuador is the second largest producer in Latin America of crude palm oil and is the seventh largest producer worldwide, but with yields per hectare still lower than Colombia and Costa Rica. Although producers with over 1 000 hectares have the leadership in the palm oil industry, 87% of producers produce with less than 50 hectares. Moreover, the deforestation rate in Ecuador is ranked by FAO as the ninth highest in the world and the highest in South America. The African palm plantations have been criticized for causing deforestation and worsening work conditions. However, government sectors see the oil palm companies as a source of employment and development for poor regions. This fieldwork shows that there is a difference in perception among small farmers. Farmers from Quinindé-La Concordia were satisfied with the income they earn and the rising prices of land planted with palm. Farmers in San Lorenzo, in contrast, are not happy since the survey shows that a disease devastated trees and as a result, land prices have fallen in San Lorenzo.
Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food. The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic ailments (39 species, followed by respiratory disorders (34, problems of the urinary tract (28, Fever/Malaria (25, Rheumatism (23 and nervous system problems (20.
Ruth I. Arias-Gutiérrez
Full Text Available In six Amazonian indigenous communities that call to their selves as membership of nación Kichwa, located in Pastaza province, in Ecuador, it is analyzed the process of inhabitation, population characteristics, how much the territory is enough for food requirements for the indigenous families, and their use of land, to determine important factors to improve strategies for local sustainable development. It is considered important because Ecuador has constitutional protection for plural ethnicity and it is looking for improving a new productivity matrix that let down extraction and contamination and raise another matrix based on knowledge and richness from natural renewable resources. Survey used statistics information, qualitative analysis around reality in process, participant research, documentary analysis, oral history and surveys to leadership and family`s chiefs. Results confirm that communities hold standing their identity and knowledge systems of the Amazonian environment, whose conservation they need. Those are factors to be included in local development strategies that let people become safe from effects of extractives activities that are dangerous for culture and environment, in the geographic and biological diversity of the high Ecuadorian Amazonia.
Ramírez, Marina R; Otero, Patricia; Blanco, Vanessa; Ontaneda, Mercy P; Díaz, Olga; Vázquez, Fernando L
Although burnout is a widespread phenomenon among healthcare professionals, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuador. This study assesses the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Ecuadorian healthcare professionals and examine the relationship with their personal and organizational characteristics. A total of 2404 healthcare professionals (average age 40.0years; 68.4% women) from the capitals of all 24 provinces in Ecuador participated in this study. Trained psychologists assessed the presence of burnout by applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Sociodemographic variables, emotional distress, social support and coping styles as well as organizational variables were also collected. Of all healthcare professionals surveyed, 2.6% presented burnout syndrome. By dimensions, 17.2% of the participants presented a high level of emotional exhaustion, 13.5% of depersonalization, and 18.2% had reduced personal accomplishment. Being non-mestizo, being classified as a probable case of mental disorder and using more passive coping were associated with a greater probability of presenting burnout; having >10years of experience was associated with a lower probability of burnout. A significant number of active health professionals suffer from burnout. It is necessary to develop effective psychotherapeutic interventions for those who have the syndrome and to evaluate potential prevention strategies in those who have not yet developed it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aguilar V H Marcelo
Full Text Available Chagas disease is a complex public health problem that has been underestimated in Ecuador. Here we review the relevant published information, and present unpublished and new data that help to understand the current Chagas disease epidemiological situation and its evolution in the country. Three main characteristics have been identified: (i persistence of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in already known foci; (ii a marked endemicity in some urban areas of Guayaquil; and (iii the transformation of new Amazon foci into truly endemic areas. The situation in other suspect areas remains uncertain. Five Triatominae species have been implicated in the transmission of T. cruzi to people in Ecuador (Triatoma dimidiata, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, R. pictipes, R. robustus and Panstrongylus geniculatus, but some others may also play a role in some areas (P. rufotuberculatus, P. howardi, T. carrioni and P. chinai. Other Triatominae reported seem to have little or no epidemiological relevance (T. venosa, T. dispar, Eratyrus mucronatus, E. cuspidatus, P. lignarius and Cavernicola pilosa. High frequency of acute cases and severe chronic disease has been observed. Although cardiomyopathy is more frequent, serious digestive disease is also present. It is estimated that around 120,000-200,000 people may be infected. 2.2 to 3.8 million people are estimated to live under transmission risk conditions.
Cornejo, J.F.; Chica, E.J.
Abstract Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus ( Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine ( Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601
Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel
The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study includes the following: 1) to create a novel list of medicinal plants sold at 33 traditional markets; 2) to establish medicinal plant use agreement amongst vendors with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC); and 3) to determine the most sold medicinal plant species using the Fidelity Level (FL). This study focus on traditional markets ethnobotany utilizes the largest sample of medicinal plants market vendors up to date in Ecuador, interviewing them at 33 traditional markets, located within the Loja province. In order to determine the most sold medicinal plants and their ethnobotanical information, structured questionnaires and personal conversations were conducted with 196 medicinal plant vendors, and voucher specimens were created. Agreement among vendors about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured using the FIC, and the most sold medicinal plant species were assessed with the FL. This research registered 160 medicinal plant species, grouped in 126 genera and 57 families that were sold in 33 traditional markets. The uses of medicinal plants in southern Ecuador are related to a long history of traditional medicine health practices that has persisted until today as well as high plant diversity. The 53 therapeutic uses recorded were grouped into 12 medical categories that were adapted from the World Health Organization. Three medical categories shared the highest value for FIC = 0.92, which showed a high level of agreement of market vendors for 57 medicinal plant species sold
Dec 15, 2010 ... Water Management in Ecuador's Andes Mountains ... In talking about water issues with the people of the watershed communities, the ... availability, water quality, and land use were closely linked throughout the watershed, ...
Faust, J.; Harbers, I.
Variation in the behavior and preferences of subnational governments is one of the areas that remain poorly understood by students of comparative decentralization and federalism. Yet, evidence suggests that this variation plays an important role in shaping intergovernmental relations. Ecuador
Molynocoelia erwini, a new species of fruit fly from Ecuador is described and illustrated. It differs from its previously known congeners in wing pattern (not banded, distal half brown), scutal and scutellar markings, and male femoral setation....
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the national and provincial boundaries of Ecuador as well as the boundaries of two national parks: the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve and the...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the national and provincial boundaries of Ecuador as well as the boundaries of two national parks: the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve and...
Rhoades, Robert E.
This presentation reports on a study to analyze land-use change over 40 years in Cotacachi, Ecuador, link land-use change to human system dynamics, and discuss implications for sustainability. BA-2 (SANREM-Andes Research)
Meehan, Howard V
.... The focus of analysis is how host-nation characteristics, geo-strategic variables, and diaspora characteristics influence the nature and significance of Hizballah's fundraising operations in Paraguay and Ecuador...
de la Torre, Lucia; Cerón, Carlos E.; Balslev, Henrik
We explored the relative importance of ecosystem diversity, socioeconomic, environmental, and geographical factors in determining the pattern and diversity of people’s plant use in Ecuador, based on existing ethnobotanic investigations and a large database of georeferenced plant collections...
Full Text Available UTILISATIONS ET MISE EN VALEUR DE APHANDRA NATALIA (PALMAE EN EQUATEUR. Aphandra natalia (Balslev & Henderson Barfod est un palmier Phytelephantoidé de lAmazonie occidentale. En Équateur il est exploité commercialement pour ses fruits comestibles, et pour les fibres de la gousse et du pétiole de la feuille dont on se sert pour fabriquer les balais dans tout le pays. Les fibres sont extraites principalement des individus sauvages de la forêt ou de ceux qui se trouvent dans les pâturages et les zones agricoles et qui sont exploités in situ. Lexploitation comprend la protection du palmier lorsque la forêt est coupée, lenlèvement sélectif dautre végétation et des techniques de récolte non-destructives. De temps à autre A. natalia se cultive. USOS Y MANEJO DE APHANDRA NATALIA (PALMAE EN ECUADOR. Aphandra natalia (Balslev & Henderson Barfod es una palma Phytelephantoideae de la Amazonia occidental. En el Ecuador es explotada comercialmente por sus frutos comestibles, y por las fibras de la vaina y del pecíolo de la hoja que son usadas para la producción de escobas en todo el país. Las fibras son extraídas principalmente de individuos en el bosque natural o de plantas dejadas en los pastizales y en los campos agrícolas, y manejadas in situ. El manejo incluye dejar en pie la palma cuando el bosque es talado, la remoción selectiva de otra vegetación y las técnicas de cosecha no destructivas. Ocasionalmente A. natalia es cultivada. Aphandra natalia (Balslev & Henderson Barfod is a Phytelephantoid palm from the western Amazon. In Ecuador it is commercially exploited for its edible fruits, and for its leaf sheath and petiole fibers which are used for brooms throughout the country. Fibers are extracted mainly from wild individuals in the forest or those left in pastures and agricultural areas and managed in situ. Management includes protecting the palm when forest is cleared, selective removal of other vegetation, and non
Zurita, Jeannete; Barba, Pedro; Ortega-Paredes, David; Mora, Marcelo; Rivadeneira, Sebastián
The spread of pandemic Staphylococcus aureus clones, mainly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), must be kept under surveillance to assemble an accurate, local epidemiological analysis. In Ecuador, the prevalence of the USA300 Latin American variant clone (USA300-LV) is well known; however, there is little information about other circulating clones. The aim of this work was to identify the sequence types (ST) using a Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis 14-locus genotyping approach. We analyzed 132 S. aureus strains that were recovered from 2005 to 2013 and isolated in several clinical settings in Quito, Ecuador. MRSA isolates composed 46.97% (62/132) of the study population. Within MRSA, 37 isolates were related to the USA300-LV clone (ST8-MRSA-IV, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] +) and 10 were related to the Brazilian clone (ST239-MRSA-III, PVL-). Additionally, two isolates (ST5-MRSA-II, PVL-) were related to the New York/Japan clone. One isolate was related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-MRSA-IV, PVL-), one isolate (ST45-MRSA-II, PVL-) was related to the USA600 clone, and one (ST22-MRSA-IV, PVL-) was related to the epidemic UK-EMRSA-15 clone. Moreover, the most prevalent MSSA sequence types were ST8 (11 isolates), ST45 (8 isolates), ST30 (8 isolates), ST5 (7 isolates) and ST22 (6 isolates). Additionally, we found one isolate that was related to the livestock associated S. aureus clone ST398. We conclude that in addition to the high prevalence of clone LV-ST8-MRSA-IV, other epidemic clones are circulating in Quito, such as the Brazilian, Pediatric and New York/Japan clones. The USA600 and UK-EMRSA-15 clones, which were not previously described in Ecuador, were also found. Moreover, we found evidence of the presence of the livestock associated clone ST398 in a hospital environment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Vallejo, Jessie M.
This dissertation introduces an Andean transverse flute tradition of northernEcuador that has been routinely overlooked throughout a long history of scholarship published on the Otavalan region and its Kichwa–speaking inhabitants. Ethnographic data was collected through a variety of methods over the course of eight cumulative months of fieldwork in Ecuador, as well as an additional three and a half years during which I co–produced an album with flute masters from the Hatun Kotama ...
Radcliffe, Sarah Anne
Ecuador's postneoliberal policy of Buen Vivir seeks to reduce social inequality and tackle complex disadvantages associated with gender, location, race-ethnicity and other social differences. The paper analyses governmental Buen Vivir policy thinking and institutional arrangements to explore how Buen Vivir frameworks approach the constitutional commitment to equality in diversity, in light of the global Sustainable Development Goal of "Leaving No-one Behind" (LNOB). In many respects Ecuador ...
Given the wealth generated by oil reserves as well as the promise of economic recovery through dollarization, it is striking to note that the sociopolitical and economic reality of Ecuador contradicts theoretical predictions of prosperity and growth. Economics is only part of the explanation. In fact, social and cultural factors have had a dramatic impact on the current state of affairs in Ecuador. The country faces many of the challenges evident in other Latin American countries and thus ser...
Cartelle Gestal, Monica; Holban, Alina Maria; Escalante, Santiago; Cevallos, Marcelo
Background Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted. Aims In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported) that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases. Results Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported. Conclusion Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide. PMID:26394405
Cartelle Gestal, Monica; Holban, Alina Maria; Escalante, Santiago; Cevallos, Marcelo
Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted. In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported) that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases. Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported. Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide.
Full Text Available El Informe de UNICEF (1992 "Bienestar de los niños en el Ecuador", es una radiografía general de la sociedad ecuatoriana. El trabajo documenta temas esenciales para la comprensión de la situación del país: demografía, urbanización, medio ambiente, pobreza, derechos del niño, mortalidad y educación. La comparación de datos correspondientes a las últimas tres décadas valoriza el análisis, señala las tendencias en curso y advierte sobre las situaciones que requieren más urgente atención.
Full Text Available The paper analyses collective violence in Ecuador from the end of September 2010. The situation was characterized as a Coup d'état when violent clashes between hostile camps were identified. The president was attacked by rebellious units of state police that had protested against the planned cuts of benefits and salaries in the law enforcement sector. The society was threatened by local riots, temporary anarchy and violent clashes that led to the declaration of state of emergency by president Correa. On the basis of empirical data, the prediction model is designed according to the analytical tool “Predictioneer’s Game“ defined by Bruce Bueno de Mesquita. The prediction is aimed at the forecast of the stability of regime in the context of the events from the 30th September 2010.
Full Text Available This article explores the transformation of indigenous women's care work in the Ecuadorian Amazon, as their communities are increasingly integrated into petroleum industry activities. Care work activities–not only for social reproduction, but also to sustain cycles of fertility, growth and waste interdependent with nature–constitute affective ecologies. In development sites of Ecuador's petroleum circuit, such activities are domesticated and devalued, and the territories produced by women's care work are progressively delimited. Once aimed at social and natural reproduction, their care practices now focus on household and familial reproduction. This article is based on two years of ethnographic and qualitative research in indigenous communities of the Amazonian provinces of Sucumbíos and Pastaza. We bring feminist economic approaches to the study of affective ecologies to show how fundamental changes in inhabitants' historically shaped relationships to, and conservation of, nature both depend on and produce gendered ecological and socioeconomic relations.
Full Text Available The referendum called by President Rafael Correa in 2011 concludes a complex phase in the history of Ecuador, as it ratified the decision to make unlawful the participation of the banking sector in media ownership. The intense fight between the government and the financial sector started in 1999 when the banking crisis demonstrated the significant presence of bankers in the country’s media. This fight lasted twelve years during which two phases can be identified: 1999 to 2006, a period in which the banking sector, despite its internal crisis -or due to it, as it used newspapers, radio and television to improve its image- expanded its presence in the major media, and 2007 to 2011, a very interesting and unique period during which the political power acted intensively to remove bankers from the media.
María Mercedes Eguiguren
Full Text Available The article presents a review of the studies on migration in Ecuador during the period 1960-2016. It addresses the main debates that have marked these studies, the contexts of academic production, and the way in which migrations and their social and economic conditions have influenced the constitution and orientations of the field. Three stages go through the academic production: a first one where the internal migrations are approached from a spatial phenomena analysis; a second that deals with the links between agricultural transformations and migration; and a third that shows a transition from a resurgence of migration in the literature to recent studies on the diversification of mobilities in the country.
Full Text Available Intoxication is a public health problem and one of the main causes of admission in emergency rooms nationwide and internationally. An exploratory, descriptive, and cross-sectional research of a directed observation was conducted to determine the incidence of intoxication in patients of General Teófilo Dávila Hospital in El Oro Province, Ecuador, in 2012; patients were classified by age, sex, origin, and the most frequent toxicant in this area. The highest incidence was February (16.35%, in the sample of 104 intoxicated males predominated (66.35%, urban origin (88.46% and the age group of 20-49 years (60.58%. The circumstances were: accidental (78.85%, intentional (16, 35 % and employment (4.81%. The most important mechanism is the intake (84.62 %, the agent types are food / beverages (29.81 % and substance abuse (25%.
Guayasamin, Juan M.; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; Maynard, Ross J.; Lynch, Ryan L.; Culebras, Jaime; Hamilton, Paul S.
Abstract Hyalinobatrachium is a behaviorally and morphologically conserved genus of Neotropical anurans, with several pending taxonomic problems. Using morphology, vocalizations, and DNA, a new species from the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador is described and illustrated. The new species, Hyalinobatrachium yaku sp. n., is differentiated from all other congenerics by having small, middorsal, dark green spots on the head and dorsum, a transparent pericardium, and a tonal call that lasts 0.27–0.4 s, with a dominant frequency of 5219.3–5329.6 Hz. Also, a mitochondrial phylogeny for the genus is presented that contains the new species, which is inferred as sister to H. pellucidum. Conservation threats to H. yaku sp. n. include habitat destruction and/or pollution mainly because of oil and mining activities. PMID:28769670
Bernarda Elisa Pupiales Rueda
Full Text Available The article addresses some of the cultural manifestations of the people located in Otavalo (Ecuador, and witnesses the validity of the ancestral traditions of the ethnic groups that make it possible for the creativity to be interconnected with the popular expressions through an innate ability to the development of decorative, utilitarian, mythical or profane objects that constitute the handicrafts, clothing and the popular celebrations. Otavalo’s crafts is related to syncretic culture, sacred and profane, traditional and modern, ritual and playful. In addition, there are some similarities with the region of south Colombia. So, there are clear cultural links, either by the proximity, as well as the cultural roots they share. The study leads to a series of reflections on the traditions of a region with a high indigenous ethnic component and a rich and prolific material culture which evidences complex hybridizations and influences.
Calvopiña, Manuel; Martinez, Leonardo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
An 18-year-old female presented with a severe ulcerative lesion on her right ear of 6 weeks duration. Her right ear was edematous and erythematous with a large, painless ulcerative lesion covering a third of the pinna and satellite papular lesions on the posterior. She was diagnosed with chiclero's ulcer. A skin smear stained with Diff-quik showed abundant Leishmania parasites. Chiclero's ulcer is a rare clinical presentation and is typically severe and difficult to treat. Physicians in Ecuador recommend administering prolonged intramuscular Glucantime. Side effects are common and can be severe resulting in low patient compliance. Because of preferences of the patient and the large volume needed for her weight, we recommended topical treatment with a lotion of Glucantime mixed half and half with white Merthiolate. After applying this lotion to the lesion 3 to 4 times a day for 6 weeks, the lesion healed. PMID:23926136
Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R.
Abstract A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes. PMID:27551223
Gallardo Vázquez Dolores
Full Text Available La preocupación por el desarrollo sostenible es el hecho por excelencia de las últimas décadas. El sector financiero ha apostado por el tema abordando prácticas de gestión social, ambiental y económica que conduzcan a acciones socialmente responsables. Las entidades hoy se preocupan por la responsabilidad social corporativa y enfocan sus negocios bajo la filosofía del â€œTriple Resultadoâ€. Con la adopción de los Principios de Ecuador los bancos disponen de un conjunto de directrices para la gestión de los temas sociales y ambientales relacionados con la financiación de grandes proyectos de desarrollo.
Full Text Available Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental ofEcuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay NationalPark (SNP. One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, includingnoteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846 (WhitebeardedHermit, Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan, Phylloscartes orbitalis(Cabanis 1873 (Spectacled Bristle Tyrant, and Microcerculus bambla (Boddaert 1783 (Wing-banded Wren.We also obtained information on threatened species such as Aburria aburri (Lesson 1828 (Wattled Guan,Phlogophilus hemileucurus Gould 1860 (Ecuadorian Piedtail, and Dendroica cerulea (Wilson 1810 (CeruleanWarbler and reproductive data on one species, Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin 1789 (Scaled Pigeon. To ourknowledge this is a first ornithological survey carried out at this specific site of the SNP.
Full Text Available Con datos de la “Encuesta de condiciones de vida (ecv 2005-2006”, este artículo analiza el impacto de la migración internacional y las remesas en la iniciativa emprendedora en el Ecuador rural. Los resultados sugieren que ni la migración internacional ni las remesas afectan la probabilidad de que los hogares rurales ecuatorianos posean un negocio familiar. En cambio, otras variables como la educación, el crédito y la disponibilidad de servicios básicos tienen un efecto positivo en la probabilidad de que un hogar rural posea un negocio. Contrariamente a lo esperado, el test Smith-Blundell no pudo rechazar la hipótesis nula de exogeneidad de la migración internacional y las remesas respecto de la probabilidad de poseer un negocio rural.
Herrera Díaz, Stefany Natalie
Dentro de la dinámica mundial actual, resulta de especial interés para Ecuador el análisis de sus relaciones económicas bilaterales con Brasil, debido al papel protagónico que ha alcanzado este país tanto a nivel regional como mundial. A nivel regional, varios de los países vecinos han delineado, incluso, su política exterior en función de potenciar sus relaciones políticas y económicas con él, y a nivel internacional, su participación en la geopolítica mundial es cada vez mayor. En términos ...
Araujo , Sebastián
Although there have been numerous studies on the geodynamics and the tectonics in Ecuador based on the seismic activity, there has not been to date a comprehensive tomography study using the entire database of the National Seismic Network (RENSIG). Only a preliminary limited study was performed by Prevot et al. to infer a simple P velocity model in central Ecuador, and several profiles in the South-Colombian-Ecuador margin were also investigated by using travel time inversion of wide-angle se...
Full Text Available El 5 de marzo de 1987, dos terremotos de 6,1 y 6,9 grados en la escala Richter sacudieron en noreste del Ecuador. Si bien el país había vivido terremotos más fuertes, el de 1987 representa uno de los que más golpearon su economía. Para entender la gravedad de las consecuencias económicas y sociales que este fenómeno natural tuvo, es necesario revisar la realidad ecuatoriana previa al desastre. En particular tres factores habrían hecho más vulnerable al país frente a los terremotos de ese año: condiciones climáticas desfavorables, infraestructura vulnerable y malas políticas económicas. El resultado de esta vulnerabilidad fue que un terremoto causó una crisis económica que duró alrededor de cinco años. Abstract On March 5, 1987, northeastern Ecuador was shaken by two earthquakes, which registered 6.1 and 6.9 degrees, respectively, on the Richter scale. Even though the country had experienced stronger earthquakes, the ones that occurred in 1987 hit the economy harder than most. In order to understand how serious the economic and social consequences of this natural disaster were, it is necessary to examine Ecuador’s reality prior to these events. Three factors in particular made the country more susceptible to repercussions from the 1987 earthquakes: unfavorable climatic conditions, vulnerable infrastructure and ill-conceived economic policies. This meant that the earthquakes gave rise to an economic crisis that lasted approximately five years.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rhizobium-legume symbioses play relevant roles in agriculture but have not been well studied in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium isolates associated with Phaseolus vulgaris from southern Ecuador. Morpho-cultural characterization, biochemical tests and physiological analyses were conducted to authenticate and determine the diversity of bacteria Rhizobium-like isolates. The genetic diversity of the isolates was determined by molecular techniques, which consisted of bacteria DNA extraction and amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The nodulation parameters and nitrogen fixation for P. vulgaris under greenhouse conditions were also assessed to determine the phenotypic diversity among isolates. Furthermore, bacteria indole-acetic-acid production was evaluated by the colorimetric method. Morpho-cultural and biochemical characteristic assessments demonstrated that Rhizobium-like bacteria was associated with the P. vulgaris nodules. The diversity among the isolates, as determined by physiological analyses, revealed the potential of several isolates to grow at different pH values, salinity conditions and temperatures. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified the Rhizobium genus in every sampling site. From a total of 20 aligned sequences, nine species of Rhizobium were identified. Nodule formation and biomass, as well as nitrogen fixation, showed an increase in plant phenotypic parameters, which could be influenced by IAA production, especially for the strains R. mesoamericanum NAM1 and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae COL6. These results demonstrated the efficiency of native symbiotic diazotrophic strains inoculants for legume production. This work can serve as the basis for additional studies of native Rhizobium strains and to help spread the use of biofertilizers in Ecuadorian fields.
Full Text Available Purpose: The present study has as its aim to identify the organizational management practices that involve intellectual capital as facilitators of innovation in its diverse formats, in Ecuador-based shrimp exporting companies. Design/methodology: The research of a qualitative nature was based on the Grounded Theory as a support for data analysis and collection. The personal interview was used in order to obtain the text corpus. The five resulting clusters served as the basis to apply inductive processes: open coding; axial coding; and selective coding, as a methodological activity meant to help interpret concepts and relationships. Findings: The organizational practices associated with intellectual capital in shrimp exporting companies are focused on structural and human capital management, where innovation has developed from the demands for the implementation of quality management systems in accordance with international regulations. Research limitations/implications: The main contribution made by the present study lies in establishing a primary reference framework for the design of strategic alternatives that involve strengthening intellectual capital as a way to generate sustainable competitive advantages in the companies belonging to this sector. Social implications: Shrimp exports, which stand out for being one of the most significant sources of income in Ecuador, contribute to local development by means of employment generation, mainly in rural communities. The exposure to organizational routines linked to intellectual capital provides a chance to come closer to the reality of this sector. This can prove useful for executives and public policy managers to prioritize an approach which influences the generation and maintenance of competitiveness at a firm level, and also impacts on the development of the regions where such business are located. Originality/value: Faced with the absence of works applied to this sector, the present work
Pratt, Warren T.; Duque, Pablo; Ponce, Miguel
We describe a traverse across the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador, poorly known areas with very little detailed mapping and very little age control. The spine of the Cordillera comprises deeply eroded Triassic and Jurassic plutons, the roots of a major arc, emplaced into probable Palaeozoic pelites and metamorphosed volcanic rocks. The W flank comprises a Jurassic (?) submarine basaltic-andesitic volcanic sequence, which grades up into mixed Jurassic/Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Inter-Andean Valley. The sub-Andean Zone, on the E flank of the Cordillera, comprises a newly recognized Cretaceous basin of cleaved mudrocks, quartz arenites and limestones. East of the syndepositional Cosanga Fault, the Cretaceous basin thins into a condensed sequence that is indistinguishable from the rocks of the adjacent hydrocarbon-bearing Oriente Basin. The principal penetrative deformation of the Cordillera Real was probably latest Cretaceous/Palaeocene. It telescoped the magmatic belts, but shortening was largely partitioned into the pelites between plutons. The plutons suffered inhomogenous deformation; some portions completely escaped tectonism. The pelites conserve two foliations. The earliest comprises slaty cleavage formed under low- or sub-greenschist conditions. The later is a strong schistosity defined by new mica growth. It largely transposed and obliterated the first. Both foliations may have developed during a single progressive deformation. We find inappropriate recent terrane models for the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador. Instead we find remarkable similarities from one side of the Cordillera to the other, including a common structural history. In place of sutures, we find mostly intrusive contacts between major plutons and pelites. Triassic to Cretaceous events occurred on the autochthonous western edge of the Archaean Guyana Shield. The latest Cretaceous-Paleocene deformation is interpreted as the progressive
Sanhueza, Antonio; Roldán, Jakeline Calle; Ríos-Quituizaca, Paulina; Acuña, Maria Cecilia; Espinosa, Isabel
This study set out to describe the association between the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) estimates and a set of socioeconomic indicators and compute the MMR inequalities among the provinces of Ecuador. A cross-sectional ecological study was conducted, using data for 2014 from the country's 24 provinces. The MMR estimate was calculated for each province, as well as the association and its strength between MMR and specific socioeconomic indicators. For the indicators that were found to be significantly associated with MMR, inequality measurements were computed. Despite a relatively low MMR for Ecuador overall, ratios differed substantially among the provinces. Five socioeconomic indicators proved to be statistically significantly associated with MMR: total fertility rate, the percentage of indigenous population, the percentage of households with children who do not attend school, gross domestic product, and the percentage of houses with electrical service. Of these five, only three had MMR inequalities that were significant: total fertility rate, gross domestic product, and the percentage of households with electricity. This study supports research arguing that national averages can be misleading, as they often hide differences among subgroups at the local level. The findings also suggest that MMR is significantly associated with some socioeconomic indicators, including ones linked with significant health outcome inequalities. In order to reduce health inequities, it is crucial that countries look beyond national averages and identify the subgroups being left behind, explore the particular social determinants that generate these health inequalities, and examine the specific barriers and other factors affecting the subgroups most vulnerable to maternal health inequalities.
Montero-Oleas, Nadia; Núñez-González, Solange; Simancas-Racines, Daniel
This study was aimed to describe the gastric cancer mortality trend, and to analyze the spatial distribution of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015. Data were collected from the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC) database. Crude gastric cancer mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and indirect standardized mortality rates (ISMRs) were calculated per 100,000 persons. For time trend analysis, joinpoint regression was used. The annual percentage rate change (APC) and the average annual percent change (AAPC) was computed for each province. Spatial age-adjusted analysis was used to detect high risk clusters of gastric cancer mortality, from 2010 to 2015, using Kulldorff spatial scan statistics. In Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015, gastric cancer caused a total of 19,115 deaths: 10,679 in men and 8436 in women. When crude rates were analyzed, a significant decline was detected (AAPC: -1.8%; p<0.001). ISMR also decreased, but this change was not statistically significant (APC: -0.53%; p=0.36). From 2004 to 2007 and from 2008 to 2011 the province with the highest ISMR was Carchi; and, from 2012 to 2015, was Cotopaxi. The most likely high occurrence cluster included Bolívar, Los Ríos, Chimborazo, Tungurahua, and Cotopaxi provinces, with a relative risk of 1.34 (p<0.001). There is a substantial geographic variation in gastric cancer mortality rates among Ecuadorian provinces. The spatial analysis indicates the presence of high occurrence clusters throughout the Andes Mountains. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Hungerbühler, Dominik; Steinmann, Michael; Winkler, Wilfried; Seward, Diane; Egüez, Arturo; Peterson, Dawn E.; Helg, Urs; Hammer, Cliff
The present paper reviews Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary formations in the Inter-Andean region of southern Ecuador (between 2°S and 4°20'S) in order to develop a geodynamic model of the region. The formations occur in the southern shallow prolongation of the Inter-Andean Valley between the Cordillera Real to the east, and the Cordillera Occidental and Amotape-Tahuín Provinces to the west. One hundred fifty zircon fission-track analyses has established a detailed chronostratigraphy for the sedimentary and volcanic formations and several small intrusions. The Paleogene to early Miocene formations are dominated by intermediate and acidic volcanic and pyroclastic rocks. In addition, relics of Eocene continental sedimentary series have been identified. The Neogene sedimentary series lie unconformably on deformed and eroded metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic formations. They were deposited in two stages, which are separated by a major unconformity dated at ≈10-9 Ma. (1) During the middle and early late Miocene (≈15-10 Ma) marginal marine deltaic, lagoonal, lacustrine and fluvial environments prevailed, which we group under the heading "Pacific Coastal sequences". They presumably covered a greater surface area in southern Ecuador than their present occurrence in small topographic depressions. We suggest that they were deposited in the shallow marine Cuenca and Loja Embayments. Deposition in a marginal marine environment is also supported by the occurrence of brackish water ostracods and other fauna. (2) Above the regional (angular) unconformity, the coastal facies are overlain by late Miocene (≈9-5 Ma) continental alluvial fan and fluvial facies which are in turn covered by mainly airborne volcanic material. They represent the "Intermontane sequences" of the basins of Cuenca, Girón-Santa Isabel, Nabón, Loja and Malacatos-Vilcabamba. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic results are used to discuss the tectonic setting of Neogene sedimentation in the forearc
Full Text Available Au court des dernières qannées, l'Équateur a traversé une profonde crise économique et politique. Les indicateurs d'inégalité, dont les déterminants sont sanalysés à fond dans ce travail, montrent des changements entre 1995 et 1998. Les données indiquent que les facteurs les plus significatifs qui expliquent l'inégalité sont : la scolarité, l'appartenance au secteur agricole, le sexe et le degré de formalité de l'emploi. En désagrégant ces caracteristiques de l'e´chantillon, les différentes contributions de chaque facteur à l'inégalité se manifestent. La raison pourrait en être les changements survenus dans la structure productive de la famille, parmi lesqueles se trouvent la participation des femmes et le phénomène migratoire, qui s'est accentué depuis 1998. Ecuador ha atravesado una profunda crisis económica y política los últimos años. Los indicadores de desigualdad, cuyos determinantes se analizan con profundidad en este trabajo, muestran variaciones entre 1995 y 1998. La evidencia indica que los factores más significativos para explicar la desigualdad son la escolaridad, la pertenencia al sector agrícola, el género y el grado de formalidad del empleo. Al desagregar la muestra por estas características, se encuentran diferencias en la forma en que cada uno de estos factores contribuyen a la desigualdad. La explicación se encontraría en que se han dado cambios en la estructura productiva de la familia, entre los cuales destacan la forma de participación de la mujer y un proceso migratorio al extranjero que se aceleró justamente a partir de 1998. In recent years, Ecuador has gone through a severe economic and political crisis. Inequality indicators for the 1995-1998 period, which are analized in depth in this paper, exhibit a rising trend. The evidence indicates that the most significant factors that contribute to inequality are education, belonging to the agricultural sector, gender, and the degree of
Rios, Montserrat; Tinitana, Fani; Jarrín-V, Pablo; Donoso, Natalia; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos
The "horchata" is a herbal mixture infusion consumed in Southern Ecuador. It remains unknown how vendors group the plant species to sell them at traditional markets. This research documented the following: 1) a list of medicinal plant species sold for the drink; 2) the culturally important medicinal plant species; 3) the agreement among vendors regarding the medicinal plants species and their therapeutic use; and 4) the groups of medicinal plants sold for the preparation of "horchata." Interviews were made to 185 vendors at 31 traditional markets in Loja province. Bunches of medicinal plants were purchased to identify the species and to prepare voucher specimens. Culturally important medicinal plants species were established with the Fidelity Level (FL) index. Agreement among vendors on the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC) index. A cluster analysis was made to determine the groups of medicinal plants sold by market vendors to prepare the "horchata" drink. In Loja province, the "horchata" drink is consumed for its therapeutic uses. This study registered 33 families with 58 genera and 71 medicinal plant species, 50 of which are herbs and three are endemic to the Andean highlands of Ecuador. The FL index (46.1-96.3) determined 20 culturally important medicinal plant species. The highest FIC value (1.00) among vendors corresponds to four plant species employed each for a different therapeutic use. The cluster analysis identified a core group of 16 plant species which are essential to the drink and which likely interact to provide wellbeing. The "horchata" is a heritage drink in Loja province. The 71 medicinal plants species registered for this drink is the largest number reported to date, and they have a total of 32 therapeutic uses. The combined results of the FL and FIC indices, the cluster analysis, and the field observations reveal an agreement among vendors on 16 medicinal plant species and their
Margot S Bass
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threats facing Ecuador's Yasuní National Park are emblematic of those confronting the greater western Amazon, one of the world's last high-biodiversity wilderness areas. Notably, the country's second largest untapped oil reserves--called "ITT"--lie beneath an intact, remote section of the park. The conservation significance of Yasuní may weigh heavily in upcoming state-level and international decisions, including whether to develop the oil or invest in alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted the first comprehensive synthesis of biodiversity data for Yasuní. Mapping amphibian, bird, mammal, and plant distributions, we found eastern Ecuador and northern Peru to be the only regions in South America where species richness centers for all four taxonomic groups overlap. This quadruple richness center has only one viable strict protected area (IUCN levels I-IV: Yasuní. The park covers just 14% of the quadruple richness center's area, whereas active or proposed oil concessions cover 79%. Using field inventory data, we compared Yasuní's local (alpha and landscape (gamma diversity to other sites, in the western Amazon and globally. These analyses further suggest that Yasuní is among the most biodiverse places on Earth, with apparent world richness records for amphibians, reptiles, bats, and trees. Yasuní also protects a considerable number of threatened species and regional endemics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Yasuní has outstanding global conservation significance due to its extraordinary biodiversity and potential to sustain this biodiversity in the long term because of its 1 large size and wilderness character, 2 intact large-vertebrate assemblage, 3 IUCN level-II protection status in a region lacking other strict protected areas, and 4 likelihood of maintaining wet, rainforest conditions while anticipated climate change-induced drought intensifies in the eastern Amazon. However, further oil development in
Full Text Available In 2010, new Chinese strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, clinically more severe than the classical strains, emerged. These strains were spread to United States in 2013 through an intercontinental transmission from China with further spreading across the world, evidencing the emergent nature of these strains. In the present study, an analysis of PEDV field sequences from Ecuador was conducted by comparing all the PEDV S gene sequences available in the GenBank database. Phylogenetic comparisons and Bayesian phylogeographic inference based on complete S gene sequences were also conducted to track the origin and putative route of PEDV. The sequence from the PED-outbreak in Ecuador was grouped into the clade II of PEDV genogroup 2a together with other sequences of isolates from Mexico, Canada, and United States. The phylogeographic study revealed the emergence of the Chinese PEDV strains, followed by spreading to US in 2013, from US to Korea, and later the introduction of PEDV to Canada, Mexico, and Ecuador directly from the US. The sources of imports of live swine in Ecuador in 2014 were mainly from Chile and US. Thus, this movement of pigs is suggested as the main way for introducing PEDV to Ecuador.
Villacrés, Tatiana; Mena, Ana Cristina
Analyze the proposal by the Ministry of Public Health to reform the public financing model in Ecuador with regard to pooling of funds and payment mechanisms. A literature review was done of the financing model, the current legal framework, and the budgetary bases in Pubmed, SciELO, LILACS Ecuador, and regional LILACS using the key words health financing, health financing systems, capitation, pooling of funds, health system reform Ecuador, health system Ecuador, and health payment mechanisms. Books and other documents suggested by health systems experts were also included. Review of the financing model enabled identifying the historical segmentation of Ecuador's health system; out of this, the Ministry of Public Health conceived its proposal to reform the financing model. The Ministry's proposed solutions are pooling of funds and payment of services at the first level of care through payment per capita adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic risks. Progress made in reforming the financing model includes design of the proposals and their implementation mechanisms, and discussions with stakeholders. Implementation of these changes may produce improvements for the health system in efficiency, spreading of risks, incentives for meeting health objectives, as well as contribute to its sustainability and advance toward universal health coverage. Nevertheless, legal, political, and operational constraints are hampering their implementation.
Ecuador is a country with exceptional natural resource and environmental advantages and challenges. It is strategically located and has considerable oil reserves in the interior and the coastal region. This document does not aim to describe the state of the environment in Ecuador. Rather, its main objective is to provide an analytical foundation to identify the country's institutional weak...
Ospina Peralta, P.E.
La historia del Ecuador se ha caracterizado por una vida política “apacible”, ajena a las guerras civiles, los asesinatos políticos y las muertes de manifestantes en las calles. ¿Qué distingue a Ecuador para explicar una historia política de más de medio siglo de resultados tan inusuales? Este
Worldwide, more than fifty viruses have been reported in cucurbit crops. In Ecuador, approximately 3000 Ha of watermelon, melon and cucumbers are cultivated annually. However, very few studies have been conducted to identify viruses responsible for important epidemics in this crop in Ecuador. During...
Green-Barber, Lindsay N.
Over the last three decades Indigenous people in Ecuador have faced government policies threatening their internationally recognized Indigenous human rights. Although a national social movement emerged in Ecuador in 1990, the level of mobilization has since varied. This dissertation project proposes to address the question, under what conditions…
Jaruseviciene, L.; Orozco, M.; Ibarra, M.
Objectives: To elicit the views of primary healthcare providers from Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua on how adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) care in their communities can be improved. Methods: Overall, 126 healthcare providers (46 from Bolivia, 39 from Ecuador, and 41 from Nicarag...
Intercultural practice Fellows the Hanns Seidel Foundation - Ecuador. Problem Statement. Delimitation of the problem. Social-organizational processes of indigenous peoples. Consideracioens osciales and indigenous economic sector. The indigenous movement and intercultural approach. The Hanns Seidel Foundation. Mission. Bases overseas development policy. Development aid and cultural policy. The Hanns Seidel Foundation inthe Ecuador. Fellows of the Foundation and its contribution to the construc...
Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429
Marcelo Bastidas Jiménez
Full Text Available The Intercultural Bilingual Education System in Ecuador is guaranteed by the Constitution and assured by the Organic Law of Intercultural Bilingual Education, in a process that took a few decades to the indigenous population. The Ecuadorian state currently counts with a Model of Intercultural Bilingual Education that has its own structure, attached to the Ministry of Education and responsible for generating educational guidelines for 35 indigenous nationalities that coexist in the country. The objective of this study is to analyze the social demand for the Bachelor in Intercultural Bilingual Education, offered by Universidad Politécnica Salesiana. The analysis was carried out through two studies, one of them quantitative, addressed to educational institutions, and the other one qualitative and directed to government officials. The research objectives were to determine the need for graduates in Intercultural Bilingual Education, identify the desired profile of graduates of the career and academic requirements for a successful career. The results highlighted that the current presence of professionals in bilingual intercultural education is 0,65 per institution, with an average necessity of 1,85, which determines the existence of a demand in the next three years of 3 315 professionals. The main conclusion is that there is a significant demand for this career. Although the deficiencies of the current educational system, there in a strengthening trend.
Dr.C. Carlos Leonel Escudero-Sánchez
Full Text Available In Latin America the new decentralization policies in the forms of government challenging institutional processes and management practices. In the context of Ecuador responds to a constitutional mandate expressed in the reformulation of the powers of the municipal autonomous governments. Consequently, the main purpose of the article is to present the main principles expressed in the protection, evaluation and dissemination of cultural heritage. Therefore the exercise of autonomy and decentralization is governed by the principles of solidarity, subsidiarity, territorial equity, integration and participation. Hence, the main results are part of the systematization of such socio-economic, institutional, governance and participation, legal and financial management of cultural heritage contexts.Keywords: decentralization, cultural heritage, cultural management, citizen participation.
López-Cevallos, Daniel F; Chi, Chunhuei
To examine the relationship between migration and migrant remittances and health care utilization in Ecuador, and to identify any potential equalizing effects. Using data from the 2004 National Demographic and Maternal & Child Health Survey (ENDEMAIN), a multilevel multivariate analysis was conducted to assess the relationship of two migrant predictors (households with an international migrant; use of migrant remittances) with use of preventive care, number of curative visits, hospitalization, and use of antiparasitic medicines. Relevant predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included following Andersen's Model of Health Care Utilization Behavior. Interaction terms were included to assess the potential equalizing effects of migration and remittances by ethnicity, area of residence, and economic status. Migrant predictors were strongly associated with use of antiparasitic medicines, and to a lesser extent, with curative visits, even after adjusting for various predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Interaction models showed that having an international migrant increased use of these services among low-income Ecuadorians (quintiles 1 and 2). No significant relationship was found between migrant predictors and use of preventive services. Migration and remittances seem to have an equalizing effect on access to antiparasitic medicines, and to a lesser extent, curative health care services. Health care reform efforts should take into account the scope of this effect when developing public policy.
Cossío, Consuelo Yánez
Ecuador is implementing a programme of indigenous bilingual intercultural education. Work began systematically in 1978 through a research centre of the Catholic University, and throughout the 1980s the government has become increasingly committed to the principle of indigenous education. In 1980 agreement was reached on a common alphabet for all indigenous languages. In the same year the government accepted that vernacular languages might be used for education, and the "Macac" educational model was devised by the Catholic University's research centre. By 1984 there were 300 bilingual primary schools, but the government then suspended its experiment. This was restored four years later, with the addition of secondary education and teacher training colleges. What is stressed by NGOs active in promoting indigenous education is not only its use of vernacular languages, but the need for intercultural exchange, recognizing in a modified curriculum the cultural values of the indigenous population and their socioeconomic reality. This change has not been understood by all government agencies, although a new Directorate for Bilingual Intercultural Education was established in 1988 to provide education for people of all ages in indigenous communities. The traditional Spanish-language formal education system has exercised a restricting influence on innovation, and the response of the dominant Spanish-speaking majority has generally been indifference.
Full Text Available Geostatistics is a discipline that deals with the statistical analysis of regionalized variables. In this case study, geostatistics is used to estimate geoid undulation in the rural area of Guayaquil town in Ecuador. The geostatistical approach was chosen because the estimation error of prediction map is getting. Open source statistical software R and mainly geoR, gstat and RGeostats libraries were used. Exploratory data analysis (EDA, trend and structural analysis were carried out. An automatic model fitting by Iterative Least Squares and other fitting procedures were employed to fit the variogram. Finally, Kriging using gravity anomaly of Bouguer as external drift and Universal Kriging were used to get a detailed map of geoid undulation. The estimation uncertainty was reached in the interval [-0.5; +0.5] m for errors and a maximum estimation standard deviation of 2 mm in relation with the method of interpolation applied. The error distribution of the geoid undulation map obtained in this study provides a better result than Earth gravitational models publicly available for the study area according the comparison with independent validation points. The main goal of this paper is to confirm the feasibility to use geoid undulations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems and leveling field measurements and geostatistical techniques methods in order to use them in high-accuracy engineering projects.
Provenzano R, Francisco; Barriga S, Ramiro
At the Fish Collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, three species traditionally grouped in the genus Hemiancistrus were identified: H. annectens (Regan 1904), H. landoni Eigenmann 1916, and a new specie described here. The new species inhabits exclusively in the Esmeraldas River Basin, Pacific slope, northwestern Ecuador. It is easily recognized by the completely naked abdomen, with rounded, dark spots, and a different color pattern on the dorsal and caudal fins. A comparative analysis of bones related to the opercular mobility, shows important differences between H. annectens, H. landoni, and the new species, suggesting that H. annectens does not belong to the genus Hemiancistrus or the Ancistrini group. According to the characteristics observed in these bones, H. annectens shows greater similarity to those reported in species of the Hypostomini group, supporting its inclusion in this group, but placing it in the genus Hypostomus requires further analysis. On the other hand, the conditions observed on the bones of Hemiancistrus landoni and the new species suggest that both are inside of the Ancistrini group. The new species is placed in the genus Hemiancistrus tentatively, pending future analysis.
Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality ratio in Ecuador is the only millennium goal on which national agencies are still making strong efforts to reach 2015 target. The purpose of the study was to process national maternal death databases to identify a specific association pattern of variable included in the death certificate. Design and methods: The study processed mortality databases published yearly by the National Census and Statistics Institute (INEC. Data analysed were exclusively maternal deaths. Data corresponds to the 2003-2013 period, accessible through INEC’s website. Comparisons are based on number of deaths and use an ecological approach for geographical coincidences. Results: The study identified variable association into the maternal mortality national databases showing that to die at home or in a different place than a hospital is closely related to women’s socioeconomic characteristics; there was an association with the absence of a public health facility. Also, to die in a different place than the usual residence could mean that women and families are searching for or were referred to a higher level of attention when they face complications. Conclusions: Ecuadorian maternal deaths showed Patterns of inequity in health status, health care provision and health risks. A predominant factor seems unclear to explain the variable association found processing national databases; perhaps every pattern of health systems development played a role in maternal mortality or factors different from those registered by the statistics system may remain hidden. Some random influences might not be even considered in an explanatory model yet.
Chicaiza, E. G.; Leiva, C. A.; Arranz, J. J.; Buenańo, X. E.
Geostatistics is a discipline that deals with the statistical analysis of regionalized variables. In this case study, geostatistics is used to estimate geoid undulation in the rural area of Guayaquil town in Ecuador. The geostatistical approach was chosen because the estimation error of prediction map is getting. Open source statistical software R and mainly geoR, gstat and RGeostats libraries were used. Exploratory data analysis (EDA), trend and structural analysis were carried out. An automatic model fitting by Iterative Least Squares and other fitting procedures were employed to fit the variogram. Finally, Kriging using gravity anomaly of Bouguer as external drift and Universal Kriging were used to get a detailed map of geoid undulation. The estimation uncertainty was reached in the interval [-0.5; +0.5] m for errors and a maximum estimation standard deviation of 2 mm in relation with the method of interpolation applied. The error distribution of the geoid undulation map obtained in this study provides a better result than Earth gravitational models publicly available for the study area according the comparison with independent validation points. The main goal of this paper is to confirm the feasibility to use geoid undulations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems and leveling field measurements and geostatistical techniques methods in order to use them in high-accuracy engineering projects.
López-Rodríguez, Fausto; Rosado, Daniel
Protected areas are home to biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem as well as a critical component of human well-being and a generator of leisure-related revenues. However, management is sometimes unsatisfactory and requires new ways of evaluation. Management effectiveness of 36 protected areas in southern Ecuador have been assessed. The protected areas belong to three categories: Heritage of Natural Areas of the Ecuadorian State (PANE), created and funded by the State, Areas of Forest and Protective Vegetation (ABVP), created but no funded by the State, and private reserves, declared and funded by private entities. Management effectiveness was evaluated by answers of managers of the protected areas to questionnaires adapted to the socio-economic and environmental characteristics of the region. Questions were classified into six elements of evaluation: context, planning, inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes as recommended by IUCN. Results were classified into four levels: unsatisfactory, slightly satisfactory, satisfactory and very satisfactory. The PANE areas and private reserves showed higher management effectiveness levels (satisfactory and very satisfactory) than ABVP areas, where slightly satisfactory and unsatisfactory levels prevailed. Resources availability was found as the main reason behind this difference. The extension, age and province of location were found irrelevant. Outputs, inputs and processes require main efforts to improve management effectiveness. Improving planning and input in the PANE areas and inputs and outcomes on ABVP areas is necessary to obtain a similar result in all areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diego H. Álvarez Peralta
Full Text Available This article explores the possible applications of Strategic Analysis Tools (SAT in SMEs located in emerging countries such as Ecuador (where there are no formal studies on the subject. It is intended to analyze if whether or not it is feasible to effectively apply a set of proposed tools to guide mental map decisions of executives when decisions on strategy have to be made. Through an in-depth review of the state of the art in regards to SAT and interviews performed to main participants such as chambers and executives of different firms, it is shown the feasibility of their application. This analysis is complemented with specialists´ interviews to deepen our insights and obtaining valid conclusions. Our conclusion is that SMEs can smoothly develop and apply an appropriate set of SAT when opting for very relevant choices. However, there are some inconveniences to be solved which are connected with resources (such as peoples’ abilities and technology and behavioral (cultural factors and methodological processes.Once these barriers are knocked down, it would be more likely to enrich current approaches to make strategic decisions even more effective. This is a qualitative investigation and the research design is not experimental (among them it is transversal as it relates to a specific moment in time.
Full Text Available Introduction: The Mini-Cog is a simple and short test that identifies cognitive impairment. Its detection helps provide an early dementia diagnosis, rapid access to treatments, and even delay or reversion. Materials and Methods: This multicenter, observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study included 214 patients. Patients enrolled in this study were community dwellers aged ≥55-year-old, without prior diagnosis of cognitive impairment or dementia, with adequate hearing and vision functions. It was conducted in primary care health centers localized in rural communities of Ecuador. Results: Ages ranged from 50 to 98 years and there was predominance of female gender: 66% versus 33%. The percentage of illiteracy was 26.4% (CI: 25.32–27.48, and 63% (CI: 62.1–63.94 of patients had complete primary educational level. The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment was 50.9% (95% CI: 48.5–53.3 and 47.2% (95% CI: 45.2–49.2 in patients with risk factors. We found several established risk factors associated with cognitive impairment onset, including social factors, physiological factors, and comorbidities. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological research of CI in rural populations in this country using the Mini-Cog as a screening tool. Adopting public health measures for the prevention and control of those modifiable risk factors could reduce the prevalence of cognitive impairment and even its progression to dementia.
Gómez, Nestor A; Salvador, Alexandra; Vargas, Paola E; Zapatier, Jorge A; Alvarez, José
To determine the prevalence of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies among the children population of Ecuador and the possible relation with the presence of recurring gastrointestinal symptoms. Children randomly selected from different geographical areas were included and the presence of serum antibodies was tested using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The gastrointestinal symptoms between patients with serum antibodies and those without serum antibodies were analyzed, excluding children who had not been treated for intestinal parasites before. A total of 257 children was studied, with a mean age of 8.3 years (age range between 6 months and 16 years). A seroprevalence of 63.03% was found, the most affected being the children from the Andes mountains, in the range 0 to 4 years old. A significant relation was found between the presence of anti-Hp antibodies and symptoms (p=0.001). There is a high prevalence of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies among the Ecuadorian children, related with the presence of recurring gastrointestinal symptoms.
Rocio Ernestina García Liscano
Full Text Available The Ecuador over the years, the government of the citizen revolution has made drastic changes in the education system,with the aim of improving the quality of learning of Ecuadorians. This article is aimed at analyzing the educational reform in Ecuador from the new institutions of the country, which constitutes the government of Econ. Rafael Correa Delgado with the new educational model that began in January 2010, from this restructuring conducted an analysis of special education in our country, if considered in the reforms and if taken due importance concerning the preparation of disabled people. This analysis also helps to demonstrate what are the benefits generated by the educational reform within specialized educational units, based on the perspective of before and after, and as by their application has been made to strengthen the processes of quality improvement, relevance, equity and efficiency of special education in Ecuador.
Ayala, Paola; Guaño, Sonia; Apolo, Alberto Celi
The social reality of Ecuador is not far from the experience of most countries of the Andean region in South America. Many factors contribute to a preference for short-learning-curve or business-oriented careers, and also make traditional and time-demanding careers less appealing. Physics is one of the least attractive professions in a country like Ecuador. However, in the last few years, the number of bachelor's-degree candidates in physics has increased significantly. This result, together with the new postgraduate courses offered inland, show promising changes for the future of this career. Developed countries face challenges that involve mainly gender issues in the scientific daily routine, whereas in Ecuador the challenge is still to attract students to this scientific path regardless of their gender.
Zucca, Mariagrazia; Ugalde, Jorge; Arteaga, Francisco Salgado; Biggio, Giuseppe; Flore, Valeria; Nonne, Tinucia; Satta, Giannina; Blangiardo, Marta; Cocco, Pierluigi; Ennas, Maria Grazia
We mapped leukemia risk among children and youths in the Azuay province, Rio Paute river basin, Ecuador, in 2000-2010, using a Bayesian disease mapping model. We assessed the comprehensiveness of the list of leukemia cases from the Sociedad de Lucha contra el Càncer en el Ecuador (SOLCA) Hospital in Cuenca, the only referral center for oncology in the whole Rio Paute area, by comparison to the Quito cancer registry. Risk of leukemia did not vary significantly by canton within the Azuay province. However, a moderate increase in risk of borderline statistical significance was observed in the city of Cuenca and particularly among males in a heavily industrialized parish, who had an almost eight-fold excess (95% CI 3.03, 20.39, p = 0.01) of AML. Analytical studies are warranted to properly address specific etiological factor of leukemia among children and youths of the Azuay province of Ecuador.
Meekums, Hayley; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Sparks, Alexandra M
BACKGROUND: Since the nematodes Trichuris trichiura and T. suis are morphologically indistinguishable, genetic analysis is required to assess epidemiological cross-over between people and pigs. This study aimed to clarify the transmission biology of trichuriasis in Ecuador. FINDINGS: Adult...... Trichuris worms were collected during a parasitological survey of 132 people and 46 pigs in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. Morphometric analysis of 49 pig worms and 64 human worms revealed significant variation. In discriminant analysis morphometric characteristics correctly classified male worms according...... to genetically analyse Trichuris parasites. Although T. trichiura does not appear to be zoonotic in Ecuador, there is evidence of genetic exchange between T. trichiura and T. suis warranting more detailed genetic sampling....
Freire, Wilma B; Silva-Jaramillo, Katherine M; Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Belmont, Philippe; Waters, William F
Ecuador's current nutrition policies have not taken adequate notice of the double burden of malnutrition and continue to focus on stunting and to a lesser extent on overweight, without addressing the simultaneous presence of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight or obesity (OW/OB). The aim of this article was to describe the prevalence and distribution of undernutrition (stunting, anemia, and zinc deficiency), overweight, and obesity in Ecuador to explore the evolving double burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels and to discuss whether current public health policies are addressing the double burden. Data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) was used to estimate the dual burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels in children Ecuador. Although integrated approaches to address the emerging double burden are required, public health policies to date have not responded adequately. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of the Journalistic Culture of Ecuador Project (CPE on the perception of the influence factors of journalists in Ecuador. These influences are studied because they determine the ideologies and the professional practices of journalists concerning internal consistency and development in relation to the context. These influences come from internal (actor and institutional level and external (system level levels. This qualitative/quantitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews with 31 journalists from 6 media companies in Ecuador during the first half of 2014. The results show that journalists interviewed perceive greater influence within their newsrooms and the immediate environment, but also from the media legislation of the Government, the audience or the public, the news sources and Government or their representatives determine their daily work.
Diego E. Portalanza
Full Text Available ABSTRACT First records of parasitoids attacking the Asian citrus psyllid in Ecuador. The objective of the current study was to investigate the presence of natural enemies of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae (the Asian citrus psyllid in Ecuador. Incidence of parasitoid Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae was assessed between November 2015 and March 2016, in Letamendi, Febres-Cordero and Tarqui, urban districts of Guayaquil. Highest incidence of parasitism occurred in those regions and seasons of the year with the highest temperatures commensurate with increase of citrus plant shoots. Similar to their host, these parasitoids appear to have established in Ecuador by accident, and were not the result of purposeful introduction. This fortuitous introduction is a potentially helpful tool in controlling the Asian citrus psyllid, and potentially Huanglongbing.
Robalino-López, Andrés; García-Ramos, José-Enrique; Golpe, Antonio A.; Mena-Nieto, Ángel
Is it possible for a country in the process of development to comply with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in the medium term? This is the question that inspired this study. This paper is an extension of a previous study focused on economic development and CO 2 emissions in the coming years in Ecuador (Robalino-López et al., submitted for publication). The main goal of this paper is to analyze whether the EKC hypothesis holds within the period 1980–2025 under four different scenarios. This paper uses co-integration techniques (Stock and Watson, 2010) to test the existence of the EKC hypothesis in Ecuador in the medium term using Jaunky's (2011) specification. Our proposal goes a step further than previous contributions, and intends to see under which conditions a country could approach the fulfilment of this hypothesis in the medium term. Results do not support the fulfilment of the EKC, nevertheless, our estimations show that Ecuador could be on the way to achieving environmental stabilization in the near future if economic growth is combined with an increase in the use of renewable energies, an improvement of the productive sectoral structure, and the use of a more efficient fossil fuel technology. - Author-Highlights: • We model the CO 2 emissions in Ecuador for the next decade under several scenarios. • We study the environmental Kuznets curve in the medium term in Ecuador. • We show that Ecuador will enter into stage 2 of the environmental Kuznets curve in the near future
Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, Jos? Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N. Garc?a
Abstract Four species of Triplocania , three with M3 simple, based on male specimens and one with forewing M3 forked, based on male and female specimens, are here described and illustrated, namely: Triplocania bravoi sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocania erwini sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocania trifida sp. n. (Mato Grosso and Rond?nia: Brazil) and Triplocania lamasoides sp. n. (Rond?nia: Brazil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandr...
Torres, G.; Calderón, G.; Franco, V.; Cedeño, E.; Calderón, T.; Salazar, E.
Esta investigación comprende los estudios del fitoplancton-zooplancton-ictioplancton, realizados en tres sitios de la Península Santa Elena durante agosto 2002, área designada para la proyección de "Arrecife Artificial de las Fuerzas Militares del Ecuador": un avión, barco y tanque de guerra, estructuras artificiales consideradas como basura chatarra (de gran tamaño), que serían recicladas para la bio-exploración artificiales hacia la seguridad de los recursos marinos del Ecuador. En el Estud...
Mendoza Zambrano, Damian Marilú
Los objetivos de esta tesis fueron tres, principalmente: (a) analizar la capacidad de acceso a las TIC de los estudiantes de Bachillerato en Ecuador, (b) comprobar la influencia de los factores socio-demográficos sobre la capacidad de acceso, y (c) proponer y validar empíricamente un modelo multinivel de referencia para políticas de acceso y alfabetización mediática y digital. Para abordar el tema se ha realizado una revisión de literatura y una descripción del contexto mediático de Ecuador, ...
Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Yamamoto, Yu-ichi; Calvopiña, Manuel; Guevara, Angel G; Marco, Jorge D; Barroso, Paola A; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
Natural infection of sand flies with Leishmania parasites was surveyed in an Amazonian area in Ecuador where leishmaniasis is endemic. Seventy-one female sand flies were dissected and one was positive for Leishmania protozoa. The species of this sand fly was identified as Lutzomyia (Lu.) tortura on the basis of morphologic characteristics. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene sequence identified the parasite as L. (Viannia) naiffi. We report the distribution of L. (V.) naiffi in Ecuador and detection of a naturally infected sand fly in the Ecuadorian Amazon and natural infection of Lu. tortura with Leishmania parasites in the New World.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research project funded by System of Research and Development of the Catholic University of Santiago de Guayaquil (SINDE - UCSG. It aims to determine the elasticity of demand for food in Ecuador using predictive techniques, to create an effective public policy design tool. A second aim is to identify possible reasons that can vary the demand for food in Ecuador, mainly through the influence of the price factor. The existing social reality suggests quantifying the behavior of Ecuadorians with regard to the consumption of food, in order to generate a source of information for decision-making at policy level.
Sánchez-Nivicela, Juan C.; Celi-Piedra, Elvis; Posse-Sarmiento, Valentina; Urgiles, Verónica L.; Yánez-Muñoz, Mario; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.
Abstract A new species of Pristimantis is described from the highland paramos on the eastern slopes of the Cajas Massif, southern Andes of Ecuador, at 3400 m. This new species is characterized by having a distinctive reddish color, cutaneous macroglands in suprascapular region and surfaces of arm and legs, and by lacking dentigerous processes of vomers. The cutaneous macroglands are similar to those exhibited by several species of the Pristimantis orcesi group, and may suggest a close phylogenetic relationship. The new species could be a latitudinal substitution of Pristimantis orcesi in the southern Andes of Ecuador. PMID:29713233
Oller, Martín; Chavero, Palmira
Este artículo presenta los resultados del proyecto Cultura Periodística de Ecuador (CPE) sobre la percepción de los factores de influencia de los periodistas dentro de la cultura periodística de Ecuador. Estas influencias son estudiadas porque determinan las ideologías y las prácticas profesionales de los periodistas desde su punto de vista de coherencia y desarrollo interno en relación con el contexto. Además, proceden tanto de los niveles internos a la redacción del medio (nivel de actor e ...
Sarango Torres, Wilmer Miguel; Villazhañay Molina, Xavier Alejandro
En el presente trabajo se realizó un análisis del modelo de desarrollo de la Internet de Banda Ancha en el Ecuador, dando a conocer la definición, tecnologías de acceso, infraestructura, marco regulatorio, la Brecha Digital, el Plan Nacional de Banda Ancha y los diferentes proyectos que a través de las TICs han mejorado los índices de alfabetización digital. In the present work was carried out an analysis of the development model of the broadband Internet in Ecuador, to publicize the defin...
Vega Suriaga, Edgar
La presente tesis doctoral titulada "Eduardo Solá Franco, Wilson Paccha, Transtango: estrategias de las masculinidades en Ecuador" plantea las dificultades, posibilidades y límites de la representación de las masculinidades en las artes plásticas y en el arte contemporáneo en Ecuador. Para ello, en un primer capítulo se propone un análisis de las masculinidades contemporáneas como resultado de la emergencia del sujeto masculino moderno decimonónico. En ese análisis, se plantea que en el siglo...
Full Text Available This article identifies the main variables that explain judicial corruption in Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. Improving the current methodological strategies used to measure judicial corruption and incorporating endogenous and exogenous variables in the model, this article argues that legal training of the judges, respect for the judicial career, and the fragmentation of political power explain different degrees of judicial corruption. Through a comparative diachronic and synchronic research design of Chile, Peru and Ecuador, the article shows institutional designs with more legal steps will be more inclined to illegal payments or other types of judicial corruption.
Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas
This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru
Rostkovia magellanica has hitherto been considered a species of Patagonia and the subantarctic islands from New Zealand to South Georgia. An old report from Ecuador has been considered erroneous, but it has now been rediscovered there. Brief notes on the ecology of the species are given, and the ......Rostkovia magellanica has hitherto been considered a species of Patagonia and the subantarctic islands from New Zealand to South Georgia. An old report from Ecuador has been considered erroneous, but it has now been rediscovered there. Brief notes on the ecology of the species are given...
Jiménez, Leticia S.; Mezquida, Eduardo T.; Benito Capa, Marta; Rubio Sánchez, Agustín
Los bosques tropicales del sur de Ecuador están sufriendo una rápida transformación a pastizales, por lo que es importante conocer el efecto de estos impactos en las características del suelo y su evolución tras un periodo prolongado de uso ganadero. En este estudio se han comparado varios parámetros de los suelos de bosques de la provincia de Zamora Chinchipe (Ecuador) con los de pastizales adyacentes (de más de 30 años bajo este uso). Se tomaron un total de 56 muestras de suelo en bosque...
Calvopiña, Manuel; Flores, Jessica; Guaman, Isabel; Lara, Gabriela; Abarca, Jeyson
For 11 years, a 38-year-old male residing in a subtropical region of Ecuador, was repeatedly diagnosed with chronic anemia, and treated with blood transfusions in a hospital of province of Cotopaxi, Ecuador. He was transferred to Quito for severe anemia, having hemoglobin of 4 g/dL. Duodenoscopy was performed and adult nematodes, identified later as Ancylostoma duodenale, were observed. The patient was successfully treated with albendazole for five consecutive days and given blood transfusions. In the control visit at eight months, without anemia and no hookworm ova in the stool examined were found.
Timm, Robert; Albuja Viteri, Luis Humberto; Clauson, Barbara
Se da aconocer los recientes sumarios de la distribución de los manatíes amazónicos Trichechus inunguis registran especímenes de la mayor parte de la cuenca amazónica en Brasil, el oriente de Perú, y el suroriente de Colombia, pero no de Ecuador. Durante octubre y noviembre de 1983 nosotros fuimos en busca de manatíes en los sistemas de los ríos Aguarico y Cuyabeno de la Provincia del Napo, Ecuador oriental.
Aldaz, Jaime; García-Díaz, Juan; Calleros, Lucía; Sosa, Katia; Iraola, Gregorio; Marandino, Ana; Hernández, Martín; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben
Canine parvovirus (CPV) comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) that are distributed globally with different frequencies and levels of genetic variability. CPVs from central Ecuador were herein analyzed to characterize the strains and to provide new insights into local viral diversity, evolution, and pathogenicity. Variant prevalence was analyzed by PCR and partial sequencing for 53 CPV-positive samples collected during 2011 and 2012. The full-length VP2 gene was sequenced in 24 selected strains and a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed using both Ecuadorian and worldwide strains. Ecuadorian CPVs have a remarkable genetic diversity that includes the circulation of all three variants and the existence of different evolutionary groups or lineages. CPV-2c was the most prevalent variant (54.7%), confirming the spread of this variant in America. Ecuadorian CPV-2c strains clustered in two lineages, which represent the first evidence of polyphyletic CPV-2c circulating in South America. CPV-2a strains constituted 41.5% of the samples and clustered in a single lineage. The two detected CPV-2b strains (3.8%) were clearly polyphyletic and appeared related to Ecuadorian CPV-2a or foreign CPV-2b strains. Besides the substitution at residue 426 that is used to identify the variants, two amino acid changes occurred in Ecuadorian strains: Val139Iso and Thr440Ser. Ser(440) occurred in a biologically relevant domain of VP2 and is here described for the first time in CPV. The associations of Ecuadorian CPV-2c and CPV-2a with clinical symptoms indicate that dull mentation, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and hypothermia occurred more frequently in infection with CPV-2c than with CPV-2a. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We assessed the social structure and behavior of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae competitive groups off Ecuador between July and August 2010. During this time we followed 185 whales in 22 competitive groups for 41.45 hr. The average group size was 8.4 animals (SD = 2.85. The average sighting time was 113.05 min/group (SD = 47.1. We used photographs of dorsal fins and video to record interactions and estimate an association index (AI between each pair of whales within the groups. Sightings were divided into periods, which were defined by changes in group membership. On average, group composition changed every 30.2 min, which confirms that the structure of competitive groups is highly dynamic. Interactions between escorts characterized by low level of aggression. At least 60% of escorts joined or left together the group in small subunits between two and five animals, suggesting some type of cooperative association. Although singletons, as well as pairs or trios were able to join competitive groups at any moment, escorts that joined together were able to stay longer with the group and displace dominant escorts. Genetic analysis showed that in three occasions more than one female was present within a competitive group, suggesting either males are herding females or large competitive groups are formed by subunits. Males and females performed similar surface displays. We propose that competition and cooperation are interrelated in humpback whales’ competitive groups and that male cooperation would be an adaptive strategy either to displace dominant escorts or to fend off challengers.
Guartán, J.; Navarro, M.; Soto, J.
Site effect assessment based on subsurface ground conditions is often crucial for estimating the urban seismic hazard. In order to evaluate the site effects in the intra-mountain basin of Loja (southern Ecuador), geological and geomorphological survey and ambient noise measurements were carried out. A classification of shallow geologic materials was performed through a geological cartography and the use of geotechnical data and geophysical surveys. Seven lithological formations have been analyzed, both in composition and thickness of existing materials. The shear-wave velocity structure in the center of the basin, composed by alluvial materials, was evaluated by means of inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion data obtained from vertical-component array records of ambient noise. VS30 structure was estimated and an average value of 346 m s-1 was obtained. This value agrees with the results obtained from SPT N-value (306-368 m s-1). Short-period ambient noise observations were performed in 72 sites on a 500m × 500m dimension grid. The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was applied in order to determine a ground predominant period distribution map. This map reveals an irregular distribution of predominant period values, ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 s, according with the heterogeneity of the basin. Lower values of the period are found in the harder formation (Quillollaco formation), while higher values are predominantly obtained in alluvial formation. These results will be used in the evaluation of ground dynamic properties and will be included in seismic microzoning of Loja basin. Keywords: Landform classification, Ambient noise, SPAC method, Rayleigh waves, Shear velocity profile, Ground predominant period. ;
Peñaherrera, Carlos Andrés; Palacios, Michael; Duarte, María Carolina; Santibáñez, Rocío; Tamariz, Leonardo; Palacio, Ana
Up to this date, there are no reports made about the use of media for recruiting research volunteers in Latin American populations. Given the emergence of clinical research in Ecuador, a study of this kind in the local population will be beneficial for future research, and is probably applicable to other countries in the region. Two public calls were made for a cross-sectional study on cognitive function and diabetes. We only included people between 55 and 65 years of age without previous neurocognitive conditions. We invited individuals through interviews on the radio, television broadcasts and local newspapers, along with social media ads. Each individual was asked about the method by which they learned of the project. We calculated the frequency in which each method was reported and a chi-square test was used to assess gender differences in the results. A total of 274 patients were enrolled in the study, 64.2% are women and 35.8% men. We found that 29.93% learned of it from third persons, 20.8% through radio, 8.76% through social media, 8.39% by newspaper, and 5.11% by television, while a remaining 27.01% had not previously heard of the recruitment call. Methods reported varied significantly between men and women (p = 0.03). Traditional media were the most common method of recruitment, with radio interviews being the most frequently reported. Individually, none of them surpassed the frequency of people learning of the project from other people (snowball effect). Social networks play an important role, exceeding certain traditional media. We have described for the first time in Latin America the use of media as methods to recruit volunteers for research, and the importance of project dissemination by the participants to reach more people.
Pozo, Wilson; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Carrera, Gloria; Jordan, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria
Natural resources are deteriorating very rapidly in the Gulf of Guayaquil and the area of influence in the Guayas Basin due to human activity. Specific problems are generated by the mismanagement of the aquaculture industry affecting the traditional agricultural sectors: rice, banana, sugarcane, cocoa, coffee, and soya also studied, and by human and industrial settlements. The development of industrial activities such as aquaculture (shrimp building for shrimp farming in ponds) and agriculture, have increasingly contributed to the generation of waste, degrading and potentially toxic elements in high concentrations, which can have adverse effects on organisms in the ecosystems, in the health of the population and damage the ecological and environmental balance. The productive Guayas ecosystem, consists of three interrelated ecosystems, the Gulf of Guayaquil, the Guayas River estuary and the Guayas Basin buffer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of the productive Guayas ecosystem (Ecuador), through operational and specific objectives: 1) Draw up the transition coastal zone in the Gulf of Guayaquil, 2) Set temporal spatial variability of soil salinity in wetlands rice, Lower Guayas Basin, 3) evaluate the heavy metals in wetland rice in the Lower Basin of Guayas. The physical and chemical parameters of the soils have been studied. These are indicators of environmental quality. The multivariate statistical method showed the relations of similarities and dissimilarities between variables and parameter studies as stable. Moreover, the boundaries of coastal transition areas, temporal spatial variability of soil salinity and heavy metals in rice cultivation in the Lower Basin of Guayas were researched. The sequential studies included and discussed represent a broad framework of fundamental issues that has been valued as a basic component of the productive Guayas ecosystem. They are determinants of the environmental quality of the Guayas
Arróspide, Nancy; Hijar-Guerra, Gisely; de Mora, Doménica; Diaz-Cortéz, César Eduardo; Veloz-Perez, Raúl; Gutierrez, Sonia; Cabezas-Sánchez, César
The frequency of mutations in pfCRT and DHFR/DHPS genes of Plasmodium falciparum associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was evaluated in 83 strains from the districts of Esmeralda and Machala, located on the borders of Ecuador-Peru and Ecuador-Colombia in 2002. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), conventional and its variants, was used. Mutations in the pfCRT gene were found in more than 90% of the samples from Esmeralda and Machala. For the DHFR gene, 90% of the strains were mutant samples from Esmeralda, 3 were double mutations and 1 was a triple mutation. In Machala, 25% were simple mutant forms and 75% mixed mutant forms (wild forms/mutant). In conclusion, resistance to chloroquine has been fixed in strains carrying K76T pfCRT mutation, whereas genetic imprinting for resistance to pyrimethamine is evolving, particularly in the district of Esmeralda.
Klever Iván Granda Mora
Full Text Available The development of biofertilizers based on Rhizobium strains for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. requires studies about bacterial interaction with target cultivars. For these reason, the aim of this paper was to determine the effect of the inoculation of Rhizobium native strains, isolated from southern Ecuador, on P. vulgaris cultivar Mantequilla. An assay was performed in greenhouse. It were evaluated the parameters of nodulation, biomass, nitrogen fixation and efficiency of the symbiosis. All inoculated strains were able to nodulate bean seedlings. The total number of nodules, nodular biomass and plant biomass, were favourably affected by inoculation of Rhizobium strains. The best results were obtained with R. mesoamericanum NAM1, R. leguminosarum COL 6 and R. etli PIN 1 strains. The experimental evidences shows the potential of native strains of Rhizobium for it use as biofertilizers because they are able to raise the rates of nitrogen fixation in common bean in southern Ecuador.
Full Text Available Este ensayo se refiere a Caracola y El Ágora de las Mujeres, dos publicaciones feministas que circulan en El Ecuador. La primera es una revista impresa y trimestral que apareció en marzo de 2001; la segunda es una página que se distribuyó por correo eléctrico durante el 2002 y el 2003.En el ensayo se plantean los objetivos de estas publicaciones, se describe la acogida que han tenido entre la audiencia que han captado, y los desafios que ambos medios de comunicación enfrentan. Dos son las preocupaciones principales de la autora: Cómo elevar la audibilidad de los discursos feministas en el medio ecuatoriano y cómo erosionar el pensamiento androcéntrico que domina las ciencias, la literatura y el arte en ese país.This essay is about Caracola y El Ágora de las Mujeres, two feminist's publications that circulate in Ecuador. The first is a published paper journal that comes out every three months, it first appeared in March 2001; the second was as on-line webzine that appeared between 2002 and 2003. This essay talks about the objectives of both these publications, it describes their reception and the challenges they fac.e The author's intentions are twofold: how to make feminist discourses heard in Ecuador and how to erode the androcentric line of thought that dominates the sciences, literature and art in this country.
Ruíz Carranza Pedro M.
Full Text Available A brief abridgement of the taxonomic history of the "Atelopodidae" is presented, and it is concluded that this group must be included in the Bufonidae, confirming the criteria of recent authors. OSORNOPHRYNE is proposed as a new genus, characterized mainly by external, osteologicaland myological features, with O. percrassa, sp, nov. (loc. typ.: Páramo de Herveo, Tolima, Colombia as type species, and O. bufoniformis, comb. nov. (= Atelopus bufoniformis PERACCA,1904 from the Andes of southern Colombia and northern Ecuador, as a referred species. The functional and adaptative significance of the main characters is discussed indetail. It is concluded that the genus presents several primitive characters of remarkable interest, i.a. the inguinal amplexus, previously unknownin the family, which strengthens the thesis that the Bufonidae are derived from the Leptodactylidae, as well as several other highly especialized skeletal and myological features (i. a . a total number of 6 presacral vertebrae, only shared by two other recent anuran genera: Hymenochirus [Pipidae] and Oreophrynella [Bufonidae]. It is concluded also thatOsornophryne, although shows several remarkable phenetic similitudes with Oreophrynella (monotypic endemic genus of the Mount Roraima, Bolivar, Venezuela, such similitudes are due to an extraordinary instance of evolutionary convergence. Osornophryne is regarded as a genus probablyderived from the same encestral phyletic line that gives origin to Atelopus, invading the high Andean "páramos", specializing and acquiring by adaptative paralellism several resemblances, such as the "bufonoid" aspect, with the high Andean species of Atelopus.Se plantea una breve reseña del historial taxonómico de los "Atelopodidae" concluyendo que el grupo debe incluirse dentro de la familia Bufonidae ratificando la opinión de autores recientes. Se propone el nuevo género OSORNOPHRYNE, fundamentándolo principalmente mediante caracteres morfol
Isotope techniques have been applied in Ecuador in different cases, looking for solutions to specific problems related to the origin and age of ground waters, dam filtrations, characterization of lakes, river/aquifers interrelation, and others. This work presents a short review of these cases showing the applied technique and the results obtained
McElhinny, E.; Peralta, E.; Mazon, N.; Danial, D.L.; Thiele, G.; Lindhout, P.
Field trials were carried out in Ecuador with two indigenous communities, Ninín Cachipata and La Esperanza, to determine farmers¿ preferences for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivars and to improve PPB processes. More women than men participated, reflecting that quinoa, a primarily
Ermilov, S.G.; Starý, Josef; Sandmann, D.; Marian, F.; Maraun, M.
Roč. 3700, č. 2 (2013), s. 259-270 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oribatida * Galumnidae * new species * Ecuador Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2013
Chacón, M.G.; Adler, N.E.; Jarrin, F.; Flier, W.G.; Gessler, C.; Forbes, G.A.
Thirty-nine isolates of Phytophthora infestans were collected from the wild host Solanum ochranthum in the highland tropics of Ecuador and characterized with a set of phenotypic and molecular markers (mating type, metalaxyl sensitivity, the allozyme loci Gpi, and Pep, mitochondrial DNA haplotype,
Ponce, Juan; Loayza, Yessenia
This paper offers new evidence and methods for understanding the distributive effect of a universal government policy to eliminate user fees in public universities in Ecuador. The main argument to eliminate user fees in higher education is that it will increase enrollment among the poor. In this regard, eliminating tuition fees is supposed to be a…
Lozano, P.; Cleef, A.M.; Bussmann, R.W.
A plant ecological transect study of the páramos of the Podocarpus massif, southern Ecuador, was carried out between July 2001 and August 2004. Including herbarium records 187 vascular plant genera were found, which were used for the present phytogeographical analysis. Three geographic flora
Moscol Olivera, M.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Hooghiemstra, H.
Modern pollen spectra were studied in forest and páramo vegetation from the Guandera area, northern Ecuador. Pollen representation was estimated by comparing the presence of plant taxa from a recent vegetation survey with the pollen spectra in moss polsters and pollen traps. In total, 73 pollen taxa
Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…
Buri, Olga Elizabeth Minchala; Stefos, Efstathios
The objective of this study is to examine the social profile of students who are enrolled in Basic General Education in Ecuador. Both a descriptive and multidimensional statistical analysis was carried out based on the data provided by the National Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment in 2015. The descriptive analysis shows the…
McCarthy, P. M.; Palice, Zdeněk
Roč. 35, č. 3 (2003), s. 237-240 ISSN 0024-2829 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/98/1194 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Ecuador * Porina * Trichothelium Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.889, year: 2003
Cuesta, J.; Ponce, J.; Leon, M.
After two decades of neglect, social expending has become a cornerstone in the current fight against poverty in Ecuador. Ecuador is presently considering the elimination of regressive gas subsidies and the shift of these resources into pro-poor targeted Solidarity Bonds. Great distributive gains are expected from this reform. There are, however, a number of considerations that may prevent this policy shift from obtaining substantial poverty and equality gains. Despite their regressivity, implicit gas subsidies still represent a considerable proportion of total household consumption among poor households. Also, solidarity bonds siphon off a substantial share of their total benefits to middle income groups. This paper estimates the redistributive consequences of policy reforms on gas subsidies and solidarity bonds in Ecuador. A simulation methodology estimates both direct and indirect (labour-driven) distributive effects of four alternative scenarios: (1) total elimination of gas subsidies; (2) selective elimination of gas subsidies among non-poor households; (3) total elimination of gas subsidies and shift of resources to solidarity bonds targeted to the poor; (4) selective elimination of gas subsidies and shift of resources to solidarity bonds targeted to the poor. Estimates confirm that the redistributive gains from these reforms are rather small both for poverty and inequality. Incentives to work following the elimination of subsidies compensate, or even outdo, immediate poverty rises. Also, the elimination of gas subsidies without further expansion of subsidy bonds will unambiguously increase poverty in Ecuador between one and one and a half percent points
Hidalgo, Silvana; Monzier, Michel; Almeida, Eduardo; Chazot, Gilles; Eissen, Jean-Philippe; van der Plicht, Johannes; Hall, Minard L.
The Atacazo-Ninahuilca Volcanic Complex (ANVC) is located in the Western Cordillera of Ecuador, 10 km southwest of Quito. At least six periods of Pleistocene to Holocene activity (N1 to N6) have been preserved in the geologic record as tephra fallouts and pyroclastic flow deposits. New field data,
Waters William F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Third World countries are confronted by a complex overlay of two sets of health problems. Traditional maladies, including communicable diseases, malnutrition, and environmental health hazards coexist with emerging health challenges, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and increasing levels of obesity. Using Ecuador as an example, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for linking epidemiologic overlap to emerging social structures and processes at the national and global levels. Discussion Epidemiologic trends can be seen as part of broader processes related to globalization, but this does not imply that globalization is a monolithic force that inevitably and uniformly affects nations, communities, and households in the same manner. Rather, characteristics and forms of social organization at the subnational level can shape the way that globalization takes place. Thus, globalization has affected Ecuador in specific ways and is, at the same time, intimately related to the form in which the epidemiologic transition has transpired in that country. Summary Ecuador is among neither the poorest nor the wealthiest countries and its situation may illuminate trends in other parts of the world. As in other countries, insertion into the global economy has not taken place in a vacuum; rather, Ecuador has experienced unprecedented social and demographic change in the past several decades, producing profound transformation in its social structure. Examples of local represent alternatives to centralized health systems that do not effectively address the complex overlay of traditional and emerging health problems.
Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert
We examine the relationship between early cognitive development, socioeconomic status (SES), child health, and parenting quality in a developing country. We use a sample of more than 3,000 predominantly poor preschool-aged children from Ecuador, and analyze determinants of their scores on a widely used test of language ability. We find that…
Vaca Jiménez, Santiago David; Guzowski, Carina
Ecuador has been, and will continue to be for a while, an oil-based economy. Since the discovery, and afterwards extraction of the oil in the Ecuadorian territory, the country has depended economically of the exploitation and the exports of these non-renewable good. However, the country had taken
Grijalva, M J; Villacis, A G
The main vectors of Chagas disease in Ecuador are Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The latter species occupies domestic and peridomestic habitats, as well as sylvatic ecotopes--particularly associated with Phytelephas aequatorialis palm trees--in the western coastal region of Ecuador. In the southern highlands, however, such palm tree habitats are uncommon, and sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis have not previously been reported to date. This study was carried out in five rural communities in Loja Province in southern Ecuador, where manual triatomine searches were conducted in various sylvatic habitats. A total of 81 squirrel nests (Sciurus stramineus) and > 200 bird nests and other habitats were searched. One hundred three R. ecuadoriensis individuals were found in 11 squirrel nests (infestation index = 13.6%, density = 2 bugs per nest searched, crowding = 9.5 bugs per infested nest, colonization index = 72.7% of infested nests with nymphs). No triatomines were found in bird nests or other sylvatic habitats. The presence of sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis in the southern highlands of Ecuador has important implications for the long-term control of Chagas disease in the region because of the possibility of reinfestation of dwellings after insecticide-based control interventions.
Balslev, Henrik; Lægaard, Simon
Distichia acicularis is described as a new species of Juncaceae. It occurs in the high Andes of Ecuador between 3200 m and 4200 m above sea level. Its closest relative is D. muscoides Nees & Meyen from which it is distinct through its narrow, linear, mucronate leafblades and its 1–3 mm long...
Ecuador's energy policy faces a complex variety of political and economic objectives that are difficult to reconcile in a consistent manner. Ecuador is a small oil producer and exporter with significant renewable (mainly hydropower) resources, hosting some of the richest biodiversity areas in the world, part of which are inhabited by so far indigenous un-contacted people. Being a developing country, tensions arise between conservation aims and development imperatives, as well as between resource nationalism and much-needed foreign financing. However, the really limiting factor for the country's energy development seems to be its constraints in financing the government's development and redistributive policies. Resorting to Chinese loans-for-oil may be part of the solution in the short term, but it does not substitute for a more consistent energy policy. Ecuador's case illustrates the dilemmas of energy policy in natural resource-rich developing countries when confronted with diverging political economy, social, environmental and macro-financial goals. - Highlights: ► Ecuador's energy policy lacks coherence and is plagued with inconsistencies. ► Its three main drivers are development, conservation and resource nationalism. ► Fulfilling President Correa's social agenda requires increasing oil production. ► Conservation demands have been subjected to developmental imperatives. ► Chinese loans and investments limit resource nationalism and favour pragmatism
Gelati, Emiliano; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan
, each corresponding to a hidden climate state. Climatic information is used as exogenous input and to condition state transitions. We apply the model to the inflow of the Daule Peripa reservoir in western Ecuador, where El Niño events cause anomalously heavy rainfall. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO...
Toapanta, Moisés; Mafla, Enrique; Orizaga, Antonio
The Hash security algorithm was analyzed in order to mitigate information security in a distributed architecture. The objective of this research is to develop a prototype for the Adoption of the algorithm Hash in a conceptual model for the Civil Registry of Ecuador. The deductive method was used in order to analyze the published articles that have a direct relation with the research project "Algorithms and Security Protocols for the Civil Registry of Ecuador" and articles related to the Hash security algorithm. It resulted from this research: That the SHA-1 security algorithm is appropriate for use in Ecuador's civil registry; we adopted the SHA-1 algorithm used in the flowchart technique and finally we obtained the adoption of the hash algorithm in a conceptual model. It is concluded that from the comparison of the DM5 and SHA-1 algorithm, it is suggested that in the case of an implementation, the SHA-1 algorithm is taken due to the amount of information and data available from the Civil Registry of Ecuador; It is determined that the SHA-1 algorithm that was defined using the flowchart technique can be modified according to the requirements of each institution; the model for adopting the hash algorithm in a conceptual model is a prototype that can be modified according to all the actors that make up each organization.
Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Læssøe, Thomas
Two new species of Camillea are described from localities on an east-west transect through Ecuador between the latitudes 1 degrees 00'N and 1 degrees 00'S. Camillea ovalispora was collected in San Vicente de Huaticocha, an area characterized as humid lowland rainforest and premontane cloud forest...
Baez, S.; Balslev, Henrik
to be idiosyncratic and to depend on the level of disturbance at edges. This paper explores how variation in forest structure at the edges of two old-growth forest fragments in a tropical rain forest in western Ecuador affects palms of different species, life-forms, and size classes. We investigate (1) how edge...
Gómez Rendón, J.
This is the first and only fully illustrated compilation of articles of the now legendary journal Le Tour du Monde. The book contains all the articles related to Ecuador from 1830 to 1911 and so is a landmark in the nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century travel literature.
Cifuentes, Sara G.; Trostle, James; Trueba, Gabriel; Milbrath, Meghan; Baldeón, Manuel E.; Coloma, Josefina
In tropical areas, the predominant cause of fever has historically been malaria. However by 2011, among febrile patients in northwestern Ecuador, dengue was identified in 42% and malaria in none. This finding suggests a transition in the cause of fever from malaria to other illnesses, such as dengue. PMID:24047566
Ecuador's 2008 Constitution--and a subsequent law on higher education passed in its wake--effectively suspended student fees for public universities. The goal of this reform was to increase equality of opportunity. In this article I use newly-available individual-level retrospective information from the 2001 Census to explore gender and ethnic…
Demonstrating how international education programs can be used to study theoretical issues relevant to comparative education, this article reports on a scholarly analysis of 83 handover letters written by US participants in a volunteer program in Ecuador to their incoming counterparts between 2006 and 2010. It applies Swidler's notion of…
During the past two decades, several viruses have been identified from Rubus (blackberry and raspberry) in wild and commercial plantings around the world (1) In Ecuador; approximately 14 tons of blackberries (Rubus glaucus) are produced each year in an estimated area of 5,500 hectares. This crop pro...
The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...
Guevara, Pilar Egüez; Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond
To explore socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with the prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions among older adults in Ecuador. The sample was drawn from the nationally representative observational cross-sectional data of the Health, Well-Being, and Aging survey conducted in Ecuador in 2009. Logistic regression models were used to explore the association between socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and the prevalence of selected chronic conditions. Older women in Ecuador are more likely than men to have been previously diagnosed with diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and arthritis. Results suggest no difference by education or health insurance on number and type of self-reported chronic conditions. However, older adults who resided in the coastal area were more likely to report having diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke than those in the highlands. Living in rural areas was associated with lower odds of having diabetes and high blood pressure. Compared to white older adults, indigenous older adults were less likely to report having high blood pressure, but more likely to report having arthritis. Older age in Ecuador is marked by low educational levels and poverty. Female gender and living in coastal areas were associated with higher risks of self-reported chronic conditions.
In Ecuador, where pineapple represents one of the most important export commodities, virus testing has been neglected. In July 2014, a total of twenty MD2 hybrid pineapple plants showing virus-like symptoms (Fig. 1) were collected from a commercial planting located at the border of Santo Domingo and...
Dekkers, Laura M.; Groot, Norbert A.; Díaz Mosquera, Elena N.; Andrade Zúñiga, Ivonne P.; Delfos, Martine F.
This research presents the results of the first phase of the study on the prevalence of pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in regular education in Quito, Ecuador. One-hundred-and-sixty-one regular schools in Quito were selected with a total of 51,453 pupils. Prevalence of ASD was assessed by an interview with the rector of the school or…
Van Hoof, Hubert B.
Ecuador's government understands that capable research universities can help in solving the country's pressing socio-economic problems. However, research capabilities and research productivity in its national universities have historically been low, as professors primarily teach and often do not have the inclination, the ability, or the time to do…
... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. Nos. 701-TA-491-497 (Final)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Commission Determination To Deny a Request To Hold a Portion of a Hearing In Camera AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION...
Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Kumazawa, Hideo; Eisenberg, Joseph
Amphimerus spp. flukes are known to infect mammals, but human infections have not been confirmed. Microscopy of fecal samples from 397 persons from Ecuador revealed Opisthorchiidae eggs in 71 (24%) persons. Light microscopy of adult worms and scanning electron microscopy of eggs were compatible with descriptions of Amphimerus spp. This pathogen was only observed in communities that consumed undercooked fish.
D. Avci (Duygu); C. Fernández-Salvador (Consuelo)
textabstractIn Ecuador, the promotion of mining by the Correa government has led to an escalation of conflicts at specific mining sites, as well as an intensification of the public debate concerning the relationship between resource extraction and development. In this article, we compare the
Dekkers, L.M.S.; Groot, N.A.; Díaz Mosquera, E.N.; Andrade Zúñiga, I.P.; Delfos, M.F.
This research presents the results of the first phase of the study on the prevalence of pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in regular education in Quito, Ecuador. One-hundred-and-sixty-one regular schools in Quito were selected with a total of 51,453 pupils. Prevalence of ASD was assessed by
Full Text Available Chagas disease control strategies strongly depend on the triatomine vector species involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission within each area. Here we report the results of the identification of specimens belonging to various species of Triatominae captured in Ecuador (15 species from 17 provinces and deposited in the entomological collections of the Catholic University of Ecuador (Quito, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Brazil, the Natural History Museum London (UK, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK, the National Institute of Hygiene (Quito, and the Vozandes Hospital (Quito. A critical review of published information and new field records are presented. We analysed these data in relation to the life zones where triatomines occur (11 life zones, excluding those over 2,200 m altitude, and provide biogeographical maps for each species. These records are discussed in terms of epidemiological significance and design of control strategies. Findings relevant to the control of the main vector species are emphasised. Different lines of evidence suggest that Triatoma dimidiata is not native to Ecuador-Peru, and that synanthropic populations of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in southern Ecuador-northern Peru might be isolated from their sylvatic conspecifics. Local eradication of T. dimidiata and these R. ecuadoriensis populations might therefore be attainable. However, the presence of a wide variety of native species indicates the necessity for a strong longitudinal surveillance system.
Full Text Available Al hablar de inserción laboral de personas con discapacidad, necesariamente nos referimos al tema de los derechos humanos. Actualmente el Ecuador cuenta con políticas que identifican a las personas con discapacidad como un “grupo de atención prioritaria”.
Andreína TORRES ANGARITA
Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente trabajo analiza el impacto que en la actualidad tiene la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo en la definición de agendas locales de seguridad ciudadana en Ecuador. En Ecuador se observa una heterogeneidad de proyectos que de alguna manera buscan apoyar y fortalecer iniciativas de prevención de la violencia social. No obstante, en una escala nacional siguen predominando los esfuerzos antinarcóticos apoyados por las donaciones de países como los Estados Unidos. Se cuestiona entonces la injerencia que tiene la cooperación en el desbalance que se genera entre los esfuerzos locales y nacionales y que dificulta la consolidación de agendas locales de seguridad ciudadana más ajustadas a las necesidades y demandas de los y las ciudadanos/as.ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the current impact foreign aid has on the definition of local «citizen security» agendas in Ecuador. Regarding citizen security, Ecuador has heterogeneous projects that seek to strengthen and support social violence prevention initiatives. However, at the national level antidrug efforts prevail, receiving the support of important donors such as the Unites States. The article thus questions the role played by foreign aid in the imbalances found between local and national efforts, that in turn create great difficulty in the definition of a local citizen security agenda more in tuned with citizen’s needs and demands.
Wong, Yim Yan; Sornosa Macias, Karen Jeniffer; Guale Martínez, Doris; Solorzano, Luis F; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Herrera, Claudia; Dumonteil, Eric
Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. In Ecuador, Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius ecuadoriensis are the main vector species, responsible for over half of the cases of T. cruzi infection in the country. T. dimidiata is believed to have been introduced in Ecuador during colonial times, and its elimination from the country is thus believed to be feasible. We investigated here the molecular ecology of T. dimidiata and T. cruzi in costal Ecuador to further guide control efforts. Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS-2) of 23 specimens from Progreso, Guayas, unambiguously supported the likely importation of T. dimidiata from Central America to Ecuador. The observation of a very high parasite infection rate (54%) and frequent feeding on humans (3/5) confirmed a continued risk of transmission to humans. All genotyped parasites corresponded to TcI DTU and Trypanosoma rangeli was not detected in T. dimidiata. TcI subgroups corresponded to TcIa (25%), and mixed infections with TcIa and TcId (75%). Further studies should help clarify T. cruzi genetic structure in the country, and the possible impact of the introduction of T. dimidiata on the circulating parasite strains. The elevated risk posed by this species warrants continuing efforts for its control, but its apparent mobility between peridomestic and domestic habitats may favor reinfestation following insecticide spraying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gustafsson, Mats; Borchsenius, Finn
Clusia nubium from southwestern Ecuador is described as a species new to science. It grows as a hemiepiphyte in lower montane cloud forest. The species belongs to Clusia sect. Retinostemon, a largely Andean group characterized by male flowers with a resin-secreting synandrium of completely fused...
Dagna O. Constenla
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate the economic impact of post-introduction pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV programs in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay from the societal perspective. METHODS: Hypothetical birth cohorts were followed for a 20-year period in each country. Estimates of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, and health care costs were derived from primary and secondary data sources. Costs were expressed in 2014 US$. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of model input uncertainties. RESULTS: Over the 20 years of vaccine program implementation, the health care costs per case ranged from US$ 764 854 to more than US$ 1 million. Vaccination prevented more than 50% of pneumococcal cases and deaths per country. At a cost of US$ 16 per dose, the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted for the 10-valent PCV (PCV10 and the 13-valet PCV (PCV13 ranged from US$ 796 (Honduras to US$ 1 340 (Ecuador and from US$ 691 (Honduras to US$ 1 166 (Ecuador respectively. At a reduced price (US$ 7 per dose, the cost per DALY averted ranged from US$ 327 (Honduras to US$ 528 (Ecuador and from US$ 281 (Honduras to US$ 456 (Ecuador for PCV10 and PCV13 respectively. Several model parameters influenced the results of the analysis, including vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, disease incidence, and costs. CONCLUSIONS: The economic impact of post-introduction PCV needs to be assessed in a context of uncertainty regarding changing antibiotic resistance, herd and serotype replacement effects, differential vaccine prices, and government budget constraints.
Constenla, Dagna O
A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate the economic impact of post-introduction pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programs in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay from the societal perspective. Hypothetical birth cohorts were followed for a 20-year period in each country. Estimates of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, and health care costs were derived from primary and secondary data sources. Costs were expressed in 2014 US$. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of model input uncertainties. Over the 20 years of vaccine program implementation, the health care costs per case ranged from US$ 764 854 to more than US$ 1 million. Vaccination prevented more than 50% of pneumococcal cases and deaths per country. At a cost of US$ 16 per dose, the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted for the 10-valent PCV (PCV10) and the 13-valet PCV (PCV13) ranged from US$ 796 (Honduras) to US$ 1 340 (Ecuador) and from US$ 691 (Honduras) to US$ 1 166 (Ecuador) respectively. At a reduced price (US$ 7 per dose), the cost per DALY averted ranged from US$ 327 (Honduras) to US$ 528 (Ecuador) and from US$ 281 (Honduras) to US$ 456 (Ecuador) for PCV10 and PCV13 respectively. Several model parameters influenced the results of the analysis, including vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, disease incidence, and costs. The economic impact of post-introduction PCV needs to be assessed in a context of uncertainty regarding changing antibiotic resistance, herd and serotype replacement effects, differential vaccine prices, and government budget constraints.
Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo
The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.
Yolanda Esperanza Ledesma Silva
Full Text Available Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC contribuyen al crecimiento económico global de un país. El uso de las TIC puede ser una oportunidad para modernizar tanto la gestión de la información como la administración del sistema en los tres sectores de la economía: Gobierno, Universidad y Empresa. El problema identificado es la ausencia de literatura sobre este tema. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo contribuir a resolver este problema y responder a la pregunta: ¿Cuáles son las interrelaciones entre el gobierno, las universidades y las empresas en el uso de las TIC en Ecuador? La metodología utilizada es el modelo de la Triple Hélice, con el fin de analizar las interacciones entre los tres sectores mencionados. Entre las principales conclusiones están: La primera hélice, Gobierno-Universidad, incluye la planificación pública en materia de TIC que se caracteriza por ser vertical, centralizada y excluyente, lo cual se puede observar por la falta de participación de los actores que intervienen en la formulación de proyectos y políticas relacionadas con las TIC y su aplicación. En la segunda hélice, Gobierno-Empresa, existe la necesidad de invertir en las TIC, especialmente en el sector rural, con el fin de motivar la participación respectiva de la empresa privada y el gobierno. La tercera hélice, Empresa-Universidad, se expresa en la necesidad de conformar una comunidad 2.0 en las universidades que contribuya a la mejora del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje a través de la compartición e intercambio de información relevante entre los docentes, estudiantes y su entorno.
Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN No se han realizado hasta ahora reportes acerca de los medios de comunicación como métodos de convocatoria para reclutar voluntarios de investigación en poblaciones latinoamericanas. Dado el surgimiento de la investigación clínica en Ecuador, realizar un estudio de este tipo en la población local será beneficioso para futuras investigaciones y probablemente sea aplicable a otros países de la región. MÉTODOS Se realizaron dos convocatorias públicas para un estudio transversal sobre función cognitiva y diabetes. Sólo se incluyó a personas entre 55 y 65 años de edad sin patología neurocognitiva previa. Se invitó a los individuos por medio de entrevistas en radio, televisión y periódicos locales, además se promocionó a través de redes sociales. Se preguntó a cada individuo por el método mediante el cual se enteraron de esta convocatoria. Se calculó la frecuencia con que se reportó cada método y se utilizó la prueba Chi-cuadrado para valorar las diferencias por género. RESULTADOS Un total de 274 pacientes se reclutaron en el estudio, el 64,2% fueron mujeres y 35,8% varones. El 29,9% se enteraron por terceras personas, 20,8% mediante la radio, 8,8% a través de redes sociales, 8,4% por el periódico y 5,1% por televisión, mientras que el 27,0% restante no había escuchado del reclutamiento. Los métodos reportados variaron significativamente entre hombres y mujeres (p=0,03. CONCLUSIONES Los medios de comunicación tradicionales constituyen la forma más frecuente de enterarse del reclutamiento, predominando las entrevistas en la radio. Individualmente, ninguno supera en frecuencia a la difusión por terceras personas (efecto de bola de nieve. Las redes sociales ocupan un porcentaje importante que supera a ciertos medios de prensa tradicional. Hemos descrito por primera vez en Latinoamérica el uso de medios de comunicación como métodos de convocatoria para reclutar voluntarios de investigación, y la
Hanson, J. B.; Lavallée, Y.; Hess, K.-U.; von Aulock, F. W.; Dingwell, D. B.
During August 16th to 18th 2006, the eruptive crisis at Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador) culminated in VEI 2 eruption with tens of pyroclastic flows and the extrusion of a lava flow. The nearly simultaneous occurrence of a lava flow and a pyroclastic flow from a single vent deserves attention. Generally, the rheology is a chief determinant of eruption style. Specifically, magmas are ductile (effusive) at low strain rates whereas they are brittle (explosive) at high strain rates. Although this distinction has been extensively described for single-phase magmas, there remain many questions as to the rheological implications of crystals and bubbles present in magmas. Here we present preliminary characterizations of the complex rheology of the magma involved in the 2006 eruption at Tungurahua volcano. The magma present in this eruption was andesitic with an interstitial melt composition averaging ~58 wt.% SiO2. The bombs present in the pyroclastic deposit show an open porosity ranging from 15 to 35 vol.% and a crystallinity generally greater than ~30 vol.% and occasionally up to 60 vol.% in samples affected by microlite growth. Petrographic analyses revealed magma batches with different crystallization histories. In high-porosity samples containing microlites, a recrystallization rim around clinopyroxene and resorption of the plagioclase were observed. In contrast, the dense samples show pristine, euhedral crystals and a near absence of microlites. The heterogeneous petrographic structures suggest the possibilities of mingling in the conduit or of magma batches with different decompression rates. Dilatometric analyses suggest glass transition temperatures (Tg) of ~974 °C for the dense material (porosity~15 vol.%) and as high as ~1060 °C for the high-porosity bombs (porosity~35 vol.%). Successive series of heating and cooling of the glass reveal an increase of Tg by as much as 60 °C indicative of significant water left in the melt. Preliminary analyses of images obtained
Valverde Arias, Omar; Tarquis, Ana; Garrido, Alberto
It is widely known that extreme climatic phenomena occur with more intensity and frequency. This fact has put more pressure over farming, making agricultural and livestock production riskier. In order to reduce hazards and economic loses that could jeopardize farmer's incomes and even its business continuity, it is very important to implement agriculture risk management plans by governments and institutions. One of the main strategies is transfer risk by agriculture insurance. Agriculture insurance based in indexes has a significant growth in the last decade. And consist in a comparison between measured index values with a defined threshold that triggers damage losses. However, based index insurance could not be based on an isolated measurement. It is necessary to be integrated in a complete monitoring system that uses many sources of information and tools. For example, index influence areas, crop production risk maps, crop yields, claim statistics, and so on. Crop production risk is related with yield variation of crops and livestock, due to weather, pests, diseases, and other factors that affect both the quantity and quality of commodities produced. This is the risk which farmers invest more time managing, and it is completely under their control. The aim of this study is generate a crop risk map of rice that can provide risk manager important information about the status of crop facing production risks. Then, based on this information, it will be possible to make best decisions to deal with production risk. The rice crop risk map was generated qualifying a 1:25000 scale soil and climatic map of Babahoyo canton, which is located in coast region of Ecuador, where rice is one of the main crops. The methodology to obtain crop risk map starts by establishing rice crop requirements and indentifying the risks associated with this crop. A second step is to evaluate soil and climatic conditions of the study area related to optimal crop requirements. Based on it, we can
Rodrigo X. Armijos; M. Margaret Weigel; Matilde Qincha; Bernarda Ulloa
OBJECTIVE: To explore knowledge, beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes about tuberculosis (TB) in a high-risk group in Ecuador. This included signs and symptoms, causation, transmission, treatment, treatment adherence, impact on lifestyle and role functioning, and stigma. METHODS: A convenience sample of 212 adults undergoing diagnostic TB testing at a public health facility in Quito, Ecuador, was recruited for the study. Data were collected from subjects during face-to-face interviews using a ...
Shear, William A; Peck, Stewart B
Cyrtodesmus baerti, n. sp., previously reported from the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, as Cyrtodesmus sp., is described, together with notes on the systematics, natural history and morphology of cyrotdesmid millipedes.
126 “Ecuador: FARC Leader Reyes Escapes Police Surveillance in Quito,” El Comercio [ Internet version-www], 11...Ecuador: FARC Leader Reyes Escapes Police Surveillance in Quito,” El Comercio [ Internet version-www], 11 Jan 04. FBIS Document ID...to facilitate legal business, including the Internet and e-commerce channels.”35 The identification of a mutually beneficial relationship existing
Loor Solórzano, Rey Gastón; De Bellis, Fabien; Leroy, Thierry; Plaza, Luis; Guerrero, Hilton; Subia, Cristian; Calderón, Darío; Fernández, Fabián; Garzón, Iván; Lopez, Diana; Vera, Danilo
Genetic resources of Coffea canephora have been introduced in several tropical countries with potential for crop development. In Ecuador, the species has been cultivated since the mid-20th century. However, little is known about the diversity and genetic structure of introduced germplasm. This paper provides an overview of the genetic and phenotypic diversity of C. canephora in Ecuador and some proposals for implementing a breeding program. Twelve SSR markers were used to analyze 1491 plants ...
Navarro, J.C.; Enríquez, S.; Campaña, Y.; Benítez Ortíz, W.
Two new records of Sabethes mosquitoes (Culicidae: Nematocera) are reported for Ecuador with the respective extension of their geographical distribution in the Neotropics: Sabethes intermedius Lutz and Sabethes soperi Lane & Cerqueira, from the provinces of Napo (Amazon) into the Natural Reserve of Colonso-Chalupas at 1,200 m altitude, beside Tena city, Ecuador. Both species are considered as potential vectors of sylvatic Yellow Fever virus and Mayaro virus. Information on collection local...
Lic. Emma Zulay Delgado Saeteros
Full Text Available In the scenarios of higher education in Ecuador, concepts related to teaching and pedagogical practices are a challenge for science teaching, and stand as the need to address the change within the institutions by the rethinking of being and educational work. The teaching-learning process in teaching must be activated from the use of ICTs. The authors reflect about the behavior of this criterion in the Technological Institute of Vocational and Business Administration (ITFPAC in Ecuador
On 27 June 1995, the Director General received a communication dated 26 June 1995 from the Permanent Mission of Ecuador transmitting a Statement of 22 June 1995 issued by the Rio Group concerning the resumption of nuclear testing by France. As requested by the Permanent Mission of Ecuador, the text of the Statement is being circulated for the information of Member States of the Agency
Richard W Douce
Full Text Available Tropical countries are thought to play an important role in the global behavior of respiratory infections such as influenza. The tropical country of Ecuador has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections. The objectives of this study were to identify the viral agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI in Ecuador, describe what strains of influenza were circulating in the region along with their epidemiologic characteristics, and perform molecular characterization of those strains.This is a prospective surveillance study of the causes of ILI based on viral culture of oropharyngeal specimens and case report forms obtained in hospitals from two cities of Ecuador over 4 years. Out of 1,702 cases of ILI, nine viral agents were detected in 597 patients. During the time of the study, seven genetic variants of influenza circulated in Ecuador, causing six periods of increased activity. There appeared to be more heterogeneity in the cause of ILI in the tropical city of Guayaquil when compared with the Andean city of Quito.This was the most extensive documentation of the viral causes of ILI in Ecuador to date. Influenza was a common cause of ILI in Ecuador, causing more than one outbreak per year. There was no well defined influenza season although there were periods of time when no influenza was detected alternating with epidemics of different variant strains.
Douce, Richard W.; Aleman, Washington; Chicaiza-Ayala, Wilson; Madrid, Cesar; Sovero, Merly; Delgado, Franklin; Rodas, Mireya; Ampuero, Julia; Chauca, Gloria; Perez, Juan; Garcia, Josefina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto
Background Tropical countries are thought to play an important role in the global behavior of respiratory infections such as influenza. The tropical country of Ecuador has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections. The objectives of this study were to identify the viral agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI) in Ecuador, describe what strains of influenza were circulating in the region along with their epidemiologic characteristics, and perform molecular characterization of those strains. Methodology/Findings This is a prospective surveillance study of the causes of ILI based on viral culture of oropharyngeal specimens and case report forms obtained in hospitals from two cities of Ecuador over 4 years. Out of 1,702 cases of ILI, nine viral agents were detected in 597 patients. During the time of the study, seven genetic variants of influenza circulated in Ecuador, causing six periods of increased activity. There appeared to be more heterogeneity in the cause of ILI in the tropical city of Guayaquil when compared with the Andean city of Quito. Conclusions/Significance This was the most extensive documentation of the viral causes of ILI in Ecuador to date. Influenza was a common cause of ILI in Ecuador, causing more than one outbreak per year. There was no well defined influenza season although there were periods of time when no influenza was detected alternating with epidemics of different variant strains. PMID:21887216
Gallardo de la Puente, Carlos Alberto; Granja Londoño, Andrés Felipe
TASTE ECUADOR is a research, analysis, application and development of human talent enterprise, responsible for promoting culinary and technical information by means of highly trained chefs and culinary products from Ecuador, able to generate an export food culture, opening new global markets, promote strategic integration into the international trade and the participation of the Ecuadorian people worldwide. lt is committed to working for ECUADOR, its gastronomic development and sustainable pr...
A lo largo de los siglos, el proceso de modernización del Ecuador ha estado bajo la mira de políticos, gobernantes, maestros, pensadores e historiadores. El primer paso de esta odisea se dio a mediados del S. XVIII y se presentó como ruptura y enfrentamiento con el pasado, en diversas áreas y tuvo como trasfondos la muerte del sistema colonial y el anuncio de nuevos referentes, fuerzas, actores y formas de organizar la realidad. De dimensiones de cambio tan colosales como la 'ilustrada' termi...
Luis Velasco Roldan
Full Text Available In Ecuador, a factor of great ecological wealth is linked to its tradition in the use of fibers and other organic waste composite character as filler element, reinforcement or insulation in the field of housing construction, which carries great potential under the most viable architecture. The climate variability in Ecuador and the low purchasing power of their inhabitants forced to use local available building materials inexpensive or at no cost, in order to achieve economic and comfortable housing. That is why we have analyzed the presence of natural resources and waste biomass confronting regional building tradition, later superimpose geographically with major climatic variables affecting energy efficiency. This makes it possible to determine what, where and how to use the different biomass resources to allow a response to build that has a strong social, economic, environmental and energy argument in order to facilitate the conditions for access to economic habitat efficient, safe and dignified.
Helder Guillermo Aldas Arcos
Full Text Available In some cases, professors blame research training on the discipline of Research Methodology, oriented at the beginning or end of careers. However, in Ecuador this issue has been little discussed. The present study evidences some difficulties related to the formation of investigative abilities in universities of the Ecuadorian context, specifically the race of Physical Culture. Results are compiled through the application of methods such as documentary analysis (curricula of the main Ecuadorian universities 2014, analysis and synthesis (during the whole process under study surveys of students and graduates attending the III International Congress of Education Curriculum Planning Physics and Planning of Sports Training, held in Riobamba Ecuador UNACH, in 2014. Likewise, interviews were applied to professionals of the fourth level. In the development is theorized on the state of the art, from the conceptions given by scholars on the subject.
Ángel Velásquez Cajas
Full Text Available This paper, based on a field research, aims to identify and rescue the cultural expression of the Arrastre de Caudas, of the town of Saquisilí, located at Cotopaxi province in Ecuador. In the first part, this study analyzes the intangible heritage, its concepts, areas, subareas and the process of official cultural registration in Ecuador. The second part describes, in a chronological order, the flag drag celebration, the characters of this religious festivity (priostes, almasantas, cucuruchos, etc. and the symbols (cauda, hat, key. Finally, the research practically relates the two parts into an intangible heritage registration document, based on the reference model developed by the Instituto Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural (INPC.
Full Text Available After the 7.8 Mw Earthquake occurred in Ecuador on April 16 of 2016, the Ecuadorian Government declared the whole Island of Muisne into a risk hazard zone by a potential Tsunami impact and subsequent flooding. Based on the emitted resolution, human settlements in the affected area were prohibited, and a resettlement project in the village of Bunche is currently taking place. Nonetheless, our study demonstrates that the inundation chart used to release the mentioned resolution underestimate the flooding area in case of a real Tsunami impact. To support this conclusion, we present a new inundation chart for the three more probable scenarios, based on historical tsunami records and a seismic hazard assessment study in central coastal Ecuador.
Héctor Alberto Botello Peñaloza
Full Text Available Introduction: This article aims to quantify racial discrimination in the labor market in Ecuador between 2010 and 2012. Methodology: Information is collected from quarterly household surveys on employment prepared by the National Institute of Statistics and Census of Ecuador, from which Mincer equations are estimated for labor income per hour. Subsequently, the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition with Heckman correction is used to determine wage gaps attributable to observable and unobservable factors regarding two ethnic groups: mestizos and whites. Results: The wage gap is significant and positive for white people, and it increases during the period of analysis. 40 % of this difference is due to higher provisions in human capital. However, about 42 % of the gap remains unexplained.
Brisbois, Ben Wesley; Harris, Leila; Spiegel, Jerry M
Pesticide exposure in Ecuador's banana industry reflects political economic and ecological processes that interact across scales to affect human health. We use this case study to illustrate opportunities for applying political ecology of health scholarship in the burgeoning field of global health. Drawing on an historical literature review and ethnographic data collected in Ecuador's El Oro province, we present three main areas where a political ecological approach can enrich global health scholarship: perceptive characterization of multi-scalar and ecologically entangled pathways to health outcomes; critical analysis of discursive dynamics such as competing scalar narratives; and appreciation of the environment-linked subjectivities and emotions of people experiencing globalized health impacts. Rapprochement between these fields may also provide political ecologists with access to valuable empirical data on health outcomes, venues for engaged scholarship, and opportunities to synthesize numerous insightful case studies and discern broader patterns.
Alvarez-Berríos, Nora L; Parés-Ramos, Isabel K; Aide, T Mitchell
The global urban population is increasing rapidly, but patterns of urban expansion differ greatly among countries. Urban transition theory predicts that the shift from low to high urbanization depends on a country's history and level of economic development. This study describes urban expansion in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia between 1992 and 2009. Urban dynamics were analyzed by combining nighttime lights and census data from 4032 municipalities. High-lit areas (>52-63 pixel values) were correlated with urban populations across municipalities and years (R (2) > 0.90). Analyses showed that between 1992 and 2009 Bolivia and Ecuador had rapid population growth and rapidly increasing high-lit areas, while Peru and Colombia had lower rates of population growth and urbanization (i.e., expansion of high-lit areas). We demonstrate how nighttime lights can be a useful tool, providing a homogeneous platform for multi-scale analyses of urban growth.
Cevallos, Varsovia; Morales, Diego; Baldeón, Manuel E; Cárdenas, Paúl; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Ponce, Patricio
Abstract The detection and identification of natural infections in sand flies by Leishmania protozoan species in endemic areas is a key factor in assessing the risk of leishmaniasis and in designing prevention and control measures for this infectious disease. In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA using nuclear ribosomal internal transcript spacer (ITS) sequences. Parasite DNA was extracted from naturally infected, blood-fed sand flies collected in nine localities considered leishmaniasis-endemic foci in Ecuador. The species of parasites identified in sand flies were Leishmania major-like, Leishmania naiffi, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania lainsoni, and “Leishmania sp. siamensis”. Sand fly specimens of Brumptomyia leopoldoi, Mycropigomyia cayennensis, Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli, Nyssomyia trapidoi, Pressatia triacantha, Pressatia dysponeta, Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai, Psychodopygus panamensis, and Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis were found positive for Leishmania parasite. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of the disease in high-risk areas of Ecuador. PMID:28981860
Cristina Vega Solís
Full Text Available The migration pattern between Ecuador and Spain has undergone changes since the start of the 2008 crisis. A slowdown in inflows to Spain and increasing Ecuadorian returnees, today add the Spanish skilled migration to this country in entering higher education as well as the exit of young Ecuadorians to acquire fourth level´s degree in Spain, or Europe in general. The context of crisis and unemployment in education in Spain and education reform policies being carried out in Ecuador is articulated in shaping this circularity between the two countries. Through a quantitative and qualitative multi-situated methodology based on a poll and in-depth interviews, this paper estimates the volume of these displacements and explores the motivations, conditions and strategies that are influencing.
Black, Carla L; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Riner, Diana K; Costales, Jaime A; Lascano, Mauricio S; Arcos-Terán, Laura; Preisser, John S; Seed, J Richard; Grijalva, Mario J
We performed a cross-sectional study of Trypanosoma cruzi seroprevalence in 14 communities in three provinces of Ecuador and estimated the magnitude of the association of seropositive individuals within households. A total of 3,286 subjects from 997 households were included. Seroprevalence was 5.7%, 1.0%, and 3.6% in subjects in the Manabí, Guayas, and Loja provinces, respectively. Seroprevalence increased with increasing age in Manabí and Guayas, whereas in Loja, the highest prevalence occurred in children Loja, the odds of seropositivity were more than two times greater for an individual living in a household with another seropositive person. Our results indicate that transmission of T. cruzi is ongoing in Ecuador, although intensity of transmission and mechanisms of interaction between humans and the insect vectors of disease vary between geographic regions.
Full Text Available Litterfall research is an interesting aspect in environmental studies due to its significance in nutrient cycling specially in regions like the Andes where the interactions between biomass production and its decomposition is poorly understood. This study is focusing in the litterfall biomass production under pine plantations in southern Ecuador. The litterfall production was studied for five months at two-week intervals in three pine forest sites located in the southern Andes region of Ecuador. Monthly litterfall production ranged between 1067-1907 kg ha-1, in comparison with other coniferous stands around the world, this study revealed a higher litterfall production for tropical areas and particularly the highest production under pine plantations in the Andes region. This high litterfall production highlights the upmost importance of this forest component as a potential nutrient reservoir involved in the global nutrient cycling under landscapes dominated by this exotic forest specie in the tropical Andes.
Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas. PMID:27410039
Pereira, Luis Alberto
Pectiniunguis aequatorialis sp. nov. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Schendylidae) is described and illustrated on the basis of specimens collected in the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve in the High Andes of Ecuador. The new species is characterized by having ventral pore-fields on the anterior region of the trunk only, a trait that is shared by a single Neotropical congener: Pectiniunguis ascendens Pereira, Minelli Barbieri, 1994 to which it is similar and is compared taxonomically. This is only the second report of a species of the genus Pectiniunguis Bollman, 1889 from mainland Ecuador. The other taxon is Pectiniunguis roigi Pereira, Foddai Minelli, 2001, so far only known from the type locality, Limoncocha (Sucumbíos Province), and herein reported for the first time from Parque Nacional Sumaco Napo-Galeras (Napo Province).
Chiriboga, Jorge; Barragan, Verónica; Arroyo, Gabriela; Sosa, Andrea; Birdsell, Dawn N; España, Karool; Mora, Ana; Espín, Emilia; Mejía, María Eugenia; Morales, Melba; Pinargote, Carmina; Gonzalez, Manuel; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Keim, Paul; Bretas, Gustavo; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Trueba, Gabriel
Leptospira spp., which comprise 3 clusters (pathogenic, saprophytic, and intermediate) that vary in pathogenicity, infect >1 million persons worldwide each year. The disease burden of the intermediate leptospires is unclear. To increase knowledge of this cluster, we used new molecular approaches to characterize Leptospira spp. in 464 samples from febrile patients in rural, semiurban, and urban communities in Ecuador; in 20 samples from nonfebrile persons in the rural community; and in 206 samples from animals in the semiurban community. We observed a higher percentage of leptospiral DNA-positive samples from febrile persons in rural (64%) versus urban (21%) and semiurban (25%) communities; no leptospires were detected in nonfebrile persons. The percentage of intermediate cluster strains in humans (96%) was higher than that of pathogenic cluster strains (4%); strains in animal samples belonged to intermediate (49%) and pathogenic (51%) clusters. Intermediate cluster strains may be causing a substantial amount of fever in coastal Ecuador.
Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas.
Full Text Available A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis, L. (V. braziliensis, L. (V. naiffi, L. (V. lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V. naiffi and L. (V. lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L. mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V. braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas.
Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Moorbath, S.
New Sr isotope data are presented for andesite lavas from active volcanoes in Ecuador and North Chile. Twenty-three samples from five Ecuadorian volcanoes have 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios most of which are essentially within analytical error, and average 0.7044. In contrast, 16 samples from the San Pedro-San Pablo volcano complex in North Chile have 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios between 0.7058 and 0.7072. These samples show no correlation between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and 87 Rb/ 86 Sr, nor between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and other elements or ratios. The major difference in setting between the two volcanic provinces lies in the thickness of the continental crust; 40-50 km beneath Ecuador, 70 km beneath North Chile. Andesites from both areas are derived primarily from the mantle, but those from North Chile show evidence of a significant Sr isotopic contribution from the continental crust. (Auth.)
Podwojewski, Pascal; Poulenard, J.; Janeau, Jean-Louis
In the highlands of southern Colombia and northern Ecuador, soils developed on volcanic ash deposits have specific properties: high water retention, high hydraulic conductivity and high carbon (C) contents. The main role of the soils is to regulate the water available for the dense population living in the valleys. Soil properties and land use depend on their altitudes. Any important modification of land-use change has a serious effect on soil properties and consequently the ecosystem propert...
Lam Rodríguez, Susana Isabel
Determina el grado de incidencia del liderazgo, las redes organizacionales y la orientación al cambio como factores de resiliencia en la sostenibilidad empresarial de las medianas empresas industriales manufactureras de la provincia del Guayas en Ecuador. Es una investigación ex post facto, cuantitativa y aplicada. Utiliza una muestra de 163 medianas empresas. Emplea un cuestionario de entrevistas y un cuadro de check list para la variable resiliencia, y un cuestionario tipo Likert para la va...
The most recent constitution of Ecuador was signed into law in September 2008 and ushered in a new vision for Ecuadorian society under a series of policy promises aimed at transforming the rural development process in the country. Under this banner, Chapter 3 of the constitution states that: ?food sovereignty is a strategic objective and an obligation of the state that persons, communities, peoples and nations achieve self-sufficiency with respect to healthy and culturally appropriate food on...
Diana Hidalgo; Mercedes Onofa; Hessel Oosterbeek; Juan Ponce
This discussion paper resulted in an article in the Journal of Development Economics (2013). Volume 103, pages 43-51. To raise school attendance, many programs in developing countries eliminate orreduce private contributions to education. This paper documents an unintendednegative effect of such programs. Using data from a randomized experiment thatprovides free uniforms to primary school children in Ecuador, we find that the interventionhas a significantly negative impact on attendance. An e...
Rojas Cajamarca, Juan Carlos
This study is an interactive report of the 2016 to 2017 electoral panorama in Ecuador, it focuses in building a multimedia product, which would be used to classify the profiles and campaign plans of the different candidates, synthetizing the huge amount of information in existence. For this purpose we have sustained our research in the analysis done from the perspective of political communication, study of its different narratives, and with this we have elaborated a transmedia product utilizi...
Calleida desenderi Casale, sp. n., is described from Ecuador, Napo Province, surroundings of San Rafael. The new taxon is mostly characterized by the head and appendages rufous, the disc of elytra with marked metallic green reflection, the median lobe of aedeagus ring-like, and the endophallus with a long, twisted flagellum. A key for identification of the closer Neotropical species described so far is also provided.
Full Text Available Within the broader context of the global nutritional transition, in this article we examine local dietary practices in the northern highlands of Ecuador drawing on ethnographic research. The results of this study demonstrate that the communities studied continue to prepare whole foods for the most part. However, processed foods are also desired and consumed in some households in the area. Finally, we discuss two discourses that motivate dietary choices in this region: nostalgia and cosmopolitanism.
Eljuri Jaramillo, María Isabel
Este documento trata sobre un estudio realizado entre la comunidad de expatriados norteamericanos en Cuenca – Ecuador, para investigar sobre sus preferencias de vivienda y de viaje, sus comportamientos de esparcimiento y su estado legal migratorio en la ciudad. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar si los expatriados norteamericanos de Cuenca son turistas residentes o inmigrantes residentes. Además de presentar estadísticas descriptivas, la investigación informa sobre los resultados de va...
Handel, Andrew S.; Ayala, Efra?n Beltr?n; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Fessler, Abigail G.; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Espinoza, Roberto Xavier Robalino; Ryan, Sadie J.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.
Background Dengue fever is a rapidly emerging infection throughout the tropics and subtropics with extensive public health burden. Adequate training of healthcare providers is crucial to reducing infection incidence through patient education and collaboration with public health authorities. We examined how public sector healthcare providers in a dengue-endemic region of Ecuador view and manage dengue infections, with a focus on the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) Dengue Guidelines. Metho...
Salazar Yépez, Wilfrido; Cabrera Vallejo, Mario
The purpose of this article is to determine the quality of service of improvements in the enrollment processes at the National University of Chimborazo- Ecuador. This cross-sectional research is the result of a field work, where an analysis of the collected information was carried out, through surveys applied to the students, through the SERVQUAL model, afterwards, comparing these found aspects and determining The gap between perceptions and expectations, thus determining the quality of servi...
Stewart, A. M.; Lowe, R.
Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is one of the most important emerging tropical diseases. Dengue is hyper-endemic in coastal Ecuador, where all four serotypes co-circulate. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences climate in Ecuador, with positive phase ENSO (El Niño) associated with wetter and warmer conditions over the southern coastal region. In turn, greater rainfall increases the availability of mosquito breeding sites for the dengue mosquito (Aedes aegypti), while warmer temperatures increase rates of larval development, mosquito biting, and viral replication in the mosquito. We report a statistical model for assessing the importance of climate as a driver for inter-annual variability in dengue fever in southern coastal Ecuador. Climate variables from a local meteorology station (precipitation, number of rainy days, minimum/maximum/mean air temperature), combined with gridded climate products, and anomalies of Pacific sea surface temperatures (Oceanic Niño Index, ONI) were used to predict monthly dengue standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) (1995-2010). Non-climatic confounding factors such as serotype introduction and vector control effort were also considered. Preliminary results indicated a statistically significant positive association between dengue risk and the number of rainy days during the previous month. Both the number of rainy days and dengue SMR were positively associated with the Pacific SST anomalies with a lead time of several months. Due to time lags involved in the climate-disease transmission system, monitoring El Niño / La Niña evolution in the Pacific Ocean could provide some predictive lead time for forecasting dengue epidemics. This is the first study of dengue fever and climate in this region. This research provides the foundation to develop a climate-driven early warning system for dengue fever in Ecuador.
Tashyrev, O B; Govorukha, V M
The widespread of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in natural ecosystems of Ecuador of La Favorita, Tungurahua volcano and Papallacta areas was experimentally proved. High efficiency of microbial precipitation of soluble iron compounds was also demonstrated. Obtained results indicate the potential ability of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to influence the formation of carbon and iron vector fluxes in ecosystems, as well as development of effective biotechnologies of water purification from iron compounds.
Waters William F
Abstract Background Third World countries are confronted by a complex overlay of two sets of health problems. Traditional maladies, including communicable diseases, malnutrition, and environmental health hazards coexist with emerging health challenges, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and increasing levels of obesity. Using Ecuador as an example, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for linking epidemiologic overlap to emerging social structures and processes at the national an...
Cruz, M; Davis, A; Dixon, H; Pawlowski, Z S; Proano, J
A large-scale study in Loja and El Oro Provinces, Ecuador, demonstrated that population-based treatment of human taeniasis with a low dose of praziquantel is feasible and effective for the short-term control of transmission of Taenia solium in hyperendemic areas. Chemotherapeutic intervention also effectively promoted local preventive measures and contributed greatly to the elaboration of a long-term control programme.
Benedictis, Geovanna; Calfat, Germán; Jara, Karina
We analyse the links between remittances and child education in Ecuador with special emphasis on the influences in supply conditions at the regional level. Our results point out to the favourable role of remittances on education, suggesting at the same time, the importance of an efficient basic infrastructure in the educational system, as a key element in fostering positive outcomes. The positive effect of remittances on child education is better understood within the context of public polici...
Ron-Román, Jorge; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Abatih, Emmanuel; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Vizcaíno-Ordóñez, Laura; Calva-Pacheco, Jaime; González-Andrade, Pablo; Berkvens, Dirk; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Fretin, David; Saegerman, Claude
Human brucellosis in Ecuador is underreported and based only on passive surveillance. Since 2008, brucellosis was removed from the list of communicable diseases in the country. Until now, the true human brucellosis picture has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the disease, identify risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity in humans, and isolate circulating strains of Brucella spp. in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Between 2006 and 2008, a large transect survey was conducted, based on blood sampling of people from the northwestern part of Ecuador (n=3733) together with an epidemiological inquiry. On the basis of three diagnostic tests used in parallel, the overall seroprevalence was estimated as 1.88% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-2.38). Based on a multivariable random effects logistic regression analysis, the main risk factors associated with human brucellosis seropositivity were contact with livestock (odds ratio [OR]=3.0; CI 1.25-7.08), consumption of fetus and placenta (OR=2.5; CI 1.18-5.22), and involvement in activities at risk for brucellosis infection (OR=1.8; CI 1.00-3.35). Noticeable variation in brucellosis seropositivity among humans within cantons was observed. The circulating strain was Brucella abortus biotype 4. This study emphasized that contact with livestock, consumption of fetus and placenta, and occupational hazard group were all significant risk factors for the transmission of brucellosis among individuals in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Alongside encouraging the launching of educational campaigns against brucellosis, especially in rural areas where 36% of the population lives, controlling this zoonotic disease in animals will directly benefit its prevention in humans, especially because there is no safe and efficacious vaccine against brucellosis in humans.
Bracco, Francesco; Cerna, Marco; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni
This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses. PMID:28074189
Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.
Egüez-Guevara, Pilar; Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond
Knowledge on disability's impact among older women and men in Ecuador is limited. This paper provides gender-specific estimates of disability prevalence, life expectancy with and without disability, and the factors associated with gender differences in disability at older age in Ecuador (2009-2010). Data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging Survey (SABE) Ecuador 2009 was used. Participants were 4480 men and women aged 60 and over. Life expectancy with and without disability was calculated using the Sullivan method. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore gender differences in disability prevalence. Two disability measures, indicating limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), were used. 60-year-old women in Ecuador can expect to live 16.3 years without ADL limitations compared to 16.9 years for men. Life expectancy without IADL limitations was 12.5 years for women and 15.5 years for men. At age 60, women's length of life with ADL and IADL disability was higher (7.9 years for women vs. 4.9 years for men with ADL, and 11.7 years for women vs. 6.3 years for men with IADL). After controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, chronic conditions and lifestyle factors, gender differences in ADL disability were not statistically significant. However, older women were 58% more likely (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.27, 1.95) to report having IADL limitations than men, even after including control variables. Interventions should tackle chronic disease, physical inactivity, and socioeconomic differences to reduce women's vulnerability to disability in older age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
It is presented a brief description of the investigations Technology. Considering the potentiality of the country, to export non traditional and exotic fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, and ornamental fresh cut flowers, studies ares initiated to use ionizing radiation as quarantine treatments. This paper reports the initial data obtained with two species of fruit fly of high incidence in the fruit producer zones of Ecuador, whose stable and permanent microclimates allow to produce a sort of fruits along all year
Jose Luis Ballesteros
Full Text Available This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses.
Ballesteros, Jose Luis; Bracco, Francesco; Cerna, Marco; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni
This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses.
Cruz, M.; Davis, A.; Dixon, H.; Pawlowski, Z. S.; Proano, J.
A large-scale study in Loja and El Oro Provinces, Ecuador, demonstrated that population-based treatment of human taeniasis with a low dose of praziquantel is feasible and effective for the short-term control of transmission of Taenia solium in hyperendemic areas. Chemotherapeutic intervention also effectively promoted local preventive measures and contributed greatly to the elaboration of a long-term control programme. PMID:2805217
A large-scale study in Loja and El Oro Provinces, Ecuador, demonstrated that population-based treatment of human taeniasis with a low dose of praziquantel is feasible and effective for the short-term control of transmission of Taenia solium in hyperendemic areas. Chemotherapeutic intervention also effectively promoted local preventive measures and contributed greatly to the elaboration of a long-term control programme.
Luciano Abelardo Ponce Vaca
Full Text Available In the context of coffee growing, Ecuador is characterized by planting two main commercial species of Coffea arabica L. (Arabica coffee, and Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner (Robusta coffee, where small production units and agroforestry systems predominate. To overcome the low national production, which constitutes the central problem of coffee growing in the country, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock of Ecuador, promoted the project «Reactivation of the Ecuadorian coffee industry», which contributes to food security and nutrition with integral approach. In these circumstances, the objective of this paper is to analyze the importance of coffee agroforestry systems for agro-alimentary and nutritional security in Ecuador. The proposal is born from the agro-economic diagnosis «case study», from the situation of the Coffee Production Units, from the Association of Peasants «Juntos Lucharemos» from the La Unión parish of the Jipijapa county, province of Manabí, in which they settled Main contributions to the agro-alimentary and nutritional security coming from the coffee agroforestry systems, this allowed to analyze characteristics related to the object of study. Based on the research results, gaps in national consumption needs were detected. This proposal contributed to articulate and promote the reactivation of coffee growing on agroecological bases, in harmony with the dimensions of sustainability in order to protect and conserve biodiversity and the coffee forest.
Molina, Santiago; Fuller, Angela K.; Morin, Dana J.; Royle, J. Andrew
The Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) is the only extant species of bear in South America and is considered threatened across its range and endangered in Ecuador. Habitat loss and fragmentation is considered a critical threat to the species, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding its distribution and abundance. The species is thought to occur at low densities, making field studies designed to estimate abundance or density challenging. We conducted a pilot camera-trap study to estimate Andean bear density in a recently identified population of Andean bears northwest of Quito, Ecuador, during 2012. We compared 12 candidate spatial capture–recapture models including covariates on encounter probability and density and estimated a density of 7.45 bears/100 km2 within the region. In addition, we estimated that approximately 40 bears used a recently named Andean bear corridor established by the Secretary of Environment, and we produced a density map for this area. Use of a rub-post with vanilla scent attractant allowed us to capture numerous photographs for each event, improving our ability to identify individual bears by unique facial markings. This study provides the first empirically derived density estimate for Andean bears in Ecuador and should provide direction for future landscape-scale studies interested in conservation initiatives requiring spatially explicit estimates of density.
Hynes, Marya; Demarco, Maria; Araneda, Juan Carlos; Cumsille, Francisco
Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.
Full Text Available Desde la década de los 1980, las organizaciones del movimiento indígena en Ecuador lucharon no sólo por derechos económicos, políticos o culturales, sino además por una reconstrucción de la sociedad y del Estado ecuatoriano. Esta reconstrucción pasa por conceptos bastante específicos como Interculturalidad y Plurinacionalidad. Aún si estos conceptos fueron adoptados en la Constitución del 2008, desde la perspectiva del movimiento indígena, todavía falta implementarlos. Este texto es un análisis del desarrollo tanto del movimiento indígena como de sus conceptos con un enfoque en las relaciones entre las diferentes organizaciones y conceptos. English: The fight of indigenous movement organizations in the Republic of Ecuador (Ecuador since the 1980s has not only been for equal economic, political or cultural rights, but also for reconstruction of the Ecuadorean society and the State. This reconstruction is formed alongside quite specific concepts, such as Interculturality and Plurinationality. Even if these concepts have been adopted in the Constitution of 2008, from the perspective of the Indigenous movement, they are yet to be implemented. This article is an analysis of the development of both Indigenous movement and their concepts with a focus on the interrelation between the different organizations and Interculturality and Plurinationality.
Cadena, Edwin A.; Mejia-Molina, Alejandra; Brito, Carla M.; Peñafiel, Sofia; Sanmartin, Kleber J.; Sarmiento, Luis B.
Ecuador is well known for its extensive extant biodiversity, however, its paleobiodiversity is still poorly explored. Here we report seven new Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil localities from the Pacific coast, inter-Andean depression and Napo basin of Ecuador, including vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, and microfossils. The first of these localities is called El Refugio, located near the small town of Chota, Imbabura Province, from where we report several morphotypes of fossil leaves and a mycetopodid freshwater mussel of the Upper Miocene Chota Formation. A second site is also located near the town of Chota, corresponding to potentially Pleistocene to Holocene lake deposits from which we report the occurrence of leaves and fossil diatoms. A third locality is at the Pacific coast of the country, near Rocafuerte, a town in Esmeraldas Province, from which we report a late Miocene palm leaf. We also report the first partially articulated skull with teeth from a Miocene scombridid (Mackerels) fish from El Cruce locality, and completely preserved seeds from La Pila locality, both sites from Manabí Province. Two late Cretaceous fossil sites from the Napo Province, one near Puerto Napo showing a good record of fossil shrimps and a second near the town of Loreto shows the occurrence of granular amber and small gymnosperms seeds and cuticles. All these new sites and fossils show the high potential of the sedimentary sequences and basins of Ecuador for paleontological studies and for a better understanding of the fossil record of the country and northern South America.
Full Text Available Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.
Tapia-Armijos, María Fernanda; Homeier, Jürgen; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Leuschner, Christoph; de la Cruz, Marcelino
Deforestation and fragmentation are major components of global change; both are contributing to the rapid loss of tropical forest area with important implications for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation. The forests of South Ecuador are a biological 'hotspot' due to their high diversity and endemism levels. We examined the deforestation and fragmentation patterns in this area of high conservation value using aerial photographs and Aster satellite scenes. The registered annual deforestation rates of 0.75% (1976-1989) and 2.86% (1989-2008) for two consecutive survey periods, the decreasing mean patch size and the increasing isolation of the forest fragments show that the area is under severe threat. Approximately 46% of South Ecuador's original forest cover had been converted by 2008 into pastures and other anthropogenic land cover types. We found that deforestation is more intense at lower elevations (premontane evergreen forest and shrubland) and that the deforestation front currently moves in upslope direction. Improved awareness of the spatial extent, dynamics and patterns of deforestation and forest fragmentation is urgently needed in biologically diverse areas like South Ecuador.
Meekums, Hayley; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Sparks, Alexandra M; Oviedo, Yisela; Sandoval, Carlos; Chico, Martha E; Stothard, J Russell; Cooper, Philip J; Nejsum, Peter; Betson, Martha
Since the nematodes Trichuris trichiura and T. suis are morphologically indistinguishable, genetic analysis is required to assess epidemiological cross-over between people and pigs. This study aimed to clarify the transmission biology of trichuriasis in Ecuador. Adult Trichuris worms were collected during a parasitological survey of 132 people and 46 pigs in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. Morphometric analysis of 49 pig worms and 64 human worms revealed significant variation. In discriminant analysis morphometric characteristics correctly classified male worms according to host species. In PCR-RFLP analysis of the ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-2) and 18S DNA (59 pig worms and 82 human worms), nearly all Trichuris exhibited expected restriction patterns. However, two pig-derived worms showed a "heterozygous-type" ITS-2 pattern, with one also having a "heterozygous-type" 18S pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit partitioned worms by host species. Notably, some Ecuadorian T. suis clustered with porcine Trichuris from USA and Denmark and some with Chinese T. suis. This is the first study in Latin America to genetically analyse Trichuris parasites. Although T. trichiura does not appear to be zoonotic in Ecuador, there is evidence of genetic exchange between T. trichiura and T. suis warranting more detailed genetic sampling.
Lessmann, Janeth; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa
Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation. PMID:25360277
Cevallos, Varsovia; Ponce, Patricio; Waggoner, Jesse J; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Coloma, Josefina; Quiroga, Cristina; Morales, Diego; Cárdenas, Maria José
The wide and rapid spread of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses represent a global public health problem, especially for tropical and subtropical environments. The early detection of CHIKV and ZIKV in mosquitoes may help to understand the dynamics of the diseases in high-risk areas, and to design data based epidemiological surveillance to activate the preparedness and response of the public health system and vector control programs. This study was done to detect ZIKV and CHIKV viruses in naturally infected fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes from active epidemic urban areas in Ecuador. Pools (n=193; 22 pools) and individuals (n=22) of field collected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from high-risk arboviruses infection sites in Ecuador were analyzed for the presence of CHIKV and ZIKV using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that both ZIKV and CHIKV viruses circulating in Ecuador correspond to the Asian lineages. Minimum infection rate (MIR) of CHIKV for Esmeraldas city was 2.3% and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was 3.3%. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of ZIKV for Portoviejo city was 5.3% and for Manta city was 2.1%. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for Portoviejo city was 6.9% and 2.6% for Manta city. Detection of arboviruses and infection rates in the arthropod vectors may help to predict an outbreak and serve as a warning tool in surveillance programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Manzanilla, Osvaldo Villarreal; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão
The homology of three somatic systems in Schizomida is studied yielding the following results: (1) proposal of homology and chaetotaxy of abdominal setae in Surazomus; (2) revision of the cheliceral chaetotaxy in Schizomida, with suggestion of new homology scheme between Hubbardiidae and Protoschizomidae, description of a new group of setae in Hubbardiinae (G7), and division of setae group 5 in two subgroups, G5A and G5B; (3) proposal of segmental homology between trimerous and tetramerous female flagellum in Hubbardiinae with association of segment III of tri-segmented species to segments III + IV of tetra-segmented species. Considerations about the dorsal microsetae on the male flagellum are made. The genus Surazomus in Ecuador is revised. The sympatric species Surazomus palenque sp. nov. and S. kitu sp. nov. (Ecuador, Pichincha) are described and illustrated. The female of S. cuenca (Rowland and Reddell, 1979) is described, with two new distributional records for the species. Surazomus cumbalensis (Kraus, 1957) is recorded for the first time from Ecuador (Pichincha).
Full Text Available Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis.
Vasquez-Cevallos, Leonel A; Bobokova, Jana; González-Granda, Patricia V; Iniesta, José M; Gómez, Enrique J; Hernando, M Elena
Telemedicine is becoming increasingly important in Ecuador, especially in areas such as rural primary healthcare and medical education. Rural telemedicine programs in the country need to be strengthened by means of a technological platform adapted to local surroundings and offering advantages such as access to specialized care, continuing education, and so on, combined with modest investment requirements. This present article presents the design of a Telemedicine Platform (TMP) for rural healthcare services in Ecuador and a preliminary technical validation with medical students and teachers. An initial field study was designed to capture the requirements of the TMP. In a second phase, the TMP was validated in an academic environment along three consecutive academic courses. Assessment was by means of user polls and analyzing user interactions as registered automatically by the platform. The TMP was developed using Web-based technology and open code software. One hundred twenty-four students and 6 specialized faculty members participated in the study, conducting a total of 262 teleconsultations of clinical cases and 226 responses, respectively. The validation results show that the TMP is a useful communication tool for the documentation and discussion of clinical cases. Moreover, its usage may be recommended as a teaching methodology, to strengthen the skills of medical undergraduates. The results indicate that implementing the system in rural healthcare services in Ecuador would be feasible.
Izurieta, Ricardo O; Macaluso, Maurizio; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B; Guerra, Bolivar; Cruz, Ligia M; Galwankar, Sagar; Vermund, Sten H
The objectives of this report were to document the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and to examine potential risk factors for Mayaro virus infection among the personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. The study population consisted of the personnel of a garrison located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews and seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to Mayaro virus infection was assessed by evaluating IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies using ELISA. Of 338 subjects studied, 174 were from the Coastal zone of Ecuador, 73 from Andean zone, and 91 were native to the Amazonian rainforest. Seroprevalence of Mayaro virus infection was more than 20 times higher among Amazonian natives (46%) than among subjects born in other areas (2%). Age and hunting in the rainforest were significant predictors of Mayaro virus infection overall and among Amazonian natives. The results provide the first demonstration of the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and a systematic evaluation of risk factors for the transmission of this alphavirus. The large difference in prevalence rates between Amazonian natives and other groups and between older and younger natives suggest that Mayaro virus is endemic and enzootic in the rainforest, with sporadic outbreaks that determine differences in risk between birth cohorts of natives. Deep forest hunting may selectively expose native men, descendants of the Shuar and Huaronai ethnic groups, to the arthropod vectors of Mayaro virus in areas close to primate reservoirs.
Castro Saavedra, Diego Gabriel; Ehmig Dillon, Gunther Pablo
The present study aims to analyse the environmental accounting and the financial impact of the environmental costs for sustainable development of a multinational corporation within the beverage company such as Coca Cola Company in Ecuador. Since 2010, Coca Cola Company in Ecuador performs business operations under the name of Arca Ecuador, which is a part of the Mexican group Arca Continental that manages Coca Cola Brand in Mexico, Argentina and Ecuador. Sustainable development is part of the...
Full Text Available Se evaluó la frecuencia de mutaciones en los genes pfCRT y DHFR/DHPS del Plasmodium falciparum asociados a la resistencia a cloroquina y sulfadoxina-pirimetamina en 83 cepas provenientes de los distritos Esmeralda y Machala ubicados en las fronteras entre Ecuador-Perú y Ecuador-Colombia durante el año 2002. Se empleó la reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR convencional y sus variantes. El gen pfCRT presentó más de 90% de muestras mutantes en Esmeralda y Machala. Para el gen DHFR, el 90% de las cepas fueron muestras mutantes en Esmeralda, tres fueron mutaciones dobles y una triple; en Machala se encontró 25% de formas mutantes simples y 75% de formas mixtas (formas silvestres/mutantes. En conclusión, la resistencia a cloroquina se ha fijado en las cepas portadoras de la mutación K76T pfCRT, mientras que la impronta genética a la resistencia a pirimetamina está en evolución, principalmente en el distrito de Esmeralda
Arteaga, K.; Tutasi, P.; Jiménez, R.
This paper reports on an investigation into the chronology of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, during the period from the arrival of conquistadores in Ecuador in 1532 until the year 1900. A number of probable El Niño events and drought years can be dated from anecdotal reports of significant rainfall and drought in the equatorial region. The evidence of ENSO has been documented from early reports in the South America archives. A large number of books and articles have been reviewing from the Ecuadorian archives to obtain information on El Niño events that have occurred over the past centuries. This information is based on evidence obtained from the equatorial region, where strong and very strong El Niño events clearly separate the northern part of the Ecuadorian coast from the southern region, the normally rainy season specially from west-central to the south coast of Ecuador, as well as the drought years, reported in this region which is climatologically and oceanographically different from the moist Northern coast of Ecuador. Given the normal occurrence of rains in the southern coast of Ecuador, it is reasonable to expect that at least some of the major rainy seasons would be recorded in local chronicles and publications. This information has been compared with reports obtained from Peru. Relative strengths of events are based on such considerations as wind and current effects on travel times of ancient sailing ships, degree of physical damage and destruction, amounts of rainfall and flooding, human disease epidemic, mass mortality of endemic marine organism, rises in sea temperatures and sea levels, effects on coastal fisheries. This paper is the first survey of the historical sources concerned the rainfall and drought in Ecuador. In the course of this investigation we also noted some extended periods of time, near decadal or longer over the past records, when the amount and/or strength of El Niño and its resulting effects appeared to represent
Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation into the chronology of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO events, during the period from the arrival of conquistadores in Ecuador in 1532 until the year 1900. A number of probable El Niño events and drought years can be dated from anecdotal reports of significant rainfall and drought in the equatorial region. The evidence of ENSO has been documented from early reports in the South America archives. A large number of books and articles have been reviewing from the Ecuadorian archives to obtain information on El Niño events that have occurred over the past centuries. This information is based on evidence obtained from the equatorial region, where strong and very strong El Niño events clearly separate the northern part of the Ecuadorian coast from the southern region, the normally rainy season specially from west-central to the south coast of Ecuador, as well as the drought years, reported in this region which is climatologically and oceanographically different from the moist Northern coast of Ecuador. Given the normal occurrence of rains in the southern coast of Ecuador, it is reasonable to expect that at least some of the major rainy seasons would be recorded in local chronicles and publications. This information has been compared with reports obtained from Peru. Relative strengths of events are based on such considerations as wind and current effects on travel times of ancient sailing ships, degree of physical damage and destruction, amounts of rainfall and flooding, human disease epidemic, mass mortality of endemic marine organism, rises in sea temperatures and sea levels, effects on coastal fisheries. This paper is the first survey of the historical sources concerned the rainfall and drought in Ecuador. In the course of this investigation we also noted some extended periods of time, near decadal or longer over the past records, when the amount and/or strength of El Niño and its resulting effects
The new myodochine (Rhyparochromidae) genus Acrolophyses is described to accommodate the two new species A. aboricolous from Ecuador and Peru, designated as the type species, and A. hadros from Ecuador. The new species are diagnosed and described, and adult photographs, scanning electron photomicro...
Yadier Alberto Torres−Sánchez
Full Text Available Ecuador is the seventh largest economy in Latin America. From 2000 to 2012, the country has been expanding at an average rate of 1,15 % on a quarter over quarter basis, mostly due to a rise in exports. Ecuador´s economy is highly dependent on oil exports. In order to reach its full growth potential, the country needs to reduce its dependence on oil revenue; increase the tax base; achieve political stability and reduce the levels of poverty and inequality. The main objective of this research is specifically marked in estimate and forecast the Gross Domestic Product´s Growth Rate in Ecuador, applying for this Box – Jenkins´ Methodology for ARIMA models. It was obtained a forecast of 3,96 % approximately, that represents a logical result according with the time series.
Yadier Alberto Torres−Sánchez
Full Text Available Ecuador is the seventh largest economy in Latin America. From 2000 to 2012, the country has been expanding at an average rate of 1,15 % on a quarter over quarter basis, mostly due to a rise in exports. Ecuador´s economy is highly dependent on oil exports. In order to reach its full growth potential, the country needs to reduce its dependence on oil revenue; increase the tax base; achieve political stability and reduce the levels of poverty and inequality. The main objective of this research is specifically marked in estimate and forecast the Gross Domestic Product´s Growth Rate in Ecuador, applying for this Box – Jenkins´ Methodology for ARIMA models. It was obtained a forecast of 3,96 % approximately, that represents a logical result according with the time series.
Orces, Carlos H
The present study based on a nationally representative sample of older adults living in the Andes mountains and coastal region of the country indicates that 34.7% of older adults had fallen in the previous year in Ecuador. Among fallers, 30.6% reported a fall-related injury. The prevalence of falls was higher in women and among older adults residing in the rural Andes mountains. In the multivariate model, women, subjects with cognitive impairment, those reporting urinary incontinence, and those being physically active during the previous year were variables found independently associated with increased risk of falling among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, a gradual and linear increase in the prevalence of falls was seen as the number of risk factors increased. Falls represent a major public health problem among older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement programs of awareness and fall prevention among older adults at higher risk of falls.
Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
Haplotype and gene network analyses were performed on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b gene sequences of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis populations from Andean areas of Ecuador and southern Peru where the sand fly species transmit Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, respectively, and populations from the northern Peruvian Andes, for which transmission of Leishmania by Lu. ayacuchensis has not been reported. The haplotype analyses showed higher intrapopulation genetic divergence in northern Peruvian Andes populations and less divergence in the southern Peru and Ecuador populations, suggesting that a population bottleneck occurred in the latter populations, but not in former ones. Importantly, both haplotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that populations from Ecuador consisted of clearly distinct clusters from southern Peru, and the two populations were separated from those of northern Peru. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fernando A. Poletta
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar la frecuencia de tabaquismo y exposición ambiental al humo de tabaco en mujeres embarazadas de Ecuador y describir los perfiles sociodemográficos asociados con esos factores de riesgo perinatal. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal mediante una encuesta aplicada a mujeres de 18 a 46 años con más de 3 meses de embarazo que asistieron entre octubre de 2004 y septiembre de 2005 a sus consultas de seguimiento en siete servicios de maternidad de seis ciudades de Ecuador. Se analizaron los datos demográficos y de exposición medioambiental (variables independientes y su relación con el hábito de fumar cigarrillos y la exposición ambiental al humo de tabaco. RESULTADOS: De las 746 mujeres analizadas, 53,3% había fumado ocasionalmente y 4,3% había fumado habitualmente; de estas, 75,0% había dejado de fumar antes o durante el embarazo. De las encuestadas, 12,9% estuvo expuesta con frecuencia o siempre al humo de tabaco en ambientes cerrados. Tener mayor educación (11 años o más y un nivel socioeconómico medio o alto, ser caucásica y considerar aceptable que las mujeres de su comunidad fumen se asoció significativa y directamente con el hábito de fumar cigarrillos (P OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure among pregnant women in Ecuador and to describe the sociodemographic profiles associated with these perinatal risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study using a survey of women 18-46 years of age who were more than three months pregnant and attended follow-up consultations in seven maternity clinics in six cities in Ecuador between October 2004 and September 2005. Demographics and environmental exposure (independent variables data and their relationship to cigarette smoking and secondhand-smoke exposure were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 746 women studied, 53.3% had smoked occasionally, and 4.3%, regularly; of these, 75% had quit smoking before or during
Alkan, Cigdem; Zapata, Sonia; Bichaud, Laurence; Moureau, Grégory; Lemey, Philippe; Firth, Andrew E; Gritsun, Tamara S; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Depaquit, Jérôme; Charrel, Rémi N
A new flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), named after the village where it was discovered, was isolated from sand flies (Psathyromyia abonnenci, formerly Lutzomyia abonnenci) that are unique to the New World. This represents the first sand fly-borne flavivirus identified in the New World. EPEV exhibited a typical flavivirus genome organization. Nevertheless, the maximum pairwise amino acid sequence identity with currently recognized flaviviruses was 52.8%. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence showed that EPEV represents a distinct clade which diverged from a lineage that was ancestral to the nonvectored flaviviruses Entebbe bat virus, Yokose virus, and Sokoluk virus and also the Aedes-associated mosquito-borne flaviviruses, which include yellow fever virus, Sepik virus, Saboya virus, and others. EPEV replicated in C6/36 mosquito cells, yielding high infectious titers, but failed to reproduce either in vertebrate cell lines (Vero, BHK, SW13, and XTC cells) or in suckling mouse brains. This surprising result, which appears to eliminate an association with vertebrate hosts in the life cycle of EPEV, is discussed in the context of the evolutionary origins of EPEV in the New World. The flaviviruses are rarely (if ever) vectored by sand fly species, at least in the Old World. We have identified the first representative of a sand fly-associated flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), in the New World. EPEV constitutes a novel clade according to current knowledge of the flaviviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the virus genome showed that EPEV roots the Aedes-associated mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus. In light of this new discovery, the New World origin of EPEV is discussed together with that of the other flaviviruses. Copyright © 2015 Alkan et al.
Bernal, J E; Briceno, I
The people of Tumaco-La Tolita culture inhabited the borders of present-day Colombia and Ecuador. Already extinct by the time of the Spaniards arrival, they left a huge collection of pottery artifacts depicting everyday life; among these, disease representations were frequently crafted. In this article, we present the results of the personal examination of the largest collections of Tumaco-La Tolita pottery in Colombia and Ecuador; cases of Down syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis I H, mucopolysaccharidosis IV, a tumor of the face and a benign tumor in an old woman were found. We believe these to be among the earliest artistic representations of disease.
Full Text Available Este capítulo estudia en forma comparativa los sistemas de ES de Perú, Bolivia y Ecuador, que se caracterizan por un alto por ciento de población indígena y por su diversidad cultural y lingüística. Sus sistemas se han desarrollado de manera diversa.This chapter discusses, from a comparative perspective the higher education systems of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. These systems are characterized by a high percentage of native Indian population and by their cultural and linguistic diversity. Their systems have evolved in different ways.
The isopod Artystone trysibia Schioedte, 1866 is described by using a collection of specimens that were found parasitizing loricariid fish Chaetostoma dermorhynchum Boulenger, 1887 in the Tena River (Napo province, Ecuador, Amazonian region). Additionally to freshly collected specimens, complementary data of the parasite was obtained from preserved fishes at Ecuadorian museums. This is the first record of A. trysibia in Ecuador, and the most upstream location for the species. The new host fish, Chaetostoma dermorhynchum, is used locally as food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cabrera Sánchez, Diana Elizabeth
Mantener un nivel alto de competitividad en un mundo globalizado es indispensable para el desarrollo económico de un país; el Comercio Electrónico es una herramienta muy poderosa para mejorar las actividades comerciales en Ecuador. La Tesina titulada "Análisis del Comercio Electrónico en el Ecuador: Limitaciones para su Implementación" es un estudio teórico-analítico de la situación actual en la que se encuentra nuestro país en cuanto al desarrollo del comercio electrónico. El Capítulo ...
Maks Davis, Michael
El propósito de este trabajo es estudiar el impacto del cambio de vehículos privados en las tres principales ciudades de Ecuador, y evaluar si la demanda de electricidad creada podría ser satisfecha por energías renovables ubicadas dentro de los límites de la ciudad. El trabajo estudia las tres principales ciudades del Ecuador: Quito, Guayaquil y Cuenca. Se encontró que en teoría y en el caso extremo, si hubiese un cambio repentino donde todos los autos y VUDs de Quito sería...
Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington
Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. © Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.
Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482 in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482 and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482 of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador.
Full Text Available Six populations amounting to a total number of seventy genotypes of Jatropha curcas L. originating from Africa (Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso and Madagascar and Ecuador were investigated for genetic diversity using two AFLP primer combinations. The results revealed a high genetic diversity in the populations studied. The population with greatest genetic diversity was Madagascar (He = 0.2638 and I = 0.4066 and the least diverse was Senegal-Tamba (He = 0.1962 and I = 0.3079. AMOVA (analysis of molecular variance detected the highest proportion of variation within populations (81% of the total molecular variation. This may be attributed to the high level of allogamy observed in this species. The Nei's standard unbiased genetic distance (D between the populations ranged from 0.010 (Senegal-Tamba and Burkina Faso to 0.131 (Mali and Ecuador; the average was 0.063. Analysis of the genetic relationships among the 6 populations using both neighbor-joining cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCoA showed five clusters with globally, groupings of i most of Burkina Faso and Senegal-Tamba genotypes, ii most of Mali and Senegal-Diobass genotypes , iii most of Madagascar and Ecuador genotypes, and iv some mixings of genotypes with different origins. Considering the distance existing between the different origins there are prospects to develop F1 hybrids. The greatest heterosis might be expected from crossing involving genotypes of cluster I and cluster V which group the more distant genotypes. Such crossing schemes might produce greater success in the production of genetic variability and might maximize the exploitation of heterosis and segregation.
Cooper, Philip J; Vaca, Maritza; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha E; Santos, Darci N; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L
Rural residence is protective against atopy and wheeze-rhinitis-eczema symptoms in developed countries, an effect attributed to farming and poor hygiene exposures. There are few data from developing countries addressing this question. We compared atopy and wheeze-rhinitis-eczema symptoms between urban and rural Ecuador, and explored the effects of farming and poor hygiene exposures. We performed cross sectional studies of schoolchildren living in rural and urban Ecuador. Data on symptoms and farming/hygiene exposures were collected by parental questionnaire, atopy by allergen skin prick test reactivity and geohelminth infections by stool examinations. Among 2526 urban and 4295 rural schoolchildren, prevalence was: atopy (10.0% vs 12.5%, p=0.06), wheeze (9.4% vs 10.1%, p=0.05), rhinitis (8.1% vs 6.4%, p=0.02) and eczema (5.9% vs 4.7%, p=0.06). A small proportion of symptoms were attributable to atopy (range 3.9-10.7%) with greater attributable fractions for respiratory symptoms observed in urban schoolchildren. Respiratory symptoms were associated with poor hygiene/farming exposures: wheeze with lack of access to potable water; and rhinitis with household pets, no bathroom facilities and contact with large farm animals. Birth order was inversely associated with respiratory symptoms. Area of residence and atopy had few effects on these associations. Urban schoolchildren living in Ecuador have a similar prevalence of atopy, eczema and wheeze but a higher prevalence of rhinitis compared with rural children. Some farming and poor hygiene exposures were associated with an increase in the prevalence of wheeze or rhinitis while birth order was inversely associated with these symptoms.
Cooper, Philip J; Vaca, Maritza; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha E; Santos, Darci N; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L
Background Rural residence is protective against atopy and wheeze–rhinitis–eczema symptoms in developed countries, an effect attributed to farming and poor hygiene exposures. There are few data from developing countries addressing this question. We compared atopy and wheeze–rhinitis–eczema symptoms between urban and rural Ecuador, and explored the effects of farming and poor hygiene exposures. Methods We performed cross sectional studies of schoolchildren living in rural and urban Ecuador. Data on symptoms and farming/hygiene exposures were collected by parental questionnaire, atopy by allergen skin prick test reactivity and geohelminth infections by stool examinations. Results Among 2526 urban and 4295 rural schoolchildren, prevalence was: atopy (10.0% vs 12.5%, p=0.06), wheeze (9.4% vs 10.1%, p=0.05), rhinitis (8.1% vs 6.4%, p=0.02) and eczema (5.9% vs 4.7%, p=0.06). A small proportion of symptoms were attributable to atopy (range 3.9–10.7%) with greater attributable fractions for respiratory symptoms observed in urban schoolchildren. Respiratory symptoms were associated with poor hygiene/farming exposures: wheeze with lack of access to potable water; and rhinitis with household pets, no bathroom facilities and contact with large farm animals. Birth order was inversely associated with respiratory symptoms. Area of residence and atopy had few effects on these associations. Conclusions Urban schoolchildren living in Ecuador have a similar prevalence of atopy, eczema and wheeze but a higher prevalence of rhinitis compared with rural children. Some farming and poor hygiene exposures were associated with an increase in the prevalence of wheeze or rhinitis while birth order was inversely associated with these symptoms. PMID:24105783
Fredy RIVERA VÉLEZ
Full Text Available RESUMEN: La reivindicación de los derechos humanos en Ecuador tiene que ver con la percepción generalizada que se tiene de esos derechos y de la idiosincrasia de la sociedad. Para el autor, la vulneración de los derechos humanos no sólo proviene del Estado, sino también concierne a los ciudadanos. Así, la cultura política y social del Ecuador ha estado permeada por el clientelismo, sistema que ha generado relaciones de dependencia y dominación que confirman el poder en un sector, que impiden el desarrollo de la ciudadanía y hacen imposible la democratización del poder. La legalidad está al margen de la vida política y social, lo que permite que reglas mínimas como son los derechos humanos sean desconocidos y la sociedad no se plantee su reivindicación. La cultura política y social es fundamental para entender el escepticismo y la entrega a normas de conducta contrarias al ejercicio de la ciudadanía y en últimas a la consolidación de la dignidad.ABSTRACT: The reivindication of human rights in Ecuadror relates to the generalized vision of the population regarding those rights. For the author, the transgression of these rights does not only stem from the state, but also from the citizens. Social and political culture in Ecuador has been characterized by clientelism, dependence, and domination. This cultural system hampers the development of citizenship and makes democratization impossible. Social and political life is not affected by the rule of law, which prevents human rights from being widely known and demanded. Social and political culture is crucial to understand the scepticism and the prevalence of behaviors which are inimical to citizenship and human dignity.
Kelsh, Michael A; Morimoto, Libby; Lau, Edmund
To compare cancer mortality rates in Amazon cantons (counties) with and without long-term oil exploration and extraction activities. Mortality (1990 through 2005) and population census (1990 and 2001) data for cantons in the provinces of the northern Amazon Region (Napo, Orellana, Sucumbios, and Pastaza), as well as the province with the capital city of Quito (Pichincha province) were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Ecuador, Instituto Nacional del Estadistica y Censos (INEC). Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to evaluate total and cause-specific mortality in the study regions. Among Amazon cantons with long-term oil extraction, activities there was no evidence of increased rates of death from all causes (RR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.95-1.01) or from overall cancer (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73-0.92), and relative risk estimates were also lower for most individual site-specific cancer deaths. Mortality rates in the Amazon provinces overall were significantly lower than those observed in Pichincha for all causes (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.81-0.83), overall cancer (RR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.43-0.49), and for all site-specific cancers. In regions with incomplete cancer registration, mortality data are one of the few sources of information for epidemiologic assessments. However, epidemiologic assessments in this region of Ecuador are limited by underreporting, exposure and disease misclassification, and study design limitations. Recognizing these limitations, our analyses of national mortality data of the Amazon Region in Ecuador does not provide evidence for an excess cancer risk in regions of the Amazon with long-term oil production. These findings were not consistent or supportive of earlier studies in this region that suggested increased cancer risks.
Carlos H. Orces
Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the prevalence and determinants of fall-related injuries in the previous year among adults aged 60 years or older in Ecuador. Methods. The prevalence of fall-related injuries was estimated using cross-sectional data from the first national survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging study. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between participants’ demographic characteristics and fall-related injuries. Results. Of 5,227 participants with a mean age of 72.6 years, 11.4% (95% CI, 10.3%–12.7% reported a fall-related injury in Ecuador, representing an estimated 136,000 adults aged 60 years or older. Fall-related injuries were more frequently reported among older adults residing in the most urbanized and populated provinces of the country. After controlling for potential confounders, self-reported race as Indigenous (OR 2.2; 95% CI, 2.11–2.31, drinking alcohol regularly (OR 2.54; 95% CI, 2.46–2.63, subjects with greater number of comorbid conditions (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.97–2.08, and urinary incontinence (OR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.79–1.87 were factors independently associated with increased odds of sustaining fall-related injuries. Conclusions. Fall-related injuries represent a considerable burden for older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement fall prevention programs among subjects at higher risk for this type of injury.
Ebeling, Johannes; Yasué, Maï
During the last decade, forest certification has gained momentum as a market-based conservation strategy in tropical forest countries. Certification has been promoted to enhance forest management in countries where governance capacities are insufficient to adequately manage natural resources and enforce pertinent regulations, given that certification relies largely on non-governmental organisations and private businesses. However, at present there are few tropical countries with large areas of certified forests. In this study, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews in Ecuador and Bolivia to identify key framework conditions that influence the costs and benefits for companies to switch from conventional to certified forestry operations. Bolivia has a much greater relative area under certified forest management than Ecuador and also significantly more certified producers. The difference in the success of certification between both countries is particularly notable because Bolivia is a poorer country with more widespread corruption, and is landlocked with less access to export routes. Despite these factors, several characteristics of the Bolivian forest industry contribute to lower additional costs of certified forest management compared to Ecuador. Bolivia has stronger government enforcement of forestry regulations a fact that increases the cost of illegal logging, management units are larger, and vertical integration in the process chain from timber extraction to markets is higher. Moreover, forestry laws in Bolivia are highly compatible with certification requirements, and the government provides significant tax benefits to certified producers. Results from this study suggest that certification can be successful in countries where governments have limited governance capacity. However, the economic incentives for certification do not only arise from favourable market conditions. Certification is likely to be more successful where governments enforce
Full Text Available Neoliberal economic policies in Latin America have resulted in the rapid growth of nontraditional agricultural exports (NTAE. This growth is often seen as contributing to the alleviation of rural poverty. The paper examines this view with the focus on Ecuador, using the World Bank’s definition poverty as a reference. It is argued that the flower export expansion has created employment opportunities but did not allow the rural poor to raise themselves above the poverty line. Moreover, flower employment has undermined the pre-existing social networks and community organizations, increasing the levels of insecurity among rural families and undermining their ability to influence the processes of decision making. Resumen: Creando un páramo social? Exportaciones agrícolas no-tradicionales y pobreza rural en EcuadorLas políticas económicas neo-liberales en América Latina han resultado en el rápido crecimiento de las exportaciones agrícolas no tradicionales (EANT, lo que es considerado a menudo como un alivio de la pobreza rural. En este artículo se estudia esta visión para el caso de Ecuador, utilizando como referencia la definición de pobreza del Banco Mundial. Aunque se dice que la expansión en la exportación de flores ha creado oportunidades de empleo, no ha logrado que los pobres rurales crucen la línea de la pobreza. Además, el empleo en este sector ha socavado las redes sociales y organizaciones comunitarias anteriores, elevando los niveles de inseguridad entre las familias rurales y minando su capacidad de intervención en el proceso de toma de decisiones.
Adriana Tutillo Vallejo
Full Text Available La zona ecuatorial atraviesa de Este a Oeste las cuatro regiones del Ecuador, Amazonía, Sierra, Costa y Galápagos, representando de esta manera una muestra de la gran diversidad natural y cultural del Ecuador. A través del Ministerio de Turismo se busca impulsar el desarrollo de los destinos turísticos asentados a lo largo y alrededor de la Línea Equinoccial a través del proyecto “Ruta Paralelo Cero”. Es por esto que el objetivo de la investigación está encaminado a analizar el inventario de atractivos turísticos, el mercado y el desarrollo local importante para impulsar un turismo sustentable a lo largo de la Línea Equinoccial. A través de métodos geográficos y sociales como la observación directa, entrevistas a expertos locales, encuestas semiestructuradas, levantamiento cartográfico y el uso de sistemas de información geográfica, se analizó los objetivos planteados. Para el estudio se escogieron tres áreas turísticas y sus alrededores, Sierra (Mitad del Mundo, Costa (Pedernales y Amazonía (Reserva del Cuyabeno, éstas representan muestras de la diversidad que tiene el Ecuador. Los resultados mostraron una gran variedad de atractivos naturales y culturales que realzan el potencial turístico del Paralelo Cero. Los atractivos de la Sierra son los más visitados tanto por turistas nacionales como internacionales. En la Costa la demanda es eminentemente nacional, mientras que en la Amazonía es extranjera. El desafio más grande para el turismo sustentable en la nueva ruta es superar la desigualdad del desarrollo local actual.
Hernandez, Isabel; Reina-Ortiz, Miguel; Johnson, Ayesha; Rosas, Carlos; Sharma, Vinita; Teran, Santiago; Naik, Eknath; Salihu, Hamisu M; Teran, Enrique; Izurieta, Ricardo
The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS estimates that between 0.3% and 0.7% of adults aged 15 to 49 years were living with HIV in Ecuador in 2013. However, very little is known about the HIV prevalence rate among men who have sex with men (MSM) in that country. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding HIV/AIDS as well as to estimate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in one of the cities with high HIV prevalence rates in Ecuador. In this study, questionnaires were administered to 307 adult MSM. An HIV prevalence of 10% was observed. Knowledge about HIV was high; 91% of participants could identify how HIV is transmitted. Although consistent condom use for anal sex was relatively high (89%) among participants who reported having pay-for-service clients, only 64% reported using a condom during oral sex with a client. Participants who had multiple male sexual partners (i.e., their stable male partners plus other partner[s]) had 3.7 times higher odds of testing positive for HIV compared with those who did not. They also had reduced odds of condom use. Participants who were forced to have anal receptive sex had 3 times higher odds of testing positive for HIV. Despite the finding that participants exhibited high knowledge about HIV/AIDS, a high prevalence rate of HIV was observed, which warrants targeted behavioral interventions. These data are consistent with MSM being one of the highest at-risk population groups for HIV in this region of Ecuador.
Paola Andrea Vargas Moreno
Full Text Available El documento describe y analiza las posibilidades e imposibilidades de la Educación Superior Intercultural en Ecuador y México a partir de las relaciones (conflictos/negociaciones entre política pública educativa, como materialización del proyecto educativo de los Estados, e instituciones de educación superior intercultural vinculadas a organizaciones sociales indígenas. Para ello, se tendrán en cuenta a manera de ejemplo las trayectorias de dos instituciones de educación superior intercultural vinculadas a organizaciones indígenas: la Universidad Intercultural de las Nacionalidades y Pueblos Indígenas Amawtay Wasi (UIAW en Ecuador y la Universidad Intercultural de los Pueblos del Sur (UNISUR en el Estado de Guerrero, México. El documento propone tres momentos: en primera instancia, un encuadre histórico y teórico general sobre modelos de administración de la diferencia y modelos educativos que contextualice el análisis y permita situar similitudes, diferencias y conexiones entre Ecuador y México, posteriormente una breve descripción de las trayectorias de las dos instituciones caracterizadas como experiencias de educación superior desde abajo y, finalmente, a manera de conclusión y aporte al debate, un breve análisis respecto a las tendencias regionales emergentes en el campo de la educación superior intercultural en América Latina hoy fundamentado en el ejercicio comparativo.
Ricardo O Izurieta
Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this report were to document the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and to examine potential risk factors for Mayaro virus infection among the personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of the personnel of a garrison located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews and seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to Mayaro virus infection was assessed by evaluating IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies using ELISA. Results: Of 338 subjects studied, 174 were from the Coastal zone of Ecuador, 73 from Andean zone, and 91 were native to the Amazonian rainforest. Seroprevalence of Mayaro virus infection was more than 20 times higher among Amazonian natives (46% than among subjects born in other areas (2%. Conclusions: Age and hunting in the rainforest were significant predictors of Mayaro virus infection overall and among Amazonian natives. The results provide the first demonstration of the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and a systematic evaluation of risk factors for the transmission of this alphavirus. The large difference in prevalence rates between Amazonian natives and other groups and between older and younger natives suggest that Mayaro virus is endemic and enzootic in the rainforest, with sporadic outbreaks that determine differences in risk between birth cohorts of natives. Deep forest hunting may selectively expose native men, descendants of the Shuar and Huaronai ethnic groups, to the arthropod vectors of Mayaro virus in areas close to primate reservoirs.
Perez Giraldo, Johanna Sembelly; Vargas, William
Con la apertura económica y comercial ha aumentado la negociación de acuerdos comerciales por medio de los cuales los países han logrado tener acceso preferencial libre de aranceles aduaneros. Esta dinámica ha incrementado el uso de medidas no arancelaria como instrumentos para controlar y restringir el acceso a los mercados de los países. Por lo expuesto, esta investigación presenta y analiza las medidas no arancelarias que fueron aplicadas a Colombia por Ecuador y Argentina desde el año 201...
Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Abella, Juan; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Gregori, Maria; Fordyce, R Ewan
A new small probable Oligocene dolphin from Ecuador represents a new genus and species, Urkudelphis chawpipacha. The new taxon is known from a single juvenile skull and earbones; it differs from other archaic dolphins in features including widely exposed frontals at the vertex, a dorsally wide open vomer at the mesorostral groove, and a strongly projected and pointed lateral tuberosity of the periotic. Phylogenetic analysis places it toward the base of the largely-extinct clade Platanistoidea. The fossil is one of a few records of tropical fossil dolphins.
García Casella, Carlos Luis
La Corporación Financiera Internacional (IFC sus siglas en inglés), agencia dependiente del Banco Mundial estableció en 2006 principios y propuestas para los sistemas contables que producen informes microsociales o ambientales contables, se lo considera necesario para la financiación de proyectos de inversión de más de 10.000.000 dólares en países denominados emergentes que incluye a la Argentina. Los llamados principios de Ecuador ayudan a evitar o disminuir efectos nocivos ambientales y soc...
Espol; Calle Lituma, Numa Sebastián
El presente trabajo de titulación se enfoca en el diseño de un plan de marketing digital para el destino turístico "cuenca-ecuador", con la finalidad de potencializar la presencia online del lugar en concordancia con los requerimientos del mercado digital. La metodología de investigación utilizada se fundamentó en el estudio de caso, ya que la misma permitió utilizar diversas técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas de recolección y análisis de información necesaria para la determinación de l...
Guzmán Figueroa, Diego Gustavo
La presente tesis analiza la vida institucional, de la Unidad de Promoción y Desarrollo Forestal del Ecuador – PROFORESTAL, en el periodo comprendido entre el 2008 y 2011, la que se creó con el propósito de ejecutar el Plan Nacional de Forestación y Reforestación (PNFR). Se abordan así desde varias dimensiones de análisis de la gobernanza forestal los alcances, así como las limitaciones del programa.
Guzmán Muñoz Fernández
Full Text Available This paper presents a fieldwork-based analysis on the sociodemographic characteristics, travel arrangements, motivations and travel experience evaluation of tourists visiting Quito, Ecuador. The results of this research show differences in the profile of tourists in terms of travel arrangements, their motivation and their evaluation of the destination, based on tourists’ geographical origin. The main practical implication of this research is to better understand the characteristics of tourists who visit Quito, with the purpose of designing cultural and touristic products that meet the needs of different groups of travelers.
Vega-Ojeda, Yadira; Bravo-Benavides, Diana
Esta investigación pretende generar un índice ambiental de los gobiernos autónomos descentralizados provinciales del Ecuador en 2013. La metodología se basa en la sistematización de componentes ambientales, para lo cual se han construido tres componentes (gasto en protección ambiental, gestión ambiental y comportamiento ambiental) basados en información proporcionada por la base de datos del Censo de Información Ambiental Económica en Gobiernos Autónomos Descentralizados Provin...
Mazacón Roca, Betthy Narcisa; Zambrano Mazacón, Jimmy Antonio; Álvarez Macias, Blanca Cecilia
Objective. Analyze the main causes of mortality in Los Ríos-Ecuador during 2015 and thus contribute to the solution of these problems in the area. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study of mortality registers of the 2015 data base of the INEC, analyzed with the statistical package SPSS- version 22. Results. We analyzed 66,598 death records of which 2121 correspond to the province of Los Ríos, the average age of life was 66.12 years, the mestizo race has the highest mortality...
Jorge Vladimir Núñez Grijalva
Full Text Available Most of the studies concerning trading companies, addressing aspects of the initial stage in the life of these, such as its formation stage. However, few studies have examined the final stage of a company and especially the causes of mortality and closing. This article analyzes the main causes of mortality trading companies from three different and complementary disciplines at once: legal, administrative and financial accounting in commercial companies of the Central Region of Ecuador. This research provides a summary of the major causes of mortality, which should be considered by the current and future employers, in order to strengthen their decisions regarding the survival of companies.
Guevara, Ángel; Moreira, Juan; Criollo, Hipatia; Vivero, Sandra; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, Varsovia; Prandi, Rosanna; Caicedo, Cynthia; Robinzon, Francisco; Anselmi, Mariella
Chagas disease was described in Ecuador in 1930 in the province of Guayas and thereafter in various provinces. Triatomine were reported in the province of Esmeraldas but no human infection has been described. Here we report the first evidence that the disease does exist in the province of Esmeraldas. In indigenous Awá communities located in the northwest jungle of the Esmeraldas province, 144 individuals were tested using ELISA and PCR for T.cruzi of which 5 (3.47%) were positive. Twenty eight triatomine were collected, 27 were Triatoma dispar and 1 Pastrongylus rufotuberculatus, T.cruzi was detected in 11 (42.3%) of 26 insects.
Lippi, Catherine; Ibarra, Anna; Waggoner, Egan; León, Renato; Ortega, Fernando; B, Marilyn; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy; Ryan, Sadie; Nightingale, Ryan
Introduction: Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease in the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador, with the first cases reported in 2002 and periodic outbreaks since then. Here we report the results of a pilot study conducted in two cities in 2014: Puerto Ayora (PA) on Santa Cruz Island, and Puerto Baquerizo Moreno (PB) on Santa Cristobal Island. The aims of this study were to assess the social-ecological risk factors associated with dengue and mosquito presence at the household level. Methods...
Full Text Available The media crisis is linked to the crisis of public institutions. This shows the emergence of social practices focused on user activation and consequently, we can observe a decline of vertical mediation. However, these phenomena do not extend horizontally at a global level. With this study, we compare the results of a survey of more than two thousand university students from Mexico and Ecuador, in which we question the perceptions of these strategic groups about phenomena such as political participation on and offline, and political information consumption.
Abella, Juan; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Gregori, Maria; Fordyce, R. Ewan
A new small probable Oligocene dolphin from Ecuador represents a new genus and species, Urkudelphis chawpipacha. The new taxon is known from a single juvenile skull and earbones; it differs from other archaic dolphins in features including widely exposed frontals at the vertex, a dorsally wide open vomer at the mesorostral groove, and a strongly projected and pointed lateral tuberosity of the periotic. Phylogenetic analysis places it toward the base of the largely-extinct clade Platanistoidea. The fossil is one of a few records of tropical fossil dolphins. PMID:29261688
Loyola Constante, Santiago Enrique
La innovación en tecnología y la rápida evolución de los dispositivos móviles, ha llevado a las aplicaciones móviles a convertirse en una de las herramientas más utilizadas de hoy en día. Aplicaciones orientadas a mejorar la experiencia del turismo, se desarrollan e implementan continuamente, ya sea como aplicaciones oficiales de la administración pública o como iniciativas de terceros. Quito, capital de Ecuador, está continuamente impulsando su imagen como uno de los principales destinos tur...
This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Ecuador carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation
BardWigdor, Gabriela; Bonavitta, Paola
Resumen En febrero del año 2016, dos turistas argentinas fueron asesinadas en Montañita, Ecuador. El caso repercutió en Sudamérica con fuerza y engrosó la lista del creciente índice de feminicidios de la región. En Argentina, en el marco de la publicitada campaña “Ni una Menos”, el doble asesinato generó nuevas discusiones entre movimientos feministas, agrupaciones por los derechos humanos, medios de comunicación de diversa índole y la sociedad en general. Proponemos analizar cómo trataron el...
Belinda Marta Lema-Cachinell
Full Text Available In work addresses some theoretical considerations - related methodological pedagogical and psychological research training budgets of teachers of technical and technological institutes, its foundations, characterizing the research training and how they are defined from educational policy , its components and features for the development of research skills in the process of training of technicians and technologists in the Commercial Institute of Technology and Vocational Training Administration and the importance to comprehensive training, as part of the changes that are experienced in higher education currently in the Ecuador , which must be analyzed in a broader dimension , not disjointed from the changes occurring in the world and the region.
Emily Ramos Guillín
Full Text Available Three new species of the Drosophila tripunctata group are described and illustrated. These new species were captured using plastic bottles containing pieces of fermented banana with yeast. The collections were from Napo Province, Ecuador at 2 200 m and 3 362 m above sea level. The new species are: Drosophila napoensis sp. nov., Drosophila cuyuja sp. nov. and Drosophila quijos sp. nov. The first two species belong to subgroup I and the latter species belong to subgroup III of the Drosophila tripunctata group.
Edwin A. Cadena
Full Text Available New Pleistocene fossilized turtle remains from five localities of western Ecuador (Santa Elena Province are described here. All these shell (carapace and plastron fossil remains come from the Tablazo Formation and belong to three different lineages of cryptodires (“hidden-necked” turtles. The most abundant remains belong to geoemydids, attributed here to the genus Rhinoclemmys (indeterminate species. Less abundant in occurrence are the kinosternidids, attributed to Kinosternon (indeterminate species, and the first fossil record of chelydrids, Chelydra(indeterminate species, in the entirety of Central and South America.
Roberto Watson-Quesada; Roberto Blanco-Torrens; Miguel Á. Chavez-Moncayo
El río Portoviejo se encuentra en la ciudad homónima de la provincia Manabí, Ecuador. Los cambios ocurridos en el cauce del río y la construcción de obras de urbanización sobre una de sus márgenes han originado un talud inestable, proclive a la ocurrencia de deslizamientos y desprendimientos que ocasionan daños a las construcciones. Algunas técnicas de estabilización (muros de hormigón, muros de gaviones, entre otras) han sido aplicadas sin éxito al ser finalmente destruidas por la propia acc...
Baeza, Carlos; Guzmán, Rodrigo; Tirado, Miriam; López-Parra, Ana María; Rodríguez, Tatiana; Mesa, María Soledad; Fernández, Eva; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo
Population frequencies for the 9 Y-STR loci included in the "minimal haplotype" from Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD), plus other 6 Y-STRs (DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, GATA A7.2, GATA H4 and GATA A10) were obtained for a sample of 120 males from Quito (Ecuador). One hundred and sixteen unique haplotypes were identified within the sample. Haplotype diversity (0.9994) was among the highest in comparison to other populations from Iberia and South-America. Genetic distances were calculated and our sample presented significative differences with all other samples, the lowest values being with a Guinean sample.
Szekely, József Paul
Arenillas Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológica Arenillas - REA) is located in southwestern Ecuador, close to the Peruvian border, and belongs to the Tumbesian Endemism Region and is one of the last remnants of tropical dry forests at altitudes below 100 m a.s.l. Climate is characterized by a rainy season extending from January to May and a dry season extending from June to December. Few studies on the amphibians from the reserve have been made so far. Over a period of twelve months, from 201...
Dereure, J; Espinel, I; Barrera, C; Guerrini, F; Martini, A; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H; Le Pont, F
In two endemic leishmaniasis foci of the Pacific coast of Ecuador 34 dogs suspected of having the disease have been surveyed clinically, serologically and parasitologically; immunofluorescence and electrosyneresis tests, lymph node aspirates, biopsies and smears have been performed. From two dogs with ulcers only one had ulcers on the muzzle and the scrotum infected by Leishmania (L. guyanensis complex). The isolated strain was identified as Leishmania panamensis. The disease was strictly cutaneous. In the study area the dog seems to be more a victim-host than a reservoir.
Aguirre Clavijo, Marcela
Durante los últimos años, Ecuador ha realizado grandes avances para asegurar la estabilidad financiera de las áreas protegidas. La actual Constitución Política (2008) señala que las políticas de gestión ambiental se aplicarán de manera transversal y obligatoria, declara como estratégico al patrimonio natural, y refuerza el rol planificador y administrador del Estado con la consiguiente responsabilidad de impulsar su financiamiento. Así también, compromete la participación de ot...
Sotomayor Paredes, Marco Andrés
Con la finalidad de mejorar el acceso a los servicios de salud de la red del Ministerio de Salud Pública en el Ecuador, se implementó la estrategia de adscripción de la población a las unidades de salud del primer nivel de atención, la misma que permite garantizar la dotación de recursos necesarios para atender las necesidades y brindar una atención integral y de calidad. Sin embargo, a los ocho meses de haber iniciado el proceso y con un porcentaje de adscripción del 28,4% de la población...
Ríos Villacorta, Alberto
Uno de los problemas más críticos de la operación y gestión de las autopistas es el elevado consumo de energía en los sistemas de iluminación. El desarroll o e implementación de innovadores sistemas de control y la integración de sistemas renovables de generación eléctrica en los sistemas de alumbrado permitirán obtener un significativo ahorro energético en las autopistas. El Gobierno del Ecuador ha iniciado u n ambicioso proyecto de construcción de nuevas autopis...
Andrade, Claudia M; Ayaviri, Víctor D
La presente investigación tiene como objetivo estudiar las cuestiones ambientales que afectan la producción del cultivo de papa (solanum tuberosum) y su relación con la seguridad alimentaria del cantón Guano, Ecuador. Para ello, se aplicó una encuesta dirigida a la población rural para construir un modelo de regresión lineal simple, que se complementa con observación de campo y entrevistas. Los principales hallazgos son destrucción de páramos, incremento de plagas y enfermedades en los cultiv...
Full Text Available Nadie en Ecuador olvidará el llamado “salvataje bancario” (1998 y el mal denominado “feriado bancario” (1999, que conllevó al congelamiento de fondos y la crisis financiera más importante del Ecuador… El Código de Buen Gobierno Corporativo Ecuatoriano contiene las 51 medidas o recomendaciones tomadas del Código Andino de Gobierno Corporativo. Es un primer paso positivo, aunque las recomendaciones son meramente simples invitaciones o “música celestial”, al carecer de un carácter vinculatorio u obligatorio para los empresarios, directores y accionistas de control. Dichas recomendaciones solo se convierten en mandato para aquellas compañías que las implementen en sus estatutos sociales; pero aún ésta protección es muy débil, puesto que nada impide a que el accionista de control o una simple mayoría de socios reforme los estatutos a su conveniencia cuando lo estime conveniente a su gusto o arbitrio, para incumplir las disposiciones estatutarias. Incluso en Ecuador, donde la violación de las normas estatutarias no es sancionada, ya que con los actuales medios disponibles a los accionistas de minoría es casi imposible iniciar una acción judicial, es imperioso gozar de legitimidad activa para demandar a la sociedad; no hablemos si quiera de demandar a los accionistas de control. En materia de mercado de valores, Ecuador todavía está “en pañales” frente a otros países latinoamericanos, no hablar siquiera de mercados más desarrollados. Una adecuada regulación normativa de la legislación societaria y de mercado de valores, encaminada a la protección de los accionistas minoritarios, en resumen, un mejor gobierno corporativo, lo cual otorgaría mayores incentivos para ampliar y desarrollar el mercado de capitales. El presente trabajo presenta las recomendaciones para un mejor gobierno corporativo en Ecuador.
Olalla Velásquez, Edwin Gilberto
154 hojas : ilustraciones, 29 x 21 cm + CD-ROM 0731 Es una guía metodológica que permite el desarrollo y aplicación de indicadores de gestión en las áreas relevantes de los Municipios del Ecuador. Las áreas relevantes importantes de los Gobiernos Municipales, forman parte de la estructura orgánica institucional y están localizadas en los tres niveles; estratégico, táctico y operativo, cuyo cumplimiento de objetivos y metas, será medido y evaluado con los indicadores de gestión establecidos...
Este trabajo se enfoca en las luchas de las mujeres para convertirse en actores políticos en tres países latinoamericanos: Brasil, Argentina y Ecuador. Analiza la educación de las mujer es como un factor decisivo para obtener el derecho al voto e ingresar a la arena pública mediante la publicación de periódicos. Se estudia la manera como las mujeres crearon sus propias organizaciones políticas, muchas de las cuales fueron respaldadas por liberales, conservadores e incluso socialistas. A pe...
Jhon Alejandro Boza Valle; Elsye Teresa Cobo Litardo; Fidelina Castillo Morales
The main objective of the present article is to show the roll the university should play in the context of Popular and Solidarity Economy for local development in Ecuador. It is based on w hat has been happing in Latin America, particularly Ecuadorian University and Rafael Correa ́s speeches about the problem to come to conclusions about what ha s to be done to get a local development. It also offers a definition about Popular and Solidarity E conomy with its acronym in Spanish.
Jhon Alejandro Boza Valle
Full Text Available The main objective of the present article is to show the roll the university should play in the context of Popular and Solidarity Economy for local development in Ecuador. It is based on w hat has been happing in Latin America, particularly Ecuadorian University and Rafael Correa ́s speeches about the problem to come to conclusions about what ha s to be done to get a local development. It also offers a definition about Popular and Solidarity E conomy with its acronym in Spanish.
Recaldel, C.; Echeverria, M. J.; Munnos, A.; Haro, I.; Escudero, Patricio Londo; Cabezas, Luis
Full text: The hydraulic energy finds to predict the potential. The development of other prediction methods like the theory of the chaos, incentivate to carry out comparisons with models of excellent trajectory such as ARIMA de BOX- Jenkins. The hydraulic energy potential of Rio Blanco Quimiag -Riobamba- Ecuador has been modeled in order to predict the flows in L/s starting from the registrations stored in the station 2 of the Empresa Electrica Riobamba SA. The pattern ARIMA (SPSS 11) was applied and the theory of the chaos (TISEAN 2.1). The precision of the prediction was determined by the analysis of residuals or errors, correlation and test of Tukey. (author)
Bazantes, Zoila Piedad; Ruiz Carpio, María Lucia; Álvarez Gutiérrez, Marcela Leonor
UNIVERSITY STUDENT DEVELOPMENT IN ECUADOR AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE GRADUATEEl abandono de los estudios universitarios, es un inconveniente social que se genera con mucha frecuencia en diversas Instituciones de Educación Superior a nivel mundial. La falta de apoyo económico y el poco aprovechamiento de las clases, han provocado que en varias universidades del país, ciertos bachilleres decidan retirarse de las clases. El estudio realizado demostró que muchos de los estudiantes ...
En la década de 1980 terminó la industrialización dirigida por el Estado, comenzaron las reformas de mercado y cambió la forma de gestionar la política económica. En Ecuador los gobiernos de los presidentes Osvaldo Hurtado (1981-1984), León Febres Cordero (1984-1988), Rodrigo Borja (1988-1992) y la influencia del FMI promovieron este cambio adaptativo al régimen económico alentado por las emergentes doctrinas neoconservadoras de la época. Se estudian las cartas de intención remitidas al FMI y...
Simone Lasso, Carmen Amalia
A partir de las reformas constitucionales de 16 de enero de 1996, y con la expedición de la Constitución Política de la República de 11 de agosto de 1998, se ha previsto en el Ecuador un sistema de control de constitucionalidad de los actos administrativos de carácter particular que coexiste con otras formas de control en sede administrativa y en sede jurisdiccional. Así, los actos administrativos pueden ser impugnados por la vía de la acción de inconstitucionalidad o del amparo, cua...
Sosa Freire, Rex Típton
A lo largo del siglo XIX, concretamente desde 1830, el país requirió de un símbolo identificatorio que lo identifique del resto de las naciones del continente. El estudio analiza el proceso de configuración del escudo de armas del Ecuador caracterizado por las constantes transformaciones que se instrumentalizaron al calor de los acontecimientos políticos de los regímenes de turno así como de las influencias de los escudos de la naciones vecinas. Tras las respectivas descripcion...
We would like to draw your attention to the 2015 Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, to be held in Ibarra, Ecuador from 4 to 17 March 2015. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS IS 21 NOVEMBER 2014. The lectures will cover a broad range of HEP topics at a level suitable for students working towards a PhD in experimental particle physics. Note that financial support may be available for Latin American students attending the School. Although the School is targeted particularly at students from Latin American countries, it is open to self-funding students from other regions. More details can be found here.
Tello Torres, Nanci Leonor
En el Ecuador las mujeres son protagonistas de dos aspectos importantes, las que destinan mayor carga global de trabajo respecto de los hombres, especialmente el trabajo no remunerado o doméstico; y las mayores receptoras de remesas de los emigrantes que están fuera del país y por ende administradoras de estos recursos. El resultado más importante de este estudio fue constatar que las mujeres, aumentaron su carga de trabajo no remunerado por los compromisos que adquieren con los familiares m...
Fabian, Peter; Kohlpaintner, Michael; Rollenbeck, Ruetger
Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected in the mountaineous rain forest of south Ecuador show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates are derived comparable to those found in polluted central Europe. As significant anthropogenic sources are lacking at the research site it is suspected that biomass burning upwind in the Amazon basin is the major source of the enhanced sulfate and nitrate imput. Regular rain and fogwater sampling along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m has been carried out in the Podocarpus National Park close to the Rio SanFrancisco (3 degrees 58'S, 79 degrees 5'W) in southern Ecuador. pH values, electrical conductivity and chemical ion composition were measured at the TUM-WZW using standard methods. Results reported cover over one year from March 2002 until May 2003. Annual deposition rates of sulfate were calculated ranging between 4 and 13 kg S/ha year, almost as high as in polluted central Europe. Nitrogen deposition via ammonia (1.5-4.4 kg N/ha year) and nitrate (0.5-0.8 kg N/ha year) was found to be lower but still much higher than to be expected in such pristine natural forest environment. By means of back trajectory analyses it can be shown that most of the enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition is most likely due to forest fires far upwind of the ecuadorian sampling site, showing a seasonal variation, with sources predominantly found in the East/North East during January-March (Colombia, Venezuala, Northern Brazil) and East/SouthEast during July-September (Peru, Brazil). Our results show that biomass burning in the Amazon basin is the predominant source of sulfur and nitrogen compounds that fertilize the mountaineous rain forest in south Ecuador. The
Gallegos Espinosa, Sylvia; Nicolalde Cifuentes, Marcelo; Santana Porbén, Sergio
The ELAN Ecuadorian Study of Hospital Malnutrition returned a malnutrition rate of 37.1% in public hospitals of Ecuador [Gallegos Espinosa S, Nicolalde Cifuentes M, Santana Porbén S; para el Grupo Ecuatoriano de Estudio de la Desnutrición Hospitalaria. State of malnutrition in hospitals of Ecuador. Nutr Hosp (España) 2014;30:425-35]. Hospital malnutrition could be the result of institutional cultural practices affecting the patient's nutritional status. To present the current state of food and nutritional care provided to patients assisted in public hospitals of Ecuador. The state of food and nutritional care provided to 5,355 patients assisted in 36 hospitals of 23 provinces of the country was documented by means of the Hospital Nutrition Survey (HNS), conducted as part of the ELAN Study. HNS recorded the completion of nutritional assessment exercises, the use of food-bymouth, fasting, use of oral nutritional supplements, and implementation and conduction of Artificial nutritional schemes (Enteral/Parenteral); respectively. Less than 0.1% of clinical charts had a diagnosis of malnutrition included in the list of the patient's health problems. Less than half of the patients had been measured and weighted on admission. Serum Albumin values and Total Lymphocytes Counts were annotated on admission in only 13.5% and 59.2% of the instances, respectively. Current weight value was registered in only 59.4% of the patients with length of stay ³ 15 days. An oral nutritional supplement was prescribed in just 3.5% of non-malnourished patients in which significant metabolic stress and/or reduced food intakes concurred. Although up to 10 different indications for use of Artificial nutrition were identified in the sample study, any of these techniques was administered to just 2.5% (median of observed percentages; range: 1.3 - 11.9%) of surveyed patients. Currently, nutritional status of hospitalized patient is not included within therapeutic goals, nutritional assessment
Dr. C. Hipólito Israel Pérez Iglesias; MSc. Irán Rodríguez Delgado; Dr. C. Rigoberto Miguel García Batista
En el mundo y en Ecuador el cultivo de arroz constituye uno de los rubros más importantes por el área cultivada que abarca, la producción que alcanza y el aporte alimentario que realiza. A nivel nacional, a pesar de contar con grandes extensiones de terrenos aptos y condiciones climáticas favorables para el cultivo se obtiene baja productividad, debido fundamentalmente a diferentes patologías que disminuyen la rentabilidad del productor arrocero. La investigación se desarrolló con la finalida...
MSc. Irán Rodríguez Delgado; Dr. C. Hipólito Israel Pérez Iglesias; Dr. C. Alejandro Rafael Socorro Castro
El trabajo ofrece una revisión bibliográfica actualizada relacionada con la caracterización de los principales insectos plaga, invertebrados y vertebrados que pueden afectar al cultivo del arroz, así como los daños que ocasionan y medidas para su control en Ecuador. La mayor afectación en el cultivo del arroz es ocasionada por la sogata (Tagosodes orizicolus Muir.), que provoca daños directos, producidos por la picadura al momento de alimentarse, o indirectos, al transmitir el virus de la hoj...
Angie Fernández Lorenzo
Full Text Available The administrative management of savings and credit cooperatives has become a determining factor for the evaluation of business performance, in which the current administration has become a tool with many declines, which causes damage to the organizational structure of each cooperative causing inefficiency in their processes. That is why this research is aimed at analyzing the administrative management of twenty Savings and Credit Cooperatives of segments four and five of Quito, Ecuador, with the application of a survey to the managers of said entities where the fundamental administrative variables are evaluated, under a concept of integrality between the financial-economic and social.
Esthela Flores Mejía
Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de Quito, hacia al español del Ecuador y hacia el español de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando una muestra de 395 informantes previamente estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. El estudio presentado es el primero de esta naturaleza que se realiza en Ecuador; sus resultados muestran, de forma general, la forma de hablar de la provincia de Loja es la que cuenta con mayor prestigio, en contraste con el bajo aprecio por el habla de Guayaquil y Cuenca. Los habitantes de la Capital reconocen como similar la forma de hablar de las provincias aledañas a la suya y diferentes sobre todo a las provincias de la Costa. En líneas generales se puede establecer que, aunque hay algunas variantes del español que les agradan, como las que se hablan en España y en Colombia, el afecto y el prestigio que los ecuatorianos asignan a su propia forma de hablar es muy fuerte. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from Quito, towards Spanish spoken in Ecuador and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 395 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. This research study is the first of its kind in Ecuador. Its results show that the Spanish spoken in the Loja province has high prestige, in contrast to the Spanish spoken in Guayaquil and Cuenca. Residents of Quito, the
José Daniel Santibáñez
Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta una síntesis histórica del cómic en Ecuador y las diferentes tendencias temáticas y de uso, a través de su evolución, principalmente en los medios de información de masas. También se exponen los nombres de los cultores de este arte/medio y de los historietistas más reconocidos en el país.
Serrano, M. Elisabeth; Vizcaíno, Cristina G.; Cazco, Daniel; Kuhlman, Natalie A.
As English has become the language of business, the economy and social media around the world, it is more and more necessary to start teaching English in schools. Countries such as Ecuador have seen the immediate need to review how they prepare teachers of English to meet this new demand. This article shares a reflection on the process of moving…
Full Text Available Ecuador is immersed, since the adoption of the 2008 Constitution, in a process of economic, social and political changes, following the steps on their path to a more equal, post-extractive and democratic society. The main tool for this purpose, the National Strategy for the «Buen Vivir» (Good living and the Change in the Production Model emphasizes new ways for producing, consumption and self-organization. Although Ecuadorian Constitution comprises these ideas and the Ecuadorian Government has promoted different programs and strategies, there is a limited analysis about the local manifestations of these policies. In this way, this paper proposes a study of the local strategies developed in a medium-size city in the south of Ecuador through the analysis of the local networks and the initiatives of local actors for developing strategies oriented to this end. Interviews and statistical data (demographic, economic and social data mainly are used to confirm the level of accomplishment of these objectives. Thus, the existing local networks and the path of the city of Santa Rosa may explain the different level of recent socioeconomic changes taken place at local level instead of Central government policies.
Billo, Emily Ruth
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs developed in recent years as the business response to social and environmental criticism of corporate operations, and are most debated in those societies where neoliberalism emerged most prominently, the United States and the United Kingdom. My dissertation expands these debates investigating the CSR programs of a Spanish-owned multinational oil company, Repsol-YPF operating in the Ecuadorian Amazon region. It explores CSR programs as institutions that can facilitate ongoing resource extraction, and particular technologies of rule that serve to discipline indigenous peoples at the point of extraction. I conducted an institutional ethnography to examine the social relationships produced through CSR programs, and contend that the relationships formed within CSR programs enable ongoing resource extraction. This dissertation argues that CSR programs produce entanglements between state, corporate and indigenous actors that lead to competing and conflicting spaces of governance in Ecuador. These entanglements reflect the Ecuadorian state's attempts to 'erase' indigenous difference in the name of securing wealth and membership in the nation-state. In turn, CSR programs can both contain indigenous mobilization and resistance in Ecuador, but also highlight indigenous difference and rights and access to resources, predicated on membership in the nation-state. To that end, the dissertation is attentive to the ambivalence and uncertainty of indigenous actors produced through engagement with corporate capital, and suggests that ambivalence can also be a productive space.
Santiago Ortiz Crespo
Full Text Available Desde el año 2006, se ha dividido el voto indígena entre el movimiento político étnico Pachakutik y el movimiento Alianza País (AP, liderado por Rafael Correa, actual presidente del Ecuador. Este artículo busca una explicación esta división del voto, examinando el comportamiento político de los comuneros de Otavalo y Cotacachi, municipios de la sierra norte de Ecuador, bastiones del movimiento indígena. El escrito sostiene que el respaldo a Correa puede explicarse por tres factores: primero, la antigua relación de los indígenas con el Estado; segundo, un comportamiento electoral que combina confianza en líderes étnicos y pragmatismo político, y tercero, la expectativa de mayor presencia del Estado. Para realizar este estudio se empleó observación participante en los dos cantones para captar las prácticas de la población en el proceso político, encuestas para captar sus percepciones y datos electorales oficiales para ver los resultados.
Adrián López A.
Full Text Available Este trabajo es un análisis de coyuntura del Referéndum Constitucional 2008 en Ecuador a partir de las estrategias y posicionamientos electorales de los actores políticos que participaron en la campaña a favor o en contra de la aprobación del texto de la nueva Constitución y los resultados que se produjeron. Los datos analizados provienen de medios de prensa escrita, así como de las declaraciones hechas por varios de los actores a través de medios de comunicación. Se abordan los posibles retos para la política ecuatoriana tras la victoria del Sí con el 63,93% de los votos.This is an analysis of the Constitutional Referendum 2008 in Ecuador through the examination of the political field and its actors. The article offers an interpretation of the dynamics currently at play in the national political arena, based on an analysis of the political campaign and a breakdown of the electoral results. The work draws on a close examination of the written press, as well as on the declarations made by diverse actors through other means of mass communication. It discusses some of the possible challenges to arise in the Ecuadorian political arena following the victory of the "Yes", which obtained 63.93% of the votes in the referendum.
Yamanaka, Yusuke; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Shiina, Takahiro
The 1906 Colombia-Ecuador earthquake induced both strong seismic motions and a tsunami, the most destructive earthquake in the history of the Colombia-Ecuador subduction zone. The tsunami propagated across the Pacific Ocean, and its waveforms were observed at tide gauge stations in countries including Panama, Japan, and the USA. This study conducted slip inverse analysis for the 1906 earthquake using these waveforms. A digital dataset of observed tsunami waveforms at the Naos Island (Panama) and Honolulu (USA) tide gauge stations, where the tsunami was clearly observed, was first produced by consulting documents. Next, the two waveforms were applied in an inverse analysis as the target waveform. The results of this analysis indicated that the moment magnitude of the 1906 earthquake ranged from 8.3 to 8.6. Moreover, the dominant slip occurred in the northern part of the assumed source region near the coast of Colombia, where little significant seismicity has occurred, rather than in the southern part. The results also indicated that the source area, with significant slip, covered a long distance, including the southern, central, and northern parts of the region.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Brachtl, Megan V.; Durant, John L.; Perez, Carlos Paez; Oviedo, Jorge; Sempertegui, Fernando; Naumova, Elena N.; Griffiths, Jeffrey K.
Motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in Quito, Ecuador; however, little work has been done to characterize spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related pollutants, or to measure pollutants in vehicle emissions. We measured PAH continuously for one year at two residential sites in Quito, and PAH and traffic patterns for one week near a busy roadway. Morning rush-hour traffic and temperature inversions caused daily PAH maxima between 06:00 and 08:00. SO 2 , NO x , CO, and PM 2.5 behaved similarly. At the residential sites PAH levels during inversions were 2-3-fold higher than during the afternoon, and 10-16-fold higher than 02:00-03:00 when levels were lowest. In contrast, at the near-roadway site, PAH concentrations were 3-6-fold higher than at the residential sites, and the effects of inversions were less pronounced. Cars and buses accounted for >95% of PAH at the near-roadway site. Near-roadway PAH concentrations were comparable to other polluted cities. - Atmospheric temperature inversions and proximity to roadways strongly influence potential human exposure to ambient airborne PAH in Quito, Ecuador
Goicolea, Isabel; San Sebastián, Miguel; Wulff, Marianne
Despite advances made by Ecuador in developing policies on reproductive and sexual rights, implementation, and oversight remain a challenge, affecting in particular those living in the Amazon basin. This paper reports on an evaluation of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in Orellana, Ecuador, the basis of which was the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument, which was altered to focus on government obligations, the reality of access and utilization of services, and the inequities and implementation challenges between the two. A community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2006 served to document the current status of SRHR Local female field workers interviewed 2025 women on three areas of womens reproductive health: delivery care, family planning, and pregnancy among adolescent girls age 10-19. The results suggest a reality more dismal than that of the official information for the area. Skilled delivery care, modern contraceptive use, and wanted pregnancies were conspicuously lower among indigenous women living in rural areas. Access to reproductive health services varied between rural and urban women. These significant differences in care--amongst others documented--raise concerns over the utility of national-level data for addressing inequities. The gaps evident in the validity of available information for monitoring policies and programs, and between national policy and action reveal that much still needs to be done to realize SRHR for women in the Amazon basin, and that current accountability mechanisms are inadequate.
Full Text Available La escasez de información en relación a la situación de las empresas de comunicación de Ecuador, motivó al Departamento de Ciencias de la Comunicación de la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL a desarrollar un mapeo de medios, comunicación, productoras, agencias de publicidad y relaciones públicas del país. La necesidad de disponer de un sitio de consulta y de referencia, respecto a temas de comunicación, es aún latente en Ecuador. Si bien existen algunos aportes, tanto por parte de organismos estatales como de privados, para construir repositorios físicos o virtuales, éstos se han limitado a presentar información básica de contacto y muchas veces desactualizada. Con una muestra de más de 1000 medios se accede a conocer su forma y fondo, en si, su morfología distribuida en organización legal y societaria, situación geográfica, contenidos, alcance, y servicios prestados. La misma, es una aproximación a la realidad informativa que vive el país y que forma parte de la macro investigación denominada “Mapa de la comunicación de Ecuador”.
Costales, Jaime A.; Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Silva-Aycaguer, Luis C.; Cevallos, William; Tamayo, Susana; Yumiseva, César A.; Jacobson, Jerry O.; Martini, Luiggi; Carrera, Caty A.; Grijalva, Mario J.
A nationwide survey was conducted to obtain an estimate of Chagas disease prevalence among pregnant women in Ecuador. As part of a national probability sample, 5,420 women seeking care for delivery or miscarriage at 15 healthcare facilities were recruited into the study. A small minority of participants reported knowing about Chagas disease or recognized the vector. A national seroprevalence of 0.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.0–0.2%) was found; cases were concentrated in the coastal region (seroprevalence = 0.2%; 95% CI = 0.0–0.4%). No cases of transmission to neonates were identified in the sample. Seropositive participants were referred to the National Chagas Program for evaluation and treatment. Additional studies are necessary to determine if areas of higher prevalence exist in well-known endemic provinces and guide the development of a national strategy for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of Chagas disease in Ecuador. PMID:25667052
Zarrillo, Sonia; Pearsall, Deborah M; Raymond, J Scott; Tisdale, Mary Ann; Quon, Dugane J
The study of maize (Zea mays L.) domestication has advanced from questions of its origins to the study-and debate-of its dietary role and the timing of its dispersal from Mexico. Because the investigation of maize's spread is hampered by poor preservation of macrobotanical remains in the Neotropics, research has focused on microbotanical remains whose contexts are often dated by association, leading some to question the dates assigned. Furthermore, some scholars have argued that maize was not introduced to southwestern Ecuador until approximately 4150-3850 calendar years before the present (cal B.P.), that it was used first and foremost as a fermented beverage in ceremonial contexts, and that it was not important in everyday subsistence, challenging previous studies based on maize starch and phytoliths. To further investigate these questions, we analyzed every-day cooking vessels, food-processing implements, and sediments for starch and phytoliths from an archaeological site in southwestern Ecuador constituting a small Early Formative village. Employing a new technique to recover starch granules from charred cooking-pot residues we show that maize was present, cultivated, and consumed here in domestic contexts by at least 5300-4950 cal B.P. Directly dating the residues by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon measurement, our results represent the earliest direct dates for maize in Early Formative Ecuadorian sites and provide further support that, once domesticated approximately 9000 calendar years ago, maize spread rapidly from southwestern Mexico to northwestern South America.
Full Text Available In the year 2016, seventeen cultivars of mango (Mangifera indica L. were collected in local markets and farmers' field of Jipijapa Canton, Ecuador, with the aim of describing and analyzing mango fruits due to their morphological characteristics of sugars (°Brix and total solids. Collections were carried out by stu-dents and teachers of the Research Methodologies course of the Agricultural Engineering Career, of the Southern State University of Manabí (UNESUM. The fruits were characterized by using 16 qualitative and quantitative variables for fruit and seed recommended by UPOV and IPGRI. The percentage of total solids and Brix grades of each harvested crop were also analyzed in the UNESUM bromatology laboratory. Results showed that in the Jipijapa Canton, Ecuador, there is a great biodiversity of native mangoes, which were not characterized. Fruit shapes, pulp color and variable fiber contents were observed. The length of fruit was 6.33 to 12.50 cm, and the width was 5.27 to 8.50 cm, with a length/width ratio between 0.77 and 1.83 cm. The fruit weight was 63.3 to 500 g. No significant differences were observed in the sugars content (°Brix. Finally, it was observed that the range of consumable pulp was 63 to 94% in native cultivars and 86% to 97% in the improved ones.
Mariela Palacios González
Full Text Available The biodiversity of the Andean Chocó in western Ecuador and Colombia is threatened by anthropogenic changes in land cover. The main goal of this study was to contribute to conservation of 12 threatened species of amphibians at a cloud forest site in northwestern Ecuador, by identifying and proposing protection of critical areas. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing techniques to quantify land cover changes over 35 years and outline important areas for amphibian conservation. We performed a supervised classification of an IKONOS satellite image from 2011 and two aerial photographs from 1977 and 2000. The 2011 IKONOS satellite image classification was used to delineate areas important for conservation of threatened amphibians within a 200 m buffer around rivers and streams. The overall classification accuracy of the three images was ≥80%. Forest cover was reduced by 17% during the last 34 years. However, only 50% of the study area retained the initial (1977 forest cover, as land was cleared for farming and eventually reforested. Finally, using the 2011 IKONOS satellite image, we delineated areas of potential conservation interest that would benefit the long term survival of threatened amphibian species at the Ecuadorian cloud forest site studied.
Kevany, J; Fierro-Benitez, R; Pretell, E A; Stanbury, J B
Endemic goiter is a health problem in many areas of the world; in some areas the disease is so severe that cretinism and other defects are found. In many areas geographic, economic, and other factors prevent the use of iodized salt as a preventive measure. Field studies were begun in 1966 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of parenteral administration of iodized oil in goiter prevention. Studies were carried out in Ecuador and Peru. In Ecuador 2 villages were chosen in which the prevalence of goiter was about 60%; in Peru 3 villages were chosen where incidence was about 50%. Prevalence of goiter decreased for 20 months during the study but then began to rise again with the maximum reduction seen up to age 18 and minimal reduction after 40 years of age. The control groups in the study experienced only slight decreases in rate of incidence. Cretinism has not yet appeared among the progeny of the population injected with iodized oil but several instances have appeared in control groups. The use of iodized oil as a public health procedure for the prevention of endemic goiter and its associated defects is an acceptable measure in regions where salt iodization cannot be done.
Román, Juan P; García, Fernanda; Medina, Doris; Vásquez, Manolo; García, José; Graham, Matthew R; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Pardal, Pedro P de Oliveira; Ishikawa, Edna A Y; Borges, Adolfo
Scorpion envenoming by species in the genus Tityus is hereby reported from rural locations in the Amazonian province of Morona Santiago, southeastern Ecuador. Twenty envenoming cases (18 patients under 15 years of age) including one death (a 4-year-old male) were recorded at the Macas General Hospital, Morona Santiago, between January 2015 and December 2016 from the counties of Taisha (n=17), Huamboyo (n=1), Palora (n=1), and Logroño (n=1). An additional fatality from 2014 (a 3-year-old female from Nayantza, Taisha county) is also reported. Leukocytosis and low serum potassium levels were detected in most patients. We observed a significant negative correlation between leukocytosis and hypokalemia. Scorpions involved in three accidents from Macuma, Taisha County, were identified as genetically related to Tityus obscurus from the Brazilian Amazonian region based on comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding cytochrome oxidase subunit I. These cases, along with previously reported envenoming from northern Manabí, reinforce the notion that scorpionism is a health hazard for children in Ecuador and emphasizes the need to supply effective antivenoms against local species, which are not currently available. The genetic affinity of the Ecuadorian specimens with T. obscurus may underlay toxinological, clinical, and venom antigenic relationships among Amazonian scorpions that deserves further exploration for designing therapeutic strategies to treat scorpionism in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anttila, E.; Wray, M. E.; Knappe, E.; Ogasawara, T.; Tholt, A.; Cliffe, B.; Oshun, J.
Tree roots, particular those of old growth trees, provide significant cohesive strength that can prevent shallow landslides. Little is known about the root strength of trees growing in dry tropical forests. In 1997, Bahía de Caráquez, Ecuador experienced a large landslide, which may have been precipitated by massive deforestation along the Ecuadorian coast. We used a tensile spring apparatus combined with root maps to caclulate the cohesive strength of different native species of trees. Whereas the results show the previously reported power law relationship between root diameter and tensile strength, our data also reveals new contributions. First, we find that trees have far stronger and more abundant roots than neighboring bushes, and thus add far more cohesive strength to the hillslope. Furthermore, there is a wide range of tensile strength among the native trees measured, with algarrobo having the strongest roots, and ceibo gernally being weak rooted. Finally, we use a slope stability model to predict failure conditions considering the strength added to a hillslope if vegetation is predominantly composed of bushes, algarrobo, or ceibo. Our results, which are the first of their kind for the Ecuadorian dry tropical forest, will be used to guide the ongoing native reforestation efforts of Global Student Embassy. Our unique partnership with Global Student Embassy connects our field study to practical land use decisions that will lead to increased slope and decreased human danger along coastal Ecuador's dry tropical forest.
To assess the challenges in reducing tuberculosis (TB) in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay and propose ways to address them through communication interventions. Challenges to two central goals of TB control--early diagnosis of positive cases and successful application of the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy--were examined. Data were gathered (through in-depth, structured interviews) and focus groups were conducted in the prisons that housed the largest number of male inmates in each country. Interviewees and focus group participants included program directors, administrative personnel, correctional health and security staff, and incarcerated people who were or had been under treatment for TB and had participated as 'peers' in health services. The findings showed a range of entrenched obstacles for adequate TB control. Stigmatizing attitudes and low knowledge about TB among inmates and key prison personnel discouraged people living in prisons from seeking diagnosis and treatment. Systemic problems in prison health services, along with squalid living conditions, lack of coordination between national TB programs and prison health systems, and insufficient allocation of resources to health prevented the provision of adequate TB prevention and care. In addressing the barriers to effective TB control in prison systems in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay, a participatory approach to communication is necessary.
This paper explores alternative understandings and experiences of migration under neoliberalism in Ecuador. Through the case study, the study examines migrants' multiple motivations for mobility and their ambivalence toward the process. Insights from the transnational migration literature were drawn in order to think through the implications of an increasingly contradictory context of economic modernization and its impact upon the sense of possibilities and belonging of migrants. In-depth interviews with urban-destined migrants in Ecuador were drawn to argue that mobility produces ambivalent development subjects. This argument is developed in three sections. First, the paper centers on the epistemological and theoretical basis for the relevance of migrant narratives in extending theorizations of migration. Second, in-depth interviews with migrants to Quito are drawn to explore migrants' sense of belonging and regional affiliation, identity formation through migration, and experiences of alienation and disruption in their lives. Lastly, this paper concludes with a retheorization of the role of migration places in the migrant identity construction.
Finer, Matt; Vijay, Varsha; Jenkins, Clinton N; Ponce, Fernando; Kahn, Ted R
Ecuador's YasunI Man and the Biosphere Reserve-located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator-is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The YasunI Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting YasunI more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the YasunI region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, YasunI National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative YasunI-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).
Full Text Available En la década de 1980 terminó la industrialización dirigida por el Estado, comenzaron las reformas de mercado y cambió la forma de gestionar la política económica. En Ecuador los gobiernos de los presidentes Osvaldo Hurtado (1981-1984, León Febres Cordero (1984-1988, Rodrigo Borja (1988-1992 y la influencia del FMI promovieron este cambio adaptativo al régimen económico alentado por las emergentes doctrinas neoconservadoras de la época. Se estudian las cartas de intención remitidas al FMI y las memorias anuales del Banco Central del Ecuador, además de otras fuentes primarias. El PIB creció en promedio 2.4% anual, mientras la población lo hizo al 2.6%; la gestión de la crisis se desplazó desde la Junta Nacional de Planificación hacia el Banco Central, entidad que hizo de la devaluación monetaria su principal herramienta de política económica.
Emmalea Garver Ernest
Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta a más de cincuenta productores de frijol de los valles de Chota y Mira, ubicados al norte de Ecuador, en el año 2003, con la finalidad de recabar información y plantear objetivos para la implementación de un programa de mejoramiento participativo de frijol en Ecuador. Los productores fueron consultados acerca de las variedades de frijol que están cultivando actualmente, los métodos de producción empleados, los problemas de producción del cultivo y las características que deberían mejorarse en las nuevas variedades. Los principales problemas de producción reportados fueron los daños causados por mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum, roya (Uromyces appendiculatus y brúquidos (Acanthoscelides obtectus. Los agricultores han cambiado recientemente las clases comerciales de frijol que tradicionalmente cultivaban en respuesta a la demanda del mercado. En cuanto a las características que deberían poseer las nuevas variedades de frijol, indicaron alto rendimiento y semilla de tamaño grande con color y forma comercial. La costumbre de los agricultores de comprar semilla para cada siembra, y no de producir su propia semilla, fue identifi cada como un obstáculo potencial para el uso y mantenimiento de las nuevas variedades mejoradas de frijol en el área estudiada.
Barreno Salinas, Zoila Evangelina
Full Text Available This paper compiles and reflects on the Community Social Work, from its historical evolution and through the prism of the new social reality in Ecuador, from the singularity of the Canton Milagro and other ten surrounding cantons, Region 5, Ecuador. It was characterized by the loss of totalitarianism and the reorientation of the ways of social integration, questioned by the intervention of the National Plan for Good Living; this new reality prompted the reflection and rethinking of the Social Work and Community Development. With the intention of raising awareness and contribute to the concept of community, the approach and the Community dimension as an essential part of the subject’s identity, the points that address this article are: International Seminars, Practical and theoretical courses and Com- munity involvement. To train, professionalize, provide enough tools and skills, to perform them on the most vulnerable sectors in the Canton Milagro, from governmental and non-governmental institutions and the State University of Milagro. They take on the challenge of designing, managing and working for the common good, with some university extension projects or the social civil involvement, according to the requirements of their environment, leading social policies in the country, region and locality.
Goicolea, Isabel; Coe, Anna-Britt; San Sebastián, Miguel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin
Adolescent-Friendly Health Services (AFHSs) are those that are accessible, acceptable, equitable, appropriate and effective for different youth sub-populations. This study investigated the process through which four clinics in two countries - Peru and Ecuador - introduced, developed and sustained AFHSs. A multiple case study design was chosen, and data from each clinic were collected through document review, observations and informant interviews. National level data were also collected. Data were analysed following thematic analysis. The findings showed that the process of introducing, developing and sustaining AFHSs was long term, and required a creative team effort and collaboration between donors, public institutions and health providers. The motivation and external support was crucial to initiating and sustaining the implementation of AFHSs. Health facilities' transformation into AFHSs was linked to the broader organisation of country health systems, and the evolution of national adolescent health policies. In Peru, the centralised approach to AFHSs introduction facilitated the dissemination of a comprehensive national model to health facilities, but dependency on national directives made it more difficult to systemise them when ideological and organisational changes occurred. In Ecuador, a less centralised approach to introducing AFHSs made for easier integration of the AFHSs model.
Quiroga, Cristina; Cevallos, Varsovia; Morales, Diego; Baldeón, Manuel E; Cárdenas, Paúl; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Ponce, Patricio
The detection and identification of natural infections in sand flies by Leishmania protozoan species in endemic areas is a key factor in assessing the risk of leishmaniasis and in designing prevention and control measures for this infectious disease. In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA using nuclear ribosomal internal transcript spacer (ITS) sequences. Parasite DNA was extracted from naturally infected, blood-fed sand flies collected in nine localities considered leishmaniasis-endemic foci in Ecuador.The species of parasites identified in sand flies were Leishmania major-like, Leishmania naiffi, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania lainsoni, and "Leishmania sp. siamensis". Sand fly specimens of Brumptomyia leopoldoi, Mycropigomyia cayennensis, Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli, Nyssomyia trapidoi, Pressatia triacantha, Pressatia dysponeta, Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai, Psychodopygus panamensis, and Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis were found positive for Leishmania parasite. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of the disease in high-risk areas of Ecuador. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.
Oxlade, Olivia; Vaca, Judyth; Romero, Elizabeth; Schwartzman, Kevin; Graham, Brian; Hernandez, Lucero; Tannenbaum, Terry; Menzies, Dick
Between April 2001 and March 2004, the Directly Observed Therapy-Short course (DOTS) program was successfully implemented by the National Tuberculosis control program, with assistance from the Canadian Lung Association, in three provinces of Ecuador, where 52% of the population of the country reside. Markov modelling was used to project TB-related morbidity, mortality and costs if the former TB control program (status quo) had continued or if the newly expanded DOTS program is maintained over 20 years. Extensive sensitivity analyses were used to determine the effect on projected outcomes of varying key assumptions. If DOTS is maintained over the next 20 years, we predict that 18,760 cases and 15,812 TB-related deaths will be prevented, resulting in societal savings of dollars 203 million and government savings of dollars 7.1 million (all costs in dollars US). These findings were robust in extensive sensitivity analyses. Given the initial investment of dollars 3 million for DOTS implementation, this would mean a cost of dollars 190 per life saved. Implementation of DOTS could yield very substantial public health and economic benefits for Ecuador. These results demonstrate the benefits from Canadian government support for DOTS implementation in low- and middle-income countries.
C. Dustin Becker
Full Text Available Meeting the desires of individuals while sustaining ecological "public goods" is a central challenge in natural resources conservation. Indigenous communities routinely make common property decisions balancing benefits to individuals with benefits to their communities. Such traditional knowledge offers insight for conservation. Using surveys and field observations, this case study examines aspects of indigenous institutions and ecological knowledge used by rural Ecuadorians to manage a forest commons before and after interacting with two U.S.-based conservation NGOs: Earthwatch Institute and People Allied for Nature. The rural farming community of Loma Alta has legal property rights to a 6842-ha watershed in western Ecuador. This self-governing community curtailed destruction of their moist forest commons, but not without the influence of modern scientific ecological knowledge. When Earthwatch Institute scientists provided evidence that forest clearing would reduce water supply to the community, villagers quickly modified land allocation patterns and set rules of use in the forest establishing the first community-owned forest reserve in western Ecuador. This case demonstrates that synergy between traditional knowledge and western knowledge can result in sustaining both ecosystem services and biodiversity in a forest commons.
Mercedes Arzube Mayorga
Abstract The research was carried out in the experimental farm Manglaralto, owned by the Peninsula State University of Santa Elena, located at the coordinates UTM 528944m E and 9796468m S zone 17M datum WGS-84 at 12 msnm, with topography of less than 1%, research (Coffea canephora P., high productivity in the agroecological conditions of Manglaralto Ecuador. For the establishment of the trial, 23 clones of robust coffee, selected by COFENAC in the Amazon region of northern Ecuador, were used. The clones were arranged randomly, each clone is an experimental unit represented by 20 plants, planted at a distance of 3 x 3 meters. Preliminary results were submitted to the descriptive statistics analysis, determining measures of central tendency and mean arithmetic dispersion, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, between clones and within the clones. However, in the fourth year, clones 1, 4, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16 and 18 stand out as promising in production. The productive behavior is very encouraging considering that clone 1 obtained production of 61 quintals and the clone 15 reached 39.3 quintals of gold coffee per hectare, the other clones enunciated obtain average production of 42 quintals.
MERY ESPERANZA RUIZ
Full Text Available La pobreza es un problema en la medida en que los bajos ingresos crean problemas para quienes no son pobres y esto puede constituirse en verdadera tragedia. De ello nace la preocupación por parte de los gobiernos de turno por gestionar una inversión social saludable, equitativa y visionaria que disminuya la pobreza y equipare los niveles de vida. El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar la incidencia de la Inversión Social (Educación, Salud, Trabajo, Vivienda y Bienestar Social en la pobreza, utilizando como indicador el Índice de Sen en Ecuador en un periodo de 10 años, a través de un modelo econométrico lineal con Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios. Al establecer la incidencia de los sectoriales de la inversión social (Educación, Salud, Bienestar Social, Desarrollo Urbano y Vivienda, Trabajo en el Índice de Sen, cumpliendo con un modelo óptimo la mayoría de los sectoriales a excepción del Bienestar Social, tienen incidencia en el Índice de Sen del Ecuador
Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, Washington, DC (United States); Vijay, Varsha; Jenkins, Clinton N [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Ponce, Fernando [Ciudadanos por la Democracia, Quito (Ecuador); Kahn, Ted R, E-mail: email@example.com [Neotropical Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC (United States)
Ecuador's YasunI Man and the Biosphere Reserve-located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator-is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The YasunI Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting YasunI more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the YasunI region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, YasunI National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative YasunI-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).
The failure of both democracies and revolutions in Latin America is due to the fact that the State has been trusted with political, economic and social organization, instead of relying on the motivations and capabilities of intermediate associations and the individual members of society. Therefore, the process of change is not just a matter of national decision; it is something that must, and will, take place. Ecuador understands perfectly well the need for reform. Major laws have already been enacted, and a bill for modernization of the State is currently under consideration by congress. The concept of modernization and, therefore, change does not merely imply new laws, simplified procedures or easier operations; it basically means allowing the creative forces of individuals, enterprises and intermediate associations to play a more influential role. As in other Latin American countries, in Ecuador there can be no real modernization, no real change in society without a major revolution in energy and telecommunications. Thus, two important laws have been drafted to demonopolize petroleum and electric power operations and open them up both to national and foreign private sector participation
Ruiz, M. C.; Gomez, D.; Torres, R.; Cadena, O.; Mothes, P. A.; Anzieta, J. C.; Pacheco, D. A.; Bernard, B.; Acero, W.; Hidalgo, S.; Enriquez, W.; Cordova, A.
The increasing seismic activity at the area of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located at the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto OVSP, a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area and more than 100.000 events are recorded since November 2013. The largest and more recent swarm has a daily average of 676 events between March and June 2014. Currently a seismic network of 8 seismic stations (5 in the Colombian and 3 in Ecuadorean side) are deployed in this area. Epicenters of more than 315 seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0 and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most of events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Nine events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 and the largest event occurred on April 30. 2014 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and inverse-transcurrent component focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. Events with large magnitudes (above 3.0) show a very long-period component. Hot spring and deformation measurements also show signals of volcanic unrest.
Rubén D. Paz Morales
Full Text Available Ecuador con la Constitución de 2008 sentó las bases para la matriz productiva como nuevo modelo de desarrollo en el Ecuador, y con ello se creó todo un andamiaje de instituciones, reglamentos y créditos de largo plazo que apunten a desarrollar armónicamente las empresas ya existentes y a crear nuevos emprendimientos con el fin de aprovechar la materia prima existente en el país. La creación de las zonas de desarrollo por la SENPLADES fue fundamental para organizar por número de habitantes cada una de ellas. La zona 8 conformada por Guayaquil, Durán y Samborondón, es una de las de mayor dinamismo comercial. El Proyecto IC-ULVR 13-19 presenta una investigación exploratoria sobre los derivados del plátano verde en la matriz productiva, para cuyo fin se aplicó una observación guiada a autoservicios de la zona y una encuesta online para conocer los gustos y preferencias de los consumidores.
Adler, N.E.; Erselius, L.J.; Chacón, G.M.; Flier, W.G.; Ordonez, M.E.; Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Forbes, G.A.
The metapopulation structure of Phytophthora infestans sensu lato is genetically diverse in the highlands of Ecuador. Previous reports documented the diversity associated with four putative clonal lineages of the pathogen collected from various hosts in the genus Solanum. This paper simultaneously
Gonzalez, Paul F.; Ochoa, Cesar A.; Cabrera, Paola A.; Castillo, Luz M.; Quinonez, Ana L.; Solano, Lida M.; Espinosa, Franklin O.; Ulehlova, Eva; Arias, Maria O.
Research on teaching listening and speaking skills has been conducted at many levels. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current implementation of classroom and extracurricular activities, as well as the use of educational resources for teaching both skills in public senior high schools in the Amazon region of Ecuador, particularly in…
Todorovski, D.; Salazar, Rodolfo; Jacome, Ginella; Bermeo, Antonio; Orellana, Esteban; Zambrano, Fatima; Teran, Andrea; Mejia, Raul
The aim of this paper is to explore current land administration situation in Ecuador and identify opportunities for fit-for-purpose (FFP) land administration approach that could improve the land administration functions for the country and its citizens. In this paper, initially literature about land
Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.
Patterns of vascular plant species composition and structure of the remaining rain forest of the Andean Cordillera in northern Ecuador were studied in two reserves: Guandera and El Angel. Thirty three plots located between 3300 and 3700 in were examined along two altitudinal transects crossing the
Oyarzun, P.J.; Borja, R.M.; Sherwood, S.; Parra, V.
Methods are needed for helping researchers and farmers to interactively describe and analyze local practices in search of opportunities for improving health, environment, and economy. The authors worked with smallholder family farmers in five Andean villages in Ecuador to apply participatory
Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Jonkers, H.M.; Mors, R.M.; Mera-Ortiz, W.
This paper describes the first field application of self-healing concrete with alkaliphilic spore-forming bacteria and reinforced with natural fibres. The application took place in the highlands in Ecuador in July 2014. The concrete was cast as linings for an irrigation canal that transports water
Rey Gastón Loor Solórzano
Full Text Available Genetic resources of Coffea canephora have been introduced in several tropical countries with potential for crop development. In Ecuador, the species has been cultivated since the mid-20th century. However, little is known about the diversity and genetic structure of introduced germplasm. This paper provides an overview of the genetic and phenotypic diversity of C. canephora in Ecuador and some proposals for implementing a breeding program. Twelve SSR markers were used to analyze 1491 plants of C. canephora grown in different living collections in Ecuador, compared to 29 genotypes representing the main genetic and geographic diversity groups identified within the species. Results indicated that most of the genotypes introduced are of Congolese origin, with accessions from both main subgroups, SG1 and SG2. Some genotypes were classed as hybrids between both subgroups. Substantial phenotypic diversity was also found, and correlations were observed with genetic diversity. Ecuadorian Robusta coffee displays wide genetic diversity and we propose some ways of improving Robusta in Ecuador. A breeding program could be based on three operations: the choice of elite clones, the introduction of new material from other countries (Ivory Coast, Uganda, and the creation of new hybrid material using genotypes from the different diversity groups.
Hentschel, J; Lanjouw, P.
With reference to data from Ecuador this paper examines several of the steps involved in constructing consumption aggregates and highlights some of the principles which should guide the analysis. The paper emphasizes that specific care is warranted where access is characterized by rationing. Simple
Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.
Patterns of vascular plant species composition and structure of the remaining rain forest of the Andean Cordillera in northern Ecuador were studied in two reserves: Guandera and El Angel. Thirty three plots located between 3300 and 3700 m were examined along two altitudinal transects crossing the
Loughlin, N.J.D.; Gosling, W.D.; Coe, A.L.; Gulliver, P.; Mothes, P.; Montoya, E.
Understanding the impact of landscape-scale disturbance events during the last glacial period is vital in accurately reconstructing the ecosystem dynamics of montane environments. Here, a sedimentary succession from the tropical montane cloud forest of the eastern Andean flank of Ecuador provides
Cristina Vega Solís
Full Text Available In the paper we analyze the inequalities that emerge from and are reproduced in Ecuadorian’s higher education trajectories in the context of economic crises. We focus on the strategies that these youth and their families employ for social mobility as well as the role of public policy in these processes. We examine the trajectories of three groups: sons and daughters of the 2000 migration wave from Ecuador to Spain who study at universities in Spain, those who have returned to Ecuador for their studies, and Ecuadorians who move to Spain in order to carry out postgraduate studies, some of them funded by scholarships from the Ecuadorian government. The research project employed a qualitative methodology based on interviews, focus groups and a survey with Ecuadorians in Spain who took the entrance exam for admittance into Ecuador’s public university system. Our findings highlight the varied forms of capitals that these diverse students employ, as well as the social and economic constraints that they encounter. In a period of economic crisis in Spain, the first group of students must often downgrade their expectations in order to continue their studies. Their experience contrasts starkly with Ecuadorians undertaking postgraduate studies in Spain, whose heterogenous trajectories are upwardly and geographically mobile. The case of the return university students to Ecuador shows us that education is inserted into a broader strategy that depends on transnational networks shaped over more than a decade of Ecuador-Spain migration.
Originality/value: This paper presents empirical data on the use and acceptance of e-learning systems for undergraduate students of a particular university in Ecuador. No similar studies are evident in the country and the model can be considered for future studies of national scope.
José M. Andrade
Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an ethnobotanical survey on the use of medicinal plants by community healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, province of Loja, Ecuador. A particular ethnic group, the indigenous Saraguros, inhabits this region. This study reports 183 plant species used in 75 different curative therapies by the Saraguro healers.
Andrade, José M; Lucero Mosquera, Hernán; Armijos, Chabaco
This paper reports the results of an ethnobotanical survey on the use of medicinal plants by community healers "Hampiyachakkuna" in the San Lucas Parish, province of Loja, Ecuador. A particular ethnic group, the indigenous Saraguros, inhabits this region. This study reports 183 plant species used in 75 different curative therapies by the Saraguro healers.
Lucero Mosquera, Hernán; Armijos, Chabaco
This paper reports the results of an ethnobotanical survey on the use of medicinal plants by community healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, province of Loja, Ecuador. A particular ethnic group, the indigenous Saraguros, inhabits this region. This study reports 183 plant species used in 75 different curative therapies by the Saraguro healers. PMID:28744470
Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Andrade-Piedra, Jorge L.
Experiments were conducted to determine whether preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans occurs in the highland tropics of Ecuador. In three separate experiments in the field, P. infestans was identified on the preemerged sprouts of 49, 5, and 43% of tubers, respectively...